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1

The first forty years, 1947-1987  

SciTech Connect

This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward.

Rowe, M.S. (ed.); Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

1987-01-01

2

Forty Years of Kinesiology: A Canadian Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper provides a brief history of the world's first two kinesiology programs at the University of Waterloo and Simon Fraser University, and then gives an overview of the development of kinesiology in Canada over the last 40 years. The issues addressed include departmental affiliation and accreditation, the development of provincial and…

Elliott, Digby

2007-01-01

3

Forty years of Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule  

PubMed Central

In 1972 Erich Clar formulated his aromatic ?-sextet rule that allows discussing qualitatively the aromatic character of benzenoid species. Now, 40 years later, Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule is still a source of inspiration for many chemists. This simple rule has been validated both experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we select some particular examples to highlight the achievement of Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule in many situations and we discuss two recent successful cases of its application. PMID:24790950

Solà, Miquel

2013-01-01

4

Forty years of the war against Ebola.  

PubMed

Humans have been fighting against the Ebola virus disease (EVD) since its first outbreak in 1976 in southern Sudan and Yambuku in Zaire which lies on the Ebola River. According to the data from the World Health Organization (WHO, 2014b), the first outbreak claimed 431 lives in 1976, and the disease awoke transiently in Sudan three years later and then disappeared for 15 years afterwards. Following that, large outbreaks appeared in 1995 in Zaire with 250 deaths of people, 2001-2002 in Uganda with 224 deaths, 2002-2003 in Congo with 128 deaths, and 2007 in Congo with 187 deaths. In 2014, the most severe and complicated outbreak swept through the West African countries having already taken 1069 lives, with the situation seeming to be out of control. To date, there have been 15 outbreaks in Africa, which have caused 4362 infected cases and claimed 2659 lives. The pandemics of Ebola show obvious independence from any season. Humans are generally susceptible to the Ebola virus without gender or age variation. The natural reservoir of the Ebola virus still remains unclear. During the past 40 years or so, the EVD disappeared after an outbreak in one region and erupted in another region without any warning. The difficulty in understanding the spreading pattern of Ebola was compared to that of the wave-particle duality of light. PMID:25183030

Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hao

2014-09-01

5

[Forty-six year old baby].  

PubMed

In this paper, an extraordinary mother-son relationship involving 46 year-old, married, male patient with three children is discussed. He had never had any psychiatric complaint until his mother's death. However, he developed severe depressive and somatic symptoms following his 80 year-old mother's death. He showed no significant improvement after previous outpatient treatments and was admitted to the Psychiatric Department of Ege University School of Medicine with complaints of tension, insomnia, fatigue, anhedonia, hopelessness and pain all over his body. It was discovered that this man, who was loved and respected by both his family and his peers, used to suck his mother's breast twice daily. This act was no secret and was not considered a reason for seeking psychiatric help, a symptom of a disorder, or a source of distress for the son, mother, or any other family member. A phenomenon like this has never been reported in the literature before. We discuss this phenomenon through the dynamic formulation of the case using data from his psychiatric and developmental history as well as direct observation and psychological tests. PMID:14569474

Vahip, I?il; Onen Sertöz, Ozen

2003-01-01

6

Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had been successfully retrieved from outdated wide band video media, required similar metadata reconstruction. TM data from Landsats 4 and 5 relied on questionable on-board lamp data for calibration, thus the calibration history for these missions was reconstructed to account for sensor degradation over time. To improve continuity between platforms, Landsat 7 and 8 missions employed 'under-flight' maneuvers to reduce inter-calibration error. Data from the various sensors, platforms and sources were integrated into a common metadata standard, with quality assurance information, to ensure understandability of the data for long-term preservation. Because of these efforts, the current Landsat archive can now support the creation of the long-term climate data records and essential climate variables required to monitor changes on the Earth's surface quantitatively over decades of observations.

Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

2013-12-01

7

LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES: Forty Years of Inspiration, Devotion,  

E-print Network

....................................................................................... 15 1990's: Regional Offices of FOCAL and the Latin American Studies MajorLATIN AMERICAN STUDIES: Forty Years of Inspiration, Devotion, Innovation and Excellence by Michael ............................................................................................................... 9 Collective Efforts to Build Research and Teaching Strength in Latin American Studies

Habib, Ayman

8

Forty years of acting electron-positron colliders  

E-print Network

Around forty years passed from the beginning of operation of the first electron-positron colliding beam facility VEPP-2 in Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), Novosibirsk. Here I described development of electron-positron colliding beam project in INP, as well as advance of similar projects of the first generation at LAL, Orsay and at LNF, Frascati.

V. N. Baier

2006-11-15

9

Divorce and death: forty years of the Charleston Heart Study.  

PubMed

Forty years of follow-up data from the Charleston Heart Study (CHS) were used to examine the risk for early mortality associated with marital separation or divorce in a sample of more than 1,300 adults assessed on several occasions between 1960 and 2000. Participants who were separated or divorced at the start of the study evidenced significantly elevated rates of early mortality, and these results held after adjusting for baseline health status and other demographic variables. Being separated or divorced throughout the CHS follow-up window was one of the strongest predictors of early mortality. However, the excess mortality risk associated with separation or divorce was completely eliminated when participants who had ever experienced a marital separation or divorce during the study were compared with all other participants. These findings suggest that a key predictor of early death is the amount of time people live as separated or divorced. It is possible that the mortality risk conferred by marital dissolution is due to dimensions of personality that predict divorce as well as a decreased likelihood of future remarriage. PMID:19076315

Sbarra, David A; Nietert, Paul J

2009-01-01

10

Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This symposium reflects on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, its role over the next four decades and beyond. The topics include: 1) Perspectives on the Past Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; 2) The Experience of Spaceflight; 3) Perspectives on the Next Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; and 4) The International Space Station and the Future of Human Spaceflight.

Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

11

Bilingualism in Paraguay: Forty Years after Rubin's Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly 40 years have passed since the publication of Rubin's renowned study on Paraguayan bilingualism. The present study compares the results of surveys conducted in the years 2000-2001 with data from Rubin's 1960-1961 investigation. The main objective of this study is to examine the linguistic changes that have occurred in four decades and the…

Choi, Jinny K.

2005-01-01

12

Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

13

Forty Years of Library Automation: A Personal Reflection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To provide an overview of one person's involvement with computer systems in libraries over the last 40 years. Design/methodology/approach: Personal memories corroborated with published articles. Findings: There have been very many developments in libraries in a comparatively short period of time as a result of using computer systems, and…

Line, Maurice B.

2006-01-01

14

Canadian Women's Labor Force Behavior: A Forty Year Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three dimensions of labor force behavior: participation, attachment, and commitment. Presents a picture of trends in Canadian women's labor force behavior over the last 40 years using existing data. Discusses the implications of these trends for family life and corporate and public policy. (JOW)

Fast, Janet E.; Skrypnek, Berna J.

1994-01-01

15

Forty Years of Psychological and Psychiatric Selection of NASA Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this presentation is to chronicle the history and development of the psychological selection process for NASA astronauts. For over 40 years, astronaut applicants have undergone rigorous medical testing to qualify for candidacy. Psychological selection has an equally long history, dating back to 1958, when psychological requirements were established for astronauts during the Mercury program. However, for many years, psychological selection consisted of psychiatric screening for psychopathology. As we approach the day in which the first ISS crew will live and work in space for months at a time, it becomes clear that both the psychological criteria and the selection system to detect said criteria have changed. This presentation discusses the events that led to the current, dual-phase selection system that is used to select individuals into the astronaut corps. Future directions for psychological selection will also be addressed.

Holland, Albert W.

2000-01-01

16

Forty six years of health financing in Fiji (1962 - 2008).  

PubMed

This paper provides an analysis of the Fiji Ministry of Health (MoH) budget for the last 46 years, its share of the national budget and annual percentage of GDP, its revenues, per-capita health expenditure, staff costs, and the performance on key population health indicators and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite annual increases in dollar terms, the proportion of GDP allocated to the national public health system has fallen from 4% to 2.6% over the last 15 years. Consequently the national performance on key health service indicators and MDGs is declining and health staff are migrating. We outline factors to retrieve the public health system in Fiji, such as the need for political commitment to the health of the people, public policy debate on the nature of the health system, the revision of hospital charges, the need to protect the poor by strengthening means testing, and propose compulsory health insurance for the employed. PMID:20443521

Lingam, Dharam; Roberts, Graham

2009-11-01

17

Forty-Five Years With a Hydra, Organosulfur Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamar Field was born in 1922 in Alabama, USA. After attending public schools there, he entered M.I.T., where he received a Rogers Award to outstanding seniors and from which he received the S.B. degree in chemistry in 1944. After two years in classified research at Merck and Co. during World War II, in 1946 he returned to M.I.T. At M.I.T.,

Lamar Field

1993-01-01

18

Forty years of lasers at ELOP-Elbit Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lasers and laser systems are a mature technology, yet there is a long road ahead for innovation and enthusiasm. We review some of the 40 years of R&D and manufacturing of lasers at ELOP-Elbit Systems. Bulk solid state lasers, for designators and range finders, as well as fiber lasers, for directed IR countermeasures and laser radar applications are described. These two technologies provide and will continue to offer a vast number of products for security and defense applications. Current and future generations of laser products will have higher average power together with improved beam quality, better efficiencies, and superior robustness all in a more compact package.

Zafrani, Nissim

2010-09-01

19

Forty years of MTS studies in the Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive EM studies have been made in the Ukraine during the last 40 years and a set of reliable results have been received. Data from 3000 Magnetotelluric soundings are presented as maps of effective apparent resistivity at periods of 150 s and 500 s and impedance phase at T = 150 s. The principal results are: S1 map at the scale 1:2500000, tracing and study of Carpathian, Kirovograd and Donbas regional conductivity anomalies, a map of the crustal conductivity for Ukrainian Shield, a study of faults.

Ingerov, Alexander I.; Rokityansky, Igor I.; Tregubenko, Viktor I.

1999-10-01

20

Forty years on: how radiological protection has evolved internationally.  

PubMed

In the 40 years since the Society for Radiological Protection (SRP) was founded, the international scene has changed considerably. The United Nations bodies primarily involved, the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation and the International Atomic Energy Agency, have evolved from fledgling organisations to indispensable major resources. A similar development characterises regional entities such as Euratom and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), once interested in occupational health in the practice of medicine only, has shifted its emphasis towards protection of members of the public and of patients exposed to ionising radiations and is currently looking at protection of non-human species. The International Radiation Protection Association, the federation that is now the 'mother society' of the SRP, had not even been launched formally when the SRP started. At that time, non-ionising radiation was on nobody's mind, and the forerunner of today's International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) was not formed until 1977. Basically, the developments during this period must be described as a great success story. Average occupational exposures to ionising radiation have decreased markedly, the number of accidents is small, almost all countries now regulate exposures roughly in line with ICRP and ICNIRP recommendations, and quite a large number of countries also have reasonable regulatory infrastructures. An area where problems appear to be on the increase, perhaps in part because of increasing awareness, concerns 'orphan sources' and lack of source security. This may indicate a need for closer attention to security outside the nuclear fuel cycle, e.g. in hospitals and non-nuclear industry. PMID:12875548

Sowby, David; Valentin, Jack

2003-06-01

21

Forty Years in Search of the Perfect Contact Lens  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the pathophysiological changes produced by contact lens wear that predispose the cornea to infection and search for prospective, modifiable risk factors that could reduce the incidence of this critical complication in millions of patients worldwide. Methods Significant experimental and clinical publications are reviewed and the results of ongoing studies are presented. Results Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common pathogen causing lens-related infectious keratitis over three decades. Contact lens wear can increase the risk of infection by increasing surface cell PA binding thereby promoting invasion between broken tight junctions (TJs), and initiating direct intracellular invasion mediated by lens-induced membrane lipid rafts. Prevention of upregulation of specific surface binding receptors for PA with concomitant increase in infection risk, is a Zero Damage Game where independent interactions between lens type, mode of wear, oxygen transmissibility, polymer and toxic effects of associated care solutions ideally should collectively produce no increased ability for PA to attach and/or to invade, thus minimizing the risk for lens-associated infections. The specific hypothesis tested is: “no increased epithelial surface damage…no increased PA binding or invasion…no increased risk for infection.” Testing of this new paradigm has been performed in vitro, and in animal and human clinical trials and correlated clinically with relative risk results from robust current epidemiological studies. Results to date clearly support the use of lens-related increases in PA binding (bench) as a non-invasive clinical predictor of risk for lens-related infection in subsequent large scale population studies (bedside). Currently, results suggest that use of common commercial multi-purpose care solutions (MPS) with soft lenses may alone significantly increase infection risk by enhancing lens-related PA binding as compared to use of non-preserved solutions (hydrogen peroxide). Clinical testing also shows that only peroxide solutions show significant disinfection capability against amoebic cysts. Further case-control studies to examine relative risk for infection by lens type and lens care solution are urgently needed. Conclusions Millions of patients are dependent on contact lenses for vision worldwide; and, over three decades lens use has increased while risk for lens-related infection has remained stubbornly unchanged. Unfortunately, recent introduction of a new generation of hyper oxygen transmissible lenses used with traditional MPS solutions has not lowered overall risks for lens-related infections; however, similar lenses used with non-preserved care solutions (peroxide) recently demonstrated no significant increases in PA binding in a one-year clinical trial. Collectively, these findings along with the urgent need for amoebic cysticidal disinfection, have led to a current recommendation to patients to use non-preserved (hydrogen peroxide) care solutions in soft lens wear. PMID:20622672

Cavanagh, H. Dwight; Robertson, Danielle M.; Petroll, W. Matthew; Jester, James V.

2010-01-01

22

Prescribing Multiple Neurostimulants during Rehabilitation for Severe Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite a lack of clear evidence, multiple neurostimulants are commonly provided after severe brain injury (BI). The purpose of this study is to determine if the number of neurostimulants received during rehabilitation was associated with recovery of full consciousness or improved neurobehavioral function after severe BI. Method. Data from 115 participants were extracted from a neurobehavioral observational study database for this exploratory, retrospective analysis. Univariate optimal data analysis was conducted to determine if the number of neurostimulants influenced classification of four outcomes: recovery of full consciousness during rehabilitation, recovery of full consciousness within one year of injury, and meaningful neurobehavioral improvement during rehabilitation defined as either at least a 4.7 unit (minimal detectable change) or 2.58 unit (minimal clinically important difference) gain on the Disorders of Consciousness Scale-25 (DOCS-25). Results. Number of neurostimulants was not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with recovery of full consciousness during rehabilitation, within one year of injury, or meaningful neurobehavioral improvement using the DOCS-25. Conclusions. Receiving multiple neurostimulants during rehabilitation may not influence recovery of full consciousness or meaningful neurobehavioral improvement. Given costs associated with additional medication, future research is needed to guide physicians about the merits of prescribing multiple neurostimulants during rehabilitation after severe BI. PMID:25587576

Herrold, Amy A.; Pape, Theresa Louise-Bender; Guernon, Ann; Mallinson, Trudy; Collins, Eileen; Jordan, Neil

2014-01-01

23

THE 2010 HORIZONTAL MERGER GUIDELINES: FROM HEDGEHOG TO FOX IN FORTY YEARS  

E-print Network

THE 2010 HORIZONTAL MERGER GUIDELINES: FROM HEDGEHOG TO FOX IN FORTY YEARS CARL SHAPIRO* The U PERSPECTIVE: THE HEDGEHOG AND THE FOX The 2010 Guidelines are best understood in historical context the Hedgehog and the Fox view the world is a useful model for how to think about the evolution of the Merger

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

24

Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong  

E-print Network

ESSAY Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong Michael S. Gazzaniga Abstract split-brain studies. These experiments opened up new frontiers in brain research and gave rise to much-brain research build on the groundwork laid by those early studies. Split-brain methodology, on its own

Gazzaniga, Michael

25

Forty years on --the Hall Effect with constant-voltage Peter Fenwick  

E-print Network

-fashioned) for studying the Zeeman effect. The other produced a lower field, about 0.3 T, but very uniformForty years on -- the Hall Effect with constant-voltage drive Peter Fenwick July 12, 2006 Abstract. The problem itself involves the solution of potentials over a Hall-effect plate driven with a constant voltage

Fenwick, Peter

26

Changes in the value-relevance of earnings and book values over the past forty years  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates systematic changes in the value-relevance of earnings and book values over time. We report three primary findings. First, contrary to claims in the professional literature, the combined value-relevance of earnings and book values has not declined over the past forty years and, in fact, appears to have increased slightly. Second, while the incremental value-relevance of 'bottom line'

Daniel W. Collins; Edward L. Maydew; Ira S. Weiss

1997-01-01

27

Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-five years ago, Roger Sperry, Joseph Bogen and I embarked on what are now known as the modern split-brain studies. These experiments opened up new frontiers in brain research and gave rise to much of what we know about hemispheric specialization and integration. The latest developments in split-brain research build on the groundwork laid by those early studies. Split-brain methodology,

Michael S. Gazzaniga

2005-01-01

28

Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's History Office Web site is offering a publication for public review entitled Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium. The two hundred and fifty page document chronicles NASA's history from the Sputnik era to the present including insights from Buzz Aldrin, perspectives on the future, the international space station, and much more. Readers will enjoy the frank discussions, telling photographs, and keen insights from those involved with this sometimes dangerous and always breathtaking pursuit.

