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1

The first forty years, 1947-1987  

SciTech Connect

This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward.

Rowe, M.S. (ed.); Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

1987-01-01

2

Prevalence of stroke above forty years.  

PubMed

Number of elderly persons gradually increased in Bangladesh due to improved health awareness and health care. Age is the single most important risk factor for stroke. This study aims at finding the prevalence of stroke in a Bangladeshi population aged forty years and above. The cases of stroke were ascertained in two phases of door-to-door survey. In phase-I, trained interviewers performed face-to-face interview with subjects for the detection stroke cases using the World Health Organization (WHO) screening protocol for neurological diseases. In phase-II, subjects suspected to have a stroke underwent a clinical evaluation for diagnosis or exclusion of stroke by a neurological team. The study involved 15627 participants aged 40 years and above. A total of 47 participants found to have stroke, expressing an overall prevalence rate of 3.00 per 1000 (95% CI 0.95 to 2.45). Prevalence of stroke were 2.0, 3.0, 2.0, 10.0, and 10.0 per 1000 within age groups of 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years and 80 years and above age group respectively. Prevalence of stroke in people with age range 70-79 years compared to 40-49 years age range is 4.988 (95% CI 2.309 to 10.77) times and people with age range ?80 years compared to 40-49 years age range is 4.798 (95% CI 1.597 to14.416) times. Prevalence was higher among men in comparison with women. The male: female ratio is 3.44:2.41 per 1000 respectively. Bangladeshi male populations in rural areas are found to have stroke more than urban people. A large community based study should be undertaken to further confirm the result of this present study. PMID:22081183

Mohammad, Q D; Habib, M; Hoque, A; Alam, B; Haque, B; Hossain, S; Rahman, K M; Khan, S U

2011-10-01

3

Forty Years of Kinesiology: A Canadian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief history of the world's first two kinesiology programs at the University of Waterloo and Simon Fraser University, and then gives an overview of the development of kinesiology in Canada over the last 40 years. The issues addressed include departmental affiliation and accreditation, the development of provincial and…

Elliott, Digby

2007-01-01

4

Forty Years of Kinesiology: A Canadian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a brief history of the world's first two kinesiology programs at the University of Waterloo and Simon Fraser University, and then gives an overview of the development of kinesiology in Canada over the last 40 years. The issues addressed include departmental affi liation and accreditation, the development of provincial and national professional alliances, and the establishment of

Digby Elliott

2007-01-01

5

Forty years of the war against Ebola.  

PubMed

Humans have been fighting against the Ebola virus disease (EVD) since its first outbreak in 1976 in southern Sudan and Yambuku in Zaire which lies on the Ebola River. According to the data from the World Health Organization (WHO, 2014b), the first outbreak claimed 431 lives in 1976, and the disease awoke transiently in Sudan three years later and then disappeared for 15 years afterwards. Following that, large outbreaks appeared in 1995 in Zaire with 250 deaths of people, 2001-2002 in Uganda with 224 deaths, 2002-2003 in Congo with 128 deaths, and 2007 in Congo with 187 deaths. In 2014, the most severe and complicated outbreak swept through the West African countries having already taken 1069 lives, with the situation seeming to be out of control. To date, there have been 15 outbreaks in Africa, which have caused 4362 infected cases and claimed 2659 lives. The pandemics of Ebola show obvious independence from any season. Humans are generally susceptible to the Ebola virus without gender or age variation. The natural reservoir of the Ebola virus still remains unclear. During the past 40 years or so, the EVD disappeared after an outbreak in one region and erupted in another region without any warning. The difficulty in understanding the spreading pattern of Ebola was compared to that of the wave-particle duality of light. PMID:25183030

Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hao

2014-09-01

6

The next forty years in aviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prediction of the status of various types of aviation activities which may be expected in twenty years is presented. The basic assumptions are that the population of the nation will continue to grow at more than 7 percent and that the need for air transportation of passengers and cargo will increase accordingly. Various predictions are also made for the developments in vertical takeoff aircraft, short haul airline operations, general aviation, and military aircraft. Areas of improvement are indicated for air navigation, air traffic control, night vision, quiet aircraft, and the use of hydrogen as a fuel.

Hawkins, W. M.

1975-01-01

7

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES: Forty Years of Inspiration, Devotion,  

E-print Network

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES: Forty Years of Inspiration, Devotion, Innovation and Excellence by Michael ............................................................................................................... 9 Collective Efforts to Build Research and Teaching Strength in Latin American Studies ....................................................................................................................... 12 1960's: The Latin American Studies Field School .............................................. 14

Habib, Ayman

8

Nuclear deterrence and the Triad: forty years of national security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States possesses nearly 2000 strategic nuclear delivery vehicles with over 10,000 deliverable nuclear warheads - nearly 7000 equivalent megatons of destructive power. Collectively, this force is known as the Triad. For nearly the past forty years, that force structure has served as the backbone of the defense of American national interest. On the one hand, it is argued

1985-01-01

9

A matter of meaning: reflections on forty years of JCL.  

PubMed

The entry into language via first words and, the acquisition of word meanings is considered from the perspective of publications in the Journal of Child Language over the past forty years. Problems in achieving word meanings include the disparate and sparse concepts available to the child from past prelanguage experience. Variability in beginning word learning and in its progress along a number of dimensions suggests the problems that children may encounter, as well as the strategies and styles they adopt to make progress. Social context and adult practices are vitally involved in the success of this process. Whereas much headway has been made over the past decades, much remains to be revealed through dynamic systems theory and developmental semiotic analyses, as well as laboratory research aimed at social context conditions. PMID:25023499

Nelson, Katherine

2014-07-01

10

Divorce and death: forty years of the Charleston Heart Study.  

PubMed

Forty years of follow-up data from the Charleston Heart Study (CHS) were used to examine the risk for early mortality associated with marital separation or divorce in a sample of more than 1,300 adults assessed on several occasions between 1960 and 2000. Participants who were separated or divorced at the start of the study evidenced significantly elevated rates of early mortality, and these results held after adjusting for baseline health status and other demographic variables. Being separated or divorced throughout the CHS follow-up window was one of the strongest predictors of early mortality. However, the excess mortality risk associated with separation or divorce was completely eliminated when participants who had ever experienced a marital separation or divorce during the study were compared with all other participants. These findings suggest that a key predictor of early death is the amount of time people live as separated or divorced. It is possible that the mortality risk conferred by marital dissolution is due to dimensions of personality that predict divorce as well as a decreased likelihood of future remarriage. PMID:19076315

Sbarra, David A; Nietert, Paul J

2009-01-01

11

Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This symposium reflects on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, its role over the next four decades and beyond. The topics include: 1) Perspectives on the Past Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; 2) The Experience of Spaceflight; 3) Perspectives on the Next Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; and 4) The International Space Station and the Future of Human Spaceflight.

Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

12

Neurostimulation in chronic cluster headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 1% of all chronic cluster headache patients become intractable (iCCH; ie, they are refractory to adequate regimens of\\u000a all established preventive drugs). Various lesional interventions have been attempted in these patients, none with lasting\\u000a benefits. In recent years, nondestructive neurostimulation methods have raised new hope. Hypothalamic deep brain stimulation\\u000a (hDBS) acts rather rapidly and has durable efficacy, but it

Delphine Magis; Jean Schoenen

2008-01-01

13

Neurostimulation therapy for epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurostimulation therapy for epilepsy is growing in popularity. By appropriate targeting of applied electrical activation\\u000a at selected nervous system sites, antiseizure effects may be achieved without the common sedative side effects of antiepileptic\\u000a medications. Risks of neurostimulation therapy are those associated with the device implantation surgical procedures. Vagus\\u000a nerve stimulation (VNS) reduces seizures by 45% and has been employed in

Douglas Labar; Andy Dean

2002-01-01

14

Forty Years of Northern NonRenewable Natural Resource Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Northern Canada is endowed with abundant non-renewable natural resources, and exploration and development of those resources have increased steadily since World War II. Particularly during the past 20 years new regulatory controls have been emplaced in response to elevated concerns about the possible impact of resource development on the environment. During the past 40 years gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc,

W. W. NASSICHUK

15

Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

16

Forty Years of Library Automation: A Personal Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide an overview of one person's involvement with computer systems in libraries over the last 40 years. Design/methodology/approach: Personal memories corroborated with published articles. Findings: There have been very many developments in libraries in a comparatively short period of time as a result of using computer systems, and…

Line, Maurice B.

2006-01-01

17

Problem-Based Learning and Medical Education Forty Years On  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem-based learning (PBL) has swept the world of medical education since its introduction 40 years ago, leaving a trail of unanswered or partially answered questions about its benefits. The literature is replete with systematic reviews and meta-analyses, all of which have identified some common themes; however, heterogeneity in the definition of a ‘problem-based learning curriculum’ and its delivery, coupled with

Alan J. Neville

2009-01-01

18

Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet)  

E-print Network

Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet) Alan Robock-mail: robock@envsci.rutgers.edu #12;- 1 - Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet) Abstract We present the longest data set of observed soil moisture available in the world

Robock, Alan

19

Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited - Forty Years after Eduard Imhof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps represent in a symbolised way the main features of the Earth's surface shape as well as the major, mostly visible objects covering the topography. The clear and readable depiction of the relief is one of the main challenges in topographic cartography. The Swiss cartographer Eduard Imhof had a significant influence on the development of modern topographic cartography. He published his trend-setting findings 40 years ago in his textbook "Cartographic Relief Presentation". This overview paper reviews his major contributions to topographic cartography and presents today's state of cartographic relief depiction, illustrated by current map examples and projects elaborated at Imhof's Alma Mater, the Institute of Cartography of ETH Zurich.

Hurni, Lorenz

20

The health center story: forty years of commitment.  

PubMed

The first community health centers were established 40 years ago, with roots in the civil rights and social justice movements of the 1960s. As part of the federal War on Poverty, the centers combined preventive and primary care, social and support services, and consumer involvement. While most observers gave them little chance for survival, health centers beat back repeated efforts to cut funds or eliminate the program, grew exponentially, and were selected for further expansion. Possible reasons include provision of concrete, essential services, community ownership, bipartisan political support, interested and involved officials, unusually committed leadership, persistent need, and a record of effectiveness, quality, and cultural sensitivity. PMID:16172558

Lefkowitz, Bonnie

2005-01-01

21

Metabolic signals and food intake. Forty years of progress.  

PubMed

The Columbia Appetitive Seminar, which began in 1972, has been a huge success in bringing together scholars interested in appetitive behavior, stimulating research and new ideas, and encouraging collaborations. At the time of the Seminar's inception, predominant views were that energy derived acutely from the utilization of glucose was a primary causative factor in determining the initiation (hunger) and offset (satiation) of meals; and that specific nuclei in the hypothalamus controlled unique aspects of motivated behaviors, such as stimulating water intake or creating a feeling of satiety. Over the ensuing 40 years, these views have given way to models of appetitive behavior utilizing complex interacting neural circuits responding to diverse signals emanating from the gastrointestinal tract, the external environment, cognitive, learned and social factors, and many more. Pivotal reports include the 1973 demonstration that cholecystokinin reduces meal size, and the discovery of leptin in 1994. PMID:22935633

Woods, Stephen C

2013-12-01

22

Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited - Forty Years after Eduard Imhof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps represent in a symbolised way the main features of the Earth’s surface shape as well as the major, mostly visible objects covering the topography. The clear and readable depiction of the relief is one of the main challenges in topographic cartography. The Swiss cartographer Eduard Imhof had a significant influence on the development of modern topographic cartography. He published his trend-setting findings 40 years ago in his textbook “Cartographic Relief Presentation”. This overview paper reviews his major contributions to topographic cartography and presents today’s state of cartographic relief depiction, illustrated by current map examples and projects elaborated at Imhof’s Alma Mater, the Institute of Cartography of ETH Zurich.

Hurni, Lorenz

23

Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River floodplain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wet-dry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 5-10 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting.

Johnson, W. Carter; Dixon, Mark D.; Scott, Michael L.; Rabbe, Lisa; Larson, Gary; Volke, Malia; Werner, Brett

2012-01-01

24

Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River Floodplain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wetdry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 510 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting. ?? 2012 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

Johnson, W.C.; Dixon, M.D.; Scott, M.L.; Rabbe, L.; Larson, G.; Volke, M.; Werner, B.

2012-01-01

25

Forty years of research--its impact on dental practice.  

PubMed

With the multiple use of fluorides the philosophical basis of dental practice shifted from the restoration of the dentition to the prevention of the initiation of dental disease. In the United States, the profound impact on caries in children, with 50 per cent of the 5-17 year olds caries-free, has changed the relative distribution of the various dental services and the pattern of dental care. The child orientation has been superceded by greater attention to the restorative and other needs of the middle-aged and geriatric population. The research-generated insights into the role of plaque in the periodontal diseases and the wide-scale efforts to improve oral hygiene via plaque control have resulted in a marked reduction in gingivitis and manageable levels of periodontis in the employed population below the age of 65. More advanced disease can be treated more effectively because of new diagnostic procedures and new technologies as well as the use of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. Major research advances in oral biology, oral medicine and oral diagnosis have extended both the depth and breadth of preventive dental practice. The scope of preventive dentistry now goes well beyond caries and periodontal disease to include: (1) injury, oro-facial defects, malocclusion and temporomandibular joint dysfunction; (2) oral mucosal lesions; (3) systemic diseases with oral manifestations and (4) hazards associated with dental practice. Dentistry is now being practised with an ordered set of priorities. PMID:2703266

Mandel, I D

1989-03-01

26

Forty years on: how radiological protection has evolved internationally.  

PubMed

In the 40 years since the Society for Radiological Protection (SRP) was founded, the international scene has changed considerably. The United Nations bodies primarily involved, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, have evolved from fledgling organisations to indispensable major resources. A similar development characterises regional entities such as Euratom and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), once interested in occupational health in the practice of medicine only, has shifted its emphasis towards protection of members of the public and of patients exposed to ionising radiations and is currently looking at protection of non-human species. The International Radiation Protection Association, the federation that is now the 'mother society' of the SRP, had not even been launched formally when the SRP started. At that time, non-ionising radiation was on nobody's mind, and the forerunner of today's International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) was not formed until 1977. Basically, the developments during this period must be described as a great success story. Average occupational exposures to ionising radiation have decreased markedly, the number of accidents is small, almost all countries now regulate exposures roughly in line with ICRP and ICNIRP recommendations, and quite a large number of countries also have reasonable regulatory infrastructures. An area where problems appear to be on the increase, perhaps in part because of increasing awareness, concerns 'orphan sources' and lack of source security. This may indicate a need for closer attention to security outside the nuclear fuel cycle, e.g. in hospitals and non-nuclear industry. PMID:12875548

Sowby, David; Valentin, Jack

2003-06-01

27

Neurostimulation--Past, Present, and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Neurostimulation as a treatment for epilepsy has been around for almost 20 years in the form of vagus nerve stimulation. Newer types of neurostimulation are being developed and stand on the brink of approval for use. The two newest therapies, not yet approved in the United States, are deep brain stimulation and the Responsive Neurostimulator System . In fact, in Europe, approval has already been given for deep brain stimulation and newer forms of vagus nerve stimulation. Efficacy is similar between these therapies, and side effects are moderate, so what will be the future? The challenge will be to learn how to use these therapies correctly and offer the right treatment for the right patient. PMID:23118604

Ben-Menachem, Elinor

2012-01-01

28

Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet)  

E-print Network

Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet) Alan Robock present the longest data set of observed soil moisture available in the world, 45 yr of gravimetrically- observed plant available soil moisture for the top 1 m of soil, observed every 10 days for April

Robock, Alan

29

Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No  

E-print Network

Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters November, 2004 #12;- 1 - Ukrainian Soil Moisture Stations The individual soil moisture stations in the Ukraine are shown in Figure 1. The data are averaged into the 25

Robock, Alan

30

FAb1188 Forty Years of Notes about People, Words and Mathematics 18 October 2000  

E-print Network

1188 Forty Years of Notes about People, Words and Mathematics Why women live longer than men Walking% finished, it's good knowing there's plenty more to eat. And when I'm 90% finished it feels the same! So long as there's more than one spoonful left, I feel I'm in the middle, doing fine, no problem. Only

Trefethen, Nick

31

Forty Years of `The Strategy' Levins on Model Building and Idealization  

E-print Network

Forty Years of `The Strategy' Levins on Model Building and Idealization Michael Weisberg (weisberg@phil.upenn.edu) University of Pennsylvania Abstract. This paper is an interpretation and defense of Richard Levins' "The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology." Levins "The Strategy" has been extremely influential

Weisberg, Michael

32

Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's History Office Web site is offering a publication for public review entitled Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium. The two hundred and fifty page document chronicles NASA's history from the Sputnik era to the present including insights from Buzz Aldrin, perspectives on the future, the international space station, and much more. Readers will enjoy the frank discussions, telling photographs, and keen insights from those involved with this sometimes dangerous and always breathtaking pursuit.

Garber, Stephen J.

2002-01-01

33

Forty years abuse of baking soda, rhabdomyolysis, glomerulonephritis, hypertension leading to renal failure: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment. PMID:24179353

Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja

2008-01-01

34

Neurostimulation for Primary Headache Disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurostimulation has emerged as a potential treatment option for patients with chronic, disabling, intractable primary headache disorders. Although safety and efficacy data are limited in quantity, there is accumulating experience with the use of peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable occipital neuralgia, cluster headache, migraine, and less common headache disorders. Deep brain stimulation has been used to treat intractable chronic cluster headache and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing. This article discusses the theorized mechanisms of action of these novel treatment modalities and summarizes current knowledge regarding safety and efficacy of neurostimulation for the treatment of headache. PMID:19268032

Schwedt, Todd J.

2013-01-01

35

Neurostimulation for traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant public health problem and is a leading cause of death and disability in many countries. Durable treatments for neurological function deficits following TBI have been elusive, as there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutic modalities for mitigating the consequences of TBI. Neurostimulation strategies using various forms of electrical stimulation have recently been applied to treat functional deficits in animal models and clinical stroke trials. The results from these studies suggest that neurostimulation may augment improvements in both motor and cognitive deficits after brain injury. Several studies have taken this approach in animal models of TBI, showing both behavioral enhancement and biological evidence of recovery. There have been only a few studies using deep brain stimulation (DBS) in human TBI patients, and future studies are warranted to validate the feasibility of this technique in the clinical treatment of TBI. In this review, the authors summarize insights from studies employing neurostimulation techniques in the setting of brain injury. Moreover, they relate these findings to the future prospect of using DBS to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits following TBI. PMID:25170668

Shin, Samuel S; Dixon, C Edward; Okonkwo, David O; Richardson, R Mark

2014-11-01

36

A Reviewof Forty-Five YearsStudy of Hiroshimaand Nagasaki Atomic BombSurvivors II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

E-print Network

A Reviewof Forty-Five YearsStudy of Hiroshimaand Nagasaki Atomic BombSurvivors II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS Atomic Bomb and Leukemia MICHITO ICHIMARU, MASAO TOMONAGA, TATSUHIKO AMENOMORI AND TATSUKI MATSUO,and the occurrenceof CML wasthought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia

Laughlin, Robert B.

37

A look back at forty years of lead-acid-battery development; A survey especially regarding stationary applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years ago, lead-acid batteries were already the dominating electrochemical storage system. As standby batteries, they mostly were used as large central batteries of flooded cells. Although they already represented a matured system, development went on, mainly in the areas of safety aspects and reduction of maintenance expenses. An important turning point was the introduction of the valve-regulated design, abbreviated

D. Berndt

2005-01-01

38

Characterization of Forty Seven Years of Particulate Chemical Composition in the Finnish Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty seven years of weekly total suspended particle filters collected at Kevo, Finland from October 1964 through 2010 by the Finnish Meteorological Institute were analyzed for near-total trace elements, soluble trace elements, black carbon (BC), and major ions and methane sulfonic acid (MSA). Kevo is located in Northern Finland, 350 km north of the Arctic Circle. The samples from 1964-1978 were collected with Whatman 42 cellulous filters and the samples from 1979-2010 collected on Whatman GF/A glass-fiber filters. A portion of the filters was microwave acid-digested (ad) and analyzed for near-total trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Another portion was water extracted (we) and analyzed for soluble trace elements by ICP-MS and ionic species by ion chromatography (IC). Black carbon (BC) was determined using optical and thermal optical techniques at SUNY Albany. A clear seasonal trend with winter/spring maxima and summer minima is observed for most species attributed to enhanced transport of pollutants from anthropogenic mid-latitude sources to the Arctic in the winter and early spring. Compared to more remote Arctic sampling sites, species of anthropogenic origin (V, Co, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, SO4) have significantly higher concentrations and a less pronounced seasonality. High concentrations of Cu (14.1 ng/m3), Ni (0.97 ng/m3), and Co (0.04 ng/m3) indicate the influence of non-ferrous metal smelters on the Kola Peninsula, although Cu unexpectedly did not correlate with Ni or Co. Ni and Co were highly correlated. Significant long-term decreasing trends were detected for most species. All constituents except Sn-ad, Re-ad, Sn-we, Mo-we, V-we, have significant (p < 0.001) decreasing trends from 1964-2010. The largest decreases were Sb (-3.90 %/yr), Pb (-3.87 %/yr), Mn (-3.45 %/yr), Cd (-3.42 %/yr), and Ca (-3.13 %/yr ). As, Pb, and Cd concentrations at Kevo were consistent with the reported time-trends of European emissions inventories. Pb concentrations at Kevo have dramatically decreased (92%) in the past 47 years due to the reduced use of leaded gasoline in automobiles. Non sea salt SO4 concentrations were found to have a very similar trend to European and Former Soviet Union SO2 emissions. SO4 concentrations declined dramatically in the early 1990s a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to estimate source locations of the species. PSCF plots for anthropogenic species (V, Cd, Mn, Mo, Sb, Tl, W, and SO4) suggest source areas predominantly in Eastern Europe, European Russia, and the Baltics. Markers of stationary fuel combustion (V, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and SO4) also pointed towards possible source regions in the Pechora Basin and Ural industrial areas in Russia, and near gas and oil fields in western Kazakhstan. Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is marker of marine planktonic algae. MSA concentrations at Kevo peak from May to July and have estimated source locations in the Barents, Norwegian, and Greenland Seas, coinciding with warmer waters and increased biogenic activity. Using monthly averages from June and Jul, MSA concentrations were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.200; p < 0.001) with sea surface temperature anomalies in the surrounding seas and negatively (r2 = 0.280; p = 0.0018) with sea ice extent. The chemical composition dataset was analyzed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF5). The entire dataset (1964-2010) was modeled as well as three separate time periods, 1964-1978, 1979-1990, and 1991-2010. The dataset was split in 1979 due to a change from Whatman 42 cellulose filters to a glass fiber filters, and in 1990 due to drops in concentrations related to the economic collapse of the Soviet Union. Two factors representing non-ferrous metal smelters were found for all time periods. One factor was dominated by Cu and the other by Ni and Co. Each of the time periods contained a factor describing stationary fuel combustion with high percentages of V, BC, and nss-SO4; a ferrous metal f

Laing, James

39

A study of the factors influencing forty years' operations on a large Texas cattle ranch  

E-print Network

to the oattls, la asst years, even 4qriug 4pcncth, the supply of ronghags is aapls fsp this parpose~ Ia 1984 ang a few prese4iag years this was not the ease aa8 een4itioas sere acsh thct a less eceuentxatv4 estipeo et 8088'N3 50 Ca~ iS. P CP C . %I. ' . i... to the oattls, la asst years, even 4qriug 4pcncth, the supply of ronghags is aapls fsp this parpose~ Ia 1984 ang a few prese4iag years this was not the ease aa8 een4itioas sere acsh thct a less eceuentxatv4 estipeo et 8088'N3 50 Ca~ iS. P CP C . %I. ' . i...

Matthews, Joseph Luther

2012-06-07

40

FORTY YEARS OF SCHOOL PLANT DISSERTATIONS. A REVIEW WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATIONS RELATED TO SCHOOL PLANTS IS COMPILED BY YEARS BEGINNING WITH STUDIES PRODUCED IN 1921 AND IS CROSS INDEXED BY TOPIC. IT REVIEWS THE SCHOOL PLANT PROBLEMS MOST INVESTIGATED BY STUDENTS. A BRIEF HISTORY OF SCHOOL BUILDING DEVELOPMENT IS PRESENTED IN LIGHT OF CORRESPONDING ECONOMIC AND…

CLASEN, ROBERT E.

41

Forty Years of Progress in Community Mental Health: The Role of Evidence-Based Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The community mental health movement in the U.S. peaked in 1963 with the passage of the Community Mental Health Centers (CMHC) Act. The movement had its origins in the two decades before 1963, beginning with World War II, and matured in the 20 years that followed. The CMHC legislation stood at the mid point of a cycle of reform, in

Lisa Dixon; Howard Goldman

2004-01-01

42

Forty Years of Finnish Pre-School Education: The Development of Curricula between 1972 and 2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning…

Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

2012-01-01

43

History of the International Atomic Energy Agency: The First Forty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Atomic Energy Agency: Personal Reflections 1997 (Vienna: IAEA) 311 pp AS260 (hardback) ISBN 92 0 102497 5 These two books are a contribution to the 40th birthday celebrations of the IAEA. I have worked in the field of Health Physics for 39 of those years, and have contributed to projects for the Agency during that time so these volumes

J A B Gibson

1998-01-01

44

Invasive neurostimulation in stroke rehabilitation.  

PubMed

The last decade has seen a growing interest in adjuvant treatments that synergistically influence mechanisms underlying rehabilitation of paretic upper limb in stroke. One such approach is invasive neurostimulation of spared cortices at the periphery of a lesion. Studies in animals have shown that during training of paretic limb, adjuvant stimulation targeting the peri-infarct circuitry enhances mechanisms of its reorganization, generating functional advantage. Success of early animal studies and clinical reports, however, failed to translate to a phase III clinical trial. As lesions in humans are diffuse, unlike many animal models, peri-infarct circuitry may not be a feasible, or consistent target across most. Instead, alternate mechanisms, such as changing transcallosal inhibition between hemispheres, or reorganization of other viable regions in motor control, may hold greater potential. Here, we review comprehensive mechanisms of clinical recovery and factors that govern which mechanism(s) become operative when. We suggest novel approaches that take into account a patient's initial clinical-functional state, and findings from neuroimaging and neurophysiology to guide to their most suitable mechanism for ideal targeting. Further, we suggest new localization schemes, and bypass strategies that indirectly target peri-lesional circuitry, and methods that serve to counter technical and theoretical challenge in identifying and stimulating such targets at the periphery of infarcts in humans. Last, we describe how stimulation may modulate mechanisms differentially across varying phases of recovery- a temporal effect that may explain missed advantage in clinical trials and help plan for the next stage. With information presented here, future trials would effectively be able to target patient's specific mechanism(s) with invasive (or noninvasive) neurostimulation for the greatest, most consistent benefit. PMID:24353109

Plow, Ela B; Machado, Andre

2014-07-01

45

Forty years of repeated screening: the significance of carcinoma in situ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cohorts of women born in 1914-18 and 1929-33 who participated in a cervical screening programme have been followed for over 40 years. Age-specific incidence rates of squamous carcinoma of the cervix by rank of smear and length of interval between smears are reported. The younger cohort, who had undergone more frequent screening, had lower rates of invasive disease. From

BJ Morrison; AJ Coldman; DA Boyes; GH Anderson

1996-01-01

46

Forty-five years of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation physics: 1956 to 2001  

SciTech Connect

The history of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics in the 1950's and 1960's is reviewed, followed by some highlights of the spectacular discoveries in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation made during the 1970's. The consolidation of knowledge during the last few years is summarized. Some predictions are made for the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics for the next decade and beyond. (LEW)

Richter, B.

1985-04-01

47

Forty-five years of open plan office experience: An unusual case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The open plan office design concept has been around for at least 45 years. Through research, design, and practical experience, the basic concepts and parameters that impact acoustics and speech privacy have been fairly well developed and documented. The psychological aspects of human response and expectation to open plan environments, and the conceptual designs that emerge from the architect and interior designers are frontiers that still allow for ongoing study. A large open plan project completed during the dot-com bubble allowed an opportunity to design and experience an unusual open plan environment that utilized exposed sound masking system loudspeakers and minimal sound absorption.

Paoletti, Dennis A.

2005-09-01

48

Forty-Year Calibrated Record of Earth-Surface Reflected Radiance from Landsat: A Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors on Landsat satellites have been collecting images of the Earth's surface for nearly 40 years. These images have been invaluable for characterizing and detecting changes in the land cover and land use of the world. Although initially conceived as primarily picture generating sensors, even the early sensors were radiometrically calibrated and spectrally characterized prior to launch and incorporated some capabilities to monitor their radiometric calibration once on orbit. Recently, as the focus of studies has shifted to monitoring Earth surface parameters over significant periods of time, serious attention has been focused toward bringing the data from all these sensors onto a common radiometric scale over this 40-year period. This effort started with the most recent systems and then was extended back in time. Landsat-7 ETM+, the best-characterized sensor of the series prior to launch and once on orbit, and the most stable system to date, was chosen to serve as the reference. The Landsat-7 project was the first of the series to build an image assessment system into its ground system, allowing systematic characterization of its sensors and data. Second, the Landsat-5 TM (still operating at the time of the Landsat-7 launch and continues to operate) calibration history was reconstructed based on its internal calibrator, vicarious calibrations, pseudo-invariant sites and a tie to Landsat-7 ETM+ at the time of the commissioning of Landsat-7. This process was performed in two iterations: the earlier one relied primarily on the TM internal calibrator. When this was found to have some deficiencies, a revised calibration was based more on pseudo-invariant sites, though the internal calibrator was still used to establish the short-term variations in response due to icing build up on the cold focal plane. As time progressed, a capability to monitor the Landsat-5 TM was added to the image assessment system. The Landsat-4 TM, which operated from 1982-1992, was the third system to which the radiometric scale was extended. The limited and broken use of the Landsat-4 TM made this analysis more difficult. Eight-day separated image pairs from Landsat-5 combined with analysis of pseudo invariant sites established this history. The fourth and most challenging effort was making the Landsat-1 to -5 MSS sensors' data internally radiometrically consistent. This effort was particularly complicated by the age of the MSS data, varying formats and processing levels in the archive, limited datasets, and limited documentation available. Ultimately, pseudo-invariant sites were identified in North America and used for this effort. Note that most of the Landsat-MSS archived data had already been calibrated using the MSS internal calibrators, so this processing was imbedded in the result. The final effort was developing an absolute scale for Landsat MSS similar to what was already established for the "TM" sensors. This was accomplished by using simultaneous data from Landsat-5 MSS and Landsat-5 TM, accounting for spectral differences between the sensors using EO-1 Hyperion data. The recalibrated history of the Landsat data and implications to users are discussed. The key result from this work is a consistently calibrated Landsat data archive that spans nearly 40 years with total uncertainties on the order of 10% or less for most sensors and bands.

Markham, Brian; Helder, Dennis

2011-01-01

49

[The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].  

PubMed

The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens. PMID:22586775

Barzilay, Willemjan

2009-01-01

50

Forty years of increasing suicide mortality in Poland: Undercounting amidst a hanging epidemic?  

PubMed Central

Background Suicide rate trends for Poland, one of the most populous countries in Europe, are not well documented. Moreover, the quality of the official Polish suicide statistics is unknown and requires in-depth investigation. Methods Population and mortality data disaggregated by sex, age, manner, and cause were obtained from the Polish Central Statistics Office for the period 1970-2009. Suicides and deaths categorized as ‘undetermined injury intent,’ ‘unknown causes,’ and ‘unintentional poisonings’ were analyzed to estimate the reliability and sensitivity of suicide certification in Poland over three periods covered by ICD-8, ICD-9 and ICD-10, respectively. Time trends were assessed by the Spearman test for trend. Results The official suicide rate increased by 51.3% in Poland between 1970 and 2009. There was an increasing excess suicide rate for males, culminating in a male-to-female ratio of 7:1. The dominant method, hanging, comprised 90% of all suicides by 2009. Factoring in deaths of undetermined intent only, estimated sensitivity of suicide certification was 77% overall, but lower for females than males. Not increasing linearly with age, the suicide rate peaked at ages 40-54?years. Conclusion The suicide rate is increasing in Poland, which calls for a national prevention initiative. Hangings are the predominant suicide method based on official registration. However, suicide among females appears grossly underestimated given their lower estimated sensitivity of suicide certification, greater use of “soft” suicide methods, and the very high 7:1 male-to-female rate ratio. Changes in the ICD classification system resulted in a temporary suicide data blackout in 1980-1982, and significant modifications of the death categories of senility and unknown causes, after 1997, suggest the need for data quality surveillance. PMID:22883342

2012-01-01

51

Neurostimulation for Drug-Resistant Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review: The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based update on the neurostimulation options available for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy in the United States and in European countries. Recent Findings: The field of neurostimulation for epilepsy has grown dramatically since 1997, when vagus nerve stimulation became the first device to be approved for epilepsy by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). New data from recently completed randomized controlled trials are available for deep brain stimulation of the anterior thalamus, responsive neurostimulation, and trigeminal nerve stimulation. Although vagus nerve stimulation is the only device currently approved in the United States, deep brain stimulation and responsive neurostimulation devices are awaiting FDA approval. Deep brain stimulation, trigeminal nerve stimulation, and transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation are now approved for epilepsy in the European Union. In this article, the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy of new neurostimulation devices are reviewed, and the key advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Summary: The exponential growth of the field of neuromodulation for epilepsy is an exciting development; these new devices provide physicians with new options for patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. PMID:23739108

DeGiorgio, Christopher M.; Krahl, Scott E.

2013-01-01

52

SEMPRE: Forty Years on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical account traces the beginnings of the Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) to the founding of the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education (SRPMME) in 1972, which in turn had evolved from Arnold Bentley's Research in Music Education conferences instituted in 1966. The paper charts the…

Cox, Gordon; Crickmore, Leon; Plummeridge, Charles; Sergeant, Desmond

2012-01-01

53

Edison After Forty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edison After Forty: The Challenge of Success is a virtual exhibition provided by the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History (discussed in the {September 19, 1997 Scout Report http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/sr/1997/scout-970919.html#8}). This exhibit documents the last 44 years of the prolific career of Thomas Alva Edison, the quintessential American inventor who held over one thousand patents at the time of his death in 1931. Historical narrative accompanies the exhibit's seven galleries of black and white photographs: The Challenge of Success, Before Forty, Changes at Forty, Home Life, The New Technical World, Fame and Its Distractions, and Edison in His Eighties.

1998-01-01

54

Monthly Highlights from Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station February/March 2009 1967-2007: Forty Years of Urban Fringe Farming Change  

E-print Network

-2007: Forty Years of Urban Fringe Farming Change Jack Rabin, Associate Director ­ Farm Programs Farmer Advice of the Farmland Tax Assessment Act. This Act was the first time New Jersey urban dwellers joined forces for a new generation of urban fringe farmers. Responding to rapid land use change, there were already 822

Goodman, Robert M.

