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1

Forty years of antiprotons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The discovery of the antiproton some 40 years ago and the almost synchronous fall of parity (P) and charge conjugation (C) symmetries were soon followed by the realization that CPT rather than C invariance is the fundamental symmetry connecting matter and antimatter, and that consequently any measurement of the antiproton's properties can be interpreted as a test of that symmetry. It is the latter view of the antiproton, as an object of study in its own right, rather than as a means to such other ends as the production of gauge bosons and meson resonances, that is presented here. The authors review the technical steps that have led from the handful of antiprotons observed by Chamberlain, Segrè, Wiegand, and Ypsilantis to the intense, high-quality beams available today and show how the state of rest and isolation required for high precision measurements of their properties can be achieved by confining them in electromagnetic traps or in their microscopic counterparts, exotic atoms. The test bench role of antiprotons and antihydrogen atoms for both CPT symmetry and the gravitational weak equivalence principle is discussed, and the body of experimental results obtained since 1955 critically reviewed from this standpoint. Future experiments are then discussed in the light of the closure of the CERN Low Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR), its replacement in 1999 by the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), and the likely antiproton source at the Japan Hadron Facility.

Eades, J.; Hartmann, F. J.

1999-01-01

2

The first forty years, 1947-1987  

SciTech Connect

This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward.

Rowe, M.S. (ed.); Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

1987-01-01

3

The Forties field: 20 years young  

SciTech Connect

In Oct. 1970, BP`s semisubmersible drilling rig SeaQuest struck oil in Upper Paleocene (Tertiary) sandstones of U.K. Continental Shelf Block 21/10. Four appraisal wells drilled in 1970 and 1971 delineated a large oil reservoir at a depth of 7,000 ft., covering an area of 36 sq miles. The maximum thickness of the oil-bearing sandstone was estimated at 614 ft. Reserves were calculated to be 1,800 MMSTB from an oil in place (OIP) of 4,600 MMSTB, and production was projected to continue until Year 2000. In 1971, Shell/Esso drilled a successful well, Well 22/6-1, that demonstrated the southeastern extension of the field into Block 22/6. The field is a four-way-dip-closed anticline that overlies the Forties-Montrose Ridge and is close to the junction of the Central, South Viking, and Witch Ground grabens. The reservoir occurs in thick Upper Paleocene sandstones deposited as a sand-rich submarine fan sequence. This paper describes how the development of the Forties field has evolved over the past 20 years, the current issues and activities, and the direction for the future.

Brand, P.J.; Clyne, P.A.; Kirkwood, F.G.; Williams, P.W. [BP Exploration Co. Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

1996-04-01

4

Forty years of Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule  

PubMed Central

In 1972 Erich Clar formulated his aromatic ?-sextet rule that allows discussing qualitatively the aromatic character of benzenoid species. Now, 40 years later, Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule is still a source of inspiration for many chemists. This simple rule has been validated both experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we select some particular examples to highlight the achievement of Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule in many situations and we discuss two recent successful cases of its application.

Sola, Miquel

2013-01-01

5

The next forty years in aviation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prediction of the status of various types of aviation activities which may be expected in twenty years is presented. The basic assumptions are that the population of the nation will continue to grow at more than 7 percent and that the need for air transportation of passengers and cargo will increase accordingly. Various predictions are also made for the developments in vertical takeoff aircraft, short haul airline operations, general aviation, and military aircraft. Areas of improvement are indicated for air navigation, air traffic control, night vision, quiet aircraft, and the use of hydrogen as a fuel.

Hawkins, W. M.

1975-01-01

6

Forty years of surface plasma source development  

SciTech Connect

The cesiation effect, a significant enhancement of negative ion emission from a gas discharge with decrease of co-extracted electron current below negative ion current, was observed for the first time on July 1, 1971 by placing into the discharge a compound with 1 mg of cesium. Subsequent developments of surface plasma sources (SPS) for highly efficient negative ion production caused by the interaction of plasma particles with electrodes on which the adsorbed cesium reduced the surface work function are described. In the last 40 years, the intensity of negative ion beams has increased by cesiation up to 10{sup 4} times from 3 mA to tens of amperes. Here, the main attention is concentrated on earlier SPS developments because recent results are well known and widely available.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., 552 N. Batavia Ave., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2012-02-15

7

Neurostimulation for chronic cluster headache  

PubMed Central

Neurostimulation techniques for the treatment of primary headache syndromes, particularly of chronic cluster headache, have received much interest in recent years. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) has yielded favourable clinical results and, despite the limited numbers of published cases, is becoming a routine treatment for refractory chronic cluster headache in specialized centres. Meanwhile, other promising techniques such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS) or sphenopalate ganglion stimulation have emerged. In this article the current state of clinical research for neurostimulation techniques for chronic cluster headache is reviewed.

Kaube, Holger

2012-01-01

8

A matter of meaning: reflections on forty years of JCL.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The entry into language via first words and, the acquisition of word meanings is considered from the perspective of publications in the Journal of Child Language over the past forty years. Problems in achieving word meanings include the disparate and sparse concepts available to the child from past prelanguage experience. Variability in beginning word learning and in its progress along a number of dimensions suggests the problems that children may encounter, as well as the strategies and styles they adopt to make progress. Social context and adult practices are vitally involved in the success of this process. Whereas much headway has been made over the past decades, much remains to be revealed through dynamic systems theory and developmental semiotic analyses, as well as laboratory research aimed at social context conditions. PMID:25023499

Nelson, Katherine

2014-07-01

9

Divorce and death: forty years of the Charleston Heart Study.  

PubMed

Forty years of follow-up data from the Charleston Heart Study (CHS) were used to examine the risk for early mortality associated with marital separation or divorce in a sample of more than 1,300 adults assessed on several occasions between 1960 and 2000. Participants who were separated or divorced at the start of the study evidenced significantly elevated rates of early mortality, and these results held after adjusting for baseline health status and other demographic variables. Being separated or divorced throughout the CHS follow-up window was one of the strongest predictors of early mortality. However, the excess mortality risk associated with separation or divorce was completely eliminated when participants who had ever experienced a marital separation or divorce during the study were compared with all other participants. These findings suggest that a key predictor of early death is the amount of time people live as separated or divorced. It is possible that the mortality risk conferred by marital dissolution is due to dimensions of personality that predict divorce as well as a decreased likelihood of future remarriage. PMID:19076315

Sbarra, David A; Nietert, Paul J

2009-01-01

10

Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This symposium reflects on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, its role over the next four decades and beyond. The topics include: 1) Perspectives on the Past Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; 2) The Experience of Spaceflight; 3) Perspectives on the Next Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; and 4) The International Space Station and the Future of Human Spaceflight.

Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

11

Bilingualism in Paraguay: Forty Years after Rubin's Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 40 years have passed since the publication of Rubin's renowned study on Paraguayan bilingualism. The present study compares the results of surveys conducted in the years 2000-2001 with data from Rubin's 1960-1961 investigation. The main objective of this study is to examine the linguistic changes that have occurred in four decades and the…

Choi, Jinny K.

2005-01-01

12

Diablo Valley College: The First Forty Years, 1949-1989.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview is provided of the 40-year history of Diablo Valley College (DVC), examining the educational ideals of the founders of the college and the changes in the goals of community college education in Central Contra Costa County, California. Part 1 sets the historical scene for the establishment of public two-year colleges nationally, in…

Mahan, Don; And Others

13

Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

14

Forty-Year Secular Trends in Cognitive Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows changes in the distribution of scores on a set of tests used by the Danish draft board since the late 1950s to the present. The marked gains in cognitive abilities seen in the earlier years have been replaced by very modest gains in the last 10 years. These recent gains appear primarily in a test of visuo-spatial abilities. (Author/SLD)

Teasdale, T. W.; Owen, David R.

2000-01-01

15

Forty Years of Psychological and Psychiatric Selection of NASA Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this presentation is to chronicle the history and development of the psychological selection process for NASA astronauts. For over 40 years, astronaut applicants have undergone rigorous medical testing to qualify for candidacy. Psychological selection has an equally long history, dating back to 1958, when psychological requirements were established for astronauts during the Mercury program. However, for many years, psychological selection consisted of psychiatric screening for psychopathology. As we approach the day in which the first ISS crew will live and work in space for months at a time, it becomes clear that both the psychological criteria and the selection system to detect said criteria have changed. This presentation discusses the events that led to the current, dual-phase selection system that is used to select individuals into the astronaut corps. Future directions for psychological selection will also be addressed.

Holland, Albert W.

2000-01-01

16

Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River floodplain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wet-dry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 5-10 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting.

Johnson, W. Carter; Dixon, Mark D.; Scott, Michael L.; Rabbe, Lisa; Larson, Gary; Volke, Malia; Werner, Brett

2012-01-01

17

Epilepsy, consciousness and neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Consciousness is often disrupted in epilepsy. This may involve altered responsiveness or changes in awareness of self and subjective experiences. Subcortical arousal systems and paralimbic fronto-parietal association cortices are thought to underpin current concepts of consciousness. The Network Inhibition Hypothesis proposes a common neuroanatomical substrate for impaired consciousness during absence, complex partial and tonic-clonic seizures. Neurostimulation in epilepsy remains in its infancy with vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) as the only firmly established technique and a series of other methods under investigation including deep brain stimulation (DBS), intracranial cortical stimulation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Many of these systems impact on the neural systems thought to be involved in consciousness as a continuous duty cycle although some adaptive (seizure triggered) techniques have been developed. Theoretically, fixed duty cycle neurostimulation could have profound effects on responsiveness, awareness of self and subjective experience. Animal studies suggest vagal nerve stimulation positively influences hippocampal long term potentiation. In humans, a chronic effect of increased alertness in VNS implanted subjects and acute effect on memory consolidation have been reported but convincing data on either improvements or deterioration in attention and memory is lacking. Thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) is perhaps the most interesting neurostimulation technique in the context of consciousness. Neither bilateral anterior or centromedian thalamic nucleus DBS seem to affect cognition. Unilateral globus pallidus internus DBS caused transient wakefulness in an anaesthetised individual. As intracranial neurostimulation, particularly thalamic DBS, becomes more established as a clinical intervention, the effects on consciousness and cognition with variations in stimulus parameters will need to be studied to understand whether these secondary effects of neurostimulation make a significant positive (or adverse) contribution to quality of life. PMID:21447901

Bagary, Manny

2011-01-01

18

Changes in the value-relevance of earnings and book values over the past forty years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates systematic changes in the value-relevance of earnings and book values over time. We report three primary findings. First, contrary to claims in the professional literature, the combined value-relevance of earnings and book values has not declined over the past forty years and, in fact, appears to have increased slightly. Second, while the incremental value-relevance of 'bottom line'

Daniel W. Collins; Edward L. Maydew; Ira S. Weiss

1997-01-01

19

Forty Years of Deep Dielectric Charging: A Random Walk Through the Physics of Space Charge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is archived as a full paper in A. R. Frederickson, "Progress in High-Energy Electron and X-Irradiation of Insulating Dielectrics," Brazil Journal of Physics 29, 241-53, June, 1999. Please refer to it for a more complete description of the last forty years of deep dielectric charging. Along with selections from that paper, the following briefing charts were presented at the 1998 Spacecraft Charging Conference, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA, USA.

Frederickson, A. Robb

1998-11-01

20

Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's History Office Web site is offering a publication for public review entitled Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium. The two hundred and fifty page document chronicles NASA's history from the Sputnik era to the present including insights from Buzz Aldrin, perspectives on the future, the international space station, and much more. Readers will enjoy the frank discussions, telling photographs, and keen insights from those involved with this sometimes dangerous and always breathtaking pursuit.

Garber, Stephen J.

2002-01-01

21

Implantable functional gastrointestinal neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Neural Gastrointestinal Electrical Stimulation (NGES) is a new microprocessor-based method for invoking gastric or colonic contractions by generating multi-channel, high energy, high frequency waveforms. It has been shown that when applied to the lower stomach, NGES offers the possibility for enhancing propulsive peristalsis for the treatment of gastric motor dysfunctions, or for producing retrograde peristalsis for the treatment of obesity. When applied to the colon, NGES can be utilized either for propulsive control in severe constipation or for invoked retrograde contractility. This paper briefly discusses the implementation of an implantable neurostimulator and summarizes the performance of the NGES technique in acute tests on experimental animals and humans, and in chronic tests on animals. These experimental tests indicate that NGES is successful in accelerating gastric emptying of both liquids and solids, and in producing strong, externally-controlled, retrograde contractions. PMID:19963851

Jurkov, A S; Arriagada, A; Mintchev, M P

2009-01-01

22

Forty years of experience with subperiosteal implant dentures in 41 edentulous patients.  

PubMed

Forty-one complete mandibular subperiosteal implant-supported and retained dentures were consecutively inserted between 1952 and 1971, and patients were monitored through 1992. After variables and methods of follow-up were described, the implants were divided into three categories: 14 (34%) nonfunctional implants, 9 (22%) functioning implants, and 18 (44%) functional implants prematurely terminated by death or cause unrelated to implant condition. Five percent of the implants failed by 5 years, 22% failed by 10 years, 34% failed by 20 years, and none failed after 20 years. Nine implants were still functioning 21 to 36 years after insertion, of which five were functioning for more than 30 years. The implants that were developed later were notably superior to earlier implants. The results of this review could be interpreted to suggest consideration of mandibular subperiosteal implants for selected patients, particularly those with resorbed mandibles. PMID:8850449

Bodine, R L; Yanase, R T; Bodine, A

1996-01-01

23

Forty years abuse of baking soda, rhabdomyolysis, glomerulonephritis, hypertension leading to renal failure: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment. PMID:24179353

Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja

2008-01-01

24

Neurostimulation for Primary Headache Disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurostimulation has emerged as a potential treatment option for patients with chronic, disabling, intractable primary headache disorders. Although safety and efficacy data are limited in quantity, there is accumulating experience with the use of peripheral nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable occipital neuralgia, cluster headache, migraine, and less common headache disorders. Deep brain stimulation has been used to treat intractable chronic cluster headache and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache with conjunctival injection and tearing. This article discusses the theorized mechanisms of action of these novel treatment modalities and summarizes current knowledge regarding safety and efficacy of neurostimulation for the treatment of headache.

Schwedt, Todd J.

2013-01-01

25

Epilepsy: new drug targets and neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Despite advances in the medical and surgical therapy for epilepsy, about 30% of patients do not achieve full seizure control. In the past 5 years new antiepileptic drugs have been approved for clinical use. Some of these drugs have unique, novel mechanisms of action. Overall efficacy of these agents, however, seems similar to other antiepileptic drugs. Vagus nerve stimulation is a well-established palliative therapy for medically resistant epilepsy. Neurostimulation, with newer devices and targets becoming available, is a rapidly expanding field in epileptology. Considerable development and research are still necessary before these newer techniques become the standard of care for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:23896505

Asconapé, Jorge J

2013-08-01

26

Forty Years of E/PO: Can You Have it All? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In forty years of education and public outreach (E/PO), 25 years of which have been funded by various NSF and NASA programs, several lessons (some tough) have been learned. We have done teacher workshops, teacher semester-long courses, student summer programs, outreach fairs and exhibits, and generally the response of the participants has been very high. Generally the longer programs reach fewer people but in greater depth and impact; the shorter programs reach more, but with lesser depth. This paper shows some of the statistics of learning in our various venues, include teacher courses, online material, and planetarium shows. We also performed an online survey of users of NASA materials and contrasted with a random group of 144 adults. We find that teachers and museum educators have nearly all been "significantly" or "changed my life" impacted by NASA educational materials, and even 24% of the general public have as well, with 14% of the general public reporting that NASA encouraged them to study STEM and go into STEM careers. Virtually all said that NASA should continue producing educational materials. Some of the stumbling blocks include: the difficulty of obtaining funds, the general lack of recognition for outreach in tenure decisions, the difficulty of trying to keep active in research while also active in outreach; and the general problem of "having a life" while juggling many responsibilities. Yet it is worth it!

Reiff, P. H.

2013-12-01

27

Neurostimulation for primary headache disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurostimulation has emerged as a potential treatment option for patients with chronic, disabling, intractable primary headache\\u000a disorders. Although safety and efficacy data are limited in quantity, there is accumulating experience with the use of peripheral\\u000a nerve stimulation for the treatment of intractable occipital neuralgia, cluster headache, migraine, and less common headache\\u000a disorders. Deep brain stimulation has been used to treat

Todd J. Schwedt

2009-01-01

28

Neurostimulation for Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NBD treated by sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS), sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), peripheral nerve stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and nerve re-routing was made in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Results. SARS improves bowel function in some patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve re-routing is claimed to facilitate defecation through mechanical stimulation of dermatomes in patients with complete or incomplete SCI or myelomeningocele. SNS can reduce NBD in selected patients with a variety of incomplete neurological lesions. Peripheral stimulation using electrical stimulation or magnetic stimulation may represent non-invasive alternatives. Conclusion. Numerous methods of neurostimulation to treat NBD have been investigated in pilot studies or retrospective studies. Therefore, larger controlled trials with well-defined inclusion criteria and endpoints are recommended before widespread clinical use of neurostimulation against NBD.

Wors?e, J.; Rasmussen, M.; Christensen, P.; Krogh, K.

2013-01-01

29

A look back at forty years of lead-acid-battery development; A survey especially regarding stationary applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years ago, lead-acid batteries were already the dominating electrochemical storage system. As standby batteries, they mostly were used as large central batteries of flooded cells. Although they already represented a matured system, development went on, mainly in the areas of safety aspects and reduction of maintenance expenses. An important turning point was the introduction of the valve-regulated design, abbreviated

D. Berndt

2005-01-01

30

Neurostimulation in the treatment of epilepsy.  

PubMed

There is increased interest in neurostimulation as a treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy. Two large pivotal trials have recently been completed, one using bilateral anterior thalamic stimulation and another employing closed loop responsive therapy of the brain. These are potential additions to the therapeutic options for neurostimulation in addition to already approved vagus nerve stimulation. This review will address the principles of the various types of neurostimulation, the results of the pivotal trials and the important considerations for interpreting the results of these trials which differ from trials of antiepileptic drugs. PMID:23583414

Bergey, Gregory K

2013-06-01

31

FORTY YEARS OF SCHOOL PLANT DISSERTATIONS. A REVIEW WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATIONS RELATED TO SCHOOL PLANTS IS COMPILED BY YEARS BEGINNING WITH STUDIES PRODUCED IN 1921 AND IS CROSS INDEXED BY TOPIC. IT REVIEWS THE SCHOOL PLANT PROBLEMS MOST INVESTIGATED BY STUDENTS. A BRIEF HISTORY OF SCHOOL BUILDING DEVELOPMENT IS PRESENTED IN LIGHT OF CORRESPONDING ECONOMIC AND…

CLASEN, ROBERT E.

32

History of the International Atomic Energy Agency: The First Forty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Atomic Energy Agency: Personal Reflections 1997 (Vienna: IAEA) 311 pp AS260 (hardback) ISBN 92 0 102497 5 These two books are a contribution to the 40th birthday celebrations of the IAEA. I have worked in the field of Health Physics for 39 of those years, and have contributed to projects for the Agency during that time so these volumes

J A B Gibson

1998-01-01

33

Forty Years after the Revolution: A Look at Education Reform in Cuba.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cuban revolutionaries' nationalist goals (sovereignty, economic development, and social justice) were education centered. Over 40 years, the Cuban government maintained its strong commitment to education, stressing technical/professional education in the 1970s and continuous improvement and rectification in recent decades. Competing values, youth,…

McDonald, Jane A.

2000-01-01

34

State of the Art in PEGylation: The great versatility achieved after forty years of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the recent years, protein PEGylation has become an established and highly refined technology by moving forward from initial simple random coupling approaches based on conjugation at the level of lysine ?-amino group. Nevertheless, amino-PEGylation is still yielding important conjugates, currently in clinical practice, where the degree of homogeneity was improved by optimizing the reaction conditions and implementing the purification

Gianfranco Pasut; Francesco M. Veronese

35

Long Term Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases at NOAA - a Forty Year Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory and its precursor organizations have been monitoring trends and distributions of greenhouse gases and other climatically relevant constituents in the atmosphere for over 40 years (http:\\/\\/www.esrl.noaa.gov\\/gmd). The focus of these measurements has been to obtain reliable records of global trends and distributions, but the experimental design and use of these measurements have advanced over time

J. H. Butler

2009-01-01

36

Long-term outcome in epilepsy with grand mal on awakening: forty years of follow-up.  

PubMed

Epilepsy with grand mal on awakening (EGMA) is a well-defined subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Patients with follow-up of at least 20 years were assessed retrospectively regarding 5-year terminal seizure remission. Forty-two patients were included (mean age=60 ± 13 years). After follow-up of 40 ± 13 years, 26 patients (62%) were in remission, 5 without antiepileptic drugs. Age at investigation (odds ratio=0.939, 95% confidence interval=0.887-0.994, p=0.029) independently predicted lacking remission. Nineteen patients (45.2%) had withdrawn from antiepileptic drugs at least once; 12 of those (63.2%) had seizure relapse. EGMA has a favorable long-term prognosis. With increasing age and treatment duration, antiepileptic drug withdrawal may be justified. PMID:24395517

Holtkamp, Martin; Kowski, Alexander B; Merkle, Hannah; Janz, Dieter

2014-02-01

37

Forty Years Trends in Timing of Pubertal Growth Spurt in 157,000 Danish School Children  

PubMed Central

Background Entering puberty is an important milestone in reproductive life and secular changes in the timing of puberty may be an important indicator of the general reproductive health in a population. Too early puberty is associated with several psychosocial and health problems. The aim of our study was to determine if the age at onset of pubertal growth spurt (OGS) and at peak height velocity (PHV) during puberty show secular trends during four decades in a large cohort of school children. Methods and Findings Annual measurements of height were available in all children born from 1930 to 1969 who attended primary school in the Copenhagen Municipality. 135,223 girls and 21,612 boys fulfilled the criteria for determining age at OGS and age at PHV. These physiological events were used as markers of pubertal development in our computerized method in order to evaluate any secular trends in pubertal maturation during the study period (year of birth 1930 to 1969). In this period, age at OGS declined statistically significantly by 0.2 and 0.4 years in girls and boys, respectively, whereas age at PHV declined statistically significantly by 0.5 and 0.3 years in girls and boys, respectively. The decline was non-linear with a levelling off in the children born between 1940 and 1955. The duration of puberty, as defined by the difference between age at OGS and age at PHV, increased slightly in boys, whereas it decreased in girls. Conclusion Our finding of declining age at OGS and at PHV indicates a secular trend towards earlier sexual maturation of Danish children born between 1930 and 1969. Only minor changes were observed in duration of puberty assessed by the difference in ages at OGS and PHV.

Aksglaede, Lise; Olsen, Lina W.; S?rensen, Thorkild I. A.; Juul, Anders

2008-01-01

38

Forty-five years of open plan office experience: An unusual case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The open plan office design concept has been around for at least 45 years. Through research, design, and practical experience, the basic concepts and parameters that impact acoustics and speech privacy have been fairly well developed and documented. The psychological aspects of human response and expectation to open plan environments, and the conceptual designs that emerge from the architect and interior designers are frontiers that still allow for ongoing study. A large open plan project completed during the dot-com bubble allowed an opportunity to design and experience an unusual open plan environment that utilized exposed sound masking system loudspeakers and minimal sound absorption.

Paoletti, Dennis A.

2005-09-01

39

Forty years of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a review of the Basel experience.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) characteristics and outcome in our combined paediatric and adult programme over the past four decades, since its implementation in 1973. The total number of transplant procedures rose from 109 in the first decade (1973-82) to 939 in the last decade (2003-12). Transplant characteristics changed significantly over time: patient age increased, peripheral blood largely replaced bone marrow as stem cell source, unrelated donors became an alternative to matched siblings, and patients are increasingly transplanted in more advanced disease stages. Advances such as improved supportive care and histocompatibility typing resulted in a steady decrease of transplant-related mortality after allogeneic HSCT (43% in the first decade, 22% in the last decade). Despite this, unadjusted survival rates were stable in the last three decades for allogeneic HSCT (approximately 50% 5-year survival) and in the last two decades for autologous HSCT (approximately 60% 5-year survival). After adjustment for covariates such as donor type, age and stage, the relative risk of treatment failure continuously dropped (for allogeneic HSCT: first decade 1.0, second decade 0.58, third decade 0.51, last decade 0.41). Collectively, these data suggest that improvements in peri- and post-transplant care have allowed considerable extension of transplant indications without having a negative impact on outcome. PMID:24567259

O'Meara, Alix; Holbro, Andreas; Meyer, Sara; Martinez, Maria; Medinger, Michael; Buser, Andreas; Halter, Jörg; Heim, Dominik; Gerull, Sabine; Bucher, Christoph; Rovo, Alicia; Kühne, Thomas; Tichelli, André; Gratwohl, Alois; Stern, Martin; Passweg, Jakob R

2014-01-01

40

A career in culture and psychiatry research: reflections on forty-plus years.  

PubMed

The report chronicles a 44-year career in cultural psychiatry spent at Duke, Cornell, Harvard, the University of British Columbia, the University of Toronto, and Ryerson Universities. It describes my studies in a rural community in Nova Scotia, in traditional villages in Senegal, West Africa, on Canadian First Nations reserves and American Indian reservations, in refugee camps in Southeast Asia, among immigrant and refugee communities in Canada, in Ethiopia, and in Israel. The report summarizes major findings resulting from these research efforts, and discusses contributions to theory as well as potential implications for practice as well as policy. The article concludes with reflections about the present state of cultural psychiatry, raises concerns about where the field seems to be in danger of going wrong, and offers suggestions about what needs to be done next. PMID:21511843

Beiser, Morton

2011-04-01

41

Head and neck cancer screening among 4611 tobacco users older than forty years.  

PubMed

We implemented screening for squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx with symptom assessment and systematic inspection of the oral mucosa by primary care practitioners at health care sites serving inner-city residents of Boston; 4611 tobacco users older than 40 years were screened, and 313 with specific criteria were referred to otolaryngology for diagnostic evaluations. In these screened patients, the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions was almost 13% and prevalence of persistent hoarseness was more than 11%. Although the identification of these cancers was rare (nearly 3%), abnormal findings were seen in more than 70% of referred patients. These clinical and histologic diagnoses are described. We have documented the range of pathologic conditions in high-risk patients screened for upper aerodigestive tract malignancy. PMID:9051065

Prout, M N; Sidari, J N; Witzburg, R A; Grillone, G A; Vaughan, C W

1997-02-01

42

Forty years of monensin for the control of coccidiosis in poultry.  

PubMed

In July 1971, the polyether ionophorous antibiotic monensin was introduced in the United States for the control of coccidiosis in poultry. At that time, prospects for new anticoccidial agents were not good. Amprolium had enjoyed several years of use, but many other compounds had been abandoned as resistance to them developed. After the introduction of monensin, most commercial broilers were medicated with the drug and it is still widely used for this purpose today. Apart from in poultry, monensin is also used to control coccidiosis in game birds, sheep, and cattle. Indeed, more animals have been medicated with ionophores, such as monensin, for control of disease than any other medicinal agents in the history of veterinary medicine. In this review, we discuss the discovery, mode of action, and efficacy of monensin, together with matters of importance to the poultry industry such as commercial use, drug resistance, toxicity, pharmacology and residues, host immunity to coccidiosis, and effects in other avian species. PMID:20709963

Chapman, H D; Jeffers, T K; Williams, R B

2010-09-01

43

Forty years of ZERODUR mirror substrates for astronomy: review and outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initiated in 1968 by the first order of the Max-Planck-Institute in Heidelberg the successful history of ZERODUR® continues now since 40 years. ZERODUR® zero expansion glass ceramic from SCHOTT has been the material of choice in astronomy for decades, thanks to its special properties such as its extremely high thermal and mechanical stability. Today most of the major modern optical telescopes of the 4 m class and of the 8 m to 10 m class are equipped with ZERODUR®. For the future several Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) projects are in development, which are designed with even larger primary mirrors ranging from 30 m to 42 m. Also here ZERODUR® is under consideration. A historical review, the actual status of developments and an outlook to the future is given in this paper.

Döhring, Thorsten; Jedamzik, Ralf; Thomas, Armin; Hartmann, Peter

2008-07-01

44

Large Clitoral Leiomyoma in a Forty-Two Years Old Premenopausal Woman  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Clitromegaly can be congenital or acquired with the former type being more prevalent. The main etiology behind the acquired type is hormonal imbalance affecting mainly adult women. This type is seen mostly in association with polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperthecosis, ovarian tumors, and clitoral cysts or it can be drug-induced. Clitoral leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor of female genitalia and is an uncommon cause of clitromegaly. Case Report: We reported a 42-year-old premenopausal woman with a progressively increasing mass since five years ago, who had attended our clinic with urinary retention. It was a fungating mass with ulceration arising from the crus of the clitoris with the size was 11 × 9 cm. After detailed laboratory investigations, she had normal karyotyping. Hormonal assay for testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, and follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, parathormone, and prolactin levels revealed values within the normal range. Twenty-four hours urinary excretion levels of free cortisol and ketosteroids were within normal limits. Beta-hCG level was also in normal range. Thyroid function tests and X-ray chest results were normal. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen showed no abnormality in adrenals and there was no pituitary enlargement on brain MRI. Pelvis MRI showed a large 11 × 9 × 8 cm clitoral mass. Diagnostic biopsy done from ulcer margin was suggestive of leiomyoma. The mass was completely excised preserving the tip of clitoris. The histopathology showed spindle-shaped cells arranged in palisading form. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA) as well as for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR), confirming the diagnosis of leiomyoma. The patient was regularly followed, and was doing well with no voiding difficulty. Conclusions: We reported the world largest clitoral leiomyoma presenting with symptoms of acute urinary retention. MRI has important role in diagnosis and biopsy is confirmative with spindle-shaped cells arranged in palisading pattern and simple excision would be curative.

Kumar, Santosh; Agrawal, Swati; Jayant, Kumar; Shankargowda, Sriharsha Ajjoor

2014-01-01

45

Forty million years of mutualism: evidence for eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association.  

PubMed

The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 +/- 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0-6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 +/- 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 +/- 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

Pellmyr, O; Leebens-Mack, J

1999-08-01

46

[The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].  

PubMed

The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens. PMID:22586775

Barzilay, Willemjan

2009-01-01

47

State of the art in PEGylation: the great versatility achieved after forty years of research.  

PubMed

In the recent years, protein PEGylation has become an established and highly refined technology by moving forward from initial simple random coupling approaches based on conjugation at the level of lysine ?-amino group. Nevertheless, amino PEGylation is still yielding important conjugates, currently in clinical practice, where the degree of homogeneity was improved by optimizing the reaction conditions and implementing the purification processes. However, the current research is mainly focused on methods of site-selective PEGylation that allow the obtainment of a single isomer, thus highly increasing the degree of homogeneity and the preservation of bioactivity. Protein N-terminus and free cysteines were the first sites exploited for selective PEGylation but currently further positions can be addressed thanks to approaches like bridging PEGylation (disulphide bridges), enzymatic PEGylation (glutamines and C-terminus) and glycoPEGylation (sites of O- and N-glycosylation or the glycans of a glycoprotein). Furthermore, by combining the tools of genetic engineering with specific PEGylation approaches, the polymer can be basically coupled at any position on the protein surface, owing to the substitution of a properly chosen amino acid in the sequence with a natural or unnatural amino acid bearing an orthogonal reactive group. On the other hand, PEGylation has not achieved the same success in the delivery of small drugs, despite the large interest and several studies in this field. Targeted conjugates and PEGs for combination therapy might represent the promising answers for the so far unmet needs of PEG as carrier of small drugs. This review presents a thorough panorama of recent advances in the field of PEGylation. PMID:22094104

Pasut, Gianfranco; Veronese, Francesco M

2012-07-20

48

Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the First Forty Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout history, the great achievements of civilizations and cultures have been recorded in lists of dates and events. But to look only at the machinery, discoveries, or milestones is to miss the value of these achievements. Each goal achieved or discovery or made represents a supreme effort on the part of individual people who came and worked together for a purpose greater than themselves. Driven by an innate curiosity of the spirit, we have built civilizations and discovered new worlds, always reaching out beyond what we knew or thought was possible. These efforts may have used ships or machinery, but the achievement was that of the humans who made those machines possible- remarkable people willing to endure discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and the risk of failure in the hope of finding out something new. This is the case with the history of the Goddard Space Flight Center. This publication traces the legacy of successes, risks, disappointments and internationally recognized triumphs of the Center's first 40 years. It is a story of technological achievement and scientific discovery; of reaching back to the dawn of time and opening up a new set of eyes on our own planet Earth. In the end, it is not a story about machinery or discoveries, but a story about ourselves. If we were able to step off our planet, and if we continue to discover new mysteries and better technology, it is because the people who work at Goddard always had a passion for exploration and the dedication to make it happen. The text that follows is a testimony to the challenges people at the Goddard Space Flight Center have faced and overcome over almost half a century. Today, we stand on the threshold of a new and equally challenging era. It will once again test our ingenuity, skills, and flexibility as we find new ways of working with our colleagues in industry, government, and academia. Doing more with less is every bit as ambitious as designing the first science instrument to study the heavens. But if we are to continue exploring our world and our universe, it is every bit as important. Robert H. Goddard once said, "The dream of yesterday is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow." This is our heritage. Our challenge is to keep our spirit of dedication, vision, and innovative thinking alive, so we can turn today's dreams into a new century of possibility and progress. Our journeys into space are the greatest ongoing adventure the human race has ever undertaken, and everyone here has played an important role in that endeavor. This book is about everyone who has worked at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

Wallace, Lane E.

1999-01-01

49

SEMPRE: Forty Years on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical account traces the beginnings of the Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) to the founding of the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education (SRPMME) in 1972, which in turn had evolved from Arnold Bentley's Research in Music Education conferences instituted in 1966. The paper charts the…

Cox, Gordon; Crickmore, Leon; Plummeridge, Charles; Sergeant, Desmond

2012-01-01

50

Edison After Forty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edison After Forty: The Challenge of Success is a virtual exhibition provided by the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History (discussed in the {September 19, 1997 Scout Report http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/sr/1997/scout-970919.html#8}). This exhibit documents the last 44 years of the prolific career of Thomas Alva Edison, the quintessential American inventor who held over one thousand patents at the time of his death in 1931. Historical narrative accompanies the exhibit's seven galleries of black and white photographs: The Challenge of Success, Before Forty, Changes at Forty, Home Life, The New Technical World, Fame and Its Distractions, and Edison in His Eighties.

1998-01-01

51

Neurostimulation for neck pain and headache.  

PubMed

Patients with medically refractory headache disorders are a rare and challenging-to-treat group. The introduction of peripheral neurostimulation (PNS) has offered a new avenue of treatment for patients who are appropriate surgical candidates. The utility of PNS for headache management is actively debated. Preliminary reports suggested that 60-80% of patients with chronic headache who have failed maximum medical therapy respond to PNS. However, complications rates for PNS are high. Recent publication of 2 large randomized clinical trials with conflicting results has underscored the need for further research and careful patient counseling. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for PNS in treatment of chronic migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalagias and occipital neuralgia, and other secondary headache disorders. PMID:24527699

Hong, Jennifer; Ball, Perry A; Fanciullo, Gilbert J

2014-03-01

52

Aspiration versus excision: a single center experience of forty-seven patients with brain abscess over 10 years.  

PubMed

The efficacies of two different surgical approaches, aspiration and excision, were investigated for the management of large solitary encapsulated pyogenic brain abscess located in superficial non-eloquent areas, and the impact on length of hospital stay, duration of postoperative antibiotic use, improvement in neurological status, and morbidity and mortality were compared. This retrospective study at Sher-i-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences included 47 patients with pyogenic brain abscess from a total of 114 patients evaluated in the Department of Neurosurgery over a period of 10 years from October 2001 to October 2011. Comparisons were made between aspiration and excision in terms of duration of antibiotic use, length of hospital stay, and overall treatment cost. Aspiration was performed in 29 patients (61.7%), of whom 7 patients needed second aspiration, and 18 patients underwent excision (38.3%) of the abscess capsule. The mean duration of antibiotic use in the excision group was significantly shorter at 2.7 weeks (standard deviation [SD]±1.1) compared to the aspiration group at 3.8 weeks (SD±1.3) (p=0.006). Similarly, mean length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the excision group at 18.1 days (SD±7.7) compared to the aspiration group at 24.9 days (SD±6.6) (p=0.002). In addition, significantly earlier improvement in neurological function (p=0.025) and significantly lower rate of re-surgery (p=0.0238) were found in the excision group compared to the aspiration group. Excision is better than aspiration as far as duration of antibiotic use, length of hospital stay, and overall cost of treatment is concerned, with no significant difference in morbidity and mortality. PMID:23095264

Sarmast, Arif Hussain; Showkat, Hakim Irfan; Kirmani, Altaf Rehman; Bhat, Abdul Rashid; Patloo, Asim Mushtaq; Ahmad, Sheikh Riyaz; Khan, Omar Masood

2012-01-01

53

The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.  

PubMed

The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use', the 'Global handbook for family planning providers', the 'Definition of core competencies in primary health care', and designing tools for operationalizing a human rights approach to sexual and reproductive health programmes. PMID:23146950

Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

2012-01-01

54

Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

2011-01-01

55

Fibre optics: Forty years later  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-01-31

56

Forty Years on: Touchstones Now  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Touchstones" series of poetry anthologies was first published in the UK between 1968 and 1972 in five volumes. Over a million copies and three revisions later, "Touchstones Now 11-14" appeared in the summer of 2008. Few, if any, books for the classroom can claim such longevity. In this article, the compilers of the anthologies, Michael and…

Benton, Michael; Benton, Peter

2008-01-01

57

Forty years of nonlinear ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear ultrasound forms an integrated discipline of nonlinear acoustics founded in 1755. A short outline of the state-of-the-art in nonlinear ultrasound in 1960 forms the introduction to this paper. Some of the most important contributions to the development in the theoretical, analytical and numerical basis of nonlinear ultrasound and in experimental investigations of nonlinear ultrasonic processes published during the period

Leif Bjørnø

2002-01-01

58

Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the\\u000a emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated\\u000a by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that

Oxana S Pantchenko; Seth J Seidman; Joshua W Guag; Donald M Witters Jr; Curt L Sponberg

2011-01-01

59

Analysis of induced electrical currents from magnetic field coupling inside implantable neurostimulator leads  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade, the number of neurostimulator systems implanted in patients has been rapidly growing. Nearly 50, 000 neurostimulators are implanted worldwide annually. The most common type of implantable neurostimulators is indicated for pain relief. At the same time, commercial use of other electromagnetic technologies is expanding, making electromagnetic interference (EMI) of neurostimulator function an issue of concern. Typically reported sources of neurostimulator EMI include security systems, metal detectors and wireless equipment. When near such sources, patients with implanted neurostimulators have reported adverse events such as shock, pain, and increased stimulation. In recent in vitro studies, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to inhibit the stimulation pulse of an implantable neurostimulator system during low frequency exposure at close distances. This could potentially be due to induced electrical currents inside the implantable neurostimulator leads that are caused by magnetic field coupling from the low frequency identification system. Methods To systematically address the concerns posed by EMI, we developed a test platform to assess the interference from coupled magnetic fields on implantable neurostimulator systems. To measure interference, we recorded the output of one implantable neurostimulator, programmed for best therapy threshold settings, when in close proximity to an operating low frequency RFID emitter. The output contained electrical potentials from the neurostimulator system and those induced by EMI from the RFID emitter. We also recorded the output of the same neurostimulator system programmed for best therapy threshold settings without RFID interference. Using the Spatially Extended Nonlinear Node (SENN) model, we compared threshold factors of spinal cord fiber excitation for both recorded outputs. Results The electric current induced by low frequency RFID emitter was not significant to have a noticeable effect on electrical stimulation. Conclusions We demonstrated a method for analyzing effects of coupled magnetic field interference on implantable neurostimulator system and its electrodes which could be used by device manufacturers during the design and testing phases of the development process.