Garber, Stephen J.

2002-01-01

29

Nonpharmacological approaches: diet and neurostimulation.  

PubMed

There are many children with intractable epilepsy who do not respond to anticonvulsant medications yet are not candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. For these children and more, nonpharmacologic therapies can be very helpful. The primary therapies include diet and neurostimulation. Dietary therapies available currently include the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, medium chain triglyceride diet, and low glycemic index treatment. Neurostimulation, using electricity to abort seizures, includes vagus nerve stimulation only at this time. However, other treatments such as deep brain stimulation and cortical responsive stimulation (NeuroPace) are under active development. PMID:23622228

Kossoff, Eric H

2013-01-01

30

Neurostimulation for neurogenic bowel dysfunction.  

PubMed

Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NBD treated by sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS), sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), peripheral nerve stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and nerve re-routing was made in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Results. SARS improves bowel function in some patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve re-routing is claimed to facilitate defecation through mechanical stimulation of dermatomes in patients with complete or incomplete SCI or myelomeningocele. SNS can reduce NBD in selected patients with a variety of incomplete neurological lesions. Peripheral stimulation using electrical stimulation or magnetic stimulation may represent non-invasive alternatives. Conclusion. Numerous methods of neurostimulation to treat NBD have been investigated in pilot studies or retrospective studies. Therefore, larger controlled trials with well-defined inclusion criteria and endpoints are recommended before widespread clinical use of neurostimulation against NBD. PMID:23573076

Worsøe, J; Rasmussen, M; Christensen, P; Krogh, K

2013-01-01

31

Neurostimulation for traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant public health problem and is a leading cause of death and disability in many countries. Durable treatments for neurological function deficits following TBI have been elusive, as there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutic modalities for mitigating the consequences of TBI. Neurostimulation strategies using various forms of electrical stimulation have recently been applied to treat functional deficits in animal models and clinical stroke trials. The results from these studies suggest that neurostimulation may augment improvements in both motor and cognitive deficits after brain injury. Several studies have taken this approach in animal models of TBI, showing both behavioral enhancement and biological evidence of recovery. There have been only a few studies using deep brain stimulation (DBS) in human TBI patients, and future studies are warranted to validate the feasibility of this technique in the clinical treatment of TBI. In this review, the authors summarize insights from studies employing neurostimulation techniques in the setting of brain injury. Moreover, they relate these findings to the future prospect of using DBS to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits following TBI. PMID:25170668

Shin, Samuel S; Dixon, C Edward; Okonkwo, David O; Richardson, R Mark

2014-11-01

32

A Reviewof Forty-Five YearsStudy of Hiroshimaand Nagasaki Atomic BombSurvivors II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

E-print Network

A Reviewof Forty-Five YearsStudy of Hiroshimaand Nagasaki Atomic BombSurvivors II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS Atomic Bomb and Leukemia MICHITO ICHIMARU, MASAO TOMONAGA, TATSUHIKO AMENOMORI AND TATSUKI MATSUO,and the occurrenceof CML wasthought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia

Laughlin, Robert B.

33

Characterization of Forty Seven Years of Particulate Chemical Composition in the Finnish Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty seven years of weekly total suspended particle filters collected at Kevo, Finland from October 1964 through 2010 by the Finnish Meteorological Institute were analyzed for near-total trace elements, soluble trace elements, black carbon (BC), and major ions and methane sulfonic acid (MSA). Kevo is located in Northern Finland, 350 km north of the Arctic Circle. The samples from 1964-1978 were collected with Whatman 42 cellulous filters and the samples from 1979-2010 collected on Whatman GF/A glass-fiber filters. A portion of the filters was microwave acid-digested (ad) and analyzed for near-total trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Another portion was water extracted (we) and analyzed for soluble trace elements by ICP-MS and ionic species by ion chromatography (IC). Black carbon (BC) was determined using optical and thermal optical techniques at SUNY Albany. A clear seasonal trend with winter/spring maxima and summer minima is observed for most species attributed to enhanced transport of pollutants from anthropogenic mid-latitude sources to the Arctic in the winter and early spring. Compared to more remote Arctic sampling sites, species of anthropogenic origin (V, Co, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, SO4) have significantly higher concentrations and a less pronounced seasonality. High concentrations of Cu (14.1 ng/m3), Ni (0.97 ng/m3), and Co (0.04 ng/m3) indicate the influence of non-ferrous metal smelters on the Kola Peninsula, although Cu unexpectedly did not correlate with Ni or Co. Ni and Co were highly correlated. Significant long-term decreasing trends were detected for most species. All constituents except Sn-ad, Re-ad, Sn-we, Mo-we, V-we, have significant (p < 0.001) decreasing trends from 1964-2010. The largest decreases were Sb (-3.90 %/yr), Pb (-3.87 %/yr), Mn (-3.45 %/yr), Cd (-3.42 %/yr), and Ca (-3.13 %/yr ). As, Pb, and Cd concentrations at Kevo were consistent with the reported time-trends of European emissions inventories. Pb concentrations at Kevo have dramatically decreased (92%) in the past 47 years due to the reduced use of leaded gasoline in automobiles. Non sea salt SO4 concentrations were found to have a very similar trend to European and Former Soviet Union SO2 emissions. SO4 concentrations declined dramatically in the early 1990s a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to estimate source locations of the species. PSCF plots for anthropogenic species (V, Cd, Mn, Mo, Sb, Tl, W, and SO4) suggest source areas predominantly in Eastern Europe, European Russia, and the Baltics. Markers of stationary fuel combustion (V, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and SO4) also pointed towards possible source regions in the Pechora Basin and Ural industrial areas in Russia, and near gas and oil fields in western Kazakhstan. Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is marker of marine planktonic algae. MSA concentrations at Kevo peak from May to July and have estimated source locations in the Barents, Norwegian, and Greenland Seas, coinciding with warmer waters and increased biogenic activity. Using monthly averages from June and Jul, MSA concentrations were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.200; p < 0.001) with sea surface temperature anomalies in the surrounding seas and negatively (r2 = 0.280; p = 0.0018) with sea ice extent. The chemical composition dataset was analyzed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF5). The entire dataset (1964-2010) was modeled as well as three separate time periods, 1964-1978, 1979-1990, and 1991-2010. The dataset was split in 1979 due to a change from Whatman 42 cellulose filters to a glass fiber filters, and in 1990 due to drops in concentrations related to the economic collapse of the Soviet Union. Two factors representing non-ferrous metal smelters were found for all time periods. One factor was dominated by Cu and the other by Ni and Co. Each of the time periods contained a factor describing stationary fuel combustion with high percentages of V, BC, and nss-SO4; a ferrous metal f

Laing, James

34

A Forty Year Follow-Up of Students Who Attended Leta Hollingworth's School for Gifted Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eight extremely gifted (IQ above 180) students originally studied 40 years ago by Leta Hollingworth were interviewed. Experiences at the special Speyer school, based on an enrichment model, were perceived as having had long-term effects on their choices regarding education, career, and avocation. (DB)

White, Willard L.; Renzulli, Joseph S.

1987-01-01

35

History of the International Atomic Energy Agency: The First Forty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Atomic Energy Agency: Personal Reflections 1997 (Vienna: IAEA) 311 pp AS260 (hardback) ISBN 92 0 102497 5 These two books are a contribution to the 40th birthday celebrations of the IAEA. I have worked in the field of Health Physics for 39 of those years, and have contributed to projects for the Agency during that time so these volumes

J A B Gibson

1998-01-01

36

Forty-five years of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation physics: 1956 to 2001  

SciTech Connect

The history of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics in the 1950's and 1960's is reviewed, followed by some highlights of the spectacular discoveries in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation made during the 1970's. The consolidation of knowledge during the last few years is summarized. Some predictions are made for the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics for the next decade and beyond. (LEW)

Richter, B.

1985-04-01

37

Forty Years Trends in Timing of Pubertal Growth Spurt in 157,000 Danish School Children  

PubMed Central

Background Entering puberty is an important milestone in reproductive life and secular changes in the timing of puberty may be an important indicator of the general reproductive health in a population. Too early puberty is associated with several psychosocial and health problems. The aim of our study was to determine if the age at onset of pubertal growth spurt (OGS) and at peak height velocity (PHV) during puberty show secular trends during four decades in a large cohort of school children. Methods and Findings Annual measurements of height were available in all children born from 1930 to 1969 who attended primary school in the Copenhagen Municipality. 135,223 girls and 21,612 boys fulfilled the criteria for determining age at OGS and age at PHV. These physiological events were used as markers of pubertal development in our computerized method in order to evaluate any secular trends in pubertal maturation during the study period (year of birth 1930 to 1969). In this period, age at OGS declined statistically significantly by 0.2 and 0.4 years in girls and boys, respectively, whereas age at PHV declined statistically significantly by 0.5 and 0.3 years in girls and boys, respectively. The decline was non-linear with a levelling off in the children born between 1940 and 1955. The duration of puberty, as defined by the difference between age at OGS and age at PHV, increased slightly in boys, whereas it decreased in girls. Conclusion Our finding of declining age at OGS and at PHV indicates a secular trend towards earlier sexual maturation of Danish children born between 1930 and 1969. Only minor changes were observed in duration of puberty assessed by the difference in ages at OGS and PHV. PMID:18628945

Aksglaede, Lise; Olsen, Lina W.; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Juul, Anders

2008-01-01

38

Forty years of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a review of the Basel experience.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine changes in haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) characteristics and outcome in our combined paediatric and adult programme over the past four decades, since its implementation in 1973. The total number of transplant procedures rose from 109 in the first decade (1973-82) to 939 in the last decade (2003-12). Transplant characteristics changed significantly over time: patient age increased, peripheral blood largely replaced bone marrow as stem cell source, unrelated donors became an alternative to matched siblings, and patients are increasingly transplanted in more advanced disease stages. Advances such as improved supportive care and histocompatibility typing resulted in a steady decrease of transplant-related mortality after allogeneic HSCT (43% in the first decade, 22% in the last decade). Despite this, unadjusted survival rates were stable in the last three decades for allogeneic HSCT (approximately 50% 5-year survival) and in the last two decades for autologous HSCT (approximately 60% 5-year survival). After adjustment for covariates such as donor type, age and stage, the relative risk of treatment failure continuously dropped (for allogeneic HSCT: first decade 1.0, second decade 0.58, third decade 0.51, last decade 0.41). Collectively, these data suggest that improvements in peri- and post-transplant care have allowed considerable extension of transplant indications without having a negative impact on outcome. PMID:24567259

O'Meara, Alix; Holbro, Andreas; Meyer, Sara; Martinez, Maria; Medinger, Michael; Buser, Andreas; Halter, Jörg; Heim, Dominik; Gerull, Sabine; Bucher, Christoph; Rovo, Alicia; Kühne, Thomas; Tichelli, André; Gratwohl, Alois; Stern, Martin; Passweg, Jakob R

2014-01-01

39

Forty years of inoculating seedlings with truffle fungi: past and future perspectives.  

PubMed

The first commercialization of seedlings inoculated with truffle fungi occurred in 1973. Over the last 40 years, considerable progress has been made relative to quality control for inoculated seedlings. A recently published paper by Andrés-Alpuente and colleagues (Mycorrhiza 24:29-37, 2014) reviewed and tested the different methods of mycorrhization assessment currently used in Europe. The aim of this paper is to augment their findings by adding information to the discussion about the most important steps in seedling quality control. Additionally, the history of seedlings inoculated with truffles, procedures currently used in France for seedling control quality, and a reflection on future research aimed at increasing truffle production will be presented. PMID:24989673

Murat, Claude

2015-01-01

40

Forty-Year Calibrated Record of Earth-Surface Reflected Radiance from Landsat: A Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors on Landsat satellites have been collecting images of the Earth's surface for nearly 40 years. These images have been invaluable for characterizing and detecting changes in the land cover and land use of the world. Although initially conceived as primarily picture generating sensors, even the early sensors were radiometrically calibrated and spectrally characterized prior to launch and incorporated some capabilities to monitor their radiometric calibration once on orbit. Recently, as the focus of studies has shifted to monitoring Earth surface parameters over significant periods of time, serious attention has been focused toward bringing the data from all these sensors onto a common radiometric scale over this 40-year period. This effort started with the most recent systems and then was extended back in time. Landsat-7 ETM+, the best-characterized sensor of the series prior to launch and once on orbit, and the most stable system to date, was chosen to serve as the reference. The Landsat-7 project was the first of the series to build an image assessment system into its ground system, allowing systematic characterization of its sensors and data. Second, the Landsat-5 TM (still operating at the time of the Landsat-7 launch and continues to operate) calibration history was reconstructed based on its internal calibrator, vicarious calibrations, pseudo-invariant sites and a tie to Landsat-7 ETM+ at the time of the commissioning of Landsat-7. This process was performed in two iterations: the earlier one relied primarily on the TM internal calibrator. When this was found to have some deficiencies, a revised calibration was based more on pseudo-invariant sites, though the internal calibrator was still used to establish the short-term variations in response due to icing build up on the cold focal plane. As time progressed, a capability to monitor the Landsat-5 TM was added to the image assessment system. The Landsat-4 TM, which operated from 1982-1992, was the third system to which the radiometric scale was extended. The limited and broken use of the Landsat-4 TM made this analysis more difficult. Eight-day separated image pairs from Landsat-5 combined with analysis of pseudo invariant sites established this history. The fourth and most challenging effort was making the Landsat-1 to -5 MSS sensors' data internally radiometrically consistent. This effort was particularly complicated by the age of the MSS data, varying formats and processing levels in the archive, limited datasets, and limited documentation available. Ultimately, pseudo-invariant sites were identified in North America and used for this effort. Note that most of the Landsat-MSS archived data had already been calibrated using the MSS internal calibrators, so this processing was imbedded in the result. The final effort was developing an absolute scale for Landsat MSS similar to what was already established for the "TM" sensors. This was accomplished by using simultaneous data from Landsat-5 MSS and Landsat-5 TM, accounting for spectral differences between the sensors using EO-1 Hyperion data. The recalibrated history of the Landsat data and implications to users are discussed. The key result from this work is a consistently calibrated Landsat data archive that spans nearly 40 years with total uncertainties on the order of 10% or less for most sensors and bands.

Markham, Brian; Helder, Dennis

2011-01-01

41

[The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].  

PubMed

The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens. PMID:22586775

Barzilay, Willemjan

2009-01-01

42

Forty million years of mutualism: Evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association  

PubMed Central

The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 ± 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0–6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 ± 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 ± 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

Pellmyr, Olle; Leebens-Mack, James

1999-01-01

43

State of the art in PEGylation: the great versatility achieved after forty years of research.  