55

Invertebrate Dive Fisheries Can Be Sustainable: Forty Years of Production from a Greenlip Abalone Fishery off Southern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Australian greenlip abalone (Haliotis laevigata) fishery was established in 1964, and commercial catches have been stable at approximately 350 t.yr for over 20 years. This contrasts the status of fisheries for abalone outside Australasia, where rapid over-exploitation and stock collapse, without recovery, have been widespread. This study of the sustainability of the South Australian greenlip abalone fishery is

S. Mayfield; R. C. Chick; I. J. Carlson; T. M. Ward

2011-01-01

56

Addressable Floating Light Activated Micro-Electrical Stimulators for Wireless Neurostimulation  

E-print Network

Addressable Floating Light Activated Micro-Electrical Stimulators for Wireless Neurostimulation activate photodiodes in an array. Additionally, gene therapy technologies have enabled photonic neurostimulation in neurons that have algal proteins [10], [11]. Floating Light Activated Microelectrical

57

Forty Four Years a King.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit contains guidelines for Martin Luther King Jr. Day, January 15th. Items included in the guide are: a list of suggested activities, a short biography of Dr. King, excerpts from some of his speeches including the famous, "I Have A Dream" speech, a play, study questions, "A King's Journey", a game, and a story about King which…

Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Dept. of Intergroup Education.

58

Combined occipital and supraorbital neurostimulation for the treatment of chronic migraine headaches: Initial experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel approach to the treatment of chronic migraine headaches based on neurostimulation of both occipital and supraorbital nerves was developed and reduced to clinical practice in a series of patients with headaches unresponsive to currently available therapies. Following positive trials, seven patients with chronic migraine and refractory chronic migraine headaches had permanent combined occipital nerve–supraorbital nerve neurostimulation systems implanted.

K L Reed; S B Black; C J Banta; K R Will

2010-01-01

59

CMOS Neurostimulation ASIC with 100 Channels, Scaleable Output, and Bidirectional Radio-Frequency Telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

channel neurostimulation circuit comprising a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed, constructed and tested. The ASIC forms a significant milestone and an integral compo- nent of a 100-electrode neurostimulation system being developed by the authors. The system comprises an externally worn transmitter and a body implantable stimulator. The purpose of the system is

Gregg Jørgen Suaning; Nigel H. Lovell

2001-01-01

60

CMOS neurostimulation ASIC with 100 channels, scaleable output, and bidirectional radio-frequency telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

100-channel neurostimulation circuit comprising a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed, constructed and tested. The ASIC forms a significant milestone and an integral component of a 100-electrode neurostimulation system being developed by the authors. The system comprises an externally worn transmitter and a body implantable stimulator. The purpose of the system is to communicate

Gregg Jørgen Suaning; Nigel H. Lovell

2001-01-01

61

Conservative treatment with spontaneous stabilization of Grade II isthmic spondylolisthesis L5/S1 in a forty-four-year old woman, with a six-year follow-up: a case report.  

PubMed

Spondylolisthesis is a pathological condition caused by the slipping of a vertebral body, compared to the underlying structure, following structural and/or degenerative changes to the spine. Studies have attempted evidence to the connection between the natural history of spondylolisthesis, the degree and progression of the slip factor, as well as the pain and disability. Studies have reported a high level of heterogeneity of these factors in different patients as well as difficulty in predicting behaviour. It has been suggested that vertebral instability, independent of the slip factor, could be considered the most important factor to be treated conservatively or surgically. Furthermore, it appears that some patients may manifest complete disk degeneration over time, with vertebral bodies shifting closer and spontaneous stabilisation. This case study reports a forty-four-year old woman, with isthmic spondylolisthesis, where the spine surgeon recommended physiotherapy for conservative treatment, with a prognosis of possible spontaneous stabilization. The case was followed for six years, both clinically and radiologically. Treatment was based on a specific stabilising training program (motor control), immediately aimed to improve the disability and pain factors while waiting for a possible spontaneous stabilisation, that the latest radiological exams revealed with an attempt of arthrodesis. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) to measure disability, and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) to measure pain, were carried out at the beginning, during and at the end of treatment. They were compared with the radiographic material documenting the evolution of the spondylolisthesis over time. This case study appears to confirm that the hypothesis that a specific aimed approach of rehabilitation may improve the disability and pain levels without compromising the process of spontaneous arthrodesis. The evolution was documented radiographically and clinically over a six-year period. PMID:22071501

Ferrari, S; Costa, F; Fornari, M

2012-06-01

62

Forty Years of "Pastoral Care": An Appraisal of Michael Marland's Seminal Book and Its Significance for Pastoral Care in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michael Marland's seminal book: "Pastoral Care" was published 40 years ago this year. The thesis of the book--that pastoral care is the central task of the school, and must be planned and institutionalized through pastoral roles and structures--is explored against the background of the social, cultural and educational developments…

Best, Ron

2014-01-01

63

The value of neurostimulation and intraoperative nerve monitoring of inferior laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo determine the accuracy of neurostimulation with laryngeal palpation (NSLP) and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) to predict the postoperative function of recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) in thyroid surgery.

Ottavio Cavicchi; Umberto Caliceti; Ignacio Javier Fernandez; Giovanni Macrì; Cristiana Di Lieto; Alessandra Marcantoni; Alberto Rinaldi Ceroni; Ottavio Piccin

2009-01-01

64

Design and validation of chronic research tools for an implantable closed-loop neurostimulator  

E-print Network

Neurostimulators today provide high frequency Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for therapeutic modulation of diseased neural circuits. These devices are approved for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, Essential Tremor and ...

Shafquat, Afsah

2011-01-01

65

Transitions in a Life-World: Looking Backward and Forward after Forty-Five Years of Social Pedagogical Research and Teaching in Leuven  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper presents the author's reflection on research and teaching over a period of 45 years in a social pedagogy program in the Leuven University (Belgium). While the case is interesting in its own right, it holds broader significance for its contribution to understanding developments in education, adult and community education and social…

Wildemeersch, Danny

2013-01-01

66

Forty Years of Civics in the J. E. R.: Changes in Civics Teaching since World War II as Seen in the Journal of Educational Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Journal of Educational Research" has reflected educational and social changes for 80 years. A survey of articles since 1945 reveals the effect of sociocultural developments, new inventions (television), world affairs, and educational innovations such as team teaching on education in general and social studies teaching in particular. (SB)

Kay, Linda

1980-01-01

67

What Forty Years of Research Says about the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta-analytic validation was also conducted for purposes…

Tamim, Rana M.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Abrami, Philip C.; Schmid, Richard F.

2011-01-01

68

Another good tradition of ISAAC is the presentation of ISAAC Awards to young analysts under forty years of age. Each award consists of a certificate and 500 Euros  

E-print Network

up with the best candidate. And the award this year goes to Professor Michael Ruzhansky of Imperial College London. Professor Ruzhansky was born in Russia on November 9, 1972. He obtained his Master at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland before his current position as Reader at Imperial College London. Over

Wong, Man Wah

69

Attempted reversible sympathetic ganglion block by an implantable neurostimulator  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Primary palmar hyperhidrosis is a pathological condition of excessive perspiration of the hands of unknown aetiology. The only effective treatment for permanent cure is the ablation of the sympathetic ganglia supplying the hands. One of the sequelae is compensatory sweating, namely increased perspiration in other parts of the body. Its mechanism is unknown. In a small proportion of patients, it may attend devastating proportions. It has practically no remedy, and the degree of compensatory hyperhidrosis is unpredictable prior to sympathectomy. The purpose of the present study was to obtain a reversible sympathetic block which may disclose subjects prone to develop severe compensatory hyperhidrosis and unfit for permanent ganglionic ablation. METHODS In three dogs, an experimental electrode was implanted via a left thoracotomy on the stellate ganglion, connected to a stimulator. The stimulation was activated after recovery. The contralateral ganglion served as control. Effect of the stimulation was assessed by observing the development of Horner's syndrome, which includes the appearance of miosis, ptosis and enophthalmus. Reversal of the sympathetic block was expected when the neurostimulation was discontinued and assessed by the disappearance of these signs. RESULTS Stimulation produced only a partial effect – an incomplete Horner's syndrome (miosis and sometime ptosis), which was not completely reversible after ceasing the stimulation. CONCLUSIONS Although neurostimulation achieved a partial sympathetic block, the present method failed to obtain a completely reversible effect. However, these results may indicate that different nervous pathways moderate the various components of the Horner's triad. Concerning the creation of a reversible sympathectomy; other approaches must be sought after. PMID:22316522

Kopelman, Doron; Costa, Mario G.; Bejar, Jacob; Zaretsky, Asaph; Hashmonai, Moshe

2012-01-01

70

Forty years of embryo transfer in cattle: a review focusing on the journal Theriogenology, the growth of the industry in North America, and personal reminisces.  

PubMed

After the first successful transfer of mammalian embryos in 1890, it was approximately 60 years before significant progress was reported in the basic technology of embryo transfer (ET) in cattle. Starting in the early 1970s, technology had progressed sufficiently to support the founding of commercial ET programs in several countries. Today, well-established and reliable techniques involving superovulation, embryo recovery and transfer, cryopreservation, and IVF are utilized worldwide in hundreds, if not thousands, of commercial businesses located in many countries. The mean number of embryos produced via superovulation has changed little in 40 years, but there have been improvements in synchrony and hormonal protocols. Cryopreservation of in vivo-derived embryos is a reliable procedure, but improvements are needed for biopsied and in vitro-derived embryos. High pregnancy rates are achieved when good quality embryos are transferred into suitable recipients and low pregnancy rates are often owing to problems in recipient management and not technology per se. In the future, unanticipated disease outbreaks and the ever-changing economics of cattle and milk prices will continue to influence the ET industry. The issue of abnormal pregnancies involving in vitro embryos has not been satisfactorily resolved and the involvement of abnormal epigenetics associate with this technology merits continued research. Last, genomic testing of bovine embryos is likely to be available in the foreseeable future. This may markedly decrease the number of embryos that are actually transferred and stimulate the evolution of more sophisticated ET businesses. PMID:24274419

Hasler, John F

2014-01-01

71

Georgio Forti Photosynthesis Research 60: 99110, 1999.  

E-print Network

Georgio Forti #12;Photosynthesis Research 60: 99­110, 1999. © 1999 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 101 Personal perspective Personal recollections of 40 years in photosynthesis; photophosphorylation; photosynthetic electron transport; thylakoids flavopro- tein Abstract The major theme of my work

Govindjee "Gov"

72

Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation  

PubMed Central

Abstract ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies. PMID:21738408

Kotze, D. Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J.; Lövei, Gábor L.; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

2011-01-01

73

Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies  

E-print Network

Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful--too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1-3Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control samp...

Sulentic, J W

2009-01-01

74

Forty years of pressure tuning spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the ability to characterize molecules, solids, and intermolecular interactions in condensed phases has been based on the possibility of measuring electronic and vibrational energy levels associated with the molecule or its interaction with the medium. These spectroscopies form the basis to describe insulators, semiconductors, and metals, to establish the parameters involved in luminescence energy, intensity, and lifetime, to

H G Drickamer

1990-01-01

75

Differential Topology Forty-six Years Later  

E-print Network

of the highlights of these many developments. Major Developments The first big breakthrough, by Kirby and Sieben is jack@math.sunysb.edu. The author would like to thank Mike Hopkins, Rob Kirby, Mark Mahowald, John support under grant DMSO757856. 1 These lectures have recently been digitized by MSRI and should

Ravenel, Douglas

76

Ethics and Education Forty Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R.S. Peters's 1966 book "Ethics and Education" is one of the most significant works in twentieth-century philosophy of education. At least in the United States, however, it is now rarely read or discussed. In this essay, Bryan Warnick looks at the virtues and vices of "Ethics and Education," examining some major criticisms of the book in light of…

Warnick, Bryan R.

2007-01-01

77

Enhanced long-term memory encoding after parietal neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation, e.g., transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), shows promise as an effective cognitive intervention. In spite of low spatial resolution, limited penetration, and temporary influence, evidence highlights tDCS-linked cognitive benefits in a range of cognitive domains. The left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an accessible node in frontoparietal networks engaged during long-term memory (LTM). Here, we tested the hypothesis that tDCS can facilitate LTM by pairing LTM encoding and retrieval with PPC stimulation. Healthy young adults performed a verbal LTM task (California Verbal Learning Task) with four different stimulation parameters. In Experiment 1, we applied tDCS to left PPC during LTM encoding. In Experiment 2, we applied tDCS just prior to retrieval to test the temporal specificity of tDCS during a LTM task. In later experiments, we tested hemispheric specificity by replicating Experiment 1 while stimulating the right PPC. Experiment 1 showed that tDCS applied during LTM encoding improved the pace of list learning and enhanced retrieval after a short delay. Experiment 2 indicated anodal left PPC tDCS only improved LTM when applied during encoding, and not during maintenance. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that tDCS effects were hemisphere specific and that no effects were found after right PPC stimulation during encoding. These findings indicate that anodal tDCS to the PPC helps verbal LTM in healthy young adults under certain conditions. First, when it is applied to the left, not the right, PPC and second, when it is applied during encoding. PMID:25200180

Jones, Kevin T; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E

2014-12-01

78

Manifold Embeddings for Model-Based Reinforcement Learning of Neurostimulation Policies  

E-print Network

- strate the model-based approach in a com- plex domain--adaptive seizure suppression of an epileptic in neuroscience research, adaptive seizure suppression via neurostimulation of epileptic brain tissue. 2. Background Our research lies at the intersection of disparate re- search threads. To provide a single

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

79

Transverse abdominal plane neurostimulation for chronic abdominal pain: a novel technique.  

PubMed

Management of chronic abdominal pain can be challenging. Sometimes patients fail to get adequate response from multiple medications and nerve blocks. We present a patient case report of chronic abdominal pain with a history of multiple surgeries managed successfully by neuromodulation of the transverse abdominis plane (TAP). The TAP block is a procedure in which local anesthetic is injected into the abdominal fascial plane that carries sensory nerves to the abdominal wall in order to block pain sensation. It has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic dependence after abdominal and gynecological surgeries. A 60-year-old woman presented to us for chronic abdominal pain for which medications provided little relief. She had an extensive history of abdominal surgeries and was also treated for lower back pain with surgery and less invasive procedures in the past. Under our care, she underwent 2 TAP blocks with almost complete resolution of her abdominal pain. Her pain, however, came back within a few of weeks of the procedures. Since our patient found pain relief from the TAP blocks, we proceeded with neurostimulation of the TAP for long-term pain relief. We placed a dorsal column stimulator 16 contact lead for lower back and leg pain and 8 contact leads placed in the TAP under ultrasound guidance. She has had multiple follow-ups since her TAP lead placement procedure with continued and near complete resolution of her abdominal pain. The TAP lead stimulation was helping her abdominal pain and the dorsal column lead stimulation was helping her back and leg pain. PMID:25247911

Gupta, Mayank; Goodson, Robert

2014-01-01

80

A low-power implantable device for epileptic seizure detection and neurostimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present the design of a low-power closed-loop neurostimulator (CLNS) as an adjunctive treatment for patients with refractory partial epilepsy. The CLNS combines epileptic seizure detection with simultaneous electrical stimulation feedback. The system amplifies the neural signal with adjustable gain, detects epileptic low-voltage fast-activity, and generates programmable stimulation currents. The implemented seizure detector is based on a

Muhammad Tariqus Salam; Dang Khoa Nguyen; Mohamad Sawan

2010-01-01

81

Pre-frontal control of closed-loop limbic neurostimulation by rodents using a brain-computer interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. There is great interest in closed-loop neurostimulators that sense and respond to a patient's brain state. Such systems may have value for neurological and psychiatric illnesses where symptoms have high intraday variability. Animal models of closed-loop stimulators would aid preclinical testing. We therefore sought to demonstrate that rodents can directly control a closed-loop limbic neurostimulator via a brain-computer interface (BCI). Approach. We trained rats to use an auditory BCI controlled by single units in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BCI controlled electrical stimulation in the medial forebrain bundle, a limbic structure involved in reward-seeking. Rigorous offline analyses were performed to confirm volitional control of the neurostimulator. Main results. All animals successfully learned to use the BCI and neurostimulator, with closed-loop control of this challenging task demonstrated at 80% of PFC recording locations. Analysis across sessions and animals confirmed statistically robust BCI control and specific, rapid modulation of PFC activity. Significance. Our results provide a preliminary demonstration of a method for emotion-regulating closed-loop neurostimulation. They further suggest that activity in PFC can be used to control a BCI without pre-training on a predicate task. This offers the potential for BCI-based treatments in refractory neurological and mental illness.

Widge, Alik S.; Moritz, Chet T.

2014-04-01

82

Toward a fully integrated neurostimulator with inductive power recovery front-end.  

PubMed

In order to investigate new neurostimulation strategies for micturition recovery in spinal cord injured patients, custom implantable stimulators are required to carry-on chronic animal experiments. However, higher integration of the neurostimulator becomes increasingly necessary for miniaturization purposes, power consumption reduction, and for increasing the number of stimulation channels. As a first step towards total integration, we present in this paper the design of a highly-integrated neurostimulator that can be assembled on a 21-mm diameter printed circuit board. The prototype is based on three custom integrated circuits fabricated in High-Voltage (HV) CMOS technology, and a low-power small-scale commercially available FPGA. Using a step-down approach where the inductive voltage is left free up to 20 V, the inductive power and data recovery front-end is fully integrated. In particular, the front-end includes a bridge rectifier, a 20-V voltage limiter, an adjustable series regulator (5 to 12 V), a switched-capacitor step-down DC/DC converter (1:3, 1:2, or 2:3 ratio), as well as data recovery. Measurements show that the DC/DC converter achieves more than 86% power efficiency while providing around 3.9-V from a 12-V input at 1-mA load, 1:3 conversion ratio, and 50-kHz switching frequency. With such efficiency, the proposed step-down inductive power recovery topology is more advantageous than its conventional step-up counterpart. Experimental results confirm good overall functionality of the system. PMID:23853175

Mounaïm, Fayçal; Sawan, Mohamad

2012-08-01

83

Neurostimulation of the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway Ameliorates Disease in Rat Collagen-Induced Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The inflammatory reflex is a physiological mechanism through which the nervous system maintains immunologic homeostasis by modulating innate and adaptive immunity. We postulated that the reflex might be harnessed therapeutically to reduce pathological levels of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by activating its prototypical efferent arm, termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To explore this, we determined whether electrical neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduced disease severity in the collagen-induced arthritis model. Methods Rats implanted with vagus nerve cuff electrodes had collagen-induced arthritis induced and were followed for 15 days. Animals underwent active or sham electrical stimulation once daily from day 9 through the conclusion of the study. Joint swelling, histology, and levels of cytokines and bone metabolism mediators were assessed. Results Compared with sham treatment, active neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway resulted in a 52% reduction in ankle diameter (p?=?0.02), a 57% reduction in ankle diameter (area under curve; p?=?0.02) and 46% reduction overall histological arthritis score (p?=?0.01) with significant improvements in inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion (p?=?0.02), accompanied by numerical reductions in systemic cytokine levels, not reaching statistical significance. Bone erosion improvement was associated with a decrease in serum levels of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) from 132±13 to 6±2 pg/mL (mean±SEM, p?=?0.01). Conclusions The severity of collagen-induced arthritis is reduced by neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway delivered using an implanted electrical vagus nerve stimulation cuff electrode, and supports the rationale for testing this approach in human inflammatory disorders. PMID:25110981

Levine, Yaakov A.; Koopman, Frieda A.; Faltys, Michael; Caravaca, April; Bendele, Alison; Zitnik, Ralph; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J.; Tak, Paul Peter

2014-01-01

84

The IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society at Forty: The Challenges of an Evolving Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE oceanic engineering society (OES) has completed forty years of active engagement: the initial eight years in the form of the oceanography coordinating committee (OCC), followed by seven years as the council of oceanic engineering (COE), then the past twenty-five years in the form of an IEEE society. During those forty years, the OCC\\/COE\\/OES has existed to serve society,

Stanley G. Chamberlain; Joseph Czika; Norman D. Miller; Glen N. Williams

2008-01-01

85

Cardiac nociception in rats: neuronal pathways and the influence of dermal neurostimulation on conveyance to the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation for refractory angina pectoris is often advocated for its clinical efficacy. However, the recruited pathways to induce electroanalgesia are partially unknown. Therefore, we sought to study the effect of neurostimulation on experimentally induced cardiac nociception, using capsaicin as nociception-induced substance. Four different groups of male Wistar rats were pericardially infused with either saline or capsaicin with or without neurostimulation. Group StimCap was infused with capsaicin, and group StimVeh was infused with saline. Both groups were treated with neurostimulation. Group ShamCap was only infused with capsaicin without stimulation, whereas group ShamVeh was only infused with saline. Neuronal activation differences were assessed with cytochemical staining, revealing the cellular expression of c-fos. Pain behavior was registered on video and was quantitatively analyzed. In the StimCap and ShamCap groups, all animals exerted typical pain behavior, whereas in the StimVeh group only moderate changes in behavior were observed. Group ShamVeh animals were unaffected by the procedure. The upper thoracic spinal cord showed high numbers of c-fos-positive cells, predominantly in laminae III and IV in both StimCap and StimVeh groups. Almost no c-fos expression was noticed in groups ShamCap and ShamVeh in these sections of the spinal cord. In groups StimCap and ShamCap a significantly higher number of c-fos-positive cells in comparison with groups StimVeh and ShamVeh were noticed in the periambigus region, the nucleus tractus solitarius, and the paraventricular hypothalamus. In the paraventricular thalamus, periaqueductal gray, and central amygdala, no significant differences were noticed among the first three groups, and the c-fos concentration in these three groups was significantly higher than in group ShamVeh. It is concluded that neurostimulation does not influence capsaicin-induced cardiac nociceptive pain pulses to the central nervous system. Furthermore, capsaicin-induced cardiac pain and neurostimulation may utilize two different pathways. PMID:12663934

Albutaihi, Ibrahim A M; Hautvast, Raymond W M; DeJongste, Mike J L; Ter Horst, Gert J; Staal, Michiel J

2003-02-01

86

A microscale photovoltaic neurostimulator for fiber optic delivery of functional electrical stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in functional electrical stimulation (FES) show significant promise for restoring voluntary movement in patients with paralysis or other severe motor impairments. Current approaches for implantable FES systems involve multisite stimulation, posing research issues related to their physical size, power and signal delivery, surgical and safety challenges. To explore a different means for delivering the stimulus to a distant muscle nerve site, we have elicited in vitro FES response using a high efficiency microcrystal photovoltaic device as a neurostimulator, integrated with a biocompatible glass optical fiber which forms a lossless, interference-free lightwave conduit for signal and energy transport. As a proof of concept demonstration, a sciatic nerve of a frog is stimulated by the microcrystal device connected to a multimode optical fiber (core diameter of 62.5 µm), which converts optical activation pulses (~100 µs) from an infrared semiconductor laser source (at 852 nm wavelength) into an FES signal.

Song, Yoon-Kyu; Stein, John; Patterson, William R.; Bull, Christopher W.; Davitt, Kristina M.; Serruya, Mijail D.; Zhang, Jiayi; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Donoghue, John P.

2007-09-01

87

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals.  

PubMed

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-04-01

88

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals  

PubMed Central

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-01-01

89

Forty-Five Years of Marburg Virus Research  

PubMed Central

In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology. PMID:23202446

Brauburger, Kristina; Hume, Adam J.; Muhlberger, Elke; Olejnik, Judith

2012-01-01

90

Forty Years of School Readiness Research: What Have We Learned?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of children's school readiness concerns parents and teachers worldwide. Kindergarten teachers have reported that approximately one-third of U.S. children entering school are ill-prepared to achieve success. Experts also warn that many children are entering school lacking the fundamental skills to achieve academic success. It is…

Winter, Suzanne M.; Kelley, Michael F.

2008-01-01

91

Changes in Evapotranspiration in China During the Last Forty Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Potential evapotranspiration (ETo) is important to hydrological cycling and the global energy balance. Based on a modified FAO56-Penman-Monteith model, ETo was simulated for 603 meteorological stations across China in the period 1971-2008. Spatial distribution and temporal change of ETo were characterized, and the determining factors in ETo were revealed by sensitivity analysis. Results show obvious regional differences in annual average ETo and its determining factor. In general, annual average ETo decreased in the period 1971-2008, but increased since the 1990s. Wind speed and sunshine duration were determining factors in the annual ETo trend, with smaller contributions from relative humidity and temperature. Declining wind speed was the determining factor in decreasing annual ETo in northern temperate regions and the Tibetan Plateau. The spatial extent of wind speed influence contracted to northwest China in summer, and expanded to the whole country in autumn. Decreasing sunshine duration was the determining factor in decreasing annual ETo in subtropical and tropical regions, especially in summer, with a larger spatial influence mainly to the southeast of the farming-pastoral region. ETo change has distinct impacts on earth surface ecosystems and environment depending on different determining factors.

Yin, Y.

2011-12-01

92

Sending the right message : forty years of BBC Radio News  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio is, compared to television and newspapers, an under-researched area in media studies. This research has looked at BBC Radio News in the period 1966-2008; it is a case study into the views of 43 (former) writers of the BBC Radio Newsroom and BBC Radio One. Interviews were conducted with practitioners, BBC policy documents and style guides were consulted and

J. C. Luscombe-Serlie

2012-01-01

93

-Forty Years of Research in a Changing Society Henry Nielsen  

E-print Network

4004 risoe@risoe.dk +45 4677 4013 Reproduction and printing Risø National Laboratory, Information Laboratory 19 Research Redirected 21 Survival and Management Strategies 22 The Problem of Synchronisation 25

94

Forty-Year History of the Survey Research Laboratory  

E-print Network

..............................................................1 The Place of Polls in American Society in the Early 1960s..................................................................1 The University of Illinois in the Early 1960s

Illinois at Chicago, University of

95

Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

Mayer, Diane

2014-01-01

96

Forty-Year-Old Foam Springs Back With New Benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most recognized and widely used NASA spinoff is at it again. Temper foam, whose origins date back to 1966 when it was developed to absorb shock and, thus, offer improved protection and comfort in NASA s airplane seats, has paid its dividends to Earth repeatedly, and in many different ways. It has padded the helmets of the Dallas Cowboys throughout the 1970s and 1980s, protected bedridden patients from bedsores, and comforted the feet of thousands wearing stylish shoes that incorporate the cushioning material in their insoles. Four decades later, the world has come to realize that there are no bounds to temper foam s benefits. Though the rights to the technology have been shared amongst various manufacturers, the original product maker is still going strong, pushing temper foam into new arenas, including automotives, amusement parks, prosthetics, and modern art.

2005-01-01

97

Closing the Gap: Forty Years of Economic Progress for Blacks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the findings on the long-term economic progress of American blacks. The report consists of seven sections. The first is a general introduction. Section 2 describes major changes in the racial wage gap for males from 1940 to 1980 and identifies the distribution of wage gains among important subgroups in the black population.…

Smith, James P.; Welch, Finis R.

98

Forty-five years of developmental biology of photosynthetic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental biology and cell differentiation of photosynthetic prokaryotes are less noticed fields than the showpieces of eukaryotes, e.g. Drosophila melanogaster. The large metabolic versatility of the facultative purple bacteria and their great capability to adapt to different ecological conditions, however, aroused the inquisitiveness to investigate the process of cell differentiation and to use these bacteria as model system to study

Drews Gerhart

1996-01-01

99

A Neurostimulant para-Chloroamphetamine Inhibits the Arginylation Branch of the N-end Rule Pathway.  

PubMed

In the arginylation branch of the N-end rule pathway, unacetylated N-terminal destabilizing residues function as essential determinants of protein degradation signals (N-degron). Here, we show that a neurostimulant, para-chloroamphetamine (PCA), specifically inhibits the Arg/N-end rule pathway, delaying the degradation of its artificial and physiological substrates, including regulators of G protein signaling 4 (RGS4), in vitro and in cultured cells. In silico computational analysis indicated that PCA strongly interacts with both UBR box and ClpS box, which bind to type 1 and type 2 N-degrons, respectively. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of PCA significantly stabilized endogenous RGS4 proteins in the whole mouse brain and, particularly, in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Consistent with the role of RGS4 in G protein signaling, treatment with PCA impaired the activations of GPCR downstream effectors in N2A cells, phenocopying ATE1-null mutants. In addition, levels of pathological C-terminal fragments of TDP43 bearing N-degrons (Arg208-TDP25) were significantly elevated in the presence of PCA. Thus, our study identifies PCA as a potential tool to understand and modulate various pathological processes regulated by the Arg/N-end rule pathway, including neurodegenerative processes in FTLD-U and ALS. PMID:25212999

Jiang, Yanxialei; Choi, Won Hoon; Lee, Jung Hoon; Han, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji Hyeon; Chung, Young-Shin; Kim, Se Hyun; Lee, Min Jae

2014-01-01

100

Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option?  

PubMed Central

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

2013-01-01

101

F0 in the production of lenis and fortis plosives.  

PubMed

The contribution of fundamental frequency (F0) to the distinction between lenis and fortis plosives is investigated for German in monotone, falling, and rising pitch patterns. A larger F0 drop is found in the stressed vowel before lenis, as against fortis, in disyllabic words with the contour high + fall. These F0 differences do not have aerodynamic causes due to articulatory constraints on phonation but can be related to an active laryngeal control in two production patterns differing in overall articulatory effort and also resulting in an articulatory timing contrast. Hypotheses are formulated as regards the importance of this F0 difference for perception, and with respect to the production and the perception of the lenis/fortis opposition along the F0 parameter in English. PMID:7156204

Kohler, K J

1982-01-01

102

Phonetic Explanation in Phonology: The Feature Fortis\\/Lenis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the wide spectrum of phonetic properties associated with the phonological distinctions between consonant classes such as \\/p, t, k\\/ and \\/b, d, g\\/ in a great variety of languages (including languages with multivalued contrasts) and evaluates their relationship to the features [ ± voiced], [ ± aspirated], [ ± fortis]. The discussion separates word-initial, word-medial and word-final

Klaus J. Kohler

1984-01-01

103

Geological issues in Alberto Fortis' Viaggio in Dalmazia (1774)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian abbot Alberto Fortis (1741-1803), educated in geology, petrology, mineralogy, and palaeontology by eminent 18th-century naturalists, performed several extensive explorations in Istria and Dalmatia - provinces of the former Venetian Republic, now the littoral part of Croatia. Notes from some of these journeys, collected in 1774 in the book Viaggio in Dalmazia, encompass observations of almost all aspects of social and physical features of Dalmatian people and land. From a geological point of view, Fortis' remarks generally correspond to recent studies, with some exceptions in palaeontological and petrological issues. His understanding of natural processes, mainly in karstology and hydrology, is mostly surprisingly good. Besides, he addressed critics to previous writers, whose theories, influenced by older authorities, had been taken for granted instead of being re-examined by field explorations. His unjustly neglected work was the first extensive and comprehensive study of this part of Europe, little known in the then scientific community.

Suri?, Maša; Lon?ari?, Robert; ?uka, Anica; Fari?i?, Josip

2007-08-01

104

Phonetic explanation in phonology: the feature fortis/lenis.  

PubMed

This paper examines the wide spectrum of phonetic properties associated with the phonological distinctions between consonant classes such as /p, t, k/ and /b, d, g/ in a great variety of languages (including languages with multivalued contrasts) and evaluates their relationship to the features [+/- voiced], [+/- aspirated], [+/- fortis]. The discussion separates word-initial, word-medial and word-final positions according to their different production and signalling constraints. A power feature, realized in articulatory timing and/or phonatory power/tension, is set up as the essential differentiator, thus providing a phonetic basis for the fortis/lenis dichotomy. The incorporation of the time dimension into phonology is regarded as a necessary prerequisite to the solution of phonological problems in general and to an adequate treatment of the [+/- voiced] feature in particular, voice onset time being only one temporal aspect. PMID:6396658

Kohler, K J

1984-01-01

105

[A woman in her forties with cancer, syncope and spasms].  

PubMed

A female in her forties with advanced incurable rectal cancer presented to our emergency department after loss of consciousness followed by brief myoclonic jerks in her legs.A cerebral MRI was normal. Her electrocardiogram showed a prolonged QTc interval of 596 milliseconds and hypokalemia was present. She had no family history of congenital long QT syndrome or of cardiovascular disease. She was not on any medication apart from having ingested 100 g caesium carbonate over the previous 11 days as an alternative cancer treatment. Caesium chloride is postulated to increase pH and thereby induce apoptosis in cancer cells. In treatment doses caesium competes with potassium for membrane transport proteins in the cardiac cell membrane and in the reabsorption tubuli of the kidneys. A result is hypokalemia shortly after depolarization during the cardiomyocytes' repolarisation phase or delayed post-depolarisation. Torsade de pointes ventricular arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia, pump failure and death can follow. A few case reports of adverse effects from caesium ingestion have been published, as well as reports on how caesium is used in animal models to induce ventricular tachycardia, but the hazards of caesium ingestion and its long half-life are not well known in the medical care profession or among patients. As this patient's QTc interval normalised slowly to 413 milliseconds 60 days after stopping caesium ingestion, we consider caesium intoxication and convulsive syncope from a self-terminating ventricular tachycardia as the most probable aetiology. The main message from this case is that alternative medicine can have life-threatening side effects. PMID:25314987

Warsame, Mahad Omar; Gamboa, Danil; Nielsen, Erik Waage

2014-10-14

106

Neurostimulators in epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of electrical stimulation in patients with refractory epilepsy, including animal and human data, shows that there\\u000a is anatomic and physiologic evidence supporting the role of the thalamus in epilepsy. The most recent reports in patients\\u000a with refractory epilepsy suggest that deep brain stimulation and cortical electrical stimulation of the anterior thalamic\\u000a nucleus and hippocampus may reduce seizure frequency

Vicenta Salanova; Robert Worth

2007-01-01

107

Forty-Five Years of Chemical Discovery Including a Golden Quarter-Century  

E-print Network

.* Department of Chemistry and the Laboratory for Molecular Structure and Bonding, Texas A&M UniVersity, College abandoning the gold standard, the chemistry of gold was awakened after a long sleep. Much of the chemistry in the references and tables. My inorganic chemistry interest began at Valparaiso University when I did

Abdou, Hanan E.