2011-01-01

60

Fabrication of FORTIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is building the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS), which is a Gregorian telescope with rulings on the secondary mirror. FORTIS will be launched on a sounding rocket from White Sand Missile Range to study the relationship between Lyman alpha escape and the local gas-to-dust ratio in star forming galaxies with non-zero redshifts. It is designed to acquire images of a 30' x 30' field and provide fully redundant "on-the-fly" spectral acquisition of 43 separate targets in the field with a bandpass of 900 - 1800 Angstroms. FORTIS is an enabling scientific and technical activity for future cutting edge far- and near-uv survey missions seeking to: search for Lyman continuum radiation leaking from star forming galaxies, determine the epoch of He II reionization and characterize baryon acoustic oscillations using the Lyman forest. In addition to the high efficiency "two bounce" dual-order spectro-telescope design, FORTIS incorporates a number of innovative technologies including: an image dissecting microshutter array developed by GSFC; a large area (~ 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector with central imaging and "outrigger" spectral channels provided by Sensor Sciences; and an autonomous targeting microprocessor incorporating commercially available field programable gate arrays. We discuss progress to date in developing our pathfinder instrument.

McCandliss, Stephan R.; Fleming, Brian; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffrey; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Goodwin, Phillip A.; Rapchun, David; Lyness, Eric; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, Harvey; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John

2010-07-01

61

CMOS Neurostimulation ASIC with 100 Channels, Scaleable Output, and Bidirectional Radio-Frequency Telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

channel neurostimulation circuit comprising a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed, constructed and tested. The ASIC forms a significant milestone and an integral compo- nent of a 100-electrode neurostimulation system being developed by the authors. The system comprises an externally worn transmitter and a body implantable stimulator. The purpose of the system is

Gregg Jørgen Suaning; Nigel H. Lovell

2001-01-01

62

Prevalence of peripheral arterial disease by ankle-brachial index and its correlation with carotid intimal thickness and coronary risk factors in Nepalese population over the age of forty years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Noninvasive measures of subclinical atherosclerosis such as the ankle brachial index (ABI) and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA IMT) could improve risk prediction and provide more focused primary prevention strategies. This report describes the prevalence of subclinical atherosclerotic vascular disease in a Nepalese population over the age of forty years as measured by ABI and CCA IMT and

Sodhi HS; Shrestha SK; Rauniyar R; Rawat B

63

Combined neurostimulation and neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience: past, present and future  

PubMed Central

Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioural consequences. This enables causal structure-function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging has provided novel insights into the basic mechanisms of action of neurostimulation on distributed networks. For example more recent work has established the capacity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe causal interregional influences, and their interaction with cognitive state changes. Combinations of neurostimulation and neuroimaging now face the challenge of integrating the known physiological effects of neurostimulation with theoretical and biological models of cognition, for example, when theoretical stalemates between opposing cognitive theories need to be resolved. This will be driven by novel developments including biologically informed computational network analyses for predicting the impact of neurostimulation on brain networks, as well as novel neuroimaging and neurostimulation techniques. We anticipate that such future developments will offer an expanded set of tools with which to interrogate structure-function relationships, and to formulate and reconceptualise testable hypotheses about complex neural network interactions and their causal role for cognition.

Bestmann, Sven; Feredoes, Eva

2013-01-01

64

Forty-one year follow-up of childhood-onset opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia: cerebellar atrophy, multiphasic relapses, and response to IVIG.  

PubMed

We report on an adult with opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome experiencing widely spaced neurological relapses, who was followed for 41 years. His responses to treatment are described. PMID:12465092

Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; Kinsbourne, Marcel; Caviness, Verne S; Mishra, Bibhuti

2002-11-01

65

Attempted reversible sympathetic ganglion block by an implantable neurostimulator  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Primary palmar hyperhidrosis is a pathological condition of excessive perspiration of the hands of unknown aetiology. The only effective treatment for permanent cure is the ablation of the sympathetic ganglia supplying the hands. One of the sequelae is compensatory sweating, namely increased perspiration in other parts of the body. Its mechanism is unknown. In a small proportion of patients, it may attend devastating proportions. It has practically no remedy, and the degree of compensatory hyperhidrosis is unpredictable prior to sympathectomy. The purpose of the present study was to obtain a reversible sympathetic block which may disclose subjects prone to develop severe compensatory hyperhidrosis and unfit for permanent ganglionic ablation. METHODS In three dogs, an experimental electrode was implanted via a left thoracotomy on the stellate ganglion, connected to a stimulator. The stimulation was activated after recovery. The contralateral ganglion served as control. Effect of the stimulation was assessed by observing the development of Horner's syndrome, which includes the appearance of miosis, ptosis and enophthalmus. Reversal of the sympathetic block was expected when the neurostimulation was discontinued and assessed by the disappearance of these signs. RESULTS Stimulation produced only a partial effect – an incomplete Horner's syndrome (miosis and sometime ptosis), which was not completely reversible after ceasing the stimulation. CONCLUSIONS Although neurostimulation achieved a partial sympathetic block, the present method failed to obtain a completely reversible effect. However, these results may indicate that different nervous pathways moderate the various components of the Horner's triad. Concerning the creation of a reversible sympathectomy; other approaches must be sought after.

Kopelman, Doron; Costa, Mario G.; Bejar, Jacob; Zaretsky, Asaph; Hashmonai, Moshe

2012-01-01

66

Forty Years of Civics in the J. E. R.: Changes in Civics Teaching since World War II as Seen in the Journal of Educational Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Journal of Educational Research" has reflected educational and social changes for 80 years. A survey of articles since 1945 reveals the effect of sociocultural developments, new inventions (television), world affairs, and educational innovations such as team teaching on education in general and social studies teaching in particular. (SB)

Kay, Linda

1980-01-01

67

Forty years of embryo transfer in cattle: a review focusing on the journal Theriogenology, the growth of the industry in North America, and personal reminisces.  

PubMed

After the first successful transfer of mammalian embryos in 1890, it was approximately 60 years before significant progress was reported in the basic technology of embryo transfer (ET) in cattle. Starting in the early 1970s, technology had progressed sufficiently to support the founding of commercial ET programs in several countries. Today, well-established and reliable techniques involving superovulation, embryo recovery and transfer, cryopreservation, and IVF are utilized worldwide in hundreds, if not thousands, of commercial businesses located in many countries. The mean number of embryos produced via superovulation has changed little in 40 years, but there have been improvements in synchrony and hormonal protocols. Cryopreservation of in vivo-derived embryos is a reliable procedure, but improvements are needed for biopsied and in vitro-derived embryos. High pregnancy rates are achieved when good quality embryos are transferred into suitable recipients and low pregnancy rates are often owing to problems in recipient management and not technology per se. In the future, unanticipated disease outbreaks and the ever-changing economics of cattle and milk prices will continue to influence the ET industry. The issue of abnormal pregnancies involving in vitro embryos has not been satisfactorily resolved and the involvement of abnormal epigenetics associate with this technology merits continued research. Last, genomic testing of bovine embryos is likely to be available in the foreseeable future. This may markedly decrease the number of embryos that are actually transferred and stimulate the evolution of more sophisticated ET businesses. PMID:24274419

Hasler, John F

2014-01-01

68

Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe - from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation  

PubMed Central

Abstract ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies.

Kotze, D. Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J.; Lovei, Gabor L.; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, Jose; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

2011-01-01

69

Forty-Five-Year Mortality Rate as a Function of the Number and Type of Psychiatric Diagnoses Found in a Large Danish Birth Cohort  

PubMed Central

Objective Psychiatric comorbidities are common among psychiatric patients and typically associated with poorer clinical prognoses. Subjects of a large Danish birth cohort were used to study the relation between mortality and co-occurring psychiatric diagnoses. Method We searched the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Registry for 8109 birth cohort members aged 45 years. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses (International Classification of Diseases, Revision 10, group F codes, Mental and Behavioural Disorders, and one Z code) for identified subjects were organized into 14 mutually exclusive diagnostic categories. Mortality rates were examined as a function of number and type of co-occurring diagnoses. Results Psychiatric outcomes for 1247 subjects were associated with 157 deaths. Early mortality risk in psychiatric patients correlated with the number of diagnostic categories (Wald ?2 = 25.0, df = 1, P < 0.001). This global relation was true for anxiety and personality disorders, but not for schizophrenia and substance abuse, which had intrinsically high mortality rates with no comorbidities. Conclusions Risk of early mortality among psychiatric patients appears to be a function of both the number and the type of psychiatric diagnoses.

Madarasz, Wendy; Manzardo, Ann; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Penick, Elizabeth; Knop, Joachim; Sorensen, Holger; Becker, Ulrik; Nickel, Elizabeth; Gabrielli, William

2014-01-01

70

A case with Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy diagnosed forty-two years after onset and implanted with a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator.  

PubMed

The patient was a 53-year-old male. He showed steppage gait at the age of 11 and equinus foot at 13. He walked unaided with shoe-insoles to support his heels. Atrial fibrillation and cardiac hypertrophy were found in his 30s, and ventricular tachycardia (VT) was observed at the age of 48. Electrophysiological studies were performed, but VT was not sustained, symptomatic, or showed signs of infra-Hisian block, and a pacemaker was not indicated. At 53, he was introduced to a neurologist because of tetraplegia after the first episode of syncope. A spinal MR showed ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) and central cervical cord injury. Furthermore, he presented not only contracture in his shoulder, elbow, and ankles but also atrophy in his scapulohumeral and gastrocnemius muscles. In accordance with a diagnosis of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), provocative testing of VT was carried out, and a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) was implanted. Later, a mutation analysis of the LMNA gene disclosed a known missense mutation of p.Arg377His, and we diagnosed him as EDMD2 (laminopathy). Contractures could be the clue to diagnose EDMD and indicate the need for pacemakers and defibrillators in patients with cardiac conduction disorders. PMID:24990833

Sakiyama, Yoshio; Watanabe, Eri; Otsuka, Mieko; Hirahara, Taishi; Momomura, Shinichi; Hayashi, Yukiko

2014-01-01

71

A Rural Comprehensive Forty Years on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on a lengthy link with a particular school together with wider experience of work in the secondary sector, an argument is made for supporting all-ability, neighbourhood schools with strong community links. Rather than the endless centrally imposed tinkering as each new governmental regime produces its latest "big idea"; it is important to…

Seckington, Roger

2008-01-01

72

Forty Years of Development in Diamond Tools.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The growth of the diamond industry in Western Countries since the First World War is surveyed. The articles described deal specifically with the development of the industrial diamond and diamond tool sector in different countries. All data point to contin...

1983-01-01

73

Effective parameters for ultrasound-induced in vivo neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-induced neurostimulation has recently gained increasing attention, but little is known about the mechanisms by which it affects neural activity or about the range of acoustic parameters and stimulation protocols that elicit responses. We have established conditions for transcranial stimulation of the nervous system in vivo, using the mouse somatomotor response. We report that (1) continuous-wave stimuli are as effective as or more effective than pulsed stimuli in eliciting responses, and responses are elicited with stimulus onset rather than stimulus offset; (2) stimulation success increases as a function of both acoustic intensity and acoustic duration; (3) interactions of intensity and duration suggest that successful stimulation results from the integration of stimulus amplitude over a time interval of 50 to 150 ms; and (4) the motor response elicited appears to be an all-or-nothing phenomenon, meaning stronger stimulus intensities and durations increase the probability of a motor response without affecting the duration or strength of the response. PMID:23219040

King, Randy L; Brown, Julian R; Newsome, William T; Pauly, Kim Butts

2013-02-01

74

Responsive neurostimulation for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

With an annual incidence of 50/100,000 people, nearly 1% of the population suffers from epilepsy. Treatment with antiepileptic medication fails to achieve seizure remission in 20-30% of patients. One treatment option for refractory epilepsy patients who would not otherwise be surgical candidates is electrical stimulation of the brain, which is a rapidly evolving and reversible adjunctive therapy. Therapeutic stimulation can involve direct stimulation of the brain nuclei or indirect stimulation of peripheral nerves. There are three stimulation modalities that have class I evidence supporting their uses: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT), and, the most recently developed, responsive neurostimulation (RNS). While the other treatment modalities outlined deliver stimulation regardless of neuronal activity, the RNS administers stimulation only if triggered by seizure activity. The lower doses of stimulation provided by such responsive devices can not only reduce power consumption, but also prevent adverse reactions caused by continuous stimulation, which include the possibility of habituation to long-term stimulation. RNS, as an investigational treatment for medically refractory epilepsy, is currently under review by the FDA. Eventually systems may be developed to enable activation by neurochemical triggers or to wirelessly transmit any information gathered. We review the mechanisms, the current status, the target options, and the prospects of RNS for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. PMID:23735806

Liu, Chong; Wen, Xiong-Wei; Ge, Yan; Chen, Ning; Hu, Wen-Han; Zhang, Tan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Meng, Fan-Gang

2013-08-01

75

Massively-parallel neuromonitoring and neurostimulation rodent headset with nanotextured flexible microelectrodes.  

PubMed

We present a compact wireless headset for simultaneous multi-site neuromonitoring and neurostimulation in the rodent brain. The system comprises flexible-shaft microelectrodes, neural amplifiers, neurostimulators, a digital time-division multiplexer (TDM), a micro-controller and a ZigBee wireless transceiver. The system is built by parallelizing up to four 0.35 ?m CMOS integrated circuits (each having 256 neural amplifiers and 64 neurostimulators) to provide a total maximum of 1024 neural amplifiers and 256 neurostimulators. Each bipolar neural amplifier features 54 dB-72 dB adjustable gain, 1 Hz-5 kHz adjustable bandwidth with an input-referred noise of 7.99 ?Vrms and dissipates 12.9 ?W. Each current-mode bipolar neurostimulator generates programmable arbitrary-waveform biphasic current in the range of 20-250 ?A and dissipates 2.6 ?W in the stand-by mode. Reconfigurability is provided by stacking a set of dedicated mini-PCBs that share a common signaling bus within as small as 22 × 30 × 15 mm³ volume. The system features flexible polyimide-based microelectrode array design that is not brittle and increases pad packing density. Pad nanotexturing by electrodeposition reduces the electrode-tissue interface impedance from an average of 2 M? to 30 k? at 100 Hz. The rodent headset and the microelectrode array have been experimentally validated in vivo in freely moving rats for two months. We demonstrate 92.8 percent seizure rate reduction by responsive neurostimulation in an acute epilepsy rat model. PMID:24144667

Bagheri, Arezu; Gabran, S R I; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Mansour, Raafat R; Salama, M M A; Genov, Roman

2013-10-01

76

Fabrication and calibration of FORTIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is entering the final fabrication phase of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of- view. Using \\

Brian T. Fleming; Stephan R. McCandliss; Mary Elizabeth Kaiser; Jeffery Kruk; Paul D. Feldman; Alexander S. Kutyrev; Mary J. Li; David A. Rapchun; Eric Lyness; S. H. Moseley; Oswald Siegmund; John Vallerga; Adrian Martin

2011-01-01

77

Fabrication and calibration of FORTIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is entering the final fabrication phase of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of- view. Using "on-the-fly" target acquisition and spectral multiplexing enabled by a GSFC microshutter array, FORTIS will be capable of observing the brightest regions in the far-UV of nearby low redshift (z ~ 0.002 - 0.02) star forming galaxies to search for Lyman alpha escape, and to measure the local gas-to-dust ratio. A large area (~ 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector built by Sensor Sciences provides an imaging channel for targeting flanked by two redundant spectral outrigger channels. The grating is ruled directly onto the secondary mirror to increase efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress made in the development and fabrication of FORTIS, as well as the results of early calibration and characterization of our hardware, including mirror/grating measurements, detector performance, and early operational tests of the microshutter arrays.

Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Rapchun, David A.; Lyness, Eric; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

2011-09-01

78

Fabrication and Calibration of FORTIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is entering the final fabrication phase of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of-view. Using "on-the-fly" target acquisition and spectral multiplexing enabled by a GSFC microshutter array, FORTIS will be capable of observing the brightest regions in the far-UV of nearby low redshift (z approximately 0.002 - 0.02) star forming galaxies to search for Lyman alpha escape, and to measure the local gas-to-dust ratio. A large area (approximately 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector built by Sensor Sciences provides an imaging channel for targeting flanked by two redundant spectral outrigger channels. The grating is ruled directly onto the secondary mirror to increase efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress made in the development and fabrication of FORTIS, as well as the results of early calibration and characterization of our hardware, including mirror/grating measurements, detector performance, and early operational tests of the micro shutter arrays.

Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Rapchun, David A.; Lyness, Eric; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

2011-01-01

79

A Technique of Distal to Proximal Revision of Peripheral Neurostimulator Leads: Technical Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peripheral nerve stimulation for chronic pain states is a safe and efficacious technique, being used with increasing frequency. The incidence of hardware-related complications requiring revision remains high. Objectives: The authors describe a technique of distal to proximal neurostimulator lead revision, which does not require the changing of generators or extension leads, and thus presumably will minimize further device-related complications.

Antonios Mammis; Alon Y. Mogilner

2011-01-01

80

Impact of brain tissue filtering on neurostimulation fields: a modeling study.  

PubMed

Electrical neurostimulation techniques, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are increasingly used in the neurosciences, e.g., for studying brain function, and for neurotherapeutics, e.g., for treating depression, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease. The characterization of electrical properties of brain tissue has guided our fundamental understanding and application of these methods, from electrophysiologic theory to clinical dosing-metrics. Nonetheless, prior computational models have primarily relied on ex-vivo impedance measurements. We recorded the in-vivo impedances of brain tissues during neurosurgical procedures and used these results to construct MRI guided computational models of TMS and DBS neurostimulatory fields and conductance-based models of neurons exposed to stimulation. We demonstrated that tissues carry neurostimulation currents through frequency dependent resistive and capacitive properties not typically accounted for by past neurostimulation modeling work. We show that these fundamental brain tissue properties can have significant effects on the neurostimulatory-fields (capacitive and resistive current composition and spatial/temporal dynamics) and neural responses (stimulation threshold, ionic currents, and membrane dynamics). These findings highlight the importance of tissue impedance properties on neurostimulation and impact our understanding of the biological mechanisms and technological potential of neurostimulatory methods. PMID:23850466

Wagner, Tim; Eden, Uri; Rushmore, Jarrett; Russo, Christopher J; Dipietro, Laura; Fregni, Felipe; Simon, Stephen; Rotman, Stephen; Pitskel, Naomi B; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Grodzinsky, Alan J; Zahn, Markus; Valero-Cabré, Antoni

2014-01-15

81

[Medical and economic reflections on Restore and Itrel neurostimulation systems for neuropathic pain treatment].  

PubMed

In 2007, four patients where implanted with the Restore neurostimulation system for intractable chronic leg pain at the Poitiers Hospital. The potential for improving the patients' quality of life and medical-economic concerns motivated this choice for these highly selected patients. In this paper, we propose brief clinical case reports and discuss the reasons for choosing this new rechargeable system, even though it was initially more expensive than the standard neurostimulation system (Itrel 3). All patients receiving implants declared that they were very satisfied with the quality of stimulation provided by Restore and noted a significant improvement in their quality of life. If this solution becomes advantageous from an economic point of view, clinical data should lend support to the utility of this technological innovation for patients who have hitherto been in treatment failure. PMID:19233438

Simonneau, A; d'Houtaud, S; Djabarouti, M; Giot, J-P; Magnam, J; Bataille, B; Lapierre, F; Rigoard, P

2009-03-01

82

Microelectronic retinal prosthesis: II. Use of high-voltage CMOS in retinal neurostimulators.  

PubMed

This paper presents the design, implementation, and simulated and measured results of a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor neurostimulator implemented in a 0.35 microm high-voltage process. To allow for a high stimulation voltage, and hence the greatest versatility of the neurostimulator in situ, a high-voltage CMOS process was used. The neurostimulator utilized current sources and sinks to simultaneously deliver and recover charge. It has the ability to deliver stimulus in three output current ranges using a current sink only, current source only, or both a current source and sink combined to provide focused stimulation. The worst case integral non-linearity and differential non-linearity errors were 0.2 LSB and 0.1 LSB respectively, and the current source and sink turn-on times were under 500 ns, providing fast switching time in response to stimuli instructions. The total die area was under 13 mm2, well within the area constraints of our implantable vision prosthesis device. PMID:17946644

Dommel, N; Wong, Y T; Lehmann, T; Byrnes-Preston, P; Lovell, N H; Suaning, G J

2006-01-01

83

Toward a fully integrated neurostimulator with inductive power recovery front-end.  

PubMed

In order to investigate new neurostimulation strategies for micturition recovery in spinal cord injured patients, custom implantable stimulators are required to carry-on chronic animal experiments. However, higher integration of the neurostimulator becomes increasingly necessary for miniaturization purposes, power consumption reduction, and for increasing the number of stimulation channels. As a first step towards total integration, we present in this paper the design of a highly-integrated neurostimulator that can be assembled on a 21-mm diameter printed circuit board. The prototype is based on three custom integrated circuits fabricated in High-Voltage (HV) CMOS technology, and a low-power small-scale commercially available FPGA. Using a step-down approach where the inductive voltage is left free up to 20 V, the inductive power and data recovery front-end is fully integrated. In particular, the front-end includes a bridge rectifier, a 20-V voltage limiter, an adjustable series regulator (5 to 12 V), a switched-capacitor step-down DC/DC converter (1:3, 1:2, or 2:3 ratio), as well as data recovery. Measurements show that the DC/DC converter achieves more than 86% power efficiency while providing around 3.9-V from a 12-V input at 1-mA load, 1:3 conversion ratio, and 50-kHz switching frequency. With such efficiency, the proposed step-down inductive power recovery topology is more advantageous than its conventional step-up counterpart. Experimental results confirm good overall functionality of the system. PMID:23853175

Mounaïm, Fayçal; Sawan, Mohamad

2012-08-01

84

Localization of ultrasound-induced in vivo neurostimulation in the mouse model.  

PubMed

Developments in the use of ultrasound to stimulate and modulate neural activity have raised the possibility of using ultrasound as a new investigative and therapeutic tool in brain research. Although the phenomenon of ultrasound-induced neurostimulation has a long history dating back many decades, until now there has been little evidence of a clearly localized effect in the brain, a necessary requirement for the technique to become genuinely useful. Here we report clearly distinguishable effects in sonicating rostral and caudal regions of the mouse motor cortex. Motor responses measured by normalized electromyography in the neck and tail regions changed significantly when sonicating the two different areas of motor cortex. Response latencies varied significantly according to sonication location, suggesting that different neural circuits are activated depending on the precise focus of the ultrasound beam. Taken together, our findings present good evidence of the ability to target selective parts of the motor cortex with ultrasound neurostimulation in the mouse, an advance that should help to set the stage for developing new applications in larger animal models, including humans. PMID:24642220

King, Randy L; Brown, Julian R; Pauly, Kim Butts

2014-07-01

85

ZigBee-based Wireless Neuro-Stimulator for Improving Stroke Recovery.  

PubMed

Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and the second-leading cause of death in Korea. It is also the third-leading cause of death in the United States, leading to a serious demand for new interventions to improve the quality of life in stroke survivors. To this end, direct cortical stimulation using an epidural electrode has been reported with promising results in animal and human studies, showing the potential for enhancing the recovery in chronic stroke patients. For optimal results, doctors must be able to modify the stimulation pattern as frequently as needed over a period of time for a given patient. However, severe aftereffects caused by stroke limit patients' activities, making regular doctor visits for treatment difficult. This study aims to develop a prototype of a telemedicine system to enhance stroke recovery by using a ZigBeebased wireless neuro-stimulator. The ZigBee is a stable platform for many low-power wireless applications. To allow stroke patients to remotely obtain neuro-stimulation treatments from their doctors, we connected the ZigBee to the internet. The system also allows doctors to personalize treatment based on the history of the stimulation parameters. The system developed here can also be beneficial as a common platform for a wide range of brain diseases and clinical care for which electric stimulation is used. PMID:22110356

Kim, Gookhwa; Yun, Hyojeong; Ryu, Munho; Shin, Yongil; Kim, Hyoungihl; Yang, Yoonseok

2010-12-01

86

Réflexion sur l’intérêt médicoéconomique des boîtiers de neurostimulation Restore ® et Itrel ® dans le traitement des douleurs neuropathiques chroniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2007, four patients where implanted with the Restore® neurostimulation system for intractable chronic leg pain at the Poitiers Hospital. The potential for improving the patients’ quality of life and medical-economic concerns motivated this choice for these highly selected patients. In this paper, we propose brief clinical case reports and discuss the reasons for choosing this new rechargeable system, even

A. Simonneau; S. d’Houtaud; M. Djabarouti; J.-P. Giot; J. Magnam; B. Bataille; F. Lapierre; P. Rigoard

2009-01-01

87

A Four-Year Follow-Up Study of the Forty-One Graduates--Class of 1971 of the Jackson County [Iowa] Adult Evening High School Completion Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four-year followup study (the fifth and last of such four-year evaluations of graduates) aimed at pinpointing the program's benefits to the graduates in the educational social/personal, and financial areas. Thirty-two of the 41 graduates responded to the mailed questionnaire, which elicited demographic, occupational, educational, financial,…

Gran, James R.

88

Predictors of battery life for the Activa Soletra 7426 Neurostimulator.  

PubMed

DBS is increasingly used for Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and other movement disorders. The advertised battery life for Medtronic implantable pulse generators is 4-5 years, but can vary markedly. Theoretical formulas exist to predict battery life as a function of parameter setting, but almost no empiric confirmation of these predictions has been reported. We identified all battery replacements done for actual expired batteries and low voltage batteries. Demographic data were collected and the adjustable settings over the entire life of that battery were formulated longitudinally. The individual contributions of co-variables on the longevity of IPG devices were assessed by survival analysis based on the Kaplan-Meier estimator and log rank test. We have replaced a total of 122 batteries in 73 patients, 50 males (42 PD, 29 ET, two dystonias, one multiple sclerosis). The median life of these replaced batteries was 37.4+/-17.3 months [range: 4-93 months]. The batteries that completely expired were actually replaced sooner at 31.7+/-14.3 months [range: 4-74 months]. In this group, the main predictors of a shorter battery life were greater amplitude (p=0.002), pulse width (p=0.026), and not using exclusive bipolar settings (p=0.029). The implant location, underlying disease, and sex did not affect battery life. Battery life varied but was generally consistent with published predictors. PMID:17379565

Ondo, William G; Meilak, Catherine; Vuong, Kevin D

2007-05-01

89

A microscale photovoltaic neurostimulator for fiber optic delivery of functional electrical stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in functional electrical stimulation (FES) show significant promise for restoring voluntary movement in patients with paralysis or other severe motor impairments. Current approaches for implantable FES systems involve multisite stimulation, posing research issues related to their physical size, power and signal delivery, surgical and safety challenges. To explore a different means for delivering the stimulus to a distant muscle nerve site, we have elicited in vitro FES response using a high efficiency microcrystal photovoltaic device as a neurostimulator, integrated with a biocompatible glass optical fiber which forms a lossless, interference-free lightwave conduit for signal and energy transport. As a proof of concept demonstration, a sciatic nerve of a frog is stimulated by the microcrystal device connected to a multimode optical fiber (core diameter of 62.5 µm), which converts optical activation pulses (~100 µs) from an infrared semiconductor laser source (at 852 nm wavelength) into an FES signal.

Song, Yoon-Kyu; Stein, John; Patterson, William R.; Bull, Christopher W.; Davitt, Kristina M.; Serruya, Mijail D.; Zhang, Jiayi; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Donoghue, John P.

2007-09-01

90

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals  

PubMed Central

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research.

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-01-01

91

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals.  

PubMed

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-04-01

92

Path Integration in Desert Ants, Cataglyphis fortis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, continually keep track of their own positions relative to home--i.e., integrate their tortuous outbound routes and return home along straight (inbound) routes. By experimentally manipulating the ants' outbound trajectories we show that the ants solve this path integration problem not by performing a true vector summation (as a human navigator does) but by employing a

Martin Muller; Rudiger Wehner

1988-01-01

93

Forty years and four surveys 1 1 Address reprint requests to: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Immunization Program Resource Center, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-34, Atlanta, GA 30333. Fax: (404) 639-8828  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This article reviews four surveys methodologies that have been used over the past 40 years to assess immunization rates in young children in the United States. These methods include three national surveys: (1) United States Immunization Survey (1959–1985), which was first a household and then a telephone survey; (2) National Health Interview Survey (1991–present), which interviews people in their

Diane M Simpson; Trena M Ezzati-Rice; Elizabeth R Zell

2001-01-01

94

Forty-eighth annual power distribution conference  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at the Forty-eighth Annual Power Distribution Conference held in 1995 at Austin, Texas. The topics of the papers include power quality in power distribution systems, methods to improve power quality, power system communications, automation of distribution systems, distributed data acquisition, energy efficiency in industrial plants, weather data in operation of distribution systems, detection and location of failed or failing equipment in power distribution systems, lightning and overvoltage protection, distribution cable research update, and equipment protection devices for residential power distribution systems.

NONE

1995-12-31

95

Forty Years of School Readiness Research: What Have We Learned?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of children's school readiness concerns parents and teachers worldwide. Kindergarten teachers have reported that approximately one-third of U.S. children entering school are ill-prepared to achieve success. Experts also warn that many children are entering school lacking the fundamental skills to achieve academic success. It is…

Winter, Suzanne M.; Kelley, Michael F.

2008-01-01

96

Closing the Gap: Forty Years of Economic Progress for Blacks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the findings on the long-term economic progress of American blacks. The report consists of seven sections. The first is a general introduction. Section 2 describes major changes in the racial wage gap for males from 1940 to 1980 and identifies the distribution of wage gains among important subgroups in the black population.…

Smith, James P.; Welch, Finis R.

97

Firefinder, a radar forty years in the making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since World War I, indirect fire weapons have been the main source of casualties on the battlefield. The article summarizes the characteristics of typical indirect fire weapons. By tracking the launched projectile in flight, a Firefinder radar can accurately locate the weapon before the projectile impacts the ground and thereby allow timely counter fire to be placed on the weapon.

William Fishbein

2008-01-01

98

Forty years of training program in the JAERI.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is to compile the past training program of researchers, engineers and regulatory members at the NuTEC (Nuclear Technology and Education Center) of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the past basic seminars for the public, in addition t...

1998-01-01

99

Forty-Year-Old Foam Springs Back With New Benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most recognized and widely used NASA spinoff is at it again. Temper foam, whose origins date back to 1966 when it was developed to absorb shock and, thus, offer improved protection and comfort in NASA s airplane seats, has paid its dividends to Earth repeatedly, and in many different ways. It has padded the helmets of the Dallas Cowboys throughout the 1970s and 1980s, protected bedridden patients from bedsores, and comforted the feet of thousands wearing stylish shoes that incorporate the cushioning material in their insoles. Four decades later, the world has come to realize that there are no bounds to temper foam s benefits. Though the rights to the technology have been shared amongst various manufacturers, the original product maker is still going strong, pushing temper foam into new arenas, including automotives, amusement parks, prosthetics, and modern art.

2005-01-01

100

Forty years of Galilean Electromagnetism (1973-2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review Galilean Electromagnetism since the 1973 seminal paper of Jean-Marc Lévy-Leblond and Michel Le Bellac and we explain for the first time all the historical experiments of Rowland, Vasilescu Karpen, Roentgen, Eichenwald, Wilson, Wilson and Wilson, which were previously interpreted in a Special Relativistic framework by showing the uselessness of the latter for setups involving slow motions of a part of the apparatus. Galilean Electromagnetism is not an alternative to Special Relavity but is precisely its low-velocity limit in Classical Electromagnetism.

Rousseaux, Germain

2013-08-01

101

FORTIS: pathfinder to the Lyman continuum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shull et al. have asserted that the contribution of stars, relative to quasars, to the metagalactic background radiation that ionizes most of the baryons in the universe remains almost completely unknown at all epochs. The potential to directly quantify this contribution at low redshift has recently become possible with the identification by GALEX of large numbers of sparsely distributed faint ultraviolet galaxies. Neither STIS nor FUSE nor GALEX have the ability to efficiently survey these sparse fields and directly measure the Lyman continuum radiation that may leak into the low redshift (z < 0.4) intergalactic medium. We present here a design for a new type of far ultraviolet spectrograph, one that is more sensitive, covers wider fields, and can provide spectra and images of a large number of objects simultaneously, called the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS). We intend to use a sounding rocket flight to validate the new instrument with a simple long-slit observation of the starburst populations in the galaxy M83. If however, the long-slit were replaced with microshutter array, this design could isolate the chains of blue galaxies found by GALEX over an ~30' diameter field-of-view and directly address the Lyman continuum problem in a long duration orbital mission. Thus, our development of the sounding rocket instrument is a pathfinder to a new wide field spectroscopic technology for enabling the potential discovery of the long hypothesized but elusive Lyman continuum radiation that is thought to leak from low redshift galaxies and contribute to the ionization of the universe.

McCandliss, Stephan R.; France, Kevin; Feldman, Paul D.; Glazebrook, Karl; Meurer, Gerhardt; Bianchi, Luciana; Moos, H. W.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Blair, William P.; Baldry, Ivan

2004-10-01

102

Fronto-tectal white matter connectivity mediates facilitatory effects of non-invasive neurostimulation on visual detection.  

PubMed

The causal ability of pre-target FEF activity to modulate visual detection for perithreshold stimuli has been recently demonstrated in humans by means of non-invasive neurostimulation. Yet in spite of the network-distributed effects of these type of techniques, the white matter (WM) tracts and distant visual nodes contributing to such behavioral impact remain unknown. We hereby used individual data from a group of healthy human subjects, who received time-locked pulses of active or sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to the right Frontal Eye Field (FEF) region, and experienced increases in visual detection sensitivity. We then studied the extent to which interindividual differences in visual modulation might be dependent on the WM patterns linking the targeted area to other regions relevant for visuo-attentional behaviors. We report a statistically significant correlation between the probability of connection in a right fronto-tectal pathway (FEF-Superior Colliculus) and the modulation of visual sensitivity during a detection task. Our findings support the potential contribution of this pathway and the superior colliculus in the mediation of visual performance from frontal regions in humans. Furthermore, we also show the ability of a TMS/DTI correlational approach to contribute to the disambiguation of the specific long-range pathways driving network-wide neurostimulatory effects on behavior, anticipating their future role in guiding a more efficient use of focal neurostimulation. PMID:23707586

Quentin, Romain; Chanes, Lorena; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Valabrègue, Romain; Valero-Cabré, Antoni

2013-11-15

103

Platinum nanowire microelectrode arrays for neurostimulation applications: Fabrication, characterization, and in-vitro retinal cell stimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Implantable electrical neurostimulating devices are being developed for a number of applications, including artificial vision through retinal stimulation. The epiretinal prosthesis will use a two-dimensional array microelectrodes to address individual cells of the retina. MEMS fabrication processes can produce arrays of microelectrodes with these dimensions, but there are two critical issues that they cannot satisfy. One, the stimulating electrodes are the only part of the implanted electrical device that penetrate through the water impermeable package, and must do so without sacrificing hermeticity. Two, As electrode size decreases, the current density (A cm-2 ) increases, due to increased electrochemical impedance. This reduces the amount of charge that can be safely injected into the tissue. To date, MEMS processing method, cannot produce electrode arrays with good, prolonged hermetic properties. Similarly, MEMS approaches do not account for the increased impedance caused by decreased surface area. For these reasons there is a strong motivation for the development of a water-impermeable, substrate-penetrating electrode array with low electrochemical impedance. This thesis presents a stimulating electrode array fabricated from platinum nanowires using a modified electrochemical template synthesis approach. Nanowires are electrochemically deposited from ammonium hexachloroplatinate solution into lithographically patterned nanoporous anodic alumina templates to produce microarrays of platinum nanowires. The platinum nanowires penetrating through the ceramic aluminum oxide template serve as parallel electrical conduits through the water impermeable, electrically insulating substrate. Electrode impedance can be adjusted by either controlling the nanowire hydrous platinum oxide content or by partially etching the alumina template to expose additional surface area. A stepwise approach to this project was taken. First, the electrochemistry of ammonium hexachloroplatinate solution was characterized, and physical properties of electrodeposited thin films were correlated to deposition conditions used. Second, platinum nanowires were fabricated and their properties characterized, using similar deposition conditions. Third, the feasibility of fabricating platinum nanowire stimulating electrode arrays with a variety of surface structures was demonstrated. Fourth, the enhanced charge transfer characteristics of these structures were demonstrated using electrochemical techniques. Finally, retinal cell stimulation was demonstrated using electrodes from platinum nanowire arrays.

Whalen, John J., III

104

Draft Recovery Plan for the Shasta Crayfish ('Pacifastacus fortis').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Shasta crayfish (Pacifastacus fortis) is federally and State listed as endangered. Its distribution is limited to the midsections of the Pit River drainage, primarily the Fall River and Hat Creek subdrainages in Shasta County, California. This species...

M. J. Ellis

1997-01-01

105

Recovery Plan for the Shasta Crayfish ('Pacifastacus fortis').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Shasta crayfish (Paccifastacus fortis) is federally and State listed as endangered. Its distribution is limited to the midsections of the Pit River drainage, primarily the Fall River and Hat Creek subdrainages in Shasta County, California. This specie...

1998-01-01

106

Plan for extensive energy project with forty windmills  

SciTech Connect

Dutch electricity production companies have highly advanced plans for an extensive wind energy project. They call for a park of thirty to forty middle sized windmills which would have to produce a total of 10,000 kilowatts of electricity.

Not Available

1982-04-01

107

Geological issues in Alberto Fortis' Viaggio in Dalmazia (1774)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Italian abbot Alberto Fortis (1741-1803), educated in geology, petrology, mineralogy, and palaeontology by eminent 18th-century naturalists, performed several extensive explorations in Istria and Dalmatia - provinces of the former Venetian Republic, now the littoral part of Croatia. Notes from some of these journeys, collected in 1774 in the book Viaggio in Dalmazia, encompass observations of almost all aspects of social and physical features of Dalmatian people and land. From a geological point of view, Fortis' remarks generally correspond to recent studies, with some exceptions in palaeontological and petrological issues. His understanding of natural processes, mainly in karstology and hydrology, is mostly surprisingly good. Besides, he addressed critics to previous writers, whose theories, influenced by older authorities, had been taken for granted instead of being re-examined by field explorations. His unjustly neglected work was the first extensive and comprehensive study of this part of Europe, little known in the then scientific community.