PubMed

In the recent years, protein PEGylation has become an established and highly refined technology by moving forward from initial simple random coupling approaches based on conjugation at the level of lysine ?-amino group. Nevertheless, amino PEGylation is still yielding important conjugates, currently in clinical practice, where the degree of homogeneity was improved by optimizing the reaction conditions and implementing the purification processes. However, the current research is mainly focused on methods of site-selective PEGylation that allow the obtainment of a single isomer, thus highly increasing the degree of homogeneity and the preservation of bioactivity. Protein N-terminus and free cysteines were the first sites exploited for selective PEGylation but currently further positions can be addressed thanks to approaches like bridging PEGylation (disulphide bridges), enzymatic PEGylation (glutamines and C-terminus) and glycoPEGylation (sites of O- and N-glycosylation or the glycans of a glycoprotein). Furthermore, by combining the tools of genetic engineering with specific PEGylation approaches, the polymer can be basically coupled at any position on the protein surface, owing to the substitution of a properly chosen amino acid in the sequence with a natural or unnatural amino acid bearing an orthogonal reactive group. On the other hand, PEGylation has not achieved the same success in the delivery of small drugs, despite the large interest and several studies in this field. Targeted conjugates and PEGs for combination therapy might represent the promising answers for the so far unmet needs of PEG as carrier of small drugs. This review presents a thorough panorama of recent advances in the field of PEGylation. PMID:22094104

Pasut, Gianfranco; Veronese, Francesco M

2012-07-20

44

Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the First Forty Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout history, the great achievements of civilizations and cultures have been recorded in lists of dates and events. But to look only at the machinery, discoveries, or milestones is to miss the value of these achievements. Each goal achieved or discovery or made represents a supreme effort on the part of individual people who came and worked together for a purpose greater than themselves. Driven by an innate curiosity of the spirit, we have built civilizations and discovered new worlds, always reaching out beyond what we knew or thought was possible. These efforts may have used ships or machinery, but the achievement was that of the humans who made those machines possible- remarkable people willing to endure discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and the risk of failure in the hope of finding out something new. This is the case with the history of the Goddard Space Flight Center. This publication traces the legacy of successes, risks, disappointments and internationally recognized triumphs of the Center's first 40 years. It is a story of technological achievement and scientific discovery; of reaching back to the dawn of time and opening up a new set of eyes on our own planet Earth. In the end, it is not a story about machinery or discoveries, but a story about ourselves. If we were able to step off our planet, and if we continue to discover new mysteries and better technology, it is because the people who work at Goddard always had a passion for exploration and the dedication to make it happen. The text that follows is a testimony to the challenges people at the Goddard Space Flight Center have faced and overcome over almost half a century. Today, we stand on the threshold of a new and equally challenging era. It will once again test our ingenuity, skills, and flexibility as we find new ways of working with our colleagues in industry, government, and academia. Doing more with less is every bit as ambitious as designing the first science instrument to study the heavens. But if we are to continue exploring our world and our universe, it is every bit as important. Robert H. Goddard once said, "The dream of yesterday is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow." This is our heritage. Our challenge is to keep our spirit of dedication, vision, and innovative thinking alive, so we can turn today's dreams into a new century of possibility and progress. Our journeys into space are the greatest ongoing adventure the human race has ever undertaken, and everyone here has played an important role in that endeavor. This book is about everyone who has worked at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

Wallace, Lane E.

1999-01-01

45

SEMPRE: Forty Years on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical account traces the beginnings of the Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) to the founding of the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education (SRPMME) in 1972, which in turn had evolved from Arnold Bentley's Research in Music Education conferences instituted in 1966. The paper charts the…

Cox, Gordon; Crickmore, Leon; Plummeridge, Charles; Sergeant, Desmond

2012-01-01

46

The peripatetic cultural psychiatrist: reflections on a forty-five year longitudinal study of a South India village.  

PubMed

This article presents one woman's odyssey, which began with a career in linguistics and later incorporated cultural psychiatry. While engaged in fieldwork as a linguist, studying the syntactic structure of Havyaka Kannada and dialectal accommodation among the castes in a South India village, I developed language skills and rapport with the village residents. Then I transferred my community-wide rapport to research on depression as a cultural psychiatrist. The articles I wrote on depression and its relationship to socialized passivity and endorsed assertiveness in progressive generations of South Indian women, illustrate the impact of change on mental health. The cultural background from my community-based longitudinal study of more than forty-five years has contributed to my understanding disorders in Indian patients living in a globalized world. PMID:21511853

Ullrich, Helen E

2011-04-01

47

Edison After Forty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edison After Forty: The Challenge of Success is a virtual exhibition provided by the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History (discussed in the {September 19, 1997 Scout Report http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/sr/1997/scout-970919.html#8}). This exhibit documents the last 44 years of the prolific career of Thomas Alva Edison, the quintessential American inventor who held over one thousand patents at the time of his death in 1931. Historical narrative accompanies the exhibit's seven galleries of black and white photographs: The Challenge of Success, Before Forty, Changes at Forty, Home Life, The New Technical World, Fame and Its Distractions, and Edison in His Eighties.

48

Design of an integrated programmable neurostimulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the design of an integrated neurostimulator, offering to surgeons the facilities to recognize nervous anatomy according to the muscular response obtained, as well as the identification of possible lesions. The system has been implemented with level and duration programmable current sources, offering large range of possibilities. The authors a describe the circuit specification, the architecture of the ASIC designed

A. Kachouri; M. Robert; D. Deschacht; N. Lakhoua; D. Auvergne

1990-01-01

49

Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: Final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. Methods Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS System). Subjects with medically intractable partial onset seizures from one or two foci were implanted, and 1 month postimplant were randomized 1:1 to active or sham stimulation. After the fifth postimplant month, all subjects received responsive stimulation in an open label period (OLP) to complete 2 years of postimplant follow-up. Results All 191 subjects were randomized. The percent change in seizures at the end of the blinded period was ?37.9% in the active and ?17.3% in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.012, Generalized Estimating Equations). The median percent reduction in seizures in the OLP was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years, which represents a progressive and significant improvement with time (p < 0.0001). The serious adverse event rate was not different between subjects receiving active and sham stimulation. Adverse events were consistent with the known risks of an implanted medical device, seizures, and of other epilepsy treatments. There were no adverse effects on neuropsychological function or mood. Significance Responsive stimulation to the seizure focus reduced the frequency of partial-onset seizures acutely, showed improving seizure reduction over time, was well tolerated, and was acceptably safe. The RNS System provides an additional treatment option for patients with medically intractable partial-onset seizures. PMID:24621228

Heck, Christianne N; King-Stephens, David; Massey, Andrew D; Nair, Dileep R; Jobst, Barbara C; Barkley, Gregory L; Salanova, Vicenta; Cole, Andrew J; Smith, Michael C; Gwinn, Ryder P; Skidmore, Christopher; Van Ness, Paul C; Bergey, Gregory K; Park, Yong D; Miller, Ian; Geller, Eric; Rutecki, Paul A; Zimmerman, Richard; Spencer, David C; Goldman, Alica; Edwards, Jonathan C; Leiphart, James W; Wharen, Robert E; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Worrell, Gregory A; Gross, Robert E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Duckrow, Robert B; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Bazil, Carl; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Sun, Felice T; Courtney, Tracy A; Seale, Cairn G; Morrell, Martha J

2014-01-01

50

Subthalamic neurostimulation for Parkinson's disease with early fluctuations: balancing the risks and benefits.  

PubMed

Electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with pharmacologically unresponsive fluctuations. Compared with pharmacological treatment, subthalamic neurostimulation significantly improves motor symptoms, particularly during the phases of poor response to drug treatment, and reduces the severity of dyskinesias. Importantly, it also significantly improves quality of life and other integral measures of disease severity. The treatment response can last for more than 10 years, although there is no evidence that levodopa-resistant symptoms are delayed by subthalamic neurostimulation. At present, the mean disease duration for patients at the time of implantation is 12 years. In a recent study (EARLYSTIM) in patients with a disease duration of 7·5 years and fluctuations for 1·5 years, similar improvements in clinical outcomes were reported. These findings suggest that neurostimulation of the subthalamic nucleus could be used earlier in the disease course for carefully selected patients if the benefits of the treatment are weighed against the surgical risks and the lifelong need for specialised care by an experienced team. As mobility is consistently improved during the times with poor mobility by reducing fluctuations and delaying levodopa-sensitive complications, we propose that this treatment changes the disease course. PMID:24050735

Deuschl, Günther; Agid, Yves

2013-10-01

51

Histological reaction to percutaneous epidural neurostimulation: initial and long-term results.  

PubMed

Percutaneously inserted spinal epidural neurostimulation has been derived as a simplified safe alternative to surgically implanted, dorsal column stimulation that is used in the effective treatment and control of spasticity and intractable pain. Twenty-seven tissue specimens from fifteen patients having had percutaneous epidural neurostimulation systems implanted were studied with the aid of light microscopy. The biopsies from tissues around the cables, around the receivers, and at the actual site of epidural stimulation (at the metallic contact), were studied at time intervals varying from one week to two years postimplantation. Long-term results, which only show dense fibrous encapsulation of the cables and the receiver, substantiate clinical belief regarding the "histological safety" of this electronic modality. PMID:392298

Richardson, R R; Nunez, C; Siqueira, E B

1979-11-30

52

The effect of electrical neurostimulation on collateral perfusion during acute coronary occlusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Electrical neurostimulation can be used to treat patients with refractory angina, it reduces angina and ischemia. Previous data have suggested that electrical neurostimulation may alleviate myocardial ischaemia through increased collateral perfusion. We investigated the effect of electrical neurostimulation on functional collateral perfusion, assessed by distal coronary pressure measurement during acute coronary occlusion. We sought to study the effect of

Jessica de Vries; Rutger L Anthonio; Mike JL DeJongste; Gillian A Jessurun; Eng-Shiong Tan; Bart JGL de Smet; Ad FM van den Heuvel; Michiel J Staal; Felix Zijlstra

2007-01-01

53

Impaired IQ and Academic Skills in Adults Who Experienced Moderate to Severe Infantile Malnutrition: A Forty-Year Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate IQ and academic skills in adults who experienced an episode of moderate to severe infantile malnutrition and a healthy control group, all followed since childhood in the Barbados Nutrition Study. Methods IQ and academic skills were assessed in 77 previously malnourished adults (mean age=38.4 years; 53% male) and 59 controls (mean age=38.1 years; 54% male). Group comparisons were carried out by multiple regression and logistic regression, adjusted for childhood socioeconomic factors. Results The previously malnourished group showed substantial deficits on all outcomes relative to healthy controls (p<0.0001). IQ scores in the Intellectual Disability range (< 70) were 9 times more prevalent in the previously malnourished group (OR=9.18; 95% CI=3.50-24.13). Group differences in IQ of approximately one standard deviation were stable from adolescence through mid-life. Discussion Moderate to severe malnutrition during infancy is associated with a significantly elevated incidence of impaired IQ in adulthood, even when physical growth is completely rehabilitated. An episode of malnutrition during the first year of life carries risk for significant lifelong functional morbidity. PMID:23484464

Waber, Deborah P.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Girard, Jonathan M.; Zichlin, Miriam; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Galler, Janina R.

2013-01-01

54

Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters. PMID:21658266

2011-01-01

55

Short pulse width widens the therapeutic window of subthalamic neurostimulation  

PubMed Central

We explored the impact of pulse durations <60 ?sec on the therapeutic window of subthalamic neurostimulation in Parkinson's disease. Current thresholds for full rigidity control and first muscle contractions were evaluated at pulse durations between 20 and 120 ?sec during a monopolar review session in four patients. The average therapeutic window was 2.16 mA at 60 ?sec, which proportionally increased by 182% at 30 ?sec, while decreasing by 46% at 120 ?sec. Measured chronaxies and model data suggest, that pulse durations <60 ?sec lead to a focusing of the neurostimulation effect on smaller diameter axons close to the electrode while avoiding stimulation of distant pyramidal tract fibers.

Reich, Martin M; Steigerwald, Frank; Sawalhe, Anna D; Reese, Rene; Gunalan, Kabilar; Johannes, Silvia; Nickl, Robert; Matthies, Cordula; McIntyre, Cameron C; Volkmann, Jens

2015-01-01

56

Fibre optics: Forty years later  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-01-31

57

Chemical neurostimulation using pulse code modulation (PCM) microfluidic chips  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the implementation of a chemical neurostimulation technique using microfluidic devices. The microfluidic chip in this research is used for the in vitro study of the nervous system of Aplysia californica under localized chemical stimulation. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device is a one-bit pulse code modulator that digitally controls the concentration of the non-hydrolysable cholinergic agonist carbachol injected directly above

Farouk Azizi; Hui Lu; Hillel J. Chiel; Carlos H. Mastrangelo

2010-01-01

58

Chemical neurostimulation using pulse code modulation (PCM) microfluidic chips.  

PubMed

We report the implementation of a chemical neurostimulation technique using microfluidic devices. The microfluidic chip in this research is used for the in vitro study of the nervous system of Aplysia californica under localized chemical stimulation. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device is a one-bit pulse code modulator that digitally controls the concentration of the non-hydrolysable cholinergic agonist carbachol injected directly above a ganglion. The chip was successful in repeatedly and controllably inducing bursts of ingestive-like patterns. The ability of the chip to induce rhythmic activity through the sheath of the ganglion suggests that it could serve as the basis for an implantable, in vivo device to control neural activity and motor behavior using chemical stimulation. PMID:20670654

Azizi, Farouk; Lu, Hui; Chiel, Hillel J; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

2010-10-15

59

Chemical Neurostimulation Using Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Microfluidic Chips  

PubMed Central

We report the implementation of a chemical neurostimulation technique using microfluidic devices. The microfluidic chip in this research is used for the in vitro study of the nervous system of Aplysia californica under localized chemical stimulation. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device is a one-bit pulse code modulator that digitally controls the concentration of the non-hydrolysable cholinergic agonist carbachol injected directly above a ganglion. The chip was successful in repeatedly and controllably inducing bursts of ingestive-like patterns. The ability of the chip to induce rhythmic activity through the sheath of the ganglion suggests that it could serve as the basis for an implantable, in vivo device to control neural activity and motor behavior using chemical stimulation. PMID:20670654

Azizi, Farouk; Lu, Hui; Chiel, Hillel J.; Mastrangelo, Carlos H.

2010-01-01

60

Forty Years of "Pastoral Care": An Appraisal of Michael Marland's Seminal Book and Its Significance for Pastoral Care in Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Michael Marland's seminal book: "Pastoral Care" was published 40 years ago this year. The thesis of the book--that pastoral care is the central task of the school, and must be planned and institutionalized through pastoral roles and structures--is explored against the background of the social, cultural and educational developments…

Best, Ron

2014-01-01

61

Reengineering: forty useful hints.  

PubMed

Business Process Reengineering (BPR) principles have been around for a long time, piecemeal and under other labels. In recent years they started coming together as a discipline, incorporating world class business principles and focusing on quantum improvements--not merely continuous gradual improvement. BPR is the complete or partial "reinventing" of how business processes are done to attain major performance improvement. It questions the underlying assumptions and principles, including what, why, by whom, and even if things should be done. This article will contribute by stating and helping to clarify a number of important principles, plus some useful insights, techniques, and hints--40 in all! PMID:10152531

Miller, G

1995-11-01

62

Medicare at Forty  

PubMed Central

This year marks the 40th anniversary of the Medicare Program. Medicare has achieved its two basic goals of ensuring access to care for elderly and disabled beneficiaries and protecting them from severe financial hardship. The Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 represents an important improvement by adding prescription drug coverage. Medicare's major future challenge is responding to the retirement of the baby boom generation and rising health care costs. Promising policy options should aim to ensure health and financial security for beneficiaries and proactively use Medicare's purchasing power to achieve greater efficiency and quality in health care for Medicare beneficiaries and all Americans. More policy attention needs to be focused on debating Medicare's future, a more complex issue than even Social Security. PMID:17290637

Davis, Karen; Collins, Sara R.