108

INVITED EDITORIAL: A meander through forty years of The Society for Radiological Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the 8th May 1963, 64 men and two women gathered in an austere lecture theatre at Imperial College, University of London. They came from all sections of the nuclear industry, both civil and military, and from radiology, radiological protection and academic backgrounds. And they came with a common purpose, to witness the foundation of the `The Society for Radiological

John Jackson

2003-01-01

109

Forty years experience in developing and using rainfall simulators under tropical and Mediterranean conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall simulation has been used as a practical tool for evaluating the interaction of falling water drops on the soil surface, to measure both stability of soil aggregates to drop impact and water infiltration rates. In both cases it is tried to simulate the effects of natural rainfall, which usually occurs at very different, variable and erratic rates and intensities. One of the main arguments against the use of rainfall simulators is the difficulty to reproduce the size, final velocity and kinetic energy of the drops in natural rainfall. Since the early 70´s we have been developing and using different kinds of rainfall simulators, both at laboratory and field levels, and under tropical and Mediterranean soil and climate conditions, in flat and sloping lands. They have been mainly used to evaluate the relative effects of different land use and management, including different cropping systems, tillage practices, surface soil conditioning, surface covers, etc. on soil water infiltration, on runoff and on erosion. Our experience is that in any case it is impossible to reproduce the variable size distribution and terminal velocity of raindrops, and the variable changes in intensity of natural storms, under a particular climate condition. In spite of this, with the use of rainfall simulators it is possible to obtain very good information, which if it is properly interpreted in relation to each particular condition (land and crop management, rainfall characteristics, measurement conditions, etc.) may be used as one of the parameters for deducing and modelling soil water balance and soil moisture regime under different land use and management and variable climate conditions. Due to the possibility for a better control of the intensity of simulated rainfall and of the size of water drops, and the possibility to make more repeated measurements under very variable soil and land conditions, both in the laboratory and specially in the field, the better results have been obtained with small size 500-1000 cm2, easily dismantled, drop former simulators, than with larger, nozzle, or more sophisticated equipments. In this contribution there are presented some of the rainfall simulators developed and used by the main author, and some of the results obtained in different studies of practical problems under tropical and Mediterranean conditions. References Pla, I.,G.Campero, y R.Useche.1974.Physical degradación of agricultural soils in the Western Plains of Venezuela. "Trans.10th Int.Cong.Soil.Sci.Soc". 1:231-240. .Moscú Pla, I. 1975.Effects of bitumen emulsion and polyacrilamide on some physical properties of Venezuelan soils. En "Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication"• 7. 35-46. Madison. Wisconsin . (USA). Pla, I. 1977.Aggregate size and erosion control on sloping land treated with hydrophobic bitumen emulsion."Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics".109-115. John Wiley & Sons. Pla, I.1981.Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986.A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia).

Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Nacci, Silvana

2010-05-01

110

Forty Years of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science": A Quantitative Analysis, Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the first part of a two-part quantitative analysis of volume 1-40 (1969-2008) of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science" (formerly the "Journal of Librarianship"). It provides an overview of the current state of LIS research journal publishing in the UK; a review of the publication and printing history of…

Furner, Jonathan

2009-01-01

111

Glacier changes during the last forty years in the Tarim Interior River basin, northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

By comparing digitized glacier outlines from the Chinese Glacier Inventory (CGI) during the 1960s–1970s and Landsat Enhance Thematic Mapper (ETM+) images from 1999 to 2001, we investigated changes for about 7665 alpine glaciers among 11665 glaciers in seven sub-basins of the Tarim Interior River basin (TIRB). The results showed that the total glacier area was reduced by 3.3% from the

Donghui Shangguan; Shiyin Liu; Yongjian Ding; Lianfu Ding; Junli Xu; Li Jing

2009-01-01

112

Forty Years on: Long-Term Change in the First Destinations of Graduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is about changes in the employment of graduates over the four decades since data on their first destinations was first published in the early 1960s. It aims to identify the main changes and their implications. The data used are drawn from questionnaire surveys with very high response rates (over 80 per cent). The main finding is that…

Bourner, Tom; Rospigliosi, Pericles

2008-01-01

113

The Changing Frontiers of Comparative Education: A Forty-Year Retrospective on "European Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"European Education" (originally known as "Western European Education") may no longer be directly associated with the field of comparative and international education, yet its establishment in 1969 was an attempt to make a direct contribution to the academic debates about the future of comparative education. The journal emerged at a time when…

Silova, Iveta

2009-01-01

114

Variations on a Theme: Forty years of music, memories, and mistakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

How did music play a consistent role through various memories? In this memoir, I look at the sweet, the traumatic and troubling. I use specific songs as connections to lost loved ones. I pin the power of music to the loss of three important people in my life: my sister, father, and mother. Who were their musical touchstones? Did I

Christopher John Stephens

2009-01-01

115

Change and Continuity in Modern Japanese Educational History: Allied Occupational Reforms Forty Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the efforts of post-World War II U.S. occupiers to change radically the structure, philosophies, content, and teaching methods of Japanese elementary, secondary, and higher education. Compares prewar and current conditions. Discusses cultural and political reasons why these efforts to transplant foreign institutions and values largely…

Wray, Harry

1991-01-01

116

The prejudiced personality, racism, and anti-Semitism: the PR scale forty years later.  

PubMed

The relationship of prejudiced personality traits with racism and anti-Semitism was examined with 150 Asian American and White university students. The Prejudice (PR) scale, composed of 32 items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, was administered along with the McConahay racism scale and the Selznick and Steinberg Anti-Semitism scale. Results indicated that for Whites, the PR scale was significantly correlated with old-fashioned and modern racism and anti-Semitism, replicating Gough's 1951 study (Gough, 1951b) with the PR scale. However, no such relationship was observed for the Asian American group. This suggests that personality traits of prejudicial attitudes may be relatively stable for Whites but may not be related to outgroup bias for other racial or ethnic groups. PMID:8656327

Dunbar, E

1995-10-01

117

FORTY YEARS OF LATIN AMERICA'S ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: From the Alliance for Progress to the Washington Consensus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I analyze the evolution of economic and social conditions in Latin America from the 1950s through the 1980s, when deep external crises erupted in country after country. The point of departure of our story is the political awakening of the region in the late 1950s and early 1960s and the emergence of guerilla movements in many countries,

Sebastian Edwards

2009-01-01

118

Forty-eight years of landscape change on two contiguous Ohio landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the current and historic structure of two contiguous, rural landscapes covering approximately 242 km2 in central Ohio, USA: a till plain landscape with relatively homogeneous topography and soils, and a moraine landscape with greater geomorphological diversity and heterogeneity. These landscapes were chosen because they were both heavily dominated by agriculture during 1900–1940 and were both initially surveyed

John W. Simpson; Ralph E. J. Boerner; Michael N. DeMers; Leslie A. Berns; Francisco J. Artigas; Alejandra Silva

1994-01-01

119

Forty years of landscape change in Attwater's Prairie Chicken habitat within the Coastal Prairie of Texas  

E-print Network

38, 000 kmz and is one of the most extensively utilized regions in Texas (Smeins et al. 1991). Only about 1'/o of tlie pre-settlement 8 million ha of native grassland remain today (Diamond and Smeins 1984). Jumes (1979) and Lawrence and Silvy (1980... 38, 000 kmz and is one of the most extensively utilized regions in Texas (Smeins et al. 1991). Only about 1'/o of tlie pre-settlement 8 million ha of native grassland remain today (Diamond and Smeins 1984). Jumes (1979) and Lawrence and Silvy (1980...

McKinney, Lloyd B.

2012-06-07

120

Education and Geopolitics in a Changing Europe: Forty Years of Scholarship in "European Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article chronicles the history of the journal "European Education" since its establishment in 1969 by placing it within the larger context of geopolitical changes of the twentieth century and the historical debates on theory and method in the field of comparative education. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 40…

Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

2009-01-01

121

Forty Years of Litigation Involving Residents and Their Training: II. Malpractice Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 136 malpractice cases involving residents and resident programs 1950-83 found a substantial increase in cases after 1975. Most concerned vicarious liability, applicable standard of care, and resident supervision. Residents were on the side of the prevailing party in 44 percent of cases. (Author/MSE)

Helms, Lelia B.; Helms, Charles M.

1991-01-01

122

Forty years of publication of transplantation proceedings--the second decade: the cyclosporine revolution.  

PubMed

With surgical tools in place, increased knowledge concerning immunogenetics and alloimmunity as well as improved management of immunocompromised patients, the foundations were lain for the rapid development of the transplantation enterprise. In contrast to pre-transplant conditioning by thoracic duct drainage or total lymphoid irradiation, which were too cumbersome for routine execution among the burgeoning recipient pool, cyclosporine was a facile method to produce immunosuppression de novo after transplantation. On the one hand, clinical data confirmed the potency of cyclosporine in a variety of clinical settings. On the other hand, a pleiotropic array of side effects, particularly nephrotoxicity, beclouded the regimens, even when used in reduced doses in combination with azathioprine or together with rigorous individualization of therapy by concentration control. The advent of cyclosporine condemned conditioning by pretransplant blood transfusions and donor-recipient HLA matching to therapeutic obsolescence. However, cross-matching achieved greater significance particularly due to the development of flow cytometry methods to detect modest amounts of anti-donor antibody. Adjunctive treatments with polyclonal preparations or monoclonal antibodies were developed to provide an additional layer of security during the critical induction phase of immunosuppression and for treatment of rejection episodes refractory to high dose steroid therapy. Active immunologic investigation was stimulated by antibodies that discriminated CD4+ versus CD8+ T cells, leading to dissection of their numbers of precursors or mature elements as well as their distinct activities. The search for methods to induce, maintain and detect the state of transplantation tolerance continued. The encouraging results in clinical transplantation raised a variety of ethical concerns related to public attitudes; to retrieval, distribution, and allocation of the limited supply of deceased donor organs; the increased utilization of living persons; the opportunities for commerce; the quasi-righteous requests for organ gifts by unrelated individuals and the scant financial resources for long-term treatment with costly immunosuppression. Transplantation had now achieved its rightful place in the clinical armamentarium. PMID:19545653

Kahan, Barry D

2009-06-01

123

A Study of Forty Years of Black Political Activity in Atlanta.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the expansion of the Black power structure of Atlanta. Examines the mayoral, city council, and school board elections from 1949 to 1985. Also examines Fulton County congressional elections from 1970-1984 and the 1986 election. (RKM)

Bullock, Judith Rebecca

1987-01-01

124

Forty Years of Diffusion of Innovations: Utility and Value in Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issues is created to mark the 40 anniversary of Everett Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) model. Diffusion is the process through which an innovation, defined as an idea perceived as new, spreads via certain communication channels over time among the members of a particular social system. A great deal of research in a variety of academic disciplines (about

MUHIUDDIN HAIDER; GARY L. KREPS

2004-01-01

125

Forty Years of Giessen EP-Activities and the Recent RIT-Microthruster Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 60ies, gridded ion thrusters with rf-ionizaton of the propellant (first mercury, lateron xenon) have been designed, built, investigated, optimized, and tested at Giessen University. Since 1970, the industry (now EADS Space Transportation) carried out related D & Q programs. The joint work was at first focused on the 10-cm NSSK engine RIT-10, which was flown onboard \\

H. W. Loeb; K.-H. Schartner; B. K. Meyer; D. Feili; D. Kirmse

2005-01-01

126

In Search of the Audience - Forty Years of German Public Television and Its Audience Driven Commercialization  

E-print Network

audiences. Public and commercial stations alike have to attract audiences to keep afloat, be it through advertisers or government funding. Within the constraints of its basic assumptions that television is business-oriented and that all audiences are assumed...

Goebel, Baerbel

2011-04-11

127

Trends in leisure reading: Forty years of research on reading in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent international research describes a diminishing interest in leisure reading for almost all western countries. In this article, we have investigated trends in leisure reading of the Dutch population between 1955 and 1995, using data from seven national representative time budget surveys. First, our results show that the time spent on reading has diminished by about half. The strongest decline,

Wim Knulst; Gerbert Kraaykamp

1998-01-01

128

The Rearranged Workweek of Four Days, Forty Hours with a Treatment of Military Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of the study was to develop a military reference on the rearranged workweek, especially the four-day, forty-hour arrangement. In the research an extensive review of pertinent literature was accomplished to provide the necessary background to properly evaluate the military four-day, forty-hour workweek experience at McGuire Air…

Foster, William J.

129

3-D flexible nano-textured high-density microelectrode arrays for high-performance neuro-monitoring and neuro-stimulation.  

PubMed

We introduce a new 3-D flexible microelectrode array for high performance electrographic neural signal recording and stimulation. The microelectrode architecture maximizes the number of channels on each shank and minimizes its footprint. The electrode was implemented on flexible polyimide substrate using microfabrication and thin-film processing. The electrode has a planar layout and comprises multiple shanks. Each shank is three mm in length and carries six gold pads representing the neuro-interfacing channels. The channels are used in recording important precursors with potential clinical relevance and consequent electrical stimulation to perturb the clinical condition. The polyimide structure satisfied the mechanical characteristics required for the proper electrode implantation and operation. Pad postprocessing technique was developed to improve the electrode electrical performance. The planar electrodes were used for creating 3-D "Waterloo Array" microelectrode with controlled gaps using custom designed stackers. Electrode characterization and benchmarking against commercial equivalents demonstrated the superiority of the Flex electrodes. The Flex and commercial electrodes were associated with low-power implantable responsive neuro-stimulation system. The electrodes performance in recording and stimulation application was quantified through in vitro and in vivo acute and chronic experiments on human brain slices and freely-moving rodents. The Flex electrodes exhibited remarkable drop in the electric impedance (100 times at 100 Hz), improved electrode-electrolyte interface noise (dropped by four times) and higher signal-to-noise ratio (3.3 times). PMID:24876130

Gabran, S R I; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Dian, Joshua; El-Hayek, Youssef; Perez Velazquez, J L; Genov, Roman; Carlen, Peter L; Salama, M M A; Mansour, Raafat R

2014-09-01

130

Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes  

SciTech Connect

Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

1984-12-01

131

Effects of Microtus fortis lymphocytes on Schistosoma japonicum in a bone marrow transplantation model.  

PubMed

Microtus fortis is a non-permissive host for Schistosoma japonicum. While M. fortis lymphocytes are known to provide natural resistance against S. japonicum, the specific mechanism remains unclear. A bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model was established using immunodeficient mice, either nude (experiment 1) or V(D)J recombination activation gene deficient mice (RAG-1(-/-)) (experiment 2) as recipients and M. fortis or C57BL/6 mice as donors. The growth and development of S. japonicum were evaluated in each group to assess the role of M. fortis lymphocytes in the response to infection. Lymphocyte ratios and S. japonicum-specific antibody production in transplanted groups increased significantly compared to those in non-transplanted group. Spleen indices and density of splenic lymphocytes in transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice were higher than those in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. No difference in the worm burden was observed among group A (transplants derived from M. fortis), B (transplants derived from C57BL/6 mouse) and C (non-transplanted mice), although worms in group A were shorter than those in other groups, except non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Reproductive systems of worms in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from M. fortis were not as mature as those in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from C57BL/6 mouse and non-transplanted nude mice, but they were more mature than worms in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Therefore, the transplantation model using nude and RAG-1(-/-) mice was successfully established. The M. fortis lymphocytes did not appear to affect the S. japonicum worm burden, but they led to schistosome shortening and a significant reduction in parasite spawning. Thus, M. fortis cellular and humoral immunity provides a defense against schistosomes by negatively impacting the parasite growth and reproductive development. PMID:24746640

Hu, Yuan; Xu, Yuxin; Lu, Weiyuan; Quan, Hong; Shen, Yujuan; Yuan, Zhongying; Zhang, Jing; Zang, Wei; He, Yongkang; Cao, Jianping

2014-07-01

132

Age-adapted induction treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the elderly and assessment of maintenance with interferon combined with chemotherapy. A multicentric prospective study in forty patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the elderly is characterized by its poor prognosis. Forty patients with ALL, aged 55 years or older, and with good performance status (ECOG <3) were prospectively treated according to an age-adapted regimen: induction therapy was derived from the lala87 protocol while the feasibility of treatment with interferon combined with chemotherapy was assessed during maintenance. compared

A Delannoy; C Sebban; P Cony-Makhoul; B Cazin; C Cordonnier; R Bouabdallah; JY Cahn; F Dreyfus; A Sadoun; JP Vernant; C Gay; A Broustet; JL Michaux; D Fière

1997-01-01

133

The Re-emergence of The Forty Martyrs of Sebaste in the Church of Saint Peter and Paul, Famagusta, Northern Cyprus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the first study of a painting, possibly the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste, which has been concealed for over 500 years, and which has, this century only, re-emerged through plaster removal in the church of SS. Peter and Paul in Famagusta, N. Cyprus. Though very badly damaged the painting, which has remained undocumented and unstudied in the history

Michael Walsh

2007-01-01

134

FORTY "STRANGE" COMPUTER-DISCOVERED [and COMPUTER-PROVED (of course!)  

E-print Network

of this article is in its form. A computer discoveri* *ng ab initio, humanly- nice results, worthy of the name FORTY "STRANGE" COMPUTER-DISCOVERED [and COMPUTER* * and annotated Zeilberger algorithm, implemented in the Maple package twoFone. Foreword (by Human Doron

Zeilberger, Doron

135

CHLORINATION, WATER HARDNESS, AND SERUM CHOLESTEROL IN FORTY-SIX WISCONSIN COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program measured serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. he purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroi...

136

Smells like home: Desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, use olfactory landmarks to pinpoint the nest  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cataglyphis fortis ants forage individually for dead arthropods in the inhospitable salt-pans of Tunisia. Locating the inconspicuous nest after a foraging run of more than 100 meters demands a remarkable orientation capability. As a result of high temperatures and the unpredictable distribution of food, Cataglyphis ants do not lay pheromone trails. Instead, path integration is the fundamental system of

Kathrin Steck; Bill S Hansson; Markus Knaden

2009-01-01

137

[Research developments in neurostimulation after 1945: historical and ethical aspects of medical manipulations of the human brain].  

PubMed

For nearly fifteen years, the impact of modern neuroscience has become a central focus of public debate, not just following the Decade of the Brain in the United States. Newly developed options for manipulating the central nervous system (CNS) are not only of primary medical concern but have come to be regarded as extremely questionable in recent bioethical discourse. This article provides an in-depth comparison between modern neuromanipulative approaches from "Deep Brain Stimulation" (DBS) with methods from earlier historical periods. After World War II, electrophysiological stimulation was developed, which changed the functional capacity of the human brain. It is argued that many contemporary debates questioning neuroethical applications are flawed in significant respects: A unique neuroethical position can neither be upheld philosophically nor with regard to consumer-oriented clinical practice. By drawing on individual case examples from the contemporary and recent history of neuroscience, some related problem fields and consequences are mapped out and discussed. They show an increasingly blurred conceptual boundary furnished by the complex relations between clinical research, physiological restitution, and functional enhancement inherent in modern biomedicine. PMID:19230376

Stahnisch, Frank

2008-01-01

138

Multi-target neurostimulation for adequate long-term relief of neuropathic and nociceptive chronic pain components  

PubMed Central

Successful treatment of chronic pain for patients with failed back surgery syndrome can be extremely complicated. These patients require careful and individualized clinical assessment, as they often present with mixed pain syndromes that involve both neuropathic and nociceptive components. The distinct types of pain involved in such cases may require combined treatments from individual interventions that are analgesically independent and specific for each type of pain involved. Neuromodulation by electric stimulation at appropriately chosen targets and combinations may be an important option to consider for such patients. We present a case of combined debilitating axial nociceptive spinal pain and bilateral neuropathic leg pain in a patient after 14 failed back operations. A combination of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and deep brain stimulation in the periventricular gray (PVG) have successfully provided the patient with complete relief of both components of his chronic pain condition, after all other pain management options had been exhausted. By alternating activation of each implanted stimulator separately and in conjunction, we were able to demonstrate a clinically independent analgesic character for each stimulation system, each specific to a particular type of pain. The SCS provided complete relief of the neuropathic pain component, without affecting the nociceptive component at all. The PVG stimulation provided complete relief of the nociceptive component, without affecting the neuropathic component at all. In combination, there was complete relief of the total chronic pain condition. There appeared to be no overlapping or synergistic effect between the two neuromodulation systems in the patient. The patient has had prolonged complete relief from his chronic pain condition with the combined neuromodulation intervention over 22 years of follow-up. PMID:23682344

Chodakiewitz, Yosef G.; Bicalho, Geraldo V. C.; Chodakiewitz, Jacob W.

2013-01-01

139

The perception of lenis and fortis plosives in French. A critical re-evaluation.  

PubMed

This paper presents a re-evaluation of the data contained in two articles by W. van Dommelen published in Phonetica 40 (1983) and 42 (1985). It is argued that greater generalization is possible for lenis/fortis perception in French C1C2 stop-obstruent clusters. First of all, they follow single stops in that the extent of voicing in the whole cluster has the strongest cue value and that the release feature of C1 is also important; its absence results in less clearly defined response functions. This means, secondly, that stop-stop and stop-fricative sequences produce the same results when the characteristic plosive aspiration features are absent in the former and merged into the fricative in the latter. Thirdly, a fortis obstruent in second position heightens lenis perception in the preceding stop by auditory contrast, not by its phonological status. PMID:4095162

Kohler, K J

1985-01-01

140

First Report of Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Living Microtus fortis in Northeastern China.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite which imperils the health of almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. The objective of this study was to determine genetic characterization of T. gondii in free-living Microtus fortis (reed vole) in Jilin province, northeastern China. A total of 104 DNA samples, 74 from Gongzhuling and 30 from Baicheng, were extracted from lung tissues of M. fortis , and 56 (53.8%) of them were positive for T. gondii by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction of the B1 gene. These positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, BUTB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico. Four samples were successfully genotyped at all genetic loci and grouped to 2 distinct genotypes; 2 samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype no. 10 (Type I) and the other 2 presented ToxoDB Genotype no. 9 ( http://toxodb.org/toxo/ ); 4 samples were genotyped at 8 genetic loci, in which 2 samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype no. 10 and 2 presented ToxoDB Genotype no. 9. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii from free-living M. fortis in northeast China. The results suggest that the Type I and ToxoDB Genotype no. 9 could be a potential risk factor for transmission through the reed vole in this region. PMID:24684624

Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Ying-Guang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Quan

2014-10-01

141

Environmental Health Perspectives volume 118 | number 10 | October 2010 1355 Forty-five years after the World Health  

E-print Network

the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), carcinogenic exposures in the workplace remain a concern. Many known and suspected carcinogens are found in today's workplaces, and uncertainties about to E.M. Ward, Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, 250 Williams St

California at Berkeley, University of

142

Reform Under Attack--Forty Years of Working on Better Mathematics Education Thrown on the Scrapheap? No Way!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the reform of mathematics education in the Netherlands and the attacks that presently take place against this reform. The attacks concentrate on primary education and criticize in particular the program for teaching calculation skills with long division as a case in point. The paper gives an overview of what Realistic…

van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

2010-01-01

143

Forty Years Later--The Value of Praise, Ignoring, and Rules for Preschoolers at Risk for Behavior Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pivotal role of teachers in establishing positive, supportive, inclusive learning environments based on the implementation of empirically-supported teaching strategies (IDEA, 1997, 2004: NCLB, 2002) is uncontestable. Nonetheless, it is not uncommon to find classrooms characterized by teacher reprimands for inappropriate behavior, coercive…

Hester, Peggy P.; Hendrickson, Jo M.; Gable, Robert A.

2009-01-01

144

A Forty-Year Retrospective 1950-1990: The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority's Conservation Education Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the growth of Conservation Authorities in Ontario from the first partnerships between schools and conservation in the 1950s, to the opening of a pioneer village, flood control dam, nature trails, and residential conservation education centers through the 1960s and 1970s. Increased public environmental concern sparked more growth in the…

Carr, Allen Terry

1996-01-01

145

Forty Years of Introductory Psychology: An Analysis of the First 10 Editions of Hilgard et al.'s Textbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes 10 editions of an introductory college psychology textbook to determine changes in the content. Reveals that coverage of consciousness, personality, abnormal (disorders), therapies, and social psychology increased, while coverage of introductory material, learning, methods, intelligence, developmental psychology, and applied psychology…

Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.

1996-01-01

146

Forty-two years of succession following strip clearcutting in a northern hardwoods forest in northwestern Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of strip width, slope position, and soil scarification in a split–split plot design on the regeneration of northern hardwoods in northwestern Massachusetts. Whole plots of 20 and 40m in width were cut in 1954 in a second growth forest dominated by Betula papyrifera. Slope position and soil scarification were the split and split–split plot treatments, respectively.

Taber D. Allison; Henry W. Art; Frank E. Cunningham; Rebecca Teed

2003-01-01

147

Flexible weighing of olfactory and vector information in the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis.  

PubMed

Desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, are equipped with remarkable skills that enable them to navigate efficiently. When travelling between the nest and a previously visited feeding site, they perform path integration (PI), but pinpoint the nest or feeder by following odour plumes. Homing ants respond to nest plumes only when the path integrator indicates that they are near home. This is crucial, as homing ants often pass through plumes emanating from foreign nests and do not discriminate between the plume of their own and that of a foreign nest, but should absolutely avoid entering a wrong nest. Their behaviour towards food odours differs greatly. Here, we show that in ants on the way to food, olfactory information outweighs PI information. Although PI guides ants back to a learned feeder, the ants respond to food odours independently of whether or not they are close to the learned feeding site. This ability is beneficial, as new food sources-unlike foreign nests-never pose a threat but enable ants to shorten distances travelled while foraging. While it has been shown that navigating C. fortis ants rely strongly on PI, we report here that the ants retained the necessary flexibility in the use of PI. PMID:23594568

Buehlmann, Cornelia; Hansson, Bill S; Knaden, Markus

2013-06-23

148

Flexible weighing of olfactory and vector information in the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis  

PubMed Central

Desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, are equipped with remarkable skills that enable them to navigate efficiently. When travelling between the nest and a previously visited feeding site, they perform path integration (PI), but pinpoint the nest or feeder by following odour plumes. Homing ants respond to nest plumes only when the path integrator indicates that they are near home. This is crucial, as homing ants often pass through plumes emanating from foreign nests and do not discriminate between the plume of their own and that of a foreign nest, but should absolutely avoid entering a wrong nest. Their behaviour towards food odours differs greatly. Here, we show that in ants on the way to food, olfactory information outweighs PI information. Although PI guides ants back to a learned feeder, the ants respond to food odours independently of whether or not they are close to the learned feeding site. This ability is beneficial, as new food sources—unlike foreign nests—never pose a threat but enable ants to shorten distances travelled while foraging. While it has been shown that navigating C. fortis ants rely strongly on PI, we report here that the ants retained the necessary flexibility in the use of PI. PMID:23594568

Buehlmann, Cornelia; Hansson, Bill S.; Knaden, Markus

2013-01-01

149

9.2, 9.5, 9.? Received 24 November 1969 The Lenis-Fortis Opposition: Its Physiological Parameters*  

E-print Network

9.2, 9.5, 9.? Received 24 November 1969 The Lenis-Fortis Opposition: Its Physiological Parameters "lenis."Theseworkershaveerroneouslyassumedthat this oppositionis exclusivelya questionof amountof.This agreeswith the resultsof the electro- myographicstudiesof musclepotentialscitedabove.5 #12;LENIS

Allen, Jont

150

The first nest records of the sooty antbird (Myrmeciza fortis) with notes on eggs and nestling development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two Myrmeciza fortis nests were discovered in a lowland floodplain forest of Manu National Park, Peru. Both nests were embedded in leaf litter on the ground and were oven-shaped with a an entrance and an inner chamber concealing two eggs. Unlike the known nests of other Myrmeciza spp., the nests of Myrmeciza fortis closely resembled nests of other species in the Thamnophilidae. This discovery suggests that the genus Myrmeciza is polyphyletic

Wilkinson, F.A.; Smith, U.R.

1997-01-01

151

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

152

Pinpointing food sources: olfactory and anemotactic orientation in desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis.  

PubMed

Desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, search for a repeatedly visited food source by employing a combined olfactory and anemotactic orientation strategy (in addition to their visually based path-integration scheme). This behaviour was investigated by video-tracking consecutive foraging trips of individually marked ants under a variety of experimental conditions, including manipulations of the olfactory and wind-detecting systems of the ants. If the wind blows from a constant direction, ants familiar with the feeding site follow outbound paths that lead them into an area 0.5-2.5 m downwind of the feeding station. Here, the ants apparently pick up odour plumes emanating from the food source and follow these by steering an upwind course until they reach the feeder. If the food is removed, foragers usually concentrate their search movements within the area downwind of the feeding site. Only when the wind happens to subside or when tail-wind conditions prevail do the ants steer direct courses towards the food. Elimination of olfactory input by clipping the antennal flagella, or of wind perception by immobilising the bases of the antennae, altered the foraging behaviour of the ants in ways that supported these interpretations. Ants with clipped flagella were never observed to collect food items. PMID:10667968

Wolf, H; Wehner, R

2000-03-01

153

Telecytology in East Africa: a feasibility study of forty cases using a static imaging system.  

PubMed

We conducted a pilot study to assess the feasibility of telecytology as a diagnostic tool in difficult cases originating from a hospital in East Africa. Forty cytology cases considered difficult by a referring pathologist were posted on a telepathology website. Six pathologists independently assessed the static images. Telecytology diagnoses were compared with the consensus diagnoses made on glass slides and also with the histogical diagnoses when available. The diagnostic agreement of the six pathologists was 71-93% and tended to be higher for pathologists with more experience. Reasons for discordance included poor image quality, presence of diagnostic cells in thick areas of smears, sampling bias and screening errors. The consensus diagnoses agreed with histological diagnoses in all 17 cases in which a biopsy was performed. Diagnostic accuracy rates (i.e. telecytology diagnosis vs. histological diagnosis) for individual pathologists were 65-88%. To ensure diagnostic accuracy both referring and consulting pathologists must have adequate training in cytology, image acquisition and image-based diagnosis and the diagnostic questions of importance must be clearly communicated by the referring pathologist when posting a case. PMID:22052967

Kumar, Neeta; Busarla, Satya Vara Prasad; Sayed, Shahin; Kirimi, Jesca Muthoni; Okiro, Patricia; Gakinya, Samuel Mukono; Moloo, Zahir; Sohani, Aliyah R

2012-01-01

154

Opportunities for Scholars Academic Year 20142015  

E-print Network

, the history of Europe (medieval, early modern, and modern), the Islamic world, East Asian studies, art history. Cone Membership in Music Studies. Each year the School welcomes approximately forty Members. Most

155

"Fortis/Lenis" Revisited One More Time: The Aerodynamics of Some Oral Stop Contrasts in Three Continents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The terms "fortis" and "lenis" are variously regarded as having one single underlying phonetic correlate or many. An exploratory analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic data on contrasting stop series in a number of European and non-European languages confirms that a significant variation in peak intra-oral pressure and in articulatory stricture…

Butcher, Andrew

2004-01-01

156

A Brief History of Cannon Music Camp This summer, Cannon Music Camp completed its forty-fifth session on the  

E-print Network

. The new summer music program was named Cannon Music Camp, in memory of Mrs. Ruth Cannon and in honor of Mr A Brief History of Cannon Music Camp This summer, Cannon Music Camp completed its forty of the most prestigious summer music programs in the United States and has made a particularly positive

Thaxton, Christopher S.

157

Growth responses of Microcystis ichthyoblabe Kützing and Anabaena aphanizomenoides Forti (cyanobacteria) under different nitrogen and phosphorus conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments in batch cultures under controlled sub-optimal light and temperature conditions were undertaken to determine the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and N:P ratios on the growth of Microcystis ichthyoblabe Kütz. 1843 and Anabaena aphanizomenoides Forti 1912, two toxic cyanobacteria forming blooms from Oued Mellah lake. Phosphorus experiments show that densities of M. ichthyoblabe and A. aphanizomenoides increased differently in the

Brahim Sabour; Mohammed Loudiki; Vitor Vasconcelos

2009-01-01

158

Recent increase of breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the Geneva Cancer Registry, we found that in 2002–2004, breast cancer incidence in women aged 25–39 years increased by 46.7% per year (95% CI: 7.1–74.0, P=0.015), which surveillance or detection bias may not fully explain.

C Bouchardy; G Fioretta; H M Verkooijen; G Vlastos; P Schaefer; J-F Delaloye; I Neyroud-Caspar; S Balmer Majno; Y Wespi; M Forni; P Chappuis; A-P Sappino; E Rapiti

2007-01-01

159

Runners in their forties dominate ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated performance trends and the age of peak running speed in ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles. METHODS: The running speed and age of the fastest competitors in 50-, 100-, 200-, 1,000- and 3,100-mile events held worldwide from 1971 to 2012 were analyzed using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: The number of events and competitors increased exponentially in 50- and 100-mile events. For the annual fastest runners, women improved in 50-mile events, but not men. In 100-mile events, both women and men improved their performance. In 1,000-mile events, men became slower. For the annual top ten runners, women improved in 50- and 100-mile events, whereas the performance of men remained unchanged in 50- and 3,100-mile events but improved in 100-mile events. The age of the annual fastest runners was approximately 35 years for both women and men in 50-mile events and approximately 35 years for women in 100-mile events. For men, the age of the annual fastest runners in 100-mile events was higher at 38 years. For the annual fastest runners of 1,000-mile events, the women were approximately 43 years of age, whereas for men, the age increased to 48 years of age. For the annual fastest runners of 3,100-mile events, the age in women decreased to 35 years and was approximately 39 years in men. CONCLUSION: The running speed of the fastest competitors increased for both women and men in 100-mile events but only for women in 50-mile events. The age of peak running speed increased in men with increasing race distance to approximately 45 years in 1,000-mile events, whereas it decreased to approximately 39 years in 3,100-mile events. In women, the upper age of peak running speed increased to approximately 51 years in 3,100-mile events. PMID:24626948

Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rust, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

2014-01-01

160

Forty-one Cervicofacial Vascular Anomalies and Their Surgical Treatment - Retrospection and Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Haemangiomas in children usually involute spontaneously and surgical treatment is exceptional. Vascular malformations do not regress spontaneously and resection may become necessary. We present a series of surgically treated face and neck vascular anomalies during a 9-year period, assessing the epidemiology, presenting signs and symptoms, diagnostic modalities, indications for surgery, treatment methods and clinical outcome post-treatment. Materials and Methods:

Colin Song

2008-01-01

161

gem 11/Ihe ~1I1IIaill! Volume Forty-Thre..... 1945  

E-print Network

they have died; and it is up to us, the living, to prove to them. the dead. that the ghostly taps which came to them was not a hollow tune that must be played again in years to come. #12;r1NSTILLED in Idaho hearts

O'Laughlin, Jay

162

Fatty acid profiles from forty-nine plant species that are potential new sources of ?-linolenic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-nine plant species from Spain, belonging to the Boraginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Onagraceae, and Ranunculaceae families,\\u000a were surveyed in a search of new sources of ?-linolenic acid (18?3?6, GLA). Fatty acid profiles from seeds, stems, roots,\\u000a flowers and leaves were determined. GLA was detected mainly in seed and root tissues. High GLA amounts were found in seeds\\u000a of Boraginaceae species, with a

J. L. Guil-Guerrero; F. F. García Maroto; A. Giménez Giménez

2001-01-01

163

PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS IN THE MID-FORTIES PREDICT WOMEN'S SMOKING CESSATION IN THEIR MID-SIXTIES  

PubMed Central

Summary This study examined whether personality characteristics measured when a woman is in her mid 40s can predict success in sustained smoking cessation 22 years later, i.e. when the woman is in her mid 60s. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted on data from a sample of 195 women (mean ages 43 and 65, respectively), who were regular smokers and participated in a longitudinal study from 1983 to 2009. The results suggest that women who exhibited low self-control, high resistance to rules, impulsivity, and sensation seeking in their mid 40s were significantly less likely to succeed in quitting smoking, for a period of 5 years or more, when they reached their mid 60s. Addressing some personal characteristics in smoking cessation programs might enhance their effectiveness and success. PMID:24693821

Brook, J. S.; Zhang, C.; Balka, E. B.; Seltzer, N.; Brook, D. W.

2013-01-01

164

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

165

Fertility and sexual life of men after their forties and in older age.  