Suri?, Maša; Lon?ari?, Robert; ?uka, Anica; Fari?i?, Josip

2007-08-01

108

Subcutaneous Peripheral Neurostimulation for the Treatment of Severe Chronic Poststernotomy Neuralgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Poststernotomy pain frequently develops after sternotomy in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, and may affect patients’ quality of life. In some cases of severe poststernotomy neuralgia, pharmacologic therapy does not provide adequate relief. Case Report: We report on a 42- year-old woman who underwent sternotomy for aortic and mitral valve replacement. She developed severe chronic poststernotomy neuralgia that was refractory to

Morad Peyravi; Hans-Holger Capelle; Stefan Fischer; Axel Haverich; Joachim K. Krauss

2011-01-01

109

Physiological and anatomical decomposition of subthalamic neurostimulation effects in essential tremor.  

PubMed

Postural tremor is the leading symptom in essential tremor, but in some cases intention tremor and limb ataxia emerge and can become highly disabling features. Deep brain stimulation of the thalamus or subthalamic white matter improve tremor and ataxia; however, the underlying network mechanisms are enigmatic. To elucidate the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation in essential tremor, we pursued a multimodal approach combining kinematic measures of reach-to-grasp movements, clinical assessments, physiological measures of neuronal excitability and probabilistic tractography from diffusion tensor imaging. Seven patients with essential tremor (age 62.9 ± 10.3 years, two females) received thalamic deep brain stimulation and a clinical examination of severity of limb tremor and ataxia at off stimulation, using therapeutic and supratherapeutic stimulation parameters. A reach-to-grasp task based on acoustic cues was also performed. To examine the electrical properties of target structures, we determined the chronaxie of neural elements modulated. A control group of 13 healthy subjects (age 56 ± 7.6 years, five females) underwent whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging at 3 T. Probabilistic tractography was applied in healthy subjects from seeds in cerebellum and midbrain to reconstruct the connectivity pattern of the subthalamic area. The positions of stimulation electrodes in patients were transferred into probability maps and connectivity values were correlated to clinical outcome measures. Therapeutic stimulation improved ataxia and tremor mainly during the target period of the reaching paradigm (63% reduction compared with off stimulation). Notably the acceleration (29%) and deceleration periods (41%) were improved. By contrast, supratherapeutic stimulation worsened ataxia during the deceleration period with a 55% increase of spatial variability, while maintaining near complete suppression of tremor. Chronaxie measures were in the range of rapidly-conducting myelinated fibres with significantly different values for the anti-tremor effect of therapeutic stimulation (27 s) and the pro-ataxic effect of supratherapeutic stimulation (52 s). The degree of connectivity to the dentato-thalamic tract at the stimulating electrode correlated significantly with the reduction of tremor in the therapeutic condition. Our data suggest that stimulation induced tremor reduction and induction of ataxia by supratherapeutic stimulation are mediated by different fibre systems. Probalistic tractography identified the dentato-thalamic tract as a likely target of tremor suppression. Stimulation-induced ataxia may be caused by additional recruitment of adjacent fibre systems at higher amplitudes. Stimulation with short pulse duration may help to increase the therapeutic window and focus on the anti-tremor effect. PMID:24277721

Groppa, Sergiu; Herzog, Jan; Falk, Daniela; Riedel, Christian; Deuschl, Günther; Volkmann, Jens

2014-01-01

110

Pathway analysis models used for assessment of forty-five waste site areas at the Savannah River Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical staff at Savannah River Plant (SRP) has identified forty-five locations that received (or may have received) a variety of radioactive and nonradioactive constituents during the past 35 years. These locations include surface impoundments and shallow land burial facilities. Detailed environmental assessments of existing waste disposal areas have been completed to aid in an evaluation of the hazardous, low-level

B. B. Looney; D. E. Stephenson; C. M. King; R. A. Fjeld; B. L. Sill; G. B. Merrell; V. C. Rogers

1987-01-01

111

Forty-Five Years After Broadbent (1958): Still No Identification Without Attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to D. E. Broadbent's (1958) selective filter theory, people do not process unattended stimuli beyond the analysis of basic physical properties. This theory was later rejected on the basis of numerous findings that people identify irrelevant (and supposedly unattended) stimuli. A careful review of this evidence, however, reveals strong reasons to doubt that these irrelevant stimuli were in fact

Joel Lachter; Kenneth I. Forster; Eric Ruthruff

2004-01-01

112

Cutaneous leishmaniasis predisposing to human skin cancer: forty years local and regional studies.  

PubMed

Different types of association between leishmaniasis and cancer were established: leishmaniasis mimicking a malignant disorder, such as lymphoma; leishmaniasis arising as a difficult to diagnose and treat infection among patients receiving chemotherapy for various malignant disorders; simultaneous diagnosis of leishmaniasis and a neoplastic disorder in the same tissue samples of immunocompromised patients; and direct involvement of Leishmania spp. in pathogenesis/occurrence of malignant lesions, especially of the skin and mucous membranes. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan skin disease occurring in all the Middle East countries. Only the cutaneous form is a self-curing, which may develop a certain degree of immunity against the parasite, resulting in healing of the lesion(s). However, the parasites probably never disappear completely, since in situations where immune system is compromised, as in AIDS, or suppressed by cancer chemotherapy or in organ transplantation, Leishmania spp. may suddenly reappear. The cell-mediated immunity is responsible for skin lesion healing but humeral response plays a protective role against the disease. Skin biopsies from 65 parasitological proven cutaneous leishmaniasis patients from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Libya were histopathologically studied. The results showed that cutaneous leishmaniasis especially in hot areas pave the way to the mutation and development of skin cancer. PMID:24640863

Morsy, Tosson A

2013-12-01

113

Forty Years Trends in Timing of Pubertal Growth Spurt in 157,000 Danish School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEntering puberty is an important milestone in reproductive life and secular changes in the timing of puberty may be an important indicator of the general reproductive health in a population. Too early puberty is associated with several psychosocial and health problems. The aim of our study was to determine if the age at onset of pubertal growth spurt (OGS) and

Lise Aksglaede; Lina W. Olsen; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen; Anders Juul; Linda Wright

2008-01-01

114

The Changing Frontiers of Comparative Education: A Forty-Year Retrospective on "European Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"European Education" (originally known as "Western European Education") may no longer be directly associated with the field of comparative and international education, yet its establishment in 1969 was an attempt to make a direct contribution to the academic debates about the future of comparative education. The journal emerged at a time when…

Silova, Iveta

2009-01-01

115

Forty-eight years of landscape change on two contiguous Ohio landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the current and historic structure of two contiguous, rural landscapes covering approximately 242 km2 in central Ohio, USA: a till plain landscape with relatively homogeneous topography and soils, and a moraine landscape with greater geomorphological diversity and heterogeneity. These landscapes were chosen because they were both heavily dominated by agriculture during 1900–1940 and were both initially surveyed

John W. Simpson; Ralph E. J. Boerner; Michael N. DeMers; Leslie A. Berns; Francisco J. Artigas; Alejandra Silva

1994-01-01

116

Forty Years of Erratic Insecticide Resistance Evolution in the Mosquito Culex pipiens  

Microsoft Academic Search

One view of adaptation is that it proceeds by the slow and steady accumulation of beneficial mutations with small effects. It is difficult to test this model, since in most cases the genetic basis of adaptation can only be studied a posteriori with traits that have evolved for a long period of time through an unknown sequence of steps. In

Pierrick Labbé; Claire Berticat; Arnaud Berthomieu; Sandra Unal; Clothilde Bernard; Mylène Weill; Thomas Lenormand

2007-01-01

117

[Odón de Buen: forty-five years of commitment to the university].  

PubMed

The aragonese naturalist Odón de Buen y del Cos for twenty-two annual academic courses professor of natural history at the University of Barcelona and for twenty-three of the University of Madrid. Strong supporter of Darwin's evolutionary theory, experimental work in the field and laboratory, in this paper puts the value of their efforts, as an educator, to popularize the natural sciences and thus separated from the concerns, superstition and fanaticism, which they were basic reasons of the moral and material backwardness in which Spain was found. PMID:22371988

Gomis, Alberto

2011-01-01

118

Forty years of the establishment of the induced weak pseudoscalar interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author describes his work on the muon capture by light nuclei through the interaction of muons with protons via a virtual pion exchange. Although the resulting capture rate was an order of magnitude slower that the experimental available data, the cal...

J. Leite Lopes

1998-01-01

119

Operation for partial atrioventricular septal defect: a forty-year review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe the long-term outcome of repair of partial atrioventricular septal defect by determining the rates of survival, reoperation, and occurrence of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation, left atrioventricular valve stenosis, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and arrhythmia. Methods: We studied 334 patients who underwent repair of partial atrioventricular septal defect before 1995. Results: The 30-day and 5-, 10-, 20-,

Eyad K. El-Najdawi; David J. Driscoll; Francisco J. Puga; Joseph A. Dearani; Bruce E. Spotts; Douglas W. Mahoney; Gordon K. Danielson

2000-01-01

120

Forty Years of Diffusion of Innovations: Utility and Value in Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issues is created to mark the 40 anniversary of Everett Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) model. Diffusion is the process through which an innovation, defined as an idea perceived as new, spreads via certain communication channels over time among the members of a particular social system. A great deal of research in a variety of academic disciplines (about

MUHIUDDIN HAIDER; GARY L. KREPS

2004-01-01

121

Forty years of atmospheric radiocarbon monitoring around Bohunice nuclear power plant, Slovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiocarbon variations in the atmospheric CO2 with attenuating amplitudes and decreasing mean values with typical maxima in summer and minima in winter have been observed since 1967 in two localities of Slovakia, in Bratislava and Žlkovce, situated about 60km NE from Bratislava, only 5km from the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The 14C record in Bratislava has been influenced mainly

P. P. Povinec; M. Chudý; A. Šivo; J. Šimon; K. Holý; M. Richtáriková

2009-01-01

122

Forty Years of Struggle and Still No Right to Inuit Education in Nunavut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article issues related to policy and education in the Canadian Arctic are critically put to question. The focus is on the struggle for Inuit education, language issues, and supporting minority rights, with pragmatic solutions proposed to the problems confronting Nunavut.

Rasmussen, Derek

2011-01-01

123

Forty-five years after Broadbent (1958): still no identification without attention  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to D. E. Broadbent's (1958) selective filter theory, people do not process unattended stimuli beyond the analysis of basic physical properties. This theory was later rejected on the basis of numerous findings that people identify irrelevant (and supposedly unattended) stimuli. A careful review of this evidence, however, reveals strong reasons to doubt that these irrelevant stimuli were in fact unattended. This review exposed a clear need for new experiments with tight control over the locus of attention. The authors present 5 such experiments using a priming paradigm. When steps were taken to ensure that irrelevant stimuli were not attended, these stimuli produced no priming effects. Hence, the authors found no evidence that unattended stimuli can be identified. The results support a modern version of Broadbent's selective theory, updated to reflect recent research advances. 2004 APA.

Lachter, Joel; Forster, Kenneth I.; Ruthruff, Eric

2004-01-01

124

Distances to the High Velocity Clouds: A Forty-Year Mystery on the Way to Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full understanding of the High Velocity Clouds (HVCs) is still lacking more than four decades after their discovery. Determining the clouds' locations in relation to the Galaxy is an important constraint on hierarchical assembly models of galaxies in a ?-CDM universe. However, quantifying physical cloud properties such as mass and size have been difficult because of their unknown distances. We report the first definitive distance determinations for three HVCs (Complex C, 6.4-11.3 kpc; the Cohen Stream, 5.0-11.7 kpc; Complex GCP, 9.8-15.1 kpc) and two intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs: IV-South, 1.0-2.7 kpc; cloud g1, 1.8-3.8 kpc) using the absorption line bracketing method. From the distances to the larger cloud complexes we calculate H I masses ranging from 1.5×106 Msun to 8×106 Msun. In the case of Complex C this implies a mass inflow rate of ˜0.1 Msun yr-1. The measured distances place the HVCs in the hot Galactic Corona and the IVCs in the lowest reaches of the Halo. With this information we may now positively identify at least two roles played by HVCs in the internal and external dynamics of the Milky Way: (1) the infall of low-metallicity gas and (2) the supply and return streams of the Galactic Fountain.

Barentine, J. C.; Wakker, B. P.; York, D. G.; Howk, J. C.; Wilhelm, R.; van Woerden, H.; Peletier, R. F.; Beers, T. C.; Richter, P.; Ivezic, Z.; Schwarz, U. J.

2008-08-01

125

Forty Years on: The Issue of Breadth in the Post-16 Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the reform efforts in England for restructuring the post-16 curriculum. Relates the history of the Crowther Committee's agenda for specialization within the curriculum and addresses the two proposals by A. D. C. Peterson and B. W. M Young who each provided alternatives for broadening the curriculum in order to combat the proposal for…

Pound, Tim

1998-01-01

126

Forty Years On: Norbert Elias and the Young Worker Project. CLMS Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study performed in 1962 by Norbert Elias on the adjustment of young people to the transition from school to work had five areas of inquiry; adjustment to relationships with older workers and supervisors; adjustment to job problems; adjustment to role as workers; adjustment to role as money-earner in home relations; and adjustment to role as…

Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

127

From small Maria to massive Campbell: Forty years of rat eradications from New Zealand islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last four decades the eradication of rats from islands around New Zealand has moved from accidental eradication following the exploratory use of baits for rat control to carefully planned complex eradications of rats and cats (Felis catus) on large islands. Introduced rodents have now been eradicated from more than 90 islands. Of these successful campaigns, those on Breaksea

David R. Towns; Keith G. Broome

2003-01-01

128

Enduring Documents and Public Doctrines: Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail" after Forty Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the century just past, the immense ethical and political destructiveness of intellectuals was so frequent and protean in form that intellectual historians have a story as complex as it is tragic to tell, and one that many of them do not relish, perhaps out of occupational solidarity or shame. The "treason of the intellectuals," to use Julien…

Aeschliman, M. D.

2005-01-01

129

Forty Years after the Bay of Pigs: Resources for Social Studies Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on the experience of visiting Cuba through the People to People Ambassador Program, founded by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to promote international understanding and cooperation. Includes a list of suggested readings for social studies teachers and a list of organizations focusing on Cuba. (CMK)

Contreras, Gloria

2001-01-01

130

Forty Years in the Union: Incubating, Supporting, and Catalyzing Socially Just Educational Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North American teacher unions' positive contributions to educational change have historically flown under the radar of educational policy makers, a situation that has been reified by recent attacks on public sector unions. In this article, I draw on social movement theory and an institutional case study of a self described social justice union to…

Rottmann, Cindy

2012-01-01

131

Forty Years and Escalating: Drugs Between the United States and Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mexico's drug war involving internal corruption, economic upheaval and violence is increasingly impacting the national security of the United States as the drug influence crosses the border. To win this drug war the United States and Mexico must become be...

K. A. Barclay

2009-01-01

132

Forty Years of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science": A Quantitative Analysis, Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the first part of a two-part quantitative analysis of volume 1-40 (1969-2008) of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science" (formerly the "Journal of Librarianship"). It provides an overview of the current state of LIS research journal publishing in the UK; a review of the publication and printing history of…

Furner, Jonathan

2009-01-01

133

Non-invasive interactive neurostimulation (InterX (TM)) reduces acute pain in patients following total knee replacement surgery: a randomised, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate post-operative pain relief following total knee replacement (TKR) is very important to optimal post-operative recovery. Faster mobilisation and rehabilitation ultimately results in optimum recovery outcomes, but pain is often the limiting factor. This study evaluates the potential clinical benefit of the InterX neurostimulation device on pain reduction and rehabilitative outcome. Methods A clinical trial under the Hywel Dda Clinical Audit Committee to validate the clinical benefit of Non-invasive Interactive Neurostimulation (NIN) therapy using the InterX device was performed in patients undergoing TKR. 61 patients were randomised to treatment groups in blocks of two from the Theatre Operation List. The control group received the standard hospital course of pain medication and rehabilitation twice daily for 3 post-op days. The experimental group received 8 sessions of NIN therapy over 3 post-op days in addition to the standard course received by the Control group. Pain and range of motion were collected as the primary study measures. Results Sixty one subjects were enrolled and randomised, but 2 subjects (one/group) were excluded due to missing data at Baseline/Final; one subject in the InterX group was excluded due to pre-existing rheumatoid pain conditions confounding the analysis. The experimental group pre- to post-session Verbal Rating Scale for pain (VRS) showed that NIN therapy consistently reduced the pain scores by a mean of 2.3 points (SE 0.11). The NIN pre-treatment score at Final was used for the primary ANCOVA comparison, demonstrating a significantly greater cumulative treatment effect of a mean 2.2 (SE 0.49) points pain reduction (p = 0.002). Control subjects only experienced a mean 0.34 (SE 0.49) point decrease in pain. Ninety degrees ROM was required to discharge the patient and this was attained as an average despite the greater Baseline deficit in the InterX group. Eight control patients and three experimental patients did not achieve this ROM. Conclusions The results clearly demonstrated the clinical benefit of NIN therapy as a supplement to the standard rehabilitation protocol. The subjects receiving InterX fared significantly better clinically. Within a relatively short 3-day period of time, patients in the experimental group obtained the necessary ROM for discharge and did it experiencing lower levels of pain than those in the control group.

2011-01-01

134

Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes  

SciTech Connect

Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

1984-12-01

135

Characterization of cyclic and acyclic alkanes in Forties and Kuwait petroleum crudes  

SciTech Connect

Alkane hydrocarbon fractions from Forties (North Sea) and Kuwait petroleum crudes, separated by distillation, solvent extraction and silicagel column chromatography and sub-fractionated by molecular-sieve adsorption, have been examined by gas chromatography (GC), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and field desorption (FD)MS. GC indicates that Forties contains rather more acyclic isoprenoids and cyclic alkanes than Kuwait; FDMS of Kuwait shows molecular-weight ranges for mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentacyclic alkanes. {sup 13}C NMR spectra provide evidence of higher aromatic carbon, C{sub A}, in Forties than Kuwait and longer T{sub 1} relaxation times.

Jones, D.W. (Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Univ. of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (GB)); Pakdel, H. (Dept. de Genie Chimique, Univ. Laval, Cite Univ., Quebec G1K 6P4 (CA)); Bartle, K.D. (School of Chemistry, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (GB))

1990-01-01

136

Chlorination, Water Hardness and Serum Cholesterol in Forty-Six Wisconsin Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program measured serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. The purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids...

E. A. Zeighami A. P. Watson G. F. Craun

1990-01-01

137

77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,655] Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services...

2012-09-06

138

Effects of Microtus fortis lymphocytes on Schistosoma japonicum in a bone marrow transplantation model.  

PubMed

Microtus fortis is a non-permissive host for Schistosoma japonicum. While M. fortis lymphocytes are known to provide natural resistance against S. japonicum, the specific mechanism remains unclear. A bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model was established using immunodeficient mice, either nude (experiment 1) or V(D)J recombination activation gene deficient mice (RAG-1(-/-)) (experiment 2) as recipients and M. fortis or C57BL/6 mice as donors. The growth and development of S. japonicum were evaluated in each group to assess the role of M. fortis lymphocytes in the response to infection. Lymphocyte ratios and S. japonicum-specific antibody production in transplanted groups increased significantly compared to those in non-transplanted group. Spleen indices and density of splenic lymphocytes in transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice were higher than those in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. No difference in the worm burden was observed among group A (transplants derived from M. fortis), B (transplants derived from C57BL/6 mouse) and C (non-transplanted mice), although worms in group A were shorter than those in other groups, except non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Reproductive systems of worms in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from M. fortis were not as mature as those in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from C57BL/6 mouse and non-transplanted nude mice, but they were more mature than worms in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Therefore, the transplantation model using nude and RAG-1(-/-) mice was successfully established. The M. fortis lymphocytes did not appear to affect the S. japonicum worm burden, but they led to schistosome shortening and a significant reduction in parasite spawning. Thus, M. fortis cellular and humoral immunity provides a defense against schistosomes by negatively impacting the parasite growth and reproductive development. PMID:24746640

Hu, Yuan; Xu, Yuxin; Lu, Weiyuan; Quan, Hong; Shen, Yujuan; Yuan, Zhongying; Zhang, Jing; Zang, Wei; He, Yongkang; Cao, Jianping

2014-07-01

139

FORTIS: A Rocket-Borne Far-UV Spectro-Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Far-Ultraviolet Off-Rowland Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS) is a rocket-borne spectro-telescope designed to investigate Lyman alpha (Lya) escape from nearby star-forming galaxies and to quantify its relationship to the local gas-to-dust ratio. By operating in the 900 - 1700 Angstrom bandpass and incorporating a GSFC microshutter array at the prime focus, the FORTIS instrument enables simultaneous observations of

Brian Fleming; S. R. McCandliss; M. E. Kaiser; J. Kruk; P. D. Feldman; A. S. Kutyrev; S. H. Moseley

2011-01-01

140

FORTIS: A Rocket-Borne Far-UV Spectro-Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Far-Ultraviolet Off-Rowland Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS) is a rocket-borne spectro-telescope designed to investigate Lyman alpha (Lya) escape from nearby star-forming galaxies and to quantify its relationship to the local gas-to-dust ratio. By operating in the 900 - 1700 Angstrom bandpass and incorporating a GSFC microshutter array at the prime focus, the FORTIS instrument enables simultaneous observations of both Lya and the far-UV continuum of the brightest HII regions of low redshift starforming galaxies. Ancillary ground-based optical spectroscopy of the target will provide the necessary Balmer line measurements to calculate the Lya escape fractions (Fleming et al. 2010). We present the optical design and capabilities of the FORTIS instrument, the first flight of which is currently scheduled for April of 2011 to observe the galaxy cluster Abell 1367.

Fleming, Brian; McCandliss, S. R.; Kaiser, M. E.; Kruk, J.; Feldman, P. D.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Moseley, S. H.

2011-01-01

141

Apoptosis Governs the Elimination of Schistosoma japonicum from the Non-Permissive Host Microtus fortis  

PubMed Central

The reed vole, Microtus fortis, is the only known mammalian host in which schistosomes of Schistosoma japonicum are unable to mature and cause significant pathogenesis. However, little is known about how Schistosoma japonicum maturation (and, therefore, the development of schistosomiasis) is prevented in M. fortis. In the present study, the ultrastructure of 10 days post infection schistosomula from BALB/c mice and M. fortis were first compared using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Electron microscopic investigations showed growth retardation and ultrastructural differences in the tegument and sub-tegumental tissues as well as in the parenchymal cells of schistosomula from M. fortis compared with those in BALB/c mice. Then, microarray analysis revealed significant differential expression between the schistosomula from the two rodents, with 3,293 down-regulated (by ?2-fold) and 71 up-regulated (?2 fold) genes in schistosomula from the former. The up-regulated genes included a proliferation-related gene encoding granulin (Grn) and tropomyosin. Genes that were down-regulated in schistosomula from M. fortis included apoptosis-inhibited genes encoding a baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein (SjIAP) and cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor (SjCIAP), genes encoding molecules involved in insulin metabolism, long-chain fatty acid metabolism, signal transduction, the transforming growth factor (TGF) pathway, the Wnt pathway and in development. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) and PI/Annexin V-FITC assays, caspase 3/7 activity analysis, and flow cytometry revealed that the percentages of early apoptotic and late apoptotic and/or necrotic cells, as well as the level of caspase activity, in schistosomula from M. fortis were all significantly higher than in those from BALB/c mice.

Peng, Jinbiao; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Hong, Yang; Jiang, Weibin; Han, Hongxiao; McManus, Donald P.; Wang, Xinzhi; Liu, Jinming; Fu, Zhiqiang; Shi, Yaojun; Lin, Jiaojiao

2011-01-01

142

Multi-target neurostimulation for adequate long-term relief of neuropathic and nociceptive chronic pain components.  

PubMed

Successful treatment of chronic pain for patients with failed back surgery syndrome can be extremely complicated. These patients require careful and individualized clinical assessment, as they often present with mixed pain syndromes that involve both neuropathic and nociceptive components. The distinct types of pain involved in such cases may require combined treatments from individual interventions that are analgesically independent and specific for each type of pain involved. Neuromodulation by electric stimulation at appropriately chosen targets and combinations may be an important option to consider for such patients. We present a case of combined debilitating axial nociceptive spinal pain and bilateral neuropathic leg pain in a patient after 14 failed back operations. A combination of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and deep brain stimulation in the periventricular gray (PVG) have successfully provided the patient with complete relief of both components of his chronic pain condition, after all other pain management options had been exhausted. By alternating activation of each implanted stimulator separately and in conjunction, we were able to demonstrate a clinically independent analgesic character for each stimulation system, each specific to a particular type of pain. The SCS provided complete relief of the neuropathic pain component, without affecting the nociceptive component at all. The PVG stimulation provided complete relief of the nociceptive component, without affecting the neuropathic component at all. In combination, there was complete relief of the total chronic pain condition. There appeared to be no overlapping or synergistic effect between the two neuromodulation systems in the patient. The patient has had prolonged complete relief from his chronic pain condition with the combined neuromodulation intervention over 22 years of follow-up. PMID:23682344

Chodakiewitz, Yosef G; Bicalho, Geraldo V C; Chodakiewitz, Jacob W

2013-01-01

143

Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio fortis Dalian14 Isolated from Diseased Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius).  

PubMed

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio fortis Dalian14 isolated from diseased sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) during disease outbreaks in North China. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of pathogenicity and evolution of Vibrio species. PMID:24994792

Ding, Jun; Dou, Yan; Wang, Yinan; Chang, Yaqing

2014-01-01

144

Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio fortis Dalian14 Isolated from Diseased Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius)  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio fortis Dalian14 isolated from diseased sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) during disease outbreaks in North China. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of pathogenicity and evolution of Vibrio species.

Ding, Jun; Dou, Yan; Wang, Yinan

2014-01-01

145

Pyridoacridine Alkaloids Inducing Neuronal Differentiation in a Neuroblastoma Cell Line, from Marine Sponge Biemna fortis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and three known pyridoacridine alkaloids were isolated from the Indonesian marine sponge Biemna fortis as neuronal differentiation inducers against a murine neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro 2A. The chemical structure of the new compound, labuanine A (1), was determined by spectroscopic study and chemical conversion. These pyridoacridine alkaloids induced multipolar neuritogenesis in more than 50% of cells at 0.03–3

Shunji Aoki; Hong Wei; Kouhei Matsui; Rachmaniar Rachmat; Motomasa Kobayashi

2003-01-01

146

CHLORINATION, WATER HARDNESS, AND SERUM CHOLESTEROL IN FORTY-SIX WISCONSIN COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program measured serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. he purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroi...

147

Status Of The Fortis Rocket-borne Far-uv Spectro-telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS) is a rocket-borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to investigate Lyman alpha (Lya) escape from nearby star-forming galaxies and to quantify its relationship to the local gas-to-dust ratio (Fleming et al. 2011). In addition to a novel "two-bounce" optical configuration, FORTIS will feature the first space application of a NASA/Goddard designed JWST/NIRSPEC prototype microshutter array. This enables spectral multiplexing in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field of view with "on-the-fly" targeting. We report on the preparation of the instrument for launch and the results of end-to-end testing of the assembled payload. Special emphasis is given to the performance of the microshutter array and custom designed autonomous targeting system, the measured optical performances, and the overall instrument effective area.

Fleming, Brian; McCandliss, S. R.; Redwine, K.; Kaiser, M.; Feldman, P. D.; Kruk, J.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Li, M. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Rapchun, D. A.; Siegmund, O.; Vallerga, J.; Martin, A.

2012-05-01

148

Alkaline reflux gastritis. A study in forty postoperative duodenal ulcer patients.  

PubMed

A study to determine the incidence of alkaline reflux gastritis in forty postoperative duodenal ulcer patients has been presented. Since the majority of patients had evidence of gastritis, the precise role that gastritis plays in the production of symptoms is discussed but needs further clarification. It is suggested that the presence of gastritis may only represent an incidental or associated finding in many patients presenting with symptoms presumably characteristics of alkaline reflux gastritis. PMID:984295

Berardi, R S; Siroospour, D; Ruiz, R; Carnes, W; Devaiah, K A; Peterson, C; Becknell, W E; Olivencia, J

1976-11-01

149

A Forty-Year Retrospective 1950-1990: The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority's Conservation Education Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the growth of Conservation Authorities in Ontario from the first partnerships between schools and conservation in the 1950s, to the opening of a pioneer village, flood control dam, nature trails, and residential conservation education centers through the 1960s and 1970s. Increased public environmental concern sparked more growth in the…

Carr, Allen Terry

1996-01-01

150

A Retrospective Chronicle of the Midwest School Social Work Council: Its Vision and Influence after Forty Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2007, the Midwest School Social Work Council celebrated its fortieth anniversary in Cleveland, Ohio. This article reviews early efforts to build alliances of school social workers across state lines, the early collaborative relationship with the National Association of Social Workers, and the eventual need for a new organization. The Midwest…

Raines, James C.

2008-01-01

151

Forty two years counting spots: Solar observations by D.E. Hadden during 1890-1931 revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recovered the sunspot observations made by David E. Hadden during 1890-1931 from Alta, Iowa. We have digitized the available data published by Hadden in different astronomical journals. This data series have been analyzed and compared with the standard sunspot number series. Moreover, we provide additional information on two great sunspot groups, previously not described, that originated two important extreme episodes of space weather on February 1892 and September 1898.

Carrasco, V. M. S.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Trigo, R. M.

2013-12-01

152

Forty Years of Introductory Psychology: An Analysis of the First 10 Editions of Hilgard et al.'s Textbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes 10 editions of an introductory college psychology textbook to determine changes in the content. Reveals that coverage of consciousness, personality, abnormal (disorders), therapies, and social psychology increased, while coverage of introductory material, learning, methods, intelligence, developmental psychology, and applied psychology…

Griggs, Richard A.; Jackson, Sherri L.

1996-01-01

153

An Uncommon Accomplishment: Allen McCartney's Forty Years of Research in the Aleut Region of Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allen McCartney's career of northern field research began in 1962 in the Aleut region of Alaska, an area to which he has returned many times over the next four decades. During that time, he worked throughout the region, from the Alaska Peninsula to the far western Aleutians, to the isolated Pribilof Islands, and at sites spanning the entire range of

Douglas W. Veltre

2004-01-01

154

An Uncommon Accomplishment: Allen McCartney's Forty Years of Research in the Aleut Region of Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Allen McCartney's career of northern field research began in 1962 in the Aleut region of Alaska, an area to which he has returned many times over the next four decades. During that time, he worked throughout the region, from the Alaska Peninsula to the far western Aleutians, to the isolated Pribilof Islands, and at sites spanning the entire range of

Douglas W. Veltre

2004-01-01

155

Reform Under Attack--Forty Years of Working on Better Mathematics Education Thrown on the Scrapheap? No Way!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the reform of mathematics education in the Netherlands and the attacks that presently take place against this reform. The attacks concentrate on primary education and criticize in particular the program for teaching calculation skills with long division as a case in point. The paper gives an overview of what Realistic…

van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

2010-01-01

156

Pyridoacridine alkaloids inducing neuronal differentiation in a neuroblastoma cell line, from marine sponge Biemna fortis.  

PubMed

A new and three known pyridoacridine alkaloids were isolated from the Indonesian marine sponge Biemna fortis as neuronal differentiation inducers against a murine neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro 2A. The chemical structure of the new compound, labuanine A (1), was determined by spectroscopic study and chemical conversion. These pyridoacridine alkaloids induced multipolar neuritogenesis in more than 50% of cells at 0.03-3 micro M concentration. Compound 3, which showed the strongest neuritogenic activity among them, also induced increase of acetylcholinesterase, a neuronal marker in Neuro 2A and arrested cell cycle at the G2/M phase. PMID:12670647

Aoki, Shunji; Wei, Hong; Matsui, Kouhei; Rachmat, Rachmaniar; Kobayashi, Motomasa

2003-05-01

157

Flexible weighing of olfactory and vector information in the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis  

PubMed Central

Desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, are equipped with remarkable skills that enable them to navigate efficiently. When travelling between the nest and a previously visited feeding site, they perform path integration (PI), but pinpoint the nest or feeder by following odour plumes. Homing ants respond to nest plumes only when the path integrator indicates that they are near home. This is crucial, as homing ants often pass through plumes emanating from foreign nests and do not discriminate between the plume of their own and that of a foreign nest, but should absolutely avoid entering a wrong nest. Their behaviour towards food odours differs greatly. Here, we show that in ants on the way to food, olfactory information outweighs PI information. Although PI guides ants back to a learned feeder, the ants respond to food odours independently of whether or not they are close to the learned feeding site. This ability is beneficial, as new food sources—unlike foreign nests—never pose a threat but enable ants to shorten distances travelled while foraging. While it has been shown that navigating C. fortis ants rely strongly on PI, we report here that the ants retained the necessary flexibility in the use of PI.

Buehlmann, Cornelia; Hansson, Bill S.; Knaden, Markus

2013-01-01

158

Effect of population density on reproduction in Microtus fortis under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Between December 2011 and March 2012, the reproductive characteristics of Microtus fortis reared in the laboratory at different population densities were assessed. In all, 258 male and female voles were randomly divided into 4 groups and reared at densities of 2, 4, 6, and 8 animals per cage (sex ratio: 1:1). The results showed that the pregnancy rate (?2 = 21.671, df = 3, P < 0.001) and first farrowing interval (F = 12.355, df = 3, P < 0.001) were significantly different among the different population density groups, but the mean litter size (mean ± SD) was not (F = 2.669, df = 3, P > 0.05). In particular, the reproductive index and sex hormone levels showed a significant difference among the different density groups studied. PMID:24873906

Han, Qunhua; Zhang, Meiwen; Guo, Cong; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Xu, Zhenggang

2014-06-01

159

Preliminary results of a forty-home indoor air pollutant monitoring study  

SciTech Connect

A detailed study of the pollutants found in forty homes in the Oak Ridge/Knoxville, Tennessee, area is being conducted. Formaldehyde measurements were made on a twice-per-month schedule using passive permeation monitors with a sampling period of 24 hours. In addition to the formaldehyde measurements, other pollutants, including volatile organics, particulates, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide, were measured during a one-day visit to each house. Radon levels were measured during a one-day visit to each house. Randon levels were measured by an active monitor located in the house for a period of one week. Air infiltration rates and meteorological data were also recorded. Pollutant levels were generally below any applicable guidelines with the exception of radon and formaldehyde which were elevated in some of the houses. Results of the first phase of the monitoring study are presented.

Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; Gupta, K.C.

1983-01-01

160

Forty- Versus 20-Minute Trials of the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test Regimen for Licensing of Drivers  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Objective assessment of the ability to maintain wakefulness, although very important, is still equivocal. A recent study from our lab has shown that the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), when performed with the 20-minute protocol (MWT20), is unreliable in assessing patients who are highly motivated to maintain wakefulness. In this study, we sought to examine whether the 40-minute protocol (MWT40) is a better tool in assessing such individuals. Methods: One hundred sixty-four consecutive subjects referred to our sleep lab by the Medical Institute for Driving Safety were studied. All subjects underwent a full-night polysomnogram followed by an MWT, 4 trials of 40 minutes each. All subjects knew that if they failed the wakefulness test their driving license would be revoked. Results: Forty-one subjects out of 164 (25%) fell asleep at least once. Of 39 subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea, (respiratory disturbance index > 40/h), 19 fell asleep (48.7%). Of 13 subjects with a minimum oxygen saturation level below 65%, 7 fell asleep (53%). In the MWT20, only 7% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea fell asleep at least once. Conclusions: We conclude that the MWT40 is superior to the MWT20 in detecting difficulties maintaining wakefulness in a highly motivated population. However, our results yield a significantly lower detection of difficulties maintaining wakefulness than those reported in healthy subjects, suggesting that the MWT40 is also highly affected by motivation. We believe that, for a highly motivated population (such as for a driver’s license validation), different average sleep-latency threshold should be used than in general population. Citation: Arzi L; Shreter R; El-Ad B; Peled R; Pillar G. Forty- versus 20-minute trials of the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test regimen for licensing of drivers. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(1):57-62.

Arzi, Limor; Shreter, Roni; El-Ad, Baruch; Peled, Ron; Pillar, Giora

2009-01-01

161

37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.12 Recordation of certain contracts by...

2013-07-01

162

Forty simple experiments with an He-Ne laser for high school students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently optics courses have been implemented at the High School of the UNAM. For these courses, the school purchased commercial optics kits to develop illustrative and simple experiments. In education, lasers play a dominant role for many examples of optics, for instance, interference experiments are easily performed and visualized using an inexpensive laser diode or an He-Ne laser. Teacher participation in workshops is very important to make them confident in the use of lasers and other optics tools so their students have a proper guide for hands-on optics experiments in classroom. In the case of the UNAM this kind of workshops started at the beginning of 1997 with 25 high school teachers as the initial phase for designing didactic activities in optics. As part of these activities we have developed forty additional experiments, apart from the ten projects included in the kit manual. In almost all of them, we used a He-Ne laser. Experiments such as air refractive index measurements, irradiance measurements using simple and inexpensive photodetectors, optical activity and polarization, retardation plates, photoelasticity, diffraction and interference, scattering and polarization of light in a scattered medium, and many others were developed. They are performed using the elements provided by the kit and additional and simple items easy to obtain or to make.

Ramos Ortiz, Gabriel; Maldonado, J. L.; Villagran-Muniz, Mayo; Ramirez-Maldonado, Z.

2000-06-01

163

A Microtus fortis protein, serum albumin, is a novel inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf ) is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin) and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05). We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis.

Li, Rong; Wu, Guo-Jun; Xiong, De-Hui; Gong, Qiang; Yu, Ruan-Jing; Hu, Wei-Xin

2013-01-01

164

Magnetometric resistivity survey near Forty Mile Wash, Nevada Test Site, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of a magnetometric resistivity (MMR) survey near Forty Mile Wash, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The work was performed to determine if the method is useful in locating faults. The field location is near some mapped faults in the vicinity of the Yucca Mountain waste disposal study area. The field test of the MMR method over a concealed fault was able to detect a conductivity boundary associated with the fault. Interpretation of the resistivity ratio is in general agreement with the value obtained from a dipole-dipole resistivity survey. While the presence of a conductive zone could be detected, the western boundary of the feature cannot be located with the limited data available. Operationally the technique is somewhat slow. This situation was exacerbated by the long transmitter wire used. A more practical scheme would be to use a shorter U shaped transmitter wire about 400 m on a side. A still better method might be to use a long straight wire and to make measurements off one end of the wire. This geometry would reduce the anomalous magnetic fields produced by variations of the transmitter wire from its assumed straight line between surveyed points.

Fitterman, D.V.

