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1

Richard Serra Sculpture: Forty Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Richard SerraâÂÂs work has usually involved very large sculptures, and many of them have tested the limits of museum display techniques. Recently, the Museum of Modern Art mounted a forty-year survey of SerraâÂÂs work, and for those who canâÂÂt make it to New York, this online collection is a nice way to look at some of the pieces featured at the museum.

2007-01-01

2

Forty years of modern zoom lens design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brought on by the availability of large computers and optimizations programs, zoom lens design has advanced continuously during the past forty years. Changes in applications, manufacturing, and requirements have all contributed to a large and growing knowledge of zoom lens design. As a result entirely new zoom lens forms have been developed for use in a variety of cameraas and

Ellis Betensky

2005-01-01

3

The first forty years, 1947-1987  

SciTech Connect

This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward.

Rowe, M.S. (ed.); Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

1987-01-01

4

Forty Years of Computers and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

For forty years the relationship between computers and education has been engaged in a headlong journey, full of ups and downs,\\u000a wild swerves to right and left, somehow both exhilarating and frightening, sometimes in tandem but at others barely still\\u000a holding hands. The engine of the technologies keeps changing while the driver is sometimes a discipline, learners, or the\\u000a teacher.

Deryn Watson

5

Happy birthday: forty years of FEBS.  

PubMed

The 2004 Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) Congress in Warsaw marks the 40th Anniversary of FEBS. To celebrate this event, the Executive Committee decided to publish a memoir, which chronicles the foundation of FEBS and its early development as well as presents an overview of FEBS activities and contributions that support the ever growing disciplines of biochemistry, molecular cell biology and molecular biophysics throughout Europe [Forty Years of FEBS Horst Feldmann (Ed.), Blackwell Publishers, Oxford 2003, on behalf of FEBS]. This paper summarizes some of the most important aspects of this compilation. PMID:15165885

Feldmann, Horst

2004-06-01

6

Molecular motors: forty years of interdisciplinary research  

PubMed Central

A mere forty years ago it was unclear what motor molecules exist in cells that could be responsible for the variety of nonmuscle cell movements, including the “saltatory cytoplasmic particle movements” apparent by light microscopy. One wondered whether nonmuscle cells might have a myosin-like molecule, well known to investigators of muscle. Now we know that there are more than a hundred different molecular motors in eukaryotic cells that drive numerous biological processes and organize the cell's dynamic city plan. Furthermore, in vitro motility assays, taken to the single-molecule level using techniques of physics, have allowed detailed characterization of the processes by which motor molecules transduce the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical movement. Molecular motor research is now at an exciting threshold of being able to enter into the realm of clinical applications.

Spudich, James A.

2011-01-01

7

Forty Years of Civil Jury Verdicts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debate over civil justice reform in the United States frequently centers on the extent to which damage awards granted by juries have been escalating over time. However, past studies on civil juries have been hampered by lack of data on verdicts spanning a sufficiently long time period. Average jury awards tend to be highly variable from year to year, making

Seth A. Seabury; Nicholas M. Pace; Robert T. Reville

2004-01-01

8

Forty Years of Kinesiology: A Canadian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper provides a brief history of the world's first two kinesiology programs at the University of Waterloo and Simon Fraser University, and then gives an overview of the development of kinesiology in Canada over the last 40 years. The issues addressed include departmental affiliation and accreditation, the development of provincial and…

Elliott, Digby

2007-01-01

9

Nuclear chain reaction: forty years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proceedings from a 1982 symposium 40 years after the first controlled nuclear chain reaction took place in Chicago covers four sessions and public discussion. The session covered the history of the chain reaction; peaceful uses in technology, medicine, and biological science; peaceful uses in power generation; and nuclear weapons control. Among the speakers were Eugene Wigner, Glenn Seaborg, Alvin

Sachs

1984-01-01

10

Forty years of surface plasma source development  

SciTech Connect

The cesiation effect, a significant enhancement of negative ion emission from a gas discharge with decrease of co-extracted electron current below negative ion current, was observed for the first time on July 1, 1971 by placing into the discharge a compound with 1 mg of cesium. Subsequent developments of surface plasma sources (SPS) for highly efficient negative ion production caused by the interaction of plasma particles with electrodes on which the adsorbed cesium reduced the surface work function are described. In the last 40 years, the intensity of negative ion beams has increased by cesiation up to 10{sup 4} times from 3 mA to tens of amperes. Here, the main attention is concentrated on earlier SPS developments because recent results are well known and widely available.

Dudnikov, Vadim [Muons, Inc., 552 N. Batavia Ave., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States)

2012-02-15

11

Synthesis of the elements in stars: forty years of progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years ago Burbidge, Burbidge, Fowler, and Hoyle combined what we would now call fragmentary evidence from nuclear physics, stellar evolution and the abundances of elements and isotopes in the solar system as well as a few stars into a synthesis of remarkable ingenuity. Their review provided a foundation for forty years of research in all of the aspects of

George Wallerstein; Icko Iben Jr.; Peter Parker; Ann Merchant Boesgaard; Gerald M. Hale; Arthur E. Champagne; Charles A. Barnes; Franz Käppeler; Verne V. Smith; Robert D. Hoffman; Frank X. Timmes; Chris Sneden; Richard N. Boyd; Bradley S. Meyer; David L. Lambert

1997-01-01

12

Nuclear deterrence and the Triad: forty years of national security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States possesses nearly 2000 strategic nuclear delivery vehicles with over 10,000 deliverable nuclear warheads - nearly 7000 equivalent megatons of destructive power. Collectively, this force is known as the Triad. For nearly the past forty years, that force structure has served as the backbone of the defense of American national interest. On the one hand, it is argued

1985-01-01

13

Sciatic Neuroma Presenting Forty Years After Above-Knee Amputation  

PubMed Central

We report a case of a sciatic neuroma presenting forty years after above knee amputation. Patients developing neuroma following a limb amputation can present with stump pain which is commonly resistant to medical intervention. The length of interval from the initial injury to presentation is widely variable. Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and accurate assessment, radiological imaging and, if indicated, surgical exploration. MRI provides a better soft tissue definition than CT and is more accurate in identifying small lesions than ultrasound. The aim of treatment for symptomatic neuroma is pain relief and improvement of function. This is often achieved by surgical excision.

Kitcat, M; Hunter, J.E; Malata, C.M

2009-01-01

14

In situ saphenous vein bypass--forty years later.  

PubMed

In situ saphenous vein bypass, which was performed first by Rob in 1959, but introduced by Hall in 1962, has been widely applied as an alternative to the reversed bypass. Now, forty years later, it seems appropriate to review its current place and technique. Of the presumed original benefits of the in situ operation, it is now clear that the hemodynamic flow of converging (in situ) versus diverging vein (reversed) boundaries plus better vein/artery size match are the main advantages. It is now popular belief that the reversed saphenous vein graft to the popliteal artery has no significant hemodynamic disadvantage because the vein is of comparable diameter at the knee and in the groin. In contrast, vein bypass from the groin to the ankle strongly favors the in situ procedure because of the convergence of the walls of the vein below the knee and better vein/artery size match. The most controversial facet of the in situ operation has been the question of valvulotome is superior to lyse valves and whether to perform the operation open as originally described, or closed to avoid skin complications from a long groin to ankle incision. Preoperative vein mapping is advantageous for all saphenous vein conduit operations. For open leg in situ procedures, skin bridges and incisions made directly over the vein, directed by mapping, will minimize skin complications. Use of endoscopic in situ techniques is ideal but only with an experienced endoscopist. Valve lysis has improved but is still not foolproof. PMID:15815835

Connolly, John E

2005-01-01

15

Bilingualism in Paraguay: Forty Years after Rubin's Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nearly 40 years have passed since the publication of Rubin's renowned study on Paraguayan bilingualism. The present study compares the results of surveys conducted in the years 2000-2001 with data from Rubin's 1960-1961 investigation. The main objective of this study is to examine the linguistic changes that have occurred in four decades and the…

Choi, Jinny K.

2005-01-01

16

Forty Years of Library Automation: A Personal Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide an overview of one person's involvement with computer systems in libraries over the last 40 years. Design/methodology/approach: Personal memories corroborated with published articles. Findings: There have been very many developments in libraries in a comparatively short period of time as a result of using computer systems, and…

Line, Maurice B.

2006-01-01

17

Forty years in capsaicin research for sensory pharmacology and physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of chilli peppers has become a “hot” topic in neuroscience with yearly publications over half thousand papers. It is outlined in this survey how this exciting Hungarian research field emerged from almost complete ignorance. From the initial observation of the phenomenon of “capsaicin desensitization”, a long-lasting chemoanalgesia and impairment in thermoregulation against heat, the chain of

János Szolcsányi

2004-01-01

18

Forty years of ecological engineering with Spartina plantations in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a short review of our works in the last 40 years in China. It is the product of two audacious events in the 1960s: the introduction of Spartina anglica and the measure of ecological engineering that is possible through skillfully using Spartina plantations. For scientists and engineers seeking countermeasures to solve problems of disasters derived from sea level

Chung-Hsin Chung

2006-01-01

19

Forty Years of Organization Studies: Reflections from a Micro Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews 40 years of organizational studies from a micro perspective representing the author's roots in psychology. The field's major accomplishment is its interdisciplinarity. Organizational studies helped put organizational management under critical scrutiny and demonstrate the futility of devising simplistic solutions to organizational and…

Porter, Lyman W.

1996-01-01

20

Circulation Autumn: Some Thoughts on Forty Fulfillment Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses some of the people and events that influenced academic journal publishing in the past 30-40 years and how this may affect the future. Topics considered include changes in printing technology, automation of accounting and subscriber information, economic considerations, library collection development and funding, and electronic journals.…

Cox, Brian

1998-01-01

21

Forty-year appraisal of gastrinoma. Back to the future.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The author analyzed potential survival determinants in gastrinoma to characterize a possible uniform staging system and to determine whether complete surgical resection improves expected survival. SUMMARY AND BACKGROUND DATA: Gastrinoma is an indolent yet malignant neuroendocrine tumor. The associated gastric acid hypersecretion can be controlled medically. Staging of gastrinoma is inconsistent and the role of surgical resection controversial. METHODS: Seventy-four patients with gastrinoma with a minimum 5-year follow-up were assessed. Cox's proportional hazards regression model was used to examine the association of risk factors with survival. RESULTS: The following factors had no effect on survival: age at diagnosis, sex, presence of lymph node metastases, associated multiple endocrine neoplasia, and method of ulcer treatment. The three unique determinants of survival were primary tumor size (relative risk, 1.534; p = 0.0005), liver metastases (relative risk, 2.947; p = 0.0209), and complete surgical resection (relative risk, 0.163; p = 0.0076). On the basis of these risk factors, a uniform staging system is proposed and predictive survival curves developed. CONCLUSIONS: The primary determinants of survival in gastrinoma are the size of the primary tumor and liver metastases. Complete surgical resection reduces mortality, regardless of other factors.

Ellison, E C

1995-01-01

22

Transcutaneous Sacral Neurostimulation for Irritative Voiding Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Patients with irritative voiding dysfunction are often unresponsive to standard clinical treatment. We evaluated the response of such individuals to transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the third sacral nerve. Methods: 32 patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction (31 female and 1 male; mean age 47 years) were recruited to the study. Ambulatory transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation was applied bilaterally to the

Ian K. Walsh; Robin S. Johnston; Patrick F. Keane

1999-01-01

23

The International Monetary System: Forty years after Bretton Woods: Review essay  

Microsoft Academic Search

universi@ of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22901, USA In May 1984 a distinguished group of central bankers and economists gathered for a conference at Bretton Woods to consider the evolution of the world monetary system that was born at that location forty years earlier. This volume contains nine essays, with accompanying discussion, on issues of performance and reform of current international

Charles Engel

1986-01-01

24

Stable isotope separation in calutrons: Forty years of production and distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable isotope separation program, established in 1945, has operated continually to provide enriched stable isotopes and selected radioactive isotopes, including the actinides, for use in research, medicine, and industrial applications. This report summarizes the first forty years of effort in the production and distribution of stable isotopes. Evolution of the program along with the research and development, chemical processing,

W. A. Bell; J. G. Tracy

1987-01-01

25

A case study of systemic curricular reform: A forty-year history  

Microsoft Academic Search

What follows is a description of the development of a particular inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum program and how its theoretical underpinnings positively influenced a school district's (K-12) science program and also impacted district- and state-wide curriculum reform initiatives. The district's science program has evolved since the inception of the inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum reform forty years ago. Therefore,

Timothy Alan Laubach

2005-01-01

26

Stable isotope separation in calutrons: Forty years of production and distribution  

SciTech Connect

The stable isotope separation program, established in 1945, has operated continually to provide enriched stable isotopes and selected radioactive isotopes, including the actinides, for use in research, medicine, and industrial applications. This report summarizes the first forty years of effort in the production and distribution of stable isotopes. Evolution of the program along with the research and development, chemical processing, and production efforts are highlighted. A total of 3.86 million separator hours has been utilized to separate 235 isotopes of 56 elements. Relative effort expended toward processing each of these elements is shown. Collection rates (mg/separator h), which vary by a factor of 20,000 from the highest to the lowest (/sup 205/Tl to /sup 46/Ca), and the attainable isotopic purity for each isotope are presented. Policies related to isotope pricing, isotope distribution, and support for the enrichment program are discussed. Changes in government funding, coupled with large variations in sales revenue, have resulted in 7-fold perturbations in production levels.

Bell, W.A.; Tracy, J.G.

1987-11-01

27

[One hundred and forty years of Turkish civilian and Turkish military hospital in Sarajevo].  

PubMed

This year BIH health celebrates two anniversaries: One hundred and forty years of Turkish civilian and Turkish military hospital in Sarajevo. During Ottoman period in Bosnian pasha region, Oman authorities have founded several military (in each bigger center it has been established military hospital of the Turkish Army) and five civil hospitals, mostly financed from vakuf (Islamic charity) funds. However, first hospital institution in BIH was located in Hadzi Sinan tekija at Mihrivode in Sarajevo, where was located special room for treatment, of mostly physiological patients, using zikr (spiritual ritual). By second half of 19th century civil populations were cured in homes, and wealthy citizens had their own private physicians who used to come with purpose or temporary from Dalmatian or neighboring countries bringing with them appropriate medications. By establishment of mentioned hospitals, other populations were treated by barbers, ranar (specialist for wounds), travar (person who treats patients with grass), and attars who had attar shops with medications purchased from Osman imperia or neighboring western countries. Drugs were prescribed to patients from Ijekarusa (drug prescription book), who were copied from generations and religion books, religion authorities of all confessions or from originals and copies of Arabic medical books which were brought by individuals going to Arabic countries (Mecca, Istanbul, Cairo, etc.). Mentioned hospitals, founded during Osman period (Sarajevo, Tuzla, Mostar, Travnik, Bihac) had key role in the history of BIH health, and they were basis for latter established regional and municipality hospitals founded in the Austria-Hungarian period. In the paper are described Turkish military and Turkish civil hospital established in June 1866 and in October 1866. PMID:16528939

Masi?, Izet

2006-01-01

28

Nonpharmacological approaches: diet and neurostimulation.  

PubMed

There are many children with intractable epilepsy who do not respond to anticonvulsant medications yet are not candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. For these children and more, nonpharmacologic therapies can be very helpful. The primary therapies include diet and neurostimulation. Dietary therapies available currently include the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, medium chain triglyceride diet, and low glycemic index treatment. Neurostimulation, using electricity to abort seizures, includes vagus nerve stimulation only at this time. However, other treatments such as deep brain stimulation and cortical responsive stimulation (NeuroPace) are under active development. PMID:23622228

Kossoff, Eric H

2013-01-01

29

A look back at forty years of lead-acid-battery development; A survey especially regarding stationary applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years ago, lead-acid batteries were already the dominating electrochemical storage system. As standby batteries, they mostly were used as large central batteries of flooded cells. Although they already represented a matured system, development went on, mainly in the areas of safety aspects and reduction of maintenance expenses. An important turning point was the introduction of the valve-regulated design, abbreviated

D. Berndt

2005-01-01

30

Intelligent Control Strategies for Neurostimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurodevices for the management of nervous system disorders have been recognized as most promising through the coming decades.\\u000a Technological development is being spurred on as drugs and other standard therapies have reached diminishing returns. New\\u000a data enabled by cutting-edge telemetric devices will spin off new business models, for example, in seizure rhythm management.\\u000a Implantable neurostimulation devices already exist as adjunct

Javier Echauz; Hiram Firpi; George Georgoulas

31

A forty-five year follow-up EEG study of Qigong practice.  

PubMed

A follow-up EEG study was conducted on a subject with 50 years of experiences in Qigong. Resting EEG at present showed frontally dominant alpha-1 as compared to occipitally dominant alpha-2 described in 1962. During the Qigong practice alph-1 enhanced quickly and became far more prominent than 50 years ago. Compared with baseline, these activities remained to be higher at rest after the Qigong practice. These results suggest that extended practice in meditation may change the EEG pattern and its underlying neurophysiology. It remains to be explored as to what biological significance and clinical relevance do these physiological changes might mean. PMID:19229721

Qin, Zhen; Jin, Yi; Lin, Shin; Hermanowicz, Neal S

2009-01-01

32

Forty Years of Cultural Change among the Inuit in Alaska, Canada and Greenland: Some Reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peoples in the arctic regions have experienced unprecedented cultural change in the last 40 years. The Dene, Metis, Samis, Athapaskans, Inuit and other aboriginal people in these regions have all seen their traditional lifestyles altered dramatically with the increased influx of southern peoples, with their baggage of modem technology, bureaucracy and assorted economic\\/political\\/soial\\/cultural systems. This paper focuses on the

MARIANNE STENBAEK

33

History of the International Atomic Energy Agency: The First Forty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Atomic Energy Agency: Personal Reflections 1997 (Vienna: IAEA) 311 pp AS260 (hardback) ISBN 92 0 102497 5 These two books are a contribution to the 40th birthday celebrations of the IAEA. I have worked in the field of Health Physics for 39 of those years, and have contributed to projects for the Agency during that time so these volumes

J A B Gibson

1998-01-01

34

Forty-Year Outcome of Ankle "Cup" Arthroplasty for Post-Traumatic Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Ankle arthroplasty for post-traumatic tibiotalar arthritis remains controversial. The current literature strongly recommends arthrodesis, especially in those patients who will overload the joint: the young, the active and the overweight patients. The case described here is a 40-year follow up. A 31-year old man underwent talar dome resurfacing with a custom Vitallium implant for post-traumatic arthritis in 1962. He continued to work as a heavy laborer until retirement in 1987 and presently remains virtually asymptomatic with regard to his foot and ankle. The longevity of this individual implant has been remarkable. The unique design, minimal resection, surgical approach and remarkable success merit discussion in the light of publication of predominantly bleak reports of arthroplasty in this patient population.

Muir, Dawson C; Amendola, Annunziato; Saltzman, Charles L

2002-01-01

35

Forty years after Jackson v. Indiana: states' compliance with "reasonable period of time" ruling.  

PubMed

In Jackson v. Indiana (1972) the U.S. Supreme Court held that states may not indefinitely confine criminal defendants solely on the basis of incompetence to stand trial. The Court ruled that the commitment duration be limited based on the likelihood of restorability, but did not provide specific time limits. Nearly four decades later, there is striking heterogeneity regarding the length of confinement. As of 2007, 28 percent of the states specify 1 year or less, 20 percent specify 1 to 10 years, 22 percent link the limit to the criminal penalty for the charged offense (up to life), and 30 percent set no limit. Thus, most state statutes seem out of compliance with Jackson. While research has focused on predicting restorability and testing restoration modalities, empirical evidence about the reasonable length of time to determine restorability has not been adequately addressed. Quantitative analysis of Jackson's reasonable period of time is needed to ensure due process for incompetent felony defendants. PMID:22635300

Kaufman, Andrew R; Way, Bruce B; Suardi, Enrico

2012-01-01

36

Forty-five years of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation physics: 1956 to 2001  

SciTech Connect

The history of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics in the 1950's and 1960's is reviewed, followed by some highlights of the spectacular discoveries in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation made during the 1970's. The consolidation of knowledge during the last few years is summarized. Some predictions are made for the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics for the next decade and beyond. (LEW)

Richter, B.

1985-04-01

37

Forty-Six Years of IRE: A Statistical and Documentary Survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper surveys the articles published in IRE between 1955and 2000, analysing and comparing a range of data. Variables analysedinclude the gender and nationality of the authors, the countries andsubjects dealt with, the research methodologies used, and the way inwhich the articles reflect political ideological and social changes.This exercise, which has never before been undertaken in IRE,provides a detailed documentation of significant trends and developmentsin the journal over 46 years.

Schwippert, Knut

2002-03-01

38

Forty-two-year-old active duty Marine presents with hematemesis.  

PubMed

A 42-year-old active duty marine presented to the emergency room with hematemesis. This article describes the appropriate step-by-step management for this individual with an upper gastrointestinal bleed, and we discuss potential differential diagnoses and update readers on the current aspects of managing his final diagnosis. Through questions and discussions, we will cover various diagnostic modalities and management strategies related to this case and provide some insight on the military relevance of his final condition. PMID:15186011

Veerappan, Ganesh R; Mulhall, Brian P

2004-05-01

39

Forty-five years of open plan office experience: An unusual case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The open plan office design concept has been around for at least 45 years. Through research, design, and practical experience, the basic concepts and parameters that impact acoustics and speech privacy have been fairly well developed and documented. The psychological aspects of human response and expectation to open plan environments, and the conceptual designs that emerge from the architect and interior designers are frontiers that still allow for ongoing study. A large open plan project completed during the dot-com bubble allowed an opportunity to design and experience an unusual open plan environment that utilized exposed sound masking system loudspeakers and minimal sound absorption.

Paoletti, Dennis A.

2005-09-01

40

Forty-year durability of a Smeloff-Cutter ball valve prosthesis in the mitral position.  

PubMed

A rare case requiring replacement of an intact Smeloff-Cutter ball prosthesis in the mitral position 40 years after implantation is presented. The Smeloff-Cutter ball valve prosthesis was designed to have two open cages. It has two potential advantages: a relatively large, effective orifice area and its self-washing effect that prevents thrombus formation. There have been only a few reports of survivors with ball valve prostheses in place for more than three decades especially in the mitral position. This is a valuable report describing the long-term durability of a Smeloff-Cutter ball valve prosthesis in the mitral position. PMID:22173679

Nakajima, Masato; Tsuchiya, Koji; Ichihara, Yuki; Amenomori, Shunsuke; Koshiyama, Hiroshi; Kaku, Yuji

2011-12-16

41

A career in culture and psychiatry research: reflections on forty-plus years.  

PubMed

The report chronicles a 44-year career in cultural psychiatry spent at Duke, Cornell, Harvard, the University of British Columbia, the University of Toronto, and Ryerson Universities. It describes my studies in a rural community in Nova Scotia, in traditional villages in Senegal, West Africa, on Canadian First Nations reserves and American Indian reservations, in refugee camps in Southeast Asia, among immigrant and refugee communities in Canada, in Ethiopia, and in Israel. The report summarizes major findings resulting from these research efforts, and discusses contributions to theory as well as potential implications for practice as well as policy. The article concludes with reflections about the present state of cultural psychiatry, raises concerns about where the field seems to be in danger of going wrong, and offers suggestions about what needs to be done next. PMID:21511843

Beiser, Morton

2011-04-01

42

The Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope: Construction and Forty Years of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Effelsberg 100-m dish represents a major breakthrough in the technology of radio telescope construction. Using new methods of computation a big step in the direction of improved surface accuracy for large structures was achieved. In conjunction with the decision to build the 100-m radio telescope the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) founded the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn. The MPIfR grew out of the Bonn University Astronomy Department to become one of the leading institutes for radio astronomy in the world. This new institute received strong support from the MPG in the form of new positions and operating funds. As a result, the 100-m radio telescope could be quickly opened up for astronomical observations. The technical divisions provided state-of-the-art receivers and astronomical software. Teams of astronomical researchers made inroads in several important directions of astronomical research. Over the years virtually all the observing methods of radio astronomy were implemented at Effelsberg. In later years the MPIfR became involved in mm, sub-mm and infrared astronomy research. However, the 100-m radio telescope remained the `work horse' of the Institute. The Effelsberg Radio Telescope will celebrate its 40th anniversary of operations in May 2011 and is still going strong. The observations with the 100-m radio telescope have resulted in thousands of publications. It has served several generations of radio astronomers and has given hundreds of students the opportunity to complete doctoral degrees. The 100-m radio telescope has been upgraded continuously, is in excellent condition and can look to a further period as an important research instrument.

Wielebinski, Richard; Junkes, Norbert; Grahl, Berndt H.

2011-03-01

43

Forty million years of mutualism: Evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association  

PubMed Central

The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 ± 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0–6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 ± 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 ± 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available.

Pellmyr, Olle; Leebens-Mack, James

1999-01-01

44

[The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].  

PubMed

The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens. PMID:22586775

Barzilay, Willemjan

2009-01-01

45

SEMPRE: Forty Years on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This historical account traces the beginnings of the Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) to the founding of the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education (SRPMME) in 1972, which in turn had evolved from Arnold Bentley's Research in Music Education conferences instituted in 1966. The paper charts the…

Cox, Gordon; Crickmore, Leon; Plummeridge, Charles; Sergeant, Desmond

2012-01-01

46

Forty Years and Counting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author aims to answer three questions that Ken Lincoln asked in the introduction to his book. Where have Indians come? What have they learned? And what lies ahead? The author argues that many Indian tribes have power now with their business opportunities. Things are changing in many ways for them. They can say what they want…

Sarris, Greg

2011-01-01

47

Thin film platinum cuff electrodes for neurostimulation: in vitro approach of safe neurostimulation parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin film technology takes more and more importance in the development of biomedical devices dedicated to functional neurostimulation. Our research about the design of implant neurostimulating electrode is oriented toward thin film cuff electrodes based on a polyimide substrate covered by a chromium\\/gold\\/Pt film. The chromium\\/gold sputtered film serves as adhesion layer and current collector whereas platinum acts as an

Sophie Mailley; Marc Hyland; Pascal Mailley; James A. McLaughlin; Eric T. McAdams

2004-01-01

48

Summary and Future Directions of Therapeutic Brain Stimulation: Neurostimulation and Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies that use electromagnetism applied to nervous tissue for the purpose of neurostimulation have made rapid advancements in recent years. This leap forward in brain treatment challenges the traditional categorical divisions between neurologists, psychiatrists, and neurosurgeons. The therapy itself invites a rethinking of terminology as physicians debate its place within standard therapeutic models. Several areas of concern have manifested themselves

Mark S. George

2001-01-01

49

A Band of Sisters: The Impact of Long-Term Small Group Participation--Forty Years in a Women's Prayer and Bible Study Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a case study of a women's prayer and Bible study group that has met for over forty years. The report focuses on factors contributing to the group's longevity and vitality over time, how it changed over the years, and its impact on the lives of the women who participated in it. It also addresses how this long-term group…

Lawson, Kevin E.

2006-01-01

50

A MEMS-based fully-integrated wireless neurostimulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report design, fabrication and in-vivo animal testing of a MEMS-based wireless battery-free compact (3.1 ?? 1.5 ?? 0.3 mm) neurostimulator for the treatment of chronic pain. The neurostimulator consists of a spiral coil for inductive power coupling, Schottky diodes for rectification, an ASIC neurostimulator circuit chip, and biphasic platinum-iridium (PtIr) stimulation electrodes. The device is fully integrated and completely

Sung-Hoon Cho; L. Cauller; W. Rosellini; Jeong-Bong Lee

2010-01-01

51

The effect of electrical neurostimulation on collateral perfusion  

PubMed Central

Background/objectives Clinical data have shown that electrical neurostimulation may improve myocardial ischaemia. Our aim was to investigate the possible effect of electrical neurostimulation on collateral perfusion. Methods Thirty patients with stable angina and significant single-vessel coronary artery disease scheduled for elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomised into three groups. In all patients two balloon inflations were performed, one for predilatation of the lesion, the second for stent delivery. Group one received active neurostimulation during the first ischaemic episode (predilatation), group two during the second ischaemic episode (stent delivery), and group three received placebo neurostimulation continuously. During both ischaemic episodes the collateral flow index was determined. Results No significant differences were found between active, inactive or placebo neurostimulation. In a post-hoc analysis the patients were stratified for presence or absence of significant collaterals. In patients with pre-existing significant collaterals, the collateral flow index was significantly higher during active neurostimulation compared with inactive neurostimulation (p=0.012) and compared with the merged inactive and placebo groups (p=0.011). Conclusion The present data show no effect of electrical neurostimulation on collateral perfusion in patients with single-vessel disease. In a post-hoc analysis in patients with evidence of collaterals, defined as a collateral flow index of >0.24, an increase in collateral perfusion was found during electrical neurostimulation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 4

de Vries, J.; Anthonio, R.L.; DeJongste, M.J.L.; Jessurun, G.A.; Tio, R.A.; Zijlstra, F.

2006-01-01

52

Forty Years On: Teachers' Assessments of Children's Personality Traits Predict Self-Reported Health Behaviors and Outcomes at Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

A life span health-behavior model was investigated in this longitudinal study of personality influences on health. Teachers assessed 963 elementary schoolchildren on traits that formed scales assessing the dimensions of the five-factor (Big Five) model of personality. Smoking, alcohol use, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health were assessed 40 years later in midlife. Childhood personality traits were significantly associated

Sarah E. Hampson; Lewis R. Goldberg; Thomas M. Vogt; Joan P. Dubanoski

2006-01-01

53

Forty-five years of keratoprosthesis study and application at the Filatov Institute: a retrospective analysis of 1 060 cases  

PubMed Central

AIM To present results of the keratoprosthesis method used at The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases and Tissue Therapy. METHODS A retrospective case series analysis was used to describe the development of new types of keratoprostheses and methods of implantation as well as different ways of leukoma strengthening. RESULTS Keratoprosthesis was performed in 1 060 eyes of 1 040 patients with leukomas of different etiology: burns, 725 eyes (68.4%); trauma, 120 eyes (11.3%); keratitis and ocular pemphigoid, 108 eyes (10.2%); and bullous keratopathy, 107 eyes (10.1%). Visual acuity before keratoprosthesis consisted of light perception in 962 eyes (92%), and 98 eyes (8%) had minimal visual acuity (1/200-1/50). Both eyes were blind (visual acuity less than 1/200) in 955 patients (91.8%). The period of blindness varied from 1 to 52 years. As a result of keratoprosthesis, visual acuity of ?1/200 was restored in 1 023 of 1 060 eyes (96.5%). Visual acuity of 20/200-20/20 was achieved in 716 eyes (67.5%). At the last follow-up visit visual acuity of ?1/200 was preserved in 806 eyes (76%), visual acuity of 20/200-20/20 was measured in 583 of 1 060 eyes (55%) and good keratoprosthesis fixation in the cornea was achieved in 986 of 1 060 eyes (93%). The minimal follow-up was 12 months (range, 12 months to 37 years, median 5 years). CONCLUSION Our techniques of keratoprosthesis effectively restore vision in patients with leukomas that cannot be treated by optical corneal grafting.

Iakymenko, Stanislav

2013-01-01

54

Modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in London: forty years of follow-up in the Whitehall study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The determinants of prostate cancer––aside from established but non-modifiable risk factors of increased age, black ethnicity,\\u000a and a positive family history––are poorly understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We examined the association of a series of baseline socioeconomic, behavioral, and metabolic characteristics with the risk\\u000a of prostate cancer mortality in a 40-year follow-up of study members from the original Whitehall cohort study. During this\\u000a period

G. David Batty; Mika Kivimäki; Robert Clarke; George Davey Smith; Martin J. Shipley

2011-01-01

55

Forty-six years of patient ductus arteriosus division at Children's Memorial Hospital of Chicago. Standards for comparison.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors reviewed a large surgical experience (during five decades) with ligation and division of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in light of previously reported historical standards and present-day alternatives. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Ligation of PDA was first performed by Gross in 1938. Various surgical techniques used since then have included ligation and division, simple ligation, and hemaclip application. Recently introduced therapies include percutaneous transcatheter ductal closure devices (PTDC) and video-assisted thoracotomy (VAT). Percutaneous transcatheter ductal closure device protagonists cite surgical recurrence rates as high as 22% to justify continued application. METHODS: Between 1947 and 1993, 98.2% of 1108 patients (premature babies excluded) had interruption of PDA by ligation and division. Recent improvements have included muscle-sparing thoracotomy, minimal use of tube thoracostomy, and same-day surgery. RESULTS: Mortality was zero and morbidity (4.4%) has been low over time. Mean age at surgery has decreased from 5.9 +/- 3.3 years to 3.6 +/- 3.8 years (p < 0.001); patients requiring blood transfusion decreased from 34% to 4.6% (p < 0.001); and length of hospital stay (LOS) has decreased from 12.1 +/- 2.9 days to 3.8 +/- 2.1 days (p < 0.001). Length of stay for the last 27 patients was 2.8 +/- .8 days. Patient ductus arteriosus recurrence rate is zero with this technique. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrence rates for PTDC are high with as yet unknown consequences of large catheter vascular access, endocarditis, or left pulmonary artery stenosis. Video-assisted thoracotomy for PDA interruption has the potential for uncontrolled exsanguinating hemorrhage. Open thoracotomy for PDA ligation and division can be performed safely and without recurrence through a muscle-sparing incision with short LOS. All other therapeutic interventions must be compared to these standards. Images Figure 2.

Mavroudis, C; Backer, C L; Gevitz, M

1994-01-01

56

Are Risk Factors Common to Thyroid Cancer and Nodule? A Forty Years Observational Time-Trend Study  

PubMed Central

A progressive increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) has been reported over the last few decades. This either reflects the increased number of newly discovered and accurately selected thyroid nodules with more sensitive technologies and a relative more potent carcinogenic effect of pathogenetic factors in malignant, but not benign nodules. This observational time-trend study addresses this issue by analysing the proportion of TC within 8411 consecutive thyroid nodule (TN) patients evaluated in Pisa by the same pathology Department and individual clinician over a four-decade period. From 1972 to 1979 surgery was used to detect TC among the TN patients: 1140 TN patients were operated on and 35 cancers were detected (3.1% of all the TN patients). Subsequently, needle aspiration techniques were used to select TN for surgery. From 1980 to 1992, 5403 TN patients were examined, 483 were selected for surgery, and 150 cancers were found (2.8% of all the TN patients). From 1993 to 2010, 1568 TN patients were examined, 143 were selected for surgery, and 46 cancers were found (2.9% of all the TN patients). Therefore, in the University Hospital of Pisa, and independent of preoperative TN selection protocols, these proportions of TN eventually found to harbor TC remained statistically unchanged over 40 years (p?=?0.810). This finding suggests that pathogenic risk factors and more sensitive diagnostic technologies did not differentially affect the incidence of TN and TC.

Carpi, Angelo; Rossi, Giuseppe; Romani, Rossana; Di Coscio, Giancarlo; Nicolini, Andrea; Simoncini, Tommaso; Russo, Matteo; Mechanick, Jeffrey

2012-01-01

57

Forty Years on: Touchstones Now  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Touchstones" series of poetry anthologies was first published in the UK between 1968 and 1972 in five volumes. Over a million copies and three revisions later, "Touchstones Now 11-14" appeared in the summer of 2008. Few, if any, books for the classroom can claim such longevity. In this article, the compilers of the anthologies, Michael and…

Benton, Michael; Benton, Peter

2008-01-01

58

Forty Four Years a King.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum unit contains guidelines for Martin Luther King Jr. Day, January 15th. Items included in the guide are: a list of suggested activities, a short biography of Dr. King, excerpts from some of his speeches including the famous, "I Have A Dream" speech, a play, study questions, "A King's Journey", a game, and a story about King which…

Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Dept. of Intergroup Education.

59

Forty Four Years a King.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum unit contains guidelines for Martin Luther King Jr. Day, January 15th. Items included in the guide are: a list of suggested activities, a short biography of Dr. King, excerpts from some of his speeches including the famous, "I Have A Dream" speech, a play, study questions, "A King's Journey", a game, and a story about King which…

Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Dept. of Intergroup Education.

60

Fibre optics: Forty years later  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-01-31

61

Forty Years on: Touchstones Now  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The "Touchstones" series of poetry anthologies was first published in the UK between 1968 and 1972 in five volumes. Over a million copies and three revisions later, "Touchstones Now 11-14" appeared in the summer of 2008. Few, if any, books for the classroom can claim such longevity. In this article, the compilers of the anthologies, Michael and…

Benton, Michael; Benton, Peter

2008-01-01

62

The effect of electrical neurostimulation on collateral perfusion during acute coronary occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Electrical neurostimulation can be used to treat patients with refractory angina, it reduces angina and ischemia. Previous data have suggested that electrical neurostimulation may alleviate myocardial ischaemia through increased collateral perfusion. We investigated the effect of electrical neurostimulation on functional collateral perfusion, assessed by distal coronary pressure measurement during acute coronary occlusion. We sought to study the effect of

Jessica de Vries; Rutger L Anthonio; Mike JL DeJongste; Gillian A Jessurun; Eng-Shiong Tan; Bart JGL de Smet; Ad FM van den Heuvel; Michiel J Staal; Felix Zijlstra

2007-01-01

63

Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

2011-01-01

64

Analysis of induced electrical currents from magnetic field coupling inside implantable neurostimulator leads  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade, the number of neurostimulator systems implanted in patients has been rapidly growing. Nearly 50, 000 neurostimulators are implanted worldwide annually. The most common type of implantable neurostimulators is indicated for pain relief. At the same time, commercial use of other electromagnetic technologies is expanding, making electromagnetic interference (EMI) of neurostimulator function an issue of concern. Typically reported sources of neurostimulator EMI include security systems, metal detectors and wireless equipment. When near such sources, patients with implanted neurostimulators have reported adverse events such as shock, pain, and increased stimulation. In recent in vitro studies, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to inhibit the stimulation pulse of an implantable neurostimulator system during low frequency exposure at close distances. This could potentially be due to induced electrical currents inside the implantable neurostimulator leads that are caused by magnetic field coupling from the low frequency identification system. Methods To systematically address the concerns posed by EMI, we developed a test platform to assess the interference from coupled magnetic fields on implantable neurostimulator systems. To measure interference, we recorded the output of one implantable neurostimulator, programmed for best therapy threshold settings, when in close proximity to an operating low frequency RFID emitter. The output contained electrical potentials from the neurostimulator system and those induced by EMI from the RFID emitter. We also recorded the output of the same neurostimulator system programmed for best therapy threshold settings without RFID interference. Using the Spatially Extended Nonlinear Node (SENN) model, we compared threshold factors of spinal cord fiber excitation for both recorded outputs. Results The electric current induced by low frequency RFID emitter was not significant to have a noticeable effect on electrical stimulation. Conclusions We demonstrated a method for analyzing effects of coupled magnetic field interference on implantable neurostimulator system and its electrodes which could be used by device manufacturers during the design and testing phases of the development process.