2005-01-01

63

The Growth of Outdoor Teacher Education: Forty Years after the Vision. Lorado Taft Field Campus, 40th Anniversary, 1951-1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1949 the newly-inaugurated president of Northern Illinois University (NIU), Dr. Leslie Holmes, announced his intention to establish a program in outdoor teacher education. The program would provide opportunities for teaching and experiential learning in a naturalistic setting. Two years later, NIU acquired a 66-acre camp near Oregon, Illinois,…

Knapp, Clifford E., Ed.

64

Forty Years of Tropical Forest Recovery from Agriculture: Structure and Floristics of Secondary and Old-growth Riparian Forests in the Dominican Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in tropical secondary forests has grown as large areas of agriculture have been abandoned in recent decades; yet, there are few long-term studies of post-agriculture vegetation recovery in the tropics. In this study, we compared the vegetation structure and floristic composition of old-growth and 40-year-old secondary riparian forests in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic. Canopy height and stem density

Patrick H. Martin; Ruth E. Sherman; Timothy J. Fahey

2004-01-01

65

Forty-seven years of weekly atmospheric black carbon measurements in the Finnish Arctic: Decrease in black carbon with declining emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of atmospheric black carbon, [BC], were determined from filter samples collected weekly at Kevo, Finland (69°45'N, 27°02'E), from 1964 to 2010 using optical and thermal optical methods. The data provide the longest record of directly measured [BC] in the Arctic. The mean winter, spring, summer, and autumn [BC] based on the entire data set were 339, 199, 127, and 213 ng m-3, respectively. Annual mean [BC] decreased from ~300 in ~1970 to 82 ng m-3 in 2010. [BC] data sets from other Arctic sites show similar trends, but concentrations at Kevo are generally higher. From ~1970 to 2010 the [BC] decreased by ~1.8% yr-1. However, [BC] did not decrease monotonically. Instead, cyclical peaks occurred around 1976-1977, 1985-1987, and 1999. During such periods, nickel concentrations were well correlated with [BC]. This suggests that emissions from extensive ore smelting on the Kola Peninsula were significant contributors of particulate matter observed at Kevo. Simulations of [BC] at Kevo using the OsloCTM3 model using different emission inventories and meteorological data sets were performed. Modeled concentrations were lower than observed by a factor of 4. The results indicated that circulation changes can explain year to year variability, but the downward trend in the observations is mostly explained by emissions. Emission inventories in Europe, Russia, and the former Soviet Union are poorly constrained and appear to need revision in order to match observed trends in BC atmospheric concentrations.

Dutkiewicz, Vincent A.; DeJulio, Anthony M.; Ahmed, Tanveer; Laing, James; Hopke, Philip K.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Viisanen, Yrjö; Paatero, Jussi; Husain, Liaquat

2014-06-01

66

Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation  

PubMed Central

Abstract ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies. PMID:21738408

Kotze, D. Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J.; Lövei, Gábor L.; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

2011-01-01

67

An implantable neurostimulator with an integrated high-voltage inductive power-recovery frontend  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper present a highly-integrated neurostimulator with an on-chip inductive power-recovery frontend and high-voltage stimulus generator. In particular, the power-recovery frontend includes a high-voltage full-wave rectifier (up to 100 V AC input), high-voltage series regulators (24/5 V outputs) and a linear regulator (1.8/3.3 V output) with bandgap voltage reference. With the high voltage output of the series regulator, the proposed neurostimulator could deliver a considerably large current in high electrode-tissue contact impedance. This neurostimulator has been fabricated in a CSMC 1 ?m 5/40/700 V BCD process and the total silicon area including pads is 5.8 mm2. Preliminary tests are successful as the neurostimulator shows good stability under a 13.56 MHz AC supply. Compared to previously reported works, our design has advantages of a wide induced voltage range (26–100 V), high output voltage (up to 24 V) and high-level integration, which are suitable for implantable neurostimulators.

Yuan, Wang; Xu, Zhang; Ming, Liu; Peng, Li; Hongda, Chen

2014-10-01

68

Longitudinal Neurostimulation in Older Adults Improves Working Memory  

PubMed Central

An increasing concern affecting a growing aging population is working memory (WM) decline. Consequently, there is great interest in improving or stabilizing WM, which drives expanded use of brain training exercises. Such regimens generally result in temporary WM benefits to the trained tasks but minimal transfer of benefit to untrained tasks. Pairing training with neurostimulation may stabilize or improve WM performance by enhancing plasticity and strengthening WM-related cortical networks. We tested this possibility in healthy older adults. Participants received 10 sessions of sham (control) or active (anodal, 1.5 mA) tDCS to the right prefrontal, parietal, or prefrontal/parietal (alternating) cortices. After ten minutes of sham or active tDCS, participants performed verbal and visual WM training tasks. On the first, tenth, and follow-up sessions, participants performed transfer WM tasks including the spatial 2-back, Stroop, and digit span tasks. The results demonstrated that all groups benefited from WM training, as expected. However, at follow-up 1-month after training ended, only the participants in the active tDCS groups maintained significant improvement. Importantly, this pattern was observed for both trained and transfer tasks. These results demonstrate that tDCS-linked WM training can provide long-term benefits in maintaining cognitive training benefits and extending them to untrained tasks. PMID:25849358

Jones, Kevin T.; Stephens, Jaclyn A.; Alam, Mahtab; Bikson, Marom; Berryhill, Marian E.

2015-01-01

69

Longitudinal neurostimulation in older adults improves working memory.  

PubMed

An increasing concern affecting a growing aging population is working memory (WM) decline. Consequently, there is great interest in improving or stabilizing WM, which drives expanded use of brain training exercises. Such regimens generally result in temporary WM benefits to the trained tasks but minimal transfer of benefit to untrained tasks. Pairing training with neurostimulation may stabilize or improve WM performance by enhancing plasticity and strengthening WM-related cortical networks. We tested this possibility in healthy older adults. Participants received 10 sessions of sham (control) or active (anodal, 1.5 mA) tDCS to the right prefrontal, parietal, or prefrontal/parietal (alternating) cortices. After ten minutes of sham or active tDCS, participants performed verbal and visual WM training tasks. On the first, tenth, and follow-up sessions, participants performed transfer WM tasks including the spatial 2-back, Stroop, and digit span tasks. The results demonstrated that all groups benefited from WM training, as expected. However, at follow-up 1-month after training ended, only the participants in the active tDCS groups maintained significant improvement. Importantly, this pattern was observed for both trained and transfer tasks. These results demonstrate that tDCS-linked WM training can provide long-term benefits in maintaining cognitive training benefits and extending them to untrained tasks. PMID:25849358

Jones, Kevin T; Stephens, Jaclyn A; Alam, Mahtab; Bikson, Marom; Berryhill, Marian E

2015-01-01

70

Ocean Drilling: Forty Years of International Collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

International cooperation is an essential component of modern scientific research and societal advancement [see Ismail-Zadeh and Beer, 2009], and scientific ocean drilling represents one of Earth science's longest-running and most successful international collaborations. The strength of this collaboration and its continued success result from the realization that scientific ocean drilling provides a unique and powerful tool to study the critical processes of both short-term change and the long-term evolution of Earth systems. A record of Earth's changing tectonics, climate, ocean circulation, and biota is preserved in marine sedimentary deposits and the underlying basement rocks. And because the ocean floor is the natural site for accumulation and preservation of geological materials, it may preserve a continuous record of these processes.

Smith, Deborah K.; Exon, Neville; Barriga, Fernando J. A. S.; Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki

2010-10-01

71

Bay of Pigs: Forty Years After  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Next month is the 40th anniversary of the Bay of Pigs invasion, and this was marked last week by an extraordinary conference last week in Havana which involved former officials of the Kennedy Administration, the CIA, members of Brigade 2506, and Cuban government and military officials. The anniversary has also seen the release of numerous documents related to the ill-fated expedition. Although it has not been updated since the second day of the conference, the National Security Archive's site on the Havana conference is a very useful resource, with reports on the proceedings, a chronology, numerous declassified documents, several audio recordings, and biographies of the members of the US delegation.

72

Forty Years Later: Updating the Fossilization Hypothesis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A founding concept in second language acquisition (SLA) research, fossilization has been fundamental to understanding second language (L2) development. The Fossilization Hypothesis, introduced in Selinker's seminal text (1972), has thus been one of the most influential theories, guiding a significant bulk of SLA research for four decades; 2012…

Han, ZhaoHong

2013-01-01

73

Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in…

Rosenthal, Robert

74

Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

Sulentic, J.

2010-10-01

75

Massively-parallel neuromonitoring and neurostimulation rodent headset with nanotextured flexible microelectrodes.  

PubMed

We present a compact wireless headset for simultaneous multi-site neuromonitoring and neurostimulation in the rodent brain. The system comprises flexible-shaft microelectrodes, neural amplifiers, neurostimulators, a digital time-division multiplexer (TDM), a micro-controller and a ZigBee wireless transceiver. The system is built by parallelizing up to four 0.35 ?m CMOS integrated circuits (each having 256 neural amplifiers and 64 neurostimulators) to provide a total maximum of 1024 neural amplifiers and 256 neurostimulators. Each bipolar neural amplifier features 54 dB-72 dB adjustable gain, 1 Hz-5 kHz adjustable bandwidth with an input-referred noise of 7.99 ?Vrms and dissipates 12.9 ?W. Each current-mode bipolar neurostimulator generates programmable arbitrary-waveform biphasic current in the range of 20-250 ?A and dissipates 2.6 ?W in the stand-by mode. Reconfigurability is provided by stacking a set of dedicated mini-PCBs that share a common signaling bus within as small as 22 × 30 × 15 mm³ volume. The system features flexible polyimide-based microelectrode array design that is not brittle and increases pad packing density. Pad nanotexturing by electrodeposition reduces the electrode-tissue interface impedance from an average of 2 M? to 30 k? at 100 Hz. The rodent headset and the microelectrode array have been experimentally validated in vivo in freely moving rats for two months. We demonstrate 92.8 percent seizure rate reduction by responsive neurostimulation in an acute epilepsy rat model. PMID:24144667

Bagheri, Arezu; Gabran, S R I; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Mansour, Raafat R; Salama, M M A; Genov, Roman

2013-10-01

76

Enhanced long-term memory encoding after parietal neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation, e.g., transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), shows promise as an effective cognitive intervention. In spite of low spatial resolution, limited penetration, and temporary influence, evidence highlights tDCS-linked cognitive benefits in a range of cognitive domains. The left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an accessible node in frontoparietal networks engaged during long-term memory (LTM). Here, we tested the hypothesis that tDCS can facilitate LTM by pairing LTM encoding and retrieval with PPC stimulation. Healthy young adults performed a verbal LTM task (California Verbal Learning Task) with four different stimulation parameters. In Experiment 1, we applied tDCS to left PPC during LTM encoding. In Experiment 2, we applied tDCS just prior to retrieval to test the temporal specificity of tDCS during a LTM task. In later experiments, we tested hemispheric specificity by replicating Experiment 1 while stimulating the right PPC. Experiment 1 showed that tDCS applied during LTM encoding improved the pace of list learning and enhanced retrieval after a short delay. Experiment 2 indicated anodal left PPC tDCS only improved LTM when applied during encoding, and not during maintenance. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that tDCS effects were hemisphere specific and that no effects were found after right PPC stimulation during encoding. These findings indicate that anodal tDCS to the PPC helps verbal LTM in healthy young adults under certain conditions. First, when it is applied to the left, not the right, PPC and second, when it is applied during encoding. PMID:25200180

Jones, Kevin T; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E

2014-12-01

77

Fabrication and Calibration of FORTIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is entering the final fabrication phase of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of-view. Using "on-the-fly" target acquisition and spectral multiplexing enabled by a GSFC microshutter array, FORTIS will be capable of observing the brightest regions in the far-UV of nearby low redshift (z approximately 0.002 - 0.02) star forming galaxies to search for Lyman alpha escape, and to measure the local gas-to-dust ratio. A large area (approximately 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector built by Sensor Sciences provides an imaging channel for targeting flanked by two redundant spectral outrigger channels. The grating is ruled directly onto the secondary mirror to increase efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress made in the development and fabrication of FORTIS, as well as the results of early calibration and characterization of our hardware, including mirror/grating measurements, detector performance, and early operational tests of the micro shutter arrays.

Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Rapchun, David A.; Lyness, Eric; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

2011-01-01

78

A Technique of Distal to Proximal Revision of Peripheral Neurostimulator Leads: Technical Note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Peripheral nerve stimulation for chronic pain states is a safe and efficacious technique, being used with increasing frequency. The incidence of hardware-related complications requiring revision remains high. Objectives: The authors describe a technique of distal to proximal neurostimulator lead revision, which does not require the changing of generators or extension leads, and thus presumably will minimize further device-related complications.

Antonios Mammis; Alon Y. Mogilner

2011-01-01

79

Impact of brain tissue filtering on neurostimulation fields: a modeling study  

PubMed Central

Electrical neurostimulation techniques, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are increasingly used in the neurosciences, e.g., for studying brain function, and for neurotherapeutics, e.g., for treating depression, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. The characterization of electrical properties of brain tissue has guided our fundamental understanding and application of these methods, from electrophysiologic theory to clinical dosing-metrics. Nonetheless, prior computational models have primarily relied on ex-vivo impedance measurements. We recorded the in-vivo impedances of brain tissues during neurosurgical procedures and used these results to construct MRI guided computational models of TMS and DBS neurostimulatory fields and conductance-based models of neurons exposed to stimulation. We demonstrated that tissues carry neurostimulation currents through frequency dependent resistive and capacitive properties not typically accounted for by past neurostimulation modeling work. We show that these fundamental brain tissue properties can have significant effects on the neurostimulatory-fields (capacitive and resistive current composition and spatial/temporal dynamics) and neural responses (stimulation threshold, ionic currents, and membrane dynamics). These findings highlight the importance of tissue impedance properties on neurostimulation and impact our understanding of the biological mechanisms and technological potential of neurostimulatory methods. PMID:23850466

Wagner, Tim; Eden, Uri; Rushmore, Jarrett; Russo, Christopher J.; Dipietro, Laura; Fregni, Felipe; Simon, Stephen; Rotman, Stephen; Pitskel, Naomi B.; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Zahn, Markus; Valero-Cabre, Antoni

2013-01-01

80

Electrochemical and structural characterizations of electrodeposited iridium oxide thin-film electrodes applied to neurostimulating electrical signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film technology takes more and more importance in the development of biomedical devices dedicated to functional neurostimulation. Our research about the design of implantable neurostimulating electrode is oriented toward thin-film cuff electrodes based on PTFE substrate covered by a gold\\/iridium oxide film. A gold-sputtered film serves as adhesion layer and current collector whereas iridium oxide acts as an electrochemical actuator.

S. C Mailley; M Hyland; P Mailley; J. M McLaughlin; E. T McAdams

2002-01-01

81

Clinical utility of implantable neurostimulation devices as adjunctive treatment of uncontrolled seizures  

PubMed Central

About one third of patients with epilepsy are refractory to medical treatment. For these patients, alternative treatment options include implantable neurostimulation devices such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and responsive neurostimulation systems (RNS). We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of these devices in patients with refractory epilepsy across their lifespan. VNS has the largest evidence base, and numerous randomized controlled trials and open-label studies support its use in the treatment of refractory epilepsy. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1997 for treatment of partial seizures, but has also shown significant benefit in the treatment of generalized seizures. Results in adult populations have been more encouraging than in pediatric populations, where more studies are required. VNS is considered a safe and well-tolerated treatment, and serious side effects are rare. DBS is a well-established treatment for several movement disorders, and has a small evidence base for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus has shown the most encouraging results, where significant decreases in seizure frequency were reported. Other potential targets include the centromedian thalamic nucleus, hippocampus, cerebellum, and basal ganglia structures. Preliminary results on RNS, new-generation implantable neurostimulation devices which stimulate brain structures only when epileptic activity is detected, are encouraging. Overall, implantable neurostimulation devices appear to be a safe and beneficial treatment option for patients in whom medical treatment has failed to adequately control their epilepsy. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are required to provide a sufficient evidence base for the inclusion of DBS and RNS in clinical guidelines. PMID:25484587

Cox, Joanna H; Seri, Stefano; Cavanna, Andrea E

2014-01-01

82

320-channel active probe for high-resolution neuromonitoring and responsive neurostimulation.  