1982-12-31

165

Spinal posture and pelvic position in three hundred forty-five elementary school children: a rasterstereographic pilot study  

PubMed Central

Children's posture has been of growing concern due to observations that it seems to be impaired compared to previous generations. So far there is no reference data for spinal posture and pelvic position in healthy children available. Purpose of this pilot study was to determine rasterstereographic posture values in children during their second growth phase. Three hundred and forty-five pupils were measured with a rasterstereographic device in a neutral standing position with hanging arms. To further analyse for changes in spinal posture during growth, the children were divided into 12-month age clusters. A mean kyphotic angle of 47.1°±7.5 and a mean lordotic angle of 42.1°±9.9 were measured. Trunk imbalance in girls (5.85 mm±0.74) and boys (7.48 mm± 0.83) varied only little between the age groups, with boys showing slightly higher values than girls. The trunk inclination did not show any significant differences between the age groups in boys or girls. Girls' inclination was 2.53°±1.96 with a tendency to decreasing angles by age, therefore slightly smaller compared to boys (2.98°±2.18). Lateral deviation (4.8 mm) and pelvic position (tilt: 2.75 mm; torsion: 1.53°; inclination: 19.8°±19.8) were comparable for all age groups and genders. This study provides the first systematic rasterstereographic analysis of spinal posture in children between 6 and 11 years. With the method of rasterstereography a reliable three-dimensional analysis of spinal posture and pelvic position is possible. Spinal posture and pelvic position does not change significantly with increasing age in this collective of children during the second growth phase.

Furian, Thimm Christoph; Rapp, Walter; Eckert, Stefanie; Wild, Michael; Betsch, Marcel

2013-01-01

166

Comparison of the canalith repositioning procedure and vestibular habituation training in forty patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were treated with either the canalith repositioning procedure or vestibular habituation exercises to determine which treatment approach would be most effective. Twenty additional patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo were not treated and served as a control group. The intensity and duration of symptoms were monitored during a 3-month period. All patients had

RONALD L. STEENERSON; GAYE W. CRONIN

1996-01-01

167

Resistivity and Hall Effect of Europium Sulfide in Fields up to One-Hundred Forty Kilo-Oersteds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dc electrical resistivity and Hall effect were measured in n-type europoim sulfide single crystals. Data was taken from three hundred to two Kelvin in magnetic fields up to one hundred forty kilo-oersteds. Negative magnetoresistance was observed at al...

T. B. Reed Y. Shapira

1971-01-01

168

The Forty-Eight-Hour Rule: Emotional Engagement and the Student Athlete  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several years ago, the author taught a course called First-Year experience. A student named Sean mentioned that he played "water pong." Sean, a high-achieving student who was also a member of the lacrosse team, explained that water pong was a game with the rules of beer pong, using water rather than beer. Sean volunteered an explanation of his…

Mueller, Alan C. R.

2009-01-01

169

Runners in their forties dominate ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated performance trends and the age of peak running speed in ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles. METHODS: The running speed and age of the fastest competitors in 50-, 100-, 200-, 1,000- and 3,100-mile events held worldwide from 1971 to 2012 were analyzed using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: The number of events and competitors increased exponentially in 50- and 100-mile events. For the annual fastest runners, women improved in 50-mile events, but not men. In 100-mile events, both women and men improved their performance. In 1,000-mile events, men became slower. For the annual top ten runners, women improved in 50- and 100-mile events, whereas the performance of men remained unchanged in 50- and 3,100-mile events but improved in 100-mile events. The age of the annual fastest runners was approximately 35 years for both women and men in 50-mile events and approximately 35 years for women in 100-mile events. For men, the age of the annual fastest runners in 100-mile events was higher at 38 years. For the annual fastest runners of 1,000-mile events, the women were approximately 43 years of age, whereas for men, the age increased to 48 years of age. For the annual fastest runners of 3,100-mile events, the age in women decreased to 35 years and was approximately 39 years in men. CONCLUSION: The running speed of the fastest competitors increased for both women and men in 100-mile events but only for women in 50-mile events. The age of peak running speed increased in men with increasing race distance to approximately 45 years in 1,000-mile events, whereas it decreased to approximately 39 years in 3,100-mile events. In women, the upper age of peak running speed increased to approximately 51 years in 3,100-mile events.

Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rust, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

2014-01-01

170

Fatty acid profiles from forty-nine plant species that are potential new sources of ?-linolenic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-nine plant species from Spain, belonging to the Boraginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Onagraceae, and Ranunculaceae families,\\u000a were surveyed in a search of new sources of ?-linolenic acid (18?3?6, GLA). Fatty acid profiles from seeds, stems, roots,\\u000a flowers and leaves were determined. GLA was detected mainly in seed and root tissues. High GLA amounts were found in seeds\\u000a of Boraginaceae species, with a

J. L. Guil-Guerrero; F. F. García Maroto; A. Giménez Giménez

2001-01-01

171

Forty-six genes causing nonsyndromic hearing impairment: which ones should be analyzed in DNA diagnostics?  

PubMed

Hearing impairment is the most common sensory disorder, present in 1 of every 500 newborns. With 46 genes implicated in nonsyndromic hearing loss, it is also an extremely heterogeneous trait. Here, we categorize for the first time all mutations reported in nonsyndromic deafness genes, both worldwide and more specifically in Caucasians. The most frequent genes implicated in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss are GJB2, which is responsible for more than half of cases, followed by SLC26A4, MYO15A, OTOF, CDH23 and TMC1. None of the genes associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss accounts for a preponderance of cases, although mutations are somewhat more frequently reported in WFS1, KCNQ4, COCH and GJB2. Only a minority of these genes is currently included in genetic diagnostics, the selection criteria typically reflecting: (1) high frequency as a cause of deafness (i.e. GJB2); (2) association with another recognisable feature (i.e. SLC26A4 and enlarged vestibular aqueduct); or (3) a recognisable audioprofile (i.e. WFS1). New and powerful DNA sequencing technologies have been developed over the past few years, but have not yet found their way into DNA diagnostics. Implementing these technologies is likely to happen within the next 5 years, and will cause a breakthrough in terms of power and cost efficiency. It will become possible to analyze most - if not all - deafness genes, as opposed to one or a few genes currently. This ability will greatly improve DNA diagnostics, provide epidemiological data on gene-based mutation frequencies, and reveal novel genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:18804553

Hilgert, Nele; Smith, Richard J H; Van Camp, Guy

2009-01-01

172

Effects of Ayurvedic treatment on forty-three patients of ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease with a relapsing nature. It is a very challenging disease affecting a patient during the most active period of his life i.e. 20 to 40 years of age. The main features are ano-rectal bleeding with increased frequency of bowel evacuation, general debility and with abnormal structural pathology in the descending colon, particularly sigmoid colon. In modern medical science, there is no permanent curative and safe treatment for this disease. This study can be helpful for reducing the need of steroids and surgical processes in the patients of ulcerative colitis. A clinical study of 43 patients of ulcerative colitis has been conducted at the O.P.D. (outdoor patient department) and I.P.D. (indoor patient department) of the P D Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad. They were given Udumbara kvatha basti with oral Ayurveda medicaments including Kutaj ghan vati, Udumbara kvatha, and combination of Musta, Nagakesara, Lodhra, Mukta panchamrut rasa for a one-month period. Results were analyzed statistically by using the ‘t’ test. In this study, it was observed that the symptoms and signs, daily dose of steroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs were reduced by more than 75% with a highly significant result. The hemoglobin level was also increased.

Patel, Manish V.; Patel, Kalapi B.; Gupta, S. N.

2010-01-01

173

Beam test results of FORTIS, a 4T MAPS sensor with a signal-to-noise ratio exceeding 100  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have tested the first 4T Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) for particle physics, FORTIS in a beam test. We have measured a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 100 for MIPs due to the excellent noise performance of the 4T architecture. Two versions of the sensor were tested; with and without deep P-well areas in-pixel. The deep P-well areas allow the incorporation of PMOS transistors inside the pixels without signal charge loss. The measured position resolutions were around 2 ?m.

Velthuis, J. J.; Cussans, D.; Goldstein, J.; Page, R.; Wilson, J. A.; Worm, S. D.; Coath, R. E.; Crooks, J. P.; Dauncey, P. D.; Gao, R.; Head, R.; Miller, O. D.; Nash, S.; Nomerotski, A.; Price, T.; Rajovic, V.; Stanitzki, M.; Strube, J.; Turchetta, R.; Tyndel, M.; Watson, N. K.; Zhang, Z.

2011-12-01

174

[Karyological and allozyme variability of far eastern voles Microtus fortis Büchner, 1889 (Cricetidae, Rodentia) from the Russian Far East].  

PubMed

Karyological (G-, C-, and NOR-banding) and allozyme analyses were carried out for island and continental populations of the vole Microtus fortis from the Far East of Russia. Variability of the autosome pair 7 was found. The presence of variation in the number of telomere heterochromatin blocks in the populations of Far Eastern voles was confirmed. NOR-staining of the Far Eastern vole chromosomes was carried out, showing stability of the number and the positions of the nucleolus organizer regions. Ten enzyme systems and three non-enzyme proteins (controlled in total by 25 interpretable loci) were examined in the Far Eastern vole from the island and continental populations. All of the loci were shown to be monomorphic, except for one esterase locus, which exhibited polymorphism at the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels. The issue of distribution of the Far Eastern vole subspecies is discussed. It is suggested that M. fortis pelliceus occurs not only in the Russian Far East, but also in Northern Transbaikalia. PMID:16871789

Sheremet'eva, I N; Kartavtseva, I V; Frisman, L V

2006-06-01

175

Academic health sciences library Website navigation: an analysis of forty-one Websites and their navigation tools  

PubMed Central

Background: The analysis included forty-one academic health sciences library (HSL) Websites as captured in the first two weeks of January 2001. Home pages and persistent navigational tools (PNTs) were analyzed for layout, technology, and links, and other general site metrics were taken. Methods: Websites were selected based on rank in the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, with regional and resource libraries given preference on the basis that these libraries are recognized as leaders in their regions and would be the most reasonable source of standards for best practice. A three-page evaluation tool was developed based on previous similar studies. All forty-one sites were evaluated in four specific areas: library general information, Website aids and tools, library services, and electronic resources. Metrics taken for electronic resources included orientation of bibliographic databases alphabetically by title or by subject area and with links to specifically named databases. Results: Based on the results, a formula for determining obligatory links was developed, listing items that should appear on all academic HSL Web home pages and PNTs. Conclusions: These obligatory links demonstrate a series of best practices that may be followed in the design and construction of academic HSL Websites.

Brower, Stewart M.

2004-01-01

176

Clinical Investigation Service Annual Research Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1974.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty-four protocols were registered in fiscal 1974: eight were completed and 36 will be ongoing into fiscal year 1975. The statistical summary of registered protocols is given under Report of Total Activities of the Clinical Investigation Service.

R. Ansbacher

1974-01-01

177

[Possible impacts of the Three Gorges Project and converting farmland into lake on the Microtus fortis population in Dongting Lake region].  

PubMed

The outbreak of Yantze vole (Microtus fortis) population in Dongting Lake region is closely related to the evolvement of lake beaches, because the deposition of lake sediments results in the expansion of lake beaches, which provides the possibility of the increase of the vole's population. Reclaiming farmland from lake via building cofferdams, eliminating snails by building cofferdams for eradicating schistosomiasis, and over-hunting predators in the region cause the voles becoming a pest after the 1970s. In recent years, the Three Gorges Project and the conversion from farmland into lake have had deep impacts on the environment in the Lake region. The dispatching of the down flow rate by the Project induces the expansion of the low and medium level beaches in the Lake region, while converting farmland into lake directly induces the increase of beach area, both of which expand the potential habitats of the vole's population. Therefore, more attention should be paid on the quantitative variation trend of the vole's population in the future. PMID:23189685

Zhang, Mei-Wen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Huang, Guo-Xian; Guo, Cong

2012-08-01

178

Forty-Fourth Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Administrative Report Including Technical Reports Nos. 1342 to 1392  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with act of Congress, approved March 3, 1915, as amended (U.S.C., title 50, .sw 151), which established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Committee submits its Forty-fourth Annual Report for the fiscal year 1958. This is the Committee's final report to the Congress. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568) provides in section 301 that the NACA "shall cease to exist" and "all functions, powers, duties, and obligations, and all real and personal property, personnel (other than members of the Committee), funds, and records of the NACA shall be transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The aforesaid act provides that "this section shall take effect 90 days after the date of the enactment of this act, or on any earlier date on which the Administrator shall determining and announce by proclamation published in the Federal Register, that the Administration has been organized and is prepared to discharge the duties and exercise the power conferred upon it by this act." The Administrator, Hon. T. Keith Glennan has advised the Committee of his intention to issue such proclamation, effective October 1,1958.

1959-01-01

179

Getting Away With Murder: The Forty Year Jurisdictional Gap Over DoD civilians Stationed Overseas and the Military Extraterritorial Jurisdiction Act of 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The need for jurisdiction over civilians accompanying the military forces overseas has never been greater. Civilian employees and contractors are playing an increasingly important role in military operations overseas. The ability of family members to see ...

M. J. Apol

2001-01-01

180

A One-Year Follow-Up Study of the Forty-One Graduates Class of 1971 of the Jackson County Adult Evening High School Completion Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A series of follow-up studies were conducted to evaluate the Jackson County Adult Evening School Program in terms of educational, social or personal, and/or financial benefits as measured by the graduates themselves. The studies supplement other teacher, student evaluations and pre-post test results. The results of all follow-up studies have shown…

Gran, James R.

181

Forty Years in the Altimplano: A Cross-Cutting Evaluation of Aid-Financed Assistance in Guatemala's Altiplano (from the 1940's to the present). Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. development assistance to Guatemala's highland Indian areas - the Altiplano - became a major element of the Agency for International Development's (A.I.D.'s) country development strategy in the late 1060's. This assistance is evaluated with respect t...

G. H. Smith D. Lazar J. Alvarez S. Annis R. Castro

1989-01-01

182

Forty Years Since the End of the White Primary, Thirty Years Since the Brown Decision, Twenty Years Since the Passage of the Civil Rights Act. 40th Anniversary Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the progress that has been made since three landmarks in blacks' struggle for equal treatment in the United States. Despite the 1944 case of Smith vs. Allwright, in which the Supreme Court decided that the Texas White Primary was unconstitutional, growing evasion and resistance by whites limited gains in black enfranchisement…

Manderson, Marge

183

Indications for the Gasless Transaxillary Robotic Approach to Thyroid Surgery: Experience of Forty-Seven Procedures at the American Hospital of Paris  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid surgery is in a state of evolution from traditional open approaches to novel robotic techniques. The gasless transaxillary approach to thyroid surgery is effective in the management of thyroid cancer, and complications after robotic thyroidectomy are no higher than experienced after open or endoscopic techniques. The transaxillary robotic approach also avoids an anterior neck scar. This paper presents what the authors believe to be the largest cohort of patients reported in Europe undergoing gasless transaxillary robotic thyroid surgery, with the aim of defining the indications for this procedure. Methods Forty-six patients underwent robotic thyroid surgery via the transaxillary approach and were enrolled in this study between March 2010 and September 2012. All patients were operated on by one surgeon at one clinical center. Reviewed data included patient characteristics, pathological characteristics, extent of surgery and postoperative complications. The mean follow-up time was 7.29 months. Results Forty-six patients underwent 47 procedures, the average age of the patients was 43 years and the male to female ratio was 1:22. Undertaken were 30 lobectomies, 3 subtotal thyroidectomies, 13 total thyroidectomies and 1 totalization. One case was converted to an open procedure. The ratio of malignant to benign disease was 1:6.67 (6:40 cases) and analysis of the surgical specimens showed 6 follicular lesions, 24 follicular adenomas, 3 colloid lesions, 1 case of thyroiditis/lymphatic lesion, 3 adenomatoid lesions, 3 oncocytic adenomas, 3 papillary cancers and 3 microcapillary cancers. The overall average size of an individual specimen removed was 45.40 ± 28.95 cm3 (range 5-160, n = 47) and the average largest diameter of the lesion removed was 3.72 ± 0.95 cm (range 1.4-6.0, n = 47). Postoperatively, there were 5 recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries (4 transient), 2 transient brachial plexopathies, 1 case of postoperative dysphagia and 1 of collection of blood at the site of surgery. There were no cases of disease recurrence at follow-up. Conclusions The gasless robotic transaxillary approach to thyroid surgery has been predicted to become a standard technique. It has been shown to be efficacious in the management of thyroid cancer with lateral neck metastases; however, more data relating to oncological safety in long-term follow-up is required. This intervention is also appropriate for benign thyroid disease including Graves' disease. To achieve consistently successful results, careful patient selection is fundamental in terms of patient characteristics and the anatomical aspects of the lesion. This is especially important with a geographical expansion to include North America and Europe. The excellent cosmetic results of this procedure make it ideal for patients who have esthetic concerns regarding particular difficulties with healing; however, in common with all new surgical procedures, further evidence must be sought to confirm its indications over time.

Aidan, Patrick; Pickburn, Helen; Monpeyssen, Herve; Boccara, Gilles

2013-01-01

184

A remedial program for first year engineering students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year about a forty percent of our freshmen obtain very bad academic results. These failing students lack the abilities and personal characteristics needed to meet the requirements of the first year engineering courses. As a result of this they must leave the University. However, since 1991 the Tecnica Federico Santa Maria (UTFSM), Valparaiso, Chile, has implemented a remedial program,

Ana M. Urbina

1999-01-01

185

Forty-nine-month survival in a metastatic renal cell carcinoma patient across six lines of targeted therapy.  

PubMed

A better understanding of the aetiopathogenetic molecular targets in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and the subsequent advent of targeted therapeutic agents have greatly improved the management and prognosis of RCC and patient survival. However, optimising therapeutic outcomes through appropriate sequential or combination therapy remains a challenge. Our 45-year-old male patient presented with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC); we effectively managed his aggressive, progressive disease across six lines of treatment, including sequential monotherapy and combination therapy, with targeted agents like sunitinib, everolimus, sorafenib, temsirolimus, and bevacizumab, resulting in a >48-month survival. Appropriate therapy with agents that have non-overlapping target profiles minimised treatment-related toxicities, enabling our patient to tolerate therapy at full doses. This case represents a good example of a significant clinical benefit of targeted therapy beyond the fourth line in mRCC. The survival and prognosis of mRCC patients may thus be significantly improved with the suitable use of newer targeted agents. PMID:24624226

Raja, T

2014-01-01

186

Forty-eight-inch lidar aerosol measurements taken at the Langley Research Center, May 1974 to December 1987  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A ground based lidar system located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va., was used to obtain high resolution vertical profiles of the stratospheric and upper tropospheric aerosol since 1974. More than 200 measurements obtained at a wavelength of 0.6943 microns during 1974 to 1987 are summarized. Plots of peak backscatter mixing ratio and integrated backscatter vs time are presented for the entire measurement sequence. The plots highlight the influence of several major volcanic eruptions on the long term stratospheric aerosol layer. In particular, the eruptions of El Chichon in late Mar. to early Apr. 1982, produced a massive aerosol layer. Aerosol enhancement from El Chichon reached Hampton, Va. by May 1982, with a scattering ratio of approx. 50 detected on Jul. 1, 1982. In addition, scattering ratio profiles for June 1982 to December 1987, along with tables containing numerical values of the backscatter ratio and backscattering function versus altitude, are included to further describe the upper tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol layer. A 14 year summary is presented, in a ready to use format, of lidar observations at a fixed midlatitude location to be used for further study.

Fuller, W. H., Jr.; Osborn, M. T.; Hunt, W. H.

1988-01-01

187

Full Inclusion Preschool Project: Year One Research Outcomes Brief Report, 2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Full Inclusion Preschool Project (FIPP) was a collaborative, county/state funded grant that included: four non-subsidized preschools, seven school districts and university support. The four-year FIPP grant fully included a total of forty-five students with disabilities, two to five years of age, over a three year period. The preschools…

Weiner, Jan S.

2006-01-01

188

Reduction of the nosocomial meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus incidence density by a region-wide search and follow-strategy in forty German hospitals of the EUREGIO, 2009 to 2011.  

PubMed

Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) disseminates between hospitals serving one patient catchment area. Successful prevention and control requires concerted efforts and regional surveillance. Forty hospitals located in the German EUREGIO have established a network for combating MRSA. In 2007 they agreed upon a synchronised strategy for screening of risk patients and a standard for transmissionbased precautions (search and follow). The same year, the hospitals started synchronised MRSA prevention and annually reporting MRSA-data to the public health authorities. The median rate of screening cultures per 100 patients admitted increased from 4.38 in 2007 to 34.4 in 2011 (p<0.0001). Between 2007 and 2011, the overall incidence density of MRSA (0.87 MRSA cases/1,000 patient days vs 1.54; p<0.0001) increased significantly. In contrast, both the incidence density of nosocomial MRSA cases (0.13 nosocomial MRSA cases/1,000 patient days in 2009 vs 0.08 in 2011; p=0.0084) and the MRSA-days-associated nosocomial MRSA rate (5.51 nosocomial MRSA cases/1,000 MRSA days in 2009 vs 3.80 in 2011; p=0.0437) decreased significantly after the second year of the project. We documented adherence to the regional screening strategy resulting in improved detection of MRSA carriers at admission. Subsequently, after two years the nosocomial MRSA-incidence density was reduced. Regional surveillance data, annually provided as benchmarking to the regional hospitals and public health authorities, indicated successful prevention. PMID:24079380

Jurke, A; Kock, R; Becker, K; Thole, S; Hendrix, R; Rossen, J; Daniels-Haardt, I; Friedrich, Aw

2013-01-01

189

Farm accidents in children: Eleven years of experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Purpose: The aim of this study was to review accidental injuries to children on farms. Methods: Between January 1988 and December 1999, childhood farm injuries referred to a trauma center were reviewed. Results: Forty-five children under 19 years of age were identified. Mean age was 7.3 years. Male to female ratio was 2:1. A total of 31 of 45 (69%)

Suzanne Meiers; Joanne Baerg

2001-01-01

190

Building community and retention among first-year students: engineering First-Year Interest Groups (eFIGSs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the fall semesters of 2005 and 2006, two sections of a basic communication course for first-year engineering students were part of a First-year Interest Group (FIG); that is, forty students in two sections of EPD155 Basic Communication course were also in two other courses: an engineering design course and a math or chemistry course. While FIGs had proven to

Sandra Shaw Courter; George Johnson

2007-01-01

191

Peripheral neurostimulation in supraorbital neuralgia refractory to conventional therapy.  

PubMed

Supraorbital neuralgia has been identified as an infrequent cause of headache that may prove very difficult to control pharmacologically. Peripheral nerve stimulation using electrodes to stimulate the nerve segmentally responsible for the zone of pain may constitute a management alternative in such cases. We present the case of a patient with headache because of posttraumatic supraorbital neuralgia, refractory to medical treatment, with good analgesic control after peripheral nerve stimulation. Peripheral nerve stimulation may be considered a safe, reversible treatment for patients with headache secondary to supraorbital neuralgia who respond poorly to pharmacological treatment, thus avoiding irreversible alternatives such as surgery. PMID:18194350

Asensio-Samper, Juan M; Villanueva, Vicente L; Pérez, Alfonso V; López, María D; Monsalve, Vicente; Moliner, Susana; De Andrés, Jose

2008-01-01

192

Creating the feedback loop: closed-loop neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Current DBS therapy delivers a train of electrical pulses at set stimulation parameters. This open-loop design is effective for movement disorders, but therapy may be further optimized by a closed loop design. The technology to record biosignals has outpaced our understanding of their relationship to the clinical state of the whole person. Neuronal oscillations may represent or facilitate the cooperative functioning of brain ensembles, and may provide critical information to customize neuromodulation therapy. This review addresses advances to date, not of the technology per se, but of the strategies to apply neuronal signals to trigger or modulate stimulation systems. PMID:24262909

Hebb, Adam O; Zhang, Jun Jason; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Tsiokos, Christos; Matlack, Charles; Chizeck, Howard Jay; Pouratian, Nader

2014-01-01

193

Neurostimulation at pterygopalatine fossa for cluster headaches and cerebrovascular disorders.  

PubMed

There are numerous neural structures (parasympathetic, sympathetic, and trigeminal sensory) that are compacted in a small well defined area of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF). These targets can be readily accessed via minimally invasive neuromodulation techniques making the methods more desirable than neurosurgical deep brain or hypothalamic intervention. Recent research has shed light over the important role of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG), which is located within the PPF, in cerebrovascular autonomic physiology as well as in the pathophysiology of different headache disorders (cluster headache, migraine, and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias). Accordingly, neuromodulation of the autonomic fibers (parasympathetic and sympathetic) may play a key role in the management of headaches, stroke, or cerebral vasospasm. Another important structure within the PPF is the maxillary nerve (V2), which passes through the roof of the fossa. Here the trigeminal system is accessible for a reliable neuromodulation by targeting its second branch -the maxillary nerve- and this could be utilized in various painful conditions of the head and face. PMID:24859567

Narouze, Samer

2014-07-01

194

A hermetic wireless subretinal neurostimulator for vision prostheses.  

PubMed

A miniaturized, hermetically encased, wirelessly operated retinal prosthesis has been developed for preclinical studies in the Yucatan minipig, and includes several design improvements over our previously reported device. The prosthesis attaches conformally to the outside of the eye and electrically drives a microfabricated thin-film polyimide array of sputtered iridium oxide film electrodes. This array is implanted into the subretinal space using a customized ab externo surgical technique. The implanted device includes a hermetic titanium case containing a 15-channel stimulator chip and discrete circuit components. Feedthroughs in the case connect the stimulator chip to secondary power and data receiving coils on the eye and to the electrode array under the retina. Long-term in vitro pulse testing of the electrodes projected a lifetime consistent with typical devices in industry. The final assembly was tested in vitro to verify wireless operation of the system in physiological saline using a custom RF transmitter and primary coils. Stimulation pulse strength, duration, and frequency were programmed wirelessly from a Peripheral Component Interconnect eXtensions for Instrumentation (PXI) computer. Operation of the retinal implant has been verified in two pigs for up to five and a half months by detecting stimulus artifacts generated by the implanted device. PMID:21859595

Kelly, Shawn K; Shire, Douglas B; Chen, Jinghua; Doyle, Patrick; Gingerich, Marcus D; Cogan, Stuart F; Drohan, William A; Behan, Sonny; Theogarajan, Luke; Wyatt, John L; Rizzo, Joseph F

2011-11-01

195

Washington State's 45Year Experiment in Government Liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Washington's waiver of sovereign immunity has been in force for nearly forty-five years, during which time many questions have been answered. New litigation, however, continues to expand the scope of the waiver, and the extent of liability continues to raise new questions and present difficult problems. Major problems include the uncertainty of case-by-case determinations of government liability and the cost

Michael Tardif; Rob McKenna

2005-01-01

196

Finding Keys to School Change: A 40Year Odyssey  

Microsoft Academic Search

I’ve been working at understanding change in schools for more than forty years. Being given a license to reflect on my intellectual\\u000a adventures in the study of school change — in public — is a delightful and faintly alarming charge. I need to avoid sheer\\u000a narcissism on the one hand, and detached encyclopedic syntheses on the other. And not succumb

Matthew B. Miles

197

Optical frequency measurement: 40 years of technology revolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past forty years have witnessed spectacular progress in precision measurements, beginning with the first coherent optical source, the HeNe CW laser. Almost immediately, the pioneers of the stable laser epoch introduced optical heterodyne techniques to explore the stability of the laser's optical frequency, expecting the few milliHertz linewidth predicted by the Schawlow-Townes formula for phase diffusion, and instead finding

John L. Hall

2000-01-01

198

Comorbidity and 1-year mortality risks in nursing home residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of chronic diseases and disease combinations on 1-year mortality in nursing home residents. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using electronically submitted Minimum Data Set (MDS) information and Missouri death certificate data. SETTING: Five hundred twenty-two nursing homes in Missouri. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-three thousand five hundred ten nursing home residents with a full MDS assessment in 1999. MEASUREMENTS:

P. T. M. van Dijk; D. R. Mehr; M. E. Ooms; R. Madsen; G. Petroski; D. H. Frijters; A. M. Pot; M. W. Ribbe

2005-01-01

199

Effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride for twenty to forty days on carcass cutability and subprimal yield of calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is designed to increase carcass leanness, chilled side weight (CSW), and percent saleable yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single dose of ZH on cutability and subprimal yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for increasing durations. Two hundred forty steers were fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH on a DM basis for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d, with a 3-d withdrawal before slaughter. After slaughter, steers were fabricated into 4 pieces (round, loin/flank, rib/plate, and chuck), packaged in combos, shipped to 2 locations, and further fabricated into subprimal pieces and trim. Trim was collected from each primal and separated into groups based on composition of 90, 80, and 50% lean. Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased (P = 0.01) CSW by 6.22 kg and saleable yield by 6.4 kg when included in the diet for 20 d. Furthermore, saleable yield as a percentage of CSW was increased (P = 0.03) 1.18 percentage units when included in the diet for 20 d. Steers fed ZH for 20 d had heavier strip loins (4.47 vs. 4.12 kg, P = 0.02), tenderloins (2.75 vs. 2.49 kg, P = 0.02), and ribeye rolls (5.74 vs. 5.30 kg, P = 0.01) than steers not fed ZH. These advantages are further demonstrated as a percentage of CSW. Strip loins (P = 0.06), tenderloins (P = 0.04), and ribeye rolls (P = 0.04) of ZH-fed steers had a greater percentage of CSW than controls. Zilpaterol hydrochloride also increased the percentage of CSW of the 3 primary components of the round when fed for 20 d. The knuckle was 0.10 percentage units heavier (P = 0.11), the top round was 0.24 percentage units heavier (P = 0.04), and the bottom round was 0.22 percentage units heavier (P = 0.03) in ZH-fed steers when compared with steers not fed ZH. Based on these data, it can be concluded that ZH significantly increased subprimal cutting weights, yields, and percentage saleable yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for at least 20 d before slaughter. Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased percentage of CSW of subprimal cuts from Holstein steers in the round and to a lesser degree in the loin. PMID:19574574

Boler, D D; Holmer, S F; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J; VanOverbeke, D L; Hilton, G G; Delmore, R J; Beckett, J L; Brooks, J C; Miller, R K; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Lawrence, T E; Elam, N A; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Allen, D M

2009-11-01

200

Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of Vietnam, with the description of forty-two new species and three new genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract The species of seventeen genera of Agathidinae (Braconidae) from Vietnam are revised: Agathis Latreille, 1804, Bassus Fabricius, 1804; Biroia Szépligeti, 1900; Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894; Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920; Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892; Coronagathis gen. n. (type species: Coronagathis cornifera sp. n.); Cremnops Foerster, 1862; Disophrys Foerster, 1862; Earinus Wesmael, 1837; Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900; Gyragathis gen. n. (type species: Gyragathis quyi sp. n.), Gyrochus Enderlein, 1920; Lytopylus Foerster, 1862; Therophilus Wesmael, 1837; Troticus Brullé, 1846, and Zelodia gen. n. (type species: Zelomorpha varipes van Achterberg & Maetô, 1990). Keys to the Vietnamese species are given. Sixty-five species are recognised, of which twelve species are newly recorded for Vietnam: Bassus albifasciatus (Watanabe, 1934), Coccygidium angostura (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), Cremnops atricornis (Smith, 1874), stat. n., Disophrys erythrocephala Cameron, 1900, Gyrochus yunnanensis Wang, 1984, Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus festivus (Muesebeck, 1953), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lienhuachihensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus marshi (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia absoluta (Chen & Yang, 1998), comb. n. and Zelodia longidorsata (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n. Forty-two species are new to science: Agathis citrinisoma sp. n., Bassus albobasalis sp. n., Bassus albozonatus sp. n., Biroia soror sp. n., Braunsia bicolorata sp. n., Braunsia devriesi sp. n., Braunsia maculifera sp. n., Braunsia nigrapiculata sp. n., Braunsia pumatica sp. n., Camptothlipsis hanoiensis sp. n., Coronagathis cornifera sp. n., Earinus aurantius sp. n., Earinus brevistigmus sp. n., Euagathis flavosoma sp. n., Disophrys maculifera sp. n., Disophrys quymanhi sp. n., Disophrys rhinoides sp. n., Gyragathis quyi sp. n., Therophilus annuliferus sp. n., Therophilus cattienensis sp. n., Therophilus contrastus sp. n., Therophilus crenulisulcatus sp. n., Therophilus depressiferus sp. n., Therophilus elongator sp. n., Therophilus levisoma sp. n., Therophilus marucae sp. n., Therophilus mellisoma sp. n., Therophilus nigrolineatus sp. n., Therophilus nuichuaensis sp. n., Therophilus parasper sp. n., Therophilus planifrons sp. n., Therophilus punctiscutum sp. n., Therophilus robustus sp. n., Therophilus rugosiferus sp. n., Therophilus scutellatus sp. n., Troticus alloflavus sp. n., Troticus giganteus sp. n., Zelodia albobasalis sp. n., Zelodia anginota sp. n., Zelodia bicoloristigma sp. n., Zelodia brevifemoralis sp. n. and Zelodia flavistigma sp. n. The following new synonyms are proposed: Euagathis nigrithorax Bhat & Gupta, 1977, Euagathis variabilis Enderlein, 1920, Euagathis variabilis var. tibialis Enderlein, 1920, Euagathis variabilis var. melanopleura Enderlein, 1920 and Euagathis variabilis var. sucarandana Enderlein, 1920 with Euagathis abbotti (Ashmead, 1900); Euagathis jinshanensis Chen & Yang, 2006 and Euagathis sharkeyi Chen & Yang, 2006, with Euagathis forticarinata (Cameron, 1899). The genus Amputostypos Sharkey, 2009, is synonymised with Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892, syn. n. The following new combinations are given: Bassus subrasa (Enderlein, 1920), comb. n., Gyragathis angulosa (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus annulus (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus asper (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus cingulipes (Nees, 1812), comb. n., Therophilus daanyuanensis (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus fujianicus (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lanyuensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus luzonicus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus muesebecki (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus rudimentarius (Enderlein, 1920), comb. n., Therophilus similis (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus sungkangensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus tanycoleosus (Chen & Yang, 2006

van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang

2010-01-01

201

FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF CHILDREN WITH LOW-TO-MODERATE LEAD ABSORPTION: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Forty-nine children aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for residual effects of lead exposure using psychometric, electrophysiological, and medical tests five years after initial assessment. The original range of blood lead (PbB) levels was 6-59 micrograms/dl; the current range was...

202

Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

Bugos, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

203

A Study of First-Year Chemistry Students' Understanding of Solution Concentration at the Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on students' understanding of sugar concentration in aqueous solutions presented in two different modes: a visual submicroscopic mode for particles and a verbal mode referring to macroscopic amounts of sugar. One hundred and forty-five tertiary college students studying some form of first-year chemistry participated in the…

de Berg, Kevin

2012-01-01

204

Success for All: First-Year Results From the National Randomized Field Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports first-year achievement outcomes of a national randomized evaluation of Success for All, a comprehensive reading reform model. Forty-one schools were recruited for the study and were randomly assigned to implement Success for All or control methods. No statistically significant differences between experimental and control groups were found in regard to pretests or demographic characteristics. Hierarchical linear model

Geoffrey D. Borman; Robert E. Slavin; Alan Cheung; Anne M. Chamberlain; Nancy A. Madden; Bette Chambers

2005-01-01

205

Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Technical Workforce Training at Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the outcomes of a workshop held at the National Science Foundation on August 15-16, 2005. Forty-six participants, representing academia, industry, government agencies, professional associations, and special projects met to: (1) discuss how geospatial technology training at two-year colleges can address workforce needs; and…

National Council for Geographic Education (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

206

A Clinical Assessment Tool for Advanced Theory of Mind Performance in 5 to 12 Year Olds  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred forty typically developing 5- to 12-year-old children were assessed with a test of advanced theory of mind employing Happe's strange stories. There was no significant difference in performance between boys and girls. The stories discriminated performance across the different ages with the lowest performance being in the younger…

O'Hare, Anne E.; Bremner, Lynne; Nash, Marysia; Happe, Francesca; Pettigrew, Luisa M.

2009-01-01

207

The Economic Benefits of Reducing the Dropout Rate for Students of Color in the Nation's Forty-Five Largest Metropolitan Areas. Summary of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Years of data have consistently underscored the persistent graduation gap between America's students of color and their peers. The most recent estimate shows that high school graduation rates for African American, Latino, and American Indian students hover only slightly higher than 50 percent. This is more than 20 percentage points lower than that…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

208

Aseptic loosening in metal-backed acetabular components for total hip replacement. A minimum five-year follow-up.  

PubMed

We reviewed the cases of thirty-six patients who had forty cemented total hip replacements with the Harris metal-backed acetabular component. The operations were done between 1972 and 1977, and the duration of follow-up averaged 7.6 years (range, five to 10.8 years). The average age of the patients was forty-four years (range, sixteen to sixty-two years). Aseptic loosening of the acetabular component occurred in three hips (7.5 per cent), and three more sockets were revised for other reasons. Two of the three sockets with aseptic loosening were in the fifteen patients (seventeen hips) who were forty-five years old or younger. The remaining loose cup was in one of the twenty-one patients (twenty-three hips) who were forty-six years old or older. The reduction in the rate of aseptic loosening of the socket in our series, compared with the higher rates reported in similar long-term studies in which other acetabular components were used, supports the conclusion that there is enhanced longevity of acetabular fixation when a metal-backed acetabular component is used in cemented total hip arthroplasty. PMID:3972864

Mattingly, D A; Hopson, C N; Kahn, A; Giannestras, N J

1985-03-01

209

Deinstitutionalization for Long-Term Mental Illness: A 6Year Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Forty-seven patients with long-term mental illness were transferred to the community following the closure of a psychiatric hospital in Sydney. This 6-year evaluation is an extension of a detailed clinical, ethnographic and economic study of the initial 2-years of community transition.Method: Quantitative evaluation was conducted using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Life Skills Profile, Social Behaviour Scale, Montgomery Asberg

Coletta Hobbs; Lesley Newton; Christopher Tennant; Alan Rosen; Kate Tribe

2002-01-01

210

Treatment of fulminant hepatic failure with infusions of Co-factors and mannitol and charcoal-hemoperfusions during Forty-one days.  