2011-01-01

65

Ultrasound-based neurostimulation in the mouse model.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-based neurostimulation would be a useful tool prior to MR-guided focused ultrasound treatments in the brain. In this work, we report on our studies on ultrasound-based neurostimulation in the mouse model. We define the success rate as the ratio of the number of positive EMG responses to the number of sonications. A single element ultrasound transducer with a center frequency of 500 kHz was applied to the mouse head via a coupling column and coupling gel on the mouse head. EMG electrodes were placed in the mouse neck and tail muscles to measure contraction of the relevant muscles as the ultrasound transducer is moved across the mouse head. The success rate increases with ultrasound intensity or with ultrasound duration, following a sigmoidal curve. As the ultrasound frequency is increased, the ultrasound intensity must be increased for the same success rate. Movement of the ultrasound transducer across the brain changes the response in the relevant EMG systems such that the neck EMG response is stronger when the transducer is more rostrally placed, while the tail EMG response is stronger when the transducer is more caudally placed. Our findings present evidence for selective targeting in the mouse model of ultrasound-based neurostimulation. PMID:24181342

Butts Pauly, Kim; King, Randy; Ye, Patrick; Brown, Julian

2013-11-01

66

CMOS Neurostimulation ASIC with 100 Channels, Scaleable Output, and Bidirectional Radio-Frequency Telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

channel neurostimulation circuit comprising a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed, constructed and tested. The ASIC forms a significant milestone and an integral compo- nent of a 100-electrode neurostimulation system being developed by the authors. The system comprises an externally worn transmitter and a body implantable stimulator. The purpose of the system is

Gregg Jørgen Suaning; Nigel H. Lovell

2001-01-01

67

CMOS neurostimulation ASIC with 100 channels, scaleable output, and bidirectional radio-frequency telemetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

100-channel neurostimulation circuit comprising a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed, constructed and tested. The ASIC forms a significant milestone and an integral component of a 100-electrode neurostimulation system being developed by the authors. The system comprises an externally worn transmitter and a body implantable stimulator. The purpose of the system is to communicate

Gregg Jørgen Suaning; Nigel H. Lovell

2001-01-01

68

Conservative treatment with spontaneous stabilization of Grade II isthmic spondylolisthesis L5/S1 in a forty-four-year old woman, with a six-year follow-up: a case report.  

PubMed

Spondylolisthesis is a pathological condition caused by the slipping of a vertebral body, compared to the underlying structure, following structural and/or degenerative changes to the spine. Studies have attempted evidence to the connection between the natural history of spondylolisthesis, the degree and progression of the slip factor, as well as the pain and disability. Studies have reported a high level of heterogeneity of these factors in different patients as well as difficulty in predicting behaviour. It has been suggested that vertebral instability, independent of the slip factor, could be considered the most important factor to be treated conservatively or surgically. Furthermore, it appears that some patients may manifest complete disk degeneration over time, with vertebral bodies shifting closer and spontaneous stabilisation. This case study reports a forty-four-year old woman, with isthmic spondylolisthesis, where the spine surgeon recommended physiotherapy for conservative treatment, with a prognosis of possible spontaneous stabilization. The case was followed for six years, both clinically and radiologically. Treatment was based on a specific stabilising training program (motor control), immediately aimed to improve the disability and pain factors while waiting for a possible spontaneous stabilisation, that the latest radiological exams revealed with an attempt of arthrodesis. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) to measure disability, and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) to measure pain, were carried out at the beginning, during and at the end of treatment. They were compared with the radiographic material documenting the evolution of the spondylolisthesis over time. This case study appears to confirm that the hypothesis that a specific aimed approach of rehabilitation may improve the disability and pain levels without compromising the process of spontaneous arthrodesis. The evolution was documented radiographically and clinically over a six-year period. PMID:22071501

Ferrari, S; Costa, F; Fornari, M

2011-11-09

69

A Forty-Year Follow-Up of the Dallas Bed Rest and Training Study: The Effect of Age on the Cardiovascular Response to Exercise in Men  

PubMed Central

Background In 1966, five 20-year-old men underwent a comprehensive physiological evaluation of the capacity for adaptation of the cardiovascular system in response to 3 weeks of bed rest and 8 weeks of heavy endurance training; these same participants were reevaluated before and after training at the age of 50. The aim of the present study was to reexamine these same men 40 years following the original assessments. Methods and Results In all three studies, minute ventilation and expired gases were analyzed during exercise testing with Douglas bag collection. Cardiac output (CO) was determined using the acetylene rebreathing technique. Compared with the original 30-year interval, the decline in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (?11% vs ?25%), maximal CO (+6% vs ?11%), and maximal stroke volume (+10% vs ?10%) were greater between 50 and 60 years of age. The annualized decline in VO2max (55 mL/min/y) between ages 50 and 60 was approximately fourfold higher than the decline between 20 and 50 years (12 mL/min/y). Conclusions In the original five participants of the Dallas Bed Rest and Training Study, VO2max declined after 40 years of living due to a balanced decrease in central and peripheral determinants of oxygen uptake. The rate of decline in VO2max and its components accelerated after the age of 50 years secondary to age and clinical comorbidities. The net proportional decline in VO2max for a period of 40 years of life was comparable with that experienced after 3 weeks of strict bed rest at the age of 20 (27% vs 26%, respectively).

McGavock, Jonathan M.; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Snell, Peter G.; McGuire, Darren K.; Pacini, Eric L.; Mitchell, Jere H.

2009-01-01

70

What Forty Years of Research Says about the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta-analytic validation was also conducted for…

Tamim, Rana M.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Abrami, Philip C.; Schmid, Richard F.

2011-01-01

71

Entering Our Fifth Decade: An Analysis of the Influence of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology During Its First Forty Years of Publication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (JCCP) over the past 40 years in enhancing attention to cultural issues within psychology is discussed. Analyses are presented showing frequencies over the past decade with which JCCP authors cite other journals and frequencies with which authors in other journals cite JCCP authors. JCCP’s impact factor over four decades is compared with

Walter J. Lonner; Peter B. Smith; Elke Murdock

2010-01-01

72

Forty-year follow-up of coronary heart disease mortality and its predictors: the Corfu cohort of the seven countries study.  

PubMed

The authors examined the effect of several risk factors in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality in the Corfu cohort of the Seven Countries Study. The population studied in this analysis consisted of 529 rural men (age 40-59 years) enrolled in 1961. Multivariate analysis was performed with CHD death as the end point; age, blood pressure, heart rate, serum total cholesterol, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, skinfold thickness, vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume were the predictors. The 40-year CHD survival rate was 63% (108 deaths). Age (hazard ratio [HR]=1.093; p<0.001), smoking (HR=1.79; p<0.05), body mass index (HR=1.05; p<0.1), and serum total cholesterol (HR=1.004; p<0.2) were independently associated with 40-year CHD mortality. Conclusively, in men from the Corfu cohort, age, lifestyle habits (expressed as smoking and body mass index), and serum cholesterol levels were consistently associated with 40-year CHD mortality. In addition, the current status of men in the Corfu cohort is marked by long-term adoption of a Mediterranean type of diet, physical activity, and optimism. PMID:15319585

Pitsavos, Christos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Menotti, Alessandro; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, John; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Dontas, Anastasios; Toutouzas, Pavlos

2003-01-01

73

What Forty Years of Research Says about the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta-analytic validation was also conducted for purposes…

Tamim, Rana M.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Abrami, Philip C.; Schmid, Richard F.

2011-01-01

74

Forty Years of Tropical Forest Recovery from Agriculture: Structure and Floristics of Secondary and Old-growth Riparian Forests in the Dominican Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in tropical secondary forests has grown as large areas of agriculture have been abandoned in recent decades; yet, there are few long-term studies of post-agriculture vegetation recovery in the tropics. In this study, we compared the vegetation structure and floristic composition of old-growth and 40-year-old secondary riparian forests in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic. Canopy height and stem density

Patrick H. Martin; Ruth E. Sherman; Timothy J. Fahey

2004-01-01

75

Forty years of science and management on the Upper Mississippi River: an analysis of the past and a view of the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The articles in this volume of Hydrobiologia commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Mississippi River Research Consortium\\u000a by synthesizing research and monitoring conducted on the river over the past 40 years. This article briefly describes the\\u000a recent history of development (since 1866) of the river and the programs that currently support monitoring, research, and\\u000a rehabilitation of the river. These programs have

Richard E. Sparks

2010-01-01

76

Supraorbital transcutaneous neurostimulation has sedative effects in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Transcutaneous neurostimulation (TNS) at extracephalic sites is a well known treatment of pain. Thanks to recent technical progress, the Cefaly® device now also allows supraorbital TNS. During observational clinical studies, several patients reported decreased vigilance or even sleepiness during a session of supraorbital TNS. We decided therefore to explore in more detail the potential sedative effect of supraorbital TNS, using standardized psychophysical tests in healthy volunteers. Methods We performed a double-blind cross-over sham-controlled study on 30 healthy subjects. They underwent a series of 4 vigilance tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale, d2 test). Each subject was tested under 4 different experimental conditions: without the neurostimulation device, with sham supraorbital TNS, with low frequency supraorbital TNS and with high frequency supraorbital TNS. Results As judged by the results of three tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale) there was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in vigilance and attention during high frequency TNS, while there were no changes during the other experimental conditions. Similarly, performance on the d2 test was impaired during high frequency TNS, but this change was not statistically significant. Conclusion Supraorbital high frequency TNS applied with the Cefaly® device decreases vigilance in healthy volunteers. Additional studies are needed to determine the duration of this effect, the underlying mechanisms and the possible relation with the stimulation parameters. Meanwhile, this effect opens interesting perspectives for the treatment of hyperarousal states and, possibly, insomnia.

2011-01-01

77

In line inspection prompts forties' line replacement  

SciTech Connect

An in-line inspection carried out at British Gas' On Line inspection Centre, a unit of British Gas plc, enabled BP Exploration to evaluate the condition of its Forties pipeline in the North Sea. Results of the inspection led to a decision to replace the line. The inspection and the results are described in a report written by Tom Sowerby of the center. Although the line remained in fully acceptable operating condition, the center reports it was clear that the Forties and other fields that used the system would go on producing well beyond the economic life of the original line. As a result of the inspections, BP last year replaced the 169-km (104-mile), 32-in Forties pipeline by laying alongside it a new 36-in. system. The replacement increased to 900,000 b/d the pipeline's capacity to take liquid products from a range of adjacent fields.

Not Available

1991-06-17

78

Ethics and Education Forty Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|R.S. Peters's 1966 book "Ethics and Education" is one of the most significant works in twentieth-century philosophy of education. At least in the United States, however, it is now rarely read or discussed. In this essay, Bryan Warnick looks at the virtues and vices of "Ethics and Education," examining some major criticisms of the book in light of…

Warnick, Bryan R.

2007-01-01

79

Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

Sulentic, J.

2010-10-01

80

Forty Years Later: Updating the Fossilization Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A founding concept in second language acquisition (SLA) research, fossilization has been fundamental to understanding second language (L2) development. The Fossilization Hypothesis, introduced in Selinker's seminal text (1972), has thus been one of the most influential theories, guiding a significant bulk of SLA research for four decades; 2012…

Han, ZhaoHong

2013-01-01

81

Ocean Drilling: Forty Years of International Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International cooperation is an essential component of modern scientific research and societal advancement [see Ismail-Zadeh and Beer, 2009], and scientific ocean drilling represents one of Earth science's longest-running and most successful international collaborations. The strength of this collaboration and its continued success result from the realization that scientific ocean drilling provides a unique and powerful tool to study the critical processes of both short-term change and the long-term evolution of Earth systems. A record of Earth's changing tectonics, climate, ocean circulation, and biota is preserved in marine sedimentary deposits and the underlying basement rocks. And because the ocean floor is the natural site for accumulation and preservation of geological materials, it may preserve a continuous record of these processes.

Smith, Deborah K.; Exon, Neville; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

2010-10-01

82

Schistosomiasis: Forty Years' War on the Worm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schistosome vaccine candidates are now entering phase I clinical trials. In an attempt to illustrate the progress made towards control, and the definition of potential vaccines against schistosomiasis, André Capron reviews some of the major findings and observations that have led to a significant evolution of our concepts, together with the production of novel and promising tools. It is obvious

A Capron

1998-01-01

83

Forty Years Later: Updating the Fossilization Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A founding concept in second language acquisition (SLA) research, fossilization has been fundamental to understanding second language (L2) development. The Fossilization Hypothesis, introduced in Selinker's seminal text (1972), has thus been one of the most influential theories, guiding a significant bulk of SLA research for four decades; 2012…

Han, ZhaoHong

2013-01-01

84

Forty Years of "Fire in the Belly"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As in the early days of the tribal college movement, tribal, federal, state, and private funding are still scarce. Fortunately, the founders of the movement, as well as those who worked at tribal colleges in the early days, created a template for others to follow. And tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) continue to turn out new leaders who…

Pember, Mary Annette

2012-01-01

85

Forty Years of BV Photometry at Hvar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of the program of systematic UBV photometric monitoring of Be stars, binaries, CP stars and some other targets is briefly summarized. It is shown that a careful data homogenization, reduction and transformation to the standard Johnson system can be carried out successfully even at a station nearly at the sea level when some strict measures are taken.

Harmanec, P.; Boži?, H.

86

Combined neurostimulation and neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience: past, present and future  

PubMed Central

Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioural consequences. This enables causal structure-function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging has provided novel insights into the basic mechanisms of action of neurostimulation on distributed networks. For example more recent work has established the capacity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe causal interregional influences, and their interaction with cognitive state changes. Combinations of neurostimulation and neuroimaging now face the challenge of integrating the known physiological effects of neurostimulation with theoretical and biological models of cognition, for example, when theoretical stalemates between opposing cognitive theories need to be resolved. This will be driven by novel developments including biologically informed computational network analyses for predicting the impact of neurostimulation on brain networks, as well as novel neuroimaging and neurostimulation techniques. We anticipate that such future developments will offer an expanded set of tools with which to interrogate structure-function relationships, and to formulate and reconceptualise testable hypotheses about complex neural network interactions and their causal role for cognition.

Bestmann, Sven; Feredoes, Eva

2013-01-01

87

Attempted reversible sympathetic ganglion block by an implantable neurostimulator  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Primary palmar hyperhidrosis is a pathological condition of excessive perspiration of the hands of unknown aetiology. The only effective treatment for permanent cure is the ablation of the sympathetic ganglia supplying the hands. One of the sequelae is compensatory sweating, namely increased perspiration in other parts of the body. Its mechanism is unknown. In a small proportion of patients, it may attend devastating proportions. It has practically no remedy, and the degree of compensatory hyperhidrosis is unpredictable prior to sympathectomy. The purpose of the present study was to obtain a reversible sympathetic block which may disclose subjects prone to develop severe compensatory hyperhidrosis and unfit for permanent ganglionic ablation. METHODS In three dogs, an experimental electrode was implanted via a left thoracotomy on the stellate ganglion, connected to a stimulator. The stimulation was activated after recovery. The contralateral ganglion served as control. Effect of the stimulation was assessed by observing the development of Horner's syndrome, which includes the appearance of miosis, ptosis and enophthalmus. Reversal of the sympathetic block was expected when the neurostimulation was discontinued and assessed by the disappearance of these signs. RESULTS Stimulation produced only a partial effect – an incomplete Horner's syndrome (miosis and sometime ptosis), which was not completely reversible after ceasing the stimulation. CONCLUSIONS Although neurostimulation achieved a partial sympathetic block, the present method failed to obtain a completely reversible effect. However, these results may indicate that different nervous pathways moderate the various components of the Horner's triad. Concerning the creation of a reversible sympathectomy; other approaches must be sought after.

Kopelman, Doron; Costa, Mario G.; Bejar, Jacob; Zaretsky, Asaph; Hashmonai, Moshe

2012-01-01

88

Responsive neurostimulation for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

With an annual incidence of 50/100,000 people, nearly 1% of the population suffers from epilepsy. Treatment with antiepileptic medication fails to achieve seizure remission in 20-30% of patients. One treatment option for refractory epilepsy patients who would not otherwise be surgical candidates is electrical stimulation of the brain, which is a rapidly evolving and reversible adjunctive therapy. Therapeutic stimulation can involve direct stimulation of the brain nuclei or indirect stimulation of peripheral nerves. There are three stimulation modalities that have class I evidence supporting their uses: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT), and, the most recently developed, responsive neurostimulation (RNS). While the other treatment modalities outlined deliver stimulation regardless of neuronal activity, the RNS administers stimulation only if triggered by seizure activity. The lower doses of stimulation provided by such responsive devices can not only reduce power consumption, but also prevent adverse reactions caused by continuous stimulation, which include the possibility of habituation to long-term stimulation. RNS, as an investigational treatment for medically refractory epilepsy, is currently under review by the FDA. Eventually systems may be developed to enable activation by neurochemical triggers or to wirelessly transmit any information gathered. We review the mechanisms, the current status, the target options, and the prospects of RNS for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. PMID:23735806

Liu, Chong; Wen, Xiong-Wei; Ge, Yan; Chen, Ning; Hu, Wen-Han; Zhang, Tan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Meng, Fan-Gang

2013-06-02

89

Synaptic and Behavioral Interactions of Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) with Neurostimulants  

PubMed Central

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), a neuraminidase inhibitor, is widely used for treatment of influenza. Because abnormal behaviors have been observed in some Japanese teenagers following oseltamivir use, its safety has been questioned. Oseltamivir is known to alter neuronal function and behavior in animals, particularly when administered in combination with ethanol. Based on this, we hypothesized that interactions of oseltamivir with other drugs may result in altered CNS excitability. We found that injection of ephedrine and caffeine overcame inactivity induced by oseltamivir and ethanol but did not alter changes in novelty seeking behavior in a Y-maze test. In ex vivo hippocampal slices, oseltamivir carboxylate (OTC), an active form of oseltamivir, alters excitability in the absence of ethanol. In slices pretreated with OTC, long-term depression (LTD), a form of synaptic plasticity that is correlated with Y-maze performance was not altered if caffeine or ephedrine was administered individually. However, LTD could not be induced in slices pretreated with OTC if caffeine and ephedrine were administered simultaneously. These observations suggest that combination of oseltamivir with other neurostimulants may alter synaptic plasticity and this may contribute to behavioral changes associated with the drug.

Izumi, Yukitoshi; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; O'Dell, Kazuko A; Zorumski, Charles F; Narahashi, Toshio

2009-01-01

90

Synaptic and behavioral interactions of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) with neurostimulants.  

PubMed

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), a neuraminidase inhibitor, is widely used for treatment of influenza. Because abnormal behaviors have been observed in some Japanese teenagers following oseltamivir use, its safety has been questioned. Oseltamivir is known to alter neuronal function and behavior in animals, particularly when administered in combination with ethanol. Based on this, it has been hypothesized that interactions of oseltamivir with other drugs may result in altered CNS excitability in this study. It has been found that injection of ephedrine and caffeine overcame inactivity induced by oseltamivir and ethanol but did not alter changes in novelty seeking behavior in a Y-maze test. In ex-vivo hippocampal slices, oseltamivir carboxylate (OTC), an active form of oseltamivir, alters excitability in the absence of ethanol. In slices pretreated with OTC, long-term depression (LTD), a form of synaptic plasticity that is correlated with Y-maze performance was not altered if caffeine or ephedrine was administered individually. However, LTD could not be induced in slices pretreated with OTC if caffeine and ephedrine were administered simultaneously. These observations suggest that combination of oseltamivir with other neurostimulants may alter synaptic plasticity and this may contribute to behavioral changes associated with the drug. PMID:19273546

Izumi, Y; Tokuda, K; O'Dell, Ka; Zorumski, Cf; Narahashi, T

2008-12-01

91

Results of a patient survey for an implantable neurostimulator to treat migraine headaches.  

PubMed

Migraine attacks are believed to involve activation of the trigeminovascular system and trigeminal-parasympathetic reflex, which is mediated through the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG). An implantable SPG neurostimulator has been developed to apply on-demand SPG stimulation for the treatment of severe primary headache. The neurostimulator is implanted via an oral incision and placed along the maxilla, with the lead placed at the SPG. The neurostimulator contains no battery and is powered and controlled via a handheld remote controller. The potential interest of patients with high-frequency, high-disability migraine in having a SPG neurostimulator implanted to treat migraine is unknown. We aimed to evaluate patient interest to undergo such an implantation procedure and to participate in a clinical investigation of on-demand SPG stimulation for migraine by conducting a survey at the Ghent University Hospital in 41 migraineurs. Seventy-seven percent (77%) of subjects expressed an interest in participating in a clinical investigation requiring implantation of a SPG neurostimulator when headache frequency and severity were considered and 69% when pain relief experienced with current migraine treatment was considered. Preventive and acute medications were used in 64 and 95% of the subjects, respectively, and provided a reported reduction of headache frequency, duration and pain. However, acute medications were frequently associated with headache recurrence and bothersome side effects. Results indicate that a majority of high-frequency, high-disability migraineurs, many of whom achieve pain relief with their current medications, have an interest in participating in a clinical investigation of an implantable SPG neurostimulator for the treatment of migraine headache. PMID:22395639

Paemeleire, Koen; Goodman, Amy M

2012-03-07

92

A Technique of Distal to Proximal Revision of Peripheral Neurostimulator Leads: Technical Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peripheral nerve stimulation for chronic pain states is a safe and efficacious technique, being used with increasing frequency. The incidence of hardware-related complications requiring revision remains high. Objectives: The authors describe a technique of distal to proximal neurostimulator lead revision, which does not require the changing of generators or extension leads, and thus presumably will minimize further device-related complications.

Antonios Mammis; Alon Y. Mogilner

2011-01-01

93

Electrochemical and structural characterizations of electrodeposited iridium oxide thin-film electrodes applied to neurostimulating electrical signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film technology takes more and more importance in the development of biomedical devices dedicated to functional neurostimulation. Our research about the design of implantable neurostimulating electrode is oriented toward thin-film cuff electrodes based on PTFE substrate covered by a gold\\/iridium oxide film. A gold-sputtered film serves as adhesion layer and current collector whereas iridium oxide acts as an electrochemical actuator.

S. C Mailley; M Hyland; P Mailley; J. M McLaughlin; E. T McAdams

2002-01-01

94

Forties oil line replacement overcomes sandwave challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major new 36-in., oil-export pipeline has been installed in the North Sea between the Forties field and Cruden Bay on the U.K. mainland. Designing and installing the line involved solving problems caused by sandwaves in the nearshore segment of the route. The Forties pipeline system covers offshore and land pipelines between the Forties field and the Firth of Forth

W. J. M. Steel; R. Imglis

1991-01-01

95

CMOS neurostimulation ASIC with 100 channels, scaleable output, and bidirectional radio-frequency telemetry.  

PubMed

100-channel neurostimulation circuit comprising a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed, constructed and tested. The ASIC forms a significant milestone and an integral component of a 100-electrode neurostimulation system being developed by the authors. The system comprises an externally worn transmitter and a body implantable stimulator. The purpose of the system is to communicate both data and power across tissue via radio-frequency (RF) telemetry such that externally programmable, constant current, charge balanced, biphasic stimuli may be delivered to neural tissue at 100 unique sites. An intrinsic reverse telemetry feature of the ASIC has been designed such that information pertaining to the device function, reconstruction of the stimulation voltage waveform, and the measurement of impedance may be obtained through noninvasive means. To compensate for the paucity of data pertaining to the stimulation thresholds necessary in evoking a physiological response, the ASIC has been designed with scaleable current output. The ASIC has been designed primarily as a treatment of degenerative disorders of the retina whereby the 100 channels are to be utilized in the delivery of a pattern of stimuli of varying intensity and or duty cycle to the surviving neural tissue of the retina. However, it is conceivable that other fields of neurostimulation such as cochlear prosthetics and functional electronic stimulation may benefit from the employment of the system. PMID:11296881

Suaning, G J; Lovell, N H

2001-02-01

96

Forty Years of Education: Will the Next Forty Be Any Better?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Ponders the transitory nature of some educational innovations, the resistence of the school system to outside forces, and two conditions without precedence: the reality of nuclear weapons and the women's movement. (MLF)|

Grambs, Jean Dresden

1981-01-01

97

Calibration and flight qualification of FORTIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group has completed the assembly and calibration of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of up to 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of-view. FORTIS is capable of selecting the far-UV brightest regions of the target area by utilizing an autonomous targeting system. Medium resolution (R ~ 400) spectra are recorded in redundant dual-order spectroscopic channels with ~40 cm2 of effective area at 1216 Å. The maiden launch of FORTIS occurred on May 10, 2013 out of the White Sands Missile Range, targeting the extended spiral galaxy M61 and nearby companion NGC 4301. We report on the final flight calibrations of the instrument, as well as the flight results.

Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Redwine, Keith; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

2013-09-01

98

Forty years and four surveys 1 1 Address reprint requests to: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Immunization Program Resource Center, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop E-34, Atlanta, GA 30333. Fax: (404) 639-8828  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This article reviews four surveys methodologies that have been used over the past 40 years to assess immunization rates in young children in the United States. These methods include three national surveys: (1) United States Immunization Survey (1959–1985), which was first a household and then a telephone survey; (2) National Health Interview Survey (1991–present), which interviews people in their

Diane M Simpson; Trena M Ezzati-Rice; Elizabeth R Zell

2001-01-01

99

Forties oil line replacement overcomes sandwave challenge  

SciTech Connect

A major new 36-in., oil-export pipeline has been installed in the North Sea between the Forties field and Cruden Bay on the U.K. mainland. Designing and installing the line involved solving problems caused by sandwaves in the nearshore segment of the route. The Forties pipeline system covers offshore and land pipelines between the Forties field and the Firth of Forth tanker loading terminal and incorporates oil transportation, stabilization-gas separation, processing, and storage. The pipeline is used as part of an integrated oil and gas liquid gathering system from the central North Sea. Oil and gas liquids from other offshore fields are connected by subsea pipelines and riser to the Forties Charlie platform. Inspection of the existing 32-in. offshore pipeline had indicated signs of corrosion which would prevent the system from operating economically as future demands increased. In addition, when the line was commissioned in 1975, it was not envisioned that it would eventually carry crude from several other fields, which will come onstream this decade. The decision to lay a new 36-in. sealine reflects this need for increased capacity to ensure that the Forties pipeline system continues as a major carrier of oil and gas liquids well into the next century. Corrosion monitoring and inspection of the 32-in. line led to sections of the topside pipework being replaced in 1985 and the top section of the rise in 1987. The corrosion also resulted in the pipeline maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) being limited to 115 barg (1,668 psig) from 129 barg (1,871 psig).

Steel, W.J.M.; Imglis, R. (BP Exploration, London (GB))

1991-03-06

100

ZigBee-based Wireless Neuro-Stimulator for Improving Stroke Recovery  

PubMed Central

Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and the second-leading cause of death in Korea. It is also the third-leading cause of death in the United States, leading to a serious demand for new interventions to improve the quality of life in stroke survivors. To this end, direct cortical stimulation using an epidural electrode has been reported with promising results in animal and human studies, showing the potential for enhancing the recovery in chronic stroke patients. For optimal results, doctors must be able to modify the stimulation pattern as frequently as needed over a period of time for a given patient. However, severe aftereffects caused by stroke limit patients' activities, making regular doctor visits for treatment difficult. This study aims to develop a prototype of a telemedicine system to enhance stroke recovery by using a ZigBeebased wireless neuro-stimulator. The ZigBee is a stable platform for many low-power wireless applications. To allow stroke patients to remotely obtain neuro-stimulation treatments from their doctors, we connected the ZigBee to the internet. The system also allows doctors to personalize treatment based on the history of the stimulation parameters. The system developed here can also be beneficial as a common platform for a wide range of brain diseases and clinical care for which electric stimulation is used.

Kim, Gookhwa; Yun, Hyojeong; Ryu, Munho; Shin, Yongil; Kim, Hyoungihl

2010-01-01

101

Predictors of battery life for the Activa ® Soletra 7426 Neurostimulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

DBS is increasingly used for Parkinson's disease, essential tremor and other movement disorders. The advertised battery life for Medtronic implantable pulse generators is 4–5 years, but can vary markedly. Theoretical formulas exist to predict battery life as a function of parameter setting, but almost no empiric confirmation of these predictions has been reported.We identified all battery replacements done for actual

William G Ondo; Catherine Meilak; Kevin D Vuong

2007-01-01

102

The IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society at Forty: The Challenges of an Evolving Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE oceanic engineering society (OES) has completed forty years of active engagement: the initial eight years in the form of the oceanography coordinating committee (OCC), followed by seven years as the council of oceanic engineering (COE), then the past twenty-five years in the form of an IEEE society. During those forty years, the OCC\\/COE\\/OES has existed to serve society,

Stanley G. Chamberlain; Joseph Czika; Norman D. Miller; Glen N. Williams

2008-01-01

103

Forty-Five Years of Marburg Virus Research  

PubMed Central

In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology.

Brauburger, Kristina; Hume, Adam J.; Muhlberger, Elke; Olejnik, Judith

2012-01-01

104

Kaernteknisk terminologi under fyrtio aar. (Nuclear terminology during forty years).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Sweden terminology work in the field of nuclear technology started in the early 1950s. Three dictionaries were completed in 1962, 1975 and 1990, respectively, mainly through cooperation between Swedish Mechanical Standards Institution (SMS) and Swedish...

N. G. Sjoestrand

1994-01-01

105

[Forty years of psychosomatic medicine. A historical retrospect (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The close interweaving of psychosocial and pathophysiological problems is emphasized with examples such as duodenal ulcer, the functional syndromes, psychogenic nanism, essential hypertension and even carcinoma. The increase in fatalities from coronary heart diseases, bronchial carcinoma, liver cirrhosis and road accidents confront us with the question of how far our industrial culture itself produces pathogenic factors. Medicine is therefore faced with the task of investigating the effects of human interreactions on health and disease. In so doing, medicine itself and the institutions it has created cannot be excluded. This is particularly true of internal medicine which, if it does not wish to withdraw from its traditional integrative duty, must cooperate still more closely with psychosomatic medicine. PMID:407461

Uexküll, T

1977-06-10

106

Jamaica ginger paralysis. Forty-seven-year follow-up.  

PubMed

In 1930, thousands of Americans were poisoned by an illicit extract of Jamaica ginger ("jake") used to circumvent the Prohibition laws. A neurotoxic organophosphate compound, triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP), had been used as an adulterant. The earliest reports were of peripheral neuritis, but later it was evident that an upper motor neuron syndrome had supervened. This TOCP poisoning apparently involved various cell groups and tracts in the spinal cord; the lesions was not peripheral at all. We interviewed 11 survivors of the illness residing in eastern Tennessee. Four were carefully examined. The principal findings showed the spasticity and abnormal reflexes of an upper motor neuron syndrome. One patient had mild disease, despite typical findings, and had lived a normal life. PMID:666613

Morgan, J P; Penovich, P

1978-08-01

107

Reflections on forty years of rendering medical care to women.  

PubMed Central

This paper provides a brief account of events leading to the establishment of the constitutional right to privacy in the case known as Griswold vs. State of Connecticut. It also discusses changes in the training of residents in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale University School of Medicine and the evolving role of women in the residency program. It concludes with reflections and speculations about new directions in medical care for women.

Stuermer, V. M.

1995-01-01

108

Forty Years Later: The Scope of Bioethics Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two discrete conceptions of bioethics emerged in the 1970s: a holistic model that would “embrace within its scope long-range environmental concerns” versus a notion of bioethics that “would deal with concrete medical dilemmas.” Although the latter has been the dominant perspective, Irina Pollard’s new book Bioscience Ethics reintroduces a more global perspective of bioethics. This essay provides a cursory review

Lainie Friedman Ross

2010-01-01

109

Forty years of meningococcal disease in Israel: 1951-1990.  

PubMed

Meningococcal disease accounts for approximately 20% of cases of bacterial meningitis in Israel. During the period 1951-1990, the annual incidence of meningococcal disease rarely exceeded two cases per 100,000 persons and was generally higher among non-Jews (largely the Arab population) than among Jews; there were some notable peaks of disease activity during 1963-1967, 1975, and 1987-1988. The highest incidence was among infants and young children, with a slight male predominance. The main period of disease activity was from January to April, but an unusual secondary peak in July coincided with the onset of peak summer temperatures. Monthly disease frequencies were significantly correlated with relative humidity. Incidence rates varied between regions and were lower in cities than in smaller settlements. Overall case-fatality rates decreased to approximately 11% for the period 1981-1990. Outbreaks were infrequent and tended to be small. Meningococci of serogroup B have dominated since the mid-1970s. Group A meningococci were isolated significantly more commonly from Arabs (26.26%) than from Jews (1.03%; P < .000001). The frequency with which group A organisms occurred among clinical isolates appeared to follow a more or less cyclical pattern. PMID:8353232

Block, C; Roitman, M; Bogokowsky, B; Meizlin, S; Slater, P E

1993-07-01

110

Forty more years of ramifications: Spectral asymptotics and its applications  

SciTech Connect

In writing this book, the editors commissioned eight experts in the field of Spectral Asymptotics to each contribute an article in their particular field of expertise. The written version of Hermann Weyl's famous Gibbs Lecture of 1948 is reprinted, as is the lecture given by Bryce DeWitt upon his acceptance of the Dirac Medal in 1987 for his view on Curved-Spacetime Propagators. The compilation is an interesting historical document as well as an invaluable resource for individuals seeking information on a specific subject.

Fulling, S.A.; Narcowhich, F.J. (eds.)

1992-01-01

111

Forty Years of School Readiness Research: What Have We Learned?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of children's school readiness concerns parents and teachers worldwide. Kindergarten teachers have reported that approximately one-third of U.S. children entering school are ill-prepared to achieve success. Experts also warn that many children are entering school lacking the fundamental skills to achieve academic success. It is…

Winter, Suzanne M.; Kelley, Michael F.

2008-01-01

112

Forty-Year-Old Foam Springs Back With New Benefits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The most recognized and widely used NASA spinoff is at it again. Temper foam, whose origins date back to 1966 when it was developed to absorb shock and, thus, offer improved protection and comfort in NASA's airplane seats, has paid its dividends to Earth ...

2005-01-01

113

Forty-eight hour kidney transplant admissions.  

PubMed

Forty-eight hour kidney transplantation admissions are a feasible option in selected recipients of live-donor allografts through the use of standardized post-operative protocols, multidisciplinary team patient care, and intensive follow-up at outpatient centers. Age, gender, and pre-transplant dialysis status did not impact the ability to achieve 48-hour admissions. We did not identify any other pre-operative risk factors that contributed to increased length of stay. Although ABO and highly sensitized recipients had longer lengths of stay, the subgroup was too small to achieve statistical significance. We did not encounter any readmissions within the first seven post-operative days. Further improvements in clinical management will enhance the potential to shorten the length of hospital stay for all kidney transplant recipients. PMID:23803179

Siskind, Eric; Villa, Manuel; Jaimes, Natalia; Huntoon, Kristin; Alex, Asha; Blum, Mark; Tyrell, Richard; Sameyah, Emil; Kuncewitch, Michael; Giangola, Matthew; Agorastos, Stergiani; Deutsch, Gary; Plumley, Lauren; Shen, Adam; Robinson, Melissa; Alexander, Mohini; Israel, Ezra; Lumermann, Leandro; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Calderon, Kellie; Jhaveri, Kenar D; Sachdeva, Mala; Bellucci, Alessandro; Mattana, Joseph; Fishbane, Steven; D'Agostino, Catherine; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene; Molmenti, Ernesto

2013-06-27

114

Frontal Non-Invasive Neurostimulation Modulates Antisaccade Preparation in Non-Human Primates  

PubMed Central

A combination of oculometric measurements, invasive electrophysiological recordings and microstimulation have proven instrumental to study the role of the Frontal Eye Field (FEF) in saccadic activity. We hereby gauged the ability of a non-invasive neurostimulation technology, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), to causally interfere with frontal activity in two macaque rhesus monkeys trained to perform a saccadic antisaccade task. We show that online single pulse TMS significantly modulated antisaccade latencies. Such effects proved dependent on TMS site (effects on FEF but not on an actively stimulated control site), TMS modality (present under active but not sham TMS on the FEF area), TMS intensity (intensities of at least 40% of the TMS machine maximal output required), TMS timing (more robust for pulses delivered at 150 ms than at 100 post target onset) and visual hemifield (relative latency decreases mainly for ipsilateral AS). Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using TMS to causally modulate antisaccade-associated computations in the non-human primate brain and support the use of this approach in monkeys to study brain function and its non-invasive neuromodulation for exploratory and therapeutic purposes.

Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Wattiez, Nicolas; Monfort, Morgane; Francois, Chantal; Rivaud-Pechoux, Sophie; Gaymard, Bertrand; Pouget, Pierre

2012-01-01

115

Top forty: forecast for public companies  

SciTech Connect

Stock values of solar companies are discussed and it is concluded that they are undervalued. Reasons included: (1) a collapsing housing industry; (2) high interest rates; (3) an unfriendly administration in Washington; and (4) the erroneous perception that oil prices and supplies have stabilized permanently. Solar stocks are defined as speculative in nature and forecasts are cited from people who are bullish on solar stocks as well as from those who are bearish on these stocks. The top 40 solar stocks are listed in two categories: (1) pure plays (in which case the company is entirely in solar activities) and (2) partial plays (in which case solar revenues play only a part in total revenues). Sales and income are given for the last fiscal year for each company as well as a comparison with the previous fiscal year. Sales gains and profit gains for specific companies are discussed as well as companies involved in photovoltaic cells. Procedures for researching solar companies are outlined and four criteria are recommended: (1) a 3-year growth in sales and profit; (2) a proprietary product line with established distribution channels; (3) an experienced and dedicated management team; and (4) other business (apart from solar) that can provide cash flow. Eight companies are singled out as particularly promising. (MJJ)

Enowitz, M.E.