PubMed

We present a 320-channel active probe for high-spatial-resolution neuromonitoring and responsive neurostimulation. The probe comprises an integrated circuit (IC) cell array bonded to the back side of a pitch-matched microelectrode array. The IC enables up to 256-site neural recording and 64-site neural stimulation at the spatial resolution of 400 ? m and 200 ? m, respectively. It is suitable for direct integration with electrode arrays with the shank pitch of integer multiples of 200 ?m. In the presented configuration, the IC is bonded with a 8 × 8 400 ? m-pitch Utah electrode array (UEA) and up to additional 192 recording channels are used for peripheral neuromonitoring. The 0.35 ? m CMOS circuit array has a total die size of 3.5 mm × 3.65 mm. Each stimulator channel employs a current memory for simultaneous multi-site neurostimulation, outputs 20 ?A-250 ?A square or arbitrary waveform current, occupies 0.02 mm (2), and dissipates 2.76 ? W quiescent power. Each fully differential recording channel has two stages of amplification and filtering and an 8-bit single-slope ADC, occupies 0.035 mm (2) , and consumes 51.9 ? W. The neural probe has been experimentally validated in epileptic seizure propagation studies in a mouse hippocampal slice in vitro and in responsive neurostimulation for seizure suppression in an acute epilepsy rat model in vivo . PMID:25486647

Shulyzki, Ruslana; Abdelhalim, Karim; Bagheri, Arezu; Salam, M Tariqus; Florez, Carlos M; Velazquez, Jose Luis Perez; Carlen, Peter L; Genov, Roman

2015-02-01

83

Pre-frontal control of closed-loop limbic neurostimulation by rodents using a brain-computer interface  

PubMed Central

Objective There is great interest in closed-loop neurostimulators that sense and respond to a patient’s brain state. Such systems may have value for neurological and psychiatric illnesses where symptoms have high intraday variability. Animal models of closed-loop stimulators would aid preclinical testing. We sought to demonstrate that rodents can directly control a closed-loop limbic neurostimulator via a brain-computer interface (BCI). Approach We trained rats to use an auditory BCI controlled by single units in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BCI controlled electrical stimulation in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a limbic structure involved in reward-seeking. Rigorous offline analyses were performed to confirm volitional control of the neurostimulator. Main Results All animals successfully learned to use the BCI and neurostimulator, with closed-loop control of this challenging task demonstrated at 80% of PFC recording locations. Analysis across sessions and animals confirmed statistically robust BCI control and specific, rapid modulation of PFC activity. Significance Our results provide a preliminary demonstration of a method for emotion-regulating closed-loop neurostimulation. They further suggest that activity in prefrontal cortex can be used to control a BCI without pre-training on a predicate task. This offers the potential for BCI-based treatments in refractory neurological and mental illness. PMID:24608127

Widge, Alik S.; Moritz, Chet T.

2015-01-01

84

Pre-frontal control of closed-loop limbic neurostimulation by rodents using a brain-computer interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. There is great interest in closed-loop neurostimulators that sense and respond to a patient's brain state. Such systems may have value for neurological and psychiatric illnesses where symptoms have high intraday variability. Animal models of closed-loop stimulators would aid preclinical testing. We therefore sought to demonstrate that rodents can directly control a closed-loop limbic neurostimulator via a brain-computer interface (BCI). Approach. We trained rats to use an auditory BCI controlled by single units in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BCI controlled electrical stimulation in the medial forebrain bundle, a limbic structure involved in reward-seeking. Rigorous offline analyses were performed to confirm volitional control of the neurostimulator. Main results. All animals successfully learned to use the BCI and neurostimulator, with closed-loop control of this challenging task demonstrated at 80% of PFC recording locations. Analysis across sessions and animals confirmed statistically robust BCI control and specific, rapid modulation of PFC activity. Significance. Our results provide a preliminary demonstration of a method for emotion-regulating closed-loop neurostimulation. They further suggest that activity in PFC can be used to control a BCI without pre-training on a predicate task. This offers the potential for BCI-based treatments in refractory neurological and mental illness.

Widge, Alik S.; Moritz, Chet T.

2014-04-01

85

Neurostimulation of the Cholinergic Anti-Inflammatory Pathway Ameliorates Disease in Rat Collagen-Induced Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The inflammatory reflex is a physiological mechanism through which the nervous system maintains immunologic homeostasis by modulating innate and adaptive immunity. We postulated that the reflex might be harnessed therapeutically to reduce pathological levels of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by activating its prototypical efferent arm, termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To explore this, we determined whether electrical neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduced disease severity in the collagen-induced arthritis model. Methods Rats implanted with vagus nerve cuff electrodes had collagen-induced arthritis induced and were followed for 15 days. Animals underwent active or sham electrical stimulation once daily from day 9 through the conclusion of the study. Joint swelling, histology, and levels of cytokines and bone metabolism mediators were assessed. Results Compared with sham treatment, active neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway resulted in a 52% reduction in ankle diameter (p?=?0.02), a 57% reduction in ankle diameter (area under curve; p?=?0.02) and 46% reduction overall histological arthritis score (p?=?0.01) with significant improvements in inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion (p?=?0.02), accompanied by numerical reductions in systemic cytokine levels, not reaching statistical significance. Bone erosion improvement was associated with a decrease in serum levels of receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) from 132±13 to 6±2 pg/mL (mean±SEM, p?=?0.01). Conclusions The severity of collagen-induced arthritis is reduced by neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway delivered using an implanted electrical vagus nerve stimulation cuff electrode, and supports the rationale for testing this approach in human inflammatory disorders. PMID:25110981

Levine, Yaakov A.; Koopman, Frieda A.; Faltys, Michael; Caravaca, April; Bendele, Alison; Zitnik, Ralph; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J.; Tak, Paul Peter

2014-01-01

86

ZigBee-based Wireless Neuro-Stimulator for Improving Stroke Recovery.  

PubMed

Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and the second-leading cause of death in Korea. It is also the third-leading cause of death in the United States, leading to a serious demand for new interventions to improve the quality of life in stroke survivors. To this end, direct cortical stimulation using an epidural electrode has been reported with promising results in animal and human studies, showing the potential for enhancing the recovery in chronic stroke patients. For optimal results, doctors must be able to modify the stimulation pattern as frequently as needed over a period of time for a given patient. However, severe aftereffects caused by stroke limit patients' activities, making regular doctor visits for treatment difficult. This study aims to develop a prototype of a telemedicine system to enhance stroke recovery by using a ZigBeebased wireless neuro-stimulator. The ZigBee is a stable platform for many low-power wireless applications. To allow stroke patients to remotely obtain neuro-stimulation treatments from their doctors, we connected the ZigBee to the internet. The system also allows doctors to personalize treatment based on the history of the stimulation parameters. The system developed here can also be beneficial as a common platform for a wide range of brain diseases and clinical care for which electric stimulation is used. PMID:22110356

Kim, Gookhwa; Yun, Hyojeong; Ryu, Munho; Shin, Yongil; Kim, Hyoungihl; Yang, Yoonseok

2010-12-01

87

Calibration and flight qualification of FORTIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group has completed the assembly and calibration of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of up to 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of-view. FORTIS is capable of selecting the far-UV brightest regions of the target area by utilizing an autonomous targeting system. Medium resolution (R ~ 400) spectra are recorded in redundant dual-order spectroscopic channels with ~40 cm2 of effective area at 1216 Å. The maiden launch of FORTIS occurred on May 10, 2013 out of the White Sands Missile Range, targeting the extended spiral galaxy M61 and nearby companion NGC 4301. We report on the final flight calibrations of the instrument, as well as the flight results.

Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Redwine, Keith; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

2013-09-01

88

High cervical epidural neurostimulation for post-traumatic headache management.  

PubMed

Headache following head injuries has been reported for centuries. The majority of post-traumatic headache (PTH) patients will report resolution of their complaints within a few months from the time of the initial injury. PTHs can contribute to disability, lost productivity, and health care costs. In this article we discuss a 40-year-old male with a history of motor vehicle accident and basal skull fracture. The patient had no headache history prior to the accident. He presented with more than 3 years persistent daily headache. The patient described constant throbbing and stabbing quality headaches predominantly on the left hemicranium with constant facial pain. He denies having aura, nausea, or vomiting, but reported occasional neck tightness. An extensive workup was carried out under the direction of the patient's primary neurologist. Secondary to persistent intractable pain, the patient was referred to the pain clinic for further evaluation. As his headaches were resistant to all trialed strategies, we decided to turn our therapeutic focus toward electrical neuromodulation along with continuing multimodal medications and multidisciplinary approach. During 7 days of high cervical dorsal column electrical nerve stimulation trial, he reported almost 90% pain reduction and significant improvement on his quality of life. On 12 months follow-up after he underwent a permanent implant of high cervical dorsal column electrical nerve stimulation, he reported the same level of pain reduction along with 100% satisfaction rate. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no publications to date concerning the application of high cervical nerve stimulation for PTH. PMID:25054404

Elahi, Foad; Reddy, Chandan

2014-01-01

89

RAMANUJAN'S FORTY IDENTITIES FOR THE ROGERSRAMANUJAN FUNCTIONS  

E-print Network

, "Watson, look up at the stars and tell me what you deduce." Watson says, "I see millions of starsRAMANUJAN'S FORTY IDENTITIES FOR THE ROGERS­RAMANUJAN FUNCTIONS BRUCE C. BERNDT1 , GEUMLAN CHOI on these planets." Holmes replies, "Watson, you idiot. Somebody stole our tent." When seeking proofs of Ramanujan

Yee, Ae Ja

90

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals  

PubMed Central

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-01-01

91

Sixty Hertz Neurostimulation Amplifies Subthalamic Neural Synchrony in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

High frequency subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves the cardinal motor signs of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and attenuates STN alpha/beta band neural synchrony in a voltage-dependent manner. While there is a growing interest in the behavioral effects of lower frequency (60 Hz) DBS, little is known about its effect on STN neural synchrony. Here we demonstrate for the first time that during intra-operative 60 Hz STN DBS, one or more bands of resting state neural synchrony were amplified in the STN in PD. We recorded intra-operative STN resting state local field potentials (LFPs) from twenty-eight STNs in seventeen PD subjects after placement of the DBS lead (model 3389, Medtronic, Inc.) before and during three randomized neurostimulation sets (130 Hz/1.35V, 130 Hz/2V, 60 Hz/2V). During 130 Hz/2V DBS, baseline (no DBS) STN alpha (8 – 12 Hz) and beta (13 – 35 Hz) band power decreased (N=14, P < 0.001 for both), whereas during 60 Hz/2V DBS, alpha band and peak frequency power increased (P = 0.012, P = 0.007, respectively). The effect of 60 Hz/2V DBS opposed that of power-equivalent (130 Hz/1.35V) DBS (alpha: P < 0.001, beta: P = 0.006). These results show that intra-operative 60 Hz STN DBS amplified whereas 130 Hz STN DBS attenuated resting state neural synchrony in PD; the effects were frequency-specific. We demonstrate that neurostimulation may be useful as a tool to selectively modulate resting state resonant bands of neural synchrony and to investigate its influence on motor and non-motor behaviors in PD and other neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:25807463

Blumenfeld, Zack; Velisar, Anca; Miller Koop, Mandy; Hill, Bruce C.; Shreve, Lauren A.; Quinn, Emma J.; Kilbane, Camilla; Yu, Hong; Henderson, Jaimie M.; Brontë-Stewart, Helen

2015-01-01

92

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals.  

PubMed

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-04-01

93

Effects of increasing the dose of ropivacaine on vertical infraclavicular block using neurostimulation  

PubMed Central

Background Use of an infraclavicular block is appropriate for surgery of the upper limb. However, it does not consistently block the entire brachial plexus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increasing the dose of ropivacaine could enhance the success rate, onset time, and efficacy of the sensory and motor block during the use of a vertical infraclavicular block using neurostimulation in upper limb surgery. Methods Two hundreds and ten patients were prospectively randomized into three groups: Group 1 (30 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine; n = 70), Group 2 (40 ml of 0.5% ropivacaine; n = 70), and Group 3 (40 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine; n = 70). Patients in each group received a vertical infraclavicular block using neurostimulation and obtained a distal motor response of the ulnar or median nerve. Recorded outcome measures included block success rate, onset time, sensory and motor blocks, and adverse events. Results No differences were found in the block success rate among the three groups (92.8%, 97.1%, and 94.2% for Groups 1, 2, and, 3, respectively; P = 0.346). There were no significant differences in onset time (P = 0.225) among groups, nor was there enhancement in the sensory block, but the motor block was enhanced. Local anesthetic toxicity was observed in five female patients from group 3 (P = 0.006). Conclusions Although the efficacy of the motor block was significantly improved, success rate, onset time, and efficacy of sensory block were not enhanced significantly among groups despite differences in volume and volume/concentration of the local anesthetic. PMID:22870363

Yang, Chun Woo; Kwon, Hee Uk; Lee, Kyu Chang; Lee, Myeong Jong; Kim, Hye Young; Choi, Eun Kyung; Lim, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Chul Woung

2012-01-01

94

Forty-eighth annual power distribution conference  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at the Forty-eighth Annual Power Distribution Conference held in 1995 at Austin, Texas. The topics of the papers include power quality in power distribution systems, methods to improve power quality, power system communications, automation of distribution systems, distributed data acquisition, energy efficiency in industrial plants, weather data in operation of distribution systems, detection and location of failed or failing equipment in power distribution systems, lightning and overvoltage protection, distribution cable research update, and equipment protection devices for residential power distribution systems.

NONE

1995-12-31

95

Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

Mayer, Diane

2014-01-01

96

Forty years of population statistics at the United Nations.  

PubMed

The Statistical and Population Commissions perform the work of the United Nations (UN) Secretariat in population statistics. Their Demographic Yearbook has come to serve an ever wider variety of users. Most data comes from an annual questionnaire sent to national statistical services in 200 contries or areas worldwide. Data quality and reliability improved significantly with each decennial round of population censuses. Standardized definitions and classification methods; detailed footnoting; and the complementation of missing or incomplete data from official national sources promote their usefulness and international comparability. From 1955-74, demographic and related economic and social statistics were integrated by attempts, through technical cooperation, to improve national statistical services, and by methodological work, including the publication of handbooks, manuals, and technical reports. The Statistical Office, under Statistical Commission guidance, promoted sampling technics for obtaining demographic and related information and for evaluating census and civil registration systems. The UN also promoted efforts to improve civil registration and vital events data accuracy. Those efforts included revising recommendations and handbooks and preparing the World Program for the Improvement of Vital Statistics. Every decade, the UN has issued principles and recommendations for population and housing censuses and contributed to the improvement of national efforts, including the recent development of regional variants of the World Population and Housing Censuses recommendations; emphasizing developing country needs; and promoting electronic data processing worldwide. 193 countries representing 95% of the world's population conducted a census between 1975-84. The UN launched the National Household Survey Capability Program in the late 1970s, to provide data on population and related demographic characteristics linked with other social and economic variables. PMID:12314722

1986-01-01

97

Changes in Patterns of Health Care: Plus Forty Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents an update of Herman's article ["Changes in Patterns of Health Care," "School Health Review," 1(9-14)1969] that focuses on the changes in patterns of health care. He discusses the poverty, insurance, and access to medical care as well as the quality of medical care for adults and minors. He stresses that…

Sofalvi, Alan J.