PubMed

The clinical course of a 26 year old female patient with acute liver necrosis and coma due to hepatitis B is reported. The disturbances of conciousness had improved. The patient survived 41 days after the beginning of the coma and developed liver cell regeneration and an acute post-hepatitic liver cirrhosis. As a grave complication a septicemia with aspergillus was observed. The patient died because of gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. At autopsy there were no signs of brain edema. The treatment consisted in: daily infusions with coenzyme A, nicotinamid-adenin-dinucleotide, alpha lipoic acid and cocarboxylase to improve the metabolic disorders and the clinical picture; mannitol intravenously to prevent and to treat cerebral edema; 33 charcoal-hemoperfusions to remove toxic substances of acute liver failure. Treatment of the aspergillus infection with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericine B and infusion of concentrated ascites led to a decompensation of liver functions. From this observation the following conclusions can be drawn: after an acute viral hepatic necrosis, new synthetic functions and improvements of the disturbed intermediary metabolism in regenerated liver-cells can eventually be seen only after twenty-four to thirty days. With systematically applicated mannitol infusions it is possible to treat cerebral edema effectively. PMID:502361

Thölen, H; Bianchi, L; Ulrich, J; Heierli, C; Ritz, R

1979-09-17

211

Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Patients Aged 60 Years and Over: A Population-Based Study of Incidence and Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on all patients aged 60 or older in whom a diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was made in the North- ern Health Region of the United Kingdom, over a period of 8% years, were studied to determine the incidence and range of biological subtypes, and the outcome of a variety of therapeu- tic approaches. Forty-nine cases were diagnosed

P. R. A. Taylor; M. M. Reid; N. Bown; P. J. Hamilton; S. J. Proctor

1992-01-01

212

Outcome at 10 years of severe vesicoureteric reflux managed medically: Report of the International Reflux Study in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the progress of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) grade III or IV in children followed up prospectively over 10 years. Study design: One hundred forty-nine children (33 boys and 116 girls) with VUR were recruited for the International Reflux Study in Children and were treated with a medical regimen and monitored by means of serial cystograms. VUR disappearance was

Jean M. Smellie; Ulf Jodal; Hildegard Lax; Tytti Tamminen Möbius; Herbert Hirche; Hermann Olbing

2001-01-01

213

Management and Outcome of Pregnancies with Parvovirus B19 Infection over Seven Years in a Tertiary Fetal Medicine Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine rates of fetal anaemia and pregnancy outcome in susceptible pregnant women infected with human parvovirus B19 infection in a tertiary fetal medicine department over a 7-year period. Additional features enabling identification of fetuses that progress to severe anaemia were also investigated. Methods: Forty-seven susceptible, pregnant women with confirmed parvovirus infection referred to a regional fetal medicine unit,

R. A. Simms; R. E. Liebling; R. R. Patel; M. L. Denbow; S. A. Abdel-Fattah; P. W. Soothill; T. G. Overton

2009-01-01

214

Follow-Up of Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Stability and Change during the Preschool Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-one children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) receiving eclectic services were assessed twice during their preschool years. Measures were compared over time for the whole group and for diagnostic subgroups: Childhood autism (CA group) and Other PDDs group. The mean intelligence quotient/developmental quotient (IQ/DQ) of the…

Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Asmundsdottir, Gudlaug; Hjartardottir, Sigrun; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis B.; Smaradottir, Hrafnhildur H.; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Smari, Jakob

2007-01-01

215

TESOL at Forty: What Are the Issues?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview delineates the direction of pedagogical developments since the 25th anniversary issue of "TESOL Quarterly." Three tendencies characterize our professional practice: (a) a continuation along the earlier lines of progression (i.e., in opening up the classroom to learning opportunities, integrating skills, and teaching for specific…

Canagarajah, A. Suresh

2006-01-01

216

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

217

Metabolic Outcomes 1 Year after Gastric Bypass Surgery in Obese People with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess metabolic outcomes in obese people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the first year following gastric bypass surgery. Subjects and Methods: Forty-nine obese patients with T2D who had undergone gastric bypass surgery 12 or more months previously were identified. Body weight and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) pre-operatively and 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively, changes to glucose-lowering therapies,

Yared N. Demssie; Jhalini Jawaheer; Seleena Farook; John P. New; Akheel A. Syed

2012-01-01

218

Day case transradial coronary angioplasty: a four-year single-center experience.  

PubMed

We examined the safety and feasibility of elective outpatient transradial coronary angioplasty (PCI). Four hundred and forty two patients underwent procedures over a 4-year period. Over 95% had an excellent angiographic result and 85% were discharged the same day. Radial access was successful in 417 (94%) patients. There were no major vascular complications. One patient died of a subacute stent thrombosis. Outpatient transradial PCI is safe and feasible for the majority of elective PCI cases. PMID:16969848

Wiper, A; Kumar, S; MacDonald, J; Roberts, D H

2006-10-01

219

Is the heat flux density really non-objective? A glance back, 40 years later  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty years ago, Ingo Müller wrote an article Müller (Arch Rat Mech Anal 45:241-250, 1972) in which a future development of material theory was predisposed. At that time, this essential article remained unnoticed by the scientific community for a long time. Also today, not everyone becomes aware of the difference between moving materials and moving observers. This distinction results in a supplementary material axiom, the "material motion dependence (MMD)".

Muschik, W.

2012-11-01

220

Age of Achievement of Gross Motor Milestones in Infancy and Adiposity at Age 3 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine\\u000a associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother\\/infant\\u000a dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones—rolling\\u000a over,

Sara E. Benjamin Neelon; Emily Oken; Elsie M. Taveras; Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman; Matthew W. Gillman

221

Pain and life quality within 2 years of spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence and classification of pain were investigated in 46 patients admitted consecutively with traumatic spinal cord injury to a rehabilitation hospital. All were studied within 2 years of trauma. Forty-six percent experienced pain of moderate-to-severe intensity. The patients with pain were classified into five categories: diffuse pain, segmental pain, root pain, visceral pain and non-neurogenic pain. Most patients experienced

A G Wagner Anke; A E Stenehjem; J Kvalvik Stanghelle; AGW Anke

1995-01-01

222

Evolution of T1 black holes in patients with multiple sclerosis imaged monthly for 4 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary T1 black holes (BHs) on MRIs may represent either areas of oedema or axonal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. BHs begin as contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) and evolve differently from patient to patient, and within the same patient over time. We analysed BHs formation over a 4-year period. Forty-eight monthly MRIs of nine non-treated multiple sclerosis patients were

Francesca Bagnato; Neal Jeffries; Nancy D. Richert; Roger D. Stone; Joan M. Ohayon; Henry F. McFarland; Joseph A. Frank

2003-01-01

223

Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: One-year Results of the French AneuRx Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the results of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair using the Medtronic\\u000a AneuRx endovascular stent graft. Forty-seven patients presenting with asymptomatic AAA were recruited in 17 French vascular\\u000a centers. The mean age of these patients was 72.2 ± 7.8 years (range, 54 to 85.2 years). Indications were validated by an independent\\u000a committee

Jean-Baptiste Ricco; Michel Letort; Pierre-Edouard Magnan; Roberto Pacchioni

2002-01-01

224

Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

2010-01-01

225

The Prevalence of Seborrheic Keratoses in People Aged 15 to 30 Years: Is the Term Senile Keratosis Redundant?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Forty (23.5%) of 170 respondents had at least one SK, with no significant difference between the sexes. There was an increase in prevalence with age from 15.7% in 15- to 19-year-olds to 32.3% in those aged 25 to 30 years. The size of the SKs also increased with age. A to- tal of 77.5% of SKs were found on

David Gill; Abe Dorevitch; Robin Marks

2000-01-01

226

Short Reference Years - Test Reference Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A Test Reference Year (TRY) is a collection of hourly weather data for a specific location and for 365 days arranged as 8760 sets of simultaneous weather parameters. A Short Reference Year (SRY) is correspondingly a similar collection of data for less tha...

H. Lund

1984-01-01

227

Leap Year Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant number of programs incorrectly treats the year 2000 as a non-leap year. We list 21 real life code fragments illustrating the large variety of ways that are used to determine whether a given year is a leap year or not. Some of these fragments...

A. Van Deursen

1998-01-01

228

Effects of the Emphasis on Achieving Adequate Yearly Progress on Teachers and Administrators at Schools under the Constraints of No Child Left Behind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to study the effects of the emphasis on achieving Adequate Yearly Progress at elementary schools under the regulations of the No Child Left Behind legislation. Qualitative data were gathered through interviews with fifty educators: forty-three teachers and seven administrators. All of the educators worked at six…

Fisher, Cathy Ann Burnett

2010-01-01

229

Looking Forward to the Year 2000: Public Policy and Philanthropy. Working Papers, Spring Research Forum (San Francisco, California, March 17-18, 1988).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-six working papers for presentation at a research forum on public policy and philanthropy are presented. Thirteen sections include the following topics: (1) looking forward to the year 2000: public policy and philanthropy (e.g. "Rationales for Tax Exemption," by Harvey P. Dale); (2) shifting boundaries among the sectors (e.g. "The Shifting…

Independent Sector, Washington, DC.

230

Comparison of relapse rates and of mucosal abnormalities after healing of duodenal ulceration and after one year's maintenance with cimetidine or sucralfate: a light and electron microscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty six patients with endoscopically diagnosed duodenal ulceration were randomly allocated to treatment with either sucralfate 1 g qds (n = 24) or cimetidine 200 mg tds and 400 mg nocte (n = 22). When the ulcers healed, a maintenance dose of sucralfate 1 g bd or cimetidine 400 mg nocte was given for one year (or until relapse if

F I Tovey; E M Husband; Y C Yiu; L Baker; G McPhail; M R Lewin; A P Jayaraj; C G Clark

1989-01-01

231

Effect of Affective Temperaments Assessed by the TEMPS-A on the Relationship between Work-Related Stressors and Depressive Symptoms among Workers in Their Twenties to Forties in Japan  

PubMed Central

Relatively recently in Japan, immature-type depression, frequently classified in the bipolar II spectrum, has increased among workers in their twenties to forties. This study explored whether affective temperaments moderate the relationship between work-related stressors and depressive symptoms among this age group. In July 2004, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all employees of a Japanese company. Eight hundred seventy-four employees (63%) returned the questionnaires, with 728 completed. Questionnaires included the 12-item General Health Questionnaire for assessing depressive symptoms, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version for assessing affective temperaments, the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire to assess work-related stressors and overcommitment, and questions regarding individual attributes and employment characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that affective temperaments moderated the relationship between work-related stressors and depressive symptoms. Effort (OR = 1.078), which represents job demands and/or obligations imposed on employees, and the upper tertile of overcommitment (OR = 1.589), which represents hyperadaptation to the workplace, were risk factors for depressive symptoms. Additionally, the results for cyclothymic (OR = 11.404) and anxious temperaments (OR = 1.589) suggested that depressive symptoms among this age group may be related to immature-type depression.

Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Yoshie

2012-01-01

232

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences in the weather in each season? Students will identify the seasons of the year. Also, describing the seasonal changes in the weather. All 4 Season of the Year. Spring. Summer. Fall. Winter. ...

Thompson, Miss

2010-03-25

233

Finishing the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NCTM Tips for Teachers provides suggestions for focusing on student growth and ending the school year on a positive note. The article includes suggestions for end of year activities, guest speakers, and end of year reflections by teachers and students.

2014-01-01

234

EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led to admission to Columbia University where he studied metallurgical engineering. After graduation, as was common at that time for able students, he was encouraged to go abroad for his doctoral work. He went to Göttingen, which was then one of the leading European universities in science, and studied under Nernst. Returning to the United States he obtained a post as a teaching assistant at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, but the atmosphere proved too hierarchical and uncongenial for a scientist who was wanting to spread his wings. Fortunately the General Electric Company (GEC) recognized his potential; he was recruited in 1909, and remained associated with the GEC for the next 48 years. He quickly established his credentials as a research scientist and was soon given the freedom to pursue his interests wherever they took him, consistent with the overall strategy of the company. His appointment as an Associate Director at the GEC came in the same year that he introduced the term 'plasma'. Interestingly, while the term gained rapid acceptance in Europe, the associated word 'sheath', which Langmuir had already been using for several years, was translated into French, German and Russian and suffered from confusion. That confusion was there in Langmuir's writings because this ion-rich region sometimes was a region with barely any electrons and sometimes it contained a significant quantity of negative charge. The structure of the plasma-sheath and its elucidation had to await new mathematical techniques and the impact of computers as evidenced by papers in this volume and those quoted therein. It is clear that Langmuir inspired and benefited from collaboration with co-workers at the GEC, notably Kingdon, Taylor, Mott-Smith, Compton, Jones, Found, Tonks and Blodgett. In several ways he was ahead of his time in his understanding of gas discharges, and a particular example is what has since come to be known as the Bohm criterion. More than once in his plasma papers published in the early 1930s Langmuir stated in words what was needed for a sheath to develop

Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

2009-02-01

235

Mathematics, Vocabulary, and Reading Development in Chinese American and European American Children Over the Primary School Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty European American (EA; 20 girls, 20 boys) and 40 second-generation Chinese American (CA; 20 girls, 20 boys) preschool and kindergarten children (mean age at Time 1 = 5.7 years) and their mothers, fathers, and teachers participated in 3 data collections (1993, 1995, and 1997) to investigate sociocultural and family factors that contribute to children’s academic achievement. CA children outscored

Carol S. Huntsinger; Paul E. Jose; Shari L. Larson; Dana Balsink Krieg; Chitra Shaligram

2000-01-01

236

Epicurious Eating: New Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The holidays 'Tis the time of year for cooking, hosting, and feasting, and this site offers tips, recipes, and ideas that are useful no matter what the holiday. epicurious, an online food magazine, celebrates the New Year with recipes, menus, cocktails, food history, and menus for the morning after.

237

The first year  

Microsoft Academic Search

My team and I have spent the last ten years developing an alternative approach to teaching computing and programming in first-year courses. Unlike conventional approaches, ours focuses on program design in a systematic manner. The syntax of the underlying programming language (both Java and Scheme) is only discussed as needed.Field tests with over 200 high schools and almost a dozen

Matthias Felleisen

2005-01-01

238

Celebrating 50 Years!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

Kristjansdottir, Anna

2011-01-01

239

What number knowledge is possessed by children beginning the kindergarten year of school?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty-five children, fifteen from each of two kindergarten year classes from different schools, and fifteen from a year one class from one of those schools, were interviewed to assess their knowledge of number word sequences and spatial patterns, and ability to recognise numerals and use counting to establish the numerosity of visible and screened collections. The schools were selected as typifying contrasting socio-economic levels. Five models, each of a different aspect of number development, and each containing up to five levels or stages, were used to generate for each child, a profile of numerical development. This led to consideration of the variations of children's number knowledge, within and between year levels and schools. Findings included a wide variation in the number knowledge of children beginning the kindergarten year, greater variation in the lower socio-economic school, and evidence that the kindergarten year mathematics curriculum is most suited to the least advanced.

Wright, Bob

1991-02-01

240

7.RP Comparing Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Historically, different people have defined a year in different ways. For example, an Egyptian year is 365 days long, a Julian year is 365$\\frac14$ day...

241

SDO: Year 2  

NASA Video Gallery

April 21, 2012 marks the two-year anniversary of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) First Light press conference, where NASA revealed the first images taken by the spacecraft. This video highligh...

242

Neurological and functional outcomes of subdural hematoma evacuation in patients over 70 years of age  

PubMed Central

Background: Subdural hematoma (SDH) is a common disease entity treated by neurosurgical intervention. Although the incidence increases in the elderly population, there is a paucity of studies examining their surgical outcomes. Objectives: To determine the neurological and functional outcomes of patients over 70 years of age undergoing surgical decompression for subdural hematoma. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed data on 45 patients above 70 years who underwent craniotomy or burr holes for acute, chronic or mixed subdural hematomas. We analyzed both neurological and functional status before and after surgery. Results: Forty-five patients 70 years of age or older were treated in our department during the study period. There was a significant improvement in the neurological status of patients from admission to follow up as assessed using the Markwalder grading scale (1.98 vs. 1.39; P =0.005), yet no improvement in functional outcome was observed as assessed by Glasgow Outcome Score. Forty-one patients were admitted from home, however only 20 patients (44%) were discharged home, 16 (36%) discharged to nursing home or rehab, 6 (13%) to hospice and 3 (7%) died in the postoperative period. Neurological function improved in patients who were older, had a worse pre-operative neurological status, were on anticoagulation and had chronic or mixed acute and chronic hematoma. However, no improvement in functional status was observed. Conclusion: Surgical management of SDH in patients over 70 years of age provides significant improvement in neurological status, but does not change functional status.

Mulligan, Patrick; Raore, Bethwel; Liu, Shuling; Olson, Jeffrey J.

2013-01-01

243

Fiscal Year 2003  

Cancer.gov

The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

244

Five years and counting.  

PubMed

Oncology professionals are fully aware that the five-year mark of being disease-free after the diagnosis of cancer is not a magical number. Cancer is now considered a chronic disease and recurrence can happen at any time, which is unexpected and frightening. Yet, for me, and for many other cancer survivors, the five-year mark is one to be celebrated. PMID:23715715

Bush, Nancy Jo

2013-06-01

245

Pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer: 25 years of experience  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the experience of pulmonary resections for colorectal metastases at the McGill University Health Centre. Design A chart review. Patients Forty-nine patients treated surgically between 1975 and 1998 for pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer. Intervention Thoracotomy with pulmonary resection. Outcome measures Survival of patients with various preoperative and postoperative clinical variables. Results The perioperative death rate was 4%. Overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 55% and 40% respectively. The mean interval between the initial colonic resection and resection of pulmonary metastases (disease-free interval) was 36 months. The 7 patients who also underwent resection of extrapulmonary metastases had a 5-year survival rate of 52%. Significant preoperative variables that carried a poor prognosis included the following: more than one pulmonary lesion, a disease-free interval of less than 2 years, and moderately or poorly differentiated colorectal cancer. The 16 patients who received chemotherapy after their thoracotomy had a 5-year survival rate of 51% compared with 54% for the 33 patients who did not receive chemotherapy. Recurrent resections of pulmonary lesions did not reduce survival. Conclusions Pulmonary resection for metastatic colorectal cancer is both effective and safe. Resectable extrapulmonary metastases and pulmonary recurrence should not preclude lung resection. Postoperative chemotherapy has no survival benefit. Preoperative variables should guide the clinician when considering surgical intervention.

Irshad, Kashif; Ahmad, Faiz; Morin, Jean E.; Mulder, David S.

2001-01-01

246

Antenatal complications in adolescent mothers aged below 14 years.  

PubMed

Antenatal complications in 340 booked and 710 unbooked adolescent mothers aged 12-14 years were evaluated over a 2-year period at the Specialist Hospital, Yola, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Emesis gravidarum was observed in 290 (85.3%) and 612 (86.2%) booked and unbooked mothers, respectively. While 112 (32.9%) booked mothers had malaria, this ailment was observed in 508 (71.5%) of unbooked mothers. Forty-six (13.5%) booked mothers suffered from anaemia as against 483 (68.0%) unbooked patients. It was observed that preeclampsia manifested in 62 (18.2%) booked and 158 (22.2%) unbooked mothers, while eclampsia occurred in 18 (5.3%) and 66 (9.3%) booked and unbooked mothers, respectively. The rates of premature deliveries were 16.20% in booked mothers and 22.82% in the unbooked group. Other notable complications observed in both groups include premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), preterm contractions, antepartum haemorrhage, and urinary tract infections. There were slightly higher frequencies of the above complications in 12-year-olds, and these decreased slightly towards the age of 14 years. Nine of the 10 above observed complications occurred more in the lower socioeconomic classes [3-4] than in the upper social economic classes [1-2] in significant proportions. PMID:10456165

Obed, J Y; Zarma, A; Mamman, L

1997-01-01

247

Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 ± 9 years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year [F(4, 38) = 5.8, p = 0.001, ?2 = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that the majority of patients do not show significant change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed.

Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bj?rn R.; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O.; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor K.; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; R?ssberg, Jan I.; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

2013-01-01

248

THREE YEARS CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH INTESTINAL TRANSPLANTATION  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND After the successful evolution of hepatic transplantation during the last decade, small bowel and multivisceral transplantation remains the sole elusive achievement for the next era of transplant surgeons. Until recently, and for the last thirty years, the results of the sporadic attempts of intestinal transplantation worldwide were discouraging because of unsatisfactory graft and patient survival. The experimental and clinical demonstration of the superior therapeutic efficacy of FK 506, a new immunosuppressive drug, ushered in the current era of small bowel and multivisceral transplantation with initial promising results. STUDY DESIGN Forty-three consecutive patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal insufficiency, or malignant tumors with or without associated liver disease, were given intestinal (n=15), hepatic and intestinal (n=21), or multivisceral allografts that contained four or more organs (n=7). Treatment was with FK 506 based immunosuppression. The ascending and right transverse colon were included with the small intestine in 13 of the 43 grafts, almost evenly distributed between the three groups. RESULTS After six to 39 months, 30 of the 43 patients are alive, 29 bearing grafts. The most rapid convalescence and resumption of diet, as well as the highest three month patient survival (100 percent) and graft survival (88 percent) were with the isolated intestinal procedure. However, this advantage was slowly eroded during the first two postoperative years, in part because the isolated intestine was more prone to rejection. By the end of this time, the best survival rate (86 percent) was with the multivisceral procedure. With all three operations, most of the patients were able to resume diet and discontinue parenteral alimentation, and in the best instances, the quality of life approached normal. However, the surveillance and intensity of care required for these patients for the first year, and in most instances thereafter, was very high, being far more than required for patients having transplants of the liver, kidney or heart. CONCLUSIONS Although intestinal transplantation has gone through the feasibility phase, strategies will be required to increase its practicality. One possibility is to combine intestinal transplantation with contemporaneous autologous bone marrow transplantation.

Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Todo, Satoru; Tzakis, Andreas; Reyes, Jorge; Nour, Bakr; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Fung, John J.; Demetris, Anthony; Starzl, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

249

Emergent technologies: 25 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

Rising, Hawley K.

2013-03-01

250

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, responses to the problem have largely fallen into vertical acceleration, in which schools typically offer an array of AP courses or dual enrollment opportunities;…

Dreis, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

251

NAFTA: 10 Years Later.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the first time since NAFTA was implemented, the U.S. Department of Commerce has ten-year statistics on trade and other economic indicators. This provides the opportunity to consider how trade, investment, and employment have changed over the past deca...

2004-01-01

252

1981 5-Year Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Swedish State Power Board generates about 45 % of the electric power generated in the country. A five-year plan for research and development is produced annually. The R and D activities are broken down into five main areas, each of which comprises a n...

1981-01-01

253

Tenth Year Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet presents the minimum material for which students are responsible on the Tenth Year Regents examination of the state of New York. The syllabus is an attempt to integrate plane geometry with arithmetic, algebra and numerical trigonometry brought about by: (1) greater use of fractions and percents in mensuration problems; (2) use of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

254

Fifty Years of Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

thispaper: the importance of complementing macroeconomic, trade, and capital accountreform, with institutional development -- in this case, development of the institutions formonitoring, regulating, and supervising banks, other financial institutions and creditmarkets.A fundamental international development of the past ten years is the end of theCold War and the rise of democratic political institutions worldwide. There have beenmajor democratic revolutions in virtually

Paul Collier; David Dollar; Nicholas Stern

2000-01-01

255

ISME Celebrates 50 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

Teaching Music, 2004

2004-01-01

256

50 Years in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the past 50 years, America has experienced all of man's triumphs and tragedies in Space. Some of you may remember December 1958, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent his Christmas greeting to the world from the Army's Project SCORE (Signal Comm...

K. T. Campbell

2008-01-01

257

20 Years of ECM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Elliptic Curve Method for integer factorization (ECM) was invented by H. W. Lenstra, Jr., in 1985 (14). In the past 20 years, many improvements of ECM were proposed on the mathematical, algo- rithmic, and implementation sides. This paper summarizes the current state-of-the-art, as implemented in the GMP-ECM software.

Paul Zimmermann; Bruce Dodson

2006-01-01

258

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, their approaches to the problem have largely fallen into one of three types of responses: vertical acceleration; remediation; and structured containment. New Trier…

Drels, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

259

Smog - the learning years  

SciTech Connect

35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

260

Eleventh Year Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline for Eleventh Year Mathematics in New York adheres closely to the recommendations of The Commission of Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board and thus presents a unified development of certain aspects of algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Its aim is both as a terminal course in mathematics and as a solid…

Buchman, Aaron; Zimmerman, Robert

261

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

262

Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda

2000-01-01

263

Interim Years of Cyberspace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyber power will be as revolutionary to warfare as airpower, but the current vectoring of the domain will determine which nation will hold cyber dominance and to what effect. In the early years of the cyberspace domain, the United States primarily conside...

R. M. Lee

2013-01-01

264

European Music Year 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

1984-01-01

265

Books of the Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian Groombridge;…

Adults Learning, 2004

2004-01-01

266

A Year Without Procedures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Step-by-step instructions in the chemistry lab often eliminate opportunities for inquiry, higher levels of thinking, and the sense of accomplishment students find through independent discovery. However, removing procedures from chemistry labs creates opportunities for student inquiry. This article describes a chemistry-based experimental year without procedures, but the concept can be applied to any scientific discipline.

Backus, Lisa

2005-10-01

267

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover,

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-01-01

268

Replicability and 40-year predictive power of childhood ARC types.  

PubMed

We examined 3 questions surrounding the undercontrolled, overcontrolled, and resilient-or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)-personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967 and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggesting that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types. This cluster structure was fuzzy rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to 3 prototype Big Five profiles; ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious but, depending on the outcome, comparable or slightly worse classifiers than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 67% accuracy by childhood personality information alone and stroke incidence with over 70% accuracy. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality for midlife health. PMID:21744975

Chapman, Benjamin P; Goldberg, Lewis R

2011-09-01

269

Developmental milestones record - 4 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 years; Growth milestones for children - 4 years; Childhood growth milestones - 4 years ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR During the fourth year, a child typically: Gains weight at the rate ...

270

Developmental milestones record - 3 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old may include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

271

International Year of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA) is a year long celebration of astronomical and scientific milestones. The U.S. website of the IYA offers a host of information about the learning opportunities, community events, and celebrations planned for the IYA in the U.S. Visitors interested in the IYA outside of the U.S. can click on the link "International Homepage" on the right side of the homepage. The cornerstone of the IYA is the 100 Hours of Astronomy project that is touted on the website as the largest science public outreach program. For numerous links to websites dedicated to the program, visitors should scroll down to the heading "100 Hours is Coming!" Visitors shouldn't miss checking out the "Get Involved" tab at the top of the page to find information about how to participate in the events of IYA. The ways to participate are divided up by who wants to get involved, such as an Astronomy Enthusiast, Amateur Astronomer, Teacher, Homeschooler, Parent or Grandparent, Professor, or Planetarium. Each category has a pdf of a printable flyer that has all the resources and tips on it to make the most of the International Year of Astronomy 2009.

2011-09-19

272

Modeling noninvasive neurostimulation in epilepsy as stochastic interference in brain networks.  

PubMed

Noninvasive brain stimulation is one of very few potential therapies for medically refractory epilepsy. However, its efficacy remains suboptimal and its therapeutic value has not been consistently assessed. This is in part due to the nonoptimized spatio-temporal application of stimulation protocols for seizure prevention or arrest, and incomplete knowledge of the neurodynamics of seizure evolution. Through simulations, this study investigated electroencephalography (EEG)-guided, stochastic interference with aberrantly coordinated neuronal networks, to prevent seizure onset or interrupt a propagating partial seizure, and prevent it from spreading to large areas of the brain. Brain stimulation was modeled as additive white or band-limited noise, and simulations using real EEGs and data generated from a network of integrate-and-fire neuronal ensembles were used to quantify spatio-temporal noise effects. It was shown that additive stochastic signals (noise) may destructively interfere with network dynamics and decrease or abolish synchronization associated with progressively coupled networks. Furthermore, stimulation parameters, particularly amplitude and spatio-temporal application, may be optimized based on patient-specific neurodynamics estimated directly from noninvasive EEGs. PMID:22692940

Stamoulis, Catherine; Chang, Bernard S

2013-05-01

273

A low-cost neurostimulator with accurate pulsed-current control.  

PubMed

A constant-current stimulator for high-impedance loads using only low-cost standard high-voltage components is presented. A voltage-regulator powers an oscillator built across the primary of a step-up transformer whose secondary supplies, after rectification, the high voltage to a switched current-mirror in the driving stage. Adjusting the regulated voltage controls the pulsed-current intensity. A prototype produces stimulus of amplitude and pulsewidth within 0 < or = I(skin) < or = 20 mA and 50 micros < or = T(pulse) < or = 1 ms, respectively. Pulse-repetition spans from 1 Hz to 10 Hz. Worst case ripple is 3.7% at I(skin) = 1 mA. Overall consumption is 5.6 W at I(skin) = 20 mA. PMID:12002182

De Lima, Jader A; Cordeiro, Adriano S

2002-05-01

274

Implementation of a biocircuit implants for neurotransmitter release during neuro-stimulation.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter assay of epinephrine (EP) was sought using a modified carbon nanotube paste electrode (PE). Using optimum conditions, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the square wave (SW) stripping voltammetric working ranges were attained to 10-100 mgL(-1) (CV) and 20-140 ngL(-1) (SW). The relative standard deviation of 0.0549 (n=15) was obtained at 20.0 mgL(-1) EP constant. Here, the analytical detection limit (S/N) was reached with 4.60 ngL(-1) (2.5×10(-11) molL(-1)) EP. The hand-made electrode was implanted into the in-vivo brain core of the animals and was used in chronoamperometric neurodetection. The results obtained are applicable in neurosensing, physiological control, and other neuroscience fields. PMID:23782097

Ly, Suw Young; Choi, Dal woong

2013-08-01

275

Clinical utility of implantable neurostimulation devices in the treatment of chronic migraine.  

PubMed

Chronic migraine is a disabling disorder that is costly to individuals and society. Occipital nerve stimulation has been used to treat refractory cases of primary headache disorders including drug-resistant chronic cluster headaches and chronic migraine. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) off-labeled application of equipment used for peripheral nerve (occipital) stimulation is borrowed from FDA-labeled spinal cord stimulation. Manufacturer-sponsored randomized trials include a feasibility study (ONSTIM-Medtronic) and a safety and efficacy study (St Jude). A non-industry sponsored prospective, randomized crossover study by Serra and Marchiotretto suggests improved quality of life and a significant reduction in medication use. Though preliminary studies suggest occipital nerve stimulation is safe and efficacious in treating chronic migraine headache, complication rates, including lead migration, lead fracture, and surgical site infections remain high. Further studies are needed to demonstrate long-term outcomes, while improved surgical techniques and site-specific equipment are needed to minimize complications. PMID:24348076

Freeman, John A; Trentman, Terrance L

2013-01-01

276

Microelectronic retinal prosthesis: I. A neurostimulator for the concurrent activation of multiple electrodes.  

PubMed

An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) capable of delivering charge to multiple electrodes in unison has been developed. The ASIC is designed to function as part of an epi-retinal prosthesis driving an array of electrodes in a hexagonal mosaic. This unique organization of electrodes and the use of current sources and sinks is implemented to reduce the electrical cross-talk that occurs when many electrodes are activated in unison. Due to the large numbers of electrodes needed to provide useful vision to implantees, the interleaving strategies used in cochlear implants will not suffice for a vision prosthesis, where the "frame rate" is important for acceptable perceptual outcomes. This paper describes the design, and architectural approaches and performance testing of the developed ASIC. PMID:17946643

Wong, Y T; Dommel, N; Preston, P J; Lehmann, T; Lovell, N H; Suaning, G J

2006-01-01

277

Modeling Non-Invasive Neurostimulation in Epilepsy as Stochastic Interference in Brain Networks  

PubMed Central

Non-invasive brain stimulation is one of very few potential therapies for medically refractory epilepsy. However, its efficacy remains suboptimal and its therapeutic value has not been consistently assessed. This is in part due to the non-optimized spatio-temporal application of stimulation protocols for seizure prevention or arrest, and incomplete knowledge of the neurodynamics of seizure evolution. Through simulations, this study investigated EEG-guided, stochastic interference with aberrantly coordinated neuronal networks, to prevent seizure onset or interrupt a propagating partial seizure, and prevent it from spreading to large areas of the brain. Brain stimulation was modeled as additive white or band-limited noise, and simulations using real EEGs and data generated from a network of integrate-and-fire neuronal ensembles were used to quantify spatio-temporal noise effects. It was shown that additive stochastic signals (noise) may destructively interfere with network dynamics and decrease or abolish synchronization associated with progressively coupled networks. Furthermore, stimulation parameters, particularly amplitude and spatio-temporal application, may be optimized based on patient-specific neurodynamics estimated directly from non-invasive EEGs.

Stamoulis, Catherine; Chang, Bernard S.

2012-01-01

278

Using "smart stimulators" to treat Parkinson's disease: re-engineering neurostimulation devices.  

PubMed

Let's imagine the cruise control of your car locked at 120?km/h on any road in any condition (city, country, highway, sunny or rainy weather), or your car air conditioner set on maximum cold in any temperature condition (even during a snowy winter): would you find it efficient? That would probably not be the most optimal strategy for a proper and comfortable driving experience. As surprising as this may seem, this is a pretty accurate illustration of how deep brain stimulation is used today to treat Parkinson's disease motor symptoms and other neurological disorders such as essential tremor, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or epilepsy. PMID:23060781

Modolo, Julien; Beuter, Anne; Thomas, Alex W; Legros, Alexandre

2012-01-01

279

Practical considerations for the use of a Howland current source for neuro-stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the Howland current source circuit topology in detail with regards to non-ideal circuit component properties. This circuit is one of the few which can be built with a small number of discrete components, offers very good performance due to the use of an operational amplifier, and supplies true symmetric bi-directional currents, and is hence well suited for use

Philippe Pouliquen; Jacob Vogelstein; Ralph Etienne-Cummings

2008-01-01

280

TRMM 3-Year Anniversary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

2002-01-01

281

500 years after Columbus.  

PubMed

The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

Imbach, A

1992-01-01

282

Fifty years of stacking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common-Mid-Point (CMP) stacking is a major process to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in seismic data. Since its appearance fifty years ago, CMP stacking has gone through different phases of prosperity and negligence within the geophysical community. During those times, CMP stacking developed from a simple process of averaging into a sophisticated process that involves complicated mathematics and state-of-the-art computation. This article summarizes the basic principles, assumptions, and violations related to the CMP stacking technique, presents a historical overview on the development stages of CMP stacking, and discusses its future potentiality.

Rashed, Mohamed

2014-06-01

283

20 Years of AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), May 31 marked the 20-year anniversary of the first discovery of AIDS. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Web has seen a corresponding flurry of activity devoted to the history and current status of research on the disease. The CDC has posted this site, which collects research findings from the Centers' Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, videos covering the epidemic's history and current status, and CDC bulletins and commentary. For further sites devoted to AIDS/HIV see the June 6, 2001 Scout Report for Science & Engineering).

2001-01-01

284

NAS: The first year  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussed are the capabilities of NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program and its application as an advanced supercomputing system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research. First, the paper describes the NAS computational system, called the NAS Processing System Network, and the advanced computational capabilities it offers as a consequence of carrying out the NAS pathfinder objective. Second, it presents examples of pioneering CFD research accomplished during NAS's first operational year. Examples are included which illustrate CFD applications for predicting fluid phenomena, complementing and supplementing experimentation, and aiding in design. Finally, pacing elements and future directions for CFD and NAS are discussed.

Bailey, F. R.; Kutler, Paul

1988-01-01

285

Can biochemical markers predict bone loss at the hip and spine?: A 4-year prospective study of 141 early postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of recent studies have suggested that non-invasive measures of bone turnover are associated with bone loss at the forearm in postmenopausal women. Whether bone turnover markers are predictive of bone loss from the clinically important sites of lumbar spine and femoral neck remain unclear, and was the aim of this 4-year prospective study. One hundred and forty-one normal,

R. W. Keen; T. Nguyen; R. Sobnack; L. A. Perry; P. W. Thompson; T. D. Spector

1996-01-01

286

International Year of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has declared the year 2010 as the year of biodiversity, and none too soon. The definition and importance of biodiversity is explained on the "About" page, but in brief, it's a "rich diversity [in nature which] is being lost at a greatly accelerated rate because of human activities. This...weakens the ability of the living systems, on which we depend, to resist growing threats such as climate change." The list of "Major Upcoming Celebrations" is on the middle of the homepage below the written and video "Welcome Messages" from various representatives of national governments and large non-profits. Some of the celebrations include an International Art Exhibition by young people. Visitors can click on "More Celebrations" to be taken to an interactive map of celebrations "By Countries", "Calendar" or "Success Stories". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Red List", which can be found on the homepage or in the "About" section. The "Red List of Threatened Species" highlights one species of plant or animal each day, with a photo and a couple of paragraphs on its location, vulnerability, origins, etc. The current month is shown, but visitors can view the species of the days for the "Previous Months" of 2010 as well.

UN. General Assembly (61st sess. : 2006-2007)

287

Natural history of herpes zoster: late follow-up of 3.9 years (n=43) and 7.7 years (n=10).  

PubMed

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common complication after herpes zoster (HZ). Subjects who completed a longitudinal observational 6-month study (4 visits) of the natural history of HZ were recontacted for 2 additional follow-up visits that included pain and sensory symptom assessment, quantitative sensory testing, capsaicin response test, and 3-mm punch skin biopsies in HZ-affected, mirror-image, and control skin sites. Forty-three subjects (14 with PHN at 6 months) of the original 94 subjects in the cohort were comprehensively assessed at a median 3.9 years after HZ onset (visit 5), and 10 subjects underwent a final assessment at a median 7.7 years after HZ onset (visit 6). At 3.9 years, none of the 29 subjects who had been pain free at 6 months had a recurrence of pain. Only 2 of the 14 subjects with PHN at 6 months still had pain at 3.9 years. One subject with PHN at 6 months was free of symptoms at 3.9 years but had very mild pain at 7.7 years. Sensory function continued on a path toward normalization, but was still abnormal in many subjects, especially those who met criteria for PHN at 6 months. Even at 7.7 years, reinnervation of HZ-affected skin was not apparent. PMID:23719573

Reda, Haatem; Greene, Kaitlin; Rice, Frank L; Rowbotham, Michael C; Petersen, Karin L

2013-10-01

288

TIPS: 25 years later.  

PubMed

In the 25 years since the first TIPS intervention has been performed, technical standards, indications, and contraindications have been set up. The previous considerable problem of shunt failure by thrombosis or intimal proliferation in the stent or in the draining hepatic vein has been reduced considerably by the availability of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents resulting in reduced rebleeding and improved survival. Unfortunately, most clinical studies have been performed prior to the release of the covered stent and, therefore, do not represent the present state of the art. In spite of this, TIPS has gained increasing acceptance in the treatment of the various complications of portal hypertension and vascular diseases of the liver. PMID:23811307

Rössle, Martin

2013-11-01

289

Year of Languages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The importance of fluency in a second language is sometimes underappreciated, and the work of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) is designed to promote just that. As such, 2005 is being celebrated as "The Year of Languages", and the ACTFL is taking this opportunity "to focus America's attention on the academic, social and economic benefits of studying other languages and cultures from around the world." On the organization's website, visitors can learn about some of its latest initiatives, peruse a calendar of events, and look through a series of informational factsheets on various languages. Educators will appreciate the section dedicated to providing helpful ideas for activities and events and looking over a template for creating lessons that integrate culture successfully.

290

Another slow year  

SciTech Connect

This article is a review of the petroleum activity in the Middle East. The article is accompanied by a detailed color map showing the activity in the area. Highlights of the article include the fact that Saudi Arabia's drilling and development activity has sunk to its lowest level in many years. The article also points out that discoveries are increasing production in North and South Yemen as well as in Syria. The article also highlights the fact that Qatar is beginning work on its massive North gas field in the Gulf. Also attention is paid to the effects of the Iranian and Iraq war on each other's oil and gas activities. The article also mentions the drilling activity of Dubai and Oman.