1982-06-01

116

Systematic analysis and experiment of inductive coupling and induced voltage for inductively coupled wireless implantable neurostimulator application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main strategy for wireless power transfer to implantable devices is to use inductive coupling technology. The induced voltage of implanted devices highly depends on factors such as mutual inductance between the external transmitter coil and the receiver coil, quality factor of the receiver circuit and operation frequency. In this paper, the mutual inductance under a variety of geometries of external coil and under the condition of different vertical distances, lateral displacements and angular misalignments between two coils were theoretically calculated and simulated. To ascertain the condition of maximum power transmission for certain coils’ position requirements, an LC tank (2.7 mm × 2 mm) consisting of a microfabricated gold inductor coil and a small surface mounted capacitor was designed and fabricated as the telemetric part of a neurostimulator. The induced voltage of the LC tank was measured in both air and artificial tissue media under different sizes of power coil and operation frequencies. As a result, the optimum size of a transmitter coil is selected to be of 4 mm inner radius with six turns of coil, while the whole coupling system operates at 94 MHz resonant frequency within 5-11 mm vertical distance, 0-4 mm lateral and 0°-50° angular misalignment between two coils. With the change of the above coils’ positions, the measured induced voltage drops within 30%, satisfying the surgical requirement for neurostimulator implantation.

Xue, Ning; Cho, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Sung-Pil; Lee, Jeong-Bong

2012-07-01

117

Percutaneous sacral third nerve root neurostimulation improves symptoms and normalizes urinary HB-EGF levels and antiproliferative activity in patients with interstitial cystitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. A highly effective treatment for interstitial cystitis (IC) remains elusive. We determined whether sacral third nerve root (S3) percutaneous neurostimulation (PNS) might be effective in relieving symptoms of IC, as well as in normalizing urinary factors that are specifically altered in IC.Methods. Six consecutive patients with symptoms and cystoscopic findings compatible with IC underwent 5 days of continuous S3

Toby C Chai; Chen-Ou Zhang; John W Warren; Susan Keay

2000-01-01

118

An Evaluation of the Brachial Plexus Block at the Humeral Canal Using a Neurostimulator (1417 Patients): The Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Criteria of Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the multiple pe- ripheral nerve block technique at the humeral canal (humeral block) with the use of a neurostimulator, we prospectively studied 1417 patients undergoing upper limb surgery with a brachial plexus block at the hu- meral canal (1468 blocks). The success rate (defined as sensory block (in all nerve distributions) and\\/or the

Michel Carles; Alphonse Pulcini; Philippe Macchi; Patrick Duflos; Marc Raucoules-Aime; Dominique Grimaud

2001-01-01

119

Results of the Forties Fate Trial, July 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of a trial to study the behavior of Forties crude oil spilt at sea. The trial involved the release of approximately 20 tons of Forties crude oil and the movement, spreading and dispersion of the slick was monitored over a f...

I. Buchanan N. Hurford

1988-01-01

120

Recovery Plan for the Shasta Crayfish ('Pacifastacus fortis').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Shasta crayfish (Paccifastacus fortis) is federally and State listed as endangered. Its distribution is limited to the midsections of the Pit River drainage, primarily the Fall River and Hat Creek subdrainages in Shasta County, California. This specie...

1998-01-01

121

Draft Recovery Plan for the Shasta Crayfish ('Pacifastacus fortis').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Shasta crayfish (Pacifastacus fortis) is federally and State listed as endangered. Its distribution is limited to the midsections of the Pit River drainage, primarily the Fall River and Hat Creek subdrainages in Shasta County, California. This species...

M. J. Ellis

1997-01-01

122

U. K. North Sea's Forties Blend crude assayed  

SciTech Connect

Forties Blend is an important crude comprising oil and gas liquids from 20 fields in the central North Sea. This assay of the 40[degree] API, 0.35 wt% sulfur crude was performed in late 1993. According to the Journal's latest production survey, average 1993 production of Forties Blend was 427,750 b/d. Enterprise Oil says current production is about 400,000 b/d. Since an assay of Forties Blend was last published in the Journal, several fields have been added to the system: Everest, Lomond, Bruce, Tiffany, Toni, Nelson, and East Brae. The API gravity of the crude has increased almost 2[degree], while its pour point has increased from [minus]21 C to [minus]12 C. Data are presented on the whole crude and a number of fractions.

Rhodes, A.K.

1995-01-23

123

Detail of center of swing span rotation. Forty (40) rods ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of center of swing span rotation. Forty (40) rods radiate out from a center cap stand (like spokes on a bicycle) and hold 40 20-inch diameter wheels onto a rim bearing circular track on which they roll when swing span is opened and closed. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

124

Enzymatic degradation of hybrid ?-\\/?-carrageenan by Alteromonas fortis ?-carrageenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybrid ?-\\/?-carrageenan was water-extracted from Eucheuma denticulatum and incubated with Alteromonas fortis ?-carrageenase. The degradation products were then separated by anion-exchange chromatography. The three most abundant fractions of hybrid ?-\\/?-carrageenan oligosaccharides were purified and their structures were analyzed by NMR. The smallest hybrid was an octasaccharide with a ?-?-?-? structure. The second fraction was composed of two decasaccharides with ?-?-?-?-?

Diane Jouanneau; Patrick Boulenguer; Jacques Mazoyer; William Helbert

2010-01-01

125

Forty-seventh annual power distribution conference, 1994  

SciTech Connect

This is a collection of papers presented at the forty-seventh annual Power Distribution Conference in 1994. The topics of the papers include recent developments in distribution grounding, partial discharge analysis of electrical machinery, insulating fluids analysis as a basis for a complete transformer monitoring program, environmental and regulatory issues regarding the use of silicone transformer fluids, locating and identifying harmonic sources, optimizing distribution operations resources, surface launch directional boring units, electrical supply to Dallas/Fort Worth international airport, a microprocessor-based digital feeder monitor with high-impedance fault detection, a modern review of distribution system protective coordination, and Ski Apache electric service improvements.

Not Available

1994-01-01

126

Tongue anatomy and physiology, the scientific basis for a novel targeted neurostimulation system designed for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Introduction:? Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic condition that affects millions adults. The effective standard treatment is positive airway pressure (PAP). However, approximately half of the patients that are prescribed PAP are unable or unwilling to comply with this therapy. Untreated OSA ultimately leads to very serious comorbidities. An alternative therapy for this patient population, therefore, is desirable. Hypoglossal nerve (HGN) stimulation is under investigation by multiple groups as a possible alternative therapy for OSA. Objective:? To understand the underlying mechanisms of actions related to HGN stimulation, and the implication of this knowledge for specifying and designing a neurostimulation system for the treatment of OSA. Results:? Loss of lingual and pharyngeal tone within a narrow airway is the primary mechanism for OSA. Posterior and anterior tongues are different in their anatomy and physiology. Muscle fibers in the posterior tongue are predominantly fatigue resistant that are responsible for the long sustained tonic activities required for maintaining the tongue's position and preventing its mass from falling into the retroglossal airway. The human tongue is a muscular hydrostat and hence would benefit from a sophisticated HGN stimulation system that is capable of achieving a concerted spatio-temporal interplay of multiple lingual muscles, including retrusors. Conclusion:? Targeted neurostimulation of the proximal HGN presents as a viable system approach that is far more versatile and physiologic and quite different than prior systems. PMID:22938390

Zaidi, Faisal N; Meadows, Paul; Jacobowitz, Ofer; Davidson, Terence M

2012-08-31

127

Managerial decision-making in international business: A forty-five-year retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

We identify key theoretical developments in international managerial decision-making research, synthesize how they have been employed, and discuss contributions that may emerge as researchers devote increased attention to bounded rationality. Since behavioral factors were first introduced into the international business literature, there has been an increasing trend toward acknowledging the decision makers’ role in foreign direct investment and related strategies.

Yair Aharoni; Laszlo Tihanyi; Brian L. Connelly

2011-01-01

128

Forty years of publication of transplantation proceedings--the second decade: the cyclosporine revolution.  

PubMed

With surgical tools in place, increased knowledge concerning immunogenetics and alloimmunity as well as improved management of immunocompromised patients, the foundations were lain for the rapid development of the transplantation enterprise. In contrast to pre-transplant conditioning by thoracic duct drainage or total lymphoid irradiation, which were too cumbersome for routine execution among the burgeoning recipient pool, cyclosporine was a facile method to produce immunosuppression de novo after transplantation. On the one hand, clinical data confirmed the potency of cyclosporine in a variety of clinical settings. On the other hand, a pleiotropic array of side effects, particularly nephrotoxicity, beclouded the regimens, even when used in reduced doses in combination with azathioprine or together with rigorous individualization of therapy by concentration control. The advent of cyclosporine condemned conditioning by pretransplant blood transfusions and donor-recipient HLA matching to therapeutic obsolescence. However, cross-matching achieved greater significance particularly due to the development of flow cytometry methods to detect modest amounts of anti-donor antibody. Adjunctive treatments with polyclonal preparations or monoclonal antibodies were developed to provide an additional layer of security during the critical induction phase of immunosuppression and for treatment of rejection episodes refractory to high dose steroid therapy. Active immunologic investigation was stimulated by antibodies that discriminated CD4+ versus CD8+ T cells, leading to dissection of their numbers of precursors or mature elements as well as their distinct activities. The search for methods to induce, maintain and detect the state of transplantation tolerance continued. The encouraging results in clinical transplantation raised a variety of ethical concerns related to public attitudes; to retrieval, distribution, and allocation of the limited supply of deceased donor organs; the increased utilization of living persons; the opportunities for commerce; the quasi-righteous requests for organ gifts by unrelated individuals and the scant financial resources for long-term treatment with costly immunosuppression. Transplantation had now achieved its rightful place in the clinical armamentarium. PMID:19545653

Kahan, Barry D

2009-06-01

129

Forty-two-years later: the outcome of childhood-onset schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper describes the long-term course of 76 patients who had been consecutively admitted to the Department of Child and\\u000a Adolescent Psychiatry, Philipps University, between 1920 and 1961 with a suspected diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia.\\u000a By means of a consensus analysis of available data in accordance with ICD-10 criteria, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was\\u000a confirmed in only 50% of the

H. Remschmidt; M. Martin; C. Fleischhaker; F. M. Theisen; K. Hennighausen; C. Gutenbrunner; E. Schulz

2007-01-01

130

Forty Years of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science": A Quantitative Analysis, Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on the first part of a two-part quantitative analysis of volume 1-40 (1969-2008) of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science" (formerly the "Journal of Librarianship"). It provides an overview of the current state of LIS research journal publishing in the UK; a review of the publication and printing history of…

Furner, Jonathan

2009-01-01

131

Forty years on: Uta Frith's contribution to research on autism and dyslexia, 1966-2006  

PubMed Central

Uta Frith has made a major contribution to our understanding of developmental disorders, especially autism and dyslexia. She has studied the cognitive and neurobiological bases of both disorders and demonstrated distinctive impairments in social cognition and central coherence in autism, and in phonological processing in dyslexia. In this enterprise she has encouraged psychologists to work in a theoretical framework that distinguishes between observed behaviour and the underlying cognitive and neurobiological processes that mediate that behaviour.

Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

2008-01-01

132

Forty Years in the Making: Understanding the Molecular Mechanism of Peptide Regulation in Bacterial Development  

PubMed Central

Signal transduction systems are influenced by positive and negative forces resulting in an output reflecting the sum of the opposing forces. The Rap family of regulatory protein modules control the output of two-component signal transduction systems through protein?protein and protein?peptide interactions. These modules and their peptide regulators are found in complex signaling pathways, including the bacterial developmental pathway to sporulation, competence, and protease secretion. Two articles published in the current issue of PLOS Biology reveal by means of crystallographic analyses how the Rap proteins of bacilli are regulated by their inhibitor Phr peptide and provide a mechanistic explanation for a genetic phenotype isolated decades earlier. The Rap-Phr module of bacterial regulators was the prototype of a family that now extends to other bacterial signaling proteins that involve the use of the tetratricopeptide repeat structural fold. The results invite speculation regarding the potential exploitation of this module as a molecular tool for applications in therapeutic design and biotechnology.

Perego, Marta

2013-01-01

133

Forty Years Trends in Timing of Pubertal Growth Spurt in 157,000 Danish School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEntering puberty is an important milestone in reproductive life and secular changes in the timing of puberty may be an important indicator of the general reproductive health in a population. Too early puberty is associated with several psychosocial and health problems. The aim of our study was to determine if the age at onset of pubertal growth spurt (OGS) and

Lise Aksglaede; Lina W. Olsen; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen; Anders Juul; Linda Wright

2008-01-01

134

Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the longest data set of observed soil moisture available in the world, 45 yr of gravimetrically-observed plant available soil moisture for the top 1 m of soil, observed every 10 days for April-October for 141 stations from fields with either winter or spring cereals from the Ukraine for 1958-2002. We averaged the summer observations over the entire region

Alan Robock; Mingquan Mu; Konstantin Vinnikov; Iryna V. Trofimova; Tatyjana I. Adamenko

2005-01-01

135

Stable Isotopic Signatures of Soil Nitrogen and Carbon Across Forty Years of Forest Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ?15N and ?13C signatures of soil organic matter provide integrative measures of ecosystem-level N and C processes. Current understanding of the extent to which various mechanisms govern soil ?15N and ?13C is limited by the complexity of processes occurring simultaneously in soils, and the notable absence of ?15N and ?13C data from individual sites throughout the ecosystem's development. We examined ?15N and ?13C and associated data of archived soil samples from four depths in an aggrading loblolly pine forest in the southeastern US. We examine these data in conjunction with O horizon, root, litterfall, and foliage isotopic data, as well as with previously published information about soils at this site, and identify mechanisms driving these parameters' observed shifts with time. Soil ?15N increased with depth, and across time in the three deepest layers, by a maximum of 5.5‰, to 9.1‰. We isolate two key mechanisms that have governed changes in N isotopes in these soils. First, though discrimination against 15N during SOM mineralization is relatively small compared to other processes in the N cycle, the mineralization and transfer of >800 kg ha-1 soil organic N into aggrading vegetation and forest floor suggest that isotopic fractionation associated with SON mineralization has been a governing feature of these soils' ?15N values. Second, accretion of microbial residues enriched in 15N likely has influenced soil ?15N via microbial excretion of 15N-deplete compounds. We suggest that the greater N isotope fractionation associated with microbial dissimilation of N compounds compared to the fractionation associated with N assimilation results in a significant enrichment of microbial biomass and subsequent residues. Though most chemical reactions in the N cycle result in isotopic fractionation, several of these processes are likely insignificant in these soils, permitting us to isolate these two likely influences on soil ?15N. Soil ?13C increased with depth, and declined by 1.5‰ during forest development in the surface layer. Deeper layers exhibited no significant trend in ?13C with time. Because these soils periodically supported C4 vegetation prior to forest planting, the initial ?13C values were more enriched than pure C3 vegetation (-24.5‰). We expect that as C3 plant residues become more fully incorporated into the soil profile, an increasing proportion of SOM comprised of microbial residues will promote an increase in ?13CSOM, particularly deeper in the soil profile.

Billings, S. A.; Richter, D. D.

2005-05-01

136

Quantitative Trait Inheritance in a Forty-Year-Old Longleaf Pine ...  

Treesearch

Parent trees were randomly selected from a natural population growing on the ... blight was controlled through the application of Bordeaux mixture three times per ... controlled with cultivation and mowing, resulting in good initial survival (first ...

137

Forty-eight years of landscape change on two contiguous Ohio landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the current and historic structure of two contiguous, rural landscapes covering approximately 242 km2 in central Ohio, USA: a till plain landscape with relatively homogeneous topography and soils, and a moraine landscape with greater geomorphological diversity and heterogeneity. These landscapes were chosen because they were both heavily dominated by agriculture during 1900–1940 and were both initially surveyed

John W. Simpson; Ralph E. J. Boerner; Michael N. DeMers; Leslie A. Berns; Francisco J. Artigas; Alejandra Silva

1994-01-01

138

Change and Continuity in Modern Japanese Educational History: Allied Occupational Reforms Forty Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the efforts of post-World War II U.S. occupiers to change radically the structure, philosophies, content, and teaching methods of Japanese elementary, secondary, and higher education. Compares prewar and current conditions. Discusses cultural and political reasons why these efforts to transplant foreign institutions and values largely…

Wray, Harry

1991-01-01

139

The Distributional Dynamics of the French Revolution: A Forty Year War of Attrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three questions have challenged historians of the French Revolution: when did the Revolution begin, why did it last so long, and when did it end. This paper proposes answers to these basic questions by focusing on the Revolution as an economic struggle. I view the Revolution as the product of a \\

Eugene N. White

1996-01-01

140

Forty Years after the Bay of Pigs: Resources for Social Studies Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reflects on the experience of visiting Cuba through the People to People Ambassador Program, founded by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to promote international understanding and cooperation. Includes a list of suggested readings for social studies teachers and a list of organizations focusing on Cuba. (CMK)|

Contreras, Gloria

2001-01-01

141

Forty Years On: Norbert Elias and the Young Worker Project. CLMS Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study performed in 1962 by Norbert Elias on the adjustment of young people to the transition from school to work had five areas of inquiry; adjustment to relationships with older workers and supervisors; adjustment to job problems; adjustment to role as workers; adjustment to role as money-earner in home relations; and adjustment to role as…

Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

142

Forty years of litigation involving residents and their training: II. Malpractice issues.  

PubMed

The authors reviewed 136 cases of malpractice litigation involving residents or programs of graduate medical education that were reported from 1950 through 1989. Before 1970 malpractice constituted the only area of reported litigation for residents. The number of malpractice cases involving residents increased substantially after 1975, paralleling the growth of malpractice cases nationally. The regional pattern of reported cases involving residents also corresponded with previous findings. Questions of vicarious liability, the applicable standard of care, and residents' supervision were at issue in the great majority of cases. Questions related to judicial procedure, immunity from liability, breach or causation, and informed consent were also litigated. Residents were on the side of the prevailing party in 44% of the cases. Malpractice continues to be the key legal issue facing programs of residency training. PMID:1750946

Helms, L B; Helms, C M

1991-12-01

143

Forty years of operation of the hydraulic structures of the Shirokovo hydroelectric station  

SciTech Connect

The Shirokovo hydroelectric station is located on the Kos'va river and has been operating since 1948. The hydrostation was constructed during the Second World War with a shortage of metal, cement, and construction machines. The designs of the structures were made lightweight with the minimum consumption of construction materials without considerable safety factors with respect to strength and stability. Nevertheless, these structures have already been operating for a long time under the harsh climatic conditions of the mountainous region of the Northern Urals, on a river with an unstable water regime under conditions of frequent strats of the unit for covering peak loads. This paper describes the design, construction, and operating history of the station along with maintenance and reinforcement regimes undertaken to ensure its reliability.

Medvedev, M.G.

1988-07-01

144

Forty Years of Welfare Policy Experimentation: No Acres, No Mule, No Politics, No Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This introductory essay questions putting nearly all effort into social policywhich has failed to reduce povertyand calls instead for reinvigorating other tactics and re-imagining the unfinished dream of economic justice. Indeed, what Martin Luther King, Jr. envisioned was an actual war on poverty, not merely the abbreviated, under-funded, and ultimately unsuccessful effort of the 1960s, nor the imposter war on

Julie A. Nice

2009-01-01

145

Forty years experience in developing and using rainfall simulators under tropical and Mediterranean conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rainfall simulation has been used as a practical tool for evaluating the interaction of falling water drops on the soil surface, to measure both stability of soil aggregates to drop impact and water infiltration rates. In both cases it is tried to simulate the effects of natural rainfall, which usually occurs at very different, variable and erratic rates and intensities. One of the main arguments against the use of rainfall simulators is the difficulty to reproduce the size, final velocity and kinetic energy of the drops in natural rainfall. Since the early 70´s we have been developing and using different kinds of rainfall simulators, both at laboratory and field levels, and under tropical and Mediterranean soil and climate conditions, in flat and sloping lands. They have been mainly used to evaluate the relative effects of different land use and management, including different cropping systems, tillage practices, surface soil conditioning, surface covers, etc. on soil water infiltration, on runoff and on erosion. Our experience is that in any case it is impossible to reproduce the variable size distribution and terminal velocity of raindrops, and the variable changes in intensity of natural storms, under a particular climate condition. In spite of this, with the use of rainfall simulators it is possible to obtain very good information, which if it is properly interpreted in relation to each particular condition (land and crop management, rainfall characteristics, measurement conditions, etc.) may be used as one of the parameters for deducing and modelling soil water balance and soil moisture regime under different land use and management and variable climate conditions. Due to the possibility for a better control of the intensity of simulated rainfall and of the size of water drops, and the possibility to make more repeated measurements under very variable soil and land conditions, both in the laboratory and specially in the field, the better results have been obtained with small size 500-1000 cm2, easily dismantled, drop former simulators, than with larger, nozzle, or more sophisticated equipments. In this contribution there are presented some of the rainfall simulators developed and used by the main author, and some of the results obtained in different studies of practical problems under tropical and Mediterranean conditions. References Pla, I.,G.Campero, y R.Useche.1974.Physical degradación of agricultural soils in the Western Plains of Venezuela. "Trans.10th Int.Cong.Soil.Sci.Soc". 1:231-240. .Moscú Pla, I. 1975.Effects of bitumen emulsion and polyacrilamide on some physical properties of Venezuelan soils. En "Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication"• 7. 35-46. Madison. Wisconsin . (USA). Pla, I. 1977.Aggregate size and erosion control on sloping land treated with hydrophobic bitumen emulsion."Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics".109-115. John Wiley & Sons. Pla, I.1981.Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986.A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia).

Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Nacci, Silvana

2010-05-01

146

Promises and practices: job evaluation and equal pay forty years on!  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThis article examines the claim made by Barbara Castle when introducing the Equal Pay Act (EPA) in 1970 that there is nothing preventing unions pressing for job evaluation schemes to achieve equal pay. It does this by examining the research on potential hurdles to job evaluation and those that can be found in the UK law since the introduction of

Kay Gilbert

2012-01-01

147

Forty years of anthropogenic radionuclides in surface seawater. Italian and Japanese data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of man made radionuclides in surface seawater since early ?60s are here reported as measured in Italy and\\u000a Japan. Most of the data refers to90Sr and137Cs, but occasionally the concentrations of89Sr and134Cs in some Italian samples are also given. The main sources of man made radionuclides were the global fallout produced by\\u000a the nuclear weapon tests and the

Arrigo A. Cigna

2006-01-01

148

Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the First Forty Years.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Throughout history, the great achievements of civilizations and cultures have been recorded in lists of dates and events. But to look only at the machinery, discoveries, or milestones is to miss the value of these achievements. Each goal achieved or disco...

L. E. Wallace

1999-01-01

149

Forty Years after the Bay of Pigs: Resources for Social Studies Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reflects on the experience of visiting Cuba through the People to People Ambassador Program, founded by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to promote international understanding and cooperation. Includes a list of suggested readings for social studies teachers and a list of organizations focusing on Cuba. (CMK)

Contreras, Gloria

2001-01-01

150

The Changing Frontiers of Comparative Education: A Forty-Year Retrospective on "European Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"European Education" (originally known as "Western European Education") may no longer be directly associated with the field of comparative and international education, yet its establishment in 1969 was an attempt to make a direct contribution to the academic debates about the future of comparative education. The journal emerged at a time when…

Silova, Iveta

2009-01-01

151

Forty Years of Erratic Insecticide Resistance Evolution in the Mosquito Culex pipiens  

Microsoft Academic Search

One view of adaptation is that it proceeds by the slow and steady accumulation of beneficial mutations with small effects. It is difficult to test this model, since in most cases the genetic basis of adaptation can only be studied a posteriori with traits that have evolved for a long period of time through an unknown sequence of steps. In

Pierrick Labbé; Claire Berticat; Arnaud Berthomieu; Sandra Unal; Clothilde Bernard; Mylène Weill; Thomas Lenormand

2007-01-01

152

Forty Years of Litigation Involving Residents and Their Training: II. Malpractice Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of 136 malpractice cases involving residents and resident programs 1950-83 found a substantial increase in cases after 1975. Most concerned vicarious liability, applicable standard of care, and resident supervision. Residents were on the side of the prevailing party in 44 percent of cases. (Author/MSE)

Helms, Lelia B.; Helms, Charles M.

1991-01-01

153

More than Forty Years of Organosulfur Chemistry and Many Other Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur Reports proudly presents the latest addition to its Grand Old Men of Sulfur Chemistry hall of fame, the chemical autobiography of our distinguished editorial board member Michael P. Cava. Professor Cava's most significant and impressive achievements in organic sulfur chemistry and organic chemistry at large, starting with the legendary total synthesis of strychnine and culminating with a wealth of

Michael P. Cava

1998-01-01

154

Thinning of the ice sheet in northwest Greenland over the past forty years.  

PubMed

Thermal expansion of the oceans, as well as melting of glaciers, ice sheets and ice caps have been the main contributors to global sea level rise over the past century. The greatest uncertainty in predicting future sea level changes lies with our estimates of the mass balance of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. Satellite measurements have been used to determine changes in these ice sheets on short timescales, demonstrating that surface-elevation changes on timescales of decades or less result mainly from variations in snow accumulation. Here we present direct measurements of the changes in surface elevation between 1954 and 1995 on a traverse across the north Greenland ice sheet. Measurements over a time interval of this length should reflect changes in ice flow-the important quantity for predicting changes in sea level-relatively unperturbed by short-term fluctuations in snow accumulation. We find only small changes in the eastern part of the transect, except for some thickening of the north ice stream. On the west side, however, the thinning rates of the ice sheet are significantly higher and thinning extends to higher elevations than had been anticipated from previous studies. PMID:11689941

Paterson, W S; Reeh, N

2001-11-01

155

Forty Years of Struggle and Still No Right to Inuit Education in Nunavut  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article issues related to policy and education in the Canadian Arctic are critically put to question. The focus is on the struggle for Inuit education, language issues, and supporting minority rights, with pragmatic solutions proposed to the problems confronting Nunavut.|

Rasmussen, Derek

2011-01-01

156

Forty Years in the Union: Incubating, Supporting, and Catalyzing Socially Just Educational Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|North American teacher unions' positive contributions to educational change have historically flown under the radar of educational policy makers, a situation that has been reified by recent attacks on public sector unions. In this article, I draw on social movement theory and an institutional case study of a self described social justice union to…

Rottmann, Cindy

2012-01-01

157

Forty Years of Diffusion of Innovations: Utility and Value in Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issues is created to mark the 40 anniversary of Everett Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) model. Diffusion is the process through which an innovation, defined as an idea perceived as new, spreads via certain communication channels over time among the members of a particular social system. A great deal of research in a variety of academic disciplines (about

MUHIUDDIN HAIDER; GARY L. KREPS

2004-01-01

158

Distances to the High Velocity Clouds: A Forty-Year Mystery on the Way to Solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A full understanding of the High Velocity Clouds (HVCs) is still lacking more than four decades after their discovery. Determining the clouds' locations in relation to the Galaxy is an important constraint on hierarchical assembly models of galaxies in a ?-CDM universe. However, quantifying physical cloud properties such as mass and size have been difficult because of their unknown distances. We report the first definitive distance determinations for three HVCs (Complex C, 6.4-11.3 kpc; the Cohen Stream, 5.0-11.7 kpc; Complex GCP, 9.8-15.1 kpc) and two intermediate-velocity clouds (IVCs: IV-South, 1.0-2.7 kpc; cloud g1, 1.8-3.8 kpc) using the absorption line bracketing method. From the distances to the larger cloud complexes we calculate H I masses ranging from 1.5×106 Msun to 8×106 Msun. In the case of Complex C this implies a mass inflow rate of ˜0.1 Msun yr-1. The measured distances place the HVCs in the hot Galactic Corona and the IVCs in the lowest reaches of the Halo. With this information we may now positively identify at least two roles played by HVCs in the internal and external dynamics of the Milky Way: (1) the infall of low-metallicity gas and (2) the supply and return streams of the Galactic Fountain.

Barentine, J. C.; Wakker, B. P.; York, D. G.; Howk, J. C.; Wilhelm, R.; van Woerden, H.; Peletier, R. F.; Beers, T. C.; Richter, P.; Ivezic, Z.; Schwarz, U. J.

2008-08-01

159

History of Neurostimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The use of electrical current has been an area of human interest since ancient times, most notably in Greece, where the development\\u000a of ideas concerning electricity was abundant. It was the ancient Greeks who coined the word elektron to describe amber, a fossilized resin used to create sparks, and later this term would become the modern root of the word

Timothy R. Deer

160

Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes  

SciTech Connect

Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

1984-12-01

161

Non-invasive interactive neurostimulation (InterX (TM)) reduces acute pain in patients following total knee replacement surgery: a randomised, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate post-operative pain relief following total knee replacement (TKR) is very important to optimal post-operative recovery. Faster mobilisation and rehabilitation ultimately results in optimum recovery outcomes, but pain is often the limiting factor. This study evaluates the potential clinical benefit of the InterX neurostimulation device on pain reduction and rehabilitative outcome. Methods A clinical trial under the Hywel Dda Clinical Audit Committee to validate the clinical benefit of Non-invasive Interactive Neurostimulation (NIN) therapy using the InterX device was performed in patients undergoing TKR. 61 patients were randomised to treatment groups in blocks of two from the Theatre Operation List. The control group received the standard hospital course of pain medication and rehabilitation twice daily for 3 post-op days. The experimental group received 8 sessions of NIN therapy over 3 post-op days in addition to the standard course received by the Control group. Pain and range of motion were collected as the primary study measures. Results Sixty one subjects were enrolled and randomised, but 2 subjects (one/group) were excluded due to missing data at Baseline/Final; one subject in the InterX group was excluded due to pre-existing rheumatoid pain conditions confounding the analysis. The experimental group pre- to post-session Verbal Rating Scale for pain (VRS) showed that NIN therapy consistently reduced the pain scores by a mean of 2.3 points (SE 0.11). The NIN pre-treatment score at Final was used for the primary ANCOVA comparison, demonstrating a significantly greater cumulative treatment effect of a mean 2.2 (SE 0.49) points pain reduction (p = 0.002). Control subjects only experienced a mean 0.34 (SE 0.49) point decrease in pain. Ninety degrees ROM was required to discharge the patient and this was attained as an average despite the greater Baseline deficit in the InterX group. Eight control patients and three experimental patients did not achieve this ROM. Conclusions The results clearly demonstrated the clinical benefit of NIN therapy as a supplement to the standard rehabilitation protocol. The subjects receiving InterX fared significantly better clinically. Within a relatively short 3-day period of time, patients in the experimental group obtained the necessary ROM for discharge and did it experiencing lower levels of pain than those in the control group.

2011-01-01

162

Persistence of song types in Darwin's finches, Geospiza fortis, over four decades.  

PubMed

Learned bird songs evolve via cultural evolution, with song patterns transmitted across generations by imitative learning. In Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Islands, males learn songs from their fathers, and song types can be maintained across multiple generations. However, little is known about the time frame over which specific song types are preserved, in the face of copy errors and corresponding modifications to song structure. Here we investigate cultural evolution in songs of male Geospiza fortis, at Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island, comparing songs recorded in 1961 by R. Bowman (20 individuals) to those recorded in 1999 by J. Podos (16 individuals). For each individual, we characterized four timing and six frequency parameters, and assessed inter-individual variation in song structure using multivariate analysis. Several 1961 song types persisted into 1999, some with remarkable fidelity. Variation among song types was extensive during both years, and we detected no changes in 10 vocal parameters across the sampling period. These results illustrate temporal continuity in a culturally acquired trait, and raise questions about mechanisms that promote stability in song structure. PMID:20392717

Goodale, Eben; Podos, Jeffrey

2010-04-14

163

77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,655] Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services...

2012-09-06

164

Chlorination, Water Hardness and Serum Cholesterol in Forty-Six Wisconsin Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program measured serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. The purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids...

E. A. Zeighami A. P. Watson G. F. Craun

1990-01-01

165

Project Flood, Data Report of Mine Division Forty-Three in the Mediterranean Sea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains the data collected by Mine Division Forty-three during Project FLOOD operations in the Mediterranean Sea. It also presents a critique of the data collection methods to enable future participants in Project FLOOD to collect more reliab...

J. W. Underwood

1966-01-01

166

Neutral locus heterozygosity, inbreeding, and survival in Darwin's ground finches (Geospiza fortis and G. scandens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comprehensive long-term studies of isolated populations provide valuable comparative data that may be used to evaluate different methods for quantifying the relationship between genetic diversity and fitness. Here, we report on data collected from large and well-characterized cohorts of the two numerically dominant species of Darwin's finches on Isla Daphne Major, Galápagos, Ecuador – Geospiza fortis and G. scandens. Multilocus

J A Markert; P R Grant; B R Grant; L F Keller; J L Coombs; K Petren

2004-01-01

167

Transient Neurologic Syndrome in One Thousand Forty-Five Patients After 3% Lidocaine Spinal Anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent reports have discussed the potential risk of transient radicular irritation (TRI) after spinal anes- thesia with lidocaine. Because we have not encoun- tered such neurologic sequelae with the high inci- dence reported, we prospectively examined the incidence of TRI after spinal anesthesia with lido- Caine. One thousand forty-five adult patients (aged 47 -C 15 yr) receiving spinal anesthesia with

Hiroshi Morisaki; Junichi Masuda; Shinichi Kaneko; Makoto Matsushima; Junzo Takeda

1998-01-01

168

Nest Defense and Conspecific Enemy Recognition in the Desert Ant Cataglyphis fortis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on different factors affecting the level of aggression in the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis. We found that the readiness to fight against conspecific ants was high in ants captured close to the nest entrance (0- and 1-m distances). At a 5-m distance from the nest entrance the level of aggression was significantly lower. As the mean foraging

Markus Knaden; Rüdiger Wehner

2003-01-01

169

Ecoimmunity in Darwin's Finches: Invasive Parasites Trigger Acquired Immunity in the Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInvasive parasites are a major threat to island populations of animals. Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Islands are under attack by introduced pox virus (Poxvirus avium) and nest flies (Philornis downsi). We developed assays for parasite-specific antibody responses in Darwin's finches (Geospiza fortis), to test for relationships between adaptive immune responses to novel parasites and spatial-temporal variation in the occurrence

Sarah K. Huber; Jeb P. Owen; Jennifer A. H. Koop; Marisa O. King; Peter R. Grant; B. Rosemary Grant; Dale H. Clayton; Laurent Rénia

2010-01-01

170

Forty two years counting spots: Solar observations by D.E. Hadden during 1890-1931 revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have recovered the sunspot observations made by David E. Hadden during 1890-1931 from Alta, Iowa. We have digitized the available data published by Hadden in different astronomical journals. This data series have been analyzed and compared with the standard sunspot number series. Moreover, we provide additional information on two great sunspot groups, previously not described, that originated two important extreme episodes of space weather on February 1892 and September 1898.

Carrasco, V. M. S.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Trigo, R. M.

2013-12-01

171

A Retrospective Chronicle of the Midwest School Social Work Council: Its Vision and Influence after Forty Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2007, the Midwest School Social Work Council celebrated its fortieth anniversary in Cleveland, Ohio. This article reviews early efforts to build alliances of school social workers across state lines, the early collaborative relationship with the National Association of Social Workers, and the eventual need for a new organization. The Midwest…

Raines, James C.

2008-01-01

172

A Forty-Year Retrospective 1950-1990: The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority's Conservation Education Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the growth of Conservation Authorities in Ontario from the first partnerships between schools and conservation in the 1950s, to the opening of a pioneer village, flood control dam, nature trails, and residential conservation education centers through the 1960s and 1970s. Increased public environmental concern sparked more growth in the…

Carr, Allen Terry

1996-01-01

173

Forty-seven years of gas injection in a preferentially oil-wet, low-dip reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mauddud is the major oil producing reservoir of the Bahrain field situated in an anticlinal feature of Middle Cretaceous period. This is a highly undersaturated, lowdip and preferentially oil wet reservoir. Crestal gas injection has been employed in the Central area of the reservoir since 1938 for pressure maintenance thus making it the first improved recovery project in the

C. R. K. Murty; B. A. Dakessian; N. A. Saleh

1985-01-01

174

Bilateral neurostimulation systems used for deep brain stimulation: in vitro study of MRI-related heating at 1.5 T and implications for clinical imaging of the brain.  

PubMed

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used increasingly in the field of movement disorders. The implanted electrodes create not only a prior risk to patient safety during MRI, but also a unique opportunity in the collection of functional MRI data conditioned by direct neural stimulation. We evaluated MRI-related heating for bilateral neurostimulation systems used for DBS with an emphasis on assessing clinically relevant imaging parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed using transmit body radiofrequency (RF) coil and receive-only head RF coil at various specific absorption rates (SARs) of RF power. In vitro testing was performed using a gel-filled phantom with temperatures recorded at the electrode tips. Each DBS electrode was positioned with a single extension loop around each pulse generator and a single loop at the "head" end of the phantom. Various pulse sequences were used for MRI including fast spin-echo, echo-planar imaging, magnetization transfer contrast and gradient-echo techniques. The MRI sequences had calculated whole-body averaged SARs and local head SARs ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 W/kg and 0.1 to 3.2 W/kg, respectively. Temperature elevations of less than 1.0 degrees C were found with the fast spin-echo, magnetization transfer contrast, gradient-echo and echo-planar clinical imaging sequences. Using the highest SAR levels, whole-body averaged, 1.6 W/kg, local exposed-body, 3.2 W/kg, and local head, 2.9 W/kg, the temperature increase was 2.1 degrees C. These results showed that temperature elevations associated with clinical sequences were within an acceptable physiologically safe range for the MR conditions used in this evaluation, especially for the use of relatively low SAR levels. Notably, these findings are highly specific to the neurostimulation systems, device positioning technique, MR system and imaging conditions used in this investigation. PMID:15919600

Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Bronstein, Jeff M; Sinha, Shantanu; Krahl, Scott E; Ahn, Sinyeob; Behnke, Eric J; Cohen, Mark S; Frysinger, Robert; Shellock, Frank G

2005-05-01

175

Shell structure of even-even nickel isotopes containing twenty to forty neutrons  

SciTech Connect

Shell parameters of even-even nickel isotopes involving twenty to forty neutrons are analyzed, and the results of this analysis are presented. A detailed comparison of the results obtained by calculating, on the basis of the mean-field model with the Koura-Yamada potential and the dispersive optical potential, single-particle energies of proton and neutron subshells with experimental data on the isotopes {sup 56,58,60,62,64,68}Ni and with evaluated data on the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 48,50,52,54}Ni is performed.