2010-01-01

98

Forty years’ experience treating septic arteritis and vasculitis  

PubMed Central

By their natures, septic arteritis and infected grafts present a high morbidity and mortality situation for both the patient and the treating physician. In the experience of the authors, therapy frequently includes removing the previous infected graft, use of long-term antibiotics, repeat grafting and omental wraps. When possible, aortic endografting followed by future elective primary repair may be considered an option. Leaving wounds open to granulate from the ‘bottom up’ has been successful in the extremities and the groin. Again, avoidance of infection is primary. Antibiotics are frequently used at the time of vascular grafting, both intravenously and as irrigation. Examples of the authors’ techniques and results demonstrate the variety of procedures available. PMID:22477474

Dieter, Raymond A; Kuzycz, George B; Dieter, Raymond A; Dieter, Robert S

2009-01-01

99

Forty years' experience treating septic arteritis and vasculitis.  

PubMed

By their natures, septic arteritis and infected grafts present a high morbidity and mortality situation for both the patient and the treating physician. In the experience of the authors, therapy frequently includes removing the previous infected graft, use of long-term antibiotics, repeat grafting and omental wraps. When possible, aortic endografting followed by future elective primary repair may be considered an option. Leaving wounds open to granulate from the 'bottom up' has been successful in the extremities and the groin. Again, avoidance of infection is primary. Antibiotics are frequently used at the time of vascular grafting, both intravenously and as irrigation. Examples of the authors' techniques and results demonstrate the variety of procedures available. PMID:22477474

Dieter, Raymond A; Kuzycz, George B; Dieter, Raymond A; Dieter, Robert S

2009-01-01

100

Forty-Year-Old Foam Springs Back With New Benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most recognized and widely used NASA spinoff is at it again. Temper foam, whose origins date back to 1966 when it was developed to absorb shock and, thus, offer improved protection and comfort in NASA s airplane seats, has paid its dividends to Earth repeatedly, and in many different ways. It has padded the helmets of the Dallas Cowboys throughout the 1970s and 1980s, protected bedridden patients from bedsores, and comforted the feet of thousands wearing stylish shoes that incorporate the cushioning material in their insoles. Four decades later, the world has come to realize that there are no bounds to temper foam s benefits. Though the rights to the technology have been shared amongst various manufacturers, the original product maker is still going strong, pushing temper foam into new arenas, including automotives, amusement parks, prosthetics, and modern art.

2005-01-01

101

Forty years of the 93D puff of Drosophila melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 93D puff of Drosophila melanogaster became attractive in 1970 because of its singular inducibility by benzamide and has since then remained a major point of\\u000a focus in my laboratory. Studies on this locus in my and several other laboratories during the past four decades have revealed\\u000a that (i) this locus is developmentally active, (ii) it is a member of

Subhash C Lakhotia

102

Hamilton's forces of natural selection after forty years.  

PubMed

In 1966, William D. Hamilton published a landmark paper in evolutionary biology: "The Moulding of Senescence by Natural Selection." It is now apparent that this article is as important as his better-known 1964 articles on kin selection. Not only did the 1966 article explain aging, it also supplied the basic scaling forces for natural selection over the entire life history. Like the Lorentz transformations of relativistic physics, Hamilton's Forces of Natural Selection provide an overarching framework for understanding the power of natural selection at early ages, the existence of aging, the timing of aging, the cessation of aging, and the timing of the cessation of aging. His twin Forces show that natural selection shapes survival and fecundity in different ways, so their evolution can be somewhat distinct. Hamilton's Forces also define the context in which genetic variation is shaped. The Forces of Natural Selection are readily manipulable using experimental evolution, allowing the deceleration or acceleration of aging, and the shifting of the transition ages between development, aging, and late life. For these reasons, evolutionary research on the demographic features of life history should be referred to as "Hamiltonian." PMID:17542838

Rose, Michael R; Rauser, Casandra L; Benford, Gregory; Matos, Margarida; Mueller, Laurence D

2007-06-01

103

Forty-Five Years of Marburg Virus Research  

PubMed Central

In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology. PMID:23202446

Brauburger, Kristina; Hume, Adam J.; Mühlberger, Elke; Olejnik, Judith

2012-01-01

104

Catalog 20082009 celebrating forty years of student success  

E-print Network

are committed to providing an educational environment that accepts people as they are and fosters the development of each student's unique talents. At Leeward Community College, education is a cooperative at Leeward CC 6 Special Programs Leeward Community College At Wai`anae 10 Distance Education 12 Office

Olsen, Stephen L.

105

Effects of Noninvasive Interactive Neurostimulation on Symptoms of Osteoarthritis of the Knee: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To explore the effects of noninvasive interactive neurostimulation used as an adjunct to usual care, on pain and other symptoms in adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. Design Randomized, sham-controlled trial. Setting A university in the southern United States. Subjects Thirty-seven (37) adults with knee osteoarthritis (based on American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria). Interventions Seventeen (17) noninvasive interactive neurostimulation (active or sham) sessions over 8 weeks with a week 12 follow-up. Outcome measures Eleven-point numeric rating scale for weekly pain; Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), patient global assessment, and Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) completed at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results For the main outcome, pain, the differences between the groups over time did not reach statistical significance (all p?>?0.05). However, a clinically important reduction in pain (defined as a 2-point or 30% reduction on an 11-point numeric rating scale) was maintained at week 12 by the active noninvasive interactive neurostimulation group (2.17 points, 34.55% reduction) but not the sham group (1.63, 26.04% reduction). Pain improved over time in participants regardless of group membership (numeric rating scale average pain, p?=?0.002; numeric rating scale worst pain, p?neurostimulation group. Further study of this noninvasive therapy is warranted. PMID:19055333

Bourguignon, Cheryl; Taylor, Ann Gill

2008-01-01

106

Fronto-Tectal White Matter Connectivity Mediates Facilitatory Effects of Non-invasive Neurostimulation on Visual Detection  

PubMed Central

The causal ability of pre-target FEF activity to modulate visual detection for perithreshold stimuli has been recently demonstrated in humans by means of non-invasive neurostimulation. Yet in spite of the network-distributed effects of these type of techniques, the white matter (WM) tracts and distant visual nodes contributing to such behavioral impact remain unknown. We hereby used individual data from a group of healthy human subjects, who received time-locked pulses of active or sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to the right Frontal Eye Field (FEF) region, and experienced increases in visual detection sensitivity. We then studied the extent to which interindividual differences in visual modulation might be dependent on the WM patterns linking the targeted area to other regions relevant for visuo-attentional behaviors. We report a statistically significant correlation between the probability of connection in a right fronto-tectal pathway (FEF-Superior Colliculus) and the modulation of visual sensitivity during a detection task. Our findings support the potential contribution of this pathway and the superior colliculus in the mediation of visual performance from frontal regions in humans. Furthermore, we also show the ability of a TMS/DTI correlational approach to contribute to the disambiguation of the specific long-range pathways driving network-wide neurostimulatory effects on behavior, anticipating their future role in guiding a more efficient use of focal neurostimulation. PMID:23707586

Quentin, Romain; Chanes, Lorena; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Valabrègue, Romain; Valero-Cabré, Antoni

2013-01-01

107

Systematic analysis and experiment of inductive coupling and induced voltage for inductively coupled wireless implantable neurostimulator application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main strategy for wireless power transfer to implantable devices is to use inductive coupling technology. The induced voltage of implanted devices highly depends on factors such as mutual inductance between the external transmitter coil and the receiver coil, quality factor of the receiver circuit and operation frequency. In this paper, the mutual inductance under a variety of geometries of external coil and under the condition of different vertical distances, lateral displacements and angular misalignments between two coils were theoretically calculated and simulated. To ascertain the condition of maximum power transmission for certain coils’ position requirements, an LC tank (2.7 mm × 2 mm) consisting of a microfabricated gold inductor coil and a small surface mounted capacitor was designed and fabricated as the telemetric part of a neurostimulator. The induced voltage of the LC tank was measured in both air and artificial tissue media under different sizes of power coil and operation frequencies. As a result, the optimum size of a transmitter coil is selected to be of 4 mm inner radius with six turns of coil, while the whole coupling system operates at 94 MHz resonant frequency within 5-11 mm vertical distance, 0-4 mm lateral and 0°-50° angular misalignment between two coils. With the change of the above coils’ positions, the measured induced voltage drops within 30%, satisfying the surgical requirement for neurostimulator implantation.

Xue, Ning; Cho, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Sung-Pil; Lee, Jeong-Bong

2012-07-01

108

Ramanujan's Forty Identities for the RogersRamanujan Functions  

E-print Network

up at the stars and tell me what you deduce." Watson says, "I see millions of stars, and it is quiteRamanujan's Forty Identities for the Rogers­Ramanujan Functions Bruce C. Berndt Geumlan Choi Youn. The Forty Identities 7 Chapter 4. The Principal Ideas Behind the Proofs 15 Chapter 5. Proofs of 35 of the 40

Yesilyurt, Hamza

109

U. K. North Sea's Forties Blend crude assayed  

SciTech Connect

Forties Blend is an important crude comprising oil and gas liquids from 20 fields in the central North Sea. This assay of the 40[degree] API, 0.35 wt% sulfur crude was performed in late 1993. According to the Journal's latest production survey, average 1993 production of Forties Blend was 427,750 b/d. Enterprise Oil says current production is about 400,000 b/d. Since an assay of Forties Blend was last published in the Journal, several fields have been added to the system: Everest, Lomond, Bruce, Tiffany, Toni, Nelson, and East Brae. The API gravity of the crude has increased almost 2[degree], while its pour point has increased from [minus]21 C to [minus]12 C. Data are presented on the whole crude and a number of fractions.

Rhodes, A.K.

1995-01-23

110

Detail of center of swing span rotation. Forty (40) rods ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Detail of center of swing span rotation. Forty (40) rods radiate out from a center cap stand (like spokes on a bicycle) and hold 40 20-inch diameter wheels onto a rim bearing circular track on which they roll when swing span is opened and closed. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

111

Warner-Bratzler Shear evaluations of forty bovine muscles  

E-print Network

Twenty beef carcass sides varying in USDA quality and yield grades were selected from the Rosenthal Meat Science and Technology Center, Texas A&M University. Forty individual muscles were dissected from each side. The muscles were cut into as many...

Belew, Jason Burl

2000-01-01

112

Switching from neurostimulant therapy to atomoxetine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder : clinical approaches and review of current available evidence.  

PubMed

This review provides practical information on and clinical reasons for switching children and young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from neurostimulants to atomoxetine, detailing currently available evidence, and switching options. The issue is of particular relevance following recent guidance from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and European ADHD guidelines endorsing the use of atomoxetine, along with the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamphetamine, in the management of ADHD in children and adolescents in the UK. The selective norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, is a non-stimulant drug licensed for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, and in adults who have shown a response in childhood. Following the once-daily morning dose, its therapeutic effects extend through the waking hours, into late evening, and in some patients, through to early the next morning. Atomoxetine may be considered for patients who are unresponsive or incompletely responsive to stimulant treatment, have co-morbid conditions (e.g. tics, anxiety, depression), and have sleep disturbances or eating problems, for patients in whom stimulants are poorly tolerated, and for situations where there is potential for drug abuse or diversion. Atomoxetine has been shown to be effective in relapse prevention and there is suggestion that atomoxetine may have a positive effect on global functioning; specifically health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and social and family functioning. According to one study, approximately 50% of non-responders to methylphenidate will respond to atomoxetine therapy and approximately 75% of responders to methylphenidate will also respond to atomoxetine. Atomoxetine may be initiated by a schedule of dose increases and cross-tapering with methylphenidate. A slow titration schedule with divided doses minimizes the impact of adverse events within the first several weeks of treatment. Atomoxetine may be co-administered with methylphenidate during the switching period without undue concern for adverse events, such as cardiovascular effects (although monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate is necessary). Atomoxetine may be discontinued abruptly and patients may miss the occasional dose without rebound effects or discontinuation syndrome. A trial period of at least 6-8 weeks, perhaps longer, is recommended before evaluation of the overall tolerability and efficacy of atomoxetine. We conclude that patients with ADHD can be switched from neurostimulants, specifically methylphenidate, to atomoxetine, and may benefit from symptom improvement. PMID:18162007

Prasad, Suyash; Steer, Chris

2008-01-01

113

Forty Years of Research on Xeroderma Pigmentosum at the US National Institutes of Health.  

PubMed

In 1968, Dr. James Cleaver reported defective DNA repair in cultured cells from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. This link between clinical disease and molecular pathophysiology has sparked interest in understanding not only the clinical characteristics of sun sensitivity, damage and cancer that occurred in XP patients but also the mechanisms underlying the damage and repair. While affected patients are rare, their exaggerated UV damage provides a window into the workings of DNA repair. These studies have clarified the importance of a functioning DNA repair system to the maintenance of skin and neurologic health in the general population. Understanding the role of damage in causing cancer, neurologic degeneration, hearing loss and internal cancers provides an opportunity for prevention and treatment. Characterizing complementation groups pointed to the importance of different underlying genes. Studying differences in cancer age of onset and underlying molecular signatures in cancers occurring either in XP patients or the general population has led to insights into differences in carcinogenic mechanisms. The accelerated development of cancers in XP has been used as a model to discover new cancer chemopreventive agents. An astute insight can be a "tipping point" triggering decades of productive inquiry. PMID:25220021

Kraemer, Kenneth H; DiGiovanna, John J

2015-03-01

114

Forty years of change: a northern Alaskan seabird's response to a warming Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While recent decadal-scale decreases in the snow and ice habitats of the Arctic are well documented, there are few concurrent long-term biological data sets, especially for species dependent on the cryopelagic ecosystem associated with arctic sea ice. The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandti), a marine apex predator specializing on prey associated with arctic pack ice has been studied annually since 1975 at a colony on Cooper Island, 35 km east of Point Barrow, Alaska. Over the last four decades critical components of the species' life history have been found to be sensitive to a number of physical and biological effects associated with the region's increasing atmospheric temperatures. Black Guillemots first colonized northern Alaska in the late 1960s and early 1970s as the annual snow-free period increased sufficiently to allow access to nesting cavities for the 80 days required to successfully raise young. At the Cooper Island colony abundance increased during the 1970s and 1980s as summer length continued to increase and wooden nest cavities were provided to increase sample size for monitoring. During this time breeding success was high as summer sea ice remained in the 30-km foraging range of guillemot parents, providing Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), the principal forage fish associated with sea ice and the preferred prey of Black Guillemots. Decreasing summer sea ice extent in the 1990s that accelerated in the last decade reduced the guillemots' access to cryopelagic prey during the critical period when parents are provisioning nestlings. Distance from the colony to the pack ice on 15 August averaged <25 km from 1975-2002 but increased to an average of >100 km from 2003-2011. This ice retreat had a major affect on Arctic Cod availability, causing parent guillemots to shift to lower quality benthic fish resulting in decreases in nestling quality and breeding success when sea ice had retreated and SST was > 4o C. Increasing loss of summer ice in the last decade also facilitated changes in the distribution of a guillemot nest competitor and nest predator resulting in major losses of eggs and young. Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) recently expanded their breeding range from the subarctic to northern Alaska and regularly disrupt guillemot nesting by displacing eggs and killing guillemot nestlings while prospecting for nest sites. Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus), rare on Cooper Island until 2002 are now seen regularly in August as they seek refuge on land and prey on guillemot young. While the loss of cryopelagic prey led to reductions in the guillemot population, the loss of eggs and nestlings to puffins and bears was severe enough to threaten the existence of the colony. In 2011 all nest sites at the colony were replaced with plastic nest cases that eliminate disturbance by bears and puffins. Upper trophic level predators are recognized as important indicators of variation in and perturbations to marine ecosystems and in the near future the waters of the western Arctic will be experiencing a range of alterations due to both atmospheric warming and industrial development. The ongoing research at the Cooper Island Black Guillemot colony, combined with its historic database. will allow assessment of those changes.

Divoky, G.; Suydam, R.