PubMed

Owing to the demographic development, the aging male will require more consideration in future. In contrast to a rapid decline of estradiol during menopause in women, the process of aging in the male is retarded and subject to high individual variations. Impairment of spermatogenesis is observed as a continuous process occurring over decades. However, only about 50 % of men in their eighties show complete loss of fertility. In principle, spermatogenesis may be retained well into senescence. Of importance for the individual health condition is the fact that the number of Leydig cells declines with advancing age. Thus, altered sex hormone concentrations in aging men result from both functional disturbances and a gradual reduction in Leydig cells. Furthermore, an impaired feed-back mechanism of the pituitary-gonadal axis occurs, with disappearance of the circadian testosterone (T) rhythm. LH and FSH levels are increased, and a reduced bioavailability of sex hormones is observed. Lower total testosterone concentrations in men over 60 years are accompanied by clinical signs of reduced virility, such as decreased muscle mass and strength as well as reduced sexual hair growth and libido. An age-related decline in androgen secretion and plasma testosterone levels therefore suggests the use of androgen supplementation. However, there is a lack of risk-benefit long-term studies. Increased research in the male is mandatory to meet the requirements of the aging population. This should include the availability of precise epidemiological data about the frequency of partial androgen deficiency in aging males (PADAM). PMID:11250787

Schill, W B

2001-03-01

166

Beam test results of FORTIS, a 4T MAPS sensor with a signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 100  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have tested the first 4T Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) for particle physics, FORTIS in a beam test. We have measured a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 100 for MIPs due to the excellent noise performance of the 4T architecture. Two versions of the sensor were tested; with and without deep P-well areas in-pixel. The deep P-well areas allow the incorporation of PMOS transistors inside the pixels without signal charge loss. The measured position resolutions were around 2 ?m.

Velthuis, J. J.; Cussans, D.; Goldstein, J.; Page, R.; Wilson, J. A.; Worm, S. D.; Coath, R. E.; Crooks, J. P.; Dauncey, P. D.; Gao, R.; Head, R.; Miller, O. D.; Nash, S.; Nomerotski, A.; Price, T.; Rajovic, V.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Watson, N. K.; Zhang, Z.

2011-12-01

167

'Fortis/lenis' revisited one more time: the aerodynamics of some oral stop contrasts in three continents.  

PubMed

The terms fortis and lenis are variously regarded as having one single underlying phonetic correlate or many. An exploratory analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic data on contrasting stop series in a number of European and non-European languages confirms that a significant variation in peak intra-oral pressure and in articulatory stricture duration are two of the main factors differentiating these series. Two central questions are: (1) Is the contrast in peak pressure controlled by lung volume decrement or by the degree of glottal aperture? (2) Is the gesture for the lenis sound a truncated or a re-scaled version of the gesture for the fortis sound? A more detailed examination of the data from the non-European languages suggests that glottal aperture, rather than respiratory effort is the main physiological parameter underlying the pressure variation, and that each member of the opposition has a specific target peak pressure, rather than the lenis peak pressure being truncated by the early release of the articulatory closure. PMID:15573490

Butcher, Andrew

2004-01-01

168

The International Student Question: 45 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the publication of Dremuk's article 45 years ago, the landscape of international educational exchange has changed significantly. Some of the most notable trends distinguishing the past from the present are highlighted. Forty-five years ago, Dremuk's article emphasized the importance of institutional commitment to international educational…

Aw, Fanta

2012-01-01

169

Forty Years of Excellence and Beyond. Proceedings of the Annual North East Association for Institutional Research (NEAIR) Conference (40th, Newport, Rhode Island, November 9-12, 2013)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The NEAIR 2013 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Newport, Rhode Island, conference. Papers in this document include: (1) Aspiring to the Role of "Data Badass:" Some Thoughts on the Political Context of IR (Mark Freeman); (2) Data-Driven Internal Benchmarks and Successful Learning Outcomes (Mamta Saxena…

Parker, Tiffany, Ed.

2013-01-01

170

The IUCN International Red List of Threatened Species, conceived more than forty years ago, has been an essential tool for international species conservation. Traditionally,  

E-print Network

www.stateofthesalmon.org SSG Workflow Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) illustration by Kate for members of the genera Oncorhynchus and Hucho. To do so, we are relying in large part on new data presented the range of seven species of anadromous Oncorhynchus--and therefore offers us the first opportunity

Gross, Mart

171

Forty years of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22 December 2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 22 December 2010, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), devoted to the 40th anniversary of the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, was held at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS in Troitsk. The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Matveev V A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Introductory word"; (2) Gavrin V N (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Contribution of the SAGE results to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics"; (3) Domogatsky G V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Baikal neutrino experiment"; (4) Tkachev I I (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Observation of the Greisen - Zatsepin - Kuz'min effect at the Telescope Array Observatory"; (5) Kudenko Yu G (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Neutrino T2K experiment: the first results"; (6) Sadykov R A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Fields of study of condensed media at the neutron facility at the INR, RAS"; (7) Zhuikov B L (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Production of isotopes at the INR, RAS: reality and prospects".The papers written on the base of reports 1-5 and 7 are published below. In addition, the paper "High-power diode-pumped alkali lasers" by A M Shalagin is published. The paper is based on the report presented at the scientific session of the General Assembly of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS (13 December 2010) devoted to the 50th anniversary of the laser, the main materials of the session having been published in Usp. Fiz. Nauk 181 (8) 867 (2011) [Phys. Usp. 54 837 (2011)]. • Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences turns 40, V A Matveev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 939-940 • The Russian-American gallium experiment SAGE, V N Gavrin Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 941-949 • BAIKAL neutrino experiment, G V Domogatsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 949-954 • Telescope Array Observatory observations of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect, I I Tkachev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 954-961 • T2K neutrino experiment: first results, Yu G Kudenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 961-968 • Isotope production at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences: current status and prospects, B L Zhuikov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 968-974

2011-09-01

172

Forty Years of Movie Hacking: Considering the Potential Implications of the Popular Media Representation of Computer Hackers from 1968 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly movies are being produced which feature plots that incorporate elements of computer security and hacking, and cumulatively these movies are creating a public perception as to the nature of computer security. This research examines movies that feature hackers (and hacking) to identify if any common themes emerge from these movies in their representation of these issues. To achieve this,

Damian Gordon

2010-01-01

173

The Prognostic Value of Age and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Levels in Women over Forty Years of Age Undergoing In Vitro Fertilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and ageare predictors of successful outcome in in vitro fertilization(IVF). More recently, the clomiphene citrate challenge test(CCCT) has been proposed as a better way to predict IVFoutcome than FSH alone. The purpose of this study was todetermine which indicator of ovarian reserve—basal(day 3) FSH or the CCCT—is the better predictor of IVF successin the critical

Andrew H. Watt; Anna T. R. Legedza; Elizabeth S. Ginsburg; Robert L. Barbieri; Robert N. Clarke; Mark D. Hornstein

2000-01-01

174

Dwarf Novae in the OGLE Data. II. Forty New Dwarf Novae in the OGLE-III Galactic Disk Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of forty erupting cataclysmic variable stars in the OGLE-III Galactic disk fields: seventeen objects of U Gem type, four of Z Cam type, and nineteen stars showing outbursts and superoutbursts typical for SU UMa type dwarf novae. In the case of five stars we were able to estimate their supercycle lengths. The obtained lengths are in the range of 20-90 d, generally between the typical SU UMa type variables and a few objects classified as the ER UMa type variables. Since there is no significant difference between the two types but a higher mass-transfer rate resulting in more frequent outbursts and superoutbursts in the ER UMa type stars, we propose to discard this type as a separate class of variables. We note that in one of the SU UMa type stars, OGLE-GD-DN-039, we found a negative supercycle period change, in contrast to other active systems of this type. Two of the new OGLE objects showed long-duration WZ Sge-like superoutbursts followed by a sequence of echo outbursts. All stars reported in this paper are part of the OGLE-III Catalog of Variable Stars.

Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Poleski, R.; Udalski, A.; Soszy?ski, I.; Szyma?ski, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzy?ski, G.; Wyrzykowski, ?.; Ulaczyk, K.; Koz?owski, S.; Skowron, J.

2013-06-01

175

The Bromotyrosine Derivative Ianthelline Isolated from the Arctic Marine Sponge Stryphnus fortis Inhibits Marine Micro- and Macrobiofouling.  

PubMed

The inhibition of marine biofouling by the bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline, isolated from the Arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis, is described. All major stages of the fouling process are investigated. The effect of ianthelline on adhesion and growth of marine bacteria and microalgae is tested to investigate its influence on the initial microfouling process comparing with the known marine antifoulant barettin as a reference. Macrofouling is studied via barnacle (Balanus improvisus) settlement assays and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) phenoloxidase inhibition. Ianthelline is shown to inhibit both marine micro- and macrofoulers with a pronounced effect on marine bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 0.1-10 ?g/mL) and barnacle larval settlement (IC50?=?3.0 ?g/mL). Moderate effects are recorded on M. edulis (IC50?=?45.2 ?g/mL) and microalgae, where growth is more affected than surface adhesion. The effect of ianthelline is also investigated against human pathogenic bacteria. Ianthelline displayed low micromolar MIC values against several bacterial strains, both Gram positive and Gram negative, down to 2.5 ?g/mL. In summary, the effect of ianthelline on 20 different representative marine antifouling organisms and seven human pathogenic bacterial strains is presented. PMID:25051957

Hanssen, Kine O; Cervin, Gunnar; Trepos, Rozenn; Petitbois, Julie; Haug, Tor; Hansen, Espen; Andersen, Jeanette H; Pavia, Henrik; Hellio, Claire; Svenson, Johan

2014-12-01

176

Forty Years Since the End of the White Primary, Thirty Years Since the Brown Decision, Twenty Years Since the Passage of the Civil Rights Act. 40th Anniversary Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the progress that has been made since three landmarks in blacks' struggle for equal treatment in the United States. Despite the 1944 case of Smith vs. Allwright, in which the Supreme Court decided that the Texas White Primary was unconstitutional, growing evasion and resistance by whites limited gains in black enfranchisement…

Manderson, Marge

177

Dietro l'etichetta responsabilità sociale dell'impresa: i forti contrasti e le differenze tra iniziative a livello internazionale, europeo, nazionale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietro l'etichetta responsabilità sociale dell'impresa: i forti contrasti e le differenze tra iniziative a livello internazionale, europeo, nazionale (di Vittorio Capecchi) - ABSTRACT: The concept of Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is analysed inside the neoliberalism model and the social, economic and political alternatives to this model. The most important international and European CSR actions analysed in this paper are: The

Vittorio Capecchi

2003-01-01

178

Animism Begins at Forty: Evidence That Animism and Other Naïve Beliefs are Established Before the Onset of Old Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animism (erroneously believing inanimate objects are alive) is present in older adults (McDonald & Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). However, it is unclear if animism arises in later life or middle age. The current study tested 34 middle-aged adults (mean age 48 years) on Piaget's animism task and found a significant level of animism. Strength of animism significantly correlated with need for cognition

Robert Parry; Ian Stuart-Hamilton

2010-01-01

179

Academic Plan Freshman Year Sophomore Year Junior Year Senior Year  

E-print Network

Academic Plan Freshman Year Sophomore Year Junior Year Senior Year Fall Fall Fall Fall ` Spring. Engineering Distribution (2) 8. Approved (free) electives. (2) 9. Indicate technical writing course. II. Refer

Van Loan, Charles F.

180

Full Inclusion Preschool Project: Year One Research Outcomes Brief Report, 2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Full Inclusion Preschool Project (FIPP) was a collaborative, county/state funded grant that included: four non-subsidized preschools, seven school districts and university support. The four-year FIPP grant fully included a total of forty-five students with disabilities, two to five years of age, over a three year period. The preschools…

Weiner, Jan S.

2006-01-01

181

FORTY-EIGHTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT  

E-print Network

light on income inequality in the United States. And that light has catalyzed an intense national conversation, one that has pushed into relief at least one uncontested fact: Income inequality in the U, among these countries, the U.S. has the highest level of income inequality. The Graduate Center The City

Dennehy, John

182

FORTY-FIFTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT  

E-print Network

; Slavery and Freedom: An Interpretation of the Old South; and The Radical and the Republican: Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, and the Triumph of Antislavery Politics. In 2008, the latter received

Dennehy, John

183

FORTY-FOURTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT  

E-print Network

Emerson. In doing so I run a considerable risk: citing Emerson in a commencement address is like quoting is so conventional to refer to Emerson in a commencement address," Collins writes, "that you get

Dennehy, John

184

Brown at Forty: Six Visions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" called the United States to a new level of moral consciousness. Current efforts to denigrate "Brown" as a failure overlook its effect as a social catalyst for movement toward equality. Six visions of "Brown" examine its contemporary meaning (triumph, aspiration, catalyst, failure, challenge, and…

Neuborne, Burt

1995-01-01

185

Dragon Year  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Can you believe it? It's New Year again. It seems like only yesterday we were celebrating the advent of the year of the Rabbit and now, here it is, the year of the Dragon. January 22nd is New Year's Eve according to the Lunar...

Hacker, Randi

2012-01-11

186

The head of the finch: the anatomy of the feeding system in two species of finches (Geospiza fortis and Padda oryzivora)  

PubMed Central

Despite the large number of studies devoted to the evolution of beak shape in Darwin's finches, surprisingly little is known about the morphology of the skull and jaw musculature in these birds. Moreover, it remains currently unclear whether Darwin's finches are unusual in their cranial morphology compared with other seed-cracking birds. Here, we provide a detailed description of the morphology of the cranial system in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) and compare it with that of another seed-cracking bird of similar overall size and appearance, the Java finch (Padda oryzivora). Our data show an overall similarity in beak size and cranial morphology. Yet, differences in the jaw adductor size and corresponding attachments to the cranium and mandible are prominent, with the medium ground finch having much more robust jaw-closing muscles. This is reflected in differences in bite forces, with the medium ground finch biting much harder than the Java finch. These data suggest similarities in the evolution of the feeding system in birds specializing in the cracking of hard seeds, but also show the uniqueness of the cranial morphology and bite force of the medium ground finch compared with other seed-cracking birds. PMID:21999913

Genbrugge, Annelies; Herrel, Anthony; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Podos, Jeffrey; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Dominique, Adriaens

2011-01-01

187

Laser patterning of platinum electrodes for safe neurostimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Laser surface modification of platinum (Pt) electrodes was investigated for use in neuroprosthetics. Surface modification was applied to increase the surface area of the electrode and improve its ability to transfer charge within safe electrochemical stimulation limits. Approach. Electrode arrays were laser micromachined to produce Pt electrodes with smooth surfaces, which were then modified with four laser patterning techniques to produce surface structures which were nanosecond patterned, square profile, triangular profile and roughened on the micron scale through structured laser interference patterning (SLIP). Improvements in charge transfer were shown through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biphasic stimulation at clinically relevant levels. A new method was investigated and validated which enabled the assessment of in vivo electrochemically safe charge injection limits. Main results. All of the modified surfaces provided electrical advantage over the smooth Pt. The SLIP surface provided the greatest benefit both in vitro and in vivo, and this surface was the only type which had injection limits above the threshold for neural stimulation, at a level shown to produce a response in the feline visual cortex when using an electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of the eye. This surface was found to be stable when stimulated with more than 150 million clinically relevant pulses in physiological saline. Significance. Critical to the assessment of implant devices is accurate determination of safe usage limits in an in vivo environment. Laser patterning, in particular SLIP, is a superior technique for improving the performance of implant electrodes without altering the interfacial electrode chemistry through coating. Future work will require chronic in vivo assessment of these electrode patterns.

Green, R. A.; Matteucci, P. B.; Dodds, C. W. D.; Palmer, J.; Dueck, W. F.; Hassarati, R. T.; Byrnes-Preston, P. J.; Lovell, N. H.; Suaning, G. J.

2014-10-01

188

Creating the feedback loop: closed-loop neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Current DBS therapy delivers a train of electrical pulses at set stimulation parameters. This open-loop design is effective for movement disorders, but therapy may be further optimized by a closed loop design. The technology to record biosignals has outpaced our understanding of their relationship to the clinical state of the whole person. Neuronal oscillations may represent or facilitate the cooperative functioning of brain ensembles, and may provide critical information to customize neuromodulation therapy. This review addresses advances to date, not of the technology per se, but of the strategies to apply neuronal signals to trigger or modulate stimulation systems. PMID:24262909

Hebb, Adam O; Zhang, Jun Jason; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Tsiokos, Christos; Matlack, Charles; Chizeck, Howard Jay; Pouratian, Nader

2014-01-01

189

Development and Implantation of a Minimally Invasive Wireless Subretinal Neurostimulator  

E-print Network

A wirelessly operated, minimally invasive retinal prosthesis was developed for preclinical chronic implantation studies in Yucatan minipig models. The implant conforms to the outer wall of the eye and drives a microfabricated ...

Theogarajan, Luke

190

A Neurostimulator Design for Long-term Animal Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a neural prosthesis stimulation system for long-term use in animal electrical stimulation experiments. The presented system consists of an implantable stimulator which provides continuous electrical stimulation, and an external component which provides preset stimulation parameters and power to the implanted stimulator via a paired RF (radio frequency) coil. A rechargeable internal battery and a parameter memory

Jingai Zhou; Se Joon Woo; Se Ik Park; Seung Woo Lee; Hum Chung; Sung June Kim

2007-01-01

191

Laser patterning of platinum electrodes for safe neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Objective. Laser surface modification of platinum (Pt) electrodes was investigated for use in neuroprosthetics. Surface modification was applied to increase the surface area of the electrode and improve its ability to transfer charge within safe electrochemical stimulation limits. Approach. Electrode arrays were laser micromachined to produce Pt electrodes with smooth surfaces, which were then modified with four laser patterning techniques to produce surface structures which were nanosecond patterned, square profile, triangular profile and roughened on the micron scale through structured laser interference patterning (SLIP). Improvements in charge transfer were shown through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biphasic stimulation at clinically relevant levels. A new method was investigated and validated which enabled the assessment of in vivo electrochemically safe charge injection limits. Main results. All of the modified surfaces provided electrical advantage over the smooth Pt. The SLIP surface provided the greatest benefit both in vitro and in vivo, and this surface was the only type which had injection limits above the threshold for neural stimulation, at a level shown to produce a response in the feline visual cortex when using an electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of the eye. This surface was found to be stable when stimulated with more than 150 million clinically relevant pulses in physiological saline. Significance. Critical to the assessment of implant devices is accurate determination of safe usage limits in an in vivo environment. Laser patterning, in particular SLIP, is a superior technique for improving the performance of implant electrodes without altering the interfacial electrode chemistry through coating. Future work will require chronic in vivo assessment of these electrode patterns. PMID:25188649

Green, R A; Matteucci, P B; Dodds, C W D; Palmer, J; Dueck, W F; Hassarati, R T; Byrnes-Preston, P J; Lovell, N H; Suaning, G J

2014-10-01

192

Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.  

E-print Network

of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

Olsen, Paul E.

193

Hematozoa of hatch-year common mergansers from Michigan.  

PubMed

Fifty-five hatch-year common mergansers (Mergus merganser) were sampled for hematozoa from Douglas Lake (Michigan, USA) on 17 July 1995. Forty-one (75%) were infected with hematozoa. Haemoproteus greineri and Leucocytozoon simondi were common, infecting 28 (51%) and 26 (47%) common mergansers, respectively. Plasmodium circumflexum infected two (4%) birds. The common merganser is a new host record for H. greineri and P. circumflexum. Intensity data indicate possible negative interspecific interaction between H. greineri and L. simondi. PMID:11310899

DeJong, R J; Reimink, R L; Blankespoor, H D

2001-04-01

194

Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of Vietnam, with the description of forty-two new species and three new genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract The species of seventeen genera of Agathidinae (Braconidae) from Vietnam are revised: Agathis Latreille, 1804, Bassus Fabricius, 1804; Biroia Szépligeti, 1900; Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894; Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920; Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892; Coronagathis gen. n. (type species: Coronagathis cornifera sp. n.); Cremnops Foerster, 1862; Disophrys Foerster, 1862; Earinus Wesmael, 1837; Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900; Gyragathis gen. n. (type species: Gyragathis quyi sp. n.), Gyrochus Enderlein, 1920; Lytopylus Foerster, 1862; Therophilus Wesmael, 1837; Troticus Brullé, 1846, and Zelodia gen. n. (type species: Zelomorpha varipes van Achterberg & Maetô, 1990). Keys to the Vietnamese species are given. Sixty-five species are recognised, of which twelve species are newly recorded for Vietnam: Bassus albifasciatus (Watanabe, 1934), Coccygidium angostura (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), Cremnops atricornis (Smith, 1874), stat. n., Disophrys erythrocephala Cameron, 1900, Gyrochus yunnanensis Wang, 1984, Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus festivus (Muesebeck, 1953), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lienhuachihensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus marshi (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia absoluta (Chen & Yang, 1998), comb. n. and Zelodia longidorsata (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n. Forty-two species are new to science: Agathis citrinisoma sp. n., Bassus albobasalis sp. n., Bassus albozonatus sp. n., Biroia soror sp. n., Braunsia bicolorata sp. n., Braunsia devriesi sp. n., Braunsia maculifera sp. n., Braunsia nigrapiculata sp. n., Braunsia pumatica sp. n., Camptothlipsis hanoiensis sp. n., Coronagathis cornifera sp. n., Earinus aurantius sp. n., Earinus brevistigmus sp. n., Euagathis flavosoma sp. n., Disophrys maculifera sp. n., Disophrys quymanhi sp. n., Disophrys rhinoides sp. n., Gyragathis quyi sp. n., Therophilus annuliferus sp. n., Therophilus cattienensis sp. n., Therophilus contrastus sp. n., Therophilus crenulisulcatus sp. n., Therophilus depressiferus sp. n., Therophilus elongator sp. n., Therophilus levisoma sp. n., Therophilus marucae sp. n., Therophilus mellisoma sp. n., Therophilus nigrolineatus sp. n., Therophilus nuichuaensis sp. n., Therophilus parasper sp. n., Therophilus planifrons sp. n., Therophilus punctiscutum sp. n., Therophilus robustus sp. n., Therophilus rugosiferus sp. n., Therophilus scutellatus sp. n., Troticus alloflavus sp. n., Troticus giganteus sp. n., Zelodia albobasalis sp. n., Zelodia anginota sp. n., Zelodia bicoloristigma sp. n., Zelodia brevifemoralis sp. n. and Zelodia flavistigma sp. n. The following new synonyms are proposed: Euagathis nigrithorax Bhat & Gupta, 1977, Euagathis variabilis Enderlein, 1920, Euagathis variabilis var. tibialis Enderlein, 1920, Euagathis variabilis var. melanopleura Enderlein, 1920 and Euagathis variabilis var. sucarandana Enderlein, 1920 with Euagathis abbotti (Ashmead, 1900); Euagathis jinshanensis Chen & Yang, 2006 and Euagathis sharkeyi Chen & Yang, 2006, with Euagathis forticarinata (Cameron, 1899). The genus Amputostypos Sharkey, 2009, is synonymised with Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892, syn. n. The following new combinations are given: Bassus subrasa (Enderlein, 1920), comb. n., Gyragathis angulosa (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus annulus (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus asper (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus cingulipes (Nees, 1812), comb. n., Therophilus daanyuanensis (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus fujianicus (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lanyuensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus luzonicus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus muesebecki (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus rudimentarius (Enderlein, 1920), comb. n., Therophilus similis (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus sungkangensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus tanycoleosus (Chen & Yang, 2006

van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang

2010-01-01

195

Past Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

Lodge, Oliver

2012-07-01

196

Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

Bugos, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

197

Dropped into the Deep End: A Study of Personal Journals in First-Year Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the lived experiences of first-year college students who kept personal and private journals in an English composition course. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the lived experiences of keeping those journals from the point-of-view of the journal writers themselves. Forty-eight students were involved…

Wester, Jason Michael

2012-01-01

198

The Effect of Priming on Referential Communication in Four Year Olds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in light of a neo-Piagetian theory of cognitive development to interpret the effect of priming executive schemes for describing relevant features in a referential communication task. Forty-eight 4-year-old children were divided into primed and nonprimed groups and were asked to describe in isolation a black and white…

Foorman, Barbara R.

199

RSV bronchiolitis and risk of wheeze and allergic sensitisation in the first year of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection has been hypothesised to be a risk factor for the development of allergy and asthma, but epidemiological studies in older children have been inconclusive. The current study hypothesises that the effect of RSV bronchiolitis might be most prominent during the first year after bronchiolitis. Forty-two infants had experienced RSV bronchiolitis severe enough to cause

U. Schauer; S. Hoffjan; J. Bittscheidt; A. Kochling; S. Hemmis; S. Bongartz; V. Stephan

2002-01-01

200

Alienation and First-Year Student Retention. Professional File. Number 116, Spring 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Summerskill's study on college attrition forty years ago, the interest in this topic has never waned. This study was particularly interested in the relationship of race to retention. Various theoretical frames of references have been proposed: Price's organization theory, Durkheim's Suicide, and Marx's Alienation have been used to guide…

Liu, Richard

2010-01-01

201

Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Technical Workforce Training at Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the outcomes of a workshop held at the National Science Foundation on August 15-16, 2005. Forty-six participants, representing academia, industry, government agencies, professional associations, and special projects met to: (1) discuss how geospatial technology training at two-year colleges can address workforce needs; and…

National Council for Geographic Education (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

202

Requirements for Certification for Elementary Schools, Secondary Schools, Junior Colleges. Teachers, Counselors, Librarians, Administrators. Forty-seventh Edition, 1982-83.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year brings variations in the certification requirements of many states, and it is the purpose of this publication to bring these changes to the attention of teachers, administrators, librarians, counselors, and other school personnel. An alphabetical listing of the states provides information on certification requirements for all school…

Woellner, Elizabeth H.

203

The Economic Benefits of Reducing the Dropout Rate for Students of Color in the Nation's Forty-Five Largest Metropolitan Areas. Summary of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Years of data have consistently underscored the persistent graduation gap between America's students of color and their peers. The most recent estimate shows that high school graduation rates for African American, Latino, and American Indian students hover only slightly higher than 50 percent. This is more than 20 percentage points lower than that…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

204

M.Ranzini,M.C.Forti,P.G.Whitehead,F.C.S.Arcova, V.de CiccoandA.J.Wade Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11(1), 614622, 2007  

E-print Network

catchment in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo, Brazil M. Ranzini1,2 , M.C. Forti2,3 , P.G. Whitehead4 , F). The desire to conserve and manage the remainder of the Atlantic Forest in a sustainable way requires a better.C.S. Arcova1 , V. de Cicco1 and A.J. Wade4 1 Instituto Florestal, P.O.Box 1322, 01059-970, São Paulo, Brazil 2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Partnering To Build a Quality Workforce: Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges. A Report of the National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges (Washington, D.C., March 2-4, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges addressed critical issues relevant to environmental technology education in the United States. Forty-three participants from across the country who attended the 1995 Forum represented business and industry, two-year colleges, four-year colleges and…

Kabat, Ellen J.; Friedel, Janice Nahra; Senew, Mike

206

Physiological and Behavioral Regulation in Two-Year-Old Children with Aggressive\\/Destructive Behavior Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 99 two-year-old children was selected on the basis of parents' responses to two administrations of the Child Behavior Checklist for two- to three-year-olds. Forty-nine of these children displayed symptoms of aggressive\\/destructive (externalizing) problems that were in the borderline clinical range (labelled “high risk”) and 50 children displayed few such symptoms (“low risk”). The children were assessed in

Susan D. Calkins; Susan E. Dedmon

2000-01-01

207

The pace and distribution of health improvements during the last 40 years: some preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper juxtaposes changes over the last forty years in indicators of income growth and distribution with the mortality changes recorded at the aggregate level in about 170 countries and at the individual level in 21 countries with at least two Demographic and Health Surveys covering the last twenty years. Over the 1980s-and 1990s, the infant-mortality rate (IMR), under-5 mortality

Giovanni Andrea Cornia; Leonardo Menchini

2004-01-01

208

Faculty Board, Faculty of Arts & Science, Queen's University, Academic Year 2002 -03 http://www.queensu.ca/artsci/facstaff/facboard/2002-03_AcadYear/index.html[2010-05-18 4:15:24 PM  

E-print Network

. There were forty-three members and two guests present, and Mr. Nielsen was in the Chair. The Chair invited Ms indicated a slight change to the Agenda: Item 7 would be the Report of the Nominating Committee of the Department of Psychology for a two-year term beginning July 1, 2002; Gary Wagner was appointed as Director

Abolmaesumi, Purang

209

A 600-year tree-ring fire history from Norra Kvills National Park, southern Sweden: implications for conservation strategies in the hemiboreal zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fire history of Norra Kvills National Park in southeastern hemiboreal Sweden was reconstructed for the last 600 years by cross-dating of fire scars in trees, stumps and snags of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris). Between 1401 and 1770 forty different fires were recorded; fire frequency at point scale was 20 years, which is 3–4 times more frequent than in northern

Mats Niklasson; Börje Drakenberg

2001-01-01

210

Effect of spectacle use and accommodation on myopic progression: final results of a three-year randomised clinical trial among schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and forty mildly myopic schoolchildren aged 9-11 years were randomly allocated to three treatment groups and the progression of myopia was followed-up for three years. The treatment groups were: (1) minus lenses with full correction for continuous use (the reference group), (2) minus lenses with full correction to be used for distant vision only, and (3) bifocal lenses

O Pärssinen; E Hemminki; A Klemetti

1989-01-01

211

Heritage Language Learners in First-Year Foreign Language Courses: A Report of General Data across Learner Subtypes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a survey of language study motivations for first-year language learners at two large private East Coast American universities. Surveys were completed by 401 students in courses for 19 different foreign languages. Forty percent of respondents were designated as heritage language learners (HLLs), and they were divided into…

Reynolds, Rachel R.; Howard, Kathryn M.; Deak, Julia

2009-01-01

212

The integrated approach of yoga: a therapeutic tool for mentally retarded children: a one-year controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety children with mental retardation of mild, moderate and severe degree were selected from four special schools in Bangalore, India. Forty-five children underwent yogic training for one academic year (5h in every week) with an integrated set of yogic practices, including breathing exercises and pranayama, sithilikarana vyayama (loosening exercises), suryanamaskar, yogasanas and meditation. They were compared before and after yogic

K. UMA; H. R. Nagendra; R. NAGARATHNA; S. VAIDEHI; R. SEETHALAKSHMI

2008-01-01

213

A single center 14 years study of infectious complications leading to hospitalization of patients with primary antibody deficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, leading to hospitalizations. This study was performed to determine the main infectious causes of hospital admissions in selective Iranian patients with PADs. Forty patients with PADs, who were admitted to the Infectious Ward of Children's Medical Center Hospital during a 14-year

Setareh Mamishi; Aiden Nasiri Eghbali; Nima Rezaei; Hassan Abolhassani; Nima Parvaneh; Asghar Aghamohammadi

2010-01-01

214

"No Shoes; They Walked Away?": Effects of Enhancements on Learning and Using Blissymbols by Normal 3-Year-Old Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty 3-year-olds learned either 12 standard Blissymbols (SBS) or their enhanced forms (EBS). Results demonstrated that the subjects learned EBS faster than SBS, remembered more EBS than SBS, did not differ in the communicative use of SBS and EBS, and were affected more negatively when presented with the untrained SBS than EBS. (Author/JDD)

Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

1995-01-01

215

The impact of external cephalic version on the rate of vaginal and cesarean breech deliveries: a 3-year cumulative experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have reviewed the impact of their practice of external cephalic version (ECV) at term, with respect to success rate, factors associated with successful version and the effect of this protocol on the overall breech and cesarean breech rate. Two hundred and forty-nine parturients identified as having a breech presenting fetus after the 36th gestational week over a 3-year

A. Ben-Arie; S. Kogan; M. Schachter; Z. J. Hagay; V. Insler

1995-01-01

216

Intratentorial osteochondrolipoma in a 9-year-old boy.  

PubMed

Intracranial osteolipomas and chondromas are rare benign tumors. Forty-five chondromas, mostly supratentorial, have been reported in the literature since 1981, with origins most commonly in the sellar regions. Twenty-one osteolipomas have been described to date, usually located near the tuber cinereum or the corpus callosum. The authors present a case of an osteochondrolipoma arising from the tentorium diagnosed in a pediatric patient at the age of 9 years. The case and treatment are discussed, and a review of the literature is provided. PMID:19409017

Ahmadi, Sebastian A; van Landeghem, Frank K H; Blechschmidt, Cristiane; Lieber, Kerstin; Haberl, Ernst-Johannes; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

2009-05-01

217

[The "forty-nine" and "seventeen" problems].  

PubMed

The single most common age of murderers in Japan is 49. Individuals aged between 45 and 54 are, however, likely to commit not offences but suicides comparing with other generations. One factor behind this phenomenon is the trend toward company downsizing, which is thought to affect the mental attitude of workers. This trend is destroying the Japanese lifetime employment system and undermining worker's loyalty to the company. On the other hand, in the broader category of felony crimes (assault, burglary, arson, murder), offenders aged 17 are the most common in Japan. This is thought to be partly due to the effect of so-called "school collapse" (school system failure) on the mental attitude of students. "School collapse" implies dysfunction of educational practice as a result of chattering, bullying and violence in the classroom. It is the reflection of students' dissatisfaction with the group-oriented school system. Therefore, students are unable to find any purposes in school and exhibit aggressive behaviours. In terms of mental health for both middle-age and teenage generations, it is necessary to devise new strategies whereby people can break away from the pressure of loyalty to the group. For both "normal" and "disabled" workers, rights of recuperations, adequate unemployment benefits policy, and support system for occupational change should be established. Simultaneously, for both "normal" and "disabled" students, reform of the school system under the concepts of diversity of education, rights of selection, and rights of refusal is urgently necessary. With respect to forensic psychiatry, without the provision of social supports, labeling of conduct disorder as well as other disorders should be avoided. In particular, instead of introducing security hospitals, drastic improvements of medical reformatories and medical prisons are necessary to provide adequate medical and social supports for offenders with psychiatric disorders. PMID:14560634

Takaoka, Ken

2003-01-01

218

Forty Sixth Street Pilot Street Lighting Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Street lighting improvements provide an opportunity for governments to save money and to reduce their environmental footprint. New energy-efficient technologies are being perfected that are more efficient than standard high-pressure sodium streetlights. L...

D. Hirsch, R. Luckow

2013-01-01

219

Laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in children: 2–5-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis study aims to document the current status of a cohort of children who underwent laparoscopic fundoplication at a single centre between 1996 and 1998.MethodsParents were contacted and a questionnaire regarding preoperative and current symptoms completed. Case notes were reviewed for results of postoperative investigations.ResultsForty-five laparoscopic Nissen fundoplications were performed. The median age was 5 years. Twenty-eight children were neurologically impaired.