Bespalova, O. V., E-mail: besp@sinp.msu.ru; Boboshin, I. N.; Varlamov, V. V.; Ermakova, T. A.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Klimochkina, A. A.; Komarov, S. Yu. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation); Koura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Advanced Science Research Center (Japan); Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15

176

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis)  

PubMed Central

Darwin's finches are a model system in ecological and evolutionary research, but surprisingly little is known about their skull morphology and development. Indeed, only the early beak development and external variation in adult beak shape has been studied. Understanding the development of the skull from embryo up to the adult is important to gain insights into how selection acts upon, and drives, variation in beak shape. Here, we provide a detailed description of the skeletal development of the skull in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis). Although the ossification sequence of the cranial elements is broadly similar to that observed for other birds, some differences can be observed. Unexpectedly, our data show that large changes in skull shape take place between the nestling and the juvenile phases. The reorientation of the beak, the orbit and the formation of well-developed processes and cristae suggest that these changes are likely related to the use of the beak after leaving the nest. This suggests that the active use of the jaw muscles during seed cracking plays an important role in shaping the adult skull morphology and may be driving some of the intra-specific variation observed in species such as G. fortis. Investigating the development of the jaw muscles and their interaction with the observed ossification and formation of the skull and lower jaw would allow further insights into the ecology and evolution of beak morphology in Darwin's finches.

Genbrugge, Annelies; Heyde, Anne-Sophie; Adriaens, Dominique; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Podos, Jeffrey; Herrel, Anthony

2011-01-01

177

Stifle Lameness in Cattle at Two Veterinary Teaching Hospitals: A Retrospective Study of Forty-two Cases  

PubMed Central

Records of two veterinary teaching hospitals from January 1, 1976 to June 1, 1982 were searched for diagnoses of stifle lameness. Forty-two records were found and information was recorded regarding signalment, history and clinical presentation. The following abnormalities were associated with stifle lameness: subchondral bone cyst (18 cases), joint instability (15 cases), degenerative joint disease (12 cases), cranial cruciate ligament injury (9 cases), cytological or bacteriological evidence of sepsis (9 cases), collateral ligament injury (3 cases), femorotibial luxation (2 cases) and intra-articular fracture (2 cases). The duration of lameness presentation ranged from 0.3 to 24 weeks and the mean follow-up period was 20.47 ± 11.44 months (three animals were lost to follow-up). Animals (n = 15) with subchondral bone cysts as the sole association with lameness presented at an early age (range — 6 to 18 months) and apparently regardless of treatment, had a good prognosis as determined by 75% (three lost to follow-up) returning to their intended function. Cattle (n = 9) with septic arthritis were presented at an age ranging from two months to seven years and only 22.2% returned to function. Cattle (n = 15) with joint instability presented at an age varying from nine months to 13 years also did poorly as only 26.6% returned to function. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.

Ducharme, N. G.; Stanton, M. E.; Ducharme, G. R.

1985-01-01

178

"Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties" on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities [4]. But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40?-50?) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50?-60?) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60?, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46? south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44? north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59? north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44? north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70? north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35? south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35? south; PIA10439 - dance of the clouds, 47? south; PIA10437 - dual vortices, 33? north. In the Earth's case the turbulence touches the atmosphere, oceans and lithosphere. Navigators for sailing use strong westerly winds in Roaring Forties. Europe is often hit by anomalous, sometimes disasters weather conditions (though winds in the northern hemisphere are somehow softened by landmasses). In the crust of Eurasia, North America and in the Southern ocean along latitudes 46?-48? there are two latitudinal geomorphologic planetary flexures marking transition of subsiding inward belts to uplifting outward (pole ward) belts [5]. These slow secular crust and lithosphere movements of opposite signs witness the tendency of rotating Earth to equilibrate angular momenta of its tropic and extra-tropic belts. Thus, both planets - the rocky sphere and the gaseous giant globe - obey the same fundamental law of nature and try to adjust uneven angular momenta of its tropic and extra-tropic belts marking transition between them by anomalous features. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonic dichotomy, sectoring and granulation of Earth and other celestial bodies // Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Concepts in Global Tectonics, "NCGT-98 TSUKUBA", Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Nov 20-23, 1998, p. 144-147. [3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., 1999, V.1, ?3, 700. [4] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonics of rotating celestial globes // Vernadsky-Brown microsymposium 48, 20-22 Oct. 2008, Moscow, Abstr. m48_20. [5] Kotov F. S. A reflection of planetary flexures in limits of the continental lithosphere // Tectonics and geodynamics of the continental lithosphere. Proceedings of the XXXVI Tectonic conference. T. I, 4-6 Febr. 2003, Ed. Yu.V. Karyakin, Moscow, GEOS, 2003, 37

Kochemasov, G. G.

2009-04-01

179

Enzymatic degradation of hybrid iota-/nu-carrageenan by Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase.  

PubMed

Hybrid iota-/nu-carrageenan was water-extracted from Eucheuma denticulatum and incubated with Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase. The degradation products were then separated by anion-exchange chromatography. The three most abundant fractions of hybrid iota-/nu-carrageenan oligosaccharides were purified and their structures were analyzed by NMR. The smallest hybrid was an octasaccharide with a iota-iota-nu-iota structure. The second fraction was composed of two decasaccharides with iota-iota-iota-nu-iota and iota-[iota/nu]-iota-iota structures. The third fraction was a mixture of dodecasaccharides which contained at least a iota-iota-iota-iota-nu-iota oligosaccharide. The carbon and proton NMR spectra of the octasaccharides were completely assigned, thereby completely attributing the nu-carrabiose moiety for the first time. PMID:20227066

Jouanneau, Diane; Boulenguer, Patrick; Mazoyer, Jacques; Helbert, William

2010-02-19

180

Forty- Versus 20-Minute Trials of the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test Regimen for Licensing of Drivers  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Objective assessment of the ability to maintain wakefulness, although very important, is still equivocal. A recent study from our lab has shown that the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), when performed with the 20-minute protocol (MWT20), is unreliable in assessing patients who are highly motivated to maintain wakefulness. In this study, we sought to examine whether the 40-minute protocol (MWT40) is a better tool in assessing such individuals. Methods: One hundred sixty-four consecutive subjects referred to our sleep lab by the Medical Institute for Driving Safety were studied. All subjects underwent a full-night polysomnogram followed by an MWT, 4 trials of 40 minutes each. All subjects knew that if they failed the wakefulness test their driving license would be revoked. Results: Forty-one subjects out of 164 (25%) fell asleep at least once. Of 39 subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea, (respiratory disturbance index > 40/h), 19 fell asleep (48.7%). Of 13 subjects with a minimum oxygen saturation level below 65%, 7 fell asleep (53%). In the MWT20, only 7% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea fell asleep at least once. Conclusions: We conclude that the MWT40 is superior to the MWT20 in detecting difficulties maintaining wakefulness in a highly motivated population. However, our results yield a significantly lower detection of difficulties maintaining wakefulness than those reported in healthy subjects, suggesting that the MWT40 is also highly affected by motivation. We believe that, for a highly motivated population (such as for a driver’s license validation), different average sleep-latency threshold should be used than in general population. Citation: Arzi L; Shreter R; El-Ad B; Peled R; Pillar G. Forty- versus 20-minute trials of the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test regimen for licensing of drivers. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(1):57-62.

Arzi, Limor; Shreter, Roni; El-Ad, Baruch; Peled, Ron; Pillar, Giora

2009-01-01

181

37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES GENERAL PROVISIONS § 201.12 Recordation of certain contracts by...

2013-07-01

182

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

183

Smells like home: Desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, use olfactory landmarks to pinpoint the nest  

PubMed Central

Background Cataglyphis fortis ants forage individually for dead arthropods in the inhospitable salt-pans of Tunisia. Locating the inconspicuous nest after a foraging run of more than 100 meters demands a remarkable orientation capability. As a result of high temperatures and the unpredictable distribution of food, Cataglyphis ants do not lay pheromone trails. Instead, path integration is the fundamental system of long-distance navigation. This system constantly informs a foraging ant about its position relative to the nest. In addition, the ants rely on visual landmarks as geocentric navigational cues to finally pinpoint the nest entrance. Results Apart from the visual cues within the ants' habitat, we found potential olfactory landmark information with different odour blends coupled to various ground structures. Here we show that Cataglyphis ants can use olfactory information in order to locate their nest entrance. Ants were trained to associate their nest entrance with a single odour. In a test situation, they focused their nest search on the position of the training odour but not on the positions of non-training odours. When trained to a single odour, the ants were able to recognise this odour within a mixture of four odours. Conclusion The uniform salt-pans become less homogenous if one takes olfactory landmarks into account. As Cataglyphis ants associate environmental odours with the nest entrance they can be said to use olfactory landmarks in the vicinity of the nest for homing.

Steck, Kathrin; Hansson, Bill S; Knaden, Markus

2009-01-01

184

Spinal posture and pelvic position in three hundred forty-five elementary school children: a rasterstereographic pilot study  

PubMed Central

Children's posture has been of growing concern due to observations that it seems to be impaired compared to previous generations. So far there is no reference data for spinal posture and pelvic position in healthy children available. Purpose of this pilot study was to determine rasterstereographic posture values in children during their second growth phase. Three hundred and forty-five pupils were measured with a rasterstereographic device in a neutral standing position with hanging arms. To further analyse for changes in spinal posture during growth, the children were divided into 12-month age clusters. A mean kyphotic angle of 47.1°±7.5 and a mean lordotic angle of 42.1°±9.9 were measured. Trunk imbalance in girls (5.85 mm±0.74) and boys (7.48 mm± 0.83) varied only little between the age groups, with boys showing slightly higher values than girls. The trunk inclination did not show any significant differences between the age groups in boys or girls. Girls' inclination was 2.53°±1.96 with a tendency to decreasing angles by age, therefore slightly smaller compared to boys (2.98°±2.18). Lateral deviation (4.8 mm) and pelvic position (tilt: 2.75 mm; torsion: 1.53°; inclination: 19.8°±19.8) were comparable for all age groups and genders. This study provides the first systematic rasterstereographic analysis of spinal posture in children between 6 and 11 years. With the method of rasterstereography a reliable three-dimensional analysis of spinal posture and pelvic position is possible. Spinal posture and pelvic position does not change significantly with increasing age in this collective of children during the second growth phase.

Furian, Thimm Christoph; Rapp, Walter; Eckert, Stefanie; Wild, Michael; Betsch, Marcel

2013-01-01

185

The Forty-Eight-Hour Rule: Emotional Engagement and the Student Athlete  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several years ago, the author taught a course called First-Year experience. A student named Sean mentioned that he played "water pong." Sean, a high-achieving student who was also a member of the lacrosse team, explained that water pong was a game with the rules of beer pong, using water rather than beer. Sean volunteered an explanation of his…

Mueller, Alan C. R.

2009-01-01

186

Harvesting Production in Uneven-Aged Loblolly-Shortleaf Pine Stands: The Crossett Farm Forestry Forties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two Arkansas pine stands have been managed using uneven-aged management techniques since 1937. For many years the stands were harvested annually, but they have been harvested every 5 years since the 1970's. A study to determine productivity of the harvest...

R. Kluender B. Stokes S. Woodfin

1992-01-01

187

"Fortis/Lenis" Revisited One More Time: The Aerodynamics of Some Oral Stop Contrasts in Three Continents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The terms "fortis" and "lenis" are variously regarded as having one single underlying phonetic correlate or many. An exploratory analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic data on contrasting stop series in a number of European and non-European languages confirms that a significant variation in peak intra-oral pressure and in articulatory stricture…

Butcher, Andrew

2004-01-01

188

Forty-first annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The appropriations for the public work under the United States Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1919-20 comprised items amounting to $1,586,353.50. In general the results of the varied activities of the Geological Survey may be regarded as meeting with a constantly increasing measure of public approval, as shown by the larger use that is being made of this branch of the public service. Correspondence with all classes of citizens—ranchers and corporation officials, school children and university professors, prospectors and mining engineers—has continued to increase, and this gain has been evident in the requests both for specific information and for publications. Ten years ago a telegraphic request for a map or report was a notable incident; now telegrams of this kind are of daily occurrence. Especially gratifying has been the popular demand for topographic maps, the increase in sales this year being 70 per cent. The number of all publications—books and maps—distributed during the year exceeded the number printed this year, this disproving the common assertion that Government publications simply accumulate until they become only waste paper. Indeed, an embarrassing feature of much of the correspondence during the year has been the thousands of requests for reports that were out of print, and more reprints than usual of exhausted editions have been authorized to meet an insistent demand. The public is making use of the publications of the Geological Survey as never before.

Smith, George Otis

1920-01-01

189

Forty or Fifty Something: What We Are like at Mid-Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers and human service workers are 40-50 years of age and this paper explores the formative influences, and the developmental characteristics, of workers who are presently middle-aged. This leads onto an examination of the importance of relationships and work to mid-lifers. In the concluding section of the paper, there is some…

Stanley, Peter

2007-01-01

190

Forty-second annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The direct appropriations for the work under the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1921 comprised items amounting to $1,730,700. In addition $140,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey.

Smith, George Otis

1921-01-01

191

Forty-fourth annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The direct appropriations for the work under the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1922 comprised items amounting to $1,450,940. In addition $119,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey, and allotments of $8,000 and $5,050.93 for miscellaneous printing and binding and miscellaneous supplies, respectively, were made from Interior Department appropriations.

Smith, George Otis

1923-01-01

192

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

193

The smoking patterns of women in their forties: their relationship to later osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Osteoporosis is prevalent among women 50 years of age and older and accounts for numerous fractures and the related deaths of many sufferers. In this study, 22.4% of the women reported having osteoporosis. Smoking contributes substantially to osteoporotic fractures. This study assessed how different trajectories of women's smoking, covering the ages 40 to 48 years, relate to osteoporosis at age 65. Trajectory analysis of tobacco use data reveals smoking patterns which may have differing relationships to osteoporosis. Logistic regression analyses revealed the varying relationships of different smoking patterns to osteoporosis. As hypothesized, the chronic/heavy smokers were significantly more likely than the non-smokers to report having osteoporosis. Quitters and moderate smokers did not differ significantly from non-smokers on the osteoporosis measure. Chronic/heavy smokers should not be the only focus of public health efforts to reduce smoking and the associated risks of osteoporosis. The findings also highlight the efficacy of women smokers quitting in their 40s in order to reduce their likelihood of contracting osteoporosis. PMID:22662390

Brook, Judith S; Balka, Elinor B; Zhang, Chenshu

2012-04-01

194

Forty-six genes causing nonsyndromic hearing impairment: which ones should be analyzed in DNA diagnostics?  

PubMed Central

Hearing impairment is the most common sensory disorder, present in 1 of every 500 newborns. With 46 genes implicated in nonsyndromic hearing loss, it is also an extremely heterogeneous trait. Here, we categorize for the first time all mutations reported in nonsyndromic deafness genes, both worldwide and more specifically in Caucasians. The most frequent genes implicated in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss are GJB2, which is responsible for more than half of cases, followed by SLC26A4, MYO15A, OTOF, CDH23 and TMC1. None of the genes associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss accounts for a preponderance of cases. Mutations are somewhat more frequently reported in WFS1, KCNQ4, COCH and GJB2. Only a minority of these genes is currently included in genetic diagnostics, the selection criteria typically reflecting: 1) high frequency as a cause of deafness (i.e. GJB2); 2) association with another recognizable feature (i.e. SLC26A4 and enlarged vestibular aqueduct); or 3) a recognizable audioprofile (i.e. WFS1). New and powerful DNA sequencing technologies have been developed over the past few years, but have not yet found their way into DNA diagnostics. Implementing these technologies is likely to happen within the next 5 years, and will cause a breakthrough in terms of power and cost efficiency. It will become possible to analyze most - if not all - deafness genes, as opposed to one or a few genes currently. This ability will greatly improve DNA diagnostics, provide epidemiological data on gene-based mutation frequencies, and reveal novel genotype-phenotype correlations.

Hilgert, Nele; Smith, Richard J.H.; Van Camp, Guy

2010-01-01

195

The Smoking Patterns of Women in their Forties: their relationship to later osteoporosis1, 2  

PubMed Central

Summary Osteoporosis is prevalent among women 50 years of age and older and accounts for numerous fractures and the related deaths of many sufferers. In our study, 22.4% of the women reported having osteoporosis. Smoking contributes substantially to osteoporotic fractures. This study assessed how different trajectories of women’s smoking, covering the ages 40 to 48, relate to osteoporosis at age 65. Trajectory analysis of tobacco use data permits smoking patterns to emerge which may have differing relationships to osteoporosis. Logistic regression analyses revealed the varying relationships of different smoking patterns to osteoporosis. As hypothesized, the chronic/heavy smokers were significantly more likely than the nonsmokers to report having osteoporosis [Adjusted Odds Ratio=2.23 (1.23–4.03)]. Quitters [A.O.R.=1.45 (0.68–3.08)] and moderate smokers [A.O.R.=1.90(0.72–5.00)] did not differ significantly from nonsmokers on the osteoporosis measure. Hence chronic/heavy smokers should not be the only focus of public health efforts to reduce smoking and the associated risks of osteoporosis. The findings also highlight the efficacy of women smokers quitting in their 40’s in order to reduce their likelihood of contracting osteoporosis.

Brook, J. S.; Balka, E. B.; Zhang, C.

2012-01-01

196

Academic health sciences library Website navigation: an analysis of forty-one Websites and their navigation tools  

PubMed Central

Background: The analysis included forty-one academic health sciences library (HSL) Websites as captured in the first two weeks of January 2001. Home pages and persistent navigational tools (PNTs) were analyzed for layout, technology, and links, and other general site metrics were taken. Methods: Websites were selected based on rank in the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, with regional and resource libraries given preference on the basis that these libraries are recognized as leaders in their regions and would be the most reasonable source of standards for best practice. A three-page evaluation tool was developed based on previous similar studies. All forty-one sites were evaluated in four specific areas: library general information, Website aids and tools, library services, and electronic resources. Metrics taken for electronic resources included orientation of bibliographic databases alphabetically by title or by subject area and with links to specifically named databases. Results: Based on the results, a formula for determining obligatory links was developed, listing items that should appear on all academic HSL Web home pages and PNTs. Conclusions: These obligatory links demonstrate a series of best practices that may be followed in the design and construction of academic HSL Websites.

Brower, Stewart M.

2004-01-01

197

Isolation of acetylated bile acids from the sponge Siphonochalina fortis and DNA damage evaluation by the comet assay.  

PubMed

From the organic extracts of the sponge Siphonochalina fortis, collected at Bahía Bustamante, Chubut, Argentina, three major compounds were isolated and identified as deoxycholic acid 3, 12-diacetate (1), cholic acid 3, 7, 12-triacetate (2) and cholic acid, 3, 7, 12-triacetate. (3). This is the first report of acetylated bile acids in sponges and the first isolation of compound 3 as a natural product. The potential induction of DNA lesions by the isolated compounds was investigated using the comet assay in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood as in vitro model. The results showed that the administration of the bile acid derivatives would not induce DNA damages, indicating that acetylated bile acids are nontoxic metabolites at the tested concentrations. Since the free bile acids were not detected, it is unlikely that the acetylated compounds may be part of the sponge cells detoxification mechanisms. These results may suggest a possible role of acetylated bile acids as a chemical defense mechanism, product of a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms, which would explain their seasonal and geographical variation, and their influence on the previously observed genotoxicity of the organic extract of S. fortis. PMID:23791668

Patiño Cano, Laura P; Bartolotta, Susana A; Casanova, Natalia A; Siless, Gastón E; Portmann, Erika; Schejter, Laura; Palermo, Jorge A; Carballo, Marta A

2013-06-19

198

[Karyological and allozyme variability of far eastern voles Microtus fortis Büchner, 1889 (Cricetidae, Rodentia) from the Russian Far East].  

PubMed

Karyological (G-, C-, and NOR-banding) and allozyme analyses were carried out for island and continental populations of the vole Microtus fortis from the Far East of Russia. Variability of the autosome pair 7 was found. The presence of variation in the number of telomere heterochromatin blocks in the populations of Far Eastern voles was confirmed. NOR-staining of the Far Eastern vole chromosomes was carried out, showing stability of the number and the positions of the nucleolus organizer regions. Ten enzyme systems and three non-enzyme proteins (controlled in total by 25 interpretable loci) were examined in the Far Eastern vole from the island and continental populations. All of the loci were shown to be monomorphic, except for one esterase locus, which exhibited polymorphism at the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels. The issue of distribution of the Far Eastern vole subspecies is discussed. It is suggested that M. fortis pelliceus occurs not only in the Russian Far East, but also in Northern Transbaikalia. PMID:16871789

Sheremet'eva, I N; Kartavtseva, I V; Frisman, L V

2006-06-01

199

Bacillus farraginis sp. nov., Bacillus fortis sp. nov. and Bacillus fordii sp. nov., isolated at dairy farms.  

PubMed

Forty-eight bacterial strains were isolated at dairy farms from raw milk, the milking apparatus, green fodder or feed concentrate after a heat treatment of 30 min at 100 degrees C. In this way, spore-forming bacteria with a very high intrinsic heat resistance were selected for. The aerobic spore-forming isolates were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomical study, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR typing, whole-cell protein profiling, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base composition, fatty acid analysis, and morphological and biochemical characteristics. A comparison of the REP- and (GTG)5-PCR and whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE profiles resulted in three clusters of similar strains. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness data showed that these clusters represented three novel species. The highest 16S rDNA similarity to a recognized species found for the three groups was around 94% with Bacillus lentus and Bacillus sporothermodurans. Further phenotypic characterization supported the proposal of three novel species in the genus Bacillus, Bacillus farraginis, Bacillus fortis and Bacillus fordii. The respective type strains are R-6540T (=LMG 22081T=DSM 16013T), R-6514T (=LMG 22079T=DSM 16012T) and R-7190T (=LMG 22080T=DSM 16014T); their G+C DNA base contents are 43.7, 44.3 and 41.9 mol%, respectively. Although in variable amounts, a predominance of the branched fatty acids iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) was observed in all three novel species. PMID:15280314

Scheldeman, Patsy; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Goris, Johan; Pil, Annelies; De Clerck, Elke; Herman, Lieve; De Vos, Paul; Logan, Niall A; Heyndrickx, Marc

2004-07-01

200

Synonymous codon usage in forty staphylococcal phages identifies the factors controlling codon usage variation and the phages suitable for phage therapy.  

PubMed

The immergence and dissemination of multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus in recent years have expedited the research on the discovery of novel anti-staphylococcal agents promptly. Bacteriophages have long been showing tremendous potentialities in curing the infections caused by various pathogenic bacteria including S. aureus. Thus far, only a few virulent bacteriophages, which do not carry any toxin-encoding gene but are capable of eradicating staphylococcal infections, were reported. Based on the codon usage analysis of sixteen S. aureus phages, previously three phages were suggested to be useful as the anti-staphylococcal agents. To search for additional S. aureus phages suitable for phage therapy, relative synonymous codon usage bias has been investigated in the protein-coding genes of forty new staphylococcal phages. All phages appeared to carry A and T ending codons. Several factors such as mutational pressure, translational selection and gene length seemed to be responsible for the codon usage variation in the phages. Codon usage indeed varied phage to phage. Of the phages, phages G1, Twort, 66 and Sap-2 may be extremely lytic in nature as majority of their genes possess high translational efficiency, indicating that these phages may be employed in curing staphylococcal infections. PMID:23275718

Bishal, Arghya Kamal; Saha, Soumya; Sau, Keya

2012-12-08

201

[Possible impacts of the Three Gorges Project and converting farmland into lake on the Microtus fortis population in Dongting Lake region].  

PubMed

The outbreak of Yantze vole (Microtus fortis) population in Dongting Lake region is closely related to the evolvement of lake beaches, because the deposition of lake sediments results in the expansion of lake beaches, which provides the possibility of the increase of the vole's population. Reclaiming farmland from lake via building cofferdams, eliminating snails by building cofferdams for eradicating schistosomiasis, and over-hunting predators in the region cause the voles becoming a pest after the 1970s. In recent years, the Three Gorges Project and the conversion from farmland into lake have had deep impacts on the environment in the Lake region. The dispatching of the down flow rate by the Project induces the expansion of the low and medium level beaches in the Lake region, while converting farmland into lake directly induces the increase of beach area, both of which expand the potential habitats of the vole's population. Therefore, more attention should be paid on the quantitative variation trend of the vole's population in the future. PMID:23189685

Zhang, Mei-Wen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Huang, Guo-Xian; Guo, Cong

2012-08-01

202

Mixed Boundary Value Problems in Mechanics of Materials ``Some Reflections on Forty Years of Solving Mixed Boundary Value Problems in Inhomogeneous Elasticity''  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this lecture after some introductory remarks, first certain concepts relating to the mixed boundary value problems in mechanics of materials and in potential theory will be defined and typical examples from crack and contact mechanics demonstrating unique applications of the singular integral equations will be described. Then the methods of solution of the singular integral equations based mostly on

Fazil Erdogan

2008-01-01

203

Yellow Fever: Victor, Victoria, Conqueror, Conquest, Epidemics and Research in the Last Forty Years and Prospects for the Future. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Yellow fever once ranked among the greatest of human afflictions, conquered attempts at colonial settlement and economic development, and caused epidemics with much suffering in towns and cities as far north as Boston and Swansea. The conquest of yellow f...

T. P. Monath

1991-01-01

204

Informal Caregiving to Persons with AIDS in the United States: Caregiver Burden Among Central Cities Residents Eighteen to Forty-Nine Years Old  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics and caregiving experiences of friends and family members caring for people with AIDS (PWAs) were examined. Based on a probability sample of informal AIDS caregivers ages 18–49 living in central cities of the United States (n = 260), analyses were conducted to (a) identify the sociodemographic characteristics of young central city caregivers; and (b) examine the effects of caregiver

Heather A. Turner; Joseph A. Catania

1997-01-01

205

Forty Years of Movie Hacking: Considering the Potential Implications of the Popular Media Representation of Computer Hackers from 1968 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly movies are being produced which feature plots that incorporate elements of computer security and hacking, and cumulatively these movies are creating a public perception as to the nature of computer security. This research examines movies that feature hackers (and hacking) to identify if any common themes emerge from these movies in their representation of these issues. To achieve this,

Damian Gordon

2010-01-01

206

[On Georges Canguilhem's "What does a scientific ideology mean?" and on French-German contributions on science and ideology in the last forty years].  

PubMed

This paper is based on Canguilhem's text on the concept of scientific ideology, which he introduced in 1969. We describe Canguilhem's attempts at designing a methodological framework for the history of science including the status of kinds of knowledge related to science, like scientific ideologies preceding particular scientific domains (like ideologies about inheritance before Mendel, or Spencer's universal evolutionary laws preceding Darwin). This attempt at picturing the relationships between science and ideology is compared with Jürgen Habermas's book Technology and Science as 'Ideology' in 1968. The philosphical issue of human normativity provides the framework of this discussion. PMID:20695411

Debru, Claude

2010-06-01

207

40 years of sovereign debt crises  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compiles a new data base, based on the earlier work by Kray and Nehu, to assess the determinants of sovereign debt crises over the last forty years. A simple statistical analysis of the cause of the crises is performed. It shows that neither the serial defaulter nor the \\

Daniel Cohen; Cécile Valadier

2011-01-01

208

Animism Begins at Forty: Evidence that Animism and Other Naive Beliefs Are Established before the Onset of Old Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Animism (erroneously believing inanimate objects are alive) is present in older adults (McDonald & Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). However, it is unclear if animism arises in later life or middle age. The current study tested 34 middle-aged adults (mean age 48 years) on Piaget's animism task and found a significant level of animism. Strength of animism…

Parry, Robert; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian

2010-01-01

209

Will adherence to new guidance lead to missed cancer diagnoses? Evaluation of limiting symptomatic mammograms to over forties.  

PubMed

Within the United Kingdom, a recent change in "Best Practice Guidance" has suggested that mammograms for symptomatic breast patients, with a clinically benign examination, should be limited to those over 40 years . This has led to anxiety over missing cancer diagnoses in the 35-39 year-old age group. This study aimed to assess the impact of the new guidance upon a NHS Breast unit with a particular focus on safety. Two cancer data bases (BASO and SOMERSET) were used to identify thirty-three patients aged 35-39 years diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2007 and June 2011. Case notes were retrieved and retrospectively analyzed for trends during clinical (P1-P5) and radiological assessment (using Royal College Radiologists Breast Group classification-M1-5, U1-5). Sensitivity and false-negative rates for each modality were calculated. Sensitivities of clinical examination, mammography, and ultrasound for detecting malignancy were 72.7%, 78.8%, and 93.9%, respectively. Within the clinically benign group (P1 and P2), mammography and ultrasound showed sensitivities of detecting malignancy of 55.5% and 88.9%, respectively, with three extra cancers being identified by ultrasound when mammography was graded less than M3 (indeterminate lesion-requiring biopsy). Importantly, no cancers would have been missed if the new guidance had been adhered to. This study has shown that mammography has no additional diagnostic benefit as first-line imaging in symptomatic breast patients aged 35-39 years. It has confirmed that implementation of the new Best Practice Guidance is safe, when used in the setting of triple assessment, to ensure cancer diagnoses are not missed. PMID:23316749

Mistry, Sandeep G; Barnes, Nicola; Ooi, Jane

2013-01-14

210

Thermal Oxidation of Olive Oil, Sunflower Oil and a Mix of Both Oils during Forty Discontinuous Domestic Fryings of Different Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in sunflower oil (SO), olive oil (OO) of 0.4º acidity value and a mixture (1:1) of both oils (MO) were studied during forty domestic discontinuous deep-fat frying of various foodstuffs, mostly frozen foods. The replenishment of the oil in the fryer with fresh oil was performed after every ten uses to maintain the oil volume in the fryer. Alteration

S. Bastida; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

2001-01-01

211

Five-Year Follow-up After Sacral Neuromodulation: Single Center Experience.  

PubMed

Objective.? We studied long-term clinical efficacy of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) therapy in patients with refractory urgency incontinence (UI), urgency/frequency (UF) and voiding difficulty (VD), together with urodynamic data at baseline and six months postimplant. Materials and Methods.? Twenty-two patients were implanted with a neurostimulator after a positive response to a percutaneous nerve evaluation test defined as a greater than 50% improvement in symptoms. Results.? At five-year follow-up, the number of incontinent episodes and pad usage per day decreased significantly in 10 out of 15 UI patients. Two of five UF patients were successfully treated with SNM; the number of daily voids for all UF patients decreased from 25 to 19 and average voided volume increased from 98 to 212 mL. One of the two VD patients was able to void to completion. Mean first sensation of filling at the six-month urodynamic investigation for the UI and UF patients increased from 78 to 241 mL and 141 to 232 mL, respectively, and the maximum bladder capacity increased from 292 to 352 mL and 223 to 318 mL, respectively. Five of 22 patients underwent device explant and one patient still has an inactive stimulator implanted. Conclusion.? SNM is an effective treatment modality that offers sustained clinical benefit in the majority of patients with refractory UI, UF, and VD that do not respond to other, more conservative therapies. PMID:22150896

Groenendijk, Pieter M; Lycklama À Nijeholt, August A B; Ouwerkerk, Theo J; van den Hombergh, Ubi

2007-10-01

212

Puzzlemaking and Part-Whole Perception of Two-Year-Old and Four-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between preschoolers' puzzlemaking strategies and part-whole perception was investigated in the present study. Forty-eight two year olds and 48 four year olds were randomly selected from eight licensed childcare centers. Puzzlemaking strategies (image, form, color, and trial and error) were measured by performance in the…

Montford, Emily I. Purvis; Readdick, Christine A.

2008-01-01

213

Forty-two supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) in 43,273 prenatal samples: chromosomal distribution, clinical findings, and UPD studies.  

PubMed

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed on supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs) detected in 43,273 prenatal diagnoses over a period of 11 years, 1993-2003. A total of 42 pregnancies with SMC were identified, indicating a prevalence of one in 1032. A total of 15 SMCs were endowed with detectable euchromatin (prevalence, 1/2884), including six SMCs containing the cat eye critical region (CECR) on chromosome 22q11.21 (1/7212). De novo SMCs were found in 29 pregnancies (1/1492), including 14 euchromatic SMCs (48.2%). Follow-up studies were available for 24 cases. Nine pregnancies (37.5%) were terminated; two children (8.3%) were born with Pallister-Killian syndrome and cat eye syndrome (CES), respectively; 13 children (54.1%) showed apparently normal development. Familial SMCs were identified in 13 pregnancies (1/3328) from 11 unrelated women. They were all acrocentric. In all, 10 were heterochromatic and one was an extra der(22)t(11;22) chromosome. A total of 12 cases were available for follow-up. One pregnancy was terminated due to anhydramnios, spina bifida, and cystic-dysplastic kidneys; one child suffered from a der(22) syndrome; 10 children (83.3%) appeared unaffected. Studies for uniparental disomy were performed on seven pregnancies and revealed a case of maternal heterodisomy for chromosome 22. So far this is the largest FISH study of prenatally ascertained SMCs and the first study with detailed data on the prevalence. Findings illustrate the spectrum and clinical outcomes of prenatally diagnosed SMCs, and indicate a higher frequency of SMCs than generally assumed. PMID:16077735

Bartsch, Oliver; Loitzsch, Anne; Kozlowski, Peter; Mazauric, Marie-Luise; Hickmann, Gabriele

2005-11-01

214

Kainji resettlement housing: 40 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria's Kainji Dam, completed in 1968, displaced 44,000 people from 239 settlements. Three housing forms were designed to provide for urban, semi?urban, and rural settings, respectively. Forty years later, the urban and semi?urban forms are integrated into the community while the rural form, modeled after a grain storage structure (rumbu) has been less successful. Five lessons are derived from this

Ruth Shinenge Gyuse; Timothy Terver Gyuse

2008-01-01

215

Transition Year Implementation of the Job Training Partnership Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The findings in this report cover Transition Year 1984 (Oct 1983 through June 1984) and provide an assessment of the implementation of the Job Training Partnership Act, Titles II-A and III. The sample covers twenty States and forty Service Delivery Areas....

R. F. Cook R. L. Beatty H. A. Hunt S. F. Liebschutz G. E. Maclachlan

1985-01-01

216

Computing Trends in Small Liberal Arts Colleges: Ten Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-one small liberal arts colleges were visited during the 1997-98 school year in order to talk to key information technology staff and to see computing facilities. A survey containing 15 factual and 10 open-ended questions was used to gather information. This paper presents findings in the following areas and comparison with results of a…

Smith, Peter

217

Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

2012-01-01

218

Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled…

Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

2012-01-01

219

The iota-carrageenase of Alteromonas fortis. A beta-helix fold-containing enzyme for the degradation of a highly polyanionic polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Carrageenans are gel-forming hydrocolloids extracted from the cell walls of marine red algae. They consist of d-galactose residues bound by alternate alpha(1-->3) and beta(1-->4) linkages and substituted by one (kappa-carrageenan), two (iota-carrageenan), or three (lambda-carrageenan) sulfate-ester groups per disaccharide repeating unit. Both the kappa- and iota-carrageenan chains adopt ordered conformations leading to the formation of highly ordered aggregates of double-stranded helices. Several kappa-carrageenases and iota-carrageenases have been cloned from marine bacteria. Kappa-carrageenases belong to family 16 of the glycoside hydrolases, which essentially encompasses polysaccharidases specialized in the hydrolysis of the neutral polysaccharides such as agarose, laminarin, lichenan, and xyloglucan. In contrast, iota-carrageenases constitute a novel glycoside hydrolase structural family. We report here the crystal structure of Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase at 1.6 A resolution. The enzyme folds into a right-handed parallel beta-helix of 10 complete turns with two additional C-terminal domains. Glu(245), Asp(247), or Glu(310), in the cleft of the enzyme, are proposed as candidate catalytic residues. The protein contains one sodium and one chloride binding site and three calcium binding sites shown to be involved in stabilizing the enzyme structure. PMID:11493601

Michel, G; Chantalat, L; Fanchon, E; Henrissat, B; Kloareg, B; Dideberg, O

2001-08-07

220

Ear Trauma in Orlu, Nigeria: A Five-Year Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

To review the presentation, types and aetiology of ear trauma and various factors affecting ear trauma in our patients over\\u000a a 5 year period. All patients treated for ear trauma over a 5 year period were studied using their clinical records. Data\\u000a extracted were analysed using SPSS version 11 software. The results were presented in simple descriptive and tabular forms.\\u000a Forty-one patients,

A. B. Chukuezi; J. N. Nwosu

221

The effects of automation on hiring practices and staff allocations in academic libraries in four-year and two-year institutions in Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of automation on hiring practices and staff allocations in four-year and two-year, public and private academic libraries in Tennessee. All 56 academic libraries' directors at four-year and two-year institutions were mailed the survey, Impact of Technology on Library Personnel. Forty-four (79%) of the library directors responded. The study's hypotheses stated

Murle Edward Kenerson

1997-01-01

222

Chemistry's year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Nations has proclaimed 2011 to be the International Year of Chemistry. Under this banner, chemists should seize the opportunity to highlight the rich history and successes of our subject to a much broader audience - and explain how it can help to solve the global challenges we face today and in the future.

2011-01-01

223

Postresectional lung injury in thoracic surgery pre and intraoperative risk factors: a retrospective clinical study of a hundred forty-three cases  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute respiratory dysfunction syndrome (ARDS), defined as acute hypoxemia accompanied by radiographic pulmonary infiltrates without a clearly identifiable cause, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after pulmonary resection. The aim of the study was to determine the pre and intraoperative factors associated with ARDS after pulmonary resection retrospectively. Methods Patients undergoing elective pulmonary resection at Adnan Menderes University Medical Faculty Thoracic Surgery Department from January 2005 to February 2010 were included in this retrospective study. The authors collected data on demographics, relevant co-morbidities, the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status classification score, pulmonary function tests, type of operation, duration of surgery and intraoperative fluid administration (fluid therapy and blood products). The primary outcome measure was postoperative ARDS, defined as the need for continuation of mechanical ventilation for greater than 48-hours postoperatively or the need for reinstitution of mechanical ventilation after extubation. Statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for categorical variables and logistic regression analysis for continuous variables. Results Of one hundred forty-three pulmonary resection patients, 11 (7.5%) developed postoperative ARDS. Alcohol abuse (p = 0.01, OR = 39.6), ASA score (p = 0.001, OR: 1257.3), resection type (p = 0.032, OR = 28.6) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP)(p = 0.027, OR = 1.4) were the factors found to be statistically significant. Conclusion In the light of the current study, lung injury after lung resection has a high mortality. Preoperative and postoperative risk factor were significant predictors of postoperative lung injury.