2012-12-01

115

Forty Years in the Making: Understanding the Molecular Mechanism of Peptide Regulation in Bacterial Development  

PubMed Central

Signal transduction systems are influenced by positive and negative forces resulting in an output reflecting the sum of the opposing forces. The Rap family of regulatory protein modules control the output of two-component signal transduction systems through protein?protein and protein?peptide interactions. These modules and their peptide regulators are found in complex signaling pathways, including the bacterial developmental pathway to sporulation, competence, and protease secretion. Two articles published in the current issue of PLOS Biology reveal by means of crystallographic analyses how the Rap proteins of bacilli are regulated by their inhibitor Phr peptide and provide a mechanistic explanation for a genetic phenotype isolated decades earlier. The Rap-Phr module of bacterial regulators was the prototype of a family that now extends to other bacterial signaling proteins that involve the use of the tetratricopeptide repeat structural fold. The results invite speculation regarding the potential exploitation of this module as a molecular tool for applications in therapeutic design and biotechnology. PMID:23526885

Perego, Marta

2013-01-01

116

Forty years of landscape change in Attwater's Prairie Chicken habitat within the Coastal Prairie of Texas  

E-print Network

spatial statistics for Kirtland's warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) habitat in Michigan. Similar statistics were calculated for northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) habitat in Oregon with important ecological and management implications...

McKinney, Lloyd B.

1996-01-01

117

Forty Years of Diffusion of Innovations: Utility and Value in Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issues is created to mark the 40 anniversary of Everett Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) model. Diffusion is the process through which an innovation, defined as an idea perceived as new, spreads via certain communication channels over time among the members of a particular social system. A great deal of research in a variety of academic disciplines (about

MUHIUDDIN HAIDER; GARY L. KREPS

2004-01-01

118

Forty years on: Uta Frith's contribution to research on autism and dyslexia, 1966–2006  

PubMed Central

Uta Frith has made a major contribution to our understanding of developmental disorders, especially autism and dyslexia. She has studied the cognitive and neurobiological bases of both disorders and demonstrated distinctive impairments in social cognition and central coherence in autism, and in phonological processing in dyslexia. In this enterprise she has encouraged psychologists to work in a theoretical framework that distinguishes between observed behaviour and the underlying cognitive and neurobiological processes that mediate that behaviour. PMID:18038335

Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

2008-01-01

119

Education and Geopolitics in a Changing Europe: Forty Years of Scholarship in "European Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article chronicles the history of the journal "European Education" since its establishment in 1969 by placing it within the larger context of geopolitical changes of the twentieth century and the historical debates on theory and method in the field of comparative education. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 40…

Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

2009-01-01

120

"Language Learning" Is Forty Years Old. Motives for the Study of Modern Languages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To mark the 40th anniversary of "Language Learning," the journal's first article is reprinted and identifies five motives for studying foreign languages: (1) "knowledge of a foreign language is the sign of a cultivated man"; (2) foreign insularism; (3) necessity of creating a political fusion; (4) trade and colonization; and (5) scientific and…

Catford, J. C.; Marckwardt, Albert H.

1988-01-01

121

Forty Years Trends in Timing of Pubertal Growth Spurt in 157,000 Danish School Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEntering puberty is an important milestone in reproductive life and secular changes in the timing of puberty may be an important indicator of the general reproductive health in a population. Too early puberty is associated with several psychosocial and health problems. The aim of our study was to determine if the age at onset of pubertal growth spurt (OGS) and

Lise Aksglaede; Lina W. Olsen; Thorkild I. A. Sørensen; Anders Juul; Linda Wright

2008-01-01

122

Cutaneous leishmaniasis predisposing to human skin cancer: forty years local and regional studies.  

PubMed

Different types of association between leishmaniasis and cancer were established: leishmaniasis mimicking a malignant disorder, such as lymphoma; leishmaniasis arising as a difficult to diagnose and treat infection among patients receiving chemotherapy for various malignant disorders; simultaneous diagnosis of leishmaniasis and a neoplastic disorder in the same tissue samples of immunocompromised patients; and direct involvement of Leishmania spp. in pathogenesis/occurrence of malignant lesions, especially of the skin and mucous membranes. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan skin disease occurring in all the Middle East countries. Only the cutaneous form is a self-curing, which may develop a certain degree of immunity against the parasite, resulting in healing of the lesion(s). However, the parasites probably never disappear completely, since in situations where immune system is compromised, as in AIDS, or suppressed by cancer chemotherapy or in organ transplantation, Leishmania spp. may suddenly reappear. The cell-mediated immunity is responsible for skin lesion healing but humeral response plays a protective role against the disease. Skin biopsies from 65 parasitological proven cutaneous leishmaniasis patients from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and Libya were histopathologically studied. The results showed that cutaneous leishmaniasis especially in hot areas pave the way to the mutation and development of skin cancer. PMID:24640863

Morsy, Tosson A

2013-12-01

123

FORTY-TWO YEARS OF HICSS A Brief History of the  

E-print Network

a concern among a number of people intimately involved in computing at the University of Hawai'i that Hawai'i might be considered too remote by many people and somehow left out of the mainstream of activity collaborators and colleagues to Hawai'i and make sure they were not left isolated out in the Pacific Ocean

124

Forty-five years of schizophrenia trials in Italy: a survey  

PubMed Central

Background Well-designed and properly executed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide the best evidence on the efficacy of healthcare interventions. Mental health has a strong tradition of using trial to evaluate treatments, but the translation of research to clinical practice is not always easy. Even well-conducted trials do not necessarily address the needs of every day care and trials can reflect local needs and the specific culture in which they are undertaken. Generalizing results to other contexts can become problematic but these trials may, nevertheless, be very helpful within their own context. Moreover, pathways for drug approval can be different depending on local regulatory agencies. Local trials are helpful for decision-making in the region from which they come, but should not be viewed in isolation. National quantity and quality of trials may vary across nations. The aim of this study is to quantify trialing activity in Italy from 1948 until 2009 and to describe characteristics of these trials. In addition, we evaluated change over time in three keys aspects: sample size, follow-up duration, and number of outcomes. Methods We used the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's register that contains 16,000 citations to 13,000 studies relating only to people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illness. Randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials undertaken in Italy and involving pharmacological interventions were included. Results The original search identified 155 records of potentially eligible studies, 74 of which were excluded because do not meet inclusion criteria. A total of 81 studies were included in the analysis. The majority of trials were conducted in north Italy, and published in international journals between 1981 and 1995. The majority of studies (52 out of 81) used standardized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia disorder. They were defined as randomized and used blind methods to administer treatment. However, most failed to report detail regarding methodological procedures and it is difficult to ascertain which studies are associated with a low risk of bias. Conclusions Trials should be designed to address the needs of everyday care with the aim of following large samples of typical patients in the long term. The Italian tradition in the area of trialing treatments for people with schizophrenia is not as strong as in many other similar countries and Italy should be producing more, better, independent, and clinically relevant trials. PMID:22497735

2012-01-01

125

Large Scale Structure -- the Seventies and Forty Years Later: from Clusters to Clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The following sections are included: * Prologue * Introduction * The readiness for spectroscopic surveys * The early spectroscopic work * Hunting the mass * Toward a new era * What Next? * Conclusions * Acknowledgments * APPENDIX I * APPENDIX II * APPENDIX III * References

Chincarini, Guido

2015-01-01

126

Forty Years in the Union: Incubating, Supporting, and Catalyzing Socially Just Educational Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North American teacher unions' positive contributions to educational change have historically flown under the radar of educational policy makers, a situation that has been reified by recent attacks on public sector unions. In this article, I draw on social movement theory and an institutional case study of a self described social justice union to…

Rottmann, Cindy

2012-01-01

127

Enduring Documents and Public Doctrines: Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail" after Forty Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the century just past, the immense ethical and political destructiveness of intellectuals was so frequent and protean in form that intellectual historians have a story as complex as it is tragic to tell, and one that many of them do not relish, perhaps out of occupational solidarity or shame. The "treason of the intellectuals," to use Julien…

Aeschliman, M. D.

2005-01-01

128

In Search of the Audience - Forty Years of German Public Television and Its Audience Driven Commercialization  

E-print Network

like to especially thank Doris Heinze, and the Tatort producers Mende and Ramcke at Studio Hamburg, Melanie Wolber and Ulrich Herman, Dr. Gebhard Henke, Dr. Schröder-Zebralla, and Gregor Winkowski at Ziegler Film in Berlin. This dissertation would...

Goebel, Baerbel

2011-04-11

129

Forty years of diffusion of innovations: utility and value in public health.  

PubMed

This special issue is created to mark the 40th anniversary of Everett Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) model. Diffusion is the process through which an innovation, defined as an idea perceived as new, spreads via certain communication channels over time among the members of a particular social system. A great deal of research in a variety of academic disciplines (about 5000 published studies so far) has been conducted on the diffusion of innovations over the past six decades. The areas of application for these studies range from hybrid seed corn to modern math, to the snowmobile to antibiotic drugs, to HIV/AIDS prevention (Rogers, 1995). These investigations have led to a general model of the diffusion of innovations, which can be applied to the recent spread of the Internet or to any other new idea. Everett Roger's ground-breaking model has contributed to a greater understanding of behavioral change, including the variation in rates of adoption of innovations, and it has held a broad scope of practical applications in the field of public health. PMID:14960400

Haider, Muhiuddin; Kreps, Gary L

2004-01-01

130

Forty-Two Ethiopian Boys: Observations of Their First Year in Israel.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides observations by a social worker functioning as a housemother to Ethiopian Jewish refugee adolescent boys recently arrived in Israel. Discusses boys' technologicial and cultural adjustment, health and mental health problems, and racial problems. (ABL)

Zima, Suellen

1987-01-01

131

Promises and practices: job evaluation and equal pay forty years on!  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThis article examines the claim made by Barbara Castle when introducing the Equal Pay Act (EPA) in 1970 that there is nothing preventing unions pressing for job evaluation schemes to achieve equal pay. It does this by examining the research on potential hurdles to job evaluation and those that can be found in the UK law since the introduction of

Kay Gilbert

2012-01-01

132

INVITED EDITORIAL: A meander through forty years of The Society for Radiological Protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the 8th May 1963, 64 men and two women gathered in an austere lecture theatre at Imperial College, University of London. They came from all sections of the nuclear industry, both civil and military, and from radiology, radiological protection and academic backgrounds. And they came with a common purpose, to witness the foundation of the `The Society for Radiological

John Jackson

2003-01-01

133

Forty Years of Progress: Where Have We Been? Where Are We Now?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper uses personal profiles to highlight major events across the past five decades that have affected the lives of individuals with mental retardation and their families. Each of the scenarios provided represents a creation of prototypical families, communities, school climates, issues, and social attitudes during a particular decade.…

Black, Rhonda S.; Salas, Beverly A.

134

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis)  

E-print Network

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis) Annelies Genbrugge,1,2 Anne'Histoire Naturelle, 57 rue Cuvier, Case postale, Paris Cedex, France Abstract Darwin's finches are a model system description of the skeletal development of the skull in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis). Although

Gent, Universiteit

135

The Rearranged Workweek of Four Days, Forty Hours with a Treatment of Military Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of the study was to develop a military reference on the rearranged workweek, especially the four-day, forty-hour arrangement. In the research an extensive review of pertinent literature was accomplished to provide the necessary background to properly evaluate the military four-day, forty-hour workweek experience at McGuire Air…

Foster, William J.

136

Habitat evaluation for outbreak of Yangtze voles, Microtus fortis, and management implications.  

PubMed

Rodent pests severely damage agricultural crops. Outbreak risk models of rodent pests often do not include sufficient information regarding geographic variation. Habitat plays an important role in rodent-pest outbreak risk, and more information about the relationship between habitat and crop protection is urgently needed. The goal of the present study was to provide an outbreak risk map for the Dongting Lake region and to understand the relationship between rodent-pest outbreak variation and habitat distribution. The main rodent pests in the Dongting Lake region are Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis, Buchner, 1889). These pests cause massive damage in outbreak years, most notably in 2007. Habitat evaluation and ecological details were obtained by analyzing the correlation between habitat suitability and outbreak risk, as indicated by population density and historical events. For the source-sink population, 96.18% Yangtze vole disaster regions were covered by a 10-km buffer zone of suitable habitat in 2007. Historical outbreak frequency and peak population density were significantly correlated with the proportion of land covered by suitable habitat (r = 0.68, p = 0.04 and r = 0.76, p = 0.03, respectively). The Yangtze vole population tends to migrate about 10 km in outbreak years. Here, we propose a practical method for habitat evaluation that can be used to create integrated pest management plans for rodent pests when combined with basic information on the biology, ecology, and behavior of the target species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25316099

Xu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Yunlin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Meiwen; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong

2014-10-14

137

Characterization of cyclic and acyclic alkanes in Forties and Kuwait petroleum crudes  

SciTech Connect

Alkane hydrocarbon fractions from Forties (North Sea) and Kuwait petroleum crudes, separated by distillation, solvent extraction and silicagel column chromatography and sub-fractionated by molecular-sieve adsorption, have been examined by gas chromatography (GC), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and field desorption (FD)MS. GC indicates that Forties contains rather more acyclic isoprenoids and cyclic alkanes than Kuwait; FDMS of Kuwait shows molecular-weight ranges for mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentacyclic alkanes. {sup 13}C NMR spectra provide evidence of higher aromatic carbon, C{sub A}, in Forties than Kuwait and longer T{sub 1} relaxation times.

Jones, D.W. (Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Univ. of Bradford, Bradford BD7 1DP (GB)); Pakdel, H. (Dept. de Genie Chimique, Univ. Laval, Cite Univ., Quebec G1K 6P4 (CA)); Bartle, K.D. (School of Chemistry, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (GB))

1990-01-01

138

Forty-Four Pass Fibre Optic Loop for Improving the Sensitivity of Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors  

E-print Network

A forty-four pass fibre optic surface plasmon resonance sensor that enhances detection sensitivity according to the number of passes is demonstrated for the first time. The technique employs a fibre optic recirculation loop that passes the detection spot forty- four times, thus enhancing sensitivity by a factor of forty-four. Presently, the total number of passes is limited by the onset of lasing action of the recirculation loop. This technique offers a significant sensitivity improvement for various types of plasmon resonance sensors that may be used in chemical and biomolecule detections.

Chin B Su; Jun Kameoka

2007-09-21

139

77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,655] Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services...

2012-09-06

140

Effects of Microtus fortis lymphocytes on Schistosoma japonicum in a bone marrow transplantation model.  

PubMed

Microtus fortis is a non-permissive host for Schistosoma japonicum. While M. fortis lymphocytes are known to provide natural resistance against S. japonicum, the specific mechanism remains unclear. A bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model was established using immunodeficient mice, either nude (experiment 1) or V(D)J recombination activation gene deficient mice (RAG-1(-/-)) (experiment 2) as recipients and M. fortis or C57BL/6 mice as donors. The growth and development of S. japonicum were evaluated in each group to assess the role of M. fortis lymphocytes in the response to infection. Lymphocyte ratios and S. japonicum-specific antibody production in transplanted groups increased significantly compared to those in non-transplanted group. Spleen indices and density of splenic lymphocytes in transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice were higher than those in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. No difference in the worm burden was observed among group A (transplants derived from M. fortis), B (transplants derived from C57BL/6 mouse) and C (non-transplanted mice), although worms in group A were shorter than those in other groups, except non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Reproductive systems of worms in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from M. fortis were not as mature as those in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from C57BL/6 mouse and non-transplanted nude mice, but they were more mature than worms in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Therefore, the transplantation model using nude and RAG-1(-/-) mice was successfully established. The M. fortis lymphocytes did not appear to affect the S. japonicum worm burden, but they led to schistosome shortening and a significant reduction in parasite spawning. Thus, M. fortis cellular and humoral immunity provides a defense against schistosomes by negatively impacting the parasite growth and reproductive development. PMID:24746640

Hu, Yuan; Xu, Yuxin; Lu, Weiyuan; Quan, Hong; Shen, Yujuan; Yuan, Zhongying; Zhang, Jing; Zang, Wei; He, Yongkang; Cao, Jianping

2014-07-01

141

Abraham Lincoln and the German Immigrants: Turners and Forty-Eighters  

E-print Network

Baron, Frank. Abraham Lincoln and the German Immigrants: Turners and Forty-Eighters. Yearbook of German American Studies, Supplemental Issue, volume 4. Lawrence, Kansas: Society of German-American Studies, 2012. Publisher’s official version... citation: Baron, Frank. Abraham Lincoln and the German Immigrants: Turners and Forty- Eighters. Yearbook of German American Studies, Supplemental Issue, volume 4. Lawrence, Kansas: Society of German-American Studies, 2012. Abstract...