M. C. Bourne; C. Wheeldon; G. A. MacKinlay; F. D. Munro

2003-01-01

220

Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

2010-01-01

221

Recanalization of Acute and Subacute Femoropopliteal Artery Occlusions with the Rotarex Catheter: One Year Follow-up, Single Center Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of a new rotational catheter for percutaneous removal of fresh and organized thrombi in the femoropopliteal artery. Methods: Forty-one limbs in 38 patients (age 56–90 years, mean 75.6 years) with acute, subacute or chronic femoropopliteal occlusions of 1–180 days duration (mean 31.6 days) were treated with the Rotarex device. The Fontaine stage was

Sylvain R. Duc; Eric Schoch; Markus Pfyffer; Regula Jenelten; Christoph L. Zollikofer

2005-01-01

222

Cataclysmic Variables from SDSS II. The Second Year  

E-print Network

The first full year of operation following the commissioning year of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has revealed a wide variety of newly discovered cataclysmic variables. We show the SDSS spectra of forty-two cataclysmic variables observed in 2002, of which thirty-five are new classifications, four are known dwarf novae (CT Hya, RZ Leo, T Leo and BZ UMa), one is a known CV identified from a previous quasar survey (Aqr1) and two are known ROSAT or FIRST discovered CVs (RX J09445+0357, FIRST J102347.6+003841). The SDSS positions, colors and spectra of all forty-two systems are presented. In addition, the results of follow-up studies of several of these objects identify the orbital periods, velocity curves and polarization that provide the system geometry and accretion properties. While most of the SDSS discovered systems are faint (>18th mag) with low accretion rates (as implied from their spectral characteristics), there are also a few bright objects which may have escaped previous surveys due to changes in the mass transfer rate.

Paula Szkody; Oliver Fraser; Nicole Silvestri; Arne Henden; Scott F. Anderson; James Frith; Brandon Lawton; Ethan Owens; Sean Raymond; Gary Schmidt; Michael Wolfe; John Bochanski; Kevin Covey; Hugh Harris; Suzanne Hawley; Gillian R. Knapp; Bruce Margon; Wolfgang Voges; Lucianne Walkowicz; J. Brinkmann; D. Q. Lamb

2003-06-12

223

Electrical brain stimulation for epilepsy.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation enables adjustable and reversible modulation of disease symptoms, including those of epilepsy. Two types of brain neuromodulation, comprising anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation and responsive neurostimulation at seizure foci, are supported by Class I evidence of effectiveness, and many other sites in the brain have been targeted in small trials of neurostimulation therapy for seizures. Animal studies have mainly assisted in the identification of potential neurostimulation sites and parameters, but much of the clinical work is only loosely based on fundamental principles derived from the laboratory, and the mechanisms by which brain neurostimulation reduces seizures remain poorly understood. The benefits of stimulation tend to increase over time, with maximal effect seen typically 1-2 years after implantation. Typical reductions of seizure frequency are approximately 40% acutely, and 50-69% after several years. Seizure intensity might also be reduced. Complications from brain neurostimulation are mainly associated with the implantation procedure and hardware, including stimulation-related paraesthesias, stimulation-site infections, electrode mistargeting and, in some patients, triggered seizures or even status epilepticus. Further preclinical and clinical experience with brain stimulation surgery should lead to improved outcomes by increasing our understanding of the optimal surgical candidates, sites and parameters. PMID:24709892

Fisher, Robert S; Velasco, Ana Luisa

2014-05-01

224

Looking Forward to the Year 2000: Public Policy and Philanthropy. Working Papers, Spring Research Forum (San Francisco, California, March 17-18, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-six working papers for presentation at a research forum on public policy and philanthropy are presented. Thirteen sections include the following topics: (1) looking forward to the year 2000: public policy and philanthropy (e.g. "Rationales for Tax Exemption," by Harvey P. Dale); (2) shifting boundaries among the sectors (e.g. "The Shifting…

Independent Sector, Washington, DC.

225

Manual for the Early School Self Concept Inventory. Grades 1-3 (6 to 8 years of age). Elementary Form, 1977 Edition. Department of Research and Evaluation Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early School Self-Concept Inventory (ESSCI) was developed for use in grades one, two and three, or ages approximately six through eight years. It consists of forty brief questions, each requiring "yes" or "no" answers. Testing time is generally 15-20 minutes for an average classroom size group. The ESSCI yields a set of four scale scores: peer…

Meehan, Kenneth A.; And Others

226

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Children's Hospital of  

E-print Network

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 July General Pediatric Children's Hospital of Michigan High Risk Obstetrics Hutzel Women's Hospital Biochemical Genetics Lab/Metabolic Clinic Harper Hospital/ Children's Hospital of Michigan Reproductive Genetics Hutzel Women's Hospital August General Pediatric Children

Finley Jr., Russell L.

227

Year of the Tiger  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Xin nian kuai le! That's happy New Year in Chinese. It's a Tiger year. The Chinese zodiac runs on a 12 year cycle and each year is governed by an animal: rat, ox , tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog...

Hacker, Randi

2010-02-03

228

Laparoscopic fundoplication: 5-year follow-up.  

PubMed

There are few published reports on outcomes of 5 or more years following laparoscopic fundoplication. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) specific quality of life questionnaires (QOLRAD), short form health surveys (SF12), and queries regarding current medication use and long-term satisfaction were mailed to all patients who underwent laparoscopic fundoplication at our institution. Results are reported as mean +/- SEM. Seventy-six patients underwent laparoscopic fundoplication (63 Nissen, 13 Toupet) between November 1992 and December 1997. Fifty-two patients completed questionnaires (68%). Mean follow-up was 5.1 +/- 0.2 years (range, 4-9 years). Mean QOLRAD scores were 5.8 +/- 0.2, (scale 0-7, a higher score reflecting improved QOL), which is comparable to the general population (6.0 mean). SF-12 mental and physical scores were 46.6 +/- 1.7 and 34.2 +/- 1.6, respectively, versus 50.7 and 51.2 for the general population. Forty-seven patients (92%) would have the procedure again. Eleven (21%) remained on antisecretory medications (15% proton pump inhibitor and 6% H2 receptor antagonists). None of the 11 patients underwent 24-hour pH testing to document persistent acid exposure. Furthermore, postoperative symptoms of heartburn, dysphagia, and abdominal bloating were rated as none to mild in the majority of patients. Laparoscopic fundoplication is an effective long-term treatment for GERD, resulting in high patient satisfaction, improved quality of life, and elimination of antisecretory medicines in the majority of patients. PMID:15328802

Dassinger, M S; Torquati, A; Houston, H L; Holzman, M D; Sharp, K W; Richards, W O

2004-08-01

229

24 Fall 2011 Year 2 Year 3  

E-print Network

to plant peanuts or cotton or even watermelons, it would be in a field (recently covered with) bahiagrass that if they had a choice of where to plant peanuts or cotton or even watermelons, it would be in a field (recently, a plant pathologist, Wright is now into his 12th year on a project that he's convinced holds incalculable

Guo, Jing

230

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences in the weather in each season? Students will identify the seasons of the year. Also, describing the seasonal changes in the weather. All 4 Season of the Year. Spring. Summer. Fall. Winter. ...

Thompson, Miss

2010-03-25

231

Mathematics, Vocabulary, and Reading Development in Chinese American and European American Children Over the Primary School Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty European American (EA; 20 girls, 20 boys) and 40 second-generation Chinese American (CA; 20 girls, 20 boys) preschool and kindergarten children (mean age at Time 1 = 5.7 years) and their mothers, fathers, and teachers participated in 3 data collections (1993, 1995, and 1997) to investigate sociocultural and family factors that contribute to children’s academic achievement. CA children outscored

Carol S. Huntsinger; Paul E. Jose; Shari L. Larson; Dana Balsink Krieg; Chitra Shaligram

2000-01-01

232

Year 1 Year 2 Anne 3 Anne 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Year 3 Year 4 INGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIENINGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIEN  

E-print Network

: Biology / Chemistry / Computer Science / Economics / Energy / Mechanics and Environmental Sciences / Mathematics and Applied Mathematics / Physics / Science, Technology & Society / Software Systems / Innovation Duration: 2 years - Possibility to be directly admitted to Year 2 Master of ScienceMaster of Science #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

233

EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led to admission to Columbia University where he studied metallurgical engineering. After graduation, as was common at that time for able students, he was encouraged to go abroad for his doctoral work. He went to Göttingen, which was then one of the leading European universities in science, and studied under Nernst. Returning to the United States he obtained a post as a teaching assistant at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, but the atmosphere proved too hierarchical and uncongenial for a scientist who was wanting to spread his wings. Fortunately the General Electric Company (GEC) recognized his potential; he was recruited in 1909, and remained associated with the GEC for the next 48 years. He quickly established his credentials as a research scientist and was soon given the freedom to pursue his interests wherever they took him, consistent with the overall strategy of the company. His appointment as an Associate Director at the GEC came in the same year that he introduced the term 'plasma'. Interestingly, while the term gained rapid acceptance in Europe, the associated word 'sheath', which Langmuir had already been using for several years, was translated into French, German and Russian and suffered from confusion. That confusion was there in Langmuir's writings because this ion-rich region sometimes was a region with barely any electrons and sometimes it contained a significant quantity of negative charge. The structure of the plasma-sheath and its elucidation had to await new mathematical techniques and the impact of computers as evidenced by papers in this volume and those quoted therein. It is clear that Langmuir inspired and benefited from collaboration with co-workers at the GEC, notably Kingdon, Taylor, Mott-Smith, Compton, Jones, Found, Tonks and Blodgett. In several ways he was ahead of his time in his understanding of gas discharges, and a particular example is what has since come to be known as the Bohm criterion. More than once in his plasma papers published in the early 1930s Langmuir stated in words what was needed for a sheath to develop

Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

2009-02-01

234

Screening for Alcohol Problems Among 4-Year Colleges and Universities  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the use of alcohol screening tools across US colleges. Participants Directors of health services at 333 four-year colleges. Methods An online survey was conducted regarding the use of alcohol screening tools. Schools reporting use of formal tools were further described in terms of 4 tools (AUDIT, CUGE, CAPS, and RAPS) that the authors judged to be the most favorable based on prior empirical comparative studies. Results Forty-four percent of colleges reported use of at least 1 formal alcohol screening tool and nearly all of these used a tool appropriate for college students. However, less than half of the 44% of colleges that used a screening tool used 1 of the 4 most favorable tools. Conclusions Continued efforts are needed to encourage colleges to use the most effective available screening tools to identify alcohol-related problems that require intervention among students. PMID:21500052

Winters, Ken C.; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin; Lenk, Kathleen; Miazga, Mark

2011-01-01

235

Final Year Project Report  

SciTech Connect

In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University

2013-06-20

236

Multi-year ice  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

ARCTIC OCEAN - A multi-year ice floe slides down the starboard side of the Coast Guard Cutter Healy Aug. 11, 2009, as the ship heads north into even thicker ice. "You can tell that this is a multi-year ice floe by the light blue melt ponds that have formed on top of the floe," said Pablo Clemente-Co...

2010-02-19

237

Neurological and functional outcomes of subdural hematoma evacuation in patients over 70 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background: Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common disease entity treated by neurosurgical intervention. Although the incidence increases in the elderly population, there is a paucity of studies examining their surgical outcomes. Objectives: To determine the neurological and functional outcomes of patients over 70 years of age undergoing surgical decompression for subdural hematoma. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on 45 patients above 70 years who underwent craniotomy or burr holes for acute, chronic or mixed subdural hematomas. We analyzed both neurological and functional status before and after surgery. Results: Forty-five patients 70 years of age or older were treated in our department during the study period. There was a significant improvement in the neurological status of patients from admission to follow up as assessed using the Markwalder grading scale (1.98 vs. 1.39; P =0.005), yet no improvement in functional outcome was observed as assessed by Glasgow Outcome Score. Forty-one patients were admitted from home, however only 20 patients (44%) were discharged home, 16 (36%) discharged to nursing home or rehab, 6 (13%) to hospice and 3 (7%) died in the postoperative period. Neurological function improved in patients who were older, had a worse pre-operative neurological status, were on anticoagulation and had chronic or mixed acute and chronic hematoma. However, no improvement in functional status was observed. Conclusion: Surgical management of SDH in patients over 70 years of age provides significant improvement in neurological status, but does not change functional status. PMID:24250154

Mulligan, Patrick; Raore, Bethwel; Liu, Shuling; Olson, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

238

Course in the third year Bachelor of Sciences or in Master Title : Numerical analysis applied to partial differential equations: Application to physics and engineering sciences (4 hours a week - two semesters)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerical Analysis has undergone a spectacular development during these past forty years. It is most probably related to the boom in Information Technology which has literally invaded the planet and provided, de facto, calculation capacities undreamt of up to now. This mathematical knowledge field - Numerical Analysis - may be characterised as the \\

Israel Chaskalovic

239

Pictures of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

240

A 5-year follow-up study of suicide attempts.  

PubMed

Seventy-five patients were admitted to the ward of the Lund Suicide Research Center following a suicide attempt. After 5 years, the patients were followed up by a personal semistructured interview covering sociodemographic, psychosocial and psychiatric areas. Ten patients (13%) had committed suicide during the follow-up period, the majority within 2 years. They tended to be older at the index attempt admission, and most of them had a mood disorder in comparison with the others. Two patients had died from somatic diseases. Forty-two patients were interviewed, of whom 17 (40%) had reattempted during the follow-up period, most of them within 3 years. Predictors for reattempt were young age, personality disorder, parents having received treatment for psychiatric disorder, and a poor social network. At the index attempt, none of the reattempters had diagnoses of adjustment disorders or anxiety disorders. At follow-up, reattempters had more psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90), and their overall functioning (GAF) was poor compared to those who did not reattempt. All of the reattempters had long-lasting treatment ( > 3 years) as compared to 56% of the others. It is of great clinical importance to focus on treatment strategies for the vulnerable subgroup of self-destructive reattempters. PMID:8739657

Johnsson Fridell, E; Ojehagen, A; Träskman-Bendz, L

1996-03-01

241

Replicability and 40-Year Predictive Power of Childhood ARC Types  

PubMed Central

We examined three questions surrounding the Undercontrolled, Overcontrolled, and Resilient--or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)--personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967, and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found: (1) Bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggested that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types; (2) this cluster structure was fuzzy, rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to three prototype Big Five profiles; and (3) ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious, but neither better nor more consistent predictors than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 68% accuracy by personality information alone, a figure approaching the 12-year accuracy of a leading medical cardiovascular risk model. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality traits for mid-life health. PMID:21744975

Chapman, Benjamin P.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

2011-01-01

242

Double Spring Year  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: South Korean fiancés are under pressure and the country's esteemed fortune tellers are turning up the heat. Why? Because this lunar year has two first days of spring--one last January, and another ...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; vonHolten, Leslie

2006-12-13

243

100 years young  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the International Year of Crystallography and is a time to reflect on the success of the discipline. Looking ahead the field is well placed to produce further exciting contributions to science.

2014-08-01

244

Biochemistry Biochemist 6 years  

E-print Network

Biochemistry Biochemist ­ 6 years Objective To train professionals of a high scientific of studies has the following orientations: Vegetal and Ground Biochemistry; Microbiology and Inmunobiology ; Basic Biochemistry, Biotechnology; Clinic Biochemistry; Food Science and Nutrition. Besides, students

Groisman, Pablo

245

SDO: Year One  

NASA Video Gallery

On April 21st, 2010 the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite's amazing imagery was revealed for the first time. Marking the one year anniversary of the First Light press conference, this vide...

246

Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 ± 9 years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year [F(4, 38) = 5.8, p = 0.001, ?2 = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that the majority of patients do not show significant change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed. PMID:24109449

Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bj?rn R.; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O.; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor K.; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; R?ssberg, Jan I.; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

2013-01-01

247

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the seasons of the year? First, watch this video about seasons. Video on seasons Next, paint a picture about the seasons. painting the seasons After you have painted a picture, play a game to identify the seasons. Game about seasons Now, go through a step by step guide about the seasons. Different seasons in a year Next, watch another video about the seasons. Video on seasons Last, fill out this chart about the seasons. In each block, ...

2012-04-05

248

SETI: The NASA Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter, on the years of SETI in NASA, was initially prepared in 2000 for the celebration of Frank Drake's 70th birthday, but has never been previously published. All the material in these pages remains as valid today, in 2010, as it was 10 years ago. So it fits well into this volume on SETI Past, Present, and Future, with only minor revisions, and I am delighted that it is now seeing the light of day.

Billingham, John

249

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

250

Fiscal Year 2003  

Cancer.gov

The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

251

The year in review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The year 1983 was an exciting one, filled with intense activity by oceanographers in all disciplines. The year started with confirmation that we were indeed experiencing a major and unusual El Niño. The awareness of the role of the ocean in climate variation was enhanced both by the severity of the El Niño and the new reports on the effect of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere.The year continued with remarkable demonstrations of the power of satellite-borne instruments to reveal new physical, biological, and geological features of the ocean. We saw the retirement of the Glomar Challenger as a deep sea drilling vessel after 15 successful years and the start of a major new drilling program destined to be aboard a larger vessel. The year ended with planning for new, expanded studies on the interaction of the tropical ocean with the global atmosphere and on the general circulation of the ocean. The prospects of global studies of biogeochemical fluxes were under discussion.

Baker, D. James

252

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates the link between the tilt of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic and seasons of the year, length of day, effectiveness of sunlight, and polar day and night. It discusses how the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis causes seasons of the year, by varying the length of the local day and the angle at which the Sun's rays arrive on the surface of the Earth, and to recognize that seasons in the southern hemisphere (at middle latitudes) occur at opposite parts of the year from seasons in the US and Europe. The student will also realize that the seasons in the middle-latitudes in US and Europe are quite different from seasons experienced near the equator and also know about the polar day, when the Sun never sets but just marches around the horizon, and the polar night, when it never rises.

Stern, David

253

New year, old hat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is only August, but October 1 looms large on the calendar. That is the day when the 1997 fiscal year (FY ?97) begins for the U.S. federal government, and like last year, that day might come without a budget.In a flurry of summer activity, the U.S. Congress has passed several landmark bills on welfare reform, expansion of health coverage for workers between jobs, a raise in the minimum wage, and a Safe Drinking Water Act. The House of Representatives even passed all 13 of its annual appropriations bills before Congress took its August recess.

American Geological Institute; American Institute of Physics; American Associationthe Advancement of Science; Carlowicz, Michael

254

Reflections on 40 years of Breeding Bird Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

After reviewing the history of monitoring in North America, I discuss the origin of the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), including the need for such a program and field testing of methodology to determine optimum starting time, length of stop, number of stops per route, and acceptable weather conditions. Before initiating the survey I ran sample routes in Maryland, New Hampshire, South Dakota, Colorado, and Alaska to become familiar with environmental factors affecting roadside counts. I also ran the same route multiple times throughout a season to measure progressive changes in detectability, and did simultaneous double sampling to study observer effects. The BBS was field-tested with 50 routes throughout Maryland and ten in Delaware in 1965, then launched in the states and provinces east of the Mississippi River in 1966, and in the rest of the continent in 1967 and 1968. For quality control, all participants in 1965 were required, in addition to their assigned 50-stop route, to also run a 50-stop route that I had run the same year. In the first few years the results were keypunched into cards, and the cards were sorted various ways to prepare summaries. The electronics age has completely changed input and analysis procedures and ways of displaying results, but the field procedures are still the same as forty years ago. Thoughts on improving the BBS are shared.

Robbins, C.S.

2005-01-01

255

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, their approaches to the problem have largely fallen into one of three types of responses: vertical acceleration; remediation; and structured containment. New Trier…

Drels, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

256

ACADEMIC YEAR 1997 POSTGRADUATE  

E-print Network

Postgraduate School is an academic institution whose emphasis is on study and research programs relevant1 ACADEMIC YEAR 1997 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL CATALOG #12;2 OVERVIEW The School The Naval, on the Pacific Ocean 120 miles south of San Francisco, the Naval Postgraduate School campus covers 627 acres

257

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

258

Black Studies Year One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…

Long, Richard A.

259

The Year Ahead: Minorities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The college outlook is grim for blacks 25 years after James Meredith became the first black to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Both Hispanics and Asian-Americans are misunderstood by college officials, and too little attention has been focused on community colleges, the institutions that serve the most minority students. (MLW)

Jaschik, Scott

1987-01-01

260

Year of the Coast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

1980-01-01

261

Project Year Project Team  

E-print Network

several paper-based mechanisms and devoted a considerable amount of instructional time to addressing. Some of these resources might be repurposed for the study of other foreign languages. Pedagogical Issue By the time students reach the advanced year in foreign language learning, there tend to be two major areas

Gray, Jeffrey J.

262

Project Year Project Title  

E-print Network

Project Year 2011-2012 Project Title Using M-Health and GIS Technology in the Field to Improve into teams and having each team use a different m-health data collection tool (e.g., cellular phones, smart health patterns. The Tech Fellow, Jacqueline Ferguson, will assist in creating an m-health project

Gray, Jeffrey J.

263

20 Years of ECM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Elliptic Curve Method for integer factorization (ECM) was invented by H. W. Lenstra, Jr., in 1985 (14). In the past 20 years, many improvements of ECM were proposed on the mathematical, algo- rithmic, and implementation sides. This paper summarizes the current state-of-the-art, as implemented in the GMP-ECM software.

Paul Zimmermann; Bruce Dodson

2006-01-01

264

Smog - the learning years  

SciTech Connect

35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

265

Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda

2000-01-01

266

100 years ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1897 Antonia Maury discovered chemically peculiar stars; for the first time 100 years ago female students got permission to study at the University of Vienna. In commemoration of these events, some details about education and training and about the careers of women at the turn of the century are presented.

Schnell, A.

1998-04-01

267

The Turbulent Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of the Fourth Annual Conference on Major Transitions in the Human Life Cycle contains a preface, introductory section on adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14 through 24 years), and the following presentations, complete with discussion text: (1) "Historical Treatment of the Age Group" (John Demos); (2) "Demographic Considerations"…

Scanlon, John, Ed.

268

Cranial Ultrasound Lesions in the NICU Predict Cerebral Palsy at Age 2 Years in Children Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age  

PubMed Central

Our prospective cohort study of extremely low gestational age newborns evaluated the association of neonatal head ultrasound abnormalities with cerebral palsy at age 2 years. Cranial ultrasounds in 1053 infants were read with respect to intraventricular hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly, and echolucency, by multiple sonologists. Standardized neurological examinations classified cerebral palsy, and functional impairment was assessed. Forty-four percent with ventriculomegaly and 52% with echolucency developed cerebral palsy. Compared with no ultrasound abnormalities, children with echolucency were 24 times more likely to have quadriparesis and 29 times more likely to have hemiparesis. Children with ventriculomegaly were 17 times more likely to have quadriparesis or hemiparesis. Forty-three percent of children with cerebral palsy had normal head ultrasound. Focal white matter damage (echolucency) and diffuse damage (late ventriculomegaly) are associated with a high probability of cerebral palsy, especially quadriparesis. Nearly half the cerebral palsy identified at 2 years is not preceded by a neonatal brain ultrasound abnormality. PMID:19168819

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O'Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Pagano, Marcello; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan; Du Plessis, Adre; Westra, Sjirk J.; Miller, Cindy R.; Bassan, Haim; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy; Junewick, Joseph; Olomu, Nicholas; Romano, Elaine; Seibert, Joanna; Engelke, Steve; Karna, Padmani; Batton, Daniel; O'Connor, Sunila E.; Keller, Cecelia E.

2009-01-01

269

[20 years without smallpox].  

PubMed

It is 20 years since the 33rd World Health Assembly (WHA) declared that "worldwide eradication of smallpox" was achieved. This was the outcome of many years intensive work of the World Health Organization (WHO) and its member countries. In 1958 the WHA adopted the recommendation that WHO should initiate the eradication of smallpox on a worldwide scale. In 1967 the eradication activities in hitherto endemic countries became more intense. Smallpox affected 31 countries and 15 countries recorded from occasional cases. Every year more than 10 million people contracted the disease and two million of them died. A ten-year limit for the eradication was set. Gradually smallpox were eradicated in South America, then in Asia and last in Africa where the last case of endemic smallpox was recorded in 1977 in Somalia. WHO ensured international collaboration, close coordination of activities and mobilization of financial, personal and material resources. It ensured also that tested methods were fully applied in the affected countries regardless of their political, religious and cultural differences. In the eradication activities participated hundreds of thousands of local and 700 health professionals from abroad, incl. 20 Czechoslovak epidemiologists. The worldwide costs of eradication amounted to some 300 million dollars, i.e. some 23 million per year. The most important contribution of the eradication of smallpox was in addition to the termination of human suffering, worldwide financial savings estimated to 1-2 billion US dollars per year. These saved personal and financial resources could be used for other important health projects. The eradication of variola was defined as eradication of clinical forms of smallpox not as the final eradication of the variola virus. The importance of laboratories keeping the variola virus increased steeply at the time when clinical cases of smallpox were eradicated. From the beginning of the eighties WHO made an effort to reduce their number to a minimum. Since 1984 strains of variola are officially kept only in two centres collaborating with WHO. The Organization suggested destruction of the kept viruses in 1987, i.e. ten years after the eradication of smallpox. Unfortunately some political and scientific circles did not agree with this intention. Even recommendations to destroy the virus in 1993 and again in 1999 were not accepted. In the nineties fear of bio-terrorism and secret modernization of biological weapons influenced some member countries to change their opinion on the intended destruction of the virus. Despite this in May 1999 the WHA adopted a resolution that the final destruction of all variola strains is the objective of all member countries of WHO and recommended to postpone the destruction of the virus to the year 2002. The reason for postponement is current research of new antiviral preparations and better vaccines. There is again hope that all that will be left of the variola virus will be magnetic signals on computer diskettes. PMID:11040489

Jezek, Z

2000-08-01

270

Private and public memories of Expo 67: a case study of recollections of Montreal's World's Fair, 40 years after the event  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of a long-term memory study in which fifty visitors to Expo 67 (25 participants from British Columbia and 25 from Quebec) shared their recollections of their personal experience forty years after the event. The impetus for this study stems from a desire to understand the long-term impact of visitors' experience in informal, leisure-time contexts, and,

David Anderson; Viviane Gosselin

2008-01-01

271

Primary localized stages I and II non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the nasopharynx: a retrospective 17-year single institutional experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this retrospective study was to define the natural history, clinicopathological findings, prognostic factors, and\\u000a treatment outcome of 43 patients with localized stages I and II primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) of the nasopharynx, followed\\u000a up in a single institution over a 17-year period. Forty-three (13 women and 30 men) consecutive patients with localized stages\\u000a I (N?=?12) and II

Mohammad Mohammadianpanah; Niloofar Ahmadloo; Mohammad Amin Nazer Mozaffari; Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi; Shapour Omidvari; Ahmad Mosalaei

2009-01-01

272

Effect of Land-Based and Water-Based Fitness Programs on the Cardiovascular Fitness, Strength and Flexibility of Women Aged 65–75 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a generalized water-based exercise program (WBE) compared to a land-based exercise program (LBE) on improving cardio-respiratory fitness, body composition, forward trunk flexion and strength measurements of elderly women aged 70 ± 3.2 years (mean ± SD). Forty-one healthy, sedentary women were selected to participate in the study and were

J. E. Taunton; E. C. Rhodes; L. A. Wolski; M. Donelly; J. Warren; J. Elliot; L. McFarlane; J. Leslie; J. Mitchell; B. Lauridsen

1996-01-01

273

Five Year Flashlight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultra-reliable flashlight, initially developed for rescue signaling and utility use by NASA astronauts and military aircrews, has attracted a broad commercial market. Called the Five Year Light, it has a shelf life at least that long because there is no power drain on the batteries when the flashlight is not in use. The NASA version of the light was developed under contract with Langley Research Center by ACR Electronics, Inc., now known as the Chromalloy Electronics Division of Chromalloy American Corporation, Hollywood, Florida. NASA wanted a light that had long shelf life and assured reliability in case it was needed in an emergency. Reliability was designed into the flashlight by means of a unique switch. Instead of the customary thumb-button, the Five Year Light is turned on by rotating its collar to make contact with the battery terminal; the turning motion wipes away any corrosion that might be present and makes contact virtually certain. The Five Year Light available commercially is a repackaged version of the NASA light. It is sold for car, home, industrial, police, firefighting, recreational and a variety of other uses, and sales have topped two million units.

1978-01-01

274

Laser-micromachined, chip-scaled ceramic carriers for implantable neurostimulators.  

PubMed

Hermetic encapsulation of long-term implantable devices using ceramics has been investigated over several decades. Our studies focus on the miniaturization of ceramic encapsulations for large numbers of stimulation channels. Laser-patterning of screen printed platinum (Pt) paste on cofired ceramics has been shown to enable the construction of features comparable in size to classical screen printing. A novel technique for embedding Pt structures into the surface of Al(2)O(3) substrates is shown to produce features with a line width minimum of 20 ?m and a pitch of 40 ?m. Polishing the ceramic substrates enables flip-chip bonding of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) using gold stud bumps. A new technique for fine tuning of an ASIC stimulator with stud bump bridges is described. The technique eliminates the need for wire bond loops and increases reliability and integration density of the system, which are major requirements used to construct a visual prosthesis or other implantable devices requiring miniaturization. The methods for laser-patterned Pt tracks in alumina for fine pitch structures are described. Feasibility studies for flip-chip bonding and stud bump bridges were undertaken and the results were found to be promising. PMID:22254502

Guenther, Thomas; Mintri, Apoorv; Lim, William W; Jung, Louis H; Lehmann, Torsten; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

2011-01-01

275

Bruxelles, mardi 18 mars 2014 Les apnes du sommeil : leur traitement chirurgical et la neurostimulation  

E-print Network

traitements sont multiples : perte de poids, masque à pression positive nasale ou chirurgie. Lorsqu'un diagnostic de syndrome d'apnée de forme obstructive liée au sommeil est posé, un traitement par un masque à pression positive continue nasale (CPAP) est proposé au patient. Ce dernier devra alors porter un masque

Nesterov, Yurii

276

Using "smart stimulators" to treat Parkinson's disease: re-engineering neurostimulation devices.  

PubMed

Let's imagine the cruise control of your car locked at 120?km/h on any road in any condition (city, country, highway, sunny or rainy weather), or your car air conditioner set on maximum cold in any temperature condition (even during a snowy winter): would you find it efficient? That would probably not be the most optimal strategy for a proper and comfortable driving experience. As surprising as this may seem, this is a pretty accurate illustration of how deep brain stimulation is used today to treat Parkinson's disease motor symptoms and other neurological disorders such as essential tremor, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or epilepsy. PMID:23060781

Modolo, Julien; Beuter, Anne; Thomas, Alex W; Legros, Alexandre

2012-01-01

277

A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation  

PubMed Central

The exponential growth in publications represents a major challenge for researchers. Many scientific domains, including neuroscience, are not yet fully engaged in exploiting large bodies of publications. In this paper, we promote the idea to partially automate the processing of scientific documents, specifically using text mining (TM), to efficiently review big corpora of publications. The “cognitive advantage” given by TM is mainly related to the automatic extraction of relevant trends from corpora of literature, otherwise impossible to analyze in short periods of time. Specifically, the benefits of TM are increased speed, quality and reproducibility of text processing, boosted by rapid updates of the results. First, we selected a set of TM-tools that allow user-friendly approaches of the scientific literature, and which could serve as a guide for researchers willing to incorporate TM in their work. Second, we used these TM-tools to obtain basic insights into the relevant literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) and cognitive enhancement (CE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TM readily extracted the diversity of TMS applications in CR and CE from vast corpora of publications, automatically retrieving trends already described in published reviews. TMS emerged as one of the important non-invasive tools that can both improve cognitive and motor functions in numerous neurological diseases and induce modulations/enhancements of many fundamental brain functions. TM also revealed trends in big corpora of publications by extracting occurrence frequency and relationships of particular subtopics. Moreover, we showed that CR and CE share research topics, both aiming to increase the brain's capacity to process information, thus supporting their integration in a larger perspective. Methodologically, despite limitations of a simple user-friendly approach, TM served well the reviewing process. PMID:25309356

Balan, Puiu F.; Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

2014-01-01

278

A low-cost neurostimulator with accurate pulsed-current control.  

PubMed

A constant-current stimulator for high-impedance loads using only low-cost standard high-voltage components is presented. A voltage-regulator powers an oscillator built across the primary of a step-up transformer whose secondary supplies, after rectification, the high voltage to a switched current-mirror in the driving stage. Adjusting the regulated voltage controls the pulsed-current intensity. A prototype produces stimulus of amplitude and pulsewidth within 0 < or = I(skin) < or = 20 mA and 50 micros < or = T(pulse) < or = 1 ms, respectively. Pulse-repetition spans from 1 Hz to 10 Hz. Worst case ripple is 3.7% at I(skin) = 1 mA. Overall consumption is 5.6 W at I(skin) = 20 mA. PMID:12002182

De Lima, Jader A; Cordeiro, Adriano S

2002-05-01

279

40 Years of Discovery  

SciTech Connect

History is most interesting when seen through the eyes of those who lived it. In this 40th anniversary retrospective of bioscience research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we've asked 19 scientists to share their personal recollections about a major accomplishment in the program's history. We have not tried to create a comprehensive or seamless story. Rather, we've attempted to capture the perspectives of key individuals, each of whom worked on a research program that met significant milestones. We have focused particularly on programs and accomplishments that have shaped the current Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP). In addition, we have included a timeline of biosciences at LLNL, a history of the directorate that appeared in the Laboratory's magazine, ''Science & Technology Review'', in 2002, and a list of bioscience-related articles that have appeared over the years in ''Science & Technology Review and its predecessor, Energy & Technology Review''. The landscape of biological science today is stunningly different from 40 years ago. When LLNL bioscience began in 1963, we knew about the structure of DNA and that it was the carrier of genetic information. However, it would be another year before scientists would understand how DNA codes for the production of proteins and more than a decade before the earliest DNA sequence would be known. It is sometimes difficult to remember that it was only 15 years ago that the polymerase chain reaction, a synthetic method to amplify pieces of DNA was developed, and that only within the last half-dozen years has sequence data for entire organisms begun to be available. In this publication, we have tried to capture some of the landmark and seminal research history: radiation effects studies, which were a major reason for founding the biological research program, and flow sorting and chromosome painting, which dramatically changed our ability to study DNA damage and enabled the creation of chromosome-specific clone libraries, a key step toward sequencing the human genome. Several histories relate to the Human Genome Project itself and surrounding technologies, and several to long-standing research themes such as DNA repair, food mutagens, and reproductive biology. Others describe more recent developments such as computational biology, health-care technologies, and biodefense research.

Weinstein, B; Heller, A

2003-07-08

280

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart Financial Profile - Charts - Income 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_002c.htm06/07/2004 13:01:28 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Expenditure 5 Year Financial

281

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart Financial Profile - Charts - Income 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_001c.htm06/07/2004 13:02:48 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Expenditure 5 Year Financial

282

75 Years of the Junior Year in Munich  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not only has the US Senate designated 2006 the Year of Study Abroad; the year also marks the anniversary of a distinguished tradition of study abroad in Germany that reaches back 75 years. Founded in 1931, suspended during the war years, and re-opened in 1953 by Wayne State University, the Junior Year in Munich is America's oldest study abroad…

Ferguson, Mark

2007-01-01

283

First Year Learning Options foUndaTional Year  

E-print Network

First Year Learning Options foUndaTional Year ProGraMS #12;#12;The University of Toronto offers you learning options for arts, science and business students. The Foundational Year Programs build community the extraordinary. If you're looking for an exceptional first-year experience, consider U of T's Foundational Year

Toronto, University of

284

500 years after Columbus.  