2010-01-01

224

Trends in augmented reality tracking, interaction and display: A review of ten years of ISMAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Augmented Reality technology was first developed over forty years ago, there has been little survey work giving an overview of recent research in the field. This paper reviews the ten- year development of the work presented at the ISMAR conference and its predecessors with a particular focus on tracking, interaction and display research. It provides a roadmap for future

Feng Zhou; Henry Been-Lirn Duh; Mark Billinghurst

2008-01-01

225

Determinants of all causes of death in samples of Italian middle-aged men followed up for 25 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1712 men aged 40 to 59 years in two rural cohorts of northern and central Italy have been followed up for 25 years after an entry examination in 1960. Forty one individual characteristics have been considered as possible predictors of death in the next 25 years. After exclusion of 55 men with life threatening diseases (cardiovascular and

A Menotti; S Mariotti; F Seccareccia; S Torsello; F Dima

1987-01-01

226

Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

2012-01-01

227

Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

2012-01-01

228

Analysis of levels and predictors of HIV risk behavior among African-American women ages twenty-five to forty-four years: Prevention and intervention implications for counselors  

Microsoft Academic Search

African American women ages 25-44 have been identified as one of the most at risk groups for HIV\\/AIDS infection. This study examines the factors which contribute to HIV risk behavior, predict HIV risk behavior, and impact HIV risk behavior reduction. Objectives of this study are to identify the types and prevalence of HIV risk behavior in a sample of African

Elleen Murchison Yancey

1998-01-01

229

Past Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

Lodge, Oliver

2012-07-01

230

Finding Keys to School Change: A 40Year Odyssey  

Microsoft Academic Search

I’ve been working at understanding change in schools for more than forty years. Being given a license to reflect on my intellectual\\u000a adventures in the study of school change — in public — is a delightful and faintly alarming charge. I need to avoid sheer\\u000a narcissism on the one hand, and detached encyclopedic syntheses on the other. And not succumb

Matthew B. Miles

231

Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of Vietnam, with the description of forty-two new species and three new genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract The species of seventeen genera of Agathidinae (Braconidae) from Vietnam are revised: Agathis Latreille, 1804, Bassus Fabricius, 1804; Biroia Szépligeti, 1900; Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894; Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920; Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892; Coronagathis gen. n. (type species: Coronagathis cornifera sp. n.); Cremnops Foerster, 1862; Disophrys Foerster, 1862; Earinus Wesmael, 1837; Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900; Gyragathis gen. n. (type species: Gyragathis quyi sp. n.), Gyrochus Enderlein, 1920; Lytopylus Foerster, 1862; Therophilus Wesmael, 1837; Troticus Brullé, 1846, and Zelodia gen. n. (type species: Zelomorpha varipes van Achterberg & Maetô, 1990). Keys to the Vietnamese species are given. Sixty-five species are recognised, of which twelve species are newly recorded for Vietnam: Bassus albifasciatus (Watanabe, 1934), Coccygidium angostura (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), Cremnops atricornis (Smith, 1874), stat. n., Disophrys erythrocephala Cameron, 1900, Gyrochus yunnanensis Wang, 1984, Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus festivus (Muesebeck, 1953), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lienhuachihensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus marshi (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia absoluta (Chen & Yang, 1998), comb. n. and Zelodia longidorsata (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n. Forty-two species are new to science: Agathis citrinisoma sp. n., Bassus albobasalis sp. n., Bassus albozonatus sp. n., Biroia soror sp. n., Braunsia bicolorata sp. n., Braunsia devriesi sp. n., Braunsia maculifera sp. n., Braunsia nigrapiculata sp. n., Braunsia pumatica sp. n., Camptothlipsis hanoiensis sp. n., Coronagathis cornifera sp. n., Earinus aurantius sp. n., Earinus brevistigmus sp. n., Euagathis flavosoma sp. n., Disophrys maculifera sp. n., Disophrys quymanhi sp. n., Disophrys rhinoides sp. n., Gyragathis quyi sp. n., Therophilus annuliferus sp. n., Therophilus cattienensis sp. n., Therophilus contrastus sp. n., Therophilus crenulisulcatus sp. n., Therophilus depressiferus sp. n., Therophilus elongator sp. n., Therophilus levisoma sp. n., Therophilus marucae sp. n., Therophilus mellisoma sp. n., Therophilus nigrolineatus sp. n., Therophilus nuichuaensis sp. n., Therophilus parasper sp. n., Therophilus planifrons sp. n., Therophilus punctiscutum sp. n., Therophilus robustus sp. n., Therophilus rugosiferus sp. n., Therophilus scutellatus sp. n., Troticus alloflavus sp. n., Troticus giganteus sp. n., Zelodia albobasalis sp. n., Zelodia anginota sp. n., Zelodia bicoloristigma sp. n., Zelodia brevifemoralis sp. n. and Zelodia flavistigma sp. n. The following new synonyms are proposed: Euagathis nigrithorax Bhat & Gupta, 1977, Euagathis variabilis Enderlein, 1920, Euagathis variabilis var. tibialis Enderlein, 1920, Euagathis variabilis var. melanopleura Enderlein, 1920 and Euagathis variabilis var. sucarandana Enderlein, 1920 with Euagathis abbotti (Ashmead, 1900); Euagathis jinshanensis Chen & Yang, 2006 and Euagathis sharkeyi Chen & Yang, 2006, with Euagathis forticarinata (Cameron, 1899). The genus Amputostypos Sharkey, 2009, is synonymised with Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892, syn. n. The following new combinations are given: Bassus subrasa (Enderlein, 1920), comb. n., Gyragathis angulosa (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus annulus (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus asper (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus cingulipes (Nees, 1812), comb. n., Therophilus daanyuanensis (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus fujianicus (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lanyuensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus luzonicus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus muesebecki (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus rudimentarius (Enderlein, 1920), comb. n., Therophilus similis (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus sungkangensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus tanycoleosus (Chen & Yang, 2006

van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang

2010-01-01

232

[Transcranial direct current stimulation: a new tool for neurostimulation].  

PubMed

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a safe method to modulate cortical excitability. Anodal stimulation can improve the stimulated area's functions whereas cathodal stimulation reduces them. Currently, a lot of clinical trials have been conducted to study the effect of tDCS on post-stroke motor and language deficits, in depression, chronic pain, memory impairment and tinnitus in order to decrease symptoms. Results showed that, if an effect is observed with tDCS, it does not persist over time. Current studies suggest that direct current stimulation is a promising technique that helps to improve rehabilitation after stroke, to enhance cognitive deficiencies, to reduce depression and to relieve chronic pain. Moreover, it is a safe, simple and cheap device that could be easily integrated in a rehabilitation program. PMID:22959705

Thibaut, A; Chatelle, C; Gosseries, O; Laureys, S; Bruno, M-A

2012-09-07

233

The Economic Benefits of Reducing the Dropout Rate for Students of Color in the Nation's Forty-Five Largest Metropolitan Areas. Summary of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Years of data have consistently underscored the persistent graduation gap between America's students of color and their peers. The most recent estimate shows that high school graduation rates for African American, Latino, and American Indian students hover only slightly higher than 50 percent. This is more than 20 percentage points lower than…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

234

FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF CHILDREN WITH LOW-TO-MODERATE LEAD ABSORPTION: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Forty-nine children aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for residual effects of lead exposure using psychometric, electrophysiological, and medical tests five years after initial assessment. The original range of blood lead (PbB) levels was 6-59 micrograms/dl; the current range was...

235

Alienation and First-Year Student Retention. Professional File. Number 116, Spring 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since Summerskill's study on college attrition forty years ago, the interest in this topic has never waned. This study was particularly interested in the relationship of race to retention. Various theoretical frames of references have been proposed: Price's organization theory, Durkheim's Suicide, and Marx's Alienation have been used to guide…

Liu, Richard

2010-01-01

236

Creating A University: University of North Florida Faculty and Staff Remember 35 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reflecting upon the past thirty-five to forty years at the University of North Florida, one is struck by several themes which have emerged over time. One theme reflects an initial opposition to the new university which gradually changed over time. In the beginning, the Jacksonville community did not welcome UNF. At the time, the city was the largest in the

James B Crooks

2010-01-01

237

Counselling for prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disease and beta thalassaemia major: a four year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-directive programme of prenatal counselling was used during a four year period. Forty-three couples at risk for having a baby with a haemoglobinopathy were identified. Prenatal diagnosis was offered in 19 pregnancies to 14 couples at risk of having a baby with sickle cell anaemia and in two pregnancies in two couples at risk of a baby with beta

E N Anionwu; N Patel; G Kanji; H Renges; M Brozovi?

1988-01-01

238

Four to ten year followup of unreconstructed anterior cruciate ligament tears  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both operative and nonoperative methods have been advocated for the treatment of ACL tears. However, the optimum management of this injury remains contro versial. In the present study, patients treated nonoper atively were evaluated retrospectively 4 to 10 years after ACL tears were documented by arthroscopy and by mild to moderate pivot shifts under anesthesia.Forty-nine patients who underwent arthroscopic eval

Gary A. Pattee; James M. Fox; Wilson Del Pizzo; Marc J. Friedman

1989-01-01

239

Selective Changes in Executive Functioning Ten Years After Severe Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacts on children's executive functions, but little is known of how such deficits evolve in the long term. Forty adolescents with TBI were assessed ten years post-injury and compared to 19 typically developing participants on a range of executive measures (attentional control, cognitive flexibility, goal setting, information processing). Children with mild or moderate TBI performed

Miriam Beauchamp; Cathy Catroppa; Celia Godfrey; Sue Morse; Jeffrey V. Rosenfeld; Vicki Anderson

2011-01-01

240

Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Technical Workforce Training at Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the outcomes of a workshop held at the National Science Foundation on August 15-16, 2005. Forty-six participants, representing academia, industry, government agencies, professional associations, and special projects met to: (1) discuss how geospatial technology training at two-year colleges can address workforce needs; and…

National Council for Geographic Education (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

241

A Study of First-Year Chemistry Students' Understanding of Solution Concentration at the Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on students' understanding of sugar concentration in aqueous solutions presented in two different modes: a visual submicroscopic mode for particles and a verbal mode referring to macroscopic amounts of sugar. One hundred and forty-five tertiary college students studying some form of first-year chemistry participated in the…

de Berg, Kevin

2012-01-01

242

Twenty year experience with familial polyposis coli in Cape Town.  

PubMed

Forty-nine patients undergoing surgery for familial polyposis coli (FPC) over a twenty year period are presented. Forty-three patients underwent total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis (TC + IRA) and five patients subsequently developed a rectal carcinoma. The incidence of rectal carcinoma following TC + IRA appears to increase with time. There were significant postoperative complications secondary to adhesive obstruction and desmoid tumour recurrence. Upper gastrointestinal pathology has been detected by endoscopy in only one of nine patients, but the importance of upper gastrointestinal pathology is now appreciated. The problem of screening a widely distributed and closely knit community has been considerable. TC + IRA remains the operation of choice for the majority of patients with FPC, but a total colectomy with ileal reservoir and ileo-anal anastomosis is appropriate in some cases. PMID:3947920

Aitken, R J; Elliot, M S; Torrington, M; Louw, J H

1986-03-01

243

Children with deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP) almost grown up: The contribution of various background factors to outcome at age 16 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six children with and forty-five children without deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP) had been recruited from the general population at age 7 years. They were followed up neuropsychiatrically at age 16 years after intermediate term follow up at age 10 and 13 years. Cases were subdivided into those with good and not good outcome on the basis

Lars Hellgren; Christopher Gillberg; I. Carina Gillberg

1994-01-01

244

Brachytherapy for non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa. An analysis of forty-five cases treated with permanent implants.  

PubMed

An analysis has been undertaken of 45 patients with non-metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa treated by permanent 198Au or 222Rn implants and in most cases supplementary external irradiation. Eight patients had T1, 30 had T2, and 7 T3 disease. Of the lesions 21 were located in the buccal mucosal surface, 14 in the retromolar region, and 10 in the bucco-alveolar sulci. Seven of the 45 (16%) died of the disease and the actuarial 5-year survival rate was 81%. No obvious differences were noted in survival rate between different stages of the disease or between different subsites of the primary lesion. There were 6 local recurrences occurring from 3 to 33 months after treatment, and only one of these was salvageable by further radiation therapy. Neck node metastasis occurred in 11 cases from 2 to 34 months after treatment, and 8 of these cases responded successfully to a radical neck dissection or radiotherapy. PMID:8323772

Shibuya, H; Takeda, M; Matsumoto, S; Hoshina, M; Shagdarsuren, M; Suzuki, S

1993-01-01

245

Outcomes Following Hip Fracture Surgery: A 2-Year Prospective Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: To describe the health outcomes in older people following hip fracture surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:: A naturalistic prospective study of people who had undergone hip fracture surgery undertaken in three specialist inpatient orthopaedic units in Manchester, England, with follow-up for 2 years in primary care. One hundred forty-two people, age 60 and older who had undergone hip fracture surgery of whom 74 were interviewed at follow-up. MEASUREMENTS:: Assessment of mood (using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), pain (Wong-Baker and McGill scales), tests of function (Up and Go Test, Gait Test and Functional Reach), and Sickness Impact Profile. RESULTS:: Twenty-six percent of the original group had died by the time of the 2-year follow-up and associated with increasing age, poorer mobility, and higher levels of support. Sixteen percent of the group were found to be depressed, the only robust predictor of this being depression at entry to the study. There was a consistency in the presence or absence of depressive symptoms over the duration of the study. Forty-nine percent were able to walk independently at 2 years. CONCLUSION:: The presence of depressive symptoms is associated with poor outcomes at 2 years. Few people recover from, or develop, depression over 2 years. PMID:23188097

Burns, Alistair; Younger, Jane; Morris, Julie; Baldwin, Robert; Tarrier, Nicholas; Pendleton, Neil; Cohen, Paul; Horan, Mike; Banerjee, Sube

2012-11-22

246

Outcomes Following Hip Fracture Surgery: A 2-Year Prospective Study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To describe the health outcomes in older people following hip fracture surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A naturalistic prospective study of people who had undergone hip fracture surgery undertaken in three specialist inpatient orthopaedic units in Manchester, England, with follow-up for 2 years in primary care. One hundred forty-two people, age 60 and older who had undergone hip fracture surgery of whom 74 were interviewed at follow-up. MEASUREMENTS: Assessment of mood (using the Geriatric Depression Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination), pain (Wong-Baker and McGill scales), tests of function (Up and Go Test, Gait Test and Functional Reach), and Sickness Impact Profile. RESULTS: Twenty-six percent of the original group had died by the time of the 2-year follow-up and associated with increasing age, poorer mobility, and higher levels of support. Sixteen percent of the group were found to be depressed, the only robust predictor of this being depression at entry to the study. There was a consistency in the presence or absence of depressive symptoms over the duration of the study. Forty-nine percent were able to walk independently at 2 years. CONCLUSION: The presence of depressive symptoms is associated with poor outcomes at 2 years. Few people recover from, or develop, depression over 2 years. PMID:23567372

Burns, Alistair; Younger, Jane; Morris, Julie; Baldwin, Robert; Tarrier, Nicholas; Pendleton, Neil; Cohen, Paul; Horan, Mike; Banerjee, Sube

2013-02-01

247

40 year retrospective of fundamental mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental mechanisms of laser induced damage (LID) have been one of the most controversial topics during the forty years of the Boulder Damage Symposium (Ref. 1.) LID is fundamentally a very nonlinear process and sensitive to a variety of parameters including wavelength, pulse width, spot size, focal conditions, material band gap, thermal-mechanical prosperities, and component design considerations. The complex interplay of many of these parameters and sample to sample materials variations combine to make detailed, first principle, models very problematic at best. The phenomenon of self-focusing, the multi spatial and temporal mode structure of most lasers, and the fact that samples are 'consumed' in testing complicate experiential results. This paper presents a retrospective of the work presented at this meeting.

Soileau, M. J.

2008-12-01

248

Influences on First-Year Recovery From Traumatic Brain Injury in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined recovery over the first year following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children 6–12 years of age. Forty-two children with severe TBI and 52 with moderate TBI were compared to 58 children with orthopedic injuries. The children and their families were evaluated at a baseline assessment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Findings documented cognitive, achievement, and behavioral

H. Gerry Taylor; Keith Owen Yeates; Shari L. Wade; Dennis Drotar; Susan K. Klein; Terry Stancin

1999-01-01

249

Report of twelve years experience in open study of Skinner herpes simplex vaccine towards prevention of herpes genitalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three hundred and forty-seven subjects at risk for herpes genitalis were vaccinated with Skinner vaccine, NFUAc.HSV1.(S-MRC 5), and were followed for an average duration of 2 years representing a total consortship of 664.4 years. Based on survey information obtained during this consortship, there were estimated to be 3076 recurrences which summated to 3.5 years total duration of disease and comprised

G. R. B. Skinner; C. Fink; J. Melling; C. Wiblin; B. Thornton; J. Hallworth; W. Gardner; P. McLeish; C. Hartley; A. Buchan

1992-01-01

250

Past 10-year status of insulin therapy for preschool-age Japanese children with type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the past 10-year status of insulin therapy for preschool-age children with type 1 diabetes in Japan. One-hundred and forty-two patients who had been diagnosed at less than 5 years of age within the past 10 years (1993–2002) at 36 hospitals were registered in this study on April 2003. The methods of daily

Ichiro Yokota; Shin Amemiya; Kaichi Kida; Nozomu Sasaki; Nobuo Matsuura

2005-01-01

251

Effect of cimetidine treatment in the prevention of gastric ulcer relapse: a one year double blind multicentre study  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and forty six gastric ulcer patients were given open treatment using 1 g cimetidine daily to heal their ulcers. Of 130 who completed the acute treatment period of eight weeks, 112 (86%) had healed ulcers. Of these 112 patients with healed ulcers, 108 entered a one year double blind study to compare the effect of cimetidine maintenance therapy

E Hentschel; K Schütze; W Weiss; E Rüdiger; G Judmair; W Reichel; E Kerstan; J Horton

1983-01-01

252

Follow-Up of Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Stability and Change during the Preschool Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Forty-one children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) receiving eclectic services were assessed twice during their preschool years. Measures were compared over time for the whole group and for diagnostic subgroups: Childhood autism (CA group) and Other PDDs group. The mean intelligence quotient/developmental quotient (IQ/DQ) of the…

Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Asmundsdottir, Gudlaug; Hjartardottir, Sigrun; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis B.; Smaradottir, Hrafnhildur H.; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Smari, Jakob

2007-01-01

253

Are Modifications of Melatonin Circadian Rhythm in the Middle Years of Life Related to Habitual Patterns of Light Exposure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms underlying age-related changes in the signal from the biological clock have yet to be determined. The authors sought to determine if the phase advance of circadian melatonin rhythm during the middle years of life is related to different patterns of habitual light exposure. Forty-one healthy subjects between the ages of 22 and 58 y were studied. Habitual light

Anna Kawinska; Marie Dumont; Brahim Selmaoui; Jean Paquet; Julie Carrier

2005-01-01

254

TESOL at Forty: What Are the Issues?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview delineates the direction of pedagogical developments since the 25th anniversary issue of "TESOL Quarterly." Three tendencies characterize our professional practice: (a) a continuation along the earlier lines of progression (i.e., in opening up the classroom to learning opportunities, integrating skills, and teaching for specific…

Canagarajah, A. Suresh

2006-01-01

255

[The "forty-nine" and "seventeen" problems].  

PubMed

The single most common age of murderers in Japan is 49. Individuals aged between 45 and 54 are, however, likely to commit not offences but suicides comparing with other generations. One factor behind this phenomenon is the trend toward company downsizing, which is thought to affect the mental attitude of workers. This trend is destroying the Japanese lifetime employment system and undermining worker's loyalty to the company. On the other hand, in the broader category of felony crimes (assault, burglary, arson, murder), offenders aged 17 are the most common in Japan. This is thought to be partly due to the effect of so-called "school collapse" (school system failure) on the mental attitude of students. "School collapse" implies dysfunction of educational practice as a result of chattering, bullying and violence in the classroom. It is the reflection of students' dissatisfaction with the group-oriented school system. Therefore, students are unable to find any purposes in school and exhibit aggressive behaviours. In terms of mental health for both middle-age and teenage generations, it is necessary to devise new strategies whereby people can break away from the pressure of loyalty to the group. For both "normal" and "disabled" workers, rights of recuperations, adequate unemployment benefits policy, and support system for occupational change should be established. Simultaneously, for both "normal" and "disabled" students, reform of the school system under the concepts of diversity of education, rights of selection, and rights of refusal is urgently necessary. With respect to forensic psychiatry, without the provision of social supports, labeling of conduct disorder as well as other disorders should be avoided. In particular, instead of introducing security hospitals, drastic improvements of medical reformatories and medical prisons are necessary to provide adequate medical and social supports for offenders with psychiatric disorders. PMID:14560634

Takaoka, Ken

2003-01-01

256

Life begins at forty - Microwave tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of microwave tubes is reviewed from a philosophical viewpoint. Attention is given to the many discarded ideas, a few of which have been resurrected - in particular, cyclotron-resonance devices which include the first microwave tube and the gyrotron recently developed in the USSR. An interesting part of this historical assessment is an examination of roles of technical forecasting

J. M. Osepchuk

1978-01-01

257

Life begins at forty: Microwave tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of microwave tubes is reviewed from a philosophical viewpoint. An interesting part of this historical assessment is an examination of roles of technical forecasting and management planning. The definition of the microwave frequency range is presented and shown to support the primacy of tubes, or electron-beam devices, in a frequency range between those dominated by discrete solid-state devices

J. M. Osepchuk

1977-01-01

258

Top forty: forecast for public companies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stock values of solar companies are discussed and it is concluded that they are undervalued. Reasons included: (1) a collapsing housing industry; (2) high interest rates; (3) an unfriendly administration in Washington; and (4) the erroneous perception that oil prices and supplies have stabilized permanently. Solar stocks are defined as speculative in nature and forecasts are cited from people who

Enowitz

1982-01-01

259

Opening address: Forty-ninth annual conference  

Microsoft Academic Search

ExtractFirst let me welcome you all to this East Coast area, one that plays a significant part in the livestock production of the country and I am convinced will play a greater part in the future as we develop new technologies and resolve some of the problems of the hill, country areas.

F. G. Spackman

1973-01-01

260

Roaring Forties: The Arena for Tomorrow's War.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this paper is to examine four issues that could determine the location of future conflicts in which Marine Corps forces would be involved. The United States bases its foreign policy and military preparedness upon blunting general war in Eur...

J. F. Thornell

1985-01-01

261

Forty kilojoule carbon double layer capacitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evans was awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant from the Department of the Navy to determine if carbon double layer capacitor (DLC) technology could be used as a bridge DC power source for submarine computer systems. The Navy is interested in the technology because DLCs have high power density, require no maintenance, and are free of the hazards

1994-01-01

262

Forty five nanoseconds superconducting delay lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the design, simulation, fabrication, and measurement of very long superconducting coplanar waveguide delay lines on 3-in-diameter LaAlO3 substrates. Variations of the design involving the addition of a ground plane on the backside of the substrate and\\/or the use of gold wire-bond bridges to electrically connect the in-plane ground planes were investigated. A delay of 45 ns

G. K. G. Hohenwarter; E. K. Track; R. E. Drake; R. Patt

1993-01-01

263

Forty five nanoseconds superconducting delay lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the design, simulation, fabrication, and measurement of very long superconducting coplanar waveguide delay lines on 3-in-diameter LaAlO3 substrates. Variations of the design involving the addition of a ground plane on the backside of the substrate and for the use of gold wire-bond bridges to electrically connect the in-plane ground planes were investigated. A delay of 45

G. K. G. Hohenwarter; R. E. Drake; R. Patt

1993-01-01

264

Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA for a rice protein that contains seven repetitive segments of the Trp-Asp forty-amino-acid repeat (WD-40 repeat).  

PubMed

A cDNA clone for a polypeptide that contained seven repetitive segments of the Trp-Asp forty-amino-acid repeat (WD-40 repeat) was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from the greening leaves of rice. The cDNA was 1,285 bp long and contained an open reading frame that encoded a protein of 334 amino acid residues, which was designated it RWD (rice protein containing the WD-40 repeat). RWD exhibited greater homology to a group of receptor for activated C-kinase (RACK), a product of auxin-regulated gene from cultured cells (arcA) and a Chlamydomonas beta subunit-like polypeptide (Cblp) rather than to the beta subunits of heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The mRNA for RWD (1.3 kb) was found in all organs of rice plants, in particular, in roots. Therefore, RWD is suggested to be a protein that is expressed constitutively. PMID:7757340

Iwasaki, Y; Komano, M; Ishikawa, A; Sasaki, T; Asahi, T

1995-04-01

265

“Are two better than one?” the impact of years in head start on child outcomes, family environment, and reading at home  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether children attending Head Start for two years have better developmental outcomes than children attending for one year and whether their families enjoy a more positive family environment. Forty-five children were in the one-year duration group and 29 were in the two-years duration group. The Family Environment Scale (FES), the Child Development Inventory (CDI), and a demographic

Shulamit Natan Ritblatt; Sarah Maury Brassert; Ronn Johnson; Francisco Gomez

2001-01-01

266

A 16Year Record of Summer Birds on Truelove Lowland, Devon Island, Northwest Territories, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

An annual census of adult birds was conducted on the 43 km2 Truelove Lowland, Devon Island, N.W.T., Canada, in the summers of 1970-73 and 1978-89. Forty-three species were seen during 16 years. Of these, 18 species bred regularly on or immediately adjacent to the lowland and 10 were occasional breeders. In addition 15 species were visitors. The highest annual number

DONALD L. PATTIE

267

Day case transradial coronary angioplasty: a four-year single-center experience.  

PubMed

We examined the safety and feasibility of elective outpatient transradial coronary angioplasty (PCI). Four hundred and forty two patients underwent procedures over a 4-year period. Over 95% had an excellent angiographic result and 85% were discharged the same day. Radial access was successful in 417 (94%) patients. There were no major vascular complications. One patient died of a subacute stent thrombosis. Outpatient transradial PCI is safe and feasible for the majority of elective PCI cases. PMID:16969848

Wiper, A; Kumar, S; MacDonald, J; Roberts, D H

2006-10-01

268

Pre and Postnatal Determinants of Parenting Stress in Mothers of One-Year-Old Twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether parenting stress in mothers of one-year-old twins can be predicted by their prenatal and postnatal personal well-being, marital support, social support and the presence of other children in the family. Forty mothers of twins participated in a research study conducted pre- and postnatally in their homes. The first interview was at around 27 weeks of pregnancy;

Hilde Colpin; Agnes De Munter; Kristien Nys; Lieve Vandemeulebroecke

2000-01-01

269

Activity-based assessment of sleep-wake patterns during the 1st year of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to examine the validity of activity-based monitoring (actigraphy) for the assessment of sleep-wake patterns during the 1st year of life. Forty-one infants were directly observed for sleep-wake state determination by trained observers. Concomitant activity data obtained by actigraphs attached to the infants' ankles during the observation were matched on a minute-by-minute basis, and a

Christine Acebo; R. Seifer; Semra Aytur; Mary A. Carskadon

1995-01-01

270

Migraine in junior high-school students: A prospective 3-academic-year cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migraine is a common childhood illness with expected favorable outcome. A study of the long-term clinical course of childhood migraine will provide information of evolution of migraine. A cohort study for 3-academic-year was conducted in Thai junior high-school children from July 2005 to February 2008 to determine the clinical course of migraine. Two hundred and forty-eight students in four junior

Anannit Visudtibhan; Lunliya Thampratankul; Chaiyos Khongkhatithum; Chusak Okascharoen; Vorasith Siripornpanich; Surang Chiemchanya; Pongsakdi Visudhiphan

2010-01-01

271

Evolution of T1 black holes in patients with multiple sclerosis imaged monthly for 4 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary T1 black holes (BHs) on MRIs may represent either areas of oedema or axonal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. BHs begin as contrast enhancing lesions (CELs) and evolve differently from patient to patient, and within the same patient over time. We analysed BHs formation over a 4-year period. Forty-eight monthly MRIs of nine non-treated multiple sclerosis patients were

Francesca Bagnato; Neal Jeffries; Nancy D. Richert; Roger D. Stone; Joan M. Ohayon; Henry F. McFarland; Joseph A. Frank

2003-01-01

272

Thymectomy for myasthenia gravis: 14-year experience.  

PubMed Central

Forty-eight consecutive patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) attended by generalized weakness were treated by complete thymectomy, performed transsternally in 46 patients and through a left thoracotomy in two with thymomas. There were no operative deaths. A 12-year-old child with fulminating MG died of acute pneumonia shortly after hospital discharge. Of the remaining 47 evaluable patients, thymectomy resulted in complete remission in six, marked improvement with a reduced need for medication in 20, and mild improvement on the same dosage of medication in 18. Neither the age of the patient, nor the histopathology of the excised thymus, nor the postoperative change in acetylcholine receptor antibody titer were found to have a significant influence on the response to thymectomy. If the ten patients who were 20 years of age or younger were excluded, the patients with a shorter duration of MG achieved a better response to operation. The authors conclude that thymectomy is effective treatment for MG, regardless of the age of the patient or the type of thymic pathology. Images FIG. 4.

Hankins, J R; Mayer, R F; Satterfield, J R; Turney, S Z; Attar, S; Sequeira, A J; Thompson, B W; McLaughlin, J S

1985-01-01

273

Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

2010-01-01

274

Body composition and physical activity in New Zealand Maori, Pacific and European children aged 5–14 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body fatness and the components of energy expenditure in children aged 5 - 14 years were investigated. In a group of seventy-nine healthy children (thirty-nine female, forty male), mean age 10·0 (SD 2·8) years, comprising twenty-seven Maori, twenty-six Pacific Island and twenty-six European, total energy expenditure (TEE) was determined over 10 d using the doubly-labelled water method. Resting meta- bolic

Elaine C. Rush; Lindsay D. Plank; Peter S. W. Davies; Patsy Watson; Clare R. Wall

2003-01-01

275

Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

2010-01-01

276

One-year soy isoflavone supplementation prevents early postmenopausal bone loss but without a dose-dependent effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is believed that soy isoflavone has much potential effectiveness on the postmenopausal status; however, the optimal dose for preventing postmenopausal bone loss still remains unclear. This open-labeled, self-controlled pilot study was undertaken to determine the effect of 1-year supplementation of different high dosages of soy isoflavone in postmenopausal Taiwanese women. Forty-three women aged 45–67 years were enrolled and randomly

Hui-Ying Huang; Hsiao-Ping Yang; Hui-Ting Yang; Tung-Chuan Yang; Ming-Jer Shieh; Shih-Yi Huang

2006-01-01

277

Effect of Affective Temperaments Assessed by the TEMPS-A on the Relationship between Work-Related Stressors and Depressive Symptoms among Workers in Their Twenties to Forties in Japan.  

PubMed

Relatively recently in Japan, immature-type depression, frequently classified in the bipolar II spectrum, has increased among workers in their twenties to forties. This study explored whether affective temperaments moderate the relationship between work-related stressors and depressive symptoms among this age group. In July 2004, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to all employees of a Japanese company. Eight hundred seventy-four employees (63%) returned the questionnaires, with 728 completed. Questionnaires included the 12-item General Health Questionnaire for assessing depressive symptoms, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version for assessing affective temperaments, the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire to assess work-related stressors and overcommitment, and questions regarding individual attributes and employment characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that affective temperaments moderated the relationship between work-related stressors and depressive symptoms. Effort (OR = 1.078), which represents job demands and/or obligations imposed on employees, and the upper tertile of overcommitment (OR = 1.589), which represents hyperadaptation to the workplace, were risk factors for depressive symptoms. Additionally, the results for cyclothymic (OR = 11.404) and anxious temperaments (OR = 1.589) suggested that depressive symptoms among this age group may be related to immature-type depression. PMID:22991659

Tei-Tominaga, Maki; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Yoshie

2012-09-06

278

Surgical pathology of the thymus: 20 years' experience.  

PubMed Central

Fifty five patients underwent thymic surgery at Papworth Hospital from April 1964 to March 1984. The number presenting and the percentage with symptoms annually remained unchanged during this period. Forty four of these 55 patients had tumours. Twenty eight had thymomas (18% of whom had myasthenia gravis and 7% red cell aplasia), nine Hodgkin's disease, four germ cell tumours, and three secondary carcinomatous tumours. Five tumours were cystic. Six further patients had non-tumourous cystic lesions (four simple, one foregut, one lymphangiectatic). The remaining five patients had follicular hyperplasia; all of these had myasthenia gravis. Complete excision was performed in 41 of the 55 patients. So far survival is 100% in those with benign lesions other than benign thymomas, where the survival was 70% at five years. Those with malignant thymomas had a 60% survival rate at five years and those with Hodgkin's disease 29%.

Large, S R; Shneerson, J M; Stovin, P G; Wallwork, J

1986-01-01

279

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the differences in the weather in each season? Students will identify the seasons of the year. Also, describing the seasonal changes in the weather. All 4 Season of the Year. Spring. Summer. Fall. Winter. ...

Thompson, Miss

2010-03-25

280

Lung function eight years after neonatal ventilation.  

PubMed Central

Forty children who had had artificial ventilation during the neonatal period were studied at the age of 8-10 years with spirometry, the nitrogen washout test, bicycle exercise test, pulse oximetry, electrocardiogram, vectorcardiogram, and chest radiography. The median gestational age at birth was 29 weeks, and the median birth weight was 1310 g. Hyaline membrane disease was the indication for neonatal ventilation in 25 children. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was diagnosed from radiographs in 11 infants (27%). Airway obstruction was observed in 10 of 11 children who had had bronchopulmonary dysplasia and in nine of 29 children who had not. After inhalation of terbutaline, the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was significantly increased. General hyperinflation was found in 16 of 17 children with abnormal chest radiographs (eight who had had bronchopulmonary dysplasia and nine who had not). Functional residual capacity was significantly higher in children with abnormal radiographs. Each child had a normal maximum working capacity and a normal electrocardiogram, and all but two had normal vectorcardiograms. Oxygen saturation at maximum work load decreased significantly in both groups of children. The risk of future respiratory problems calls for further follow up of lung function and chest radiography.

Andreasson, B; Lindroth, M; Mortensson, W; Svenningsen, N W; Jonson, B

1989-01-01

281

EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led to admission to Columbia University where he studied metallurgical engineering. After graduation, as was common at that time for able students, he was encouraged to go abroad for his doctoral work. He went to Göttingen, which was then one of the leading European universities in science, and studied under Nernst. Returning to the United States he obtained a post as a teaching assistant at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, but the atmosphere proved too hierarchical and uncongenial for a scientist who was wanting to spread his wings. Fortunately the General Electric Company (GEC) recognized his potential; he was recruited in 1909, and remained associated with the GEC for the next 48 years. He quickly established his credentials as a research scientist and was soon given the freedom to pursue his interests wherever they took him, consistent with the overall strategy of the company. His appointment as an Associate Director at the GEC came in the same year that he introduced the term 'plasma'. Interestingly, while the term gained rapid acceptance in Europe, the associated word 'sheath', which Langmuir had already been using for several years, was translated into French, German and Russian and suffered from confusion. That confusion was there in Langmuir's writings because this ion-rich region sometimes was a region with barely any electrons and sometimes it contained a significant quantity of negative charge. The structure of the plasma-sheath and its elucidation had to await new mathematical techniques and the impact of computers as evidenced by papers in this volume and those quoted therein. It is clear that Langmuir inspired and benefited from collaboration with co-workers at the GEC, notably Kingdon, Taylor, Mott-Smith, Compton, Jones, Found, Tonks and Blodgett. In several ways he was ahead of his time in his understanding of gas discharges, and a particular example is what has since come to be known as the Bohm criterion. More than once in his plasma papers published in the early 1930s Langmuir stated in words what was needed for a sheath to develop

Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

2009-02-01

282

Stress response symptoms in adolescents during the first year after a parent’s cancer diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This work aims to prospectively study stress response symptoms (SRS) in adolescents during the first year after a parent’s\\u000a cancer diagnosis and factors associated with SRS. Additionally, SRS in these adolescents were compared to SRS in adolescents\\u000a whose parents were diagnosed 1–5 years (reference group) previously.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-nine adolescents, 37 ill parents, and 37 spouses completed questionnaires within 4 months after diagnosis (T1)

Gea A. Huizinga; Annemieke Visser; Harald J. Hoekstra; Stacey M. Gazendam-Donofrio; Josette E. H. M. Hoekstra-Weebers

2010-01-01

283

[Pregnancy in women 40 years of age and over: analysis of variables in the mothers and newborn infants].  

PubMed

Although pregnancy in women who are forty years old or more is considered a high risk pregnancy, it has occurred more frequently in recent years. This paper reports an analysis of 205 cases of patients over forty years of age seen at the Obstetrics Department of the São Paulo School of Medicine at the São Paulo Hospital. A control group of 1,153 pregnant women ages ranging from 20 to 29--such age range being considered the proper age for reproduction--was formed for the purpose of comparison. Data were stored in computer and lists of many variables were settled to provide a statistical overview through non-parametric testing based on the nature of the variables. 5% was the level of significance set to reject a null hypothesis. The results permit authors to conclude that pregnant women who are forty years old or over present inadequate biological characteristics for a proper obstetric development, based on the advanced age and on the association of many other adverse factors. PMID:2701190

Moron, A F; de Almeida, P A; Camano, L

284

Gap year volunteer tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valorisation of cross-cultural understanding and promotion of an ethic of global citizenship are at the forefront of the recent development and proliferation of international ‘gap year’ travel programs and policies. Governments and industry alike promote gap year travel uncritically as a guaranteed pathway to the development of inclusive ideologies associated with global citizenship. In this paper we examine how

Stephen Wearing; John Neil

285

Happy new year  

Microsoft Academic Search

  The European Physical Journal - D (EPJ D) is still young but rapidly maturing: 2002 is the 5th year of its publication - based of course on a tradition of\\u000a nearly a century of physics publishing in its parent journals, Il Nuovo Cimento (Section D), Journal de Physique and Zeitschrift für Physik D. It has been a healthy year for

F. T. Arecchi; G. Grynberg; I. V. Hertel

2002-01-01

286

Multi-year ice  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

ARCTIC OCEAN - A multi-year ice floe slides down the starboard side of the Coast Guard Cutter Healy Aug. 11, 2009, as the ship heads north into even thicker ice. "You can tell that this is a multi-year ice floe by the light blue melt ponds that have formed on top of the floe," said Pablo Clemente-Co...