Not Available

1987-08-01

291

Electron microscopy of myocardial tissue. A nine year review  

PubMed Central

Aim—To review and reassess the role of this department's experience with routine electron microscopy of myocardial tissues. Methods—A nine year series of myocardial samples that underwent electron microscopy analysis were audited. Fifty nine samples were derived from 46 male and 13 female subjects with an age range of 15–90 years (mean, 50.6). Forty two samples were endomyocardial specimens, with 13 being derived from explanted hearts, and four from necropsies. Two cases were from transplanted hearts. These were all reviewed in a blinded fashion, by all three authors separately, in terms of the myocardium at the ultrastructural level. Subsequently, the interpretations/diagnoses were cross compared with the light microscopy and clinical data results. Results—Four cases of amyloid were identified; in addition, one case of granulomatous inflammation and one case of basophilic degeneration were seen, although all these had been evident on light microscopy. One case of possible mitochondrial myopathy was found. A total of 18 cases revealed changes of a presumed non-specific type including glycogen, lipid, and mitochondrial accumulations. Varying types of degeneration involving myofibres were seen together with variations in interstitial fibrosis and occasional cytoplasmic inclusions. Conclusion—Overall, although interesting, the electron microscopy of myocardial tissue added little to the understanding of the patient's disease, with only one case showing changes not found at light microscopy or with other investigations. Further study might shed light on the "non-specific" ultrastructural findings encountered. Key Words: electron microscopy • myocardial tissue • mitochondrial myopathy

Mudhar, H; Wagner, B; Suvarna, S

2001-01-01

292

Language Development: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Language Development: 2 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two-year- ... this. At this time, there’s more variation in language development than in any other area. While some preschoolers ...

293

Forty Years after Brown: The Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education. Proceedings of the National Conference on Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education (9th, Oswego, NY, April 9-11, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings identify, clarify, and address the problems of the post-Brown era from a variety of perspectives. The first two papers are: The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Banquet Keynote Speech (L. J. Bennett) and the Luncheon Session, "Integrating the Recruitment Preparation and Retention Strategies of Persons of Color in Teaching" (J. Vaughn).…

Middleton, E., Ed.; And Others

294

Secretin, 100 years later.  

PubMed

One hundred years have elapsed since the discovery of secretin by Bayliss and Starling in 1902. In the past century, the research of secretin has gone by many milestones including isolation, purification and structural determination, chemical synthesis, establishment of its hormonal status by radioimmunoassay and immunoneutralization, identification of the specific receptor, cloning of secretin and its receptor, and identification of a secretin-releasing peptide. It has become clear that secretin is a hormone-regulating pancreatic exocrine secretion of fluid and bicarbonate, gastric acid secretion, and gastric motility. The release and actions of secretin is regulated by hormone-hormonal and neurohormonal interactions. The vagus nerve, particularly its afferent pathway, plays an essential role in the physiological actions of secretin. Substantial information about the property of the secretin receptor has been accumulated, but a potent secretin receptor-specific antagonist remains to be formulated. The neural regulatory mechanisms of the release and action of secretin await further elucidation. The physiological role of secretin in intestinal secretions and motility and extragastrointestinal organs remains to be defined. The presence of secretin and its receptor in the central nervous system is well documented, but its function as a neuropeptide has been recognized gradually and requires extensive study in the future. PMID:14673718

Chey, William Y; Chang, Ta-Min

2003-01-01

295

Aminoglycosides--50 years on.  

PubMed Central

1. The aminoglycoside antibiotics are 50 years old. Their success and continuing use can be attributed to various factors including rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal effect, synergism with beta-lactam antibiotics, clinical effectiveness, a low rate of true resistance and low cost. 2. The aminoglycosides remain drugs of choice in many circumstances including septicaemia, other serious infections due to Gram negative bacilli, and bacterial endocarditis. 3. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity have been the main drawbacks clinically for the aminoglycosides. 4. There has been an evolution in dosing strategies largely aimed at reducing toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been used extensively to assist dosing, and target concentrations have been advocated, such as peak concentrations of between 6 and 10 mg l-1 and through concentrations of < 2 mg l-1 for gentamicin, tobramycin and netilmicin. 5. Recently there has been a minor revolution in the approach to aminoglycoside dosing, with a change to larger doses, given less frequently. In its most convenient form this is 'Once-daily aminoglycoside dosing'. It offers the hope of better efficacy, less toxicity, and easier administration and monitoring. 6. This article summarises the background of aminoglycoside usage, leading up to the recent changes in dosing strategy.

Begg, E J; Barclay, M L

1995-01-01

296

Projects of the year  

SciTech Connect

The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

Hansen, T.

2007-01-15

297

The International Heliophysical Year  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is now widely recognized that evolution in the solar system proceeds through a set of Universal Processes, i.e. reconnection, particle acceleration, plasma wave generation and propagation, etc. By studying these Universal Processes together, in diverse environments, and in a comparative way, new scientific insights will be gained. This is perhaps best understood by citing a few examples: (I) Shocks are observed in situ in the interplanetary medium, shocks are believed to play a role in the acceleration of particles in the solar corona, and standing bow shocks and termination shocks separate the major regions in the heliosphere. Shock formation, and particle acceleration are universal processes. (2) Aurorae are observed on Earth, Saturn, and Jupiter, and Jovian auroral "footprints" have been observed on 10, Ganymede and Europa. The formation of aurorae is observed to be the universal response of a magnetized body in the solar wind. The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) specifically highlights the cross-disciplinary study of universal physical processes in the solar system, observed in a variety of settings. The study of these processes will provide new insights that will lead to a better understanding of the universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and planetary environments, and pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

Davila, Joseph M.; Gopalswamy, Nat; Thompson, Barbara

2008-01-01

298

TFTR Twenty Year Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with core parameters almost identical to those expected in the core of ignited plasmas in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have served as a test bed to carry out the first detailed studies of D-T plasma physics, including the first observations of alpha-particle heating and alpha-driven instabilities. TFTR operated above the original engineering design requirements and with high availability in D-T until experimental operation was terminated due to U.S. fusion budget cutbacks. A most valuable lesson learned was that D-T operation of a large experimental device is feasible, as TFTR operation could have continued many more years while remaining within tritium and neutron activation limits. The flexibility and control of plasma parameters (e.g., plasma rotation) and the comprehensive diagnostic system enabled TFTR to make seminal contributions to tokamak plasma science, such as first confirmation of the bootstrap current in a tokamak, detailed turbulence studies leading to a new paradigm for transport understanding, first observations of neoclassical tearing modes, and detailed measurements and modeling of plasma disruptions. Recent advances in understanding the fundamental processes controlling plasma transport provide new opportunities for improving tokamak plasma performance. Implementation of recent knowledge could lead to D-T operating regimes with strong alpha heating with modest extensions of the TFTR operating regimes.

D.M. Meade

1998-04-01

299

URAT: year 3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The USNO Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) is now in the third year of observing. Survey observing began in April 2012 at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS). URAT has taken over 50,000 exposures of the northern sky with multiple overlaps, 28 sq. degrees with a single exposure at 0.9"/pixel resolution. Raw data processing, quality control, and scheduling are performed automatically. In normal survey mode URAT covers stars in the R = 10.5 to 18.0 magnitude range. Utilizing an objective grating and the clocked anti blooming feature of the 4 CCD chips results in a bright limit of 3rd magnitude. Exposures taken on the east and west side of the pier enable the calibration of potentially significant systematic errors.URAT mean positions are predicted to be on the 5 to 20 mas level depending on brightness and sky coverage. URAT will also provide proper motions and parallaxes for nearby stars, independent of any selection criteria. We are currently working on the reduction pipeline and a first astrometric catalog is expected to be released in 2014.

Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; DiVittorio, Mike; Ferguson, Eric; Harris, Hugh C.; Harris, Fred; Kilian, Chris; Rafferty, Ted; Rhodes, Albert; Schultheis, Michael; Subasavage, John; Tilleman, Trudy; Wieder, Gary

2014-05-01

300

Atopy, bronchial responsiveness, and symptoms in wheezy 3 year olds.  

PubMed Central

Fifty children with at least one hospital admission for acute lower airway obstruction in the first 2.5 years of life were assessed at 3 years of age to determine the relationship between atopy, bronchial responsiveness, and the pattern of their symptoms. Bronchial responsiveness was measured by assessing the effect of inhaled metacholine, using the change in transcutaneous oxygen tension (PtCO2) as an indirect measure of response. Symptom patterns were defined by the number of wheezing episodes associated with colds and the presence or absence of cough or wheeze unrelated to viral infections. Forty per cent of the children were found to be atopic by skin prick test or history. In contrast to the situation found in older children and adults, the non-atopic children had significantly greater bronchial responsiveness (lower mean concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in PtCO2, the PC20) than the atopic children and significantly more of them had an onset of respiratory symptoms in the first year of life. Cough and wheeze in the absence of colds was more frequently found in the atopic children as was the use of continuous medication. However, the number of reported acute episodes of wheeze associated with colds was the same in the two groups. The findings of the study suggest that in this hospital based group of children, acute wheeze associated with colds in the first three years of life is independent of the finding of atopy and that bronchial responsiveness in this age group may have a different pathogenesis from that in older subjects.

Wilson, N M; Phagoo, S B; Silverman, M

1992-01-01

301

A patent searcher's personal chronicle: 40 years in the evolution of a profession.  

PubMed

Forty years have passed since this chemist elected to attempt to become an information chemist, thus pursuing a career path he had not heard of during his undergraduate and graduate education. Much has changed during that period. Punched cards, microfilm and microfiche, coordinated term indexes, and more have come and gone. The US Patent and Trademark Office has issued more than 3 million patents, exceeding its total output in all the years that came before. Online database searching replaced prior reliance on printed indexes and classified card files, and now seeks to redefine itself to stand up against the juggernaut of the Internet. In the face of all that change the traditional abstracting and indexing function is still with us, though not without considerable reshaping. This paper surveys this landscape of change and suggests that if we are wise, we will nurture this intellectual activity far into the future. PMID:11911680

Kaback, Stuart M

2002-01-01

302

Neuroticism and Extraversion in Youth Predict Mental Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction 40 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later.

Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mottus, Rene; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J

2014-01-01

303

Ocular trauma caused by air-gun pellets: a ten year survey.  

PubMed

Forty-one consecutive cases of ocular injury related to air gun pellets occurring over a ten year period have been reviewed retrospectively. The male to female ratio was 7:1 and the average age was fifteen years. Hyphaema was the most common injury (78%) while the main cause of poor final visual outcome was retinal detachment. Thirty-eight percent of the involved eyes had a final corrected visual acuity of less than 6/60 including four eyes (10%) which were enucleated following severe perforating injuries. Neither sympathetic ophthalmitis nor lead poisoning was detected in this study. The fact that these injuries are largely of an accidental nature, predominantly involve young people and appear to be occurring more frequently suggests that present legislation does not offer adequate protection. The authors suggest that the best method of prevention is through a public education campaign aimed at children and their parents. PMID:2101120

Sharif, K W; McGhee, C N; Tomlinson, R C

1990-01-01

304

Four-year review of cigarette ingestions in children.  

PubMed

The objective of our study was to assess the demographics, incidence, types of symptoms, and outcomes of cigarette product ingestions in children. The study was a retrospective database review. Seven hundred children under six years of age ingesting cigarettes or cigarette butts reported to a Poison Control Center between 1988 and 1991. Among 143 patients (20.4%) with symptoms, vomiting was the only symptom in 138 (98.6%) and occurred in less than 20 minutes in 104 (74.3%). The five remaining patients (two with vomiting, three without) developed transient lethargy or irritability that completely resolved. Forty-four of 700 patients ingested potentially toxic amounts and were referred to the emergency department; three were lost to follow-up. Initially asymptomatic patients never developed symptoms. Symptomatic patients improved without sequelae. No patient developed seizures. We concluded that significant toxicity from the ingestion of cigarette products in children is rare. Vomiting within 20 minutes is the most common symptom. Its absence predicts a favorable outcome, even when large amounts are suspected to have been ingested. PMID:7739954

McGee, D; Brabson, T; McCarthy, J; Picciotti, M

1995-02-01

305

Curettage-cryosurgery for non-melanoma skin cancer of the external ear: excellent 5-year results.  

PubMed

In this 5-year follow-up study, 60 auricular non-melanoma skin cancers, selected at a skin tumour clinic, were treated by a thorough curettage with different sized curettes followed by cryosurgery in a double freeze-thaw cycle. Tumours of the external auditory canal were excluded. Forty-seven basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), nine squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), three Bowen's disease and one basisquamous cancer were included. The mean diameter of the malignancies was 18 mm (range 5-70). Morphoeiform BCCs, recurrent BCCs with fibrotic component and most of the SCCs were selected for Mohs' micrographic surgery. Forty-two patients with 47 tumours were followed-up for at least 5 years with only one recurrence. Thirteen patients, followed-up for 2-4 years, died from other causes with no sign of recurrence at their last visit. No major problems after treatment were registered and the cosmetic result was good or acceptable in all patients. PMID:10233225

Nordin, P

1999-02-01

306

20-Year CCOP Research Bases  

Cancer.gov

Community Clinical Oncology Program Celebrates 20 Years of Research 20-Year CCOP Research Bases Research Bases develop and implement the cancer prevention and control clinical trials of the CCOP program. The following Research Bases have been a continuous

307

100 Years of Mathematics Teacher  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Mathematics Teacher" (MT) is celebrating 100 years of publication. Help commemorate this centennial with this special issue of MT, filled with information on the journal's history, with notable articles and fresh perspectives on mathematics education from the past 100 years.

National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2007

2007-01-01

308

Appalachia: Twenty Years of Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Special issue traces 20-year history and mission of Appalachian Regional Commission. Outlines changes in highways, transportation, education, health, child development, community building, housing, enterprise development, energy, natural resources, environment, leadership, economy, and development diversity. Presents 15-year economic outlook,…

Appalachia, 1985

1985-01-01

309

Assessment and 2-Year Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a national study of the current availability and use of commercially and institutionally developed educational assessment instruments. Indicates that two-year institutions reported less activity than four-year institutions in assessing the major fields of study but that 77% of all two-year institutions assessed basic skills. (MAB)

Bradley, Jama L.; And Others

1994-01-01

310

Good survival of uncemented tapered stems for failed intertrochanteric osteotomy: a mean 16 year follow-up study in 45 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Inferior survival of cemented total hip arthroplasty has been reported after previous femoral osteotomy. We previously presented\\u000a 5–15 years results of uncemented femoral stems for this subgroup of patients. The purpose of the present study was to re-evaluate\\u000a that same patient group at 10–20 years follow-up.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Forty-eight hips in 45 patients had undergone conversion THA for a failed intertrochanteric osteotomy

Dominik Parsch; Alexander W. Jung; Marc Thomsen; Volker Ewerbeck; Peter R. Aldinger

2008-01-01

311

Cemented revision total hip arthroplasties in patients younger than 55 years old. A multicenter evaluation of second-generation cementing technique.  

PubMed

The results of all cemented first-time revisions in Sweden performed in patients younger than 55 years of age, during the period 1984-1986, are reported. The revisions were performed by the average orthopaedic surgeon in 25 hospitals distributed throughout Sweden. Second-generation femoral cementing technique was used. One third of the acetabular revisions were performed with pressurized cement. The reason for revision was aseptic loosening. Seventy hips in 68 patients were reviewed at an average follow-up period of 7 years (range, 4-10 years). The average age of the patients at the time of revision surgery was 47 years. Forty-eight cups and 57 stems were revised using cement. Survival analysis, with revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint, suggests an overall 76% survival rate after 8 years. The survival rate for the cup was 80%, and for the stem, 85%. The radiographic evaluation revealed that the cement mantle was inadequate in many revisions. Localized osteolysis was rare. Clinical data were reported for 55 (53 patients) non-revised hips. Thirty-five hips were without pain or slightly painful. Forty patients limped when walking. Forty-three patients were satisfied with the revised hip. These results using second-generation femoral cementing technique are better than those reported with first-generation technique, but the failure rate in this young patient population is too high. The search for a more durable fixation in revision total hip athroplasty for young patients with long life expectancy is ongoing. These results emphasize that there is a need for centralization to gain experience in extended clinical research and to further improve surgical and cementing techniques. PMID:8872565

Strömberg, C N; Herberts, P

1996-08-01

312

One-year functional outcomes of naturalistically treated patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Against the background of the growing evidence that the patient's functioning significantly influences the course and outcome of schizophrenia, the aims of this analysis were to examine what proportion of patients achieve functional outcome criteria after 1 year, and to identify clinical and sociodemographic predictive factors for functional remission. Patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia who were treated as inpatients at the beginning of the study were examined within a naturalistic follow-up trial. The present study reports on the time frame from admission to discharge of an inpatient treatment period and the 1-year follow-up assessment. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS) were evaluated with respect to functional outcome, whereas Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores were rated as psychopathological outcome measures. Functional remission thresholds were defined according to a GAF score of ?61 points and a SOFAS score ?61 points. Symptomatic remission criteria were applied according to the remission criteria of the Schizophrenia Working Group. The Strauss-Carpenter Prognostic Scale (SCPS), the Phillips Premorbid Adjustment Scale, medical history, sociodemographic and psychopathologic parameters were evaluated in order to find valuable predictors for functional remission. One year after discharge from inpatient treatment, 211 out of 474 patients were available for analysis according to both rating scales used to assess functional remission (GAF and SOFAS). Forty-seven percent of patients fulfilled criteria for functional remission (GAF and SOFAS) at discharge and 51% of patients at the 1-year follow-up visit. With regard to symptomatic remission criteria, the corresponding remitter rates were 61% of patients at discharge and 54% at the 1-year follow-up visit. Forty-two percent of patients fulfilled both remission criteria at discharge and 37% at the 1-year follow-up visit. A significant association was found between functional and symptomatic remission at discharge and at the 1-year follow-up visit. The strongest predictors for functional remission at the 1-year follow-up visit were: a higher SCPS total score at admission, a lower number of previous hospitalizations, a status of employment, lower scores in all PANSS subscales at discharge, a better premorbid social adjustment, the occurrence of a first psychotic episode, a younger age, a lower PANSS negative subscore at admission, a status of being an early responder, a shorter duration of inpatient treatment, a later age of onset, and female gender. PMID:22421065

Spellmann, Ilja; Riedel, Michael; Schennach, Rebecca; Seemüller, Felix; Obermeier, Michael; Musil, Richard; Jäger, Markus; Schmauß, Max; Laux, Gerd; Pfeiffer, Herbert; Naber, Dieter; Schmidt, Lutz G; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Klosterkötter, Joachim; Heuser, Isabella; Maier, Wolfgang; Lemke, Matthias R; Rüther, Eckart; Klingberg, Stefan; Gastpar, Markus; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

2012-08-15

313

Nine years' experience with end-to-end arteriovenous fistula at the 'anatomical snuffbox' for maintenance haemodialysis.  

PubMed

One hundred and seventy-seven end-to-end arteriovenous fistulas were created at the 'anatomical snuffbox' between 1 January 1972 and 31 December 1980. The survival rate of the fistulas was 83.1 per cent at 1 year and 46.3 per cent at 6.5 years; 10.2 per cent failed immediately. Local and general complications were virtually absent. Forty fistulas stopped functioning after a period varying from 10 days to 6.5 years following the operation. The main cause of late failure (50 per cent) was aneurysm formation due to repeated needle venepuncture at the same site and subsequent obliteration of the upper venous segment. The end-to-end anastomosis seems to be preferable to other techniques because of the absence of local vascular complications and a lower risk of cardiac embarassment. The 'anatomical snuffbox' site is convenient and spares the proximal vessels for reoperation if necessary. PMID:7104641

Bonalumi, U; Civalleri, D; Rovida, S; Adami, G F; Gianetta, E; Griffanti-Bartoli, F

1982-08-01

314

All-terrain vehicle accidents at a level II trauma center in Indiana: an 8-year retrospective review.  

PubMed

This study profiles the all-terrain vehicle (ATV) accident victims who were admitted at a level II trauma center. We retrospectively reviewed the trauma registry data for 111 patients who were admitted to the Parkview Hospital Level II Trauma Center following ATV crashes between January 1996 and June 2003. Forty-four percent of the patients were < or =16 years of age, and the average age overall was 22.49 years. Most of the 111 victims were men, and only 18.9% of those injured were wearing helmets. Although they only make up 14% of the driver population, children <16 years of age account for almost 40% of all ATV-related injuries and >35% of all ATV-related deaths in the United States. Helmets can reduce the risk of head injury, but only 21 states have helmet laws. Safety legislation should be adopted and would likely save lives and prevent injuries. PMID:20099434

Vegeler, Reid C; Young, William F

2009-01-01

315

Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Muddy Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Muddy Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. Forty-three cross sections were surveyed and 14 cross sections were synthesized along a 6.7-mile reach of Muddy Creek. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface flood elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile shows the streambed elevation and the location of one bridge, one culvert, and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

Omang, R. J.

1994-01-01

316

Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long-term changes in symptoms and flow rate: results of a four-year, randomized trial comparing finasteride versus placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in addition to prostate volume, is associated with long-term changes in symptoms and urinary flow rate.Methods. Three thousand forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia enrolled in the PLESS trial were randomly assigned to finasteride 5 mg or placebo for 4 years. Symptoms and flow rate were assessed every 4 months, and data

Claus G. Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; Donald Bergner; Todd Gray; Marc Gittelman; Thomas Shown; Arnold Melman; R. Bruce Bracken; Ralph deVere White; Alice Taylor; Daniel Wang; Joanne Waldstreicher

1999-01-01

317

Non-invasive prognostic factors in chronic heart failure. One-year survival of 300 patients with a diagnosis of chronic heart failure due to ischemic heart disease or dilated cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prognosis and clinical findings related to prognosis were examined in 300 patients with congestive heart failure in a prospective study. The diagnosis was based on case history data (NYHA class II or III), depressed ejection fraction (?40%) and\\/or increased cardiothoracic ratio (?50%). Forty-eight (16%) patients died within 1 year after the entry examination. Non-invasive baseline parameters of survivors and

J. Spinar; J. Vítovec; J. Spac; M. Blaha; L. Spinarova; J. Toman

1996-01-01

318

Forty-Two-Month Impacts of Vermont's Welfare Restructuring Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Acknowledgments; Summary; The WRP program and evaluation; 42 Month impacts of WRP for Singe-parent families and Two-parent families with an incapacitated parent; Impacts of WRP for Two-parent families with an unemployed parent.

R. Hendra C. Michalopoulos

1999-01-01

319

Leg Ulcers and Hydroxyurea: Forty-one Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

plete recovery from the ulcerations occurred quickly after withdrawal of treatment in 33 (80%) of the cases. Conclusions: This longest-reported series of patients confirms the role of hydroxyurea therapy in the onset of leg ulcerations. Healing or improvement requires cessa- tion of treatment. Cutaneous atrophy and impaired wound healing may explain the relationship between hydroxyurea and leg ulcers. In addition,

Marie-Emmanuelle Sirieix; C. Debure; N. Baudot; L. Dubertret; M.-E. Roux; P. Morel; C. Frances; S. Loubeyres; C. Beylot; D. Lambert; P. Humbert; O. Gauthier; M. Dandurand; B. Guillot; L. Vaillant; G. Lorette; J.-M. Bonnetblanc; C. Lok; J.-P. Denoeux

1999-01-01

320

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Polar)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

321

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Vertical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

322

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Stereo)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this stereo view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. It is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

323

Mental Health and Teacher Education. Forty-Sixth Yearbook, 1967.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten papers constitute the major portion of this book: "The Classroom Teacher, Mental Health, and Learning," Robert E. Bills; "The Development of Selected Aspects of the Mental Health Movement in Teacher Education," Ralph H. Ojemann; "What Psychology Has To Offer to Teacher Education," Carl R. Rogers; "Conceptual Framework for Teacher Education,"…

Association for Student Teaching, Washington, DC.

324

Multivariate statistical analyses of groundwater surrounding Forty mile wash  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater chemistry data from 211 sampling locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed using multivariate statistical methods in order to better understand groundwater chemical evolution, ascertain potential flow paths and determine hydrochemical facies. Correspondence analysis of the major ion chemistry is used to define relationships between and among major ions and sampling locations. A k-means cluster analysis is used to determine hydrochemical facies based on correspondence analysis dimensions. The derived dimensions and hydrochemical facies are presented as bi-plots and overlaid on a digital elevation model of the region giving a visual picture of potential interactions and flow paths. A distinct signature of the groundwater chemistry along the extended flow path of Fortymile Wash can be observed along with some potential interaction at possible fault lines near Highway I-95. The signature from Fortymile Wash is believed to represent the relict of water that infiltrated during past pluvial periods when the amount of runoff in the wash was significantly larger than during the current drier period. This hypothesis appears to be supported by hydrogen-2 and oxygen-18 data which indicate that younger groundwater is found in the upper part of the wash near Yucca Mountain and older groundwater is found in the lower region of the wash near Amargosa River. The range of the hydrogen-2 data corresponds to precipitation in a period of relatively cold climate and has a similar spatial signature to the oxygen-18 data. If the hypothesis that current groundwater chemistry primarily reflects past focused infiltration of surface runoff rather than regional groundwater migration is correct, then saturated zone transport from Yucca Mountain may be much slower than is currently anticipated. (authors)

Woocay, A.; Walton, J.C. [El Paso Univ. of Texas, Environmental Science and Engineering, TX (United States)

2007-07-01

325

From the Tropics to the Poles in Forty Days  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments show that the poleward velocity of high-altitude weather balloons may, on rare occasions, be much higher than the observed poleward winds, while their eastward velocity is much slower than the observed eastward winds. Considering a simple physical model of horizontal particle's motion in the atmosphere, which includes a realistic model of the pressure field, it is shown that

Vered Rom-Kedar; Nathan Paldor

1997-01-01

326

Forty Rural Schools: A Study of School Effectiveness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of Middle Tennessee Rural (MTR) schools with the national sample of schools included in Kappa Delta Pi's Good Schools Project (GSP) focused on the areas of curriculum perspectives, goal attainment, classroom practices, interpersonal relations, commitment, discipline and safety, support services and facilities, and decision making. The…

Talbert, Elmer Gene; And Others

327

Women's tidal power plant Forty candles for Kislaya Guba TPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal energy has been used for centuries. Tidal current and rise and fall of tides were both put to work. They provided power for flour mills, saw mills, breweries, etc. Tide mills dotted several regions of Europe from The Netherlands to Spain and from Wales to England. Immigrants brought the technique to the “New World” to the United States and

Marie-Claire Chaineux; Roger H. Charlier

2008-01-01

328

Sibling Incest: Reports from Forty-One Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted with a convenience sample of 41 adult survivors of sibling incest using a retrospective survey design. Participants were interviewed about their childhood sexual experiences with a sibling. Most participants reported vaginal or oral intercourse and coercive experiences. Half of the sample reported sexual…

Carlson, Bonnie E.; Maciol, Katherine; Schneider, Joanne

2006-01-01

329

Short porous implants in the posterior maxilla: a 3-year report of a prospective study.  

PubMed

The aim of this ongoing prospective study was to determine the 36-month survival rate of short porous implants in the posterior maxilla with 2 to 7 mm of initial bone height in 48 patients. Forty-eight implants were placed; 35 were in sites with a bone height of 5 mm or less and 13 patients required sinus elevation with osteotomes in addition to a xenograft. All implants were loaded with single crowns. At the end of the follow-up period the survival rate was 97.92%. The use of short porous implants showed good predictability in the treatment of the posterior maxilla in this interim 3-year report. PMID:19244879

Corrente, Giuseppe; Abundo, Roberto; des Ambrois, Alessandro Bermond; Savio, Luca; Perelli, Michele

2009-02-01

330

Alley Oop: 75 Years of the Comic World of V.T. Hamlin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1932 by cartoonist V.T. Hamlin, the comic strip Alley Oop chronicled the adventures of a prehistoric man as he made his way through daily life in the kingdom of Moo. Oop's various trials and tribulations also offered trenchant commentaries on suburban life in the United States, and Hamlin drew the strip himself for forty years. This online exhibition, created by the University of Missouri Libraries Special Collections, draws interested parties into the world of Alley Oop through a series of thoughtful essays and examples of Hamlin's work. The sections of the exhibit include "V.T. Hamlin", "Alley Oop and Popular Culture", and "After Alley Oop". Visitors should definitely check out the "Alley Oop and Popular Culture" area as it contains shots of the Alley Oop figurine, information on the short-lived Alley Oop musical, and the Alley Oop commemorative stamp.

331

[Endoscopic removal of a toothbrush from a 13-year-old girl's stomach].  

PubMed

A case of a 13-year-old girl is reported. She swallowed her toothbrush accidentally, the surgeon suggested the endoscopic examination. The teen-age, well-developed girl did not have complaints, there were five hours between the accident, and the starting of the examination. After the pharynx anaesthetization by Lidocaine spray, the endoscopy was performed by a video endoscope of GIF-130 type. The brush was found in the stomach, but its handle went through the pylorus. Injury was not found on the esophagus and stomach mucosa. The patient and her mother were fully informed, and for their request, the removal of the toothbrush was attempted by using grasping forceps and polypectomy snare. It lasted nearly forty minutes and was ensured by the intensive care. The procedure was successful, the patient who tolerated it well, left the hospital after observation, without complaints. PMID:12198924

Mokánszki, István; Adorján, Tibor

2002-07-21

332

Trends in joint arthroplasty litigation over five years: the British experience  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Increasing numbers of joint arthroplasty are performed in Britain. While associated complications are well documented, it is not known which of those initiate malpractice claims. METHOD A five-year period was assessed for trends to highlight areas for further improvement in patient information and surgical management. RESULTS The National Health Service paid out almost £14 million for 598 claims. Forty per cent of this was for legal costs. The number of claims increased over time while the rate of successful claims decreased. CONCLUSIONS A failure to consent adequately and to adhere to policies and standard practice can result in a successful malpractice claim. Protecting patients intrao-peratively and maintaining high technical expertise while implementing policies and obtaining informed consent decreases the litigation burden.

Bhutta, MA; Arshad, MS; Hassan, S; Henderson, JJ

2011-01-01

333

Ground-penetrating radar investigations conducted in the 100 areas, Hanford Site: Fiscal Year 1992  

SciTech Connect

During Fiscal Year 1992, the Geophysics Group conducted forty- five Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys in the 100 Areas (Figure 1) - Objectives for the investigations varied, from locating cribs, trenches and septic systems to helping site boreholes. The results of each investigation were delivered to clients in the form of a map that summarized the interpretation of a given site. No formal reports were prepared. The purpose of this document is to show where and why each of the surveys was conducted. The data and interpretation of each survey are available by contacting the Westinghouse Hanford Company, Geophysics Group. A map showing the location and basic parameters of each survey can be found in the Appendices of this report.

Bergstrom, K.A.

1994-10-01

334

Ten Years in the Limelight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Now in its 10th year, the National Superintendent of the Year Award recognizes outstanding executive leadership, based on candidates' prowess at meeting students' needs, communication skills, administrative knowledge, and community involvement. The nine previous winners are still working in education, regard the award as a career highlight, and…

Pardini, Priscilla

1997-01-01

335

PROJECT ABLE, THE FIRST YEAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

SIXTEEN PROGRAMS CONDUCTED IN THE FIRST YEAR OF A 5 YEAR PROJECT INCLUDED CITY, VILLAGE, SUBURBAN, AND RURAL SCHOOLS FROM THE ELEMENTARY THROUGH SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL LEVEL. THE STUDENTS IN DEMONSTRATION PROJECTS--WERE FROM DETERIORATING SLUM AREAS OF LARGE CITIES, WERE CHILDREN OF FAMILIES OF RECENT IN-MIGRANTS FROM THE SOUTH OR PUERTO RICO, WERE…

KAPLAN, BERNARD A.

336

Outlook: The Next Twenty Years  

SciTech Connect

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-12-07

337

LYMMO BRT: 15 Years Later.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is a follow-up of the initial evaluation of LYMMO conducted in 2003. Average daily ridership on LYMMO has fallen three years in a row since 2010, and 2012 ridership was lower than the opening year ridership. The drop in ridership is partially ...

S. Randolph

2013-01-01

338

Lasers: The Next Fifty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year marks the 50th anniversary of the laser — the first coherent radiation source in the optical domain. This anniversary of this historic development is being celebrated this year through “Laserfest” in which the Optical Society is a major partner. The laser enabled a straightforward extension of the scientific methods and technologies pioneered at microwave wavelengths, in the preceding

Franz Kärtner; Markus Pollnau; Ken-Ichi Ueda; Henry van Driel

2010-01-01

339

Canada Year Book Historical Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learning about Canada's past just became a bit easier with the Canada Year Book Historical Collection website. The site provides access to one hundred years worth of the annual "Canada Year Book". These books cover the years 1867 to 1967, and visitors will get the opportunity to learn about social and economic history from across the provinces. Visitors can browse by year or topic, and looking over the topics, which include "Occupations" and Economic Gains" is a good way to start. Additionally, visitors can also browse tables, charts, and maps as they see fit. Educators will want to look through the "Tools and Reference" area, as it contains lesson plans and a set of links to related sites.

340

[Ten fractures in 21 years].  

PubMed

A 78 year old woman had suffered ten spontaneous bone fractures, the first occurring when she was 57 years old. She is now wheel-chair bound. After 21 years, the underlying osteomalacia due to oligosymptomatic celiac disease with malabsorption was diagnosed. The treatment consists of a gluten free diet and substitution of calcium and vitamin D until there is a normalisation of calcium, vitamin D and alkaline phosphatase. Any spontaneous fracture deserves a careful search for metabolic bone disease. An elevation of alkaline phosphatase indicates osteomalacia rather than osteoporosis. PMID:15925967

Fritzsch, J; Hennicke, G; Tannapfel, A

2005-11-01

341

World Year of Physics 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1905 a 26-year-old patent clerk named Albert Einstein published four exceedingly strange research papers-and gave us a whole new way to think about light, matter, energy, space and time. Indeed, his ideas about atoms, quanta and relativity laid the foundations for most of modern physics, not to mention microchips, lasers and a host of modern technologies. In 2005 the National Science Foundation celebrated the centennial of that miraculous year, an event known across the globe as the World Year of Physics. Explore what Einstein actually did in 1905-and all that has come of it since...

342

Vagus nerve stimulation and magnet use: Optimizing benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 10years ago, the vagus nerve stimulator became the first device approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in persons with epilepsy. The vagus nerve stimulator has subsequently served to spearhead the concept of neurostimulation for seizures. Chronic intermittent electrical stimulation of the left vagus nerve is the foundation for vagus nerve stimulation, yet little is known

William O. Tatum IV; Sandra L. Helmers

2009-01-01

343

NHRC Report, Calendar Year 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following report documents scientific activities for Calendar Year 1978. Naval Health Research Center (NHRC), which is one of eight Navy medical research laboratories, is under the Naval Medical Research and Development Command, Bethesda, Maryland. Th...

1978-01-01

344

DECADE Organizes Years of Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new computer program, DECADE, enabled the administration of Wabash College to experiment with rates for tuition, admission, faculty appointments, and to gauge their effects on a simulation model of the college over a 10-year period. (Author/PG)

Warden, James A.

1974-01-01

345

Katrina Retrospective: 5 Years Later  

NASA Video Gallery

Five years after Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast, NASA revisits the storm with a short video that shows Katrina as captured by satellites. Before and during the hurricane's landfall, NASA p...

346

Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

347

25 Years of Landsat 5  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

348

Accountability report - fiscal year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

NONE

1998-04-01

349

Sixty years of genome biology  

PubMed Central

Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery.

2013-01-01

350

Comprehensive Plan. Fiscal Year 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Substantive provisions (Goals and objectives; Existing law enforcement systems and available resources; Needs, problems and priorities; Multi-year plan; Annual action program); Administrative provisions (Agency organization; Agency operations an...

1970-01-01

351

Health information science at the University of Victoria: the first ten years.  

PubMed

The University of Victoria has the only program in Canada offering a Bachelor of Science degree in Health Information Science. To meet the requirements of the degree, students must complete 40 courses and 4 CO-OP work terms over 4.3 years. The School admits 30 students each September of which 60% are normally female. Seventy-five percent of the students come from British Columbia, ranging in age from 18 to 42 with the average age being 26 years. In addition to recent high school graduates, over 40% have previous degrees or diplomas, and 65% have over 5 years of work experience. The School's teaching team consists of 5 full-time faculty, 3 professional staff and 4 part-time faculty. The majority of the faculty have health backgrounds, totalling 135 person-years of practising health care experience. As of November 1992, the School had 113 graduates; 75% are employed in British Columbia, 18% are in other parts of Canada and 7% outside the country. Forty-five percent of the graduates work in government departments including community health agencies; 29% work in hospitals; 26% work in management consulting firms, software houses, or computer hardware firms. They work as systems/project analysts, systems consultants, research assistants, planning analysts, system-support staff, trainers/developers and client account representatives. Some are already in senior management positions. PMID:8072413

Protti, D J

1994-06-01

352

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2001  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the HSN, there were 477 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2001 on the data acquisition system. Of these triggers, 176 were earthquakes. Forty-five earthquakes were located in the HSN area; 1 earthquake occurred in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 43 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 1 was earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 44 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was on a major structure, and no earthquakes were classified as random occurrences. The Horse Heaven Hills earthquake swarm area recorded all but one event during the first quarter of FY 2001. The peak of the activity occurred over December 12th, 13th, and 14th when 35 events occurred. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the first quarter of FY 2001.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Valenta, Michelle M.

2001-02-27

353

[Benign thyroid disease: 20-year experience in surgical therapy].  

PubMed

This retrospective study compares recurrence and postoperative complication rates after isthmo-lobectomy and subtotal thyroidectomy (group I) vs near-total and total thyroidectomy (group II) for benign thyroid disease. Seven hundred and forty-three patients were operated on for thyroid diseases over the period from 1977 to 1998. We considered 202 patients operated on for benign thyroid disease from 1988 to 1998. The follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years (mean: 3.4 yrs). One hundred and thirty-two patients (65.3%) were operated on for bilateral nodular goitre, 35 (17.3%) for unilateral nodular goitre, 14 (6.9%) for toxic goitre and 21 (10.4%) for thyroiditis. Over the period 1988-1992, 19 patients underwent isthmo-lobectomy and 71 subtotal thyroidectomy (group I). From 1993 to 1998, 39 patients underwent near-total thyroidectomy and 61 total thyroidectomy (group II). The relapse rate was 14.4% in group I, while there were no recurrences in group II (p = 0.000064). Temporary hypocalcaemia was significantly higher (p = 0.000001) in group II (29%) than in group I (2.2%). Within group II, the rate was significantly higher (p = 0.0013) after total thyroidectomy (37.7%) than after near-total thyroidectomy (15.4%). In our experience, near-total and total thyroidectomy are an appropriate approach for preventing recurrence in patients with benign thyroid disease despite the fact that the risk of temporary hypocalcaemia is higher than after less radical surgery. Near-total thyroidectomy and the exercise of all due care in the surgical technique may help to reduce its incidence. PMID:10832525

Zaraca, F; Di Paola, M; Gossetti, F; Proposito, D; Filippoussis, P; Montemurro, L; Mancini, B; Gallina, S; Talarico, E; Talarico, C; Lazzaro, M; Mulieri, G; Flati, D; Flati, G; Carboni, M

2000-01-01

354

Stability of narcissistic personality disorder: Tracking categorical and dimensional rating systems over a two-year period.  

PubMed

Personality disorders are characterized as temporally stable patterns of symptoms (APA, 2000). However, evidence on the stability of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is generally lacking. This study tracked the prevalence and remission rates of individual criteria for NPD over the course of 2 years. In addition, the stability of dimensional personality pathology in patients with NPD (assessed with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, DAPP-BQ) was assessed over time. A sample of 96 patients with a diagnosis of NPD was recruited at baseline. Forty patients participated in the follow-up assessment 2 years later. Our results indicate a moderate remission rate (53%) for NPD as a categorical diagnosis. However, single NPD criteria differed in their prevalence and temporal stability, similar to findings for other personality disorders. Moreover, scores on dimensional subscales of the DAPP-BQ remained stable over time. Theoretical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24512458

Vater, Aline; Ritter, Kathrin; Strunz, Sandra; Ronningstam, Elsa F; Renneberg, Babette; Roepke, Stefan

2014-07-01

355

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior.