PubMed

The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

Imbach, A

1992-01-01

285

TRMM 3-Year Anniversary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

2002-01-01

286

100 Years of Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Industrial Designers Society of America, this interesting site highlights some of the most influential people and groundbreaking products in this field. Titled 100 Years of Design, the site has content that spans the 20th century and "is a monthly installment of excerpts from a proposed book" along the same lines. Fifteen famous designers are profiled, along with over 50 products. One of the people mentioned is Harley Earl, the subject of a recent line of television commercials. Many of the products are related to the automobile, but other examples include the Polaroid camera and the Wurlitzer jukebox.

Gantz, Carroll.

2002-01-01

287

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are going to watch some videos of the seasons of the year.Use your worksheet to help you remember the types of weather and the clothes we wear during the different seasons. What is different about each season? Seasons Chart 1. This is what you will click on to watch the video on winter. Winter Video 2. In the spring video make sure you notice the changes in weather Spring Video 3. Now watch the summer video Summer Video 4.This is what you will click on to watch the video on fall. Fall Video 5. Click here to watch a video ...

Larrimore, Ms.

2012-04-11

288

20 Years of AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), May 31 marked the 20-year anniversary of the first discovery of AIDS. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Web has seen a corresponding flurry of activity devoted to the history and current status of research on the disease. The CDC has posted this site, which collects research findings from the Centers' Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, videos covering the epidemic's history and current status, and CDC bulletins and commentary. For further sites devoted to AIDS/HIV see the June 6, 2001 Scout Report for Science & Engineering).

2001-01-01

289

financial report Fiscal years  

E-print Network

.3 265.1 Debt $ 4,054.5 $ 3,376.0 $ 3,067.2 $ 1,954.6 $1,954.3 Statement of Activities Highlights (see.2 $ 33.0 $ 12.7 $ 7.4 Five-Year Enrollment Statistics 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 Student Fees: Yale College,321 Yield 67.8% 68.7% 70.6% 70.9% 71.3% Total Enrollment: Yale College 5,268 5,266 5,300 5,319 5

290

Helsinki 50 years on.  

PubMed

Ever since its adoption the Declaration of Helsinki has been universally recognised as a key landmark in the ethics of medical research involving human subjects. Over fifty years it has been revised seven times and supplemented twice with explanatory notes. The debate surrounding its contents and organisation continues unabated and becomes particularly lively every time the text is reviewed. One of the most controversial issues is recourse to the placebo: the conditions laid down for its use are held by many to offer insufficient guarantees for the protection of those receiving it. PMID:25203329

Petrini, C

2014-01-01

291

International Year of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has declared the year 2010 as the year of biodiversity, and none too soon. The definition and importance of biodiversity is explained on the "About" page, but in brief, it's a "rich diversity [in nature which] is being lost at a greatly accelerated rate because of human activities. This...weakens the ability of the living systems, on which we depend, to resist growing threats such as climate change." The list of "Major Upcoming Celebrations" is on the middle of the homepage below the written and video "Welcome Messages" from various representatives of national governments and large non-profits. Some of the celebrations include an International Art Exhibition by young people. Visitors can click on "More Celebrations" to be taken to an interactive map of celebrations "By Countries", "Calendar" or "Success Stories". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Red List", which can be found on the homepage or in the "About" section. The "Red List of Threatened Species" highlights one species of plant or animal each day, with a photo and a couple of paragraphs on its location, vulnerability, origins, etc. The current month is shown, but visitors can view the species of the days for the "Previous Months" of 2010 as well.

2010-03-26

292

Einstein Year 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Einstein Year marks the centenary of the three papers that Albert Einstein published in 1905, which of course, included the paper on photoelectric effect that led to his Nobel Prize in Physics. The primary aim of Einstein Year is "to enthuse young people, and those who influence them, about physics, whilst building a sustainable increase in public awareness of physics and its role in society." On the site, visitors can learn about the various ongoing activities being coordinated around the world, read a biography about Einstein, and check out the "Experiment" section, where users can explore physics through a number of simple and thoughtful experiments. A real highlight of the site is the "If you could teach the world just one thing about science" feature, which was conducted by the online magazine, _spiked_. The magazine asked dozens of scientists what "one thing" they would pick to teach the world about science, and their responses (including a few video clips) are posted on the site.

293

Projects of the year  

SciTech Connect

The 2005 Projects-of-the-Year award winners were recognized at Power-Gen International in Las Vegas in early December. EPCOR and TransAlta's Genessee 3, an advanced coal-fired facility near Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, won the Best Coal-fired Project-of-the-year Award. This features the first use of supercritical technology in Canada. It has a 43.6% efficiency rating and greenhouse gas emissions as low as those from a natural gas combined-cycle plant. The best gas-fired project award went to We Energies 500 MW Port Washington Generating Station (PWGS). Features of the plant are described in the article. FPL won the nuclear project award for replacing reactor vessel heads on its Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 with new components to eliminate repairs. The world's largest photovoltaic project, Bavaria Solarpark, won the renewables project award. The East Kentucy Power Cooperative received an honorable mention for the E.A. Gilbert Unit 3 power plant in Kentucky. This is a 268 MW coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler located on the same site as the Spurlock Power Station. 1 tab., 6 photos.

Hansen, T.

2006-01-15

294

Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL's cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

1992-08-01

295

Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL`s cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

1992-08-01

296

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart:04:21 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Income 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_006a.htm06/07/2004 13:04:24 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Expenditure 5 Year Financial

297

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart:05:51 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Income 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_007a.htm06/07/2004 13:05:55 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - Expenditure 5 Year Financial

298

Twenty Years of KSHV  

PubMed Central

Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

2014-01-01

299

Twenty Years of KSHV.  

PubMed

Twenty years ago, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill's Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men-in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

2014-01-01

300

The 34 Year Starship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1974, the designers and leadership of a mission then known as ``Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977'' decided that the name was a mouthful. They briefly deliberated and decided to rename it ``Voyager'' [1]. Similarly, we believe that ``DARPA 100 Year Starship'' is unnecessarily verbose. We propose to call it ``Enterprise.'' Among the many challenges facing such a mission is that of earning public support - we should let half a century of Hollywood storytelling do that for us. This paper is composed of four parts. Part 1 will discuss the parallels between the Voyager program and a future Enterprise program. Part 2 will go into greater detail regarding the Voyager program and the challenges and opportunities that defined it. Part 3 will discuss some of the major technical challenges for Voyager and Enterprise in greater detail. Part 4 will discuss next steps and various strategies to meet DARPA's challenge of sustainable industry-funded research into interstellar flight.

Nosanov, J.; Shapiro, A.; Garrett, H.

2012-09-01

301

Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Throughout her second year, ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

302

Broadcast Education Curricula in 2-Year and 4-Year Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares broadcasting curricula of two-year and four-year colleges. Finds that most broadcast programs implement a blend of practical and theoretical courses, and that students at two-year and four-year schools are subjected to comparable course work and internship/practicum experience. Suggests that many students are not receiving enough…

Koch, Erin; Kang, Jong G.; Allen, David S.

1999-01-01

303

URAT: year 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USNO Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) is now in the third year of observing. Survey observing began in April 2012 at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS). URAT has taken over 50,000 exposures of the northern sky with multiple overlaps, 28 sq. degrees with a single exposure at 0.9"/pixel resolution. Raw data processing, quality control, and scheduling are performed automatically. In normal survey mode URAT covers stars in the R = 10.5 to 18.0 magnitude range. Utilizing an objective grating and the clocked anti blooming feature of the 4 CCD chips results in a bright limit of 3rd magnitude. Exposures taken on the east and west side of the pier enable the calibration of potentially significant systematic errors.URAT mean positions are predicted to be on the 5 to 20 mas level depending on brightness and sky coverage. URAT will also provide proper motions and parallaxes for nearby stars, independent of any selection criteria. We are currently working on the reduction pipeline and a first astrometric catalog is expected to be released in 2014.

Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; DiVittorio, Mike; Ferguson, Eric; Harris, Hugh C.; Harris, Fred; Kilian, Chris; Rafferty, Ted; Rhodes, Albert; Schultheis, Michael; Subasavage, John; Tilleman, Trudy; Wieder, Gary

2014-05-01

304

Projects of the year  

SciTech Connect

The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

Hansen, T.

2007-01-15

305

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_008a.htm06/07/2004 12:51:18 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_008b.htm06/07/2004 12:51:21 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

306

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart_005a.htm06/07/2004 13:00:25 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_005b.htm06/07/2004 13:00:29 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

307

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_009a.htm06/07/2004 12:37:13 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_009b.htm06/07/2004 12:37:20 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

308

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_004a.htm06/07/2004 12:55:59 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_004b.htm06/07/2004 12:57:08 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

309

5 Year Financial Profile -Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts  

E-print Network

5 Year Financial Profile - Charts 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Click to zoom in on each chart://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_010a.htm06/07/2004 10:57:04 #12;5 Year Financial Profile - Charts - zoom 5 Year Financial Profile Charts Income Back http://www.fin.mmu.ac.uk/f18_010b.htm06/07/2004 10:57:23 #12;5 Year Financial Profile

310

Neuroticism and Extraversion in Youth Predict Mental Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction 40 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later. PMID:24563560

Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mottus, Rene; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J

2014-01-01

311

Clinical outcome and quality of life of patients surviving 20 years or longer after heart transplantation.  

PubMed

To evaluate outcome and quality of life (QoL) in ? 20 years survivors after heart transplantation. Patients surviving ? 20 years with a single graft were retrospectively reviewed. Heterotopic, multiorgan and retransplantations were excluded. QoL was evaluated using the SF-36 survey. Eight hundred and twenty-seven heart transplants were performed from 1981 to 1993, and among these, 131 (16%) patients survived ? 20 years; 98 (75%) were male and mean age at transplant was 43 ± 13 years. Conditional survival in these 20 years survivors was 74.1 ± 4.3% at 23 years and 60.9 ± 5.3% at 25 years (45 deaths, 34%). Forty-four (34%) patients suffered rejection ? 2R. Conditional survival free from rejection ? 2R was 68 ± 4.1% at 5 years and 66.4 ± 4.2% at 10 years. Thirty-five (27%) patients had cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) grade 2-3. Conditional CAV-free survival was 76 ± 3.8% at 20 years and 72.1 ± 4% at 25. Sixty-nine (53%) patients developed malignancy, mostly skin cancers. Conditional malignancy-free survival was 53.5 ± 4.4% at 20 years and 45.2 ± 4.6% at 25 years. At latest follow-up, 24.0 ± 3.0 years after transplantation, mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 62 ± 11% and mean physical and mental scores were 57 ± 23 and 58 ± 21, respectively. Sixteen per cent of heart recipients survived ? 20 years with good ventricular performance and QoL. CAV and malignancies account for late morbidity and mortality. PMID:24606025

Galeone, Antonella; Kirsch, Matthias; Barreda, Eleodoro; Fernandez, Flor; Vaissier, Elisabeth; Pavie, Alain; Leprince, Pascal; Varnous, Shaida

2014-06-01

312

20 Years of RECONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets, including an astrometric search of several hundred of the nearest red dwarfs for planetary systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

2014-01-01

313

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

314

A 9,000-year record of Chagas' disease.  

PubMed

Tissue specimens from 283 principally spontaneously (naturally) desiccated human mummies from coastal and low valley sites in northern Chile and southern Peru were tested with a DNA probe directed at a kinetoplast DNA segment of Trypanosoma cruzi. The time interval spanned by the eleven major cultural groups represented in the sample ranged from approximately 9,000 years B.P. (7050 B.C.) to approximately the time of the Spanish conquest, approximately 450 B.P. ( approximately 1500 A.D.). Forty-one percent of the tissue extracts, amplified by the PCR reacted positively (i.e., hybridized) with the probe. Prevalence patterns demonstrated no statistically significant differences among the individual cultural groups, nor among subgroups compared on the basis of age, sex, or weight of specimen tested. These results suggest that the sylvatic (animal-infected) cycle of Chagas' disease was probably well established at the time that the earliest humans (members of the Chinchorro culture) first peopled this segment of the Andean coast and inadvertently joined the many other mammal species acting as hosts for this parasite. PMID:14766963

Aufderheide, Arthur C; Salo, Wilmar; Madden, Michael; Streitz, John; Buikstra, Jane; Guhl, Felipe; Arriaza, Bernardo; Renier, Colleen; Wittmers, Lorentz E; Fornaciari, Gino; Allison, Marvin

2004-02-17

315

2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS!  

E-print Network

2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS! Daniel McCarthy and Joseph Schaefer NOAA/NWS Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK 1. INTRODUCTION 2004 will be known as the biggest tornado year since recordkeeping began in 1950. The sheer numbers of tornadoes were unprecedented: 1,819. This number eclipsed

316

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1981-2011 Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1981-2011 Fiscal Year Year-end market value (in 000's) Return REPORTS Market Value of Endowment Funds as of June 30, 2011 Endowment Market Value Market Value % of Total and Sciences includes: Continuing Education, College Library, FAS Museums, GSAS, Athletics, College Life

317

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1982-2012 Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1982-2012 Fiscal Year Year-end market value (in 000's) Return Market Value of Endowment Funds as of June 30, 2012 Endowment Market Value Market Value % of Total Arts Education, College Library, FAS Museums, GSAS, Athletics, College Life and Student Services, and Dumbarton

318

Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 Migration Year Book  

E-print Network

Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 1 #12;Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 NIDS NCCR North-South #12;Book Nepal Migration Year Book 2011 Publishers Nepal Institute of Development Studies (NIDS) G.P.O. Box: 7647, Kathmandu, Nepal Email: nids@mail.com.np Web: www.nids.org.np National Centre of Competence in Research

Richner, Heinz

319

Medical and Psychosocial Outcomes of Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Cross-sectional Findings at 4Year Follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In conjunction with the Louisiana Office of Group Benefits, the Louisiana State University School of Medicine conducted a\\u000a study to examine 4-year medical and psychosocial outcomes of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery in patients\\u000a insured by a state-run managed care program.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty severely obese participants (body mass index >40 and 2) underwent LRYGB surgery. Four years later, self-reported data

Valerie H. Myers; Claire E. Adams; Brooke L. Barbera; Phillip J. Brantley

320

A 3-year cohort study of the natural history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Only a few prospective studies have determined which clinical symptoms and factors are associated with the disease severity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A multicenter longitudinal cohort study was conducted to clarify both the natural history of SCA6 in Japan and the factors influencing disease progression. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited between 2007 and 2008. Scores from the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and Barthel Index (BI) were collected prospectively each year. Additionally, data from the Japan intractable diseases research (IDR) registry were collected both retrospectively, from 2003 to 2006, and prospectively, from 2007 to 2010. As a result, we were able to collect 3 years of retrospective data and 4 years of prospective data during the course of 3 yearly visits. Results Forty-six patients were registered. The follow-up rate of the third year was 93%. The SARA scores worsened significantly each year. Over 3 years, the decline of the SARA scores was 1.33?±?1.40 points/year. The results of multivariate analysis of the decline of the SARA score were not significant. The IDR scores correlated well with the SARA and BI scores. Kaplan-Meier curves of 7 years of data from the IDR registry illustrated the correlation between the ability to walk and the time course of the disease. Conclusions Information regarding the progression of ataxia and the decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with SCA6 was obtained by a 3-year cohort study and a 7-year IDR study. The decline of the SARA score of patients with SCA6 was 1.33?±?1.40 points/year. The results elucidate the natural history of SCA6, factors influencing disease severity, and utility of data from the IDR registry of Japan. PMID:25053188

2014-01-01

321

EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE SHAPING CHILDHOOD  

E-print Network

EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE SHAPING CHILDHOOD: Factors that Matter 2014 Sponsored by In co 31 FEBRUARY 1to 2014 #12;EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE 2014 | SHAPING CHILDHOOD: FACTORS THAT MATTER 2 research on early childhood development

Handy, Todd C.

322

20-Year CCOP Research Bases  

Cancer.gov

Community Clinical Oncology Program Celebrates 20 Years of Research 20-Year CCOP Research Bases Research Bases develop and implement the cancer prevention and control clinical trials of the CCOP program. The following Research Bases have been a continuous

323

Five Years at Beaumont College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beaumont College in Lancaster, England offers 2 year courses with emphasis on social learning and personal development (including career and leisure skills) for students 16 to 19 years old with physical disabilities and specific learning difficulties. (CL)

Brindley, Allan; Marshall, George

1982-01-01

324

EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE SHAPING CHILDHOOD  

E-print Network

EARLY YEARS CONFERENCE SHAPING CHILDHOOD: Factors that Matter 2014 Sponsored by In co 31 FEBRUARY 1to 2014 #12;Early Years Conference 2014: Shaping Childhood: Factors that Matter Social. The Early Years Conference 2014 - SHAPING CHILDHOOD: Factors that Matter was designed to broaden our

Pulfrey, David L.

325

The Year 1999 in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

Speights, Dave

2001-01-01

326

Geology -Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4  

E-print Network

Geology - Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 32160 or BL2170, and CH 1120 are not required for the Earth and Space Science teaching major as described by the Department of Education. The B.S. in Geology with the Earth and Space Science Education

327

Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long-term changes in symptoms and flow rate: results of a four-year, randomized trial comparing finasteride versus placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in addition to prostate volume, is associated with long-term changes in symptoms and urinary flow rate.Methods. Three thousand forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia enrolled in the PLESS trial were randomly assigned to finasteride 5 mg or placebo for 4 years. Symptoms and flow rate were assessed every 4 months, and data

Claus G. Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; Donald Bergner; Todd Gray; Marc Gittelman; Thomas Shown; Arnold Melman; R. Bruce Bracken; Ralph deVere White; Alice Taylor; Daniel Wang; Joanne Waldstreicher

1999-01-01

328

Naive (Bayes) at forty: The independence assumption in information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naive Bayes classifier, currently experiencing a\\u000a renaissance in machine learning, has long been a core\\u000a technique in information retrieval. We review some of the\\u000a variations of naive Bayes models used for text retrieval\\u000a and classification, focusing on the distributional\\u000a assumptions made about word occurrences in documents.

David D. Lewis

1998-01-01

329

One Hundred and Forty Optical Transients discovered by CRTS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Further to ATel#3081, we report the CRTS discovery of 140 optical transients in data taken by Mount Lemmon Survey (MLS) 1.5m telescope between Dec 1st and 26th. All MLS data were processed for transients in real-time by CRTS and discoveries were openly announced at http://www.skyalert.org/ . Details of these and other optical transients discovered in MLS data can be found at http://nesssi.cacr.caltech.edu/MLS/Allns.html The discovery details of 13 new supernova candidates are as follows:

Drake, A. J.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Mahabal, A. A.; Graham, M. J.; Williams, R.; Donalek, C.; Myers, A.; Prieto, J.; Catelan, M.; Christensen, E.; Beshore, E. C.; Larson, S. M.; McNaught, R. H.

2011-01-01

330

Forty mouse strain survey of water and sodium intake  

PubMed Central

We measured voluntary water and sodium intakes of 40 inbred strains of mice. Groups of ~10 males and ~10 females from each strain received a series of 48-h tests with a choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of one of the following: water, 25, 75, and 225 mM NaCl, 25, 75, and 225 sodium lactate. Sodium solution intakes were influenced by strain, sex, anion and concentration: Nine strains drank significantly more chloride than lactate, and only one strain (I/LnJ) drank significantly more lactate than chloride. The other 30 strains drank similar volumes of chloride and lactate. Sodium intakes were higher in females than males of 8 strains and did not differ by sex in the other 32 strains. Some strains had consistently high sodium intakes and preferred all sodium solutions to water (129S1/SvImJ, MA/MyJ, NZW/LacJ and SWR/J), some showed indifference (i.e. preferences not significantly different from 50%) to all concentrations tested (A/J, C57BL/6J, FVB/NJ and SEA/GnJ), and some had consistently low sodium intakes (AKR/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/10J, CBA/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, JF1/Ms, LP/J, NON/LtJ, PERA/EiJ, PL/J, and RIIIS/J). The results illustrate the diversity of voluntary sodium intake in mice and will assist in the selection of appropriate strains for focused genetic and physiological analyses. PMID:17490693

Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Reed, Danielle R.

2007-01-01

331

Women's tidal power plant Forty candles for Kislaya Guba TPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal energy has been used for centuries. Tidal current and rise and fall of tides were both put to work. They provided power for flour mills, saw mills, breweries, etc. Tide mills dotted several regions of Europe from The Netherlands to Spain and from Wales to England. Immigrants brought the technique to the “New World” to the United States and

Marie-Claire Chaineux; Roger H. Charlier

2008-01-01

332

Warner-Bratzler Shear evaluations of forty bovine muscles  

E-print Network

and sister who were always there in a time of need. vn TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT . Page DEDICATION . . ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . TABLE OF CONTENTS. vt V11 LIST OF TABLES. . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. II LITERATURE REVIEW. Marbling. Connective tissue... that attempt to explain how each influences tenderness. For all practical purposes, the three general characteristics considered most important are marbling, connective tissue, and the contractile state of the muscle. These factors also contribute...

Belew, Jason Burl

2012-06-07

333

Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Muddy Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Muddy Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. Forty-three cross sections were surveyed and 14 cross sections were synthesized along a 6.7-mile reach of Muddy Creek. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface flood elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile shows the streambed elevation and the location of one bridge, one culvert, and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

Omang, R.J.

1994-01-01

334

[50 years after Anne Frank: reactive of a transgenerational trauma in countertransference].  

PubMed

Traumatizations suffered in the course of the atrocities perpetrated by the National Socialists defy symbolization and, if unresolved, are passed on to subsequent generations. With reference to the psychoanalytic treatment of a forty-year-old homosexual of the "second generation", the author traces the problematic of the transgenerational handing-down of unresolved traumatizations. The son of a Jewess whose brother was murdered in a concentration camp, the patient had to stand in for his lost uncle and remained caught up in a "symbiotic illusion" with this omni-present/absent object and with the mother, thus being unable to attain to a personality of his own and achieve the Oedipal triad. The article concentrates entirely on this case and provides an impressive record of the mechanisms of transference and counter-transference involved and the various stages of the psychoanalytic process. PMID:7871187

Halberstadt-Freud, H C

1995-01-01

335

Alley Oop: 75 Years of the Comic World of V.T. Hamlin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1932 by cartoonist V.T. Hamlin, the comic strip Alley Oop chronicled the adventures of a prehistoric man as he made his way through daily life in the kingdom of Moo. Oop's various trials and tribulations also offered trenchant commentaries on suburban life in the United States, and Hamlin drew the strip himself for forty years. This online exhibition, created by the University of Missouri Libraries Special Collections, draws interested parties into the world of Alley Oop through a series of thoughtful essays and examples of Hamlin's work. The sections of the exhibit include "V.T. Hamlin", "Alley Oop and Popular Culture", and "After Alley Oop". Visitors should definitely check out the "Alley Oop and Popular Culture" area as it contains shots of the Alley Oop figurine, information on the short-lived Alley Oop musical, and the Alley Oop commemorative stamp.

336

A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later.  

PubMed

In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:24034806

2013-10-01

337

Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

US Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

338

Partnerships Between Two-Year Colleges and Four Year Institutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presentation by Keith Clay, Edward Price and Mel Sabella at the 2012 PhysTEC Conference about the relationship between two-year colleges and four-year institutions. Each presents on the specific relationship at their institutions regarding teacher preparation, including challenges, successes and lessons learned.

Sabella, Mel; Clay, Keith; Price, Edward

2012-02-27

339

Undecided First-Year Students: A 25-Year Longitudinal Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed over 25 years first-year students entering college undecided about a major. Entering students' responses were consistent in terms of their demographic characteristics, reasons for attending college, and levels of undecidedness. Their levels of anxiety about choosing a major increased only slightly. They did not differ significantly from a…

Gordon, Virginia N.; Steele, George E.

2003-01-01

340

Organized Physical Activity in Young School Children Predicts Subsequent 4-Year Change in Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether participation in organized outdoor team sports and structured indoor non-school activity programs in kindergarten and first grade predicted subsequent 4-year change in Body Mass Index (BMI) across the adiposity rebound period of childhood. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Forty-five schools in 13 communities across Southern California. Participants Largely Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children (N = 4,550; average age at study entry 6.60 years, standard deviation 0.65). Main Exposures Parents completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, demographic characteristics and other relevant covariates at baseline. Data on built and social environmental variables were linked to the neighborhood around children’s homes using geographical information systems (GIS). Main Outcome Measures Each child’s height and weight were measured annually during 4-years of follow-up. Results After adjusting for several confounders, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate for children who participated in outdoor organized team sports at least twice per week as compared to children who did not. For participation in each additional indoor non-school structured activity classes, lessons, and program, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate, and the attained BMI level at age 10 was 0.48 units lower. Conclusions Engagement in organized sports and activity programs as early as kindergarten and the first grade may result in smaller increases in BMI during the adiposity rebound period of childhood. PMID:22869403

Dunton, Genevieve; McConnell, Rob; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Lam, Claudia; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

2012-01-01

341

High-ozone summer last years brings repercussions this year  

SciTech Connect

The hot summer of 1995 brought a dramatic increase in the number of ozone exceedences across the country, and it`s resulting in many nonattainment areas taking another look at fuels requirements to return to attainment status. In a few cases, reformulated gasoline opt-ins are being discussed with more interest than at any time in the past several years. Partial-year RFG seasons have been mentioned. And fuel additives are getting more attention, too, as evidence is s;ought to confirm their ozone and NO{sub x}-reduction potential. Experts say that the latest RFG tide will diminish if voluntary measures adopted in most regions combine with this year`s cooler summer to avert another year of many exceedences.

Adler, K.

1996-09-01

342

Twenty years of plasma physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first major activity at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics was the International Seminar on Plasma Physics held in Trieste from October 5-31, 1964, followed in 1965 by a highly successful full year's working group activity in plasma theory. This volume, Twenty Years of Plasma Physics, represents a commemoration of the 1964 Seminar, hopefully will be similarly useful, and

Mc Namara

1985-01-01

343

Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years  

E-print Network

It was 150 years ago that the English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that he could generate electricity's Conversations on Chemistry. ____________ Origins Michael Faraday was born on the 22nd of September, 1791#12;#12;LINES AND WAVES Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years Of Electromagnetism Robert D. Friedel Center

Jones, R. Victor

344

Language Development: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Ages & Stages > Toddler > Language Development: 2 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two- ... school. You can help enrich his vocabulary and language skills by making reading a part of your everyday routine. At this age, he can follow a story line and will ...

345

Outlook: The Next Twenty Years  

SciTech Connect

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-12-07

346

Canada Year Book Historical Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about Canada's past just became a bit easier with the Canada Year Book Historical Collection website. The site provides access to one hundred years worth of the annual "Canada Year Book". These books cover the years 1867 to 1967, and visitors will get the opportunity to learn about social and economic history from across the provinces. Visitors can browse by year or topic, and looking over the topics, which include "Occupations" and Economic Gains" is a good way to start. Additionally, visitors can also browse tables, charts, and maps as they see fit. Educators will want to look through the "Tools and Reference" area, as it contains lesson plans and a set of links to related sites.

347

Communications satellites - The experimental years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

Edelson, B. I.

1983-01-01

348

Accountability report - fiscal year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

NONE

1998-04-01

349

Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

350

The First Year and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

John Gardner reflects on everything from current efforts to improve the first-year experience to the assessment movement, student expectations of college, professional preparation for student affairs, and more. (Author)

Schroeder, Charles

2003-01-01

351

HAPPY NEW YEAR! Semiconductor Spintronics  

E-print Network

HAPPY NEW YEAR! #12;Semiconductor Spintronics Niu Burkov Culcer Nunez Nomura Yao Sinova Sinitsyn Workshop #12;Spintronics Toolbag Ferromagnetic Semiconductors (Ga,Mn)As .... others Coupled Spin Charge Effects Toolbag Zeeman Coupling Semiconductor Ferromagnetism Ferromagnetism Spin-Orbit Coupling Optical

Nikolic, Branislav K.

352

Sixty years of genome biology  

PubMed Central

Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery. PMID:23651518

2013-01-01

353

Biology in the Third Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an "environmental biology" syllabus offered to third year students at Ounsdale Comprehensive School. Six project areas are described: an individual investigation, a plant project, human biology, rural science, habitat surveys, interdependence. (CS)

Wilcox, R. J.

1977-01-01

354

25 Years of Landsat 5  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

355

Communications satellites - The experimental years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

Edelson, B. I.

1983-10-01

356

MSU Bozeman Year Founded: 1893  

E-print Network

College Pro- grams Mascot: Bobcat Athletic Conference: Big Sky, NCAA Division I MSU Billings Year Founded responsible leadership and systematic guidance to preserve and advance the physical environment of MSU

Maxwell, Bruce D.

357

Katrina Retrospective: 5 Years Later  

NASA Video Gallery

Five years after Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast, NASA revisits the storm with a short video that shows Katrina as captured by satellites. Before and during the hurricane's landfall, NASA p...

358

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-03-21

359

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2001  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the HSN, there were 477 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2001 on the data acquisition system. Of these triggers, 176 were earthquakes. Forty-five earthquakes were located in the HSN area; 1 earthquake occurred in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 43 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 1 was earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 44 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was on a major structure, and no earthquakes were classified as random occurrences. The Horse Heaven Hills earthquake swarm area recorded all but one event during the first quarter of FY 2001. The peak of the activity occurred over December 12th, 13th, and 14th when 35 events occurred. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the first quarter of FY 2001.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Valenta, Michelle M.

2001-02-27

360

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2000 Report  

SciTech Connect

The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of he Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2000. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance,(3) ecosystem mapping, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species were conducted for 24 NTS projects. Seventeen sites were in desert tortoise habitat, and six acres of tortoise habitat were documented as being disturbed this year. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed. A topical report describing the classification of habitat types o n the NTS was completed. The report is the culmination of three years of field vegetation mapping and the analysis of vegetation data from over 1,500 ecological landform units. A long-term monitoring plan for important plant species that occur on the NTS was completed. Sitewide inventories were conducted for the western burrowing owl, bat species of concern, wild horses, raptor nests, and mule deer. Fifty-nine of 69 known owl burrows were monitored. Forty-four of the known burrows are in disturbed habitat. As in previous years, some owls were present year round on the NTS. An overall decrease in active owl burrows was observed within all three ecoregions (Mojave Desert, Transition, Great Basin Desert) from October through January. An increase in active owl burrows was observed from mid-March to early April. A total of 45 juvenile owls was detected from eight breeding pairs. One nest burrow was detected in the Mojave Desert,one in the Great Basin Desert, and six in the Transition ecoregion. Seventy bats, representing four bat species of concern, were captured in mist-nets at water sources in the Great Basin Desert ecoregion. Bats were detected with the Anabat II call-recording system at selected tunnel and mine entrances verifying that some NTS mines and tunnels are used as bat roosts. Thirty-seven adult horses and 11 foals were counted this year. Four of the five foals observed last year have survived to yearlings. A monitoring plan for NTS horses was completed. Six active red-tailed hawk nests and 10 nestling red-tailed hawks were detected this year. Two spotlighting surveys for mule deer were conducted, each over three consecutive nights in October 1999 and August 2000. The mean sighting rate in October was 1.2 deer/10 kilometers (km) and 1.6 deer/10 km in August. Selected wetlands and man-made water sources were monitored for physical parameters and wildlife use. No dead animals were observed this year in any plastic-lined sump. Pahute Mesa Pond was confirmed to have vegetation,hydrology, and soil indicators that qualify the site as a jurisdictional wetland. The chemical spill test plan for one experiment at the HAZMAT Spill Center was reviewed for its potential to impact biota downwind of spills on Frenchman Lake playa.

Wills, C.A.

2000-12-01

361

Revision to Malabsorptive Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass (MRNYGBP) Provides Long-Term (10 Years) Durable Weight Loss in Patients with Failed Anatomically Intact Gastric Restrictive Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Twenty percent of gastric restrictive operations require revision. Conversion to Proximal Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (PRNYGBP)\\u000a is associated with weight regain. Forty-one percent of these fail to achieve a body mass index (BMI)?years. We report the long-term effectiveness of MRNYGBP as a revision.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective chart review of patients (1993–2005) with

Myur Srinivasan Srikanth; Ki Hyun Oh; Samuel Ross Fox

2011-01-01

362

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

363

Instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody fusion device (Cage) in degenerative disc disease (DDD): 3 years outcome.  

PubMed

This prospective interventional study carried out at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and a private hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from October 2003 to September 2011. Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) should aim to re-expand the interbody space and stabilize until fusion is complete. The present study conducted to find out the efficacy of using interbody fusion device (Cage) to achieve interbody space re-expansion and fusion in surgical management of DDD. We have performed the interventional study on 53 patients, 42 female and 11 male, with age between 40 to 67 years. All the patients were followed up for 36 to 60 months (average 48 months). Forty seven patients were with spondylolisthesis and 06 with desiccated disc. All subjects were evaluated with regard to immediate and long term complications, radiological fusion and interbody space re-expansion and maintenance. The clinical outcome (pain and disability) was scored by standard pre and postoperative questionnaires. Intrusion, extrusion and migration of the interbody fusion cage were also assessed. Forty seven patients were considered to have satisfactory outcome in at least 36 months follow up. Pseudoarthrosis developed in 04 cases and 06 patients developed complications. In this series posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody cage and instrumentation in DDD showed significant fusion rate and maintenance of interbody space. Satisfactory outcome observed in 88.68% cases. PMID:24292314

Ahsan, M K; Hossain, M A; Sakeb, N; Khan, S I; Zaman, N

2013-10-01

364

ADL-reduction and need for technical aids among 70-year-olds. From the population study of 70-year-olds in Göteborg.  

PubMed

Six hundred and nineteen persons from the population study of 70-year-olds "The intervention study of the elderly in Göteborg" (IVEG) were examined. They were interviewed in their home environment concerning their ability to manage activities of daily living (ADL), and the definition "ADL-reduction" is based on seven of these ADL-measurements. One third of the 70-year-old population had reduced ADL-capability, some only slightly. Joint disorders, paresis and congestive heart failure were the most common problems among the ADL-reduced subjects. Forty-three per cent of the ADL-reduced subjects (19% of total) received help with their personal care and/or housekeeping. One third had technical aid, mostly quite simple and inexpensive. Half were provided with new technical aids. The need for technical aids and home help service was noted and intervention undertaken as and when necessary. The needs were correlated to physical activity and performance in functional tests. The results do not illustrate the occurrence of handicap but are aimed at illustrating the special needs that elderly people may have in their normal surroundings. PMID:3180153

Gosman-Hedström, G; Aniansson, A; Persson, G B

1988-04-01

365

1992 five year battery forecast  

SciTech Connect

Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

Amistadi, D.

1992-12-01

366

Kuru-fifty years later.  