2010-02-19

287

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does each season of the year effect what you wear? 1. Review the seasons of the year Four Seasons Review 2. Play a winter weather clothes matching game Game 3. Use the next 4 pictures to fill out your chart. Winter Spring Summer Fall ...

Dobbin, Miss

2010-03-24

288

Einstein's Years in Switzerland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first

Hans S. Plendl

2005-01-01

289

Renovating the Freshman Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students first entering college as freshmen often find that they are to have the largest classes, the least experienced teachers, and the most boring coursework. Thus, many students do not continue their educations past the freshman year, if they even finish that year. Changes, both in academic and nonacademic areas, need to be made on college…

Robinson, Lora H.

290

1998--Human Rights Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Promotes teaching human rights at every educational level in conjunction with the United Nations-declared Human Rights Year. Provides World Wide Web addresses for resources on human rights and the Human Rights Year, including the United Nations and Amnesty International. Summarizes UN-suggested guidelines for human rights commemoration…

Mock, Karen R.

1998-01-01

291

Celebrating 50 Years!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

Kristjansdottir, Anna

2011-01-01

292

Sustained Suppression of Neointimal Proliferation by Sirolimus-Eluting Stents One-Year Angiographic and Intravascular Ultrasound Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We have previously reported a virtual absence of neointimal hyperplasia 4 months after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether these results are sustained over a period of 1 year. Methods and Results—Forty-five patients with de novo coronary disease were successfully treated with the implantation of a single sirolimus-eluting Bx VELOCITY stent in

J. Eduardo Sousa; Marco A. Costa; Alexandre C. Abizaid; Benno J. Rensing; Andrea S. Abizaid; Luiz F. Tanajura; Ken Kozuma; Glenn Van Langenhove; Amanda G. M. R. Sousa; Robert Falotico; Judith Jaeger; Jeffrey J. Popma; Patrick W. Serruys

293

Sustained suppression of neointimal proliferation by sirolimus-eluting stents: one-year angiographic and intravascular ultrasound follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a virtual absence of neointimal hyperplasia 4 months after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether these results are sustained over a period of 1 year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients with de novo coronary disease were successfully treated with the implantation of a single sirolimus-eluting Bx VELOCITY

J. E. Sousa; Langenhove van G. J. J; A. G. M. R. Sousa; R. Falotico; J. J. Popma; J. Jaeger; M. A. Costa; A. C. Abizaid; B. J. W. M. Rensing; L. F. Tanajura; K. Kozuma; P. W. J. C. Serruys

2001-01-01

294

Development of visual texture segregation during the first year of life: a high-density electrophysiological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are important developmental changes occurring during infancy in visual cortical structures that underlie higher-order\\u000a perceptual abilities. Using high-density electrophysiological recording techniques, the present study aimed to examine the\\u000a development of visual mechanisms, during the first year of life, associated with texture segregation. Forty-two normal full\\u000a term infants were tested at 1, 3, 6 or 12 months of age. Visual-evoked potentials

Claudine Arcand; Emmanuel Tremblay; Phetsamone Vannasing; Catherine Ouimet; Marie-Sylvie Roy; Nicole Fallaha; Franco Lepore; Maryse Lassonde; Michelle McKerral

2007-01-01

295

Follow-up of Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Stability and Change During the Preschool Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-one children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) receiving eclectic services were assessed twice during their\\u000a preschool years. Measures were compared over time for the whole group and for diagnostic subgroups: Childhood autism (CA group)\\u000a and Other PDDs group. The mean intelligence quotient\\/developmental quotient (IQ\\/DQ) of the whole group was stable (P = 0.209) and scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)

Sigrídur Lóa Jónsdóttir; Evald Saemundsen; Gudlaug Ásmundsdóttir; Sigrún Hjartardóttir; Bryndís B. Ásgeirsdóttir; Hrafnhildur H. Smáradóttir; Solveig Sigurdardóttir; Jakob Smári

2007-01-01

296

Relationship Between Motor Alignment at Postoperative Day 1 and at Year 1 After Symmetric and Asymmetric Surgery in Intermittent Exotropia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between the motor alignment at postoperative day 1 and at year 1 following bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR, symmetric surgery) and unilateral lateral rectus recession-medial rectus resection (R&R, asymmetric surgery) for the treatment of intermittent exotropia, X(T).Methods: Forty-six patients with basic or pseudo-divergence excess type of X(T) underwent BLR and 57 patients underwent R&R. The

Se-Youp Lee; Young Chun Lee

2001-01-01

297

Prediction of resting cardiovascular functioning in youth with family histories of essential hypertension: A 5-year follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred forty-six children (96 Whites, of whom 51 were mates; 150 African- Americans, of whom 69 were males) with a familial\\u000a history of essential hypertension (EH) were re-evaluated 5 years after an initial evaluation. During the initial visit, anthropometric,\\u000a demographic, and resting cardiovascular (CV) parameters (designated initial baseline levels) were assessed. These CV parameters\\u000a (systolic and diastolic blood pressure

Frank A. Treiber; J. Rick Turner; Harry Davis; William B. Strong

1997-01-01

298

One-Year Treatment with Rosuvastatin Reduces Intima-Media Thickness in 45 Hypercholesterolemic Subjects with Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: An increase in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) represents an early phase of the atherosclerotic process. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether a reduction in CIMT could be seen with 1-year treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg\\/day). Methods and Results: Forty-five patients with hypercholesterolemia and asymptomatic carotid atherosclerosis on baseline carotid ultrasound investigation (CUI) were examined with repeat

Graziano Riccioni; Nicola Vitulano; Barbara Mancini; Alessandra Zanasi; Nicolantonio D’Orazio

2010-01-01

299

Phakic intraocular lens implantation versus clear lens extraction in highly myopic eyes of 30- to 50-year-old patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compare the outcome of treatment for myopia by phakic intraocular lens (IOL) implantation or by clear lens extraction (CLE).Setting: Service d'Ophtalmologie, Hôpital Purpan, Toulouse, France.Methods: Thirty-nine patients from 32 to 49 years of age were studied. Forty-one eyes of 21 patients received a phakic IOL, and 36 eyes of 18 patients had phacoemulsification of the crystalline lens. The

Jean L. Arne

2004-01-01

300

Pictures of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

301

7.RP Comparing Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Historically, different people have defined a year in different ways. For example, an Egyptian year is 365 days long, a Julian year is 365$\\frac14$ day...

302

Fast Track (Prior Years)  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Fast Track (Prior Years). Fast Track Designation (FY 1998 - FY 2006). Within Goal, Overdue, FY, Granted, Denied, Total, Granted, ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

303

200 years to CIM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of manufacturing technology over the last 200 years is described. The stages identified in this evolution are the English system of manufacture, the American system of manufacture, scientific management, process improvement, numerical control, and computer integrated manufacture (CIM)

R. Jaikumar

1993-01-01

304

MoonYear Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet displays the phases of the Moon for calendar years 1971-2052 by month. Clicking on the day and phase gives the phase and lumination at local noon. A downloadable version is also available.

Giesen, Juergen

305

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the seasons of the year? First, watch this video about seasons. Video on seasons Next, paint a picture about the seasons. painting the seasons After you have painted a picture, play a game to identify the seasons. Game about seasons Now, go through a step by step guide about the seasons. Different seasons in a year Next, watch another video about the seasons. Video on seasons Last, fill out this chart about the seasons. In each block, ...

2012-04-05

306

Thirty years of IVF.  

PubMed

This paper captures the essence of a session of the Association of Clinical Embryologists' meeting held in Manchester in January 2008. This session was of special significance, since this year marks thirty years since the birth of Louise Brown -- the world's first IVF baby -- at Oldham General Hospital on 25 July 1978. Her birth was a turning point in world history, and launched a new era of scientific, ethical and clinical challenge and discovery, which is as fresh today as it was then. The session focused on historical events and the social climate in which they took place, as well as notable changes in the intervening years, heard from the mouths of those best able to interpret their significance. This paper places the speakers' contributions in context with contemporary and more recent events. PMID:18569062

Hartshorne, Geraldine

2008-06-01

307

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates the link between the tilt of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic and seasons of the year, length of day, effectiveness of sunlight, and polar day and night. It discusses how the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis causes seasons of the year, by varying the length of the local day and the angle at which the Sun's rays arrive on the surface of the Earth, and to recognize that seasons in the southern hemisphere (at middle latitudes) occur at opposite parts of the year from seasons in the US and Europe. The student will also realize that the seasons in the middle-latitudes in US and Europe are quite different from seasons experienced near the equator and also know about the polar day, when the Sun never sets but just marches around the horizon, and the polar night, when it never rises.

Stern, David

308

SDO: Year 2  

NASA Video Gallery

April 21, 2012 marks the two-year anniversary of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) First Light press conference, where NASA revealed the first images taken by the spacecraft. This video highlights just some of the amazing events witnessed in SDO's second year as seen by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instruments. Segments in red and gold were taken by AIA in 304 and 171 wavelengths, respectively. The growing sunspot segment was recorded by the HMI instrument which views the solar photosphere and transition region.

gsfcvideo

2012-04-19

309

Replicability and 40-Year Predictive Power of Childhood ARC Types  

PubMed Central

We examined three questions surrounding the Undercontrolled, Overcontrolled, and Resilient--or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)--personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967, and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found: (1) Bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggested that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types; (2) this cluster structure was fuzzy, rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to three prototype Big Five profiles; and (3) ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious, but neither better nor more consistent predictors than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 68% accuracy by personality information alone, a figure approaching the 12-year accuracy of a leading medical cardiovascular risk model. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality traits for mid-life health.

Chapman, Benjamin P.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

2011-01-01

310

Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 ± 9 years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year [F(4, 38) = 5.8, p = 0.001, ?2 = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that the majority of patients do not show significant change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed.

Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bj?rn R.; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O.; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor K.; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; R?ssberg, Jan I.; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

2013-01-01

311

Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis.  

PubMed

Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 ± 9 years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year [F (4, 38) = 5.8, p = 0.001, ?(2) = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that the majority of patients do not show significant change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed. PMID:24109449

Barder, Helene E; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn R; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan I; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

2013-10-07

312

Beginning Your First Year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This month's column was contributed by fellow teacher Ingrid Novodvorsky from the University of Arizona in Tucson. Her advice is timely for new teachers who will be entering the classroom for the first time this fall. I encourage other teachers to share their suggestions for managing the challenges that first-year instructors face.

Novodvorsky, Ingrid

2003-09-01

313

Beginning Your First Year  

Microsoft Academic Search

This month's column was contributed by fellow teacher Ingrid Novodvorsky from the University of Arizona in Tucson. Her advice is timely for new teachers who will be entering the classroom for the first time this fall. I encourage other teachers to share their suggestions for managing the challenges that first-year instructors face.

Ingrid Novodvorsky

2003-01-01

314

Year-Round Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One avenue being explored as a way to cut costs while maintaining the quality of programs and services is year-round education (YRE). In most cases, the known benefits and drawbacks of an existing component of traditional scheduling must be weighed against the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of YRE. The five articles reviewed in this…

McChesney, Jim

1996-01-01

315

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, responses to the problem have largely fallen into vertical acceleration, in which schools typically offer an array of AP courses or dual enrollment opportunities;…

Dreis, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

316

Redesigning the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The senior year by all reason should be the capstone of an individual's time in the K-12 system. It should carry not only academic rigor, but also a spirit of unrivaled engagement if it is truly going to be an appropriate culminating experience. For many 12th graders across the country, it is far from that. How can educators create an educational…

Dreis, Janice R.; Rehage, Larry D.

2011-01-01

317

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, their approaches to the problem have largely fallen into one of three types of responses: vertical acceleration; remediation; and structured containment. New Trier…

Drels, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

318

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

319

First Year 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first year in the classroom is probably the most challenging of a science teacher's career. While many science and education classes are offered in college, they do not always teach the basics of getting started. Not only does the new teacher have to

Hensley, Lynn

2002-09-01

320

HUNDRED YEARS OF DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last 100 years the world has seen the most profound social and ecological transformation ever. In 1908, world population was 1,7 billion, which is marginally more than that of China's population today, and only a quarter of today's total population of approximately 6,5 billion. Also, but especially in the last quarter century, our global population's seemingly insatiable demand

James Blignaut

2008-01-01

321

Redesigning the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The senior year by all reason should be the capstone of an individual's time in the K-12 system. It should carry not only academic rigor, but also a spirit of unrivaled engagement if it is truly going to be an appropriate culminating experience. For many 12th graders across the country, it is far from that. How can educators create an educational…

Dreis, Janice R.; Rehage, Larry D.

2011-01-01

322

Kinetin — 45 years on  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetin (N6-furfuryladenine) was the first cytokinin to be isolated almost 45 years ago from DNA as an artifactual rearrangement product of the autoclaving process. Since then its chemical structure and properties have been well described. Most importantly, a wide variety of biological effects of kinetin, including those on gene expression, on inhibition of auxin action, on stimulation of calcium flux,

Jan Barciszewski; Suresh I. S Rattan; Gunhild Siboska; Brian F. C Clark

1999-01-01

323

ISME Celebrates 50 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

Teaching Music, 2004

2004-01-01

324

Five Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author relates some of the bitter realizations he encountered during his student-teaching years when he realized that not all teachers were willing to help novice teachers. Some of them seemed to believe that teaching is as instinctive to a teacher as flight is to a bird. Despite these obstacles, the author states that he…

Hill, Jeremiah

2004-01-01

325

Black Studies Year One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was…

Long, Richard A.

326

Books of the Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian…

Adults Learning, 2004

2004-01-01

327

NAFTA: 10 Years Later.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For the first time since NAFTA was implemented, the U.S. Department of Commerce has ten-year statistics on trade and other economic indicators. This provides the opportunity to consider how trade, investment, and employment have changed over the past deca...

2004-01-01

328

Interim Years of Cyberspace.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyber power will be as revolutionary to warfare as airpower, but the current vectoring of the domain will determine which nation will hold cyber dominance and to what effect. In the early years of the cyberspace domain, the United States primarily conside...

R. M. Lee

2013-01-01

329

Tuskegee: 100 Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the history and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute over the past 100 years. Highlights the role played by Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois; discusses the career of the school's retiring president, Luther Foster. Provides information on the new president, Dr. Benjamin Payton, and discusses future directions for the college.…

Higgins, Renelda

1981-01-01

330

A Year Without Procedures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Step-by-step instructions in the chemistry lab often eliminate opportunities for inquiry, higher levels of thinking, and the sense of accomplishment students find through independent discovery. However, removing procedures from chemistry labs creates opportunities for student inquiry. This article describes a chemistry-based experimental year without procedures, but the concept can be applied to any scientific discipline.

Backus, Lisa

2005-10-01

331

The Prairie Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author reflects on a cross-country trip in which he discovered one-room schools, some abandoned many years ago due to consolidation, others still in operation. In addition to the valuable role that one-room schools played in educating rural youth, these schools offer a rich reflection of local history, language, and cultural practices.…

Rose, Mike

1997-01-01

332

[Ryazan hospital--80 years].  

PubMed

In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area. PMID:22558855

Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F

2012-02-01

333

Eight years of AIRS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft was launched in May of 2002. The AIRS Sounding Suit, AIRS along with AMSU-A and HSB, were designed to measure the atmospheric temperature and water vapor profiles, the surface and the cloud parameters for climate research and for improvement in weather forecast. Over the last 8+ years AIRS has been operating extremely stable, far surpassing original design life of 4 - 5 years. Many exciting research papers on climate have been published with AIRS data. The AIRS data are assimilated by most NWP centers and have shown considerable improvement in forecast skill. We will describe the current status of the instruments as well as the new activity on the data processing software.

Lee, Sung-Yung; Pagano, Thomas; Chahine, Moustafa; Fetzer, Eric

2010-10-01

334

Twenty years of dendrotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrotoxins are small proteins that were isolated 20 years ago from mamba (Dendroaspis) snake venoms (Harvey, A.L., Karlsson, E., 1980. Dendrotoxin from the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps: a neurotoxin that enhances acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 312, 1–6.). Subsequently, a family of related proteins was found in mamba venoms and shown to be homologous

Alan L Harvey

2001-01-01

335

Five Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, three groups of health sciences librarians—new library school graduates, those currently working at a medical library, and medical library directors—were interviewed about the status and future of medical reference librarianship. Five years later this follow-up article summarizes the responses from many of the same librarians about the biggest changes, newest trends, evolving roles, challenges, and hopes for the

Nancy W. Clemmons; Susan L. Clemmons

2005-01-01

336

100 Years of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through comparative socio-historical analysis of American school-based drug education, this review critically examines past perspectives and practices and how they shaped current pro grams. Among the key findings emerging from this analysis: Contrary to the popular belief that drug education began in the 1960s, its roots actually go back at least 115 years to the advent of compulsory temperance tnstruction.

Jerome Beck

1998-01-01

337

[Injuries among 11-15 year old children].  

PubMed

The objective is to describe the one year incidence rate of self-reported injuries, their causes, where they happened, and their consequences within the age group 11-15 years. Four thousand and forty-six students from a random sample of 45 schools answered a standardized questionnaire about health and health behaviour. This report regards injuries treated by a doctor or a nurse. During one year, 28% were injured, 12% more than once; 12% needed medical treatment such as a plaster cast, stitches, surgery or staying in a hospital; 16% missed at least one full day in school. The injury incidence rate increases with age among boys but not among girls. The proportion with more than one injury increases by age among girls but not boys. The proportion who receive hospital treatment is higher among boys than girls. The proportion who stay home from school because of the injury increases with age among both girls and boys. Five percent are injured at home, 5% at school, 9% are injured at a sport facility, and 4% in the street/road. Ten percent report a sports injury, 4% an injury by falling, and 3% by riding a bicycle. Most common injuries are sprain/strain/pull of a muscle (9%), broken or dislocated bone (6%), and cuts (3%). In conclusion, the incidence of self-reported injuries is much higher than the hospital-reported. More research about injury-mechanisms and more preventive efforts are needed. PMID:10778316

Holstein, B E; Due, E P

1999-08-30

338

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are going to watch some videos of the seasons of the year.Use your worksheet to help you remember the types of weather and the clothes we wear during the different seasons. What is different about each season? Seasons Chart 1. This is what you will click on to watch the video on winter. Winter Video 2. In the spring video make sure you notice the changes in weather Spring Video 3. Now watch the summer video Summer Video 4.This is what you will click on to watch the video on fall. Fall Video 5. Click here to watch a video ...

Larrimore, Ms.

2012-04-11

339

100 Years of Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Industrial Designers Society of America, this interesting site highlights some of the most influential people and groundbreaking products in this field. Titled 100 Years of Design, the site has content that spans the 20th century and "is a monthly installment of excerpts from a proposed book" along the same lines. Fifteen famous designers are profiled, along with over 50 products. One of the people mentioned is Harley Earl, the subject of a recent line of television commercials. Many of the products are related to the automobile, but other examples include the Polaroid camera and the Wurlitzer jukebox.

Gantz, Carroll.

2002-01-01

340

[25 years Mycotoxin workshop].  

PubMed

Mycotoxin research has a long tradition in Germany and is documented by a series of annual meetings which started 25 years ago. This paper gives an historical review on these Mycotoxin-Workshops. The first mycotoxin workshop in 1979 at the Federal Centre for Meat Research in Kulmbach was initiated by the former Federal Ministry of Agriculture and mainly thought to bring together scientists from the Federal research facilities. Main topics at that early time of mycotoxin research were food and feed safety, the mycology of toxin producers, the analysis and toxicology of mycotoxins. In the following years the Mycotoxin Workshop was influenced not only by working groups from the Federal research facilities but also from universities, state laboratories, other organisations and research scientists from outside Germany and with different disciplines. The number of participants increased from 19 at the beginning to more than 150 up to now and in order to organise these annual meetings at varying locations, in 1997 the society for mycotoxin research was founded. Since that time the Society for Mycotoxin Research (www.mykotoxin.de) is responsible for the organisation of the Mycotoxin Workshops.In addition the Society for Mycotoxin Research organizes the Brigitte Gedek science award, endowed with ¢ 10,000, and the Münchner Mycotoxin fellowship program, both intented to promote scientific research in mycotoxinology. PMID:23604758

Gareis, M

2003-06-01

341

Year of oceans?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John V. Byrne, administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has proposed that 1984 be observed as the Year of the Oceans. The year should be devoted to defining and clarifying the U.S.'s ocean and coastal goals and “rallying the support to achieve them,” Byrne recently told oceanographers attending the Coastal Zone ?83 gathering in San Diego, Calif.“Today we see ferment in ocean and coastal concerns,” Byrne said. Among the examples he cited was the proclamation issued by President Reagan on March 10 declaring an exclusive economic zone within 200 miles of the coast where the United States will exercise jurisdiction for the purposes of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing natural resources (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402). In addition, “legislation has been introduced to define the outer continental shelf, deep seabed minerals, ocean thermal energy, marine pollution, fisheries, and other oceanic concerns,” Byrne said. “In both houses of the U.S. Congress, legislators are considering bills that would establish a National Oceans Policy Commission,” he added.

342

Einstein's Years in Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

Plendl, Hans S.

2005-11-01

343

45-Year-old female with propionic acidemia, renal failure, and premature ovarian failure; late complications of propionic acidemia?  

PubMed

We describe a 45-year-old patient who was diagnosed with propionic acidemia in infancy, who experienced an unstable first two years of life but who eventually had a good developmental outcome. She developed severe renal failure requiring renal transplantation in her forties and premature ovarian failure. Renal failure and premature ovarian failure have not previously been associated with propionic acidemia. We hypothesize that propionic acidemia may have contributed to these complications, and discuss several possible mechanisms for this, emphasizing mainly the electron transport chain/mitochondrial energy deficiency hypothesis. PMID:21549625

Lam, Christina; Desviat, Lourdes R; Perez-Cerdá, Celia; Ugarte, Magdalena; Barshop, Bruce A; Cederbaum, Stephen

2011-04-22

344

TIPS: 25years later.  

PubMed

In the 25years since the first TIPS intervention has been performed, technical standards, indications, and contraindications have been set up. The previous considerable problem of shunt failure by thrombosis or intimal proliferation in the stent or in the draining hepatic vein has been reduced considerably by the availability of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents resulting in reduced rebleeding and improved survival. Unfortunately, most clinical studies have been performed prior to the release of the covered stent and, therefore, do not represent the present state of the art. In spite of this, TIPS has gained increasing acceptance in the treatment of the various complications of portal hypertension and vascular diseases of the liver. PMID:23811307

Rössle, Martin

2013-06-25

345

Another slow year  

SciTech Connect

This article is a review of the petroleum activity in the Middle East. The article is accompanied by a detailed color map showing the activity in the area. Highlights of the article include the fact that Saudi Arabia's drilling and development activity has sunk to its lowest level in many years. The article also points out that discoveries are increasing production in North and South Yemen as well as in Syria. The article also highlights the fact that Qatar is beginning work on its massive North gas field in the Gulf. Also attention is paid to the effects of the Iranian and Iraq war on each other's oil and gas activities. The article also mentions the drilling activity of Dubai and Oman.

Not Available

1987-08-01

346

A Productive YORP Year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the implications of the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect have been widely perceived as important for asteroid dynamics [1], the lack of a direct YORP detection was troublesome, until recently. Last year at this meeting a manuscript describing a robust YORP detection was circulated and discussed informally. Two publications emerged [2,3]. A change in the spin rate of asteroid (54509) was found in [2] by measuring the rate of change in lightcurve periods, and in [3] by a different analysis of the same data. The amplitude of the observed acceleration was shown to be in rough agreement with YORP predictions [3] and asteroid (54509) received the name YORP. Shortly after the meeting work started on the detection of YORP on (1862) Apollo [4]. A third YORP detection on asteroid (25143) Itokawa is now in hand [5]. YORP seems pervasive and significant enough that it complicates shape inversion efforts when data sets span several years, especially for small asteroids. Since the last meeting, work has continued on improving the formulation and modeling of the YORP effect acting on single asteroids [6], on examining the possible formation of binaries with YORP [7,8], and on understanding the effect of YORP in the best characterized binaries [9,10]. A summary of recent advances in the field will be presented at the meeting. [1] W. Bottke et al., AREPS 34, 2006. [2] S. C. Lowry et al., Science 316, 2007. [3] P. A. Taylor et al., Science 316, 2007. [4] M. Kaasalainen et al., Nature 446, 2007. [5] K. Kitazato et al., A&A, submitted. [6] D. Scheeres et al., Icarus 188, 2007. [7] M. Cuk, ApJL 659, 2007. [8] P. Pravec and A. Harris, Icarus, in press. [9] S. Ostro et al., Science 314, 2006. [10] D. Scheeres et al., Science 314, 2006.

Margot, Jean-Luc

2007-10-01

347

One Year of ALE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have been plagued for centuries by "atmospheric extinction” - scattering and absorption of light as it travels through Earth's night-time atmosphere for the last millisecond of its often billion-year journey. This effect is the principal limiting factor to the precision and accuracy of observations made with ground-based telescopes. In an effort to significantly enhance the precision of observations we have initiated a program to quantitatively measure the atmosphere in the direction a nearby astronomical telescope is pointed, and to do so contemporaneously with its scientific observations. The first instrument we have fielded to address this problem is the Astronomical Lidar for Extinction (ALE), a 527nm eye-safe elastic backscatter lidar that provides high precision extinction measurements when the atmosphere is clear and the majority of astronomical observations are being made. ALE is thus a "clear air lidar” primarily designed to make sub-1% measurements of atmospheric extinction every minute of time, and to make these measurements through an optical path sensibly the same as that through which astronomical observations are being made. The bulk of temporal and spatial variability that affects ground-based astronomical observations originates in the troposphere where aerosols and water vapor exhibit large variation. Therefore, ALE principally monitors the Rayleigh backscatter from the relatively stable stratosphere, and from the stratospheric measurements we deduce the transmission of lower layers. ALE was designed to gather approximately one million photons from above 20km per one minute scan under clear conditions, enabling the high precision we require. We describe ALE and present results from the first year of operations. We further discuss its astronomical applications and investigate the contributions to understanding Earth's atmosphere. Development of ALE was funded by NSF Grant 0421087.

Zimmer, Peter C.; McGraw, J.; Gimmestad, G.; Roberts, D.; Smith, J.; Fitch, J.

2009-01-01

348

Forty Years after Brown: The Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education. Proceedings of the National Conference on Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education (9th, Oswego, NY, April 9-11, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings identify, clarify, and address the problems of the post-Brown era from a variety of perspectives. The first two papers are: The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Banquet Keynote Speech (L. J. Bennett) and the Luncheon Session, "Integrating the Recruitment Preparation and Retention Strategies of Persons of Color in Teaching" (J. Vaughn).…

Middleton, E., Ed.; And Others

349

Developmental milestones record - 5 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Childhood growth milestones - 5 years; Growth milestones for children - 5 years ... apologizing for mistakes Decreasing aggressive behavior Outgrowing earlier childhood fears Accepting other points of view (but may ...

350

25 years in space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch by the U.S.S.R. of the first artificial satellite, Sputnik, on October 4, 1957, the space age was inaugurated. Now, a symposium will mark the 25th anniversary of that launch with a review of the origins, motivations, and progress of the era.The National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution's National Air & Space Museum will host ‘25 Years in Space’ on October 14. The day-long symposium, to be held at the Academy auditorium at 2100 C St., N.W., Washington, D.C., will feature three major sessions: motivations for space activity, the practical dimensions of space, and science and space. Also on the agenda is a special program on the space age and the arts. Harvey Brooks of Harvard University, Simon Ramo of TRW, Inc., and Freeman Dyson of Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study will lead these sessions. Closing remarks will be presented by Philip Morrison of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

351

Twenty years of dendrotoxins.  

PubMed

Dendrotoxins are small proteins that were isolated 20 years ago from mamba (Dendroaspis) snake venoms (Harvey, A.L., Karlsson, E., 1980. Dendrotoxin from the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps: a neurotoxin that enhances acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 312, 1-6.). Subsequently, a family of related proteins was found in mamba venoms and shown to be homologous to Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, such as aprotinin. The dendrotoxins contain 57-60 amino acid residues cross-linked by three disulphide bridges. The dendrotoxins have little or no anti-protease activity, but they were demonstrated to block particular subtypes of voltage-dependent potassium channels in neurons. Studies with cloned K(+) channels indicate that alpha-dendrotoxin from green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps blocks Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels in the nanomolar range, whereas toxin K from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis preferentially blocks Kv1.1 channels. Structural analogues of dendrotoxins have helped to define the molecular recognition properties of different types of K(+) channels, and radiolabelled dendrotoxins have also been useful in helping to discover toxins from other sources that bind to K(+) channels. Because dendrotoxins are useful markers of subtypes of K(+) channels in vivo, dendrotoxins have become widely used as probes for studying the function of K(+) channels in physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:10936620

Harvey, A L

2001-01-01

352

Private and public memories of Expo 67: a case study of recollections of Montreal's World's Fair, 40 years after the event  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the results of a long-term memory study in which fifty visitors to Expo 67 (25 participants from British Columbia and 25 from Quebec) shared their recollections of their personal experience forty years after the event. The impetus for this study stems from a desire to understand the long-term impact of visitors' experience in informal, leisure-time contexts, and,

David Anderson; Viviane Gosselin

2008-01-01

353

Rorschach Variables and Dysfunctional Attitudes as Measures of Depressive Vulnerability: A 9Year Follow-Up Study of Individuals With Different Histories of Major Depressive Episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes (MDEs) completed the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS; Weissman & Beck, 1978) at 2 assessment points (T1, T2) over a 9-year follow-up. At T1, history of MDE and the Rorschach variable MOR (associated with negative self-image) emerged as significant predictors of number of MDEs over the follow-up.

Ellen Hartmann; Marianne Halvorsen; Catharina E. A. Wang

2012-01-01

354

Three-Year Follow-Up of the Treatment of Obesity by Very Low Calorie Diet, Behavior Therapy, and Their Combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the long-term efficacy of the treatment of obesity by very low calorie diet, behavior therapy, and their combination. Mean weight losses at the end of treatment for the three conditions were 14.09, 14.26, and 19.25 kg, respectively. Forty-five of 50 subjects were successfully contacted 3 years after treatment, at which time mean weight losses had declined to

Thomas A. Wadden; Albert J. Stunkard; Jane Liebschutz

1988-01-01

355

Analysis of 58 patients surviving more than ten years after operative treatment of gastric cancer.  

PubMed

We evaluated 58 patients who were still alive more than ten years after operative treatment of gastric cancer. We reexamined their histologic specimens and compared them with those of matched paired controls of the same sex and age who had died of gastric cancer. Forty-two patients consented to a follow-up study. The age of the patients did not affect survival. For patients with gastric cancer, those with distal cancer or an ulcer simulating cancer had had a better prognosis. Forty percent of the patients had had an early gastric cancer. Only two patients had had lymph node metastases in regional lymph nodes, and macroscopic tumor growth through the serosa had been recorded in only four cases. In 23 cases, a distal resection had proved successful. No significant correlation between intestinal or diffuse types of cancer and prognosis was observed. One recurrence after ten years was found; in one case, there was a new cancer in the gastric remnant. In addition, biopsy specimens from two patients showed grave dysplasia. We suggest that throughout their lives annual follow-up examinations be performed in patients who have undergone radical operations for gastric cancer. PMID:3619619

Saario, I; Schröder, T; Lempinen, M; Kivilaakso, E; Nordling, S

1987-09-01

356

Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL`s cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

1992-08-01

357

Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL's cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

1992-08-01

358

Comparison of the effects block and traditional schedules have on the number of students who are proficient on the Biology End-of-Course Test in forty public high schools in the state of North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the difference between the number of overall students, African-American students, and students with disabilities on a semester 4 x 4 block schedule who were proficient on the North Carolina Biology End-of-Course Test and the number of the same group of students on a traditional 45-50 minute yearlong schedule who were proficient on the NC Biology End-of-Course Test in the state of North Carolina during the 2009--2010 school year. A causal-comparative design was used and three null hypotheses were tested using chi-square analysis. Archival data was used. The results showed that there was a significant association between the number of the overall students and African-American students who were proficient on the NC Biology EOC Test when taught biology on a 4 x 4 semester block versus a traditional schedule. However, no statistically significant relationship existed between the number of students with disabilities who were educated on 4 x 4 semester block schedule and those students with disabilities who were educated on a six or seven period traditional schedule in biology. Suggestions for further research are included.

Bonner, Tonia Anita

359

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. A 6-22-year follow-up study. Clinical descriptions of the course and continuity of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven individuals (28 male and 19 female) referred for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood were followed-up 15 years later (range 6–22 years) in respect of psychiatric and personality disorders. In early adulthood, the patients could be sub-divided into 4 groups of about equal size. One group had no later OCD, another had OCD on a sub-clinical level, a

Hove per Thomsen

1994-01-01

360

Prevention of myopic progress by glasses. Study design and the first-year results of a randomized trial among schoolchildren.  

PubMed

We report the design and first-year follow-up results of a randomized trial of three different types of corrective lenses: (1) minus lenses with full correction for continuous use (the reference group); (2) minus lenses with full correction for distant vision only; and (3) bifocal lenses. Two hundred and forty 9- to 11-year-old mildly myopic schoolchildren were randomly allocated to the three treatment groups to be followed up to 3 years. During the first year, 73% of the children were compliant with their treatment. Refraction values after the first year were obtained from all but one child. In the second group (spectacles for distant vision only) myopia had progressed somewhat more than in the reference group. In respect of other values (school achievement, reading habits, and accidents) there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. PMID:3310646

Hemminki, E; Pärssinen, O

1987-08-01

361

Magnetic resonance imaging with implanted neurostimulators: numerical calculation of the induced heating.  

PubMed

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is still contraindicated in patients with implanted active medical devices, as the applied radiofrequency (RF) fields can lead to significant heating of the implants and the electrodes. A head model with an implanted deep brain stimulation electrode (DBS) was exposed to a continuous RF-field similar to the excitational field used in MRI at a frequency of 64 MHz. In this study a two-step procedure for the accurate estimation of electrode-heating during MRI is presented. First the energy loss was calculated in the frequency domain during an applied RF-pulse. Then a thermodynamic algorithm taking heat transfer mechanisms into account was used. The applied method showed to be numerically stable and gave more accurate results than first calculated using a simple worst-case approximation. PMID:12465267

Golombeck, M A; Thiele, J; Dössel, O

2002-01-01

362

Modeling noninvasive neurostimulation in epilepsy as stochastic interference in brain networks.  

PubMed

Noninvasive brain stimulation is one of very few potential therapies for medically refractory epilepsy. However, its efficacy remains suboptimal and its therapeutic value has not been consistently assessed. This is in part due to the nonoptimized spatio-temporal application of stimulation protocols for seizure prevention or arrest, and incomplete knowledge of the neurodynamics of seizure evolution. Through simulations, this study investigated electroencephalography (EEG)-guided, stochastic interference with aberrantly coordinated neuronal networks, to prevent seizure onset or interrupt a propagating partial seizure, and prevent it from spreading to large areas of the brain. Brain stimulation was modeled as additive white or band-limited noise, and simulations using real EEGs and data generated from a network of integrate-and-fire neuronal ensembles were used to quantify spatio-temporal noise effects. It was shown that additive stochastic signals (noise) may destructively interfere with network dynamics and decrease or abolish synchronization associated with progressively coupled networks. Furthermore, stimulation parameters, particularly amplitude and spatio-temporal application, may be optimized based on patient-specific neurodynamics estimated directly from noninvasive EEGs. PMID:22692940

Stamoulis, Catherine; Chang, Bernard S

2012-06-04

363

Using "Smart Stimulators" to Treat Parkinson's Disease: Re-Engineering Neurostimulation Devices  

PubMed Central

Let’s imagine the cruise control of your car locked at 120?km/h on any road in any condition (city, country, highway, sunny or rainy weather), or your car air conditioner set on maximum cold in any temperature condition (even during a snowy winter): would you find it efficient? That would probably not be the most optimal strategy for a proper and comfortable driving experience. As surprising as this may seem, this is a pretty accurate illustration of how deep brain stimulation is used today to treat Parkinson’s disease motor symptoms and other neurological disorders such as essential tremor, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or epilepsy.

Modolo, Julien; Beuter, Anne; Thomas, Alex W.; Legros, Alexandre

2012-01-01

364

Microelectronic retinal prosthesis: I. A neurostimulator for the concurrent activation of multiple electrodes.  

PubMed

An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) capable of delivering charge to multiple electrodes in unison has been developed. The ASIC is designed to function as part of an epi-retinal prosthesis driving an array of electrodes in a hexagonal mosaic. This unique organization of electrodes and the use of current sources and sinks is implemented to reduce the electrical cross-talk that occurs when many electrodes are activated in unison. Due to the large numbers of electrodes needed to provide useful vision to implantees, the interleaving strategies used in cochlear implants will not suffice for a vision prosthesis, where the "frame rate" is important for acceptable perceptual outcomes. This paper describes the design, and architectural approaches and performance testing of the developed ASIC. PMID:17946643

Wong, Y T; Dommel, N; Preston, P J; Lehmann, T; Lovell, N H; Suaning, G J

2006-01-01

365

Applications of Neurostimulation for Urinary Storage and Voiding Dysfunction in Neurological Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of various forms of electrical stimulation is considered a therapeutic option to manage different types of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, even though lower urinary tract dysfunction is common in patients with neurological disease, apart from patients with spinal cord injury, electrostimulation is still not widely applied in a neurological patient population. Urologists frequently encounter patients with neurogenic

F. S. Van Rey; J. P. F. A. Heesakkers

2008-01-01

366

Implementation of a biocircuit implants for neurotransmitter release during neuro-stimulation.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter assay of epinephrine (EP) was sought using a modified carbon nanotube paste electrode (PE). Using optimum conditions, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and the square wave (SW) stripping voltammetric working ranges were attained to 10-100 mgL(-1) (CV) and 20-140 ngL(-1) (SW). The relative standard deviation of 0.0549 (n=15) was obtained at 20.0 mgL(-1) EP constant. Here, the analytical detection limit (S/N) was reached with 4.60 ngL(-1) (2.5×10(-11) molL(-1)) EP. The hand-made electrode was implanted into the in-vivo brain core of the animals and was used in chronoamperometric neuro detection. The results obtained are applicable in neuro sensing, physiological control, and other neuroscience fields. PMID:23782097

Ly, Suw Young; Choi, Dal woong

2013-08-01

367

Quadriceps function assessment using an incremental test and magnetic neurostimulation: a reliability study.  