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

356

A 13-year clinical evaluation of two three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in non-carious class-V lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 13-year randomized clinical trial compared the clinical effectiveness of two three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in combination\\u000a with a hybrid, stiffer composite versus a micro-filled, more flexible composite. The influence of composite stiffness on the\\u000a clinical performance of one of the adhesives was assessed as well. One hundred and forty-two non-carious cervical lesions\\u000a were restored with composites with contrasting stiffness. Seventy-one

Marleen Peumans; Jan De Munck; Kirsten L. Van Landuyt; Andre Poitevin; Paul Lambrechts; Bart Van Meerbeek

357

1992 five year battery forecast  

SciTech Connect

Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

Amistadi, D.

1992-12-01

358

Ten Thousand Years of Solitude  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

1991-03-01

359

The Year of the Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher in…

Hinshaw, Craig

2010-01-01

360

Thirty years of psychosexual nursing  

Microsoft Academic Search

December 2005 marks thirty years since the end of the first experimental psychosexual seminar training scheme provided specifically for nurses in the United Kingdom. This pilot study, which ran from January 1974 until December 1975, was funded by the Department of Health and Social Security and run under the auspices of the Family Planning Association. It provided psychosexual training for

2006-01-01

361

International Literacy Year (ILY), 1990.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information is presented in recognition of the United Nations General Assembly proclamation of 1990 as International Literacy Year (ILY). It is shown that, in 1985, there were an estimated 889 million adult illiterates in the world (more than 25% of the adult population), and more than 100 million children of primary school age in developing…

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

362

Enhance ONE Year of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substitute teachers are responsible for over 1 full year of every child's education, but research shows that only 10 percent of school districts provide more than 2 hours of substitute teacher training, and 53 percent of school districts provide no training. There is a tremendous need to implement effective training programs that will ultimately…

Longhurst, Max L.; Smith, Geoffrey G.; Sorenson, Blaine L.

363

Extramural Activities, Fiscal Year 1969.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Adult Development and Aging Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development supports research and training relevant to the biological and behavioral changes that occur in humans with increasing age from the adult years through maturity and old age. Supported are research projects, training projects, special and…

National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

364

Integral:. 4 Years in Orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After 4 years of operation, ESA's INTEGRAL mission has produced a remarkable portfolio of results, ranging from the inventory of the high energy sources, to the discovery of dozens of variable sources to the mapping of the Al and annihilation line in the Galaxy. A brief review of the most dramatic achievements of the mission is presented.

Ubertini, Pietro; Caraveo, Patrizia

2007-10-01

365

The Year of Leo Lionni.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the picture books of Leo Lionni and describes how Vivian Gussin Paley, a Chicago elementary school teacher, used his books for an entire year's curriculum in her kindergarten class. Highlights include children's engagement with literature, and other learning activities based on the books. (LRW)

McQuade, Molly

1998-01-01

366

60 Years of Bristol Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Some of the most significant engineering achievements and historical events that have shaped the Bristol engine factory as it is known today are discussed. A tribute is paid to the late Sir Roy Fedden. Additionally, developments over the last 60 years are...

G. M. Lewis

1990-01-01

367

Fuel ethanol after 25 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for

Alan E Wheals; Luiz C Basso; Denise M. G Alves; Henrique V Amorim

1999-01-01

368

2012: A Year in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When historians review 2012 for its noteworthy moments, events and milestones, they will find the year was a trying one for the American higher education system, despite its being able to educate and enlighten thousands in search of more choices and preparation for adult self-sufficiency. Many academicians and students worked for and celebrated…

Stuart, Reginald

2012-01-01

369

1974 is World Population Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a special issue of the Asian Population Programme News. This particular publication is concerned with population year 1974. Highlights from the thirtieth session of the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) are presented. World, regional, and country population news are included in separate sections. A listing…

Asian Population Programme News, 1974

1974-01-01

370

Attempted Suicides--35 Years Afterward  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most follow-up studies of suicides are made after a relatively short period of time. The present study involved 229 attempted suicides hospitalized during the years 1933-1942. The incidence of suicide long after the original attempt, at least in the case of the women, statistically exceeds the expected incidence. (Author)

Dahlgren, K. G.

1977-01-01

371

Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1983.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As mandated by Congress, this annual report from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) describes its activities in the past fiscal year (FY). Secretary of Education, T. H. Bell, summarizes ED accomplishments in FY 1983 in such areas as excellence in education, citing the findings and impact of the report "A Nation at Risk"; the implementation of…

Department of Education, Washington, DC.

372

The Year of Secret Assignments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The path to "novelist" was a convoluted one for Moriarty, who began writing fiction as doctoral student at Cambridge University. Her interest in young adults stems from an appreciation for the "troubles, strengths, and surprises of that age group." Now, in a uniquely formatted book titled "The Year of Secret Assignments," we peek inside the mind…

Moriarty, Jaclyn

2004-01-01

373

Digital holography: 30 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital holography is analysis, synthesis and simulation of wave fields by means of digital computers and processors. Since first publications in digital holography, more than 30 years have passed. From then on, the ideas of digital holography formulated at that time has found quite a number of applications and implementations; but not all of them. Some old dreams such as

Leonid P. Yaroslavsky

2002-01-01

374

Aqua 10 Years After Launch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 ...

C. L. Parkinson

2013-01-01

375

25 Years Down the Line  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this final of three Special 25th Anniversary Reports, the authors attempt to paint a picture of what the future of education should, could, or might be. They asked readers, industry experts, authors, tech gurus and scientists, "What will "school" look like in the year 2030?" This compendium reflects their varied predictions, hopes, cautions,…

McLester, Susan

2005-01-01

376

2007: A Year In Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most high-profile story of the year touching the higher education community was undisputedly the killings at Virginia Tech in April when student Seung-Hui Cho opened fire, leaving 33 people dead, including himself. To date, it is the deadliest campus shooting in U.S. history. However, in September, the Delaware State University (DSU) community…

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

377

"Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost 20 years ago, the author wrote--and then privately published--the two "Lake Woebegone" reports, named after Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota town where "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." The first "Lake Woebegone" report documented that all 50 states were testing above the…

Cannell, John Jacob

2006-01-01

378

Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

2002-05-01

379

Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

2002-05-30

380

Modelfest: year one results and plans for future years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A robust model of the human visual system (HVS) would have a major practical impact on the difficult technological problems of transmitting and storing digital images. Although most HVS models exhibit similarities, they may have significant differences in predicting performance. Different HVS models are rarely compared using the same set of psychophysical measurements, so their relative efficacy is unclear. The Modelfest organization was formed to solve this problem and accelerate the development of robust new models of human vision. Members of Modelfest have gathered psychophysical threshold data on the year one stimuli described at last year's SPIE meeting. Modelfest is an exciting new approach to modeling involving the sharing of resources, learning from each other's modeling successes and providing a method to cross-validate proposed HVS models. The purpose of this presentation is to invite the Electronic Imaging community to participate in this effort and inform them of the developing database, which is available to all researchers interested in modeling human vision. In future years, the database will be extended to other domains such as visual masking, and temporal processing. This Modelfest progress report summarizes the stimulus definitions and data collection methods used, but focuses on the results of the phase one data collection effort. Each of the authors has provided at least one dataset from their respective laboratories. These data and data collected subsequent to the submission of this paper are posted on the WWW for further analysis and future modeling efforts.

Carney, Thom; Tyler, Christopher W.; Watson, Andrew B.; Makous, Walter; Beutter, Brent; Chen, Chien-Chung; Norcia, Anthony M.; Klein, Stanley A.

2000-06-01

381

Photorefractive Keratectomy for the Treatment of Purely Refractive Accommodative Esotropia: Six Year Experience  

PubMed Central

Background/aims To report the long term outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for the treatment of hyperopia associated with purely refractive accommodative esotropia. Methods Retrospective chart review of 40 patients age 17–39 who underwent PRK to eliminate their dependence on glasses. Pre and post-operative best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), refractive spherical equivalent (SEQ), ocular alignment, and stereoacuity were reviewed. Results Forty patients (80 eyes) with mean age 27.9 years were treated for a mean pre-operative SEQ of +3.06D hyperopia. The mean final post-operative SEQ was +0.06. Pre-operative BSCVA was 0.04 logMAR, and did not change post-operatively. Mean UCVA significantly improved from 0.30 logMAR preoperatively to 0.08 logMAR post-operatively. Mean pre-operative esotropia at distance and near was 18.6 PD. All patients were orthophoric without correction at the one month, one year, and final post-operative evaluations. Visual acuity, refractive error and alignment remained stable after the one year post-operative examination. Stereoacuity was unchanged in 80% of patients postoperatively. There were no complications. Conclusion PRK can be used to treat low to moderate hyperopia associated with purely refractive accommodative esotropia in young adults.

Hutchinson, Amy K.; Serafino, Massimiliano; Nucci, Paolo

2010-01-01

382

Preschoolers (3-5 Years Old)  

MedlinePLUS

... Information For... Media Policy Makers  National Center Homepage Preschoolers (3-5 years of age) Language: English ... years 4 years 5 and 6 years Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides ...

383

The International Year of Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics is a subject for all seasons and years, but 2013 is the International Year of Statistics, a designation supported by almost 1,850 organizations. The primary movers behind this noble activity include the American Statistical Association, the International Biometric Society, and the Royal Statistical Society. The goal of this initiative is to promote "the importance of statistics to the scientific community, business and government data users, the media," and a range of other users. On the website, visitors can make their way through four main sections, including What is Statistics?, Statistics as a Career, Teacher Resources, and Statistics 2013 Posters. The Teacher Resources area is a real pip, as it features teacher resources for over two dozen countries, along with statistics education videos from the United States and Mexico. The site also includes a Statistic of the Day, a quote of the week, and a most efficacious Statistical Word of the Week.

2013-01-01

384

Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achieved final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

Jenifer Nordstrom

2012-11-01

385

Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: Summary of each site Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location Actions and Resolutions for each site. Six disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. One has achieved final stabilization. The remaining five sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

Jenifer Nordstrom

2013-11-01

386

TOR: The First 10 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a TOR was discovered and christened 10 years ago. On the occasion of this anniversary, we revisit the discovery of TOR and chronicle\\u000a subsequent breakthroughs in S. cerevisiae that contributed to an understanding of TOR function in yeast and higher eukaryotes. In particular, we discuss findings that\\u000a led to the realization that the function of TOR is to control cell growth

A. Lorberg; M. N. Hall

387

Earth's Yearly Revolution Around Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts the Earth revolving around the sun. The animation shows the tilt of earth's axis and shows that the tilt of the axis points in the same direction throughout the yearly revolution. The animation can be viewed from an oblique view and from a top view, includes optional labels of the months, and can be started and stopped at any point in the revolution.

388

High-Dose-Rate Rotte 'Y' Applicator Brachytherapy for Definitive Treatment of Medically Inoperable Endometrial Cancer: 10-Year Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the intermediate clinical outcomes of medically inoperable patients with endometrial cancer treated with definitive Rotte 'Y' applicator high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) over a 10-year period. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine inoperable patients were treated with HDRB from 1997 to 2007. Forty three (84%) were markedly obese (body mass index >35 kg/m{sup 2}). Thirty-one patients (63.3%) underwent two-dimensional treatment planning, whereas 18 patients (36.7%) underwent three-dimensional treatment planning. Thirty five of the patients (71.4%) were first treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). For patients receiving EBRT in addition to HDRB, the median Y-applicator dose was 20 Gy in 5 fractions; for patients receiving HDRB alone it was 35 Gy in 5 fractions. All patients received two Y-applicator treatments per day. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 33 months. Acute HDRB toxicities were limited to Grade 1 and 2 occurring in 5 patients. One patient had a myocardial infarction. Four patients had late Grade 2 or 3 toxicity. Three patients had local recurrence (median time to recurrence, 16 months). The 3- and 5-year actuarial cause-specific survival rates were 93% and 87%, respectively; the overall survival rate was 83% and 42%, respectively, at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions: Twice-daily HDRB using a Y-applicator is a well-tolerated and efficacious regimen for the definitive treatment of medically inoperable patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. The recent incorporation of three-dimensional treatment planning has the potential to further decrease treatment morbidities.

Coon, Devin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)], E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu; Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Zorn, Kristin K.; Krivak, Thomas C. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2008-07-01

389

Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the first year of life reduces caries prevalence in the primary dentition at 9 years of age.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on oral health, at age 9 years, of daily oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri, strain ATCC 55730, to mothers during the last month of gestation and to children through the first year of life. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial involving 113 children: 60 in the probiotic and 53 in the placebo group. The subjects underwent clinical and radiographic examination of the primary dentition and carious lesions, plaque and gingivitis were recorded. Saliva and plaque were sampled for determination of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) in saliva and plaque as well as salivary secretory IgA (SIgA). Forty-nine (82%) children in the probiotic group and 31 (58%) in the placebo group were caries-free (p < 0.01). The prevalence of approximal caries lesions was lower in the probiotic group (0.67 ± 1.61 vs. 1.53 ± 2.64; p < 0.05) and there were fewer sites with gingivitis compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to frequency of toothbrushing, plaque and dietary habits, but to intake of fluoride supplements (p < 0.05). There were no intergroup differences with respect to L. reuteri, MS, LB or SIgA in saliva. Within the limitation of this study it seems that daily supplementation with L. reuteri from birth and during the first year of life is associated with reduced caries prevalence and gingivitis score in the primary dentition at 9 years of age. PMID:24296746

Stensson, M; Koch, G; Coric, S; Abrahamsson, T R; Jenmalm, M C; Birkhed, D; Wendt, L-K

2014-01-01

390

Twenty-Two-Year Experience with Aortic Valve Replacement  

PubMed Central

From 1965 through 1986, 817 patients underwent aortic valve replacement at our institution. Six hundred forty-five patients received Starr-Edwards ball valves, including 286 Silastic ball valves (Models 1200/1260), 165 cloth-covered caged-ball prostheses (Models 2300/2310/2320), and 194 track-valve prostheses (Model 2400). In contrast, 172 patients received disc-valve prostheses, including 126 St. Jude Medical aortic bi-leaflet disc valves, 32 Lillehei-Kaster pivoting disc valves, and 14 Björk-Shiley valves (6 convexoconcave and 8 monostrut). With respect to preoperative data, the 2 groups were comparable, with the following differences. The Starr-Edwards group included 1) more men (77% versus 51%; p < 0.0001); 2) a significantly older patient population (59 ± 10 years versus 56 ± 15 years; p < 0.0001); 3) more patients in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV (72% versus 65%; p < 0.01); 4) fewer patients with angina pectoris as a limiting symptom (20% versus 36%; p < 0.0001); and 5) patients who tended to receive larger prostheses (26 ± 2 mm versus 23 ± 3 mm, p < 0.0001). The overall 10-year survival rate ± standard error was 59% ± 2% for patients receiving Starr-Edwards valves and 63% ± 6% for those with disc valves. The linearized complication rates (expressed as percentage per patient-year ± standard error) for the Starr-Edwards and disc-valve groups, respectively, were 2.0% ± 0.2% and 1.4% ± 0.5% for thromboembolism, 2.1% ± 0.2% and 3.9% ± 0.8% for Coumadin-related hemorrhage, 0.5% ± 0.1% and 0.3% ± 0.2% for endocarditis, 0.3% ± 0.1% and 0.7% ± 0.3% for other prosthesis-related complications, and 4.8% ± 0.1% and 6.4% ± 1.0% for all complications together. There were no instances of thrombotic occlusion or mechanical failure. After the 6th postoperative year, no thromboembolic events were encountered in patients with a Silastic ball valve; the 15-year freedom from thromboembolic events was 89%. Cox regression analysis showed that 1) a prosthetic orifice diameter of 15 mm or less was associated with an increased mortality; 2) disc valves entailed an increased rate of hemorrhage and prosthesis-related complications considered as a whole; 3) and Lillehei-Kaster valves led to an increased rate of prosthesis-related complications other than thromboembolism, hemorrhage, and endocarditis. Neither the type of prosthesis nor the size influenced the rate of thromboembolism, endocarditis, or prosthesis replacement. Because of their proven durability and relatively low price, we advocate the continued use of Starr-Edwards Model 1260 Silastic ball valves that have an orifice diameter of 16 mm or more. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:24-33)

Pilegaard, Hans K.; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Torsten T.; Magnussen, Karin; Knudsen, Mary A.; Albrechtsen, Ole K.

1991-01-01

391

Thirty years of lithography simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty years ago Rick Dill and his team at IBM published the first account of lithography simulation - the accurate description of semiconductor optical lithography by mathematical equations. Since then, lithography simulation has grown dramatically in importance in four important areas: as a research tool, as a development tool, as a manufacturing tool, and as a learning tool. In this paper, the history of lithography simulations is traced from its roots to today"s indispensable tools for lithographic technology development. Along the way, an attempt will be made to define the true value of lithography simulation to the semiconductor industry.

Mack, Chris A.

2005-05-01

392

Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Michael Lewis

2009-10-01

393

Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

2010-11-01

394

Fuel ethanol after 25 years.  

PubMed

After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for fuel-ethanol production was to become more independent of oil imports; now, the emphasis is on its use as an oxygenated gasoline additive. There will only be sufficient, low-cost ethanol if lignocellulose feedstock is also used. PMID:10557161

Wheals, A E; Basso, L C; Alves, D M; Amorim, H V

1999-12-01

395

The Singapore years and subsequently.  

PubMed

Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad was a medical student at the King Edward VII College of Medicine from 1947 to 1953. He described his student days with fondness; he made many friends while he was at the College. He recounted his early days as a doctor before he entered politics in 1964. He became the fourth and longest serving Prime Minister of Malaysia for 22 years from 1981 to 2003. He concluded "The contribution of my Medical College days in Singapore to the racial harmony, peace and prosperity of Malaysia is tangible but unquantifiable." PMID:16010378

Mahathir, M

2005-07-01

396

DIFFRACTION DISSOCIATION - 50 YEARS LATER.  

SciTech Connect

The field of Diffraction Dissociation, which is the subject of this workshop, began 50 years ago with the analysis of deuteron stripping in low energy collisions with nuclei. We return to the subject in a modern context- deuteron dissociation in {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV d-Au collisions recorded during the 2003 RHIC run in the PHENIX experiment. At RHIC energy, d {yields} n+p proceeds predominantly (90%) through Electromagnetic Dissociation and the remaining fraction via the hadronic shadowing described by Glauber. Since the dissociation cross section has a small theoretical error we adopt this process to normalize other cross sections measured in RHIC.

WHITE, S.N.

2005-04-27

397

AFI's 100 Years 100 Laughs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On June 13, the American Film Institute (AFI) revealed its list of the 100 funniest movies as chosen by "leaders of the entertainment community" from a list of 500 nominated movies. At this site, users can view both the top 100 list and the 500 nominated films. Each listing links to a short description with principal cast, director, producer, and screenwriter. The list of the 500 nominated films may also be keyword searched by title, cast, director, producer, screenwriter, year, or description. Users can also make their own top ten list and submit it to the site.

398

High-density intracortical microelectrode arrays with multiple metallization layers for fine-resolution neuromonitoring and neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Intracortical microelectrodes play a prominent role in the operation of neural interfacing systems. They provide an interface for recording neural activities and modulating their behavior through electric stimulation. The performance of such systems is thus directly meliorated by advances in electrode technology. We present a new architecture for intracortical electrodes designed to increase the number of recording/stimulation channels for a given set of shank dimensions. The architecture was implemented on silicon using microfabrication process and fabricated 3-mm-long electrode shanks with six relatively large (110 ?m ×110 ?m) pads in each shank for electrographic signal recording to detect important precursors with potential clinical relevance and electrical stimulation to correct neural behavior with low-power dissipation in an implantable device. Moreover, an electrode mechanical design was developed to increase its stiffness and reduce shank deflection to improve spatial accuracy during an electrode implantation. Furthermore, the pads were post-processed using pulsated low current electroplating and reduced their impedances by ? 30 times compared to the traditionally fabricated pads. The paper also presents microfabrication process, electrodes characterization, comparison to the commercial equivalents, and in vitro and in vivo validations. PMID:24122564

Gabran, S R I; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Dian, Joshua; El-Hayek, Youssef; Perez Velazquez, J L; Genov, Roman; Carlen, Peter L; Salama, M M A; Mansour, Raafat R

2013-11-01

399

[HTLV research 30th year].  

PubMed

This year is 30th year since HTLV was first reported as a causative agent for ATL. From a series of extensive studies especially by Japanese researches, a variety of information is now available, such as characteristics of the virus, regulation of viral and/or cell gene expression by HTLV-encoded protein Tax and Rex, the pathway of activation machinery on cell growth, the mechanism of cell-to-cell transmission, and prevalence of HTLV carries. However, it remains unsolved how HIV-1 invades and enters into human, how HIV-1 replicates in vivo, how the tumor cells are selected during course of infection, and which cellular molecules contribute disease onset and progression. It was thought the mechanism of HTLV-related diseases, ATL and HAM, would be quickly revealed earlier time after HTLV discovery since the HTLV-related diseases show unique characteristics. Nevertheless, we do not have yet satisfied knowledge of the pathogenesis mechanism as well as the treatment. I describe the history and perspective. PMID:22916564

Koyanagi, Yoshio

2011-12-01

400

International Year of Rice 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The importance of rice as a basic foodstuff to over half of the world's populations can not be underestimated, and it was with this fact in mind that the International Rice Research Institute first developed the idea for the International Year of Rice in 1999. Working in tandem with the United Nations General Assembly, the Institute set up a number of partnerships, conferences, lectures, and research agendas to take place throughout the year 2004 and beyond. The site contains links to numerous important papers, such as the collection available here from the recent conference titled Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems, which was held in Rome. Beyond various scholarly and policy-oriented resources, visitors can learn about the rice photography contest, submit recipes to a forthcoming rice-themed cookbook, and explore a kids section that offers some basic facts about rice, along with a short quiz. The site is available in a number of different languages, including Italian, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Japanese.

401

1000 years of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years or so, assessing the role of the sun's variability on climate change over this time f ame has received much attention. A pressingr application of these assessments is the attempt to separate the role of the sun from that of various anthropogenic forcings in the past century and a half. This separation is complicated by the possible existence of natural variability other than solar, and by the fact that the time-dependence of solar and anthropogenic forcings is very similar over the past hundred years or so. It has been generally assumed that solar forcing is direct, i.e. changes in sun's irradiance. However, evidence has been put forth suggesting that there exist various additional indirect forcings that could be as large as or even exceed direct forcing (modulation of cosmic ray - induced cloudiness, UV- induced stratospheric ozone change s, or oscillator -driven changes in the Pacific Ocean). Were such forcings to be large, they could account for nearly all 20th Century warming, relegating anthropogenic effects to a minor role. Determination of climate change over the last thousand years offers perhaps the best way to assess the magnitude of total solar forcing, thus allowing its comparison with that of anthropogenic sources. Perhaps the best proxy records for climate variation in the past 1,000 yrs have been variations in temperat ure sensitive tree rings (Briffa and Osborne, 2002). A paucity of such records in the Southern Hemisphere has largely limited climate change determinations to the subtropical NH. Two problems with tree rings are that the rings respond to temperature differently with the age of the tree, and record largely the warm, growing season only. It appears that both these problems have been adequately solved although caution is warranted. A promising adjunct to tree rings is actual measurement of temperatures in boreholes. Inversion of such records gives low frequency temperatures that are potentially more accurate than any proxy- derived ones. All these records give a fairly consistent picture of at least one major warming and cooling extreme (Medieval Warming Period (MWP) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Many modeling efforts using direct solar forcing have been done. These typically employ proxy data (sunspot number and variations in Be-10 and C -14 calibrated by satellite observations) for changes in solar forcing, and give the same general picture-- that of a substantial warming 1,000 yrs ago (MWP) followed by cooling that was particularly marked in the late 17th and early 19th centuries (LIA). The resulting amplitude of temperature change between MWP and LIA agrees well with paleo-temperature reconstructions and suggests that solar forcing alone is inadequate to account for more than about half the 20th century warming (Lean et al 1995, Crowley and Lowry 2000). Since these quantitatively reproduce climate variations in the past 1000 years, the role of indirect solar forcing is inferred to be small but may be important (Lean and Rind 2001). Gerard Bond, Bernd Kromer, Juerg Beer, Raimund Muscheler, Michael N. Evans, William Showers, Sharon Hoffmann, Rusty Lotti-Bond, Irka Hajdas, and Georges Bonani, (2001) Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene,Science 294: 2130-2136 Briffa and Osborne, (2002) Blowing Hot and Cold, Science 295, 2227-2228. Lean, J., Beer, J., and Bradley, R., (1995) Reconstruction of solar irradiance since 1610: Implications for climate change, Geophys. Res. Lett.., 22, 3195-3198. Crowley ,T., (2000) Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years, Science,289, 270- 277. Lean and Rind, (2001), Earth's Response to a Variable Sun, Science, 292, 234-236.

Keller, C.

402

Are adolescents getting smarter about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome? Changes in knowledge and attitude over the past 5 years.  

PubMed

A survey was administered to 1543 adolescents from southeastern Wisconsin to assess their knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and persons with the disease. Responses were compared with those of other studies involving adolescents using identical or similar test items. Results of the study demonstrate that knowledge of AIDS and of the modes of human immunodeficiency virus transmission have increased dramatically over the past 5 years. Ninety-eight percent of high school students in this study understood the modes of transmission and that merely touching a person with AIDS will not transmit the virus. However, results also revealed that many negative biases remain toward people who have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Forty-five percent of the students believed that homosexuals and intravenous drug users were "getting what they deserve." Recommendations are made that future educational efforts focus on changes in attitudes and behaviors in relation to adolescents' previously acquired knowledge of AIDS. PMID:2305735

Steiner, J D; Sorokin, G; Schiedermayer, D L; Van Susteren, T J

1990-03-01

403

Outcome after redo-mitral valve replacement in adult patients: a 10-year single-centre experience  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the overall outcome of adult patients undergoing redo-mitral valve replacement (redo-MVR) at our institution. Forty-nine patients (24 males) underwent redo-MVR with either bioprosthetic (n = 24) or mechanical valves (n = 25) between January 2000 and 2010. Median age of patients was 63 years (range 21–80 years), and the mean additive EuroSCORE was 12 ± 4. Median time to re-operation was 8.2 ± 6.6 years for first time redo-MVR and 6.4 ± 5.6 years for second-time redo-MVR. Indications included prosthetic endocarditis (n = 22), para-prosthetic leak (n = 12), structural valve degeneration (n = 8), prosthetic valve thrombosis (n = 6) and malignancy (n = 1). The mean follow-up was 47.5 ± 37.0 months (range 0.1–112.3 months). In-hospital mortality was 12% (n = 6). Mean hospital stay was 17 ± 11 days (range 8–50 days). Actuarial survival at 1 and 5 years was 81 ± 5% and 72 ± 6%, respectively. Three patients required re-intervention: two for prosthetic valve endocarditis and one for para-prosthetic leak. Multivariate analysis showed that overall survival was associated with the LVEF < 50% (P < 0.001), concomitant AVR (P < 0.001) and urgent surgery (P = 0.03).

Vohra, Hunaid A.; Whistance, Robert N.; Roubelakis, Apostolos; Burton, Andrew; Barlow, Clifford W.; Tsang, Geoffrey M.K.; Livesey, Steve A.; Ohri, Sunil K.

2012-01-01

404

Alcatraz: The Warden Johnston Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Joel Gazis-Sax, this site offers a great deal for anyone interested in the history of "the Rock." The core of the site is an annotated General Chronology of the early years of the prison, 1933-48. The chronology offers numerous links to short pieces on famous prisoners or contemporary articles and documents. Users can also view a Master List of Prisoners which features a search engine and a separate category of particularly notorious inmates. Anyone with a scholarly interest in the history of Alcatraz will appreciate the guide to archives and collections of related material and the annotated bibliography. Other features include a chronology of escape attempts and a photo gallery.

405

Civil partnerships five years on.  

PubMed

The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe. PMID:21987019

Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

2011-01-01

406

Elementary GLOBE: All Year Long  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each student will keep a science journal during each of the four seasons. Students will record observations of the general outdoor environment they visit and then will make observations of one specific item from the habitat in each season. At the end of the school year, students will make comparisons of their seasonal drawings and share the results with the class. The purpose of the activity is to introduce students to the concept of using a science journal to record information, to have students use science tools to make scientific observations and to make observational drawings in nature and compare the results throughout the seasons. After completing this activity, students will know about seasonal changes in a particular habitat. They will learn how to make detailed observations, record their results, make comparisons, and share information using a standard format.

2008-12-01

407

Deformation quantization: Twenty years after  

SciTech Connect

We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature.

Sternheimer, Daniel [Laboratoire Gevrey de Mathematique Physique, CNRS ESA 5029, Departement de Mathematiques, Universite de Bourgogne, BP 400, F-21011 Dijon Cedex (France)

1998-12-15

408

The year in burns 2012.  

PubMed

Approximately 2457 research articles were published with burns in the title, abstract, and/or keyword in 2012. This number continues to rise through the years; this article reviews those selected by the Editor of one of the major journals in the field (Burns) and his colleague that are most likely to have the greatest likelihood of affecting burn care treatment and understanding. As done previously, articles were found and divided into these topic areas: epidemiology of injury and burn prevention, wound and scar characterization, acute care and critical care, inhalation injury, infection, psychological considerations, pain and itching management, rehabilitation, long-term outcomes, and burn reconstruction. Each selected article is mentioned briefly with comment from the authors; readers are referred to the full papers for further details. PMID:24252249

Wolf, Steven E; Arnoldo, Brett D

2013-12-01

409

[50 years of molecular biology].  

PubMed

In 1865, Johann Gregor Mendel laid the mathematical foundation of the science of genetics. His "elements of heredity" (later called genes) were postulated as pure algebraic units. At about the same time (1868), Friedrich Miescher extracted a gelationous substance from the nuclei of white blood cells found in pus. This substance was called nuclein; later it became known as nucleic acid. Fifty years ago, Oswald T. Avery and his colleagues showed that one type of nucleic acid--DNA mediates genetic transformation in pneumococci. This was the first demonstration that Miescher's nuclein is the repository of Mendel's hypothetical elements of heredity. The genes thus "materialized". Although not recognized by contemporaries, Avery's discovery may be considered as a landmark in the history of biology. The molecular era of genetics and biology has begun. Other events associated with the beginning of this new era (bacteriophage research, work on nutritional mutants in Neurospora) are also described in the present review. PMID:7715413

Trgovcevi?, Z

1994-01-01

410

100 Years of radionuclide metrology.  

PubMed

The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics. PMID:24398412

Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

2014-05-01

411

Aqua 10 Years After Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 a.m. The rocket quickly went through a low-lying cloud cover, after which the main portion of the rocket fell to the waters below and the rockets second stage proceeded to carry Aqua south across the Pacific, onward over Antarctica, and north to Africa, where the spacecraft separated from the rocket 59.5 minutes after launch. Then, 12.5 minutes later, the solar array unfurled over Europe, and Aqua was on its way in the first of what by now have become over 50,000 successful orbits of the Earth.

Parkinson, Claire L.

2013-01-01

412

[Pediatric aids, 30 years later].  

PubMed

Thirty years after the first descriptions of AIDS in children in May 1983, the risk of viral transmission from mother to child has been reduced to almost zero and the disease in infected children has become an asymptomatic condition, stable in the long-term, thanks to antiretroviral drugs. Unbelievable though it may have seemed until the mid-1990s, children infected during the perinatal period are now growing up to be adults in a chronic, stable, asymptomatic medical condition with often satisfactory personal, family, and social lives. The French perinatal epidemiological cohort, which was set up in 1984 and has included more than 18,000 mother-child pairs to date, traces the steps in this extraordinary revolution in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection in children. PMID:23850051

Blanche, S; Dollfus, C; Faye, A; Rouzioux, C; Mandelbrot, L; Tubiana, R; Warszawski, J

2013-08-01

413

Nature of the clinical difficulties of first-year family medicine residents under direct observation.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine and classify the difficulties of first-year family medicine residents observed during clinical interviews. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Family practice unit at a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven of the 56 first-year family medicine residents during their 2-month compulsory rotation in ambulatory family medicine, between July 1983 and December 1988, and 4 physicians who supervised the residents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The residents' difficulties noted on the observation forms. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 1500 difficulties were observed during 194 interviews, an average of 7.7 (standard deviation 5.2) per interview. There were 167 different difficulties, which were classified into seven categories (introduction, initial contract, body of the interview, techniques and organization, interpersonal aspects, final contract and miscellaneous) and 20 subcategories. The 17 most frequently noted difficulties accounted for 40% of the total. CONCLUSIONS: The results constitute a useful starting point for developing a classification of residents' difficulties during clinical interviews. We believe that the list of difficulties is applicable to residents at all levels and in other specialties, especially in ambulatory settings. The list can be used to develop learning materials for supervisors and residents.

Beaumier, A; Bordage, G; Saucier, D; Turgeon, J

1992-01-01

414

Effects of zinc supplementation on physical growth in 2-5-year-old children.  

PubMed

Physical growth disorders in under 5-year-old children are a common health problem in many countries including Iran. The aim of this study was to determine effects of supplemental zinc on physical growth in preschool children with retarded linear growth. This study was a community-based randomized controlled trial on 2-5-year-old children with height-for-age below 25th percentile of National Center for Health Statistics growth chart. Ninety children were randomly assigned in zinc group (ZG) or placebo group (PG). After 6 months of zinc or placebo supplementation, we followed up the children for another 6 months. Anthropometric indicators were measured before the intervention and then monthly for 11 months. Forty children in ZG and 45 in PG concluded the study. Zinc supplementation increased weight gain in boys (P = 0.04) and girls (P = 0.05) compared to placebo but had no significant effect on mid-upper arm circumference increment in either sexes. The most significant (P = 0.001) effect of Zinc supplementation was seen in boys' height increment at the end of follow-up period. Stunted growth rate in ZG changed significantly (P = 0.01) from 26.7% to 2.5% throughout the study. This study showed that daily supplementation of 5 mg elemental zinc for 6 months improves physical growth in terms of height increment and weight gain in children with undesirable linear growth, especially in boys. PMID:18956153

Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Shakiba, Mehrdad; Eftekhari, Mohamad-Hassan; Fatehi, Farhad

2009-05-01

415

The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities.  

PubMed

Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Tippett, Lynette J

2013-01-01

416

Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7.

Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

2013-01-01

417

Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: a 5-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and depression in adolescence. The so-called principle-effect and stress-buffer models could explain relationships between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms, yet no study has used both models to test bidirectional relationships between teacher support and depressive symptoms in students separately by sex. Four-thousand three-hundred forty-one students (boys: n = 2,063; girls: n = 2,278) from Grades 8 to 12 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTEQ), and an instrument developed for the study to measure teacher support annually for 5 years. Results support neither of the 2 proposed models. Instead, they indicate that in the 1st years of high school, students of both sexes with average and high numbers of stressful events benefit from teacher support, while teacher support might have iatrogenic effects on students experiencing low numbers of stressful events. Possible explanations for the findings and future research are discussed. PMID:23379297

Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G; Spence, Susan H; Bjerg, Annie C

2013-11-01

418

Evaluation of stress in final-year Saudi dental students using salivary cortisol as a biomarker.  

PubMed

The aims of this study were to identify the perceived sources of stress in final-year dental students studying in a private dental school in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, using a modified dental environmental stress (DES) scale and to correlate these findings, at various times in the semester, with the level of acute stress measured with salivary cortisol as a biomarker. A total of forty final-year students were administered a modified DES questionnaire consisting of twenty-five questions to determine the perceived causes of stress. Salivary cortisol levels during the first week of the semester, the final week of clinical training, and one hour before the final didactic examination were assessed. Baseline cortisol levels were significantly lower than the cortisol levels in the clinic, and both these values were significantly lower than the salivary cortisol levels before the examination (p<0.001). Comparison of cortisol levels to the perceived sources of stress and demographic data collected showed that certain discrepancies may exist between the perceived and actual stress felt by dental students at different times in the academic semester. PMID:21368262

Pani, Sharat Chandra; Al Askar, Alaa M; Al Mohrij, Sara I; Al Ohali, Tagreed A

2011-03-01

419

A multi-year field olfactometry study near a concentrated animal feeding operation.  

PubMed

This study developed and tested a protocol for monitoring odors near a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO). The Nasal Ranger, a portable field olfactometry instrument, was used by a panel of trained individuals to conduct the monitoring near a swine CAFO. Monitors were selected based on olfactory sensitivity, scheduling availability, and lack of association with the CAFO or residential neighbors of the CAFO. Monitors were trained to use the Nasal Ranger, collect and record weather data, and characterize any odors detected. Data were collected over a 3-year period (2007-2009) for approximately 9 months each year. The data recorded included odor intensity, a description of the odor, date and time of the reading, and weather conditions. Of more than 50,000 readings, forty-one (0.1%) odor readings had a dilution to threshold ratio (D/T) of +/- 7:1 and were attributed to hog manure. The frequency of odor readings attributed to hog manure with D/T +/-7:1 was found to negatively correlate with log wind speed and positively correlate with wind from the direction of the farm. Other meteorological variables (temperature, precipitation, cloud cover) and time of day did not influence the frequency. PMID:22263428

Dalton, Pamela; Caraway, Edward A; Gibb, Herman; Fulcher, Keri

2011-12-01

420

Experience with a theme-based integrated renal module for a second-year MBBS class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Integrated learning is the need of the hour. We at Shifa College of Medicine switched to an integrated modular curriculum last year. In the present article, we describe our experience with the renal module in year 2 of a 5-yr undergraduate medical curriculum. A multidisciplinary renal modular team developed the relevant objectives, themes, and clinical cases. The learning strategies used were large-group interactive sessions, small-group learning, problem-based learning, practicals, and self-directed learning. Assessment was both formative and summative. Student and faculty feedback questionnaires were administered at the end of the module. Forty-four percent of the students agreed that the basic science and clinical concepts were well balanced and integrated. Fifty-seven percent of the students believed that important learning issues could be identified and that participation and critical thinking were encouraged during the small-group sessions. Eighty-five percent of the facilitators agreed that they were able to motivate students for critical thinking and better learning through integrating various disciplines. In conclusion, the integrated method of curricular delivery was well received by students and faculty members, and it can be used successfully in undergraduate medical education in developing countries.

Riffat Shafi (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences); K. H. M. Quadri (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences); Waseem Ahmed (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences); Syed N. Mahmud (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences); Mobeen Iqbal (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences)

2010-03-01

421

Middle Childhood (9-11 Years Old)  

MedlinePLUS

... Information For... Media Policy Makers  National Center Homepage Middle Childhood (9-11 years of age) Language: ... and 10 years 11 — 14 years Choose My Plate - Children over 5 . The U.S. Department of ...

422

Year 2000 (Y2K) News Clippings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Year 2000 Archives and news clippings site contains many useful articles on the Year 2000 problem. The Year 2000 problem is caused by the fact that most computer systems only recognize the last two digits of a year. As a result, when the year 2000 comes around, it will be stored as year "00." This will give rise to mathematical and logical errors in computer systems resulting in incorrect results or even system failures.