PubMed

Kuru, the first human neurodegenerative disease classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, prion disease or, in the past, slow unconventional virus disease, was first reported to Western medicine in 1957 by D. Carleton Gajdusek and Vincent Zigas. Thus, this year marks the 50th anniversary of kuru discovery, highlighted by the symposium The end of kuru: 50 years of research into an extraordinary disease organized by John Collinge and Michael Alpers at the Royal Society, London, November 11-12, 2007. In this review, we summarize some data on the epidemiology, neuropathology and clinical picture of kuru. PMID:18224577

Liberski, Pawe? P; Brown, Paul

2007-01-01

367

Ten Thousand Years of Solitude  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

1991-03-01

368

Sex-Related and Age-Related Differences in Knee Strength of Basketball Players Ages 11–17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players ages 11–13 and 15–17 years. Design and Setting: This cross-sectional study occurred during the 2000 American Youth Basketball Tour National Tournament. We investigated whether sex- or age-related strength differences existed among study participants. Subjects: Forty-one tournament participants (22 girls, 19 boys; 11–13 or 15–17 years old) who reported no history of knee sprain or surgery were recruited. Measurements: We used a Cybex II dynamometer to obtain isokinetic concentric peak torques relative to body mass (Nm/kg) at 60°/s for hamstrings and quadriceps bilaterally. From average peak torques, we determined ipsilateral hamstrings:quadriceps and homologous muscle-group ratios. Results: Correlations between hamstrings and quadriceps strength measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.97. Players 15–17 years old had greater relative hamstrings and quadriceps strength than 11- to 13-year-old athletes. Age and sex interacted significantly for quadriceps strength. The quadriceps strength of 15- to 17-year-old girls did not differ from that of 11- to 13-year-old girls, whereas 15- to 17-year-old boys had stronger quadriceps than 11- to 13-year-old boys. Boys 15–17 years old had greater quadriceps strength than girls 15–17 years old. Conclusions: This study is unique in providing normative data for the hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players 11–13 and 15–17 years old. Age-related strength differences did not occur consistently between the sexes, as girls 11–13 and 15–17 years old had similar relative quadriceps strength. PMID:14608433

Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

2003-01-01

369

[Thirty years of activity at the center for cystic fibrosis in Parma].  

PubMed

One hundred fourteen patients (52 males, age range 1 to 40 yr, median age 16 yr) affected by Cystic Fibrosis (CF) are currently followed by the CF Centre of Parma. Forty two percent of them are adults. Most patients live in Emilia Romagna (59%) and Lombardia (19%). With respect to CF genotype, delta F508 mutation has been found in 54% of patients. Despite of the improvement in knowledge of CF, its diagnosis is still based on the clinical features and sweat test is usually used to confirm the diagnosis. Recent diagnostic tools, such as the genetic analysis and the potential difference measurement, could also be helpful in ambiguous situations. In the CF Centre of Parma, in agreement with the literature, the disease is now diagnosed earlier than in the past. Particularly, in the last year the median age of diagnosis was seven months, while it was 20 months in the 1980s. The early diagnosis and the improvement in the treatment of lung disease has significantly increased the median survival age of our patients, changing from 7.5 years in 1975 to 20 years in 1999. A significant improvement in CF prognosis could be further achieved by potential investigational agents, such as "protein-repair" addressed to CFTR activation. However, the gold standard for CF therapy is represented by gene therapy, although it is not yet available. PMID:11424611

Grzincich, G; Pisi, G; Spaggiari, C; Marvasi, R; Battistini, A

2000-01-01

370

Psychological predictors of male smokeless tobacco use initiation and cessation: A 16-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Aims To test whether psychological factors longitudinally predict male smokeless tobacco (SLT) initiation and cessation. Design Sixteen year longitudinal design with 95% retention at year six and 82% at year sixteen. Setting Forty Washington State school districts. Participants SLT use data were gathered on a cohort of adolescents (91% Caucasian). For SLT initiation, the sample size was 2,468. For SLT cessation, sample sizes were 219 (age 20 outcome) and 192 (age 28 outcome). Measurements Self-reported psychological measures of parental disobedience (“parent-noncompliance”), peer influence (“friend-compliance”), rebelliousness, and thrill-seeking were taken at ages 12 and 18. SLT use was measured at ages 12, 18, 20, and 28. Findings For SLT initiation, scoring high on the following psychological factors at age 12 at least doubled the odds of daily SLT use at age 18 (p < .001): friend-compliance (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.78 – 3.68), rebelliousness (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.46 – 3.19), and thrill-seeking (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.45 – 3.75). For SLT cessation, none of the psychological factors at age 18 predicted SLT cessation at age 20 or 28 (p value range: .06 to .94). Conclusion Peer influence, rebelliousness, and thrill-seeking appear to strongly predict smokeless tobacco initiation among male youth in the USA. PMID:23607490

Holman, Leela R.; Bricker, Jonathan B.; Comstock, Bryan A.

2013-01-01

371

2012: A Year in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When historians review 2012 for its noteworthy moments, events and milestones, they will find the year was a trying one for the American higher education system, despite its being able to educate and enlighten thousands in search of more choices and preparation for adult self-sufficiency. Many academicians and students worked for and celebrated…

Stuart, Reginald

2012-01-01

372

Columbine High: Five Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the country. That…

Hurst, Marianne D.

2004-01-01

373

Education, Early Years, Childhood, Youth  

E-print Network

Education, Early Years, Childhood, Youth and Community Postgraduate 2013 #12;Welcome Manchester of Education has a global vision which can help you realise your ambitions. Studying within a lively has a strong educational research profile of international acclaim and we pride ourselves on providing

374

Graduation 2010: Third Year Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third-year implementation of Graduation 2010, a districtwide public-school initiative, had its beginnings in brain-based research and involvement from both school and community. The original plan for the program had eight strands: Arts, Music, Foreign Language, Reading/Language Development, Thinking Skills, Health/Emotional Health, Family…

O'Phelan, Mary H.; Norman, Antony D.; Ecton, Gayle W.

375

Graduation 2010: Second Year Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second-year implementation of Graduation 2010, a districtwide public-school initiative, had its beginnings in brain-based research and involvement from both school and community. The original plan for the program had eight strands: (1) Arts; (2) Music; (3) Foreign Language; (4) Reading/Language Development; (5) Thinking Skills; (6)…

O'Phelan, Mary H.; Norman, Antony D.; Ecton, Gayle W.

376

The Year of the Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher in…

Hinshaw, Craig

2010-01-01

377

Annual Review of the Year  

E-print Network

will play a major role in cutting Scotland's carbon footprint as well as positioning forestry to be an increasingly important player in the national economy in the next few years. But carbon-sequestering wood can substitute for more than just carbon-emitting fuels. It can also replace carbon-intensive materials

378

1974 is World Population Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a special issue of the Asian Population Programme News. This particular publication is concerned with population year 1974. Highlights from the thirtieth session of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) are presented. World, regional, and country population news are included in separate sections. A listing…

Asian Population Programme News, 1974

1974-01-01

379

METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS  

E-print Network

METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS Center commemorates golden anniversary with symposium, lecture's largest mass extinction event MEET THE METEORITE MEN Science Channel's meteorite hunters Geoff Notkin and Steve Arnold talk space rocks TALES FROM THE VAULT Explore what's in the meteorite vault S O U R C ES O

Rhoads, James

380

Integration Multi-Year Program  

E-print Network

EERE Grid Integration Multi-Year Program Plan U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency.........................................................................................13 Challenge 1: Enhancing Operations to Manage Variability and Uncertainty of High Penetration.........................................................................................................................................13 Challenge 2: Inadequate Tools for Regional Entities to Plan for Increased VG on the Grid

381

CEC Teacher of the Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interview with Brenda Jean Robbins, a Florida music therapist and teacher selected as 1995 Teacher of the Year by the Council for Exceptional Children, reveals her views about music therapy, goals, relationship of music therapy to the special education classroom, musical performance, and getting parents involved. (DB)

Voyles, Lynda

1995-01-01

382

Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

Gray, Andrew

383

The past year brought much  

E-print Network

. Kirby, and Associate Provosts Marcia Wilson Brown and Gary Roth. F A L L 2 0 0 2 New Campus Leadership-year $1.4 million grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The grant is enabling Buzsaki-up pictures and recordings of brain cells talking to each other and forming memories. With the NIH grant

Hanson, Stephen José

384

25 Years Down the Line  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this final of three Special 25th Anniversary Reports, the authors attempt to paint a picture of what the future of education should, could, or might be. They asked readers, industry experts, authors, tech gurus and scientists, "What will "school" look like in the year 2030?" This compendium reflects their varied predictions, hopes, cautions,…

McLester, Susan

2005-01-01

385

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

386

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 202 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 201 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

387

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 105 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 104 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

388

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 106H GENERAL BIOLOGY II HONORS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 105H GENERAL BIOLOGY I HONORS Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

389

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 151 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

390

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 117 + BIOL 118 GENERAL BIOLOGY II and LAB Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 115 + BIOL 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY I and LAB Introductory Chemistry

Suzuki, Masatsugu

391

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 01400 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 01300 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

392

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 132 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 131 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

393

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

394

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 1580 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 1570 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

395

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 115 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

396

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 1520 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 1510 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

397

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 156 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 155 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

398

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY SC 139 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: ANIMALS AND PLANTS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY SC 135 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: MOLECULES AND CELLS Introductory Chemistry

Suzuki, Masatsugu

399

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 220 BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 210 BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY I CHE 201

Suzuki, Masatsugu

400

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

401

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 110 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 109 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

402

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 117 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 118 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

403

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 / BY 52 MODERN BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 150 / BY 50 MODERN BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

404

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

405

EDITORIAL: Chernobyl20 years on  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty years ago on 26 April 2006, the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident occurred (or, more precisely, the explosion that marked the start of the accident occurred - the resultant fire lasted several days). This is by far the largest unintentional release of radioactive material into the environment and caused widespread contamination in Europe, which was sufficiently great in the vicinity

Richard Wakeford

2006-01-01

406

The Four-Year Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that in 1996, Alabama officials approved the "4 x 4" plan, which made their state the first in the country to require students to complete four years, or four credits each, of math and science for high school graduation. Other states have since followed suit, with policymakers arguing that higher standards are necessary to…

Cavanagh, Sean

2009-01-01

407

Research Councils UK Sixty years  

E-print Network

led to the development of tools such as DNA sequencing, fingerprinting and chips that have had a huge-funded scientist Sir Alec Jeffrey's invention of DNA fingerprinting technology has helped to further push forwardResearch Councils UK Sixty years of DNA #12;Research funded by the Research Councils provides

Berzins, M.

408

1987: Alternative energy's watershed year  

Microsoft Academic Search

1987 is a watershed year in shaping the near and long-term future for alternative energy. Major events are taking place that will determine how power will be sold through the end of the 20th century and perhaps beyond. These events may, upon reflection, prove to be history in the making for the alternative energy industry. Some of the changes that

Ganotis

1988-01-01

409

Thirty years of chlorophyll modeling.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the progress over approximately thirty-year's work of the author in developing a model of photosynthesis involving chlorophyll on polymeric substrates that would photosensitize endergonic electron transfer. The system finally achieved might, with proper modifications, serve as a means of generating power from solar energy. PMID:24821443

Seely, G R

2014-03-01

410

Extramural Activities, Fiscal Year 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adult Development and Aging Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development supports research and training relevant to the biological and behavioral changes that occur in humans with increasing age from the adult years through maturity and old age. Supported are research projects, training projects, special and…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

411

Children's Order 10 Years on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten years ago I wrote an article on the Children's Order, which was coming into force in Northern Ireland in October 1996. I examined the principles behind the Children's Order and considered how these principles interacted with the practice of family mediation (at that stage I was Coordinator of the Family Mediation service). Since that date…

Kerr, Linda

2006-01-01

412

Fuel ethanol after 25 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for

Alan E Wheals; Luiz C Basso; Denise M. G Alves; Henrique V Amorim

1999-01-01

413

The Year of Secret Assignments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The path to "novelist" was a convoluted one for Moriarty, who began writing fiction as doctoral student at Cambridge University. Her interest in young adults stems from an appreciation for the "troubles, strengths, and surprises of that age group." Now, in a uniquely formatted book titled "The Year of Secret Assignments," we peek inside the mind…

Moriarty, Jaclyn

2004-01-01

414

1983 First Year Student Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1983, a study was conducted at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT) to determine the factors that influence students to come to the college. The study sought information from first-year day students regarding their demographic characteristics and objectives in attending BCIT, factors influencing their decision to attend, and…

Bannister, Deborah

415

Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

2002-05-01

416

High-Dose-Rate Rotte 'Y' Applicator Brachytherapy for Definitive Treatment of Medically Inoperable Endometrial Cancer: 10-Year Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the intermediate clinical outcomes of medically inoperable patients with endometrial cancer treated with definitive Rotte 'Y' applicator high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) over a 10-year period. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine inoperable patients were treated with HDRB from 1997 to 2007. Forty three (84%) were markedly obese (body mass index >35 kg/m{sup 2}). Thirty-one patients (63.3%) underwent two-dimensional treatment planning, whereas 18 patients (36.7%) underwent three-dimensional treatment planning. Thirty five of the patients (71.4%) were first treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). For patients receiving EBRT in addition to HDRB, the median Y-applicator dose was 20 Gy in 5 fractions; for patients receiving HDRB alone it was 35 Gy in 5 fractions. All patients received two Y-applicator treatments per day. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 33 months. Acute HDRB toxicities were limited to Grade 1 and 2 occurring in 5 patients. One patient had a myocardial infarction. Four patients had late Grade 2 or 3 toxicity. Three patients had local recurrence (median time to recurrence, 16 months). The 3- and 5-year actuarial cause-specific survival rates were 93% and 87%, respectively; the overall survival rate was 83% and 42%, respectively, at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions: Twice-daily HDRB using a Y-applicator is a well-tolerated and efficacious regimen for the definitive treatment of medically inoperable patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. The recent incorporation of three-dimensional treatment planning has the potential to further decrease treatment morbidities.

Coon, Devin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)], E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu; Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Zorn, Kristin K.; Krivak, Thomas C. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2008-07-01

417

Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Early Traumatic Brain Injury in 3-Year-Old Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The purpose of this work was to determine cognitive and adaptive behavioral outcomes of children with traumatic brain injury acquired before age 2 years and to compare outcomes between inflicted versus noninflicted brain injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS All of the North Carolina children hospitalized in an ICU for a traumatic brain injury before age 2 years between the years 2000 and 2001 were eligible for study entry. A total of 112 surviving children were prospectively identified, 52 (46%) of whom had complete follow-up. Thirty-one control children were recruited from preschool settings. Control subjects were chosen to be demographically similar to case subjects. Child measures of cognition and adaptive behavior at age 3 years were measured and compared between children with and without traumatic brain injury and children with inflicted and noninflicted traumatic brain injury. RESULTS Sixty percent of injured children were >1 SD below normal on cognitive testing. Forty percent of injured children scored >1 SD below normal on adaptive behavior testing. Children with inflicted traumatic brain injury performed more poorly on tests of cognition and adaptive behavior. Glasgow Coma Scale ?13, absence of seizures, income above twice the poverty guidelines, and high social capital were associated with improved outcomes. Injured children had lower scores than uninjured control children after adjustment for socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS Very young children with mild-to-severe traumatic brain injury as measured by the Glasgow Coma Scale are at risk for global cognitive deficits more than a year after the time of injury. Inflicted brain injury is associated with more severe injury and worse outcomes. This is less optimistic than findings in this same cohort 1 year after injury. Family characteristics seem to play a role in recovery after injury. PMID:17332181

Keenan, Heather T.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Wetherington, Crista E.; Nocera, Maryalice; Runyan, Desmond K.

2008-01-01

418

Results From a Transitional-Year Program Director Survey: Identifying Crucial Issues and Concerns  

PubMed Central

Background Transitional Year (TY) programs meet an important need by preparing residents for specialties that accept individuals after an initial preparatory year. To our knowledge, no surveys to date have been conducted to identify attributes of TY programs and concerns of TY program directors. Purpose The purpose of this study was to review TY program characteristics and identify critical issues and concerns of TY program directors (TYPDs). Methods A web-based, 22-question survey was sent to all 114 TYPDs of programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education between January and April 2011. The survey included open-formatted and closed-formatted questions addressing program and institution demographics, program director time, administrative support, satisfaction, and future plans. Results The survey response rate was 86%. The median age of TY programs was 28 years, with few new programs. More than 80% of TY programs were conducted at community hospitals and university-affiliated community hospitals. Of the responding TYPDs, 17% had served less than 2 years, and 32% had served 10 years or more. Common sponsoring TY programs included internal medicine (88%), general surgery (42%), family medicine (25%), emergency medicine (24%), and pediatrics (18%). Overall, TYPDs were satisfied with their positions. They expressed concerns about inadequate time to complete duties, salary support, and administrative duties assigned to program coordinators. Forty-nine percent of TYPDs reported they planned to leave the position within the next 5 years. Conclusions Our survey provides useful information to assist institutions and the graduate medical education community in meeting the needs of TYPDs and strengthening TY programs. PMID:23451303

Craig, Steven R.; Smith, Hayden L.; Short, Matthew W.

2012-01-01

419

Pineal tumors: experience with 48 cases over 10 years.  

PubMed

The authors retrospectively reviewed 48 patients treated at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) between 1986 and 1995. There were 35 children and 13 adults, accounting for 10.1% of 345 pediatric and 0.68% of 1914 adult brain tumors in SNUH during the same period. The 48 cases consisted of 33 cases of germ cell tumor (69%, GCT); 6 of pineoblastoma (PB, 12.5%); 3 of pineocytoma (PC, 6.3%); 3 of anaplastic astrocytoma (6.3%); 1 of astrocytoma; 1 of glioblastoma; and 1 of ependymoma. The median age was 13 years (range 1-59) and the male-to-female ratio was 3.36:1. The most frequent presenting symptom was due to increased intracranial pressure (90%), followed by Parinaud syndrome or diplopia (50%). Patients with a benign tumor, such as teratoma (TE), astrocytoma, or ependymoma, underwent surgery by the occipital transtentorial approach (OTT) for attempted radical resection without adjuvant therapy, while patients with immature teratoma (imTE), PC, and anaplastic astrocytoma underwent regional radiotherapy (RT) after debulking via OTT. Seven patients with nongerminomatous malignant GCT (NG-MGCT) and 3 with germinoma (GE) underwent craniospinal radiation only, 6 with GE, a NG-MGCT, and 2 with GE+TE received craniospinal radiotherapy (CSRT) after debulking via OTT. Three patients with GE, 4 with NG-MGCT, and 3 with PB underwent radiochemotherapy after debulking via OTT. Forty-four patients were followed up after treatment. The median follow-up period was 36 months. All patients with GE were alive after RT at 36 months (median) of follow-up (range 7-70 months). All with GE+TE and TE were alive. Three patients with PC or astrocytoma were also alive with stable or no evidence of disease. In 1 of the 3 cases of imTE there was a recurrence. However, 4 patients with NG-MGCT died, all of whom had undergone CSRT only; 2 PB patients were alive (12, 19 months), 1 in a moribund status (36 months), and 2 were dead (6, 60 months). The overall mean survival time with pineal tumors was 66 months and the 3-year survival rate was 84% with minimal posttreatment complications. It is concluded that pineal region tumors have male and childhood predominances, and the most common tumor is GCT. The majority of pineal region tumors are malignant. Pineal region tumors can be approached safely and effectively and the surgical complications are mostly transient. Their prognosis is dependent on the pathologies and treatment modalities. PMID:9548342

Cho, B K; Wang, K C; Nam, D H; Kim, D G; Jung, H W; Kim, H J; Han, D H; Choi, K S

1998-01-01

420

100 Years of Brownian motion  

E-print Network

In the year 1905 Albert Einstein published four papers that raised him to a giant in the history of science of all times. These works encompass the photon hypothesis (for which he obtained the Nobel prize in 1921), his first two papers on (special) relativity theory and, of course, his first paper on Brownian motion, entitled "\\"Uber die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der W\\"arme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Fl\\"ussigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen'' (submitted on May 11, 1905). Thanks to Einstein intuition, the phenomenon observed by the Scottish botanist Rober Brown in 1827 - a little more than a naturalist's curiosity - becomes the keystone of a fully probabilistic formulation of statistical mechanics and a well-established subject of physical investigation which we celebrate in this Focus issue entitled - for this reason - : ``100 Years of Brownian Motion''.

Peter Hänggi; Fabio Marchesoni

2005-02-02

421

Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achieved final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

Jenifer Nordstrom

2012-11-01

422

Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: Summary of each site Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location Actions and Resolutions for each site. Six disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. One has achieved final stabilization. The remaining five sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

Jenifer Nordstrom

2013-11-01

423

Chris Jaffe: Youthful golden years.  

PubMed

From 2009 until his demise-roughly 50 years after his entrée into the acoustics field-Chris Jaffe was a valued partner in the Acentech Studio A team. We will share the manner in which his mentorship and guidance informed us and our profession. His self-deprecating humor could not disguise his intense knowledge, broad experience, willingness to help mentor junior staff, and engagement in new endeavors. He imbued his acoustics consulting "golden years" with youthful vigor, and he accomplished much: he finished his book, consulted on projects, shared back stories, enlivened our parties, introduced us to his friends and his manner of collaborating with them, and made an indelible imprint on both the content and style of our performing arts practice. Our presentation will share these experiences as life lessons for success and respect in our profession. PMID:25235477

Markham, Benjamin; Rosenberg, Carl

2014-04-01

424

Twenty-Two-Year Experience with Aortic Valve Replacement  

PubMed Central

From 1965 through 1986, 817 patients underwent aortic valve replacement at our institution. Six hundred forty-five patients received Starr-Edwards ball valves, including 286 Silastic ball valves (Models 1200/1260), 165 cloth-covered caged-ball prostheses (Models 2300/2310/2320), and 194 track-valve prostheses (Model 2400). In contrast, 172 patients received disc-valve prostheses, including 126 St. Jude Medical aortic bi-leaflet disc valves, 32 Lillehei-Kaster pivoting disc valves, and 14 Björk-Shiley valves (6 convexoconcave and 8 monostrut). With respect to preoperative data, the 2 groups were comparable, with the following differences. The Starr-Edwards group included 1) more men (77% versus 51%; p < 0.0001); 2) a significantly older patient population (59 ± 10 years versus 56 ± 15 years; p < 0.0001); 3) more patients in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV (72% versus 65%; p < 0.01); 4) fewer patients with angina pectoris as a limiting symptom (20% versus 36%; p < 0.0001); and 5) patients who tended to receive larger prostheses (26 ± 2 mm versus 23 ± 3 mm, p < 0.0001). The overall 10-year survival rate ± standard error was 59% ± 2% for patients receiving Starr-Edwards valves and 63% ± 6% for those with disc valves. The linearized complication rates (expressed as percentage per patient-year ± standard error) for the Starr-Edwards and disc-valve groups, respectively, were 2.0% ± 0.2% and 1.4% ± 0.5% for thromboembolism, 2.1% ± 0.2% and 3.9% ± 0.8% for Coumadin-related hemorrhage, 0.5% ± 0.1% and 0.3% ± 0.2% for endocarditis, 0.3% ± 0.1% and 0.7% ± 0.3% for other prosthesis-related complications, and 4.8% ± 0.1% and 6.4% ± 1.0% for all complications together. There were no instances of thrombotic occlusion or mechanical failure. After the 6th postoperative year, no thromboembolic events were encountered in patients with a Silastic ball valve; the 15-year freedom from thromboembolic events was 89%. Cox regression analysis showed that 1) a prosthetic orifice diameter of 15 mm or less was associated with an increased mortality; 2) disc valves entailed an increased rate of hemorrhage and prosthesis-related complications considered as a whole; 3) and Lillehei-Kaster valves led to an increased rate of prosthesis-related complications other than thromboembolism, hemorrhage, and endocarditis. Neither the type of prosthesis nor the size influenced the rate of thromboembolism, endocarditis, or prosthesis replacement. Because of their proven durability and relatively low price, we advocate the continued use of Starr-Edwards Model 1260 Silastic ball valves that have an orifice diameter of 16 mm or more. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:24-33) PMID:15227505

Pilegaard, Hans K.; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Torsten T.; Magnussen, Karin; Knudsen, Mary A.; Albrechtsen, Ole K.

1991-01-01

425

Earth's Yearly Revolution Around Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts the Earth revolving around the sun. The animation shows the tilt of earth's axis and shows that the tilt of the axis points in the same direction throughout the yearly revolution. The animation can be viewed from an oblique view and from a top view, includes optional labels of the months, and can be started and stopped at any point in the revolution.

426

International Year of Natural Fibres  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has designated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fibres. The goals of this year are three-fold: to raise the profile of natural fibers in a market increasingly dominated by synthetic fibers; convey the value of using natural fibers to consumers; and help sustain the income of the often poor farmers of natural fibers. This very interesting website for the "Year" is available in English, French, Chinese and Spanish. Visitors interested in learning about the history of natural fibers, as well as what different types of natural fibers there are, what they look like, and what they are used for, will find this website fits the bill. On the menu on the far right side of the page, visitors can click on the link "15 Natural Fibres" to peruse a brief history and learn about the different natural fibers that come from plants and animals. Most of the fibers featured include information on what the fiber is, who produces it, how it's produced, and how much is produced, which can be accessed by rolling the mouse over the name or picture of the fiber, and clicking. The link on the menu on the far right side of the page entitled "Fibre Stories" has four stories about new innovations for several different natural fibers. There is a story about cotton in Asia, hemp in China, alpaca in Peru, and sisal in Tanzania. Events around the world celebrating the International Year of Natural Fibres can be found on the far right menu, at the "Events" link.

427

AIDS epidemiology: the past ten years, the next ten years.  

PubMed

This article assesses the current seroprevalence of HIV worldwide, examines the patterns of infection over the past 10 years, and discusses the future impact of HIV. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 8 million people have become infected with HIV since the early 1980s. As of November 1990, WHO estimates that some 800,000 people have developed AIDS. 54% of the HIV infections have occurred in Africa, 35% in the Americas, and 8% in Western Europe. The main HIV transmission routes are: 1) sexual intercourse with an infected partner (accounting for 75% of all infections); 2) HIV-infected blood or blood products, which include blood transfusions (5%), IV drug use (10%), and other needle (0.1%); and 3) perinatal transmission from infected mother to infant (10%). The article describes the 3 patterns of HIV infection so far: 1) In industrialized countries and in Latin America, HIV infections appeared in the early 1980s among homosexual men or IV drug users and then spread to the heterosexual population; 2) In Eastern and Central Africa, where heterosexual sex has been the main transmission route, infections began in the late 1970s; 3) In the rest of the world, HIV was not introduced until the mid-1980s, and because of the low prevalence rate, the main transmission route has not yet been determined. By the year 2000, WHO expects some 15-20 million HIV infections among adults and some 5-6 million AIDS cases among adults. In some industrialized countries, AIDS could become the leading cause of death among 20-40 year olds during the 1990s. At the same time, AIDS will have a devastating effect on sub-Saharan Africa's urban population, which will see a great increase in child mortality rates and in the number of orphaned children. PMID:12284242

Crocchiolo, P R

1991-01-01

428

International Year of Freshwater 2003  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Near the conclusion of the year 2000, the United Nations General Assembly created a resolution to proclaim 2002 as the International Year of Freshwater. Given the importance of freshwater to all human, plant, and animal life, this designation seems altogether fitting and timely. As the resolution notes, it is hoped that many governments and political actors will use the year to increase awareness of the importance of sustainable freshwater use, management, and protection. To this end, this helpful Web site provides a host of online resources designed to educate the web-browsing public about various events related to this overriding theme, along with presenting an online library of publications about freshwater. Visitors can read the online newsletter, Splash, along with browsing a water library, organized by themes (such as water and society and ecosystems), and geographic regions. Another compelling feature are the water proverbs taken from a number of areas, including the Middle East and Latin America. Given the global mission of the site it is refreshing to note that many of the materials are also available in French and Spanish. [KMG

2003-01-01

429

Earth: 15 Million Years Ago  

E-print Network

In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the solar system has been orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s. The present theory concludes that the earth did not have seasons 15 million years ago. Therefore, the water on the earth was accumulated near the poles as ice and the sea level was very low. Geological evidence exists that confirms this effect. The resulting global ice-melting started 15 million years ago and is ending now.

Masataka Mizushima

2008-10-13

430

Clickers beyond the First Year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is ample evidence that the use of interactive engagement methods in the introductory physics courses produces significant learning gains. During the past decade peer response systems (clickers) became very popular among the science faculty. Their readiness to adopt clicker technology can be attributed to the constantly increasing class sizes and simultaneously decreasing level of student preparation. However, to the best of knowledge, the use of clickers has hardly penetrated beyond the first year science courses. At Ryerson University, we decided to study the effect of clicker-based pedagogy on student physics learning beyond the first year. ``Modern Physics'' and ``Electricity and Magnetism'' are the second and third year courses in our B.Sc. Medical Physics Program. Although both courses have an enrollment of fewer than 40 students per course, achieving significant learning gains proved to be challenging. Moreover, there is a lack of research data on how upper level science students perceive the effectiveness of clicker pedagogy. To answer these questions we conducted extensive interviews with the students and administered detailed surveys. In this paper, we report the preliminary results of the study and outline directions of future research.

Milner-Bolotin, Marina; Antimirova, Tetyana; Petrov, Anna

2009-05-01

431

Pilot study on the prevalence of abuse and mistreatment during clinical internship: a cross-sectional study among first year residents in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate perceptions of being mistreated during internship among first year Oman Medical Specialty Board residents. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Training centres for Oman Medical Specialty Board. Participants First year medical residents following completion of internship during the study period 2009–2010. Method A cross-sectional survey of first year medical residents. Results Of 58 residents (response rate 84%), 96.6% perceived that mistreatment exists. Among different types of mistreatment reported, verbal and academic abuses were the most common (87.9%), followed by sexual harassment (24.1%), then physical abuse (22.4%). Forty-four (75.9%) residents had advised at least one of their relatives not to join medical school. Conclusions Mistreatment of medical interns is an ethical issue challenging the quality of clinical training. Further research is needed to understand factors influencing mistreatment and to draw guidelines to limit such problems. PMID:23396558

Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Kaabi, Yousuf; Al-Farsi, Yousuf; White, Gillian; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Adawi, Samir

2013-01-01

432

Assessing two-year-olds' knowledge of number agreement morphology  

E-print Network

on nouns. To address possible methodological issues with picture selection and looking-time studies, a manual search task was used to tap receptive knowledge of these forms. Forty-eight 30- to 36-month-old children were tested on their receptive knowledge...

Blossom, Megan Stratton

2013-12-31

433

Fifty years with nuclear fission  

SciTech Connect

The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. (eds.) (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

1989-01-01

434

Vancomycin Revisited - 60 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Vancomycin is one of the older antibiotics that has been now in clinical use close to 60?years. Earlier on, vancomycin was associated with many side effects including vestibular and renal, most likely due to impurities contained in early vancomycin lots. Over the years, the impurities have been removed and the compound has now far less vestibular adverse effects, but still possesses renal toxicity if administered at higher doses rendering trough serum levels of >15?mcg/mL or if administered for prolonged periods of time. Vancomycin is effective against most Gram-positive cocci and bacilli with the exception of rare organisms as well as enterococci that became vancomycin resistant, mostly Enterococcus faecium. The major use of vancomycin today is for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and amoxicillin-resistant enterococci. In its oral form, vancomycin is used to treat diarrhea caused by Clsotridium difficile. With S. aureus, there are only a handful of vancomycin-resistant strains. Nevertheless, a “vancomycin creep” that is slow upward trending of vancomycin MIC from <1?mcg/mL to higher values has been noted in several parts of the world, but not globally, and strains that have MIC’s of 1.5–2?mcg/mL are associated with high therapeutic failure rates. This phenomenon has also been recently recognized in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). While vancomycin is relatively a safe agent adverse events include the “red man” syndrome, allergic reactions, and various bone marrow effects as well as nephrotoxicity. Vancomycin has been a very important tool in our therapeutic armamentarium that remained effective for many years, it is likely remain effective as long as resistance to vancomycin remains controlled.

Rubinstein, Ethan; Keynan, Yoav

2014-01-01

435

Rilke’s Last Year  

E-print Network

words, was "nicht nur ein grosser Dichter, sondern auch ein grosser Fuhrer." The Rilke Collection in the University of Kansas Library, assembled over the years by one of the most de voted and best informed of Rilke-collectors, the late Dr. Henry..., "cette etrange ville triste et comme rouillee." It is a place where Malte would have felt at home, which Rilke would have loved. The student who has made his way through the transcendental fogs of Germany's farewells to Rilke will feel relieved...

Schoolfield, George C.

1969-01-01

436

Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Michael Lewis

2009-10-01

437

Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

2010-11-01

438

The Singapore years and subsequently.  

PubMed

Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad was a medical student at the King Edward VII College of Medicine from 1947 to 1953. He described his student days with fondness; he made many friends while he was at the College. He recounted his early days as a doctor before he entered politics in 1964. He became the fourth and longest serving Prime Minister of Malaysia for 22 years from 1981 to 2003. He concluded "The contribution of my Medical College days in Singapore to the racial harmony, peace and prosperity of Malaysia is tangible but unquantifiable." PMID:16010378

Mahathir, M

2005-07-01

439

Exercise During the Childbearing Year  

PubMed Central

Many women wish to continue to pursue an active lifestyle during pregnancy, while the pregnancy itself may provide the motivation for other more sedentary women to begin an exercise program for the sake of improved health/fitness. Also, female competitive athletes, upon becoming pregnant, may wish to continue sports performance and require careful monitoring to assure maternal-fetal safety. This review is designed to assist the perinatal educator who is in the position to advise the pregnant patient on the risks and benefits of physical activity during the childbearing year and provide suggestions for developing individualized exercise programs. PMID:17273187

Hammer, Roger L.; Perkins, Jan; Parr, Richard

2000-01-01

440

Patriot of the Year Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a partner, you will study a famous person who lived during the time of the American Revolution (1775-1781). You will be desiging a medal, as well as a testimonial and acceptance speech for this individual should they win they win the Patriot of the Year Award. THE PROCESS AND RESOURCES In this WebQuest you will be working with your partner to fill out your Outstanding Patriot Outline. You and your partner will explore Web pages from people all over the world who care about the American Revolution. Because these are real Web pages we're tapping into resource not ...

Wheeler, Mrs.

2009-12-31

441

[Friedrich Nietzsche's last lucid year].  