PubMed

We investigated the reliability of a test assessing quadriceps strength, endurance and fatigability in a single session. We used femoral nerve magnetic stimulation (FMNS) to distinguish central and peripheral factors of neuromuscular fatigue. We used a progressive incremental loading with multiple assessments to limit the influence of subject's cooperation and motivation. Twenty healthy subjects (10 men and 10 women) performed the test on two different days. Maximal voluntary strength and evoked quadriceps responses via FMNS were measured before, after each set of 10 submaximal isometric contractions (5-s on/5-s off; starting at 10% of maximal voluntary strength with 10% increments), immediately and 30min after task failure. The test induced progressive peripheral (41±13% reduction in single twitch at task failure) and central fatigue (3±7% reduction in voluntary activation at task failure). Good inter-day reliability was found for the total number of submaximal contractions achieved (i.e. endurance index: ICC=0.83), for reductions in maximal voluntary strength (ICC>0.81) and evoked muscular responses (i.e. fatigue index: ICC>0.85). Significant sex-differences were also detected. This test shows good reliability for strength, endurance and fatigability assessments. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate its feasibility and reliability in patients. PMID:23265662

Bachasson, Damien; Millet, Guillaume Y; Decorte, Nicolas; Wuyam, Bernard; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel

2012-12-20

368

Addressable floating light activated micro-electrical stimulators for wireless neurostimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulation of the central nervous system can be useful for treating neurological disorders. Wireless neurostim- ulating devices have the benefit that they can float in tissue and do not experience the sheering caused by tethering tension that non-wireless stimulators impose on connecting wires. An optically powered, logic controlled, CMOS microdevice that can decode telemetry data from an optical packet is

David S. Freedman; Philipp S. Spuhler; Elif Cevik; M. Selim Unlu; Mesut Sahin

2011-01-01

369

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

370

Optimizing utilization of kidneys from deceased donors over 60 years: five-year outcomes after implementation of a combined clinical and histological allocation algorithm.  

PubMed

This 5 year observational multicentre study conducted in the Nord Italian Transplant programme area evaluated outcomes in patients receiving kidneys from donors over 60 years allocated according to a combined clinical and histological algorithm. Low-risk donors 60-69 years without risk factors were allocated to single kidney transplant (LR-SKT) based on clinical criteria. Biopsy was performed in donors over 70 years or 60-69 years with risk factors, allocated to Single (HR-SKT) or Dual kidney transplant (HR-DKT) according to the severity of histological damage. Forty HR-DKTs, 41 HR-SKTs and 234 LR-SKTs were evaluated. Baseline differences generally reflected stratification and allocation criteria. Patient and graft (death censored) survival were 90% and 92% for HR-DKT, 85% and 89% for HR-SKT, 88% and 87% for LR-SKT. The algorithm appeared user-friendly in daily practice and was safe and efficient, as demonstrated by satisfactory outcomes in all groups at 5 years. Clinical criteria performed well in low-risk donors. The excellent outcomes observed in DKTs call for fine-tuning of cut-off scores for allocation to DKT or SKT in high-risk patients. PMID:23782175

Sefora, Pierobon Elisa; Silvio, Sandrini; Nicola, De Fazio; Giuseppe, Rossini; Iris, Fontana; Luigino, Boschiero; Maria, Gropuzzo; Eliana, Gotti; Donato, Donati; Enrico, Minetti; Teresa, Gandolfo Maria; Anna, Brunello; Carmelo, Libetta; Antonio, Secchi; Stefano, Chiaramonte; Paolo, Rigotti

2013-06-19

371

A Modified School Year: Perspectives from the Early Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A balanced or modified school year is a rearrangement of the traditional school calendar to provide more continuous learning throughout the school year. Students receive the same amount of instructional time as those on the traditional calendar but in-school time is more evenly balanced with out-of-school time throughout the year. It has been the…

Winter, Eileen C.

2005-01-01

372

Thalidomide embryopathy: revisited 27 years later.  

PubMed

A prospective ophthalmological study was done in 86 out of a total of 100 Swedes with established thalidomide embryopathy. Forty-six (54%) of all examined individuals had eye findings, which made the eye the second most commonly affected organ in thalidomide embryopathy only surpassed by upper limbs (81%). Forty-three patients (50%) had ocular motility defects, mostly incomitant strabismus. Facial palsy and abnormal lacrimation each occurred in 17 (20%) individuals. One patient had coloboma of the uvea and optic disc and another two had coloboma of the optic disc. Infrequent anomalies were microphthalmos, congenital glaucoma, lipodermoid, and large refractive errors. The observed ocular motility defects, facial palsy and abnormal lacrimation occurred with early induced defects in thalidomide embryopathy, but not with isolated late occurring anomalies. This suggests that thalidomide exerts its effects on the development of these structures early in the teratogenic period, probably mainly during the fourth week of development. PMID:8333272

Strömland, K; Miller, M T

1993-04-01

373

One-year vestibular and balance outcomes of Oklahoma City bombing survivors.  

PubMed

This multisite investigation assessed subjective, behavioral, and objective balance function in 30 blast survivors. Subjects with vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance were screened (n = 6) or evaluated (n = 27) during 1 year. Tests included a questionnaire, electronystagmography (ENG), and computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). Ninety-seven percent of subjects were located inside a building during the blast, and 63 percent of subjects experienced dysequilibrium within 48 hours. Forty-three percent of symptoms could not be attributed to head injury. Sixty percent of subjects had abnormal ENG and/or CDP; ENG abnormalities mostly were peripheral or nonlocalizing, whereas CDP patterns were "vestibular," "surface dependent," and "physiologically inconsistent." At 1-year postblast, 55 percent of initially abnormal CDP results were normal, and 72 percent of subjects said symptoms were unchanged or occurred intermittently. A serial, test battery approach is recommended to assess symptoms. Blast-related dysequilibrium had clinically significant manifestations and should be considered a valid component of aural blast injury. PMID:10522620

Van Campen, L E; Dennis, J M; King, S B; Hanlin, R C; Velderman, A M

1999-10-01

374

Underprepared Freshmen, 20 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory research is a 20-year study of 52 underprepared first-year college students of 1976. Based on college records and interviews in 1980, 1986, and 1996, this article relates their achievements, challenges, aspirations, and reflections.

Mildred R. Steele

375

Advising First-Year Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshman year is a critical time of transition for college students. The potential for student attrition is especially high during this important first year. As a result, there is a clear need for institutions to \\

Nancy King

376

Five to Ten Years Follow-up after Coiling of 241 Patients with Acutely Ruptured Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Summary Endovascular treatment has assumed a role of first choice in the management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. We describe the clinical and morphological data after the treatment of 258 ruptured intracranial aneurysms in 241 patients, in order to evaluate the safety and the efficacy of the endovascular treatment. Two hundred and forty-one patients with saccular ruptured aneurysms were treated at our institution between 2000 and 2005. After the endovascular treatment a clinical and angiographic follow-up was conducted. The clinical follow-up was carried out with a medical examination and telephonic interviews and mRS was used for evaluation. Two hundred and forty-nine acutely ruptured aneurysms were successfully treated and immediately after the endovascular procedure 81.9% of the aneurysms resulted completely occluded, 12.1% had a residual neck and 6% revealed a residual sac. The evolution of each grade was evaluated at six months and two years. During the follow-up we observed five early and one late re-bleedings. Twenty-four patients underwent a second procedure. After the discharge and up to ten years 73.1% of patients had a good clinical outcome (mRS0-1), 8.9% died and the remainder showed moderate-severe disability (mRS2-3). The long-term stability of the anatomical result is a critical issue of this approach because eventual re-bleedings may occur even after several months or years. A careful clinical and radiological follow-up for up to two years after the embolization may prevent recurrences but may not be sufficient.

Consoli, A.; Renieri, L.; Mura, R.; Nappini, S.; Ricciardi, F.; Pecchioli, G.; Ammannati, F.; Mangiafico, S.

2012-01-01

377

The Year 1999 in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

Speights, Dave

2001-01-01

378

Advising First-Year Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first year is a critical time of transition for college students. The potential for student attrition is especially high after this first year. As a result, there is a pertinent need for institutions to explore viable resources in order to assist first-year students in making asuccessful transition. This topical session will assist participants in understanding the vital role an

Jo Anne Huber

379

[Mode of onset and two years outcome of a broad spectrum of affective disorders].  

PubMed

In recent years emphasis has tended to be placed on assessing and diagnosing low-grade affective disorders. If mild affective symptoms are also considered a broad spectrum of affective disorders, this spectrum can be seen, not only in the manifestation of major symptoms of such illnesses as manic-depressive illness, but also in symptoms of various mental disorders. The present study was undertaken to analyze the clinical features of a broad spectrum of affective disorders in a prospective follow-up study. Ninety mentally ill patients who visited our outpatient clinic were followed for 2 years, to investigate the mode of onset, the course and outcome of their disorders. Using a semistructured interview method specially developed for this survey, these patients were divided into a broad spectrum of affective disorder group and the other groups. Forty-nine patients were allocated to a spectrum of affective disorder group characterized by four-day (or longer) persistence of at least one of the following symptoms, depressed mood, loss of interest or elevated, expansive, or irritable mood. Of the forty-nine patients there were only two patients with manic symptoms. And the forty-seven patients with depressive symptoms were compared with the other groups as a main subject. The other groups were composed of eighteen patients with psychotic symptoms (the psychotic group) and 23 patients with neurotic symptoms (the neurotic group). The psychotic and neurotic groups did not satisfy the criteria shown above. There was no significant differences in male-to-female ratio or age between these three groups. When the mode of onset of symptoms were compared, the percentage of cases in whom symptoms could be identified early (within 10 days after onset) was 64.4% in the depressive group, 41.2% in the psychotic group and 30.4% in the neurotic group. The percentage of cases who remitted 2 years later was 70.2%, 38.9%, 45.5% in the depressive group, psychotic and neurotic groups, respectively. The GAS score (mean +/- SD), assessed 2 years later, was 76.2 +/- 12.5, 62.8 +/- 11.7, 78.2 +/- 9.9 points for these three groups, respectively. These results suggest that a broad spectrum of depressive disorders develops more acutely and patients with this spectrum are more likely to recover from symptoms and in function. Thus, the course of disorders was more favorable in the depressive group than in the psychotic group or the neurotic group. PMID:10475047

Hirai, T; Furukawa, T; Kitamura, T; Takahashi, K

1999-01-01

380

A 5-year retrospective clinical study of the Dentium implants  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate cumulative survival rate (CSR) of Implantium implants followed for 5 years and association between risk factors and the CSR. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of two hundred forty-nine Implantium Implants System (Dentium, Seoul, Korea) placed in ninety-five patients from 2004 to 2009 were investigated with several identified risk factors (sex, systemic disease, smoking, alchohol, reason of tooth loss, length, arch (maxilla or mandible), replace tooth type (incisor, canine, premolar or molar) Kennedy classification, prosthodontic type, prosthodontic design, opposite dentition, abutment type, occlusal material, occlusal unit, splint to tooth, cantilever, other surgery). Clinical examination (mobility, percussion, screw loosening, discomfort, etc.) and radiographic examination data were collected from patient records including all problems during follow-up period according to protocols described earlier. Life table analysis was undertaken to examine the CSR. Cox regression method was conducted to assess the association between potential risk factors and overall CSR. RESULTS Five of 249 implants were failed. Four of these were lost before loading. The 5-year implant cumulative survival rate was 97.37%. Cox regression analysis demonstrated a significant predictive association between overall CSR and systemic disease, smoking, reason of tooth loss, arch, Kennedy classification and prosthodontic design (P<.05). The screw related complication was rare. Two abutment screw fractures were found. Another complications of prosthetic components were porcelain fracture, resin facing fracture and denture fracture (n=19). CONCLUSION The 5-year CSR of Implantium implants was 97.37%. Implant survival may be dependent upon systemic disease, smoking reason of tooth loss, arch, Kennedy classification and prosthodontic design (P<.05). The presence of systemic diseases and combination of other surgical procedures may be associated with increased implant failure.

Lee, Jeong-Yol; Park, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jong-Eun; Choi, Yong-Geun; Kim, Young-Soo; Huh, Jung-Bo

2011-01-01

381

[Premalignant and malignant changes in the uterine cervix in women younger than 30 years].  

PubMed

From 1974 to 1983, 124.471 cervico-vaginal smears after Papanicolaou were analysed. Group I and II findings numbered 97.06%, group III 2.28%, group IV 0.54%, and group V 0.12%. Most findings of groups III and IV related to women in their forties (32%), then to those in the fifties (28.2) and in the thirties (26%). Out of 1522 group III women, 261 were histologically examined: there were 78 dysplasias, 108 carcinomas in situ, 27 invasive carcinomas, and 48 benign changes. Out of 317 group IV women, there were 33 benign changes, 66 dysplasias, 158 carcinomas in situ, and 60 invasive carcinomas. Out of 78 group V women, there were 7 benign changes and dysplasias each, 17 carcinomas in situ, and 47 invasive carcinomas. Most dysplasias and carcinomas in situ were found in women in their forties (39.9), a smaller number in women in their thirties (29.4%), and the smallest number in women in their fifties (22.5%). Out of all invasive carcinomas, the highest number was found in women in their fifties (32.09%), the peak being about ten years later than that relating to dysplasias and carcinomas in situ. The conclusion is that the screening of the uterine cervix should start already at the time of defloration. PMID:3837134

Postruznik, S; Juri?, M; Giljanovi?, L; Strmo, V

382

Four-year experience with a recombinant hepatitis B vaccine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three hundred and forty-three healthy adults were vaccinated with five different lots of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Three hundred and forty (99.1%) individuals produced antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). Peak anti-HBs concentrations were significantly higher in females and younger individuals. All anti-HBs positive individuals developed antibodies to the common determinant “a” of HBsAg. The vaccine was well

W. Jilg; Marion Schmidt; F. Deinhardt

1989-01-01

383

Naive (Bayes) at forty: The independence assumption in information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naive Bayes classifier, currently experiencing a\\u000a renaissance in machine learning, has long been a core\\u000a technique in information retrieval. We review some of the\\u000a variations of naive Bayes models used for text retrieval\\u000a and classification, focusing on the distributional\\u000a assumptions made about word occurrences in documents.

David D. Lewis

1998-01-01

384

RAMANUJAN'S FORTY IDENTITIES FOR THE ROGERS-RAMANUJAN FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's famous fictional detective Sherlock Holmes and his sidekick Dr. Watson go camping and pitch their tent under the stars. During the night, Holmes wakes his companion and says, \\

BRUCE C. BERNDT; GEUMLAN CHOI; YOUN-SEO CHOI; HEEKYOUNG HAHN; BOON PIN YEAP; AE JA YEE; HAMZA YESILYURT; JINHEE YI

385

Multivariate statistical analyses of groundwater surrounding Forty mile wash  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater chemistry data from 211 sampling locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed using multivariate statistical methods in order to better understand groundwater chemical evolution, ascertain potential flow paths and determine hydrochemical facies. Correspondence analysis of the major ion chemistry is used to define relationships between and among major ions and sampling locations. A k-means cluster analysis is used to determine hydrochemical facies based on correspondence analysis dimensions. The derived dimensions and hydrochemical facies are presented as bi-plots and overlaid on a digital elevation model of the region giving a visual picture of potential interactions and flow paths. A distinct signature of the groundwater chemistry along the extended flow path of Fortymile Wash can be observed along with some potential interaction at possible fault lines near Highway I-95. The signature from Fortymile Wash is believed to represent the relict of water that infiltrated during past pluvial periods when the amount of runoff in the wash was significantly larger than during the current drier period. This hypothesis appears to be supported by hydrogen-2 and oxygen-18 data which indicate that younger groundwater is found in the upper part of the wash near Yucca Mountain and older groundwater is found in the lower region of the wash near Amargosa River. The range of the hydrogen-2 data corresponds to precipitation in a period of relatively cold climate and has a similar spatial signature to the oxygen-18 data. If the hypothesis that current groundwater chemistry primarily reflects past focused infiltration of surface runoff rather than regional groundwater migration is correct, then saturated zone transport from Yucca Mountain may be much slower than is currently anticipated. (authors)

Woocay, A.; Walton, J.C. [El Paso Univ. of Texas, Environmental Science and Engineering, TX (United States)

2007-07-01

386

Forty-Two-Month Impacts of Vermont's Welfare Restructuring Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Acknowledgments; Summary; The WRP program and evaluation; 42 Month impacts of WRP for Singe-parent families and Two-parent families with an incapacitated parent; Impacts of WRP for Two-parent families with an unemployed parent.

R. Hendra C. Michalopoulos

1999-01-01

387

The Liturgical Year 2008: A Year to Remember?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In late 2007 there were Press accounts drawing attention to the transfer the next year of the celebration of St Patrick’s Day to Saturday March 15th. For all its strengths, the Roman Liturgical Calendar for any single year is not as uniform or regular as many may presume or expect. There are many variable factors, most prominently the so called

Russell Hardiman

2007-01-01

388

Partnerships Between Two-Year Colleges and Four Year Institutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presentation by Keith Clay, Edward Price and Mel Sabella at the 2012 PhysTEC Conference about the relationship between two-year colleges and four-year institutions. Each presents on the specific relationship at their institutions regarding teacher preparation, including challenges, successes and lessons learned.

Sabella, Mel; Clay, Keith; Price, Edward

2012-02-27

389

Spinal cord stimulation in cluster headache.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation techniques for the treatment of primary headache syndromes, particularly for chronic cluster headache (CCH), have received much interest in the recent years. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) has yielded favourable clinical results, and is becoming a routine treatment for refractory chronic cluster headache in specialized centres. Meanwhile, other promising techniques, such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS) or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation, are emerging. This article reviews the current state of clinical research for neurostimulation techniques for chronic cluster headache, and particularly the pros and cons of SCS and ONS. PMID:23504520

Wolter, Tilman; Kaube, Holger

2013-05-01

390

Spinal cord stimulation in cluster headache.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation techniques for the treatment of primary headache syndromes, particularly for chronic cluster headache (CCH), have received much interest in the recent years. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) has yielded favourable clinical results, and is becoming a routine treatment for refractory chronic cluster headache in specialized centres. Meanwhile, other promising techniques, such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS) or sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation, are emerging. This article reviews the current state of clinical research for neurostimulation techniques for chronic cluster headache, and particularly the pros and cons of SCS and ONS. PMID:23547299

Wolter, Tilman; Kaube, Holger

2013-04-01

391

Ten years of fast neutron therapy in Münster.  

PubMed

The indication for neutron therapy in the treatment of malignant tumors is often uncertain. We therefore would like to present our experience of neutron therapy for different tumors in different localizations and discuss the indications for radiotherapy with neutrons. In Münster, 269 patients were treated with neutrons between 1985 and 1995, via a deuterium-tritium generator with an energy of 14 MeV. The tumors, treated mainly with neutrons, were 64 adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands, 42 soft tissue sarcomas, 37 rectal cancer recurrences and 20 recurrences in the head and neck region. Furthermore, patients with non adenoid cystic carcinomas of the salivary glands as well as ten other tumor sites also received this treatment, mainly with palliative intent. The 64 patients with adenoid cystic salivary gland tumors had either an unresectable primary tumor, an unresectable recurrence or residual tumor (R1, R2) after surgery. These patients showed complete remission in 78% and partial remission in 22%. The 2-year survival rate was 76%. Forty-two patients with soft tissue sarcomas after resection (R1, R2) and different gradings had an overall survival rate after 5 years of 53%. The 37 patients with rectal cancer recurrence experienced rapid pain relief in nearly 90% of cases. In agreement with the results in the literature, there seems to be an indication for neutron therapy in cases of unresectable primaries, unresectable recurrences or residual tumor after surgery in adenoid cystic carcinomas. Results regarding soft tissue sarcoma treatment with neutrons seem to show superiority in comparison with photon therapy. The treatment with neutrons of rectal recurrences has a very good palliative effect. The radiotherapy treatment with neutrons in all the other tumors did not demonstrate any proven superiority in comparison with photon radiation. PMID:8949762

Prott, F J; Haverkamp, U; Willich, N; Wagner, W; Micke, O; Pötter, R

1996-01-01

392

Review 08--A Year in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barack Obama's monumental presidential campaign took the nation by storm, a history-making and future-defining feat sure to keep academicians busy for many years to come. How America addresses race as a result of Obama's sweeping victory remains to be seen, but his election came in the same year New York state installed its first Black governor,…

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2008

2008-01-01

393

Teaching in the Middle Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North Carolina State University's Middle Years Education Degree Program offers eight courses specifically designed for the middle years, preparing prospective teachers in language arts, social studies, mathematics, or science. Course goals, content, rationale, instructional methods, materials, and evaluation are described. (CB)

Arnold, John

1988-01-01

394

Review 08--A Year in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Barack Obama's monumental presidential campaign took the nation by storm, a history-making and future-defining feat sure to keep academicians busy for many years to come. How America addresses race as a result of Obama's sweeping victory remains to be seen, but his election came in the same year New York state installed its first Black governor,…

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2008

2008-01-01

395

Thirty Years of Territorial Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years, territorial politics was neglected in political science under the influence of a modernist paradigm according to which territory gives way to function as a principle of social and political organisation. In the last 30 years it has received more attention as territorial political movements have made an impact. This has provoked a reconsideration not just of the

Michael Keating

2008-01-01

396

Outlook: The Next Twenty Years  

SciTech Connect

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-12-07

397

Outlook:. the Next Twenty Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the big questions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, H.

2004-02-01

398

Report of twelve years experience in open study of Skinner herpes simplex vaccine towards prevention of herpes genitalis.  

PubMed

Three hundred and forty-seven subjects at risk for herpes genitalis were vaccinated with Skinner vaccine, NFUAc.HSV1.(S-MRC5), and were followed for an average duration of 2 years representing a total consortship of 664.4 years. Based on survey information obtained during this consortship, there were estimated to be 3076 recurrences which summated to 3.5 years total duration of disease and comprised at least 6794 lesions; there were an estimated 51997 episodes of intercourse including at least 241 episodes of unprotected intercourse in the presence of herpetic lesions. The rate of contraction of herpes genitalis was 6 of 54 consorts (11.1%) who received one vaccination and 7 of 293 (2.4%) who received two, three of four vaccinations. There was no evidence of physical or psychological side effects from vaccination. PMID:1549071

Skinner, G R; Fink, C; Melling, J; Wiblin, C; Thornton, B; Hallworth, J; Gardner, W; McLeish, P; Hartley, C; Buchan, A

1992-01-01

399

Combined Anterior Sclera Staphylectomy and Vitrectomy with Anterior Sclera Staphyloma and Vitreous Hemorrhage Occurring 38 Years after Cataract Surgery  

PubMed Central

Introduction. To report a case of anterior sclera staphyloma and vitreous hemorrhage occurring over 38 years after bilateral cataract surgery. Methods. A 58-year-old man presented with anterior sclera staphyloma and vitreous hemorrhage in the right eye, after bilateral cataract surgery, over 38 years ago. We performed combined anterior sclera staphylectomy and vitrectomy of right eye for anterior sclera staphyloma and vitreous hemorrhage. Results. Forty-eight months after the combined surgery, best-corrected visual acuity was 0.3 (+10.00/?4.50 × 60) with eutopic stitches of the corneoscleral junction on the superior nasal quadrant and a stable ocular surface. Conclusions. This is the first reported case of anterior sclera staphyloma with vitreous hemorrhage successfully managed by combined surgery.

Zheng, Qinxiang; Wu, Ronghan; Li, Wensheng

2011-01-01

400

The role of early language experience in the development of speech perception and phonological processing abilities: evidence from 5-year-olds with histories of otitis media with effusion and low socioeconomic status  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that early language experience facilitates the development of language-specific perceptual weighting strategies believed to be critical for accessing phonetic structure. In turn, that structure allows for efficient storage and retrieval of words in verbal working memory, which is necessary for sentence comprehension. Participants were forty-nine 5-year-olds, evenly distributed among four groups: those with chronic otitis

Susan Nittrouer; Lisa Thuente Burton

2005-01-01

401

Characterization of Streptococcus mutans diversity by determining restriction fragment-length polymorphisms of the gtfB gene of isolates from 5-year-old children and their mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diversity between Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates from 5-year-old children and their mothers in two South African ethnic groups was investigated. The gtfB gene encoding for glucosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.5), an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides was characterized by PCR-RFLP with HaeIII restriction enzyme digestion. Forty-seven children were examined for dental caries and 128 S. mutans clinical isolates

Cheryl Sam Toi; Peter Cleaton-Jones; Paul Fatti

2005-01-01

402

Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long-term changes in symptoms and flow rate: results of a four-year, randomized trial comparing finasteride versus placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in addition to prostate volume, is associated with long-term changes in symptoms and urinary flow rate.Methods. Three thousand forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia enrolled in the PLESS trial were randomly assigned to finasteride 5 mg or placebo for 4 years. Symptoms and flow rate were assessed every 4 months, and data

Claus G. Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; Donald Bergner; Todd Gray; Marc Gittelman; Thomas Shown; Arnold Melman; R. Bruce Bracken; Ralph deVere White; Alice Taylor; Daniel Wang; Joanne Waldstreicher

1999-01-01

403

Adoption of a wiki within a large internal medicine residency program: a 3-year experience  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the creation and evaluate the use of a wiki by medical residents, and to determine if a wiki would be a useful tool for improving the experience, efficiency, and education of housestaff. Materials and methods In 2008, a team of medical residents built a wiki containing institutional knowledge and reference information using Microsoft SharePoint. We tracked visit data for 3?years, and performed an audit of page views and updates in the second year. We evaluated the attitudes of medical residents toward the wiki using a survey. Results Users accessed the wiki 23?218, 35?094, and 40?545 times in each of three successive academic years from 2008 to 2011. In the year two audit, 85 users made a total of 1082 updates to 176 pages and of these, 91 were new page creations by 17 users. Forty-eight percent of residents edited a page. All housestaff felt the wiki improved their ability to complete tasks, and 90%, 89%, and 57% reported that the wiki improved their experience, efficiency, and education, respectively, when surveyed in academic year 2009–2010. Discussion A wiki is a useful and popular tool for organizing administrative and educational content for residents. Housestaff felt strongly that the wiki improved their workflow, but a smaller educational impact was observed. Nearly half of the housestaff edited the wiki, suggesting broad buy-in among the residents. Conclusion A wiki is a feasible and useful tool for improving information retrieval for house officers.

Mostaghimi, Arash; Reynolds, Eileen E

2011-01-01

404

Organized Physical Activity in Young School Children Predicts Subsequent 4-Year Change in Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether participation in organized outdoor team sports and structured indoor non-school activity programs in kindergarten and first grade predicted subsequent 4-year change in Body Mass Index (BMI) across the adiposity rebound period of childhood. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Forty-five schools in 13 communities across Southern California. Participants Largely Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children (N = 4,550; average age at study entry 6.60 years, standard deviation 0.65). Main Exposures Parents completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, demographic characteristics and other relevant covariates at baseline. Data on built and social environmental variables were linked to the neighborhood around children’s homes using geographical information systems (GIS). Main Outcome Measures Each child’s height and weight were measured annually during 4-years of follow-up. Results After adjusting for several confounders, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate for children who participated in outdoor organized team sports at least twice per week as compared to children who did not. For participation in each additional indoor non-school structured activity classes, lessons, and program, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate, and the attained BMI level at age 10 was 0.48 units lower. Conclusions Engagement in organized sports and activity programs as early as kindergarten and the first grade may result in smaller increases in BMI during the adiposity rebound period of childhood.

Dunton, Genevieve; McConnell, Rob; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Lam, Claudia; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

2012-01-01

405

Second-generation proximally coated titanium femoral component: minimum 7-year results.  

PubMed

It is unclear whether resurfacing or fully porous-coated or proximally coated stems are the best femoral components for young patients. First-generation proximally coated titanium fiber-metal femoral components had a high rate of failure. We prospectively followed 56 patients (70 hips) whom we believed were at high risk for loosening of a cemented femoral component; all patients were implanted with one second-generation proximally coated titanium femoral component. Ten patients (11 hips) died and three patients (four hips) were lost to minimum followup. Three models of titanium fiber-metal acetabular component were implanted with screws. Patients were clinically evaluated using the Harris hip score. We used standardized radiographs to assess fixation status and osteolysis. Forty-four patients (55 hips) with a mean age of 45 years were followed for a minimum of 7 years (mean, 10.5 years; range, 7-15 years). No femoral component had been revised for any reason. Bone ingrowth (spot welding) was seen in 41 hips (75%) and proximal femoral osteolysis in only four hips. Reoperations for polyethylene wear were performed in seven patients (12.7%) and two patients had liner exchange for recurrent dislocation. Even with an articulating surface with considerable polyethylene wear debris, these second-generation proximally coated titanium fiber-metal femoral components had a survival rate of 100% at a mean 10.5-year followup. PMID:17621229

Lachiewicz, Paul F; Soileau, Elizabeth S; Bryant, Paul

2007-12-01

406

Alley Oop: 75 Years of the Comic World of V.T. Hamlin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1932 by cartoonist V.T. Hamlin, the comic strip Alley Oop chronicled the adventures of a prehistoric man as he made his way through daily life in the kingdom of Moo. Oop's various trials and tribulations also offered trenchant commentaries on suburban life in the United States, and Hamlin drew the strip himself for forty years. This online exhibition, created by the University of Missouri Libraries Special Collections, draws interested parties into the world of Alley Oop through a series of thoughtful essays and examples of Hamlin's work. The sections of the exhibit include "V.T. Hamlin", "Alley Oop and Popular Culture", and "After Alley Oop". Visitors should definitely check out the "Alley Oop and Popular Culture" area as it contains shots of the Alley Oop figurine, information on the short-lived Alley Oop musical, and the Alley Oop commemorative stamp.

407

A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later.  

PubMed

In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:23500455

2013-03-15

408

A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later.  

PubMed

In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:24034806

2013-07-23

409

Thyroid cancer. Survival in 148 cases followed for 10 years or more  

SciTech Connect

One hundred forty-eight patients with differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid treated between May 1954 and April 1973 are presented. There were 89 papillary and 59 follicular carcinomas. They were classified according to Woolner criteria. Treatment consisted of surgery I-131 and thyroid hormone. Recurrences occurred in 8.7% of the patients, and lethality at the end of the observation period was 3.3%. The impact of histologic type, extent of the primary, and age of the patient at the time of treatment on prognosis were studied. The data were submitted to statistical analysis. This study revealed that these factors are determinant on prognosis. Best survival rates were observed in patients 40 years of age or younger at the time of treatment, in patients with intrathyroid papillary carcinomas, and in patients with noninvasive follicular carcinomas.

Torres, J.; Volpato, R.D.; Power, E.G.; Lopez, E.C.; Dominguez, M.E.; Maira, J.L.; Ugarte, J.A.; Martinez, V.C.

1985-11-01

410

Sixty years of genome biology.  

PubMed

Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery. PMID:23651518

Doolittle, W Ford; Fraser, Peter; Gerstein, Mark B; Graveley, Brenton R; Henikoff, Steven; Huttenhower, Curtis; Oshlack, Alicia; Ponting, Chris P; Rinn, John L; Schatz, Michael C; Ule, Jernej; Weigel, Detlef; Weinstock, George M

2013-04-25

411

Accountability report - fiscal year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

NONE

1998-04-01

412

The First Year and Beyond.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|John Gardner reflects on everything from current efforts to improve the first-year experience to the assessment movement, student expectations of college, professional preparation for student affairs, and more. (Author)|

Schroeder, Charles

2003-01-01

413

Preparing for year 2000--STAT!  

PubMed

Apocalypse or inconvenience? Will you be ready when the clock strikes for the first time in the Year 2000? Surviving the flip of calendar with systems intact is the dream of many CIOs. One hospital shares its plan. PMID:10187099

Rancourt, M; Keogh, D

1998-11-01

414

44 Years of "The Journal"  

PubMed Central

Objective: To review the 44-year history of theJournal of Athletic Training. Description: We examined the 179 issues of the Journal and selected 9 years (every 5 years beginning in 1957) for a page-by-page analysis of content. We interviewed 8 former Editors and Editors-in-Chief and drew upon our own experiences during a combined 56 years of association with the Journal. The Journal has undergone significant changes in both structure and quality; its growth mirrors the growth of the athletic training profession. During its infancy, the Journal relied greatly on reprints from other journals. Now, most authors are certified athletic trainers, sharing the results of their own scholarship. Conclusions: The Journal, like the athletic training profession, is alive and strong. It has become an independent leader in the dissemination of athletic health care information.

Knight, Kenneth L.; Thompson, Clint

1999-01-01

415

25 Years of Landsat 5  

NASA Video Gallery

Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the retreat of a Greenland glacier.

NASA - nasa.gov

2010-03-10

416

Cassini - 15 Years of Exploration  

NASA Video Gallery

This video highlights sights and sounds from the journey of NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Cassini launched 15 years ago and has been exploring the Saturn system since 2004. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech › Cassini's mission site

Anthony Greicius

2012-10-30

417

Dynamic cardiomyoplasty at seven years.  

PubMed

Since January 1985, the date of the first dynamic cardiomyoplasty, until April 1992, 52 patients with end-stage heart disease were operated on in our institution. Mean preoperative New York Heart Association functional class was 3.3 and ventricular ejection fraction 16% +/- 3%. Associated procedures in 23 patients comprised ventricular aneurysm resection (10), valve surgery (9), coronary artery bypass (8), and tumor resection (3). Thirty-eight patients had a ventricular reinforcement, 13 a ventricular substitution, and 1 an atrial reinforcement using the left latissimus dorsi muscle. Preassist mortality rate before full latissimus dorsi muscle stimulation was 7 of 13 patients (54%) in the 1985 to 1987 period and 5 of 39 (12%) in the 1988 to 1992 period. The causes of death were heart failure (4), multiorgan failure (4), septicemia (2), ventricular fibrillation (1), and sudden death (1). Multivariate analysis of factors influencing hospital mortality showed that age, cardiac suture technique, associated surgical procedures, biventricular heart failure, and hemodynamic instability plus inotropic drug support were predictors of unfavorable outcome. All patients were followed up for from 2 months to 7 years (mean 21 months). Postassist mortality rate was 8 of 40 (20%). Causes of death included heart failure (5), ventricular fibrillation (1), myocardial infarction (1), and gastric bleeding (1). Preoperative risk factors influencing long-term mortality were permanent New York Heart Association functional class IV, biventricular heart failure, atrial fibrillation, cardiothoracic ratio greater than 60%, and ejection fraction less than 15%. Actuarial survival at 7 years was 70.4% (preassist mortality excluded). Surviving patients were in a mean New York Heart Association functional class of 1.8 (preoperatively 3.3, p < 0.05). The average ejection fractions (rest/stress) were 25%/28% at 1 year, 26%/30% at 2 years, and 23%/28% at 3 years. Average cardiothoracic ratios were 57% +/- 3% at 1 year, 56% +/- 2% at 2 years, and 57% +/- 2.5% at 3 years. Catheterization obtained in 20 patients showed no significant changes at rest in capillary wedge pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, and diastolic left ventricular pressure when compared with preoperative pressures. Average ejection fractions increased from 24% to 30.6%. Maximal oxygen consumption increased from 12.8 +/- 3.5 to 18.6 +/- 4 ml/min per kilogram. The number of rehospitalizations resulting from congestive heart failure was reduced to 0.4 hospitalizations per patient per year (preoperatively 2.4, p < 0.05). In 62% of the patients, pharmacologic therapy was diminished after the operation. Three patients required orthotopic heart transplantation 6 months, 4 years, and 5 years after cardiomyoplasty. PMID:8321004

Carpentier, A; Chachques, J C; Acar, C; Relland, J; Mihaileanu, S; Bensasson, D; Kieffer, J P; Guibourt, P; Tournay, D; Roussin, I

1993-07-01

418

Welcome to the New Year!  

Microsoft Academic Search

I have the privilege of taking over from Professor Gordon Donaldson as Editor-in-Chief of Superconductor Science and Technology (SuST) for the next two years. During the last ten years, he has refereed several thousand papers and ensured that SuST has the highest impact factor of any specialist journal in the field. It is a pleasure to take this opportunity to

Damian P Hampshire

2008-01-01

419

The National Year of Reading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the National Year of Reading effort in the UK (spearheaded by the National Literacy Trust to promote reading and literacy), the National Year of Reading site is meant to foster community participation in reading- and literacy-related events throughout the UK. A special resource section offers information and toolkits that can help a variety of different audiences (including libraries, teachers, and those with special needs) come up with innovative ways to implement local projects.

1998-01-01

420

EUDISED: Three-Year Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the request of the Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC) a 3-year plan (1989-1991) for EUDISED was drawn up by the Secretariat. The plan envisages that: (1) the EUDISED database will concentrate on educational research project information; (2) the rate of growth for the database will increase from 1,000 items a year to 2,500; (3) four issues…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

421

EUDISED: Three-Year Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the request of the Council for Cultural Co-operation (CDCC) a 3-year plan (1989-1991) for EUDISED was drawn up by the Secretariat. The plan envisages that: (1) the EUDISED database will concentrate on educational research project information; (2) the rate of growth for the database will increase from 1,000 items a year to 2,500; (3) four…

Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

422

Two year maintenance of efficacy and safety of infliximab in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To obtain results of the second year extension of an original 3 month randomised, placebo controlled trial (and the 1 year extension study) assessing the use of infliximab, a monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor ?, for the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods: Of the 54 patients with AS who completed the first year of the study, 52 continued to receive infliximab 5 mg/kg every 6 weeks up to week 102. The primary end point was the proportion of patients achieving at least 50% improvement from baseline in the Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) at week 102. Other assessments included patient and physician global assessments, quality of life as assessed by Short Form-36, Bath AS Functional Index, Bath AS Metrology Index, and C reactive protein (CRP). Results: Improvement in signs and symptoms of AS seen during the first year of the study was sustained during the second year. Forty nine patients (71% of 69 enrolled patients and 49/52 (94%) patients who started year 2) completed the study up to week 102. Thirty (58%) patients achieved at least 50% improvement from baseline in the BASDAI score at week 102. Scores for other efficacy assessments were similar at weeks 54 and 102. Median CRP levels remained low at weeks 54 and 102 (3.9 and 4.3 mg/l, respectively). Side effects during the second year of the study were similar to those of the first year of treatment with infliximab. Conclusions: Patients with AS treated for 2 years with infliximab 5 mg/kg exhibited a good and durable clinical response.