1996-01-01

423

Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year

Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2011-01-01

424

Fiscal year 1987 program plan  

SciTech Connect

The Defense TRU Waste Program (DTWP) is the focal point for the Department of Energy in national planning, integration, operation, and technical development for TRU waste management. The scope of this program extends from the point of TRU waste generation through delivery to a permanent repository. The TRU program maintains a close interface with repository development to ensure program compatibility and coordination. The defense TRU program does not directly address commercial activities that generate TRU waste. Instead, it is concerned with providing alternatives to manage existing and future defense TRU wastes. The FY 87 Program Plan is consistent with the Defense TRU Waste Program goals and objectives stated in the Defense Transuranic Waste Program Strategy Document, January 1984. The roles of participants, the responsibilities and authorities for Operations, and Research Development (R D), the organizational interfaces and communication channels for R D and the establishment of procedures for planning, reporting, and budgeting of Operations and R D activities meet requirements stated in the Technical Management Plan for the Transuranic Waste Management Program. Detailed budget planning (i.e., programmatic funding and capital equipment) is presented for FY 87; outyear budget projections are presented for future years.

Not Available

1986-12-01

425

Spermine oxidase: ten years after.  

PubMed

Spermine oxidase (SMO) was discovered much more recently than other enzymes involved in polyamine metabolism; this review summarizes 10 years of researches on this enzyme. Spermine oxidase (SMO) is a FAD-dependent enzyme that specifically oxidizes spermine (Spm) and plays a dominant role in the highly regulated mammalian polyamines catabolism. SMO participates in drug response, apoptosis, response to stressful stimuli and etiology of several pathological conditions, including cancer. SMO is a highly inducible enzyme, its deregulation can alter polyamine homeostasis, and dysregulation of polyamine catabolism is often associated with several disease states. The oxidative products of SMO activity are spermidine, and the reactive oxygen species H(2)O(2) and the aldehyde 3-aminopropanal each with the potential to produce cellular damages and pathologies. The SMO substrate Spm is a tetramine that plays mandatory roles in several cell functions, such as DNA synthesis, cellular proliferation, modulation of ion channels function, cellular signaling, nitric oxide synthesis and inhibition of immune responses. The goal of this review is to cover the main biochemical, cellular and physiological processes in which SMO is involved. PMID:21809080

Cervelli, Manuela; Amendola, Roberto; Polticelli, Fabio; Mariottini, Paolo

2012-02-01

426

The Year in Molecular Imaging  

PubMed Central

Molecular imaging is devoted to the discovery and application of specific biological imaging approaches that complement traditional anatomical imaging. This field continues to witness impressive growth, particularly in the study of oncology, neurology, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Interest in molecular imaging technologies stems from its great potential, not only to heighten our understanding and diagnostic capability of common CVD scenarios, but also to offer the prospect of personalized treatment and early monitoring of therapeutic response. Targeted imaging reporters are now spawning the development of combined diagnostic and therapeutic agents that can deliver therapy to individual cells in affected tissues. Recently, diagnostic imaging probes for myocardial infarction (MI), stem cell tracking, and atherosclerotic vascular disease have demonstrated significant advances in preclinical research and development (also see the Online Appendix). Clinical molecular imaging studies have further expanded into the areas of aortic dissection and aneurysm disease, and have provided new insights into aspects of heart failure and transplant medicine. In this review, we highlight outstanding CVD molecular imaging studies published over the past year. A summary of important clinical and preclinical imaging agents and applications is provided in Table 1.

Osborn, Eric A.; Jaffer, Farouc A.

2012-01-01

427

Five Years of GWAS Discovery  

PubMed Central

The past five years have seen many scientific and biological discoveries made through the experimental design of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). These studies were aimed at detecting variants at genomic loci that are associated with complex traits in the population and, in particular, at detecting associations between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and common diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, auto-immune diseases, and psychiatric disorders. We start by giving a number of quotes from scientists and journalists about perceived problems with GWASs. We will then briefly give the history of GWASs and focus on the discoveries made through this experimental design, what those discoveries tell us and do not tell us about the genetics and biology of complex traits, and what immediate utility has come out of these studies. Rather than giving an exhaustive review of all reported findings for all diseases and other complex traits, we focus on the results for auto-immune diseases and metabolic diseases. We return to the perceived failure or disappointment about GWASs in the concluding section.

Visscher, Peter M.; Brown, Matthew A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Yang, Jian

2012-01-01

428

100 years of Lewy pathology.  

PubMed

In 1817, James Parkinson described the symptoms of the shaking palsy, a disease that was subsequently defined in greater detail, and named after Parkinson, by Jean-Martin Charcot. Parkinson expected that the publication of his monograph would lead to a rapid elucidation of the anatomical substrate of the shaking palsy; in the event, this process took almost a century. In 1912, Fritz Heinrich Lewy identified the protein aggregates that define Parkinson disease (PD) in some brain regions outside the substantia nigra. In 1919, Konstantin Nikolaevich Tretiakoff found similar aggregates in the substantia nigra and named them after Lewy. In the 1990s, ?-synuclein was identified as the main constituent of the Lewy pathology, and its aggregation was shown to be central to PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In 2003, a staging scheme for idiopathic PD was introduced, according to which ?-synuclein pathology originates in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve and progresses from there to other brain regions, including the substantia nigra. In this article, we review the relevance of Lewy's discovery 100 years ago for the current understanding of PD and related disorders. PMID:23183883

Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko

2013-01-01

429

Quality of life and functional outcomes 10 years after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy  

PubMed Central

Background Minimally invasive laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) has proven equally effective as open surgery in terms of cancer control and peroperative complication rate with less bleeding and postoperative pain. However, long-term follow-up data after LRP are scarce, especially as related to quality of life (QoL). Aim To compare QoL and functional outcomes at least 10 years after LRP with a population-based control group matched for age and region. Methods Follow-up data were obtained by mailed questionnaires from patients who responded anonymously to five international questionnaires (EQ-5D, QLQ-C30, QLQ-PR25, IPSS, and IIEF). We collected self-reported outcome data directly from 49 patients who underwent LRP more than 10 years ago in our centre. The results of the patients' overall QoL and urinary continence rates were compared with 918 controls matched for region and age. Results Forty-two patients (86%) and 808 (88%) controls reported having no urinary leakage. Only 11 patients (24%) still had sexual activities 10 years after LRP, and three were without erectile dysfunction. There was no difference in four of five statements of the self-assessed QoL questionnaires between the LRP and control group. Anxiety level was higher in the LRP group (44%) than in the control group (23%). Conclusion Patients reported high self-assessed QoL, although they also reported low sexual activity 10 years after LRP. Prevalence of urinary leakage was similar in both groups. However, anxiety was more common in LRP patients.

Eriksson, Hans G.

2014-01-01

430

The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Contact Lens Experience: One-Year Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Purpose We describe our experience correcting a cohort of infants with contact lenses in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Materials and Methods Fifty-seven infants 1 to 6 months of age were randomized to contact lens wear. An examination under anesthesia was performed at the time of enrollment and at approximately 1 year of age. A traveling examiner assessed visual acuity at approximately 1 year of age. Results Forty-two treated eyes (74 %) were fitted with silicone elastomer (SE) contact lenses; twelve eyes (21 %) with rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses and three eyes (5%) wore both lens types. Median visual acuity was +0.80 logMAR in both lens type-wearing groups. The mean (± SD) keratometric power of the treated eyes was 46.3 ± 2.8 D at baseline and 44.6 ± 2.3 D at one year of age for a mean decrease of 0.2 ± 0.2 D/mo. Keratometric astigmatism of treated eyes was 1.98 ± 1.37 D at baseline and 1.62 ± 0.98 D at one year of age for a mean decrease of 0.05 ± 0.2 D/mo. The mean RGP lens base curve at baseline was 47.62 D ±2.62 D vs 47.00 D ± 3.50 D at 12 months after surgery. Children wearing SE lenses required a mean of 10.9 replacements (range 2–24) compared to 16.8 replacements (range 8–32) for children wearing RGP lenses. Three adverse events occurred. Conclusions Contact lenses were worn successfully with relatively few adverse events by a cohort of infants with unilateral aphakia. The visual acuity results were identical independent of the contact lens material or modality. RGP lenses needed replacement more often than SE lenses.

Russell, Buddy; Ward, Michael A.; Lynn, Michael; DuBois, Lindreth; Lambert, Scott R.

2012-01-01

431

Bisphosphonates: the first 40 years.  

PubMed

The first full publications on the biological effects of the diphosphonates, later renamed bisphosphonates, appeared in 1969, so it is timely after 40years to review the history of their development and their impact on clinical medicine. This special issue of BONE contains a series of review articles covering the basic science and clinical aspects of these drugs, written by some of many scientists who have participated in the advances made in this field. The discovery and development of the bisphosphonates (BPs) as a major class of drugs for the treatment of bone diseases has been a fascinating story, and is a paradigm of a successful journey from 'bench to bedside'. Bisphosphonates are chemically stable analogues of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and it was studies on the role of PPi as the body's natural 'water softener' in the control of soft tissue and skeletal mineralisation that led to the need to find inhibitors of calcification that would resist hydrolysis by alkaline phosphatase. The observation that PPi and BPs could not only retard the growth but also the dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystals prompted studies on their ability to inhibit bone resorption. Although PPi was unable to do this, BPs turned out to be remarkably effective inhibitors of bone resorption, both in vitro and in vivo experimental systems, and eventually in humans. As ever more potent BPs were synthesised and studied, it became apparent that physico-chemical effects were insufficient to explain their biological effects, and that cellular actions must be involved. Despite many attempts, it was not until the 1990s that their biochemical actions were elucidated. It is now clear that bisphosphonates inhibit bone resorption by being selectively taken up and adsorbed to mineral surfaces in bone, where they interfere with the action of the bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates are internalised by osteoclasts and interfere with specific biochemical processes. Bisphosphonates can be classified into at least two groups with different molecular modes of action. The simpler non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates (such as etidronate and clodronate) can be metabolically incorporated into non-hydrolysable analogues of ATP, which interfere with ATP-dependent intracellular pathways. The more potent, nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (including pamidronate, alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate and zoledronate) are not metabolised in this way but inhibit key enzymes of the mevalonate/cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. The major enzyme target for bisphosphonates is farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), and the crystal structure elucidated for this enzyme reveals how BPs bind to and inhibit at the active site via their critical N atoms. Inhibition of FPPS prevents the biosynthesis of isoprenoid compounds (notably farnesol and geranylgeraniol) that are required for the post-translational prenylation of small GTP-binding proteins (which are also GTPases) such as rab, rho and rac, which are essential for intracellular signalling events within osteoclasts. The accumulation of the upstream metabolite, isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), as a result of inhibition of FPPS may be responsible for immunomodulatory effects on gamma delta (??) T cells, and can also lead to production of another ATP metabolite called ApppI, which has intracellular actions. Effects on other cellular targets, such as osteocytes, may also be important. Over the years many hundreds of BPs have been made, and more than a dozen have been studied in man. As reviewed elsewhere in this issue, bisphosphonates are established as the treatments of choice for various diseases of excessive bone resorption, including Paget's disease of bone, the skeletal complications of malignancy, and osteoporosis. Several of the leading BPs have achieved 'block-buster' status with annual sales in excess of a billion dollars. As a class, BPs share properties in common. However, as with other classes of drugs, there are obvious chemical, biochemical, and pharmacological differences among the various BPs. Each BP

Russell, R Graham G

2011-07-01

432

Workplace Education Initiative: Year Two Observations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Site visits to 17 workplace education projects funded in the second year of the Massachusetts Workplace Education Initiative are reported for year 1 and year 2 projects. The year one projects are as follows: EASCO Handtool Company (Springfield), T.J. Maxx Distribution Center (Worcester), laundry workers (Boston/Lynn), AT&T (Lawrence), and Columbia…

Sperazi, Laura; Astrein, Bruce

433

5-year follow-up study of children with low-to-moderate lead absorption: electrophysiological evaluation.  

PubMed

Forty-nine children aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for residual effects of lead exposure using psychometric, electrophysiological, and medical tests 5 years after initial assessment. The original range of blood lead (PbB) levels was 6-59 (mean = 28) micrograms/dl; the current range was 6-30 (mean = 14) micrograms/dl. A linear relationship between PbB and slow brain wave voltage during sensory conditioning was observed at initial evaluation and at 2-year follow-up. No significant relationship between PbB and slow wave voltage during passive conditioning was found at the 5-year follow-up, although a linear increase in slow wave negativity relative to the current PbB level during active conditioning was suggested by exploratory analyses. Another exploratory analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between the original PbB levels and the latency of waves III and V of the brainstem auditory evoked potential. The latency of both waves increased as a function of original PbB. Increased latency of these waves is suggestive of subclinical pathology of the auditory pathway rostral to the cochlear nucleus, although end-organ impairment cannot be ruled out. No threshold for the effect of Pb on auditory function was apparent. PMID:4076105

Otto, D; Robinson, G; Baumann, S; Schroeder, S; Mushak, P; Kleinbaum, D; Boone, L

1985-10-01

434

The International Polar Year, 2007-2008, an opportunity to focus on infectious diseases in Arctic regions.  

PubMed

On 3 occasions over the past 125 years, scientists from around the world have worked together to organize scientific and exploration activities in polar regions (www.ipy.org). The first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1881-1884 marked the first major coordinated international scientific initiative to collect standardized meteorological and geophysical data in polar regions. Fifteen expeditions led by 12 nations amassed a large amount of data, but the scientific value was diminished by disjointed publication efforts and lack of long-term institutional commitment; lessons were learned and corrected in subsequent polar years. The second IPY began in 1932. Forty-four nations led expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic, resulting in greater understanding of the aurora, magnetism, and meteorology. Air and marine navigation, radio operations, and weather forecasting were greatly improved as a result. The third IPY, in 1957-58, was renamed the International Geophysical Year and capitalized on technologic advances developed during World War II. Technologic and scientific momentum was redirected toward research, particularly to studies of the upper atmosphere, a legacy that continues to the present day. Notable achievements included launching the first satellite, measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases, delineating the system of mid-ocean ridges, and confirming the theory of plate tectonics. PMID:18258069

Parkinson, Alan J

2008-01-01

435

Third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty in patients younger than 30 years with osteonecrosis of femoral head.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiographic results of patients younger than 30 years who underwent cementless third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Forty-one patients (56 hips) with a minimum follow-up of 6 years were included. In all cases, third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic articulation was used. Average Harris Hip Scores improved from 52.9 preoperatively to 98.2, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score, from 95.2 to 25.2. Thirty-nine patients returned to their normal occupations. No aseptic loosening or osteolysis was observed. Total hip arthroplasty performed using third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic bearings for osteonecrosis of femoral head was found to provide satisfactory clinical and radiologic results, especially in active, young patients. PMID:22153948

Byun, Jae-Wook; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Park, Kyung-Soon; Seon, Jong-Keun

2012-08-01

436

Mortality and two year outcome of infants of birthweight 500-1500 g: relationship with neonatal cerebral ultrasound data.  

PubMed

Cranial ultrasounds were performed on 218 (96%) of 227 liveborn infants of birthweight 500-1500 g delivered in the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, in an 18-month period concluding in March 1982. Seventy-two (31.7%) of the children died; 28 children (38.9%) had cerebroventricular haemorrhage, 35 (48.6%) showed no bleeding and there were nine (12.5%) with no data. Paired necropsy and ultrasound data were congruent in 22 (88%) of 25 children. One hundred and forty-eight (95.5%) of 155 survivors were seen at 2 years of age. Forty-one (28%) had cerebroventricular haemorrhage; nine children (6%) had both ventricular dilatation and haemorrhage and two had ventricular dilatation alone. Apart from a marginal advance in gestation and higher number of immigrant and less educated mothers in children without cerebroventricular haemorrhage, all other perinatal, biographical and social variables between those with haemorrhage and those without were similar. The major handicap rate overall was 14.2% (21 patients). The children with cerebroventricular haemorrhage had a trend for greater prevalence of handicap and lower mean Bayley psychological scores. This was even more evident with ventricular dilatation being present. Of children with major handicap 57.1% (12/21) had normal serial ultrasound findings during their primary hospitalization. Major handicap occurred in 15% (3/20) of children with grade 1 haemorrhage, 23.5% (4/17) with grade 2 or 3 bleeds and 25% (1/4) of those with grade 4 haemorrhage. Laterality of cerebral palsy did not correlate with ultrasound findings. Ultrasound findings did not improve statistical prediction of deaths or major handicap. PMID:3911938

Kitchen, W H; Ford, G W; Murton, L J; Rickards, A L; Ryan, M M; Lissenden, J V; De Crespigny, L C; Fortune, D W

1985-11-01

437

Longitudinal follow-up of patients with traumatic brain injury: outcome at two, five, and ten years post-injury.  

PubMed

The deleterious consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) impair capacity to return to many avenues of pre-morbid life. However, there has been limited longitudinal research examining outcome beyond five years post-injury. The aim of this study was to examine aspects of function, previously shown to be affected following TBI, over a span of 10 years. One hundred and forty one patients with TBI were assessed at two, five, and 10 years post-injury using the Structured Outcome Questionnaire. Fatigue and balance problems were the most common neurological symptoms, with reported rates decreasing only slightly during the 10-year period. Mobility outcomes were good in more than 75% of patients, with few participants requiring aids for mobility. Changes in cognitive, communication, behavioral, and emotional functions were reported by approximately 60% of the sample at all time points. Levels of independence in activities of daily living were high during the 10-year period, and as many as 70% of subjects returned to driving. Nevertheless, approximately 40% of patients required more support than before their injury. Only half the sample returned to previous leisure activities and fewer than half were employed at each assessment time post-injury. Although marital status remained stable over time, approximately 30% of participants reported difficulties in personal relationships. Older age at injury did not substantially alter the pattern of changes over time, except in employment. Overall, problems that were evident at two years post-injury persisted until 10 years post-injury. The importance of these findings is discussed with reference to rehabilitation programs. PMID:23889321

Ponsford, Jennie L; Downing, Marina G; Olver, John; Ponsford, Michael; Acher, Rose; Carty, Meagan; Spitz, Gershon

2014-01-01

438

Pathologic findings of Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy: a 5-year review on 51 cases at Taleghani general hospital  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to comprehensively analyze histopathologic parameters of Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy specimens at Taleghani general hospital pathology department. Background The Whipple procedure is performed for variety of tumors involving the head of the pancreas, ampulla of Vater, common bile duct, or duodenum. Patients and methods Records of all cases of Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy between 2007 and 2011were retrospectively reviewed and pathological details of diagnosis and staging were extracted. Results A total of 51 patients underwent Whipple procedure during a 5-year period, including 37 males and 14 females. The average age was 57 years (18-82 years). The most frequent presenting symptoms were jaundice and weight loss. Forty-four patients (86.3%) had malignant and 7 (13.7%) had benign lesions. Among malignant lesions, 27 (61.4%) were ampullary carcinomas, 12 (27.3%) were pancreatic carcinomas and 5 (11.4%) were cholangiocarcinomas. The pathological stage of most of the tumors was T3 (50%); followed by T2 (29.5%), and T1 (15.9%); only 4.5% were T4. Mean tumor size was 2.8 cm (0.2-7 cm). Duodenal and common bile duct margins were tumor-free in most cases (95.5 %). The pancreatic margin was free in 81.8% of patients; this margin had not been evaluated in 5 patients. Nearly 38.6% of all tumors showed vascular invasion while 68.2% showed perineural invasion. The average number of dissected lymph nodes was 4 (range 1-15); although in 25% of specimens, no lymph nodes had been found. Twelve specimens (35.3%) had lymph node metastases. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that most of our patients are diagnosed with malignancy, at advanced stage, and further research is needed to develop practical methods for earlier diagnosis. The fact that 25% of specimens had no lymph nodes needs more consideration.

Mohsenifar, Zhaleh; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Zare, Khandan

2012-01-01

439

[Clinical efficacy of treatment with salmon calcitonin, administered intranasally for 1 year, in stabilized postmenopausal osteoporosis].  

PubMed

Several controlled clinical studies have confirmed the rationale of calcitonin therapy in postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, administration by injection and side-effects reduced patient compliance and flexibility of dosage. Recently, evidence has been given that an intranasal spray may provide an effective alternative administration route for calcitonin. Forty women with established postmenopausal osteoporosis (at least on vertebral crush fracture) divided into three groups, entered and completed a one-year controlled study on the effects of treatment with synthetic salmon calcitonin nasal spray on bone mass and mineral metabolism. The first group (n = 20) received a daily treatment with 100 I.U. of salmon calcitonin (sCT) nasal spray; the second group (n = 10) received 100 I.U. of sCT by subcutaneous injection every second day; the control group (n = 10) received an oral calcium supplement, 1 g per day. Bone mineral content (BMC), evaluated by dual photon absorptiometry, was measured at the distal radius before and after 6 and 12 months of treatment. Every three months, throughout the year, an evaluation of some parameters of bone remodeling was made. BMC increased (p less than 0.01) in the treatment groups, whereas at the end of treatment, a decrease (p less than 0.05) was observed in the control group. Biochemical estimates of bone resorption, such as urinary hydroxyproline excretion showed a significant decrease in the calcitonin groups. No changes in markers of bone formation, serum alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were observed in all patients. This study demonstrates that one-year treatment with sCT nasal spray is able to increase bone mass in osteoporotic patients without important local side-effects. PMID:2695815

Agnusdei, D; Gonnelli, S; Camporeale, A; Batignani, T; Nardi, P; Ianes, A; Gennari, C

1989-01-01

440

Age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy and adiposity at age 3 years.  

PubMed

Early life physical activity may help prevent obesity but is difficult to measure. The purpose of this study was to examine associations of age of achievement of gross motor milestones in infancy with adiposity at age 3 years. Seven forty one mother/infant dyads participated in a longitudinal study in Massachusetts. Exposures were age of attainment of 4 gross motor milestones-rolling over, sitting up, crawling, and walking. Outcomes were 3-year sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness (SS + TR) for overall adiposity, their ratio (SS:TR) for central adiposity, and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We used linear regression models adjusted for confounders to examine motor milestone achievement and later adiposity. Rolling over (0.04, 95% CI: 0.008, 0.07) and sitting up (0.02, 95% CI: 0.001, 0.05) at ? 6 months were associated with increased SS:TR compared with attainment before 6 months. Walking at ? 15 months was associated with 0.98 mm higher SS + TR (95% CI: 0.05, 1.91) compared with walking before 12 months. Age at crawling was not associated with the outcomes. None of the milestones were associated with BMI z-score. Age of motor milestone achievement was only a modest predictor of adiposity. Later rolling over and sitting up were associated with greater central adiposity, and later age at walking was associated with greater overall adiposity at age 3 years. Although we controlled for birth weight and 6-month weight-for-length in our models, more detailed assessment of early adiposity prior to achievement of motor milestones is needed to help determine causality. PMID:21643834

Benjamin Neelon, Sara E; Oken, Emily; Taveras, Elsie M; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W

2012-07-01

441

Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis in a heterogeneous Brazilian population: an eight-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to describe the outcomes of Brazilian patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis during an eight-year follow-up period. Patients fulfilling the European Spondyloarthritis (SpA) Study Group Classification Criteria were enrolled. Forty patients were seen at baseline, and 36 participated in the follow-up study. Twenty-three (58 %) were female, and there were 24 (60 %) African Brazilians enrolled. HLA-B27 was positive in 18 (45 %) patients. At disease onset, the first presenting symptoms were pure peripheral manifestations in 26 (72.2 %) patients. After the study period, mixed disease (axial + peripheral) predominated occurring in 25 (69.4 %) patients. The Assessment of SpA International society (ASAS) classification criteria for axial SpA were fulfilled by 77 % of patients, and the ASAS criteria for peripheral SpA were fulfilled by 59 % of patients. After 2.5 years, 6 (16.7 %) of the 36 patients fulfilled the modified New York Criteria for ankylosing spondylitis and 1 (2.7 %) progressed to psoriatic arthritis. A total of 10 (27.8 %) patients progressed to definite SpA during the eight-year study period. Buttock pain (p = 0.006, OR 10.55; 95 % CI 2.00-65.90) and low-grade radiographic sacroiliitis (p = 0.025, OR = 11.50; 95 % CI 1.33-83.39) at baseline were associated with definite SpA. Thus, in this Brazilian cohort, which had a predominance of female African-Brazilian patients, prevalent peripheral onset symptoms were followed by a high frequency of axial manifestations during the follow-up period. Evidence of clinical or radiological sacroiliitis was associated with progression to definite SpA. PMID:23765202

da Cruz Lage, Ricardo; de Souza Bomtempo, Carlos Alexandre; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; de Carvalho, Marco Antônio Parreiras

2014-07-01

442

Predictors of Institutionalization of Dementia Patients in Mild and Moderate Stages: A 4-Year Prospective Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Institutionalization is the most important milestone in the care of dementia patients. This study was aimed at identifying relevant predictors of institutionalization in a broad empirical context and interpreting them on the basis of the predictor model proposed by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Methods At the start of this study, 357 patients with mild to moderate dementia were examined by their general practitioners, and a telephone interview was conducted with their caregivers. Four years later, the outcomes ‘institutionalization’ and ‘death’ were determined from health insurance data. Forty-one variables were examined for their predictive influence by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Results The risk of institutionalization increased significantly (p ? 0.05) with older ages of patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05] and caregivers (HR = 1.03), a higher educational level of the caregiver (HR = 1.83), greater use of community health services (HR = 1.59), greater caregiver burden (HR = 1.02), and when the caregiver and patient lived apart (HR = 1.97). Conclusion The results show that there is a multifactorial influence on institutionalization of dementia patients by sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological aspects as well as the care situation, thus validating the predictor model by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Caregiver burden was found to be the strongest predictor accessible to interventions.

Eska, Kathrin; Graessel, Elmar; Donath, Carolin; Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Lauterberg, Joerg; Holle, Rolf

2013-01-01

443

Final-year South African dental student attitudes toward a research component in the curriculum.  

PubMed

South Africa has recently introduced a compulsory research component into the undergraduate dental curriculum. This study was undertaken to establish how the students experienced the research exercise and what outcomes could be determined. A questionnaire of thirteen open- and closed-ended questions was distributed to final-year students at all four South African dental schools. A response rate of 56 percent was achieved, with 127 completed questionnaires returned. Forty-four percent of students enjoyed the research, 34 percent would have liked to have done more research, and 92 percent regarded research as being important in dentistry. Open-ended questions revealed that time, topic, financial, and group work issues hindered students' research experiences. This is in common with dental undergraduates elsewhere. Positive outcomes related to acquaintance with scientific literature, desire for further study, support from their research supervisor, and acknowledgment of a constructive learning event. South African dental undergraduates may not like the research component, but this is not due to lack of enthusiasm on their part. It appears that both internal and external factors impacting the South African dental academic system are influencing their research experience and making it unattractive. These factors should be identified and addressed at the school level where it is possible to optimize student research training. PMID:19910480

Grossman, Elly S; Naidoo, Sudeshni

2009-11-01

444

Heavy ion fusion half-year report, April 1-September 30, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Major accomplisments in the second half of Fiscal Year 1980 include: the large aperture Cs/sup +1/ contact ionization source has been operational through most of this period. The full system comprised of source plus three drift tubes was brought into operation early in April 1980. Beam profiles and current measurements indicate that the system performs close to design specifications. System studies have been expanded to include multiple beam systems, in addition to the single beam systems studied heretofore. Work has continued on the development of beam diagnostic devices. Most of the effort has been directed toward the development of the electron beam probe and scintillator systems. Zeolite source development is continuing, with major emphasis on source stability and lifetime. A model for the longitudinal resistive wall instability has been developed which indicates the induction linac beam should be stable to first order in the resistance. Considerable theory effort has also been concentrated upon the transport of space charge dominated beams through periodic focussing structures. A multiple electrostatic quadrupole array capable of handling forty nine parallel beamlets has been designed and constructed.

Staff, H.I.F.

1980-11-01

445

An Interprofessional Education Session for First-Year Health Science Students  

PubMed Central

Objective To implement and evaluate the effectiveness and short-term impact of an interprofessional education (IPE) session in the first year for health sciences students representing 9 health professions. Design An interprofessional faculty committee created a 2½ hour introductory interprofessional education session focusing on a single patient case and 2 possible discharge scenarios. A mixed method pretest/posttest research design was used to examine changes in students' perceptions of and attitudes toward IPE. Six follow-up focus groups also were held with students from the participating professions. Assessment Of 1197 health professions students enrolled, 914 students (76%) attended the IPE session. Two hundred thirty-two of 240 pharmacy students (97%) attended. Forty-three (18.5%) pharmacy students responded to the open-ended questions on the survey instrument. The most frequently reported gains from attending the session were recognition of teamwork importance to benefit the patient (30%) and understanding of other professionals' roles (29%). Shortfalls reported by students related to the content/style of presentation (26%) and technical/organizational (23%) aspects of the session. Pharmacy students who participated in one of the focus groups stated the session demonstrated the benefits as well as facilitators and barriers to collaborative care. Conclusion The session served as an effective introduction to IPE; debriefing and integration with uniprofessional curricula should occur. Students need additional small group interaction with other health professional students, and can contribute as members of the planning committee.

Ignjatovic, Milka; Langlois, Sylvia; Dematteo, Dale; DiProspero, Lisa; Wagner, Susan; Reeves, Scott

2009-01-01

446

A 5-Year Retrospective Review of Fungal Keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Background. Corneal blindness from healed infected keratitis is one of the most preventable causes of monocular blindness in developing countries, including Malaysia. Our objectives were to identify the causative fungi, predisposing risk factors, the proportion of correct clinical diagnosis, and visual outcome of patients treated in our hospital. Methods. A retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was conducted for all patients who were treated for fungal keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2007 until December 2011. Results. Forty-seven patients (47/186, 25.27%) were treated for fungal keratitis during the study period. This demonstrated that the incidence of fungal keratitis has increased each year from 2007 to 2011 by 12.50%, 17.65%, 21.21%, 26.83%, and 28.57%, respectively. The most common predisposing factors were injury to the eye followed by use of topical steroid, and preexisting ocular surface disease. Fusarium species were the most common fungal isolated, followed by Candida species. Clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 26 of the 41 (63.41%) cases of positive isolates. Of these, in eleven cases (23.40%) patients required surgical intervention. Clinical outcome of healed scar was achieved in 34 (72.34%) cases. Conclusions. The percentage of positive fungal isolated has steadily increased and the trend of common fungal isolated has changed. The latest review regarding fungal keratitis is important for us to improve patients' outcome in the future.

Mohd-Tahir, Fadzillah; Norhayati, A.; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Ibrahim, M.

2012-01-01

447

Are microbial indicators and pathogens correlated? A statistical analysis of 40 years of research.  

PubMed

Indicator organisms are used to assess public health risk in recreational waters, to highlight periods of challenge to drinking water treatment plants, and to determine the effectiveness of treatment and the quality of distributed water. However, many have questioned their efficacy for indicating pathogen risk. Five hundred and forty cases representing independent indicator-pathogen correlations were obtained from the literature for the period 1970-2009. The data were analyzed to assess factors affecting correlations using a logistic regression model considering indicator classes, pathogen classes, water types, pathogen sources, sample size, the number of samples with pathogens, the detection method, year of publication and statistical methods. Although no single indicator was identified as the most correlated with pathogens, coliphages, F-specific coliphages, Clostridium perfringens, fecal streptococci and total coliforms were more likely than other indicators to be correlated with pathogens. The most important factors in determining correlations between indicator-pathogen pairs were the sample size and the number of samples positive for pathogens. Pathogen sources, detection methods and other variables have little influence on correlations between indicators and pathogens. Results suggest that much of the controversy with regards to indicator and pathogen correlations is the result of studies with insufficient data for assessing correlations. PMID:21942192

Wu, J; Long, S C; Das, D; Dorner, S M

2011-06-01

448

One year comparative trial of metformin and glipizide in type 2 diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Forty-eight diabetic subjects with diet-failed Type 2 mellitus, aged 40-69 years, were randomised to metformin (24 patients) or glipizide (24 patients) therapy, and followed prospectively for 12 months. Most subjects were obese. Metformin gave better fasting plasma glucose control compared to glipizide at 24 (p < 0.01), 36 (p < 0.05) and 52 weeks (p < 0.05) with a lower HbA1 concentration at 52 weeks (p < 0.05). Metformin treated patients lost weight whereas glipizide treated subjects gained weight. The weight change between the treatment groups reached significance at 4 weeks (p < 0.05) and was highly significant (p < 0.001) at 8, 12, 24, 36 and 52 weeks. There were no significant changes in either fasting plasma lipid or blood lactate levels in either the metformin or glipizide treated groups. Both drugs caused a similar reduction in albumin excretion rates. In conclusion, metformin gave better glycaemic control than glipizide, with weight loss rather than weight gain in obese Type 2 patients. PMID:7843470

Campbell, I W; Menzies, D G; Chalmers, J; McBain, A M; Brown, I R

1994-01-01

449

Electrical stimulation of the brain in treatment of chronic pain. Experience over 5 years.  

PubMed

Forty-eight patients underwent electrical stimulation of the brain for treatment of chronic pain between 1978 and 1983. Average pain duration prior to treatment was 4.5 years. Before selection for this procedure patients underwent pain treatment in a multidisciplinary pain center, intensive psychological and psychiatric evaluation, and assessment of pain responsiveness to intravenous administration of placebo, morphine, and naloxone. A total of 71 electrodes were placed in the 48 patients at a variety of stimulating targets, including the periaqueductal gray matter, periventricular gray matter, thalamus, and internal capsule. Seventy-two percent of patients experienced complete or partial pain relief. In addition, 59% of patients were able to discontinue narcotic usage. Twenty-five percent of patients returned to normal physical activities and another 33% showed marked improvement in functional capacity. Follow-up periods ranged from 2 to 60 months; with a mean follow-up period of 20 months. A variety of relatively minor complications occurred, but no mortality or permanent sequelae were experienced. No patient's pain was made worse as a result of electrical stimulation. Electrical stimulation of the brain offers a safe and relatively effective method for the treatment of chronic pain in appropriately selected patients, who are unresponsive to other forms of therapy. PMID:3871844

Young, R F; Kroening, R; Fulton, W; Feldman, R A; Chambi, I

1985-03-01

450

Nutritional habits of mothers and children in the age group 0-4 years in iran.  

PubMed

Maternal education and attitudes and practices can significantly be associated with the child's nutritional outcomes. Our goal was to find out patterns among mothers and children in the context of beliefs, knowledge and cultural practices of Iranian mothers. This research provides primary descriptive statistical data. To administer the interviews, five hospitals in Tehran, Iran (operating in mother and child medical services) were selected. 190 mothers and their children were selected for the study. Forty seven mothers (24.7%) were giving cow milk, while 92 (48.4 %) were giving powdered milk and milk itself 49 remaining (25.8%) gave a mixture of breast and cow milk to their children below one year. The anthropometric results in majority of the children fell under Grade-I and Grade-II undernourished category, and that the prevalence of under-nutrition was more obvious in lower age group children. A majority of the children were undernourished. Poor quality and inadequacy of food intake, economy below subsistence level and poor income, and seasonal food shortage were known to cause under-nutrition. Numerous factors, such as social, economic, regional, ethnical, religious, and superstition affect the mother and child. PMID:24884555

Noughani, Fatemeh; Bagheri, Masoumeh; Ramim, Tayeb

2014-01-01

451

Ablation for atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery: 1-year results through continuous subcutaneous monitoring.  

PubMed

Continuous monitoring of cardiac rhythm may play an important role in measuring the true symptomatic/asymptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) burden and improve the management of anti-arrhythmic and anti-thrombotic therapies. Forty-seven patients with mitral valve disease and longstanding persistent AF (LSPAF) underwent a left atrial maze procedure with bipolar radiofrequency and valve surgery. The follow-up data recorded by an implanted loop recorder were analysed after 3, 6 and 12 months. On discharge, 40 (85.1%) patients were in stable sinus rhythm, as documented by in-office electrocardiography (ECG), 4 (8.5%) were in pacemaker rhythm and 3 (6.4%) were in AF. One (2.1%) patient died after 7 months. On 12-month follow-up examination, 30 (65.2%) patients had an AF burden <0.5% and were classified as responders. Three (6.5%) of the 16 non-responders had atrial flutter and 13 (27.7%) had documented AF recurrences with an AF burden >0.5%. Two (4.3%) patients with AF recurrences were completely asymptomatic. Among the symptomatic events stored by the patients, only 27.6% was confirmed as genuine AF recurrences according to the concomitant ECG recorded by the implanted loop recorder. A concomitant bipolar maze procedure during mitral valve surgery is effective in treating AF, as proved by detailed 1-year continuous monitoring. PMID:22514258

Bogachev-Prokophiev, Alexandr; Zheleznev, Sergey; Romanov, Alexander; Pokushalov, Evgeny; Pivkin, Alexey; Corbucci, Giorgio; Karaskov, Alexander

2012-07-01

452

Teenagers (15-17 years of age)  

MedlinePLUS

... Information For... Media Policy Makers  National Center Homepage Teenagers (15-17 years of age) Language: English ... grows, including parenting tips. 15―17 years Choose My Plate The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ...

453

Fun Ideas for Being Active All Year  

MedlinePLUS

... nih.gov/Go4Life Fun Ideas for Being Active All Year January: Start the new year by trying ... in your garden. Bending, lifting, and stretching are all great exercises. May: Build your endurance and strength ...

454

The World Year of Physics: 2005  

NSF Publications Database

... People & Society Physics Media Advisory 05-013The World Year of Physics: 2005 New NSF Web ... Physics site: http://www.nsf.gov/news/special_reports/wyop/index.jsp Main World Year of Physics 2005 ...

455

20-Year Community Clinical Oncology Programs  

Cancer.gov

Community Clinical Oncology Program Celebrates 20 Years of Research 20-Year Community Clinical Oncology Programs CCOPs that have been continuously funded since 1983: Carle Cancer Center CCOP, Urbana, Illinois Columbus CCOP, Columbus, Ohio Dayton

456

Supporting Earth Observing Science, 2004: 10 Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This year, NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and our Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) celebrate the first 10 years of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) DAAC Annual publication, a decad...

2004-01-01

457

Preparing for a New School Year  

MedlinePLUS

... School Year Ages & Stages Listen Preparing for a New School Year Article Body The start of each ... friends again, they might be apprehensive about a new teacher and, in some cases, a new school. ...

458

Water Resources Data Utah, Water Year 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Water-resources data for the year 2001 water year for Utah consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground water.

D. E. Wilberg J. R. Tibbetts L. R. Herbert

2002-01-01

459

Performance & Accountability Report, Fiscal Year 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report sets forth the National Endowment for the Humanities' goals and objectives and highlights its related accomplishments for the year just concluded. Also included in the report is information on the Endowment's finances and operations during the year.

National Endowment for the Humanities, 2007

2007-01-01

460

Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

461

Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic…

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

462

Nine years after child sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: During 1988–1990, 103 children presented to Child Protection Units (CPU) at two children’s hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Nine years later, the psychological adjustment of these young people (mean age=19.1 years, SD=3.4 years; range=14–25 years) was compared with that of non-abused young people of similar age a