PubMed

As an outstanding philosopher Nietzsche poses the question whether his creativeness persisted in spite of his deteriorating disease or appeared, among other features, as a consequence of his illness. A thorough psychopathological understanding of his last lucid year is attempted. He had an exaggerated self-esteem and grandiose sense of confidence and achievements. But his lack of insight did not lead him to engage in activities that could harm himself or his loved ones. Between January 1888 and until his ultimate deterioration in January 1889, Nietzsche was exceedingly productive. During this period, polar changes along with moderately overlapping periods appeared. PMID:17657337

Figueroa, Gustavo

2007-05-01

442

Implantation of the Semicircular Canals with Preservation of Hearing and Rotational Sensitivity: a vestibular neurostimulator suitable for clinical research  

PubMed Central

Hypothesis It is possible to implant a stimulating electrode array in the semicircular canals without damaging rotational sensitivity or hearing. The electrodes will evoke robust and precisely controlled eye-movements Background A number of groups are attempting to develop a neural prosthesis to ameliorate abnormal vestibular function. Animal studies demonstrate that electrodes near the canal ampullae can produce electrically-evoked eye movements. The target condition of these studies is typically bilateral vestibular hypofunction. Such a device could potentially be more widely useful clinically, and would have a simpler roadmap to regulatory approval if it produced minimal or no damage to the native vestibular and auditory systems. Methods An electrode array was designed for insertion into the bony semicircular canal adjacent to the membranous canal. It was designed to be sufficiently narrow so as to not compress the membranous canal. The arrays were manufactured by Cochlear Ltd and linked to a Nucleus Freedom receiver/stimulator. Seven behaviorally-trained rhesus macaques had arrays placed in two semicircular canals using a transmastoid approach and “soft-surgical” procedures borrowed from Hybrid cochlear implant surgery. Postoperative vestibulo-ocular reflex was measured in a rotary chair. Click-evoked auditory brainstem responses were also measured in the seven animals using the contralateral ear as a control. Results All animals had minimal postoperative vestibular signs and were eating within hours of surgery. Six out of six animals tested had normal postoperative sinusoidal gain. Six out of seven animals had symmetric postoperative velocity-step responses toward and away from the implanted ear. The one animal with significantly asymmetric velocity-step responses also had a significant sensorineural hearing loss. One control animal which underwent canal-plugging had substantial loss of the velocity-step response toward the canal-plugged ear. In five animals, intraoperative electrically-evoked vestibular compound action potential (ECAP) recordings facilitated electrode placement. Postoperatively, electrically evoked eye-movements were obtained from electrodes associated with an ECAP waveform. Hearing was largely preserved in six animals and lost in one animal. Conclusions It is possible to implant the vestibular system with prosthetic stimulating electrodes without loss of rotational sensitivity or hearing. Since electrically-evoked eye-movements can be reliably obtained with the assistance of intraoperative electrophysiology, it is appropriate to consider treatment of a variety of vestibular disorders using prosthetic electrical stimulation. Based on these findings, and others, a feasibility study for the treatment of human subjects with disabling Meniere’s disease has begun. PMID:22699989

Rubinstein, Jay T; Bierer, Steven; Kaneko, Chris; Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Oxford, Trey; Newlands, Shawn; Santos, Felipe; Risi, Frank; Abbas, Paul J; Phillips, James O

2012-01-01

443

The integrated approach of yoga: a therapeutic tool for mentally retarded children: a one-year controlled study.  

PubMed

Ninety children with mental retardation of mild, moderate and severe degree were selected from four special schools in Bangalore, India. Forty-five children underwent yogic training for one academic year (5 h in every week) with an integrated set of yogic practices, including breathing exercises and pranayama, sithilikarana vyayama (loosening exercises), suryanamaskar, yogasanas and meditation. They were compared before and after yogic training with a control group of 45 mentally retarded children matched for chronological age, sex, IQ, socio-economic status and socio environmental background who were not exposed to yoga training but continued their usual school routine during that period. There was highly significant improvement in the IQ and social adaptation parameters in the yoga group as compared to the control group. This study shows the efficacy of yoga as an effective therapeutic tool in the management of mentally retarded children. PMID:2795647

Uma, K; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, R; Vaidehi, S; Seethalakshmi, R

1989-10-01

444

Are adolescents getting smarter about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome? Changes in knowledge and attitude over the past 5 years.  

PubMed

A survey was administered to 1543 adolescents from southeastern Wisconsin to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and persons with the disease. Responses were compared with those of other studies involving adolescents using identical or similar test items. Results of the study demonstrate that knowledge of AIDS and of the modes of human immunodeficiency virus transmission have increased dramatically over the past 5 years. Ninety-eight percent of high school students in this study understood the modes of transmission and that merely touching a person with AIDS will not transmit the virus. However, results also revealed that many negative biases remain toward people who have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Forty-five percent of the students believed that homosexuals and intravenous drug users were "getting what they deserve." Recommendations are made that future educational efforts focus on changes in attitudes and behaviors in relation to adolescents' previously acquired knowledge of AIDS. PMID:2305735

Steiner, J D; Sorokin, G; Schiedermayer, D L; Van Susteren, T J

1990-03-01

445

Six-year follow-up of patients with functional bowel disorders, with and without previous psychotherapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Long-term follow-up studies in patients with functional bowel disorders are rare. Methods: Of 85 patients with functional bowel disorders diagnosed in 2000, forty-eight patients responded to a postal questionnaire 6 years later (2006). Results: Gastrointestinal symptom severity was similar to that at the initial diagnosis. Anxiety and depression (HADS) were significantly decreased, however, depending on previous psychotherapy (PT) experience. Men but not women that had participated in PT exhibited reduced symptoms more pronounced than did patients without PT. Discussion: Anxiety and depression may determine consulting behaviour, but this appears unrelated to intestinal symptoms and their severity. Short-term PT contributes to long-term well-being especially in men. PMID:21139986

Martens, Ute; Caspari, Gabriele; Rilk, Anna; Hefner, Jochen; Teufel, Martin; Klosterhalfen, Sibylle; Zipfel, Stephan; Enck, Paul

2010-01-01

446

Adverse effects of hydroxyurea in beta-thalassemia intermedia patients: 10 years' experience.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and adverse effects of hydroxyurea (HU) in thalassemia intermedia (TI) patients who had been treated by HU for a period of 10 years. One hundred forty-three TI patients, including 78 male and 65 female, median age 21 years old (range: 5-37 years old), who were treated by HU were investigated as a case study, and 106 TI, including 63 male and 43 female, median age 22 years old (range: 5-39 years old), who were not treated by any HU as a control group. Mean dose of HU treatment was 10.74 mg/kg/day (range: 8-12 mg/kg/day) and adverse effects of HU were recorded in 44 (30.7%) patients. Dermatologic side effects were most commonly seen, followed by neurological and gastrointestinal adverse effects. There were not any reports of hematologic toxicity or any signs of bone marrow suppression during HU treatment. Statistical analysis showed a positive correlation between advancing age and the presence of adverse effects during HU treatment (P < .001). But there were not any significant relations among gender, HU dose, and duration of HU treatment and the presence of adverse effects (P > .05). It was also observed that splenectomized patients more frequently experienced adverse effects of HU (P < .05). According to these results, it seems that most of adverse effects in low-dose HU therapy in patients with TI, at least in short and medium terms, are minor and can be tolerated without needs of discontinuation of treatment. PMID:20367264

Karimi, Mehran; Cohan, Nader; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Moosavizadeh, Kazem; Falahi, Mohammad Javad; Haghpanah, Sezaneh

2010-04-01

447

Adoption of a wiki within a large internal medicine residency program: a 3-year experience  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the creation and evaluate the use of a wiki by medical residents, and to determine if a wiki would be a useful tool for improving the experience, efficiency, and education of housestaff. Materials and methods In 2008, a team of medical residents built a wiki containing institutional knowledge and reference information using Microsoft SharePoint. We tracked visit data for 3?years, and performed an audit of page views and updates in the second year. We evaluated the attitudes of medical residents toward the wiki using a survey. Results Users accessed the wiki 23?218, 35?094, and 40?545 times in each of three successive academic years from 2008 to 2011. In the year two audit, 85 users made a total of 1082 updates to 176 pages and of these, 91 were new page creations by 17 users. Forty-eight percent of residents edited a page. All housestaff felt the wiki improved their ability to complete tasks, and 90%, 89%, and 57% reported that the wiki improved their experience, efficiency, and education, respectively, when surveyed in academic year 2009–2010. Discussion A wiki is a useful and popular tool for organizing administrative and educational content for residents. Housestaff felt strongly that the wiki improved their workflow, but a smaller educational impact was observed. Nearly half of the housestaff edited the wiki, suggesting broad buy-in among the residents. Conclusion A wiki is a feasible and useful tool for improving information retrieval for house officers. PMID:22140210

Mostaghimi, Arash; Reynolds, Eileen E

2011-01-01

448

Fifty years with nuclear fission  

SciTech Connect

The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. (eds.) (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

1989-01-01

449

International Heliophysical Year: European Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

Briand, C.

2007-08-01

450

1000 years of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years or so, assessing the role of the sun's variability on climate change over this time f ame has received much attention. A pressingr application of these assessments is the attempt to separate the role of the sun from that of various anthropogenic forcings in the past century and a half. This separation is complicated by the possible existence of natural variability other than solar, and by the fact that the time-dependence of solar and anthropogenic forcings is very similar over the past hundred years or so. It has been generally assumed that solar forcing is direct, i.e. changes in sun's irradiance. However, evidence has been put forth suggesting that there exist various additional indirect forcings that could be as large as or even exceed direct forcing (modulation of cosmic ray - induced cloudiness, UV- induced stratospheric ozone change s, or oscillator -driven changes in the Pacific Ocean). Were such forcings to be large, they could account for nearly all 20th Century warming, relegating anthropogenic effects to a minor role. Determination of climate change over the last thousand years offers perhaps the best way to assess the magnitude of total solar forcing, thus allowing its comparison with that of anthropogenic sources. Perhaps the best proxy records for climate variation in the past 1,000 yrs have been variations in temperat ure sensitive tree rings (Briffa and Osborne, 2002). A paucity of such records in the Southern Hemisphere has largely limited climate change determinations to the subtropical NH. Two problems with tree rings are that the rings respond to temperature differently with the age of the tree, and record largely the warm, growing season only. It appears that both these problems have been adequately solved although caution is warranted. A promising adjunct to tree rings is actual measurement of temperatures in boreholes. Inversion of such records gives low frequency temperatures that are potentially more accurate than any proxy- derived ones. All these records give a fairly consistent picture of at least one major warming and cooling extreme (Medieval Warming Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Many modeling efforts using direct solar forcing have been done. These typically employ proxy data (sunspot number and variations in Be-10 and C -14 calibrated by satellite observations) for changes in solar forcing, and give the same general picture-- that of a substantial warming 1,000 yrs ago (MWP) followed by cooling that was particularly marked in the late 17th and early 19th centuries (LIA). The resulting amplitude of temperature change between MWP and LIA agrees well with paleo-temperature reconstructions and suggests that solar forcing alone is inadequate to account for more than about half the 20th century warming (Lean et al 1995, Crowley and Lowry 2000). Since these quantitatively reproduce climate variations in the past 1000 years, the role of indirect solar forcing is inferred to be small but may be important (Lean and Rind 2001). Gerard Bond, Bernd Kromer, Juerg Beer, Raimund Muscheler, Michael N. Evans, William Showers, Sharon Hoffmann, Rusty Lotti-Bond, Irka Hajdas, and Georges Bonani, (2001) Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene,Science 294: 2130-2136 Briffa and Osborne, (2002) Blowing Hot and Cold, Science 295, 2227-2228. Lean, J., Beer, J., and Bradley, R., (1995) Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett.., 22, 3195-3198. Crowley ,T., (2000) Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years, Science,289, 270- 277. Lean and Rind, (2001), Earth's Response to a Variable Sun, Science, 292, 234-236.

Keller, C.

451

A multi-year field olfactometry study near a concentrated animal feeding operation.  

PubMed

This study developed and tested a protocol for monitoring odors near a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO). The Nasal Ranger, a portable field olfactometry instrument, was used by a panel of trained individuals to conduct the monitoring near a swine CAFO. Monitors were selected based on olfactory sensitivity, scheduling availability, and lack of association with the CAFO or residential neighbors of the CAFO. Monitors were trained to use the Nasal Ranger, collect and record weather data, and characterize any odors detected. Data were collected over a 3-year period (2007-2009) for approximately 9 months each year. The data recorded included odor intensity, a description of the odor, date and time of the reading, and weather conditions. Of more than 50,000 readings, forty-one (0.1%) odor readings had a dilution to threshold ratio (D/T) of +/- 7:1 and were attributed to hog manure. The frequency of odor readings attributed to hog manure with D/T +/-7:1 was found to negatively correlate with log wind speed and positively correlate with wind from the direction of the farm. Other meteorological variables (temperature, precipitation, cloud cover) and time of day did not influence the frequency. PMID:22263428

Dalton, Pamela; Caraway, Edward A; Gibb, Herman; Fulcher, Keri

2011-12-01

452

Evaluation of stress in final-year Saudi dental students using salivary cortisol as a biomarker.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to identify the perceived sources of stress in final-year dental students studying in a private dental school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, using a modified dental environmental stress (DES) scale and to correlate these findings, at various times in the semester, with the level of acute stress measured with salivary cortisol as a biomarker. A total of forty final-year students were administered a modified DES questionnaire consisting of twenty-five questions to determine the perceived causes of stress. Salivary cortisol levels during the first week of the semester, the final week of clinical training, and one hour before the final didactic examination were assessed. Baseline cortisol levels were significantly lower than the cortisol levels in the clinic, and both these values were significantly lower than the salivary cortisol levels before the examination (p<0.001). Comparison of cortisol levels to the perceived sources of stress and demographic data collected showed that certain discrepancies may exist between the perceived and actual stress felt by dental students at different times in the academic semester. PMID:21368262

Pani, Sharat Chandra; Al Askar, Alaa M; Al Mohrij, Sara I; Al Ohali, Tagreed A

2011-03-01

453

The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities.  

PubMed

Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Tippett, Lynette J

2013-01-01

454

The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities  

PubMed Central

Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

2013-01-01

455

[Ten years of emergency attendances for cocaine-users in Spain].  

PubMed

Cocaine is the second most consumed illegal drug in the western world, following cannabis. Since 1998, it is also the drug that more attendances generate in different emergency devices, and it is responsible for more of 60% of the emergencies directly related to drug consumption. This work reviews the main Spanish scientific articles published in the last 10 years, in which different factors related to the use of this drug have been analyzed in relation to the use of emergency by cocaine users. A total of 8,795 patients were included (interval 57-1,755), with an average age of 32.64 years (SD 3.02), and an average percentage of positives to cocaine of 54.78% (SD 47.03); there were 7 works with 100% of subjects being positive to cocaine. Males predominated with an average of 78.69% (SD 12). They presented cardiovascular symptoms in 30% cases (SD 22.7), neurological symptoms in 11.6% cases (SD 4.28) and psychiatric symptoms in 49.32% cases (SD 23.87). There was a multiple consumption in 49.02% of patients (interval 4.3-76.2), fundamentally associated with alcohol (57.78%, SD 6.18) and cannabis (21.56%, SD 10.72). Two hundred and forty-six patients (2.8%) needed admission and 8 died (0.09%). PMID:24461737

Galicia, Miguel; Nogué, Santiago; Burillo-Putze, Guillermo

2014-10-01

456

Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: a 5-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and depression in adolescence. The so-called principle-effect and stress-buffer models could explain relationships between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms, yet no study has used both models to test bidirectional relationships between teacher support and depressive symptoms in students separately by sex. Four-thousand three-hundred forty-one students (boys: n = 2,063; girls: n = 2,278) from Grades 8 to 12 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTEQ), and an instrument developed for the study to measure teacher support annually for 5 years. Results support neither of the 2 proposed models. Instead, they indicate that in the 1st years of high school, students of both sexes with average and high numbers of stressful events benefit from teacher support, while teacher support might have iatrogenic effects on students experiencing low numbers of stressful events. Possible explanations for the findings and future research are discussed. PMID:23379297

Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G; Spence, Susan H; Bjerg, Annie C

2013-11-01

457

The surgical management of infants and children with ambiguous genitalia. Lessons learned from 25 years.  

PubMed Central

Over a 25-year period, 91 children with ambiguous genitalia have received surgical management. Female sex assignment was made for 79. Of these, 60 patients underwent extensive clitoral reconstruction consonant with the female assignment. Forty-two patients had vaginal reconstruction. Factors relating to success include: (1) prompt and appropriate sex assignment; (2) early and accurate diagnosis; (3) conservative reconstruction of the clitoris at an early age (less than 1 year); and (4) choice of vaginal reconstruction based on the severity of the malformation. Long-term follow-up demonstrates satisfactory anatomic and functional results when clitoral surgery alone was required. Functional results for patients with extensive vaginal reconstruction have been compromised. Physicians caring for children with congenital intersexual anomalies can expect to encounter a wide spectrum of anatomic and physiologic derangements. Cosmetic appearance alone is an inadequate measure of success because endocrinologic, social, psychological, and sexual factors must be blended into comprehensive evaluation of these patients. The management plan must be flexible and individualized, incorporating long-term follow-up to adulthood. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 8. FIG. 8. FIG. 9. FIG. 10. FIG. 11. PMID:1632686

Newman, K; Randolph, J; Anderson, K

1992-01-01

458

Civil partnerships five years on.  

PubMed

The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe. PMID:21987019

Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

2011-01-01

459

Laser Propulsion: The Early Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early years of laser propulsion were driven by the vision of Arthur Kantrowitz and his team of researchers at the Avco Everett Research Laboratory. The pioneering research continued during the 1970s both at Avco and Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI), a company founded by Avco scientists. This paper presents the results of the experimental and theoretical research that was the precursor for much of the work that was done in the 1980s and 1990s. The successes are presented as well as the failures, and the enthusiasm of the early days is discussed, as well as the matching realization that the limiting factors for progress in the 1970s were the progress in laser development and the identification of missions for such systems. All this set the stage for research activities of the 1980s that were carried out by subsequent believers of the Kantrowitz vision.

Nebolsine, Peter E.; Pirri, Anthony N.

2003-05-01

460

Aqua 10 Years After Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 a.m. The rocket quickly went through a low-lying cloud cover, after which the main portion of the rocket fell to the waters below and the rockets second stage proceeded to carry Aqua south across the Pacific, onward over Antarctica, and north to Africa, where the spacecraft separated from the rocket 59.5 minutes after launch. Then, 12.5 minutes later, the solar array unfurled over Europe, and Aqua was on its way in the first of what by now have become over 50,000 successful orbits of the Earth.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2013-01-01

461

[Giemsa stain's 100th year].  

PubMed

Research work associated with the development of Giemsa stain is revived, with emphasis on the methylene blue polychromes. A short biographical sketch of Dr. Berthold Gustav Carl Giemsa is presented, along with the composition of his original formulation and its mec. HPLC analyses of his azur II indicated the following composition: methylene blue 63.6%, azur B 28.6%, azur A 4.4%, azur C 1.4%, thionin 1.9%. Azur I was not "pure", but rather a mixture of thionin and all of its 3 and 7 N-methylated derivatives. Lillie inferred that it was probably prepared by an acid oxidation process. Applications of Giemsa stain reported in the last 32 years are tabulated. PMID:12696395

Perea-Sasiaín, José

2003-03-01

462

100 years of radionuclide metrology.  

PubMed

The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. PMID:24398412

Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

2014-05-01

463

FAO: the first 40 years  

SciTech Connect

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations celebrated 40 years of service in October of 1985. This volume reviews FAO's history, some of the main themes of its work, and looks at its current status and plans for the future. The 14 highlights include the search for a world food policy and techniques for coping with food shortages and increasing food production. The FAO's work has focused on the rational use and protection of world resources, programs of self-help and international cooperation, and the development of human awareness and potential. The final chapter outlines six challenges for the future based on reducing hunger and improving the supply and distribution of food.

Not Available

1985-01-01

464

Elementary GLOBE: All Year Long  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each student will keep a science journal during each of the four seasons. Students will record observations of the general outdoor environment they visit and then will make observations of one specific item from the habitat in each season. At the end of the school year, students will make comparisons of their seasonal drawings and share the results with the class. The purpose of the activity is to introduce students to the concept of using a science journal to record information, to have students use science tools to make scientific observations and to make observational drawings in nature and compare the results throughout the seasons. After completing this activity, students will know about seasonal changes in a particular habitat. They will learn how to make detailed observations, record their results, make comparisons, and share information using a standard format.

2008-12-01

465

Rorschachbound: a 50-year memoir.  

PubMed

Celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Journal of Personality Assessment evokes memories of years past when I participated in its birth. Therefore, in recording what I consider significant events in Rorschach's stormy history, I am placing them within an autobiographical framework. Originally introduced into America by David Levy in the early 1920s, the Rorschach attracted students from many disciplines who revolted against the "trait" psychology that pervaded the psychological scene at the time. For 30 years, we accepted Rorschach enthusiastically as a global method that could study the human personality as a whole and in depth. In the late 1960s, we were challenged because of repeated failures in validating research. Interest declined in its development and application. Since 1970, however, it has emerged with more strength and vigor on firmer theoretical foundations and sounder methodology. Although the method is one of the most frequently required, requested, needed, recommended, and used in many clinical settings, it is still challenged today, chiefly because of overemphasis on the nomothetic approaches in research and failure to consider interactions between personality dynamics, behavior, and situational and sociocultural variables. Those of us whose lives have long been entwined with the history of the Rorschach should step back from the contemporary canvas and contemplate the future of our method, t suggest that we develop alternative conceptual models and greater diversity of research methods and modes of thought. The Journal of Personality Assessment can enhance the future of the Rorschach by giving greater prominence to clinically oriented research, notably to the idiographic and interactional aspects of the method. In so doing, the journal can help the Rorschach reach its real goal of complete scientific validity. PMID:16367435

Hertz, M R

1986-01-01

466

Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical parameters.

Jaen, Javier, E-mail: javier.jaen.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain)] [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain); Vazquez, Gonzalo [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain)] [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain); De Las Heras, Manuel [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain); Perez-Regadera, Jose F. [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain)

2012-12-01

467

The World Year of Physics: 2005  

NSF Publications Database

... Physics Media Advisory 05-013The World Year of Physics: 2005 New NSF Web site celebrates ... s World Year of Physics site: http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/wyop/index.jsp Main World Year ...

468

50 CFR 622.30 - Fishing years.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fishing years. 622.30 Section 622.30 Wildlife...SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.30 Fishing years. The fishing year for species or species groups governed...

2012-10-01

469

Mariel refugees: six years after.  

PubMed

In 1983, the economic situation of Mariel Cubans could be summarized as abysmal. Those without a job represented close to 1/2 of the sample; the unemployment rate amounted to 27%. A study conducted by Johns Hopkins University in collaboration with Miami-Dade Community College and Florida International University has investigated whether Mariels remain a group apart within the broader Cuban community or whether they have melted into the rest of the community. The study followed a large sample of Mariel refugees living in the Miami area over a period of several years. A sample of 514 Mariel men and women were interviewed in 1983 and were reinterviewed during 1985-1986. The authors conclude that, as a group, Mariel refugees have made rapid progress toward integration into the South Florida economy. There has been a rapid decline in unemployment during the past 2 years and a rapid shift into self-employment. There is still a sizable gap in labor force participation and earnings between this group and the pre-Mariel Cuban population. Mariel incorporation into South Florida society has taken place almost completely through their absorption into the pre-existing Cuban community; there is tension, however, as Mariel refugees see themselves as more discriminated against by fellow Cubans than by outside Anglos. This minority-within-a-minority syndrome is likely to underlie the reported willingness of many to leave the US if conditions in Cuba were to change for the better. Despite these problems, the majority of Mariel refugees would come again to the US if they had to make the choice anew and declare themselves satisfied with their present lives. Within Dade County, the more positive indicators of economic advancement and general adaptation are found among refugees in the cities of Miami and Hialeah. The most problematic economic situation and the greatest alienation from their surroundings is detected among refugees living elsewhere, primarily in Miami Beach. Results indicate that official and private programs targeted on this refugee group should give priority to 4 aspects: 1) support of small entrepreneurship through credit and training facilities to buttress the widespread efforts in this direction; 2) provision of English language courses and help to overcome extreme language deficiencies; 3) promotion of the reunification of the Mariel refugee families who were separated against their will; and 4) additional efforts by Cuban-American organizations to combat lingering prejudice against Mariel refugees. PMID:12341948

Portes, A; Clark, J M

1987-01-01

470

Poland's other Thirty Years' War.  

PubMed

The Polish Family Development Association (Towarzystwo Rozwoju Rodziny (TRR)) was founded in 1957. At the end of 1988, TRR owned and ran 89 medical clinics, 5 youth centers, 25 premarital and family counseling centers, and 6 prenatal training schools. 140,000 patients were served in 1988, and 140,000 in 1989. But there was a decline in the number of family counseling and premarital centers. It fell to 22 at the end of 1989 and 16 in the 1/4 of 1990. The nonCommunist government took crisis measures. From January 1 onward, the government suspended all kinds of subsidies for nongovernmental organizations in Poland. The TRR was compelled to dissolve 12 local branches. Nothing is certain anymore, even the Minister of Health has changed. Poland's Catholic Church has been in conflict with TRR. The Church is against abortions, contraception, and secular, modern sex education. Because of Church opposition to contraception, the abortion rate is very high. Official statistics tell only the number of abortions done in hospitals. The real abortion numbers are subject to controversy. The Church claims that the real number of is 1 million a year. However, the real estimate is about 400,00 to 600,000 a year, resulting in a ratio of 70 to 100 abortions/100 live births. The powerful Pro-Life movement is partly supported and financed by American "Pro-Life" interests and partly by Solidarity (which is split on the issue). Pro-Life campaigns for declaring the 1957 abortion law illegal. 76% of the people in towns and 87% in villages rely solely on the natural methods accepted by the Church. The supply and demand of modern contraceptives is unreliable. Political changes in Poland may have a negative effect on family planning and sex education. Sex education (from age 11) in the narrow sense of telling where babies come from has been compulsory since 1972. But real sex education has only been compulsory since 1987. It is taught in all secondary schools (ages 15-19) for 1 hour every other week. Voluntary sterilization is illegal. Artificial insemination is not legally regulated. TRR must start a preventive AIDS campaign. Homosexuals are being urged to organize into an open association for self defense. PMID:12222209

Kozakiewicz, M

1990-06-01

471

Epidemiological Follow-up 15 Years after the Breast Cancer Scandal in Essen  

PubMed Central

Purpose: In the years 1993–1996 a number of presumably false-positive breast cancer diagnoses were made by a pathologist in Essen. A follow-up, undertaken 15 years later, investigated how many women had tumour recurrence and/or metastasis or had died from breast cancer. Material and Methods: A total of 151 (68?%) out of 222 women could be traced. One hundred and forty-seven (66.2?%) of the 222 women were alive. The observed survival rate, number of recurrences and/or metastases, and number of deaths from breast cancer were compared with data from the Munich Tumour Registry. The number of breast cancer cases among daughters of the affected women was ascertained. Results: The total observed survival rate at follow-up after 15 years was 93?%, a much higher figure than the survival rate of 45?% given by the Munich Tumour Registry. Recurrence and/or metastasis or death from breast cancer occurred in 9/222 cases (4.1?%). The incidence for these events calculated according to data from the Munich Tumour Registry is 13?%. Two daughters (2.2?%) out of a total of 90 were diagnosed with breast cancer whereas, according to the German Cancer Research Centre, the expected rate would have been between 5 and 10?%. Conclusions: The results of our follow-up after 15 years show that more women survived than expected and that the number of recurrences and/or metastases and deaths due to breast cancer was lower than expected. Fewer daughters of affected women were diagnosed with breast cancer than expected. These results support our suspicion that not all women diagnosed with breast cancer by a pathologist in Essen actually had breast cancer.

Hauth, E. A. M.; Berkemeyer, S.; Jaeger, H.; Forsting, M.; Hoffmann, B.; Jockel, K.-H.

2012-01-01

472

[Pediamécum: One year of experience].  

PubMed

In 2011, the Spanish Association of Pediatrics decided to support the most ambitious project of its newly created Committee for Medicinal Products: Pediamécum. This is the first free on-line database with information on medicinal products for pediatric use in Spain. The web page http://pediamecum.es/ started on December 17 December 2012. One year later, Pediamécum includes 580 registered drugs. The website achieved more than one million page views by the end of 2013. Because of the first anniversary of Pediamécum, a survey was performed to request the feeling of users. Four hundred eighty-three responses were obtained. Ninety-five percent believed that it is easy to navigate through the web, and 74% said that their doubts about the use of medicines in children were always resolved. The overall rating of Pediamécum is 7.5/10. The aims of Pediamécum are being accomplished; which is reflected essentially due to it becoming a useful tool for all professionals who care for children in their daily clinical practice. PMID:24857432

Piñeiro Pérez, R; Martínez Fernández-Llamazares, C; Calvo Rey, C; Piñeiro Pérez, A P; Criado Vega, E A; Bravo Acuña, J; Cabrera García, L; Mellado Peña, M J

2014-10-01

473

Five Years at the Movies  

E-print Network

GAIA is an astrometric satellite which has been approved by the European Space Agency for launch in about 2010. It will measure the angles between objects in fields that are separated on the sky by about a radian. Data will stream continuously at 1 Mbps from GAIA's three telescopes, providing information on the positions and velocities of the billion or more astrophysical objects brighter than 20th magnitude. The motion of objects across the sky caused by their space motion and their parallactic motion, and the variability of objects in 15 wavebands, will be measured because each object is observed at least 150 times during the 5 year mission lifetime. From the raw time series, a three-dimensional movie of the motions of stars in the Galaxy will be synthesized. The alert despatcher in the GAIA mission will provide forewarning of many kinds of bursting and variable phenomena. We discuss two applications of the GAIA movie show in detail here. First, the astrometric microlensing signal will allow us to take a complete inventory of all objects -- no matter how dark -- in the solar neighbourhood. Second, the catalogue of supernovae detections will be the largest ever taken. It will provide opportunities both for follow-ups in other wavebands and numerous examples of scarce phenomena (like subluminous SNe).

N. W. Evans; V. Belokurov

2002-12-02

474

Electrocyte physiology: 50 years later.  

PubMed

Weakly electric gymnotiform and mormyrid fish generate and detect weak electric fields to image their worlds and communicate. These multi-purpose electric signals are generated by electrocytes, the specialized electric organ (EO) cells that produce the electric organ discharge (EOD). Just over 50 years ago the first experimental analyses of electrocyte physiology demonstrated that the EOD is produced and shaped by the timing and waveform of electrocyte action potentials (APs). Electrocytes of some species generate a single AP from a distinct region of excitable membrane, and this AP waveform determines EOD waveform. In other species, electrocytes possess two independent regions of excitable membrane that generate asynchronous APs with different waveforms, thereby increasing EOD complexity. Signal complexity is further enhanced in some gymnotiforms by the spatio-temporal activation of distinct EO regions with different electrocyte properties. For many mormyrids, additional EOD waveform components are produced by APs that propagate along stalks that connect postsynaptic regions to the main body of the electrocyte. I review here the history of research on electrocyte physiology in weakly electric fish, as well as recent discoveries of key phenomena not anticipated during early work in this field. Recent areas of investigation include the regulation of electrocyte activity by steroid and peptide hormones, the molecular evolution of electrocyte ion channels, and the evolutionary selection of ion channels expressed in excitable cells. These emerging research areas have generated renewed interest in electrocyte function and clear future directions for research addressing a broad range of new and important questions. PMID:23761470

Markham, Michael R

2013-07-01

475

The International Polar Year, 2007-2008, an opportunity to focus on infectious diseases in Arctic regions.  

PubMed

On 3 occasions over the past 125 years, scientists from around the world have worked together to organize scientific and exploration activities in polar regions (www.ipy.org). The first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1881-1884 marked the first major coordinated international scientific initiative to collect standardized meteorological and geophysical data in polar regions. Fifteen expeditions led by 12 nations amassed a large amount of data, but the scientific value was diminished by disjointed publication efforts and lack of long-term institutional commitment; lessons were learned and corrected in subsequent polar years. The second IPY began in 1932. Forty-four nations led expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic, resulting in greater understanding of the aurora, magnetism, and meteorology. Air and marine navigation, radio operations, and weather forecasting were greatly improved as a result. The third IPY, in 1957-58, was renamed the International Geophysical Year and capitalized on technologic advances developed during World War II. Technologic and scientific momentum was redirected toward research, particularly to studies of the upper atmosphere, a legacy that continues to the present day. Notable achievements included launching the first satellite, measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases, delineating the system of mid-ocean ridges, and confirming the theory of plate tectonics. PMID:18258069

Parkinson, Alan J

2008-01-01

476

Photometric Redshifts: 50 Years After  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost half a century has passed since Baum [1] first applied a novel method to a handful of galaxies. Using the mean spectral energy distribution (SED) of six bright ellipticals in the Virgo cluster, he could accurately estimate the redshifts of other clusters in a comparison that we today call SED fitting or, more generally, photometric redshifts. Owing to the expansion of the Universe, galaxies farther away appear to be redder. Their observed colors are a combination of this redshift and their intrinsic properties. Thanks to the latest detector technology, today we can undertake deep, multicolor surveys to probe statistically meaningful volumes. The yield of photometry in terms of the number of sources is over two orders of magnitude higher than what is achievable by (the more accurate) spectroscopic follow-ups. To exploit the information in the photometric data themselves, several new methods have been developed over the years. One particular successful example is the estimation of photometric redshifts. Baum's motivation for using photometric measurements instead of spectroscopy was the same back then as ours is now: to push the analyses to uncharted territories. His original idea has grown into a research area of its own, which is more important now than ever before. In this chapter, we look at some of the recent advancements of the field. In Section 15.2 we briefly highlight some of the original ideas and the current state of the art in estimating the photometric redshifts. Section 15.3 introduces a Bayesian framework for discussing the traditional methods within a unified context; it explicitly enumerates and identifies their (missing) ingredients. Section 15.4 aims to plant seeds for new ideas for future directions, and Section 15.5 offers some concluding remarks.

Budavári, Tamás

2012-03-01

477

Women's health: beyond reproductive years.  

PubMed

With changing demographic profile India has more older women than men as life expectancy for women is 67.57 as against 65.46 for men. Gender differences in the aging process reflect biological, economic, and social differences. Both social and health needs of the older women are unique and distinctive as they are vulnerable. The social problems revolve around widowhood, dependency, illiteracy and lack of awareness about the policies and programmes from which they can benefit. Among the medical problems, vision (cataract) and degenerative joint disease top the list, followed by neurological problems. Lifestyle diseases form another single-most important group of health problems in the elderly women. The risk of cardiovascular disease doubles with the outcome being poorer than men. The most common causes of death among women above the age of 60 years are stroke, ischemic heart disease and COPD. Hypertensive heart disease and lower respiratory tract infections contribute to mortality in these women. Common malignancies viz. Cervical, breast and uterus in women are specific to them and account for a sizeable morbidity and mortality. In a study done at Lady Hardinge medical college in Delhi, Hypertension (39.6%) and obesity (12-46.8%) were very common in postmenopausal women. Half or more women had high salt and fat intake, low fruit and vegetable intake and stress. There is a need to recognize the special health needs of the women beyond the reproductive age, to be met through strengthening and reorienting the public health services at all levels starting from primary health care to secondary till tertiary care level with adequate referral linkages. All policies and programs need to have a gender perspective. At present there is lack of sensitization and appropriate training of the health personnel in dealing with the needs of elderly. Women too need to be aware to adopt healthy lifestyle and seek timely care. PMID:22298132

Laskar, Ananya Ray

2011-01-01

478

A randomized trial of the impact of a specific care plan in 1120 Alzheimer’s patients (PLASA study) over a two-year period: Design and baseline data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To describe the design and baseline patient characteristics of a multicomponent specific care and assistance plan (PLASA)\\u000a study in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). The study is designed to evaluate the effect of PLASA in AD primarily looking at change\\u000a in functional capacity.Design: Two-years prospective cluster randomized controlled trial comparing PLASA and usual care. Setting: Forty-nine hospitals\\u000a in France.Participants: 1120 community-dwelling

F. Nourhashemi; S. Gillette-Guyonnet; S. Andrieu; Y. Rolland; P.-J. Ousset; B. Vellas