Braun, J; Brandt, J; Listing, J; Zink, A; Alten, R; Burmester, G; Gromnica-Ihle, E; Kellner, H; Schneider, M; Sorensen, H; Zeidler, H; Sieper, J

2005-01-01

423

Yearly refinery construction indexes listed for 68 years  

SciTech Connect

Yearly values are presented for the Nelson-Farrar refinery inflation cost index since 1926. They are based on 1946 as 100, since that was the date of index inception. Values from 1926 to 1945 were back calculated. Data are presented on indexed cost of materials, labor, and miscellaneous equipment for 1926 through 1994. A second table of itemized refining cost indexes for the years 1954, 1972, 1992--1994, and the first eight months of 1995 is also presented. This table subdivides materials, labor, and equipment into component costs.

Farrar, G.

1996-01-01

424

Somatostatin analog therapy for severe polycystic liver disease: results after 2 years  

PubMed Central

Background We showed in a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial that octreotide long-acting repeatable depot.® (OctLAR®) for 12 months reduces kidney and liver growth in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney patients with severe polycystic liver disease (PLD) and liver growth in patients with severe isolated PLD. We have now completed an open-label extension for one additional year to assess safety and clinical benefits of continued use of OctLAR for 2 years (O?O) and examined drug effect in the placebo group who crossed over to OctLAR in Year 2 (P?O). Methods The primary end point was change in total liver volume (TLV) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); secondary end points were changes in total kidney volume (TKV) measured by MRI, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), quality of life (QOL), safety, vital signs and laboratory parameters. Results Forty-one of 42 patients received OctLAR (n = 28) or placebo (n = 14) in Year 1 and received OctLAR in Year 2 (maximum dose 40 mg). Patients originally randomized to placebo (P?O) showed substantial reduction in TLV after treatment with OctLAR in Year 2 (?% ?7.66 ± 9.69%, P = 0.011). The initial reduction of TLV in the OctLAR group (O?O) was maintained for 2 years (?% ?5.96 ± 8.90%), although did not change significantly during Year 2 (?% ?0.77 ± 6.82%). OctLAR inhibited renal enlargement during Year 1 (?% +0.42 ± 7.61%) in the (O?O) group and during Year 2 (?% ?0.41 ± 9.45%) in the (P?O) group, but not throughout Year 2 (?% +6.49 ± 7.08%) in the (O?O) group. Using pooled analyses of all individuals who received OctLAR for 12 months, i.e. in Year 1 for O?O patients and Year 2 for P?O patients, average reduction in TLV was ?6.08 ± 7.58% (P = 0.001) compared to net growth of 0.9 ± 8.35% in the original placebo group. OctLAR-treated individuals continued to experience improvements in QOL in Year 2, although overall physical and mental improvements were not significant during Year 2 compared to Year 1. Changes in GFR were similar in both groups. Conclusion Over 2 years, OctLAR significantly reduced the rate of increase in TLV and possibly the rate of increase in TKV.

Hogan, Marie C.; Masyuk, Tetyana V.; Page, Linda; Holmes, David R.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Irazabal, Maria V.; Kim, Bohyun; King, Bernard F.; Glockner, James F.; LaRusso, Nicholas F.; Torres, Vicente E.

2012-01-01

425

Ocular Firework Injuries at New Year’s Eve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To prospectively study mechanisms and injury characteristics of ocular firework burns. Methods: A prospective analysis of all patients with firework injuries attending the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, between 1994 and 2001. We looked for classes of fireworks and mechanisms of injuries. The number of diagnoses was established and their severity classified. Results: During this period (8 years)

Stefan Sacu; Nikolaus Ségur-Eltz; Karin Stenng; Martin Zehetmayer

2002-01-01

426

Vulvar puritus for one year.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old menopausal female presented with vulvar itching for one year. She had noticed a whitish lesion on the vulva that slowly increased in size over the year. She had been unsuccessfully treated with oral fluconazole and topical clotrimazole-mometasone combinations and the plaque had gradually spread to involve the clitoris and peri-urethral area. She was neither diabetic nor hypertensive and had no other systemic complaints. Examination revealed a well-defined non-tender whitish plaque situated on her left labia minora and clitoris (Figure 1). A swab from the plaque did not grow any organism. Routine blood chemistry including a VDRL and HIV ELIZA were within normal limits. A punch biopsy from the lesion was taken and histopathology findings were as seen in (Figures 2 and 3). PMID:21062604

Madnani, Nina A; Bhalerao-Gandhi, Ashwini; Khan, Kaleem J

2010-10-15

427

Discovering Astronomy 50 Years Ago  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three years after graduating in astronomy from Bucharest University, I was finally recruited by the Bucharest Observatory to participate in the International Geophysical Year. I joined the Observatory as the third fellow of the Solar Department. There, I became an expert in satellite affairs thanks to a TV broadcast shot. I was in charge of adjusting the newly received solar instruments and contributed to the international campaign, including the solar patrol. Since it was absolutely impossible for me to start a thesis at that time, I moved to France and started a new career in the Solar Department of Paris-Meudon Observatory. My experience at the Bucharest Observatory was fundamental to the rest of my work over the following 50 years. My cooperation with the Bucharest Observatory increased after 1992 and still continues today.

Mouradian, Z.

2008-09-01

428

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2000 Report  

SciTech Connect

The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of he Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2000. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance,(3) ecosystem mapping, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species were conducted for 24 NTS projects. Seventeen sites were in desert tortoise habitat, and six acres of tortoise habitat were documented as being disturbed this year. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed. A topical report describing the classification of habitat types o n the NTS was completed. The report is the culmination of three years of field vegetation mapping and the analysis of vegetation data from over 1,500 ecological landform units. A long-term monitoring plan for important plant species that occur on the NTS was completed. Sitewide inventories were conducted for the western burrowing owl, bat species of concern, wild horses, raptor nests, and mule deer. Fifty-nine of 69 known owl burrows were monitored. Forty-four of the known burrows are in disturbed habitat. As in previous years, some owls were present year round on the NTS. An overall decrease in active owl burrows was observed within all three ecoregions (Mojave Desert, Transition, Great Basin Desert) from October through January. An increase in active owl burrows was observed from mid-March to early April. A total of 45 juvenile owls was detected from eight breeding pairs. One nest burrow was detected in the Mojave Desert,one in the Great Basin Desert, and six in the Transition ecoregion. Seventy bats, representing four bat species of concern, were captured in mist-nets at water sources in the Great Basin Desert ecoregion. Bats were detected with the Anabat II call-recording system at selected tunnel and mine entrances verifying that some NTS mines and tunnels are used as bat roosts. Thirty-seven adult horses and 11 foals were counted this year. Four of the five foals observed last year have survived to yearlings. A monitoring plan for NTS horses was completed. Six active red-tailed hawk nests and 10 nestling red-tailed hawks were detected this year. Two spotlighting surveys for mule deer were conducted, each over three consecutive nights in October 1999 and August 2000. The mean sighting rate in October was 1.2 deer/10 kilometers (km) and 1.6 deer/10 km in August. Selected wetlands and man-made water sources were monitored for physical parameters and wildlife use. No dead animals were observed this year in any plastic-lined sump. Pahute Mesa Pond was confirmed to have vegetation,hydrology, and soil indicators that qualify the site as a jurisdictional wetland. The chemical spill test plan for one experiment at the HAZMAT Spill Center was reviewed for its potential to impact biota downwind of spills on Frenchman Lake playa.

Wills, C.A.

2000-12-01

429

Ten years' experience with a pyrocarbon prosthesis replacing the proximal interphalangeal joint. A prospective clinical and radiographic follow-up.  

PubMed

We prospectively assessed the subjective, objective, and radiographic results at 1, 2, and 5 years in 65 patients who had pyrocarbon proximal interphalangeal prostheses inserted between 2001 and 2010. Further operations were done on 10 of the 89 joints (four for prosthetic extraction and arthrodesis, two for component changes, and four for soft tissue procedures). At 1 year, the visual analogue scale score for pain at rest had improved to 0 cm from a pre-operative 4 cm, pain at activity from 6 to 1.8 cm, and Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score from 40 to 25. Range of movement and grip strength were unchanged. At 5 years, 31 joints (21 patients) had a complete radiographic follow-up. Seven proximal and 12 distal components showing zones of osteolysis at 1 year had stabilized and were inert or integrated at 5 years. Three proximal and three distal components had osteolytic zones at 5 years. Forty-seven of 59 patients were pain-free at rest at 1 year, and 19 of 21 at 5 years. No late revisions or loosening occurred. PMID:23461909

Tägil, M; Geijer, M; Abramo, A; Kopylov, P

2013-03-01

430

Kuru-fifty years later.  

PubMed

Kuru, the first human neurodegenerative disease classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, prion disease or, in the past, slow unconventional virus disease, was first reported to Western medicine in 1957 by D. Carleton Gajdusek and Vincent Zigas. Thus, this year marks the 50th anniversary of kuru discovery, highlighted by the symposium The end of kuru: 50 years of research into an extraordinary disease organized by John Collinge and Michael Alpers at the Royal Society, London, November 11-12, 2007. In this review, we summarize some data on the epidemiology, neuropathology and clinical picture of kuru. PMID:18224577

Liberski, Pawe? P; Brown, Paul

431

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-03-21

432

Solitary plasmacytoma: 10 years' experience at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.  

PubMed

Plasma cell dyscrasias account for 1% of all malignancies and 10% of hematological malignancies. About 5% of patients with a plasma cell dyscrasia present with either solitary bone plasmacytoma (SBP) or, less commonly, a soft tissue mass, extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) of monoclonal plasma cells. In this study we present the clinical features, management and outcome of 60 patients with solitary plasmacytoma, who constituted 5.6% of 1129 patients with plasma cell dyscrasias treated over a 10-year period at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. Median age was 49 years. Fifty-two had SBP and eight had EMP. Forty-nine (82%) patients received radiotherapy with or without surgical excision or chemotherapy. Five-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 45.5% and 91%, respectively. Median EFS and OS were 38 and 122 months, respectively. Five-year survival rates in patients who developed multiple myeloma and those who did not were 81% and 100%, respectively. The median time of progression to myeloma was 21 months. PMID:23163525

Baghmar, Saphalta; Mohanti, Bidhu K; Sharma, Atul; Kumar, Lalit; Prakash, Gaurav; Kumar, Sanjeev; Gupta, Ritu; Kumar, Rajive; Raina, Vinod

2012-12-24

433

Poor electroneurography but excellent hand function 31 years after nerve repair in childhood.  

PubMed

Children, in contrast to adults, show an excellent clinical recovery after a peripheral nerve injury, which may be explained by better peripheral nerve regeneration and a superior plasticity in the young brain. Our aim was to study the long-term electrophysiological outcome after nerve repair in children and young adults and to compare it with the clinical outcome. Forty-four patients, injured at an age younger than 21 years, were assessed by electrophysiology (amplitude, conduction velocity and distal motor latency) at a median of 31 years after a complete median or ulnar nerve injury at the level of the forearm. Electrophysiological evaluation showed pathology in all parameters and in all patients, irrespective of age at injury. No significant differences were observed in the electrophysiological results between those injured in childhood, that is, before the age of 12 years, and those injured in adolescence, that is, between 12 and 20 years of age. In contrast, the clinical nerve function was significantly better for those injured in childhood (87% of complete recovery, P=0.002) compared with those injured in adolescence. We conclude that the mechanism behind the superior clinical outcome in children is not located at the periphery, but is explained by cerebral plasticity. PMID:23142851

Chemnitz, Anette; Andersson, Gert; Rosén, Birgitta; Dahlin, Lars B; Björkman, Anders

2013-01-01

434

Health information science at the University of Victoria: the first ten years.  

PubMed

The University of Victoria has the only program in Canada offering a Bachelor of Science degree in Health Information Science. To meet the requirements of the degree, students must complete 40 courses and 4 CO-OP work terms over 4.3 years. The School admits 30 students each September of which 60% are normally female. Seventy-five percent of the students come from British Columbia, ranging in age from 18 to 42 with the average age being 26 years. In addition to recent high school graduates, over 40% have previous degrees or diplomas, and 65% have over 5 years of work experience. The School's teaching team consists of 5 full-time faculty, 3 professional staff and 4 part-time faculty. The majority of the faculty have health backgrounds, totalling 135 person-years of practising health care experience. As of November 1992, the School had 113 graduates; 75% are employed in British Columbia, 18% are in other parts of Canada and 7% outside the country. Forty-five percent of the graduates work in government departments including community health agencies; 29% work in hospitals; 26% work in management consulting firms, software houses, or computer hardware firms. They work as systems/project analysts, systems consultants, research assistants, planning analysts, system-support staff, trainers/developers and client account representatives. Some are already in senior management positions. PMID:8072413

Protti, D J

1994-06-01

435

1000 years of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years or so, assessing the role of the sun's variability on climate change over this time f ame

C. Keller

2002-01-01

436

The Year of the Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher…

Hinshaw, Craig

2010-01-01

437

Turing Test: 50 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turing Test is one of the most disputed topics in artificial intelligence, philosophy of mind, and cognitive science. This paper is a review of the past 50 years of the Turing Test. Philosophical debates, practical developments and repercussions in related disciplines are all covered. We discuss Turing's ideas in detail and present the important comments that have been made

Ayse Pinar Saygin; Ilyas Cicekli; Varol Akman

2000-01-01

438

Energy: the next twenty years  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addressing US energy-policy questions pertaining to the next 20 years, a study group sponsored by the Ford Foundation and administered by Resources for the Future analyzed the seven basic realities concerning the energy situation and the policy options available for dealing with them: (1) the world is not running out of energy; (2) middle East oil, despite its high

Landsberg

1979-01-01

439

Columbine High: Five Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the country. That…

Hurst, Marianne D.

2004-01-01

440

Projects in the Early Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggests that the growing interest in project work in early childhood education is in response to the call for developmentally appropriate practices. Defines projects and discusses the beginning of a project. Discusses the three phases of the "construction site/house project" by four- and five-year olds and provides responses to frequently asked…

Hartman, Jeanette A.; Eckerty, Carolyn

1995-01-01

441

The Navajo 10 Year Plan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For over a hundred years the federal government has been underfunding its treaty obligations and other commitments to the Navajos. As a result, much of the reservation economy now operates at the level of bare subsistence. Deficiencies in social overhead capital have brought on even more marked deficiencies in industrial and commercial capital.…

Navajo Tribe, Window Rock, AZ.

442

Social Development:: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... help you appreciate the importance of being a good role model, by demonstrating that children often do as we do, not as we say. The best way for your two-year-old to learn how to behave around other people is to be ...

443

Bisphosphonates: The first 40 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first full publications on the biological effects of the diphosphonates, later renamed bisphosphonates, appeared in 1969, so it is timely after 40years to review the history of their development and their impact on clinical medicine.This special issue of BONE contains a series of review articles covering the basic science and clinical aspects of these drugs, written by some of

R. Graham G. Russell

2011-01-01

444

Aqua 10 Years After Launch.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 ...

C. L. Parkinson

2013-01-01

445

Third Year Report: EBCE Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An evaluation of the final year of the Lincoln, Nebraska, public schools experience-based career education (EBCE) program focused on three major components: student outcomes, parent evaluation, and community sites. The Career Maturity Inventory (CMI), the Intellectual Achievement Responsibility Questionnaire (IAR), and a locally developed survey…

Monkowski, Paul G.

446

Machine translation over fifty years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of machine translation is described from its beginnings in the 1940s to the present day. In the earliest years, efforts were concentrated either on developing immediately useful systems, however crude in their translation quality, or on fundamental research for high quality translation systems. After the ALPAC report in 1966, which virtually ended MT research in the US for

W. John Hutchins

2001-01-01

447

FDA Almanac, Fiscal Year 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FDA Almanac provides a wealth of facts and figures that show both how the agency has fulfilled its regulatory mandates in the past year as well as the breadth of FDA's impact in public health protection. The data in the book also demonstrate that whil...

1992-01-01

448

2007: A Year In Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The most high-profile story of the year touching the higher education community was undisputedly the killings at Virginia Tech in April when student Seung-Hui Cho opened fire, leaving 33 people dead, including himself. To date, it is the deadliest campus shooting in U.S. history. However, in September, the Delaware State University (DSU)…

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

449

Sixty Years of Lithium Responders  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been 60 years since Cade first described patients who responded to antimanic lithium treatment. Two decades later, responders to lithium stabilization emerged in larger numbers. The responses of many severely ill bipolar patients to lithium were striking and called for an explanation. Remarkable reactions to a simple ion generated hope for an uncomplicated laboratory test of response and

Paul Grof

2010-01-01

450

Enhance ONE Year of Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Substitute teachers are responsible for over 1 full year of every child's education, but research shows that only 10 percent of school districts provide more than 2 hours of substitute teacher training, and 53 percent of school districts provide no training. There is a tremendous need to implement effective training programs that will ultimately…

Longhurst, Max L.; Smith, Geoffrey G.; Sorenson, Blaine L.

451

Associated Students' Year End Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The income and expenditures of the associated students are reported in detail for the school year 1967-68. Income accounts include sales of associated student cards, admission to athletic events, and the operation of the book store, cafeteria, and snack bar; expense accounts include athletics, art, music, drama, student government, student…

Santa Ana Coll., CA.

452

Two hundred years of dermatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred years ago the English physician Robert Willan published the first section of his masterwork, On cutaneous diseases . In it he described and demonstrated a new way of examining cutaneous eruptions that enabled physicians dealing with skin diseases to impose, for the first time, a significant degree of order on a field in which disorder had been the

John Thorne Crissey; Lawrence Charles Parish

1998-01-01

453

Preparing for Chinese New Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)

Lew, Gordon

454

Another Year, Another $543 Million.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Library construction continues to thrive as money allows for new and remodeled buildings. This year's 197 public projects alone account for $543 million. The 81 new buildings join 116 additions/remodels and 35 academic libraries. Five tables provide statistics on new buildings and additions/renovations by name of institution and by state and…

Fox, Betty-Lee; Jones, Emily J.

1998-01-01

455

"Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Almost 20 years ago, the author wrote--and then privately published--the two "Lake Woebegone" reports, named after Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota town where "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." The first "Lake Woebegone" report documented that all 50 states were testing above the…

Cannell, John Jacob

2006-01-01

456

Hearings Highlight International Polar Year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming International Polar Year will incorporate education and outreach activities into its major scientific themes, scientists told members of Congress at a 20 September hearing before the U.S. House of Representatives Science Subcommittee on Research. A second hearing was held on 26 September before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

Zielinski, Sarah

2006-10-01

457

Preparing for Chinese New Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of a series of elementary readers written in Cantonese and English, designed to familiarize children with the traditional major Chinese festivals celebrated by the Chinese in America. The booklet follows the activities of a Chinese-American family in its preparations for the Chinese New Year. (CLK)|

Lew, Gordon

458

2004: A Year in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 50th anniversary of Brown v. Board of Education and, of course, the hotly contested U.S. presidential election were just two of the events that dominated the headlines in 2004. Throughout the year, colleges and universities, as well as other educational institutions across the country, commemorated the Supreme Court's landmark case by…

Commodore, Felecia; Anyaso, Hilary Hurd

2004-01-01

459

Deformation quantization: Twenty years after  

Microsoft Academic Search

We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the

Daniel Sternheimer; Daniel

1998-01-01

460

CPA: The First Ten Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roots and early stresses of organizational psychology in Canada are described. The impetus of World War II manpower selection and training and the immediate post war growth of universities are seen as central to the beginning years of the Canadian Psychological Association.

Mary J. Wright

1974-01-01

461

10 years, still shifting gears.  

PubMed

Ten years into the modern biologics era, access- and cost-management techniques still aren't refined. Why has managing biologics proven so much harder than managing other drugs? What strategies might help payers face the challenges of the future? PMID:22478709

Adams, Katherine T

2008-07-01

462

Sixty Years Ago in Dallas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several questions and issues addressed sixty years ago at the NCSS conference in Dallas are indistinguishable from present concerns, which focus on three concepts: citizenship, social studies/social science, and how to define social problems. Concludes that the social studies movement was predisposed to work at cross-purposes because of the…

Shermis, S. Samuel

1987-01-01

463

Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

Gray, Andrew

464

High Early Literacy with Neuro-Developmental Readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported for a neuro-stimulation program of K-2 foundational skills with regular students in Title 1 schools and low SES students receiving more than one year of the SMART program (Stimulating Maturity through Accelerated Readiness Training). SMART provides the master teacher an opportunity to teach more because attention, acquisition, retention and production abilities are increased. September and May word

Bob DeBoer

465

Three-year duration of immunity in cats following vaccination against feline rhinotracheitis virus, feline calicivirus, and feline panleukopenia virus.  

PubMed

Forty-two seronegative cats received an initial vaccination at 8 weeks of age and a booster vaccination at 12 weeks. All cats were kept in strict isolation for 3 years after the second vaccination and then were challenged with feline calicivirus (FCV) or sequentially challenged with feline rhinotracheitis virus (FRV) followed by feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). For each viral challenge, a separate group of 10 age-matched, nonvaccinated control cats was also challenged. Vaccinated cats showed a statistically significant reduction in virulent FRV-associated clinical signs (P = .015), 100% protection against oral ulcerations associated with FCV infection (P < .001), and 100% protection against disease associated with virulent FPV challenge (P < .005). These results demonstrated that the vaccine provided protection against virulent FRV, FCV, and FPV challenge in cats 8 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following second vaccination. PMID:17039444

Gore, Thomas C; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Williams, James R; Jirjis, Faris F; Chester, S Theodore; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

2006-01-01

466

Five to ten years follow-up after coiling of 241 patients with acutely ruptured aneurysms. A single centre experience.  

PubMed

Endovascular treatment has assumed a role of first choice in the management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. We describe the clinical and morphological data after the treatment of 258 ruptured intracranial aneurysms in 241 patients, in order to evaluate the safety and the efficacy of the endovascular treatment. Two hundred and forty-one patients with saccular ruptured aneurysms were treated at our institution between 2000 and 2005. After the endovascular treatment a clinical and angiographic follow-up was conducted. The clinical follow-up was carried out with a medical examination and telephonic interviews and mRS was used for evaluation. Two hundred and forty-nine acutely ruptured aneurysms were successfully treated and immediately after the endovascular procedure 81.9% of the aneurysms resulted completely occluded, 12.1% had a residual neck and 6% revealed a residual sac. The evolution of each grade was evaluated at six months and two years. During the follow-up we observed five early and one late re-bleedings. Twenty-four patients underwent a second procedure. After the discharge and up to ten years 73.1% of patients had a good clinical outcome (mRS0-1), 8.9% died and the remainder showed moderate-severe disability (mRS2-3). The long-term stability of the anatomical result is a critic-al issue of this approach because eventual re-bleedings may occur even after several months or years. A careful clinical and radiological follow-up for up to two years after the embolization may prevent recurrences but may not be sufficient. PMID:22440595

Consoli, A; Renieri, L; Mura, R; Nappini, S; Ricciardi, F; Pecchioli, G; Ammannati, F; Mangiafico, S

2012-03-16

467

A retrospective, practice-based, clinical evaluation of Fuji IX restorations aged over five years placed in load-bearing cavities.  

PubMed

Objective To evaluate reinforced glass-ionomer restorations which had been placed in a general dental practice more than five years previously.Method Patients who were identified as having received reinforced one or more reinforced glass-ionomer restorations were invited to attend for an examination of their restorations using scientific evaluation criteria, by one independent examiner and the dentist who owned the practice.Results Forty-two restorations were assessed, their mean age being 7 years and 9 months, in patients of mean age 57 years: 86% achieved an A rating for anatomic form, 69% A for marginal integrity, 81% A for surface roughness and 2% A for colour match.Conclusions The restorations which were assessed were found to be performing satisfactorily at periods of over five years. However, the proportion of the total number of reinforced glass-ionomer restorations placed in the participating dental practice which this represents is not known. PMID:24072325

Burke, F J T; Bardha, J S

2013-09-27

468

Summary of: A retrospective, practice-based,clinical evaluation of Fuji IX restorations aged over five years placed in load-bearing cavities.  

PubMed

Objective To evaluate reinforced glass-ionomer restorations which had been placed in a general dental practice more than five years previously.Method Patients who were identified as having received reinforced one or more reinforced glass-ionomer restorations were invited to attend for an examination of their restorations using scientific evaluation criteria, by one independent examiner and the dentist who owned the practice.Results Forty-two restorations were assessed, their mean age being 7 years and 9 months, in patients of mean age 57 years: 86% achieved an A rating for anatomic form, 69% an A rating for marginal integrity, 81% an A for surface roughness and 2% an A for colour match.Conclusions The restorations which were assessed were found to be performing satisfactorily at periods of over five years. However, the proportion of the total number of reinforced glass-ionomer restorations placed in the participating dental practice which this represents is not known. PMID:24072301

Lynch, Christopher D

2013-09-27

469

A 13-year clinical evaluation of two three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in non-carious class-V lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 13-year randomized clinical trial compared the clinical effectiveness of two three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives in combination\\u000a with a hybrid, stiffer composite versus a micro-filled, more flexible composite. The influence of composite stiffness on the\\u000a clinical performance of one of the adhesives was assessed as well. One hundred and forty-two non-carious cervical lesions\\u000a were restored with composites with contrasting stiffness. Seventy-one

Marleen Peumans; Jan De Munck; Kirsten L. Van Landuyt; Andre Poitevin; Paul Lambrechts; Bart Van Meerbeek

470

Design Patterns - 15 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design patterns are now a 15 year old thought experiment. And, today, for many, software design patterns have become part\\u000a of the standard development lexicon. The reason is simple: rather than constantly redis-covering solutions to recurring design\\u000a problems developers can refer to a body of literature that captures the best practices of system design. This talks looks\\u000a back to the

Erich Gamma

2006-01-01

471

The 'Year without summer 1816  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One famous example of an extreme climatic event is the cold summer of 1816 in Europe and North America. This specific year, which was later called the "Year without summer 1816", had profound social and environmental effects. The cataclysmic eruption of Mt Tambora is now commonly known to have largely contributed to the negative temperature anomalies of the summer 1816, but some uncertainties remain. The eruption which occurred in April 1815 is the largest within the last 500 years and this extreme climatic forcing provides a real test for climate models. A crucial parameter to assess in order to simulate this eruption is the aerosol size distribution, which strongly influences the radiative impact of the aerosols (through changes in albedo and residence time in the stratosphere, among others) and the impacts on dynamics and chemistry. The representation of this major forcing is done by using the AER-2D aerosol model which calculates the size distribution of the aerosols formed after the eruption. The modeling of the climatic impacts is then done by the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate model (CCM) SOCOL. The characteristics of the Tambora eruption and results from simulations made using the aerosol model/CCM, with an emphasis on the radiative and chemical implications of the large aerosol, will be shown. For instance, the specific absorption/scattering ratio of Mt.Tambora aerosols induced a large stratospheric warming which will be analyzed. The climatic impacts will also be discussed in regards of the high sedimentation rate of Mt. Tambora aerosols, leading to a fast decrease of the atmospheric optical depth in the first two years after the eruption. The link will be made between the modeling results and proxy-reconstructions as well as with available historical daily data from Geneva, Switzerland. Finally, insights on the contemporary response to this climatic extreme will be shown.

Arfeuille, F.; Rozanov, E.; Peter, T.; Weisenstein, D.; Hadorn, G.; Bodenmann, T.; Brönnimann, S.

2010-09-01

472

Precocious 2-year-olds.  

PubMed

Texas' four regional extension centers (RECs) turned two this year, and they have a great deal to celebrate. The centers have enrolled more than 5,900 Texas physicians and helped them select, install, and implement electronic health records (EHRs) and train their staff members to use them. They also helped many physicians achieve meaningful use of an EHR to earn Medicare or Medicaid bonus payments. PMID:22714986

Conde, Crystal

2012-06-01

473

First year results from LHCf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a brief description of the purpose of the LHCf experiment, detectors and their performance, and what has been done in the first year experiment. A short summary of results at s = 900 GeV is given although the energy is not an ``intrinsic'' LHC energy. Since detailed results at s = 7 TeV will appear soon elsewhere, here we limit ourselves to giving also a brief account of what will come in that paper.

Kasahara, K.; Nakai, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Torii, S.; Yoshida, K.; Tamura, T.; Fukatsu, K.; Itow, Y.; Kawade, K.; Mase, T.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Sako, T.; Suzuki, K.; Taki, K.; Menjo, H.; Muraki, Y.; Haguenauer, M.; Turner, W. C.; Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Grandi, M.; Papini, P.; Ricciarini, S.; Noda, K.; Tricomi, A.; Faus, A.; Velasco, J.; Macina, D.; Perrot, A.-L.

2011-09-01

474

Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2012-13 school year.  

PubMed

State and local school vaccination requirements are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and minimize the risk from vaccine preventable diseases. To assess school vaccination coverage and exemptions, CDC annually analyzes school vaccination coverage data from federally funded immunization programs. These awardees include 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), five cities, and eight U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions. This report summarizes vaccination coverage from 48 states and DC and exemption rates from 49 states and DC for children entering kindergarten for the 2012-13 school year. Forty-eight states and DC reported vaccination coverage, with medians of 94.5% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.1% for local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination; and 93.8% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among awardees with a 2-dose requirement. Forty-nine states and DC reported exemption rates, with the median total of 1.8%. Although school entry coverage for most awardees was at or near national Healthy People 2020 targets of maintaining 95% vaccination coverage levels for 2 doses of MMR vaccine, 4 doses of DTaP† vaccine, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination and high exemption levels can cluster within communities, increasing the risk for disease. Reports to CDC are aggregated at the state level; however, local reporting of school vaccination coverage might be accessible by awardees. These local-level data can be used to create evidence-based health communication strategies to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the benefits of vaccinations to the health of their children and other kindergarteners. PMID:23903595

2013-08-01

475

Research in child psychoanalysis: twenty-five-year follow-up of a severely disturbed child.  

PubMed

In an era of managed care, psychoanalytic treatment of children is under fire as critics question whether the evidence of success in child analysis is sufficiently robust to warrant the large commitment of time and money required for this treatment. This article chronicles the history and current state of research at the Anna Freud Centre, and describes the evolution of a database that has methodically recorded and systematically organized data from over 750 cases of children referred to the Centre over a forty-five-year period. Analysis of this database has determined what kinds of childhood disorders are best treated with intensive psychoanalysis, and what kinds do not respond to this form of treatment. A long-term follow-up of a small sample of these childreen suggests the kinds of long-term benefits that can be gained when an individual is treated with intensive psychoanalysis as a child. As an example, clinical material from the analysis of an eight-year-old is presented along with follow-up interview data twenty-five years later. PMID:19724072

Tyson, Phyllis

2009-08-01

476

Evaluation of the three-year experience with all-ceramic crowns with polycrystalline ceramic cores.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of all-ceramic crowns three years after placement of the restoration in the oral cavity. The aim of the present clinical study were surveyed the Procera®, Cercon® and LAVA™ systems. In total, 121 crowns were followed in 33 patients (7 men and 26 women) with an average age of 53.5 years. The eighty crowns were placed in anterior and forty one crowns in posterior teeth. The crowns were fabricated in two dental laboratories and delivered in two private dental practices. The clinical trial was conducted according to American Dental Association guidelines. The patients were requested to provide their consent to the regular clinical examination including radiographic and photographic records. A total of 102 crowns were made of zirconium oxide ceramic cores - 58 Cercon®; 43 LAVA™, while 19 crowns were made of aluminum oxide cores Procera®. The veneering ceramic LAVA™ Ceram was used. The success rate was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics and, in our case, the overall three-year success rate reached 96.7%. All-ceramic crowns with polycrystalline ceramic cores have low susceptibility to fracture, in this study just 3.3%. PMID:23547723

Vav?i?ková, L; Dostálová, T; Charvát, J; Barto?ová, M

2013-01-01

477

A ten year audit of surgery for vascular trauma in a British teaching hospital.  

PubMed

Vascular trauma is uncommon in the U.K. with the exception of Northern Ireland. In marked contrast to North America, gunshot wounds are rare and stabbings are infrequent. A 10 year audit was carried out in a regional vascular referral unit to determine the mechanisms, treatment and outcome of vascular injuries. Forty-seven patients were operated on during the period. The median age was 26 years (range 7-85 years); two-thirds were men. Road traffic accidents accounted for 21 (45%) of injuries, other accidents 15 (32%) and stabbings 11 (23%). There were no gunshot wounds. Most injuries were penetrating with no associated fracture. Commonly injured vessels were the brachial (30%) and superficial femoral (15%) arteries. Fifty-three primary operations were performed, 10 were vein interpositions and 21 were bypass grafts. There were three primary amputations (6%). Eleven patients suffered a complication including one death. One graft occluded requiring a further bypass. Two patients required fasciotomy as a secondary procedure. Median follow-up was 6 months. Eighty-one percent of patients were symptom free at last follow-up. There were no late vascular complications. Our experience is likely to represent that of other vascular units in countries with strict gun control legislation, little civil violence and modest levels of road traffic accidents. PMID:8980430

Magee, T R; Collin, J; Hands, L J; Gray, D W; Roake, J

1996-11-01

478

DIFFRACTION DISSOCIATION - 50 YEARS LATER.  

SciTech Connect

The field of Diffraction Dissociation, which is the subject of this workshop, began 50 years ago with the analysis of deuteron stripping in low energy collisions with nuclei. We return to the subject in a modern context- deuteron dissociation in {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV d-Au collisions recorded during the 2003 RHIC run in the PHENIX experiment. At RHIC energy, d {yields} n+p proceeds predominantly (90%) through Electromagnetic Dissociation and the remaining fraction via the hadronic shadowing described by Glauber. Since the dissociation cross section has a small theoretical error we adopt this process to normalize other cross sections measured in RHIC.

WHITE, S.N.

2005-04-27

479

Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Michael Lewis

2009-10-01

480

Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

2010-11-01

481

Earth's Yearly Revolution Around Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation depicting Earth as it revolves around the sun. The animation shows the tilt of Earth's axis and shows that the tilt of the axis points in the same direction throughout the yearly revolution. The animation can be viewed from an oblique view and from a top view and includes optional labels of the months, so students can see where the Earth is located in its revolution for each of those months. The animation can also be started and stopped at any point in the revolution and shows the amount of Earth receiving light from the sun at all times during the revolution.

482

Fuel ethanol after 25 years.  

PubMed

After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for fuel-ethanol production was to become more independent of oil imports; now, the emphasis is on its use as an oxygenated gasoline additive. There will only be sufficient, low-cost ethanol if lignocellulose feedstock is also used. PMID:10557161

Wheals, A E; Basso, L C; Alves, D M; Amorim, H V

1999-12-01

483

Thirty years of lithography simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty years ago Rick Dill and his team at IBM published the first account of lithography simulation - the accurate description of semiconductor optical lithography by mathematical equations. Since then, lithography simulation has grown dramatically in importance in four important areas: as a research tool, as a development tool, as a manufacturing tool, and as a learning tool. In this paper, the history of lithography simulations is traced from its roots to today"s indispensable tools for lithographic technology development. Along the way, an attempt will be made to define the true value of lithography simulation to the semiconductor industry.

Mack, Chris A.

2005-05-01

484

Patriot of the Year Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a partner, you will study a famous person who lived during the time of the American Revolution (1775-1781). You will be desiging a medal, as well as a testimonial and acceptance speech for this individual should they win they win the Patriot of the Year Award. THE PROCESS AND RESOURCES In this WebQuest you will be working with your partner to fill out your Outstanding Patriot Outline. You and your partner will explore Web pages from people all over the world who care about the American Revolution. Because these are real Web pages we're tapping into resource not ...

Wheeler, Mrs.

2009-12-31

485

Exercise During the Childbearing Year  

PubMed Central

Many women wish to continue to pursue an active lifestyle during pregnancy, while the pregnancy itself may provide the motivation for other more sedentary women to begin an exercise program for the sake of improved health/fitness. Also, female competitive athletes, upon becoming pregnant, may wish to continue sports performance and require careful monitoring to assure maternal-fetal safety. This review is designed to assist the perinatal educator who is in the position to advise the pregnant patient on the risks and benefits of physical activity during the childbearing year and provide suggestions for developing individualized exercise programs.

Hammer, Roger L.; Perkins, Jan; Parr, Richard

2000-01-01

486

Thirty years of stapes surgery.  

PubMed

The modern stapedectomy with prosthesis insertion and living oval window seal, like the modern cataract extraction with lens replacement, is now performed, very much the same, throughout the world. I have reviewed the evolution of stapes surgery during these last thirty years and tried to gain some agreement for several important facts about otosclerosis and several basic principals of stapes surgery. While a well-performed stapedectomy can eliminate the conductive component, the sensorineural hearing loss continues and, in about one-third, will progress till the patient, after age 65, must return to a hearing aid. A piston prosthesis gives the best hearing results: 0.6 mm diameter, when half the footplate is removed and a living oval window seal interposed, and 0.6 mm diameter when a small opening is made in the footplate obliterated by otosclerosis. I prefer a teflon prosthesis to stainless steel because it can be altered by the surgeon at operation, and vein as an oval window seal. I have presented a rare group of patients who develop facial palsy 5-1/2 days after uncomplicated stapedectomy, of whom all recover quickly and completely. I am confident that progress will continue to be made in the understanding of otosclerosis, and the performance of stapes surgery, but in these last thirty years we have made a good beginning. PMID:3278067

Shea, J J

1988-01-01

487

International Year of Rice 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The importance of rice as a basic foodstuff to over half of the world's populations can not be underestimated, and it was with this fact in mind that the International Rice Research Institute first developed the idea for the International Year of Rice in 1999. Working in tandem with the United Nations General Assembly, the Institute set up a number of partnerships, conferences, lectures, and research agendas to take place throughout the year 2004 and beyond. The site contains links to numerous important papers, such as the collection available here from the recent conference titled Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems, which was held in Rome. Beyond various scholarly and policy-oriented resources, visitors can learn about the rice photography contest, submit recipes to a forthcoming rice-themed cookbook, and explore a kids section that offers some basic facts about rice, along with a short quiz. The site is available in a number of different languages, including Italian, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Japanese.

488

1000 years of climate change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solar activity has been observed to vary on decadal and centennial time scales. Recent evidence (Bond, 2002) points to a major semi-periodic variation of approximately 1,500 yrs. For this reason, and because high resolution proxy records are limited to the past thousand years