Baron, Frank

2012-01-01

142

Persistence of song types in Darwin's finches, Geospiza fortis, over four decades.  

PubMed

Learned bird songs evolve via cultural evolution, with song patterns transmitted across generations by imitative learning. In Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Islands, males learn songs from their fathers, and song types can be maintained across multiple generations. However, little is known about the time frame over which specific song types are preserved, in the face of copy errors and corresponding modifications to song structure. Here we investigate cultural evolution in songs of male Geospiza fortis, at Academy Bay, Santa Cruz Island, comparing songs recorded in 1961 by R. Bowman (20 individuals) to those recorded in 1999 by J. Podos (16 individuals). For each individual, we characterized four timing and six frequency parameters, and assessed inter-individual variation in song structure using multivariate analysis. Several 1961 song types persisted into 1999, some with remarkable fidelity. Variation among song types was extensive during both years, and we detected no changes in 10 vocal parameters across the sampling period. These results illustrate temporal continuity in a culturally acquired trait, and raise questions about mechanisms that promote stability in song structure. PMID:20392717

Goodale, Eben; Podos, Jeffrey

2010-10-23

143

Parathyroid autotransplantation in forty-four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: the role of thallium scanning  

SciTech Connect

Forty-four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were followed for 18 to 126 months after subtotal or total parathyroidectomy and parathyroid autotransplantation. Indications for autotransplantation included the devascularization of parathyroid glands during concomitant thyroid lobectomy or total thyroidectomy and the excision of the only remaining parathyroid tissue in patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism after previous unsuccessful parathyroidectomies. Before implantation, all parathyroid tissue was histologically evaluated by frozen-section light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin stain. Fifteen patients had histologically normal implants; to date none of these patients have developed recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Twenty-nine patients had either adenomatous or hyperplastic parathyroid tissue used for implants; two of these patients developed graft-dependent recurrent hyperparathyroidism 4 and 7 years later. In both patients the grafts were preoperatively localized by thallium scanning and their resection restored eucalcemia. One hundred thirty-one patients from 11 series in the current literature had a cumulative incidence of 17.5% for presumed graft-dependent recurrence and a 9.2% incidence of graft excision followed by eucalcemia. In comparison, in the present series the incidence of graft-dependent recurrent hyperparathyroidism in patients with either adenomatous or hyperplastic implants stands at 6.9%. In contrast, in 15 patients with normal parathyroid tissue implants, the incidence was zero.

McCall, A.R.; Calandra, D.; Lawrence, A.M.; Henkin, R.; Paloyan, E.

1986-10-01

144

37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12...201.12 Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States....

2010-07-01

145

Neutral locus heterozygosity, inbreeding, and survival in Darwin's ground finches (Geospiza fortis  

E-print Network

Neutral locus heterozygosity, inbreeding, and survival in Darwin's ground finches (Geospiza fortis large and well-characterized cohorts of the two numerically dominant species of Darwin's finches on Isla.1038/sj.hdy.6800409 Keywords: Geospiza; inbreeding; heterozygosity; heterosis; Darwin's finches; general

Markert, Jeffrey Alan

146

Aging and Creating Families: Never-Married Heterosexual Women Over Forty  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of women over age forty who had never married was conducted. The women completed a structured questionnaire about their aging and their self-esteem was assessed with a standard measure. The participants were women from across the United States. Descriptive analyses of the data were ordered with ecological systems theory and findings revealed that the women are self-satisfied, socially

Tandace McDill; Sharon K. Hall; Susan C. Turell

2006-01-01

147

CHLORINATION, WATER HARDNESS, AND SERUM CHOLESTEROL IN FORTY-SIX WISCONSIN COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program measured serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. he purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroi...

148

The ant’s estimation of distance travelled: experiments with desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, monitor their position relative to the nest by path integration. They continually update the direction and distance to the nest by employing a celestial compass and an odometer. In the present account we addressed the question of how the precision of the ant’s estimate of its homing distance depends on the distance travelled. We trained

S. Sommer; R. Wehner

2004-01-01

149

Neurostimulation using subnanosecond electric pulses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have for the first time recorded action potentials in rat hippocampus neurons when they were stimulated by subnanosecond electric pulses. The preliminary results show that applying a series of pulses allowed the accumulation of depolarization before activating the voltage gated channels. The depolarization only occurred when the electric pulses were applied. It is unclear whether the depolarization is caused by the charge accumulation across the membrane or the cation influx due to the membrane permeabilization. We have also conducted an electromagnetic simulation of delivering subnanosecond pulses to tissues using an impulse radiating antenna. The results show that the pulses can be confined in the deep region in the brain but the amplitude is reduced significantly due to the attenuation of the tissues. A partially lossy dielectric lens may be used to reverse the decreasing trend of the electric field.

Xiao, Shu; Pakhomov, Andrei; Guo, Fei; Polisetty, Swetha; Schoenbach, Karl H.

2013-02-01

150

First report of genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Microtus fortis in northeastern China.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite which imperils the health of almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. The objective of this study was to determine genetic characterization of T. gondii in free-living Microtus fortis (reed vole) in Jilin province, northeastern China. A total of 104 DNA samples, 74 from Gongzhuling and 30 from Baicheng, were extracted from lung tissues of M. fortis , and 56 (53.8%) of them were positive for T. gondii by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction of the B1 gene. These positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, BUTB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico. Four samples were successfully genotyped at all genetic loci and grouped to 2 distinct genotypes; 2 samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype no. 10 (Type I) and the other 2 presented ToxoDB Genotype no. 9 ( http://toxodb.org/toxo/ ); 4 samples were genotyped at 8 genetic loci, in which 2 samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype no. 10 and 2 presented ToxoDB Genotype no. 9. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii from free-living M. fortis in northeast China. The results suggest that the Type I and ToxoDB Genotype no. 9 could be a potential risk factor for transmission through the reed vole in this region. PMID:24684624

Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Ying-Guang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Quan

2014-10-01

151

90 PERVASIVE computing 1536-1268/02/$17.00 2002 IEEE Forty years ago, when batch pro-  

E-print Network

would go on to invent multitasking, hypertext, the mouse, the Internet, and many other mechanisms a diary of his every- day actions: "About 85 percent of my `thinking' time was actually spent get- ting, Licklider wanted to augment the thought process such that "human brains and comput- ing machines

Starner, Thad E.

152

Forty-two years of succession following strip clearcutting in a northern hardwoods forest in northwestern Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of strip width, slope position, and soil scarification in a split–split plot design on the regeneration of northern hardwoods in northwestern Massachusetts. Whole plots of 20 and 40m in width were cut in 1954 in a second growth forest dominated by Betula papyrifera. Slope position and soil scarification were the split and split–split plot treatments, respectively.

Taber D. Allison; Henry W. Art; Frank E. Cunningham; Rebecca Teed

2003-01-01

153

A forty-three year museum study of northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) abnormalities in Arkansas: upward trends and distributions.  

PubMed

The northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) is a resident of streams, rivers, and wetlands of eastern North America. We documented abnormalities in A. crepitans housed in the Arkansas State University Museum of Zoology Herpetology Collection. Abnormality frequency increased from 1957 to 2000 (chi 2 = 43.76, df = 3, P < 0.001). From 1957 through 1979 only 3.33% of specimens were unusual. This rate was 6.87% during the 1990s, and in 2000 it was 8.48%. High frequencies of abnormalities were identified in the following Ozark highland counties: Sharp, Lawrence, and Randolph. We observed 104 abnormalities among 1,464 frogs (7.10%). The differential abnormality frequencies observed between the Arkansas lowlands and highlands are striking. The Ozarks had significantly higher frequencies of abnormalities than other Arkansas regions (chi 2 = 59.76, df = 4, P < 0.001). The Ouachita Mountains had significantly higher frequencies than the Gulf Coastal Plain, Delta, or Arkansas River Valley (chi 2 = 13.172, df = 3, P < 0.01). There was no difference in abnormality frequency between the Gulf Coastal Plain, Delta, and Arkansas River Valley (chi 2 = 0.422, df = 2, P > 0.70). Proposed hypotheses for distributions include: 1) A. crepitans might possess naturally high abnormality levels, and land use practices of the Delta may reduce this variability; 2) an unknown xenobiotic may be in Ozark streams causing increased numbers of abnormalities; 3) the museum's collection effort may be skewed; 4) Delta habitat might be more favorable for green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) allowing this species to drive out A. crepitans through competition; here, abnormal metamorphs are not detected because they are even less competitive than normal individuals. PMID:14567212

McCallum, Malcolm L; Trauth, Stanley E

2003-07-01

154

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis).  

PubMed

Darwin's finches are a model system in ecological and evolutionary research, but surprisingly little is known about their skull morphology and development. Indeed, only the early beak development and external variation in adult beak shape has been studied. Understanding the development of the skull from embryo up to the adult is important to gain insights into how selection acts upon, and drives, variation in beak shape. Here, we provide a detailed description of the skeletal development of the skull in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis). Although the ossification sequence of the cranial elements is broadly similar to that observed for other birds, some differences can be observed. Unexpectedly, our data show that large changes in skull shape take place between the nestling and the juvenile phases. The reorientation of the beak, the orbit and the formation of well-developed processes and cristae suggest that these changes are likely related to the use of the beak after leaving the nest. This suggests that the active use of the jaw muscles during seed cracking plays an important role in shaping the adult skull morphology and may be driving some of the intra-specific variation observed in species such as G. fortis. Investigating the development of the jaw muscles and their interaction with the observed ossification and formation of the skull and lower jaw would allow further insights into the ecology and evolution of beak morphology in Darwin's finches. PMID:21599660

Genbrugge, Annelies; Heyde, Anne-Sophie; Adriaens, Dominique; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Podos, Jeffrey; Herrel, Anthony

2011-08-01

155

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis)  

PubMed Central

Darwin's finches are a model system in ecological and evolutionary research, but surprisingly little is known about their skull morphology and development. Indeed, only the early beak development and external variation in adult beak shape has been studied. Understanding the development of the skull from embryo up to the adult is important to gain insights into how selection acts upon, and drives, variation in beak shape. Here, we provide a detailed description of the skeletal development of the skull in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis). Although the ossification sequence of the cranial elements is broadly similar to that observed for other birds, some differences can be observed. Unexpectedly, our data show that large changes in skull shape take place between the nestling and the juvenile phases. The reorientation of the beak, the orbit and the formation of well-developed processes and cristae suggest that these changes are likely related to the use of the beak after leaving the nest. This suggests that the active use of the jaw muscles during seed cracking plays an important role in shaping the adult skull morphology and may be driving some of the intra-specific variation observed in species such as G. fortis. Investigating the development of the jaw muscles and their interaction with the observed ossification and formation of the skull and lower jaw would allow further insights into the ecology and evolution of beak morphology in Darwin's finches. PMID:21599660

Genbrugge, Annelies; Heyde, Anne-Sophie; Adriaens, Dominique; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Podos, Jeffrey; Herrel, Anthony

2011-01-01

156

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

157

"Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties" on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities [4]. But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40?-50?) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50?-60?) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60?, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46? south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44? north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59? north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44? north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70? north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35? south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35? south; PIA10439 - dance of the clouds, 47? south; PIA10437 - dual vortices, 33? north. In the Earth's case the turbulence touches the atmosphere, oceans and lithosphere. Navigators for sailing use strong westerly winds in Roaring Forties. Europe is often hit by anomalous, sometimes disasters weather conditions (though winds in the northern hemisphere are somehow softened by landmasses). In the crust of Eurasia, North America and in the Southern ocean along latitudes 46?-48? there are two latitudinal geomorphologic planetary flexures marking transition of subsiding inward belts to uplifting outward (pole ward) belts [5]. These slow secular crust and lithosphere movements of opposite signs witness the tendency of rotating Earth to equilibrate angular momenta of its tropic and extra-tropic belts. Thus, both planets - the rocky sphere and the gaseous giant globe - obey the same fundamental law of nature and try to adjust uneven angular momenta of its tropic and extra-tropic belts marking transition between them by anomalous features. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonic dichotomy, sectoring and granulation of Earth and other celestial bodies // Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Concepts in Global Tectonics, "NCGT-98 TSUKUBA", Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Nov 20-23, 1998, p. 144-147. [3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., 1999, V.1, ?3, 700. [4] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonics of rotating celestial globes // Vernadsky-Brown microsymposium 48, 20-22 Oct. 2008, Moscow, Abstr. m48_20. [5] Kotov F. S. A reflection of planetary flexures in limits of the continental lithosphere // Tectonics and geodynamics of the continental lithosphere. Proceedings of the XXXVI Tectonic conference. T. I, 4-6 Febr. 2003, Ed. Yu.V. Karyakin, Moscow, GEOS, 2003, 37

Kochemasov, G. G.

2009-04-01

158

Celebrating 40 Years Recovering Threatened  

E-print Network

Celebrating 40 Years Recovering Threatened and Endangered Species FY 2011­2012 Report to Congress and Endangered Species FY 2011­2012 Report to Congress U.S. DEPaRTmEnT OF COmmERCE national Oceanic 3 Forty Years of Endangered Species Protection: What's Worked and What's next? This year we

159

Ecoimmunity in Darwin's Finches: Invasive Parasites Trigger Acquired Immunity in the Medium Ground Finch (Geospiza fortis)  

PubMed Central

Background Invasive parasites are a major threat to island populations of animals. Darwin's finches of the Galápagos Islands are under attack by introduced pox virus (Poxvirus avium) and nest flies (Philornis downsi). We developed assays for parasite-specific antibody responses in Darwin's finches (Geospiza fortis), to test for relationships between adaptive immune responses to novel parasites and spatial-temporal variation in the occurrence of parasite pressure among G. fortis populations. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the presence of antibodies in the serum of Darwin's finches specific to pox virus or Philornis proteins. We compared antibody levels between bird populations with and without evidence of pox infection (visible lesions), and among birds sampled before nesting (prior to nest-fly exposure) versus during nesting (with fly exposure). Birds from the Pox-positive population had higher levels of pox-binding antibodies. Philornis-binding antibody levels were higher in birds sampled during nesting. Female birds, which occupy the nest, had higher Philornis-binding antibody levels than males. The study was limited by an inability to confirm pox exposure independent of obvious lesions. However, the lasting effects of pox infection (e.g., scarring and lost digits) were expected to be reliable indicators of prior pox infection. Conclusions/Significance This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of parasite-specific antibody responses to multiple classes of parasites in a wild population of birds. Darwin's finches initiated acquired immune responses to novel parasites. Our study has vital implications for invasion biology and ecological immunology. The adaptive immune response of Darwin's finches may help combat the negative effects of parasitism. Alternatively, the physiological cost of mounting such a response could outweigh any benefits, accelerating population decline. Tests of the fitness implications of parasite-specific immune responses in Darwin's finches are urgently needed. PMID:20066052

Huber, Sarah K.; Owen, Jeb P.; Koop, Jennifer A. H.; King, Marisa O.; Grant, Peter R.; Grant, B. Rosemary; Clayton, Dale H.

2010-01-01

160

Differential Expression of microRNAs in the Non-Permissive Schistosome Host Microtus fortis under Schistosome Infection  

PubMed Central

The reed vole Microtus fortis is the only mammal known in China in which the growth, development and maturation of schistosomes (Schistosoma japonicum) is prevented. It might be that the anti-schistosomiasis mechanisms of M. fortis associate with microRNA-mediated gene expression, given that the latter has been found to be involved in gene regulation in eukaryotes. In the present study, the difference between pathological changes in tissues of M. fortis and of mice (Mus musculus) post-schistosome infection were observed by using hematoxylin-eosin staining. In addition, microarray technique was applied to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in the same tissues before and post-infection to analyze the potential roles of miRNAs in schistosome infection in these two different types of host. Histological analyses showed that S. japonicum infection in M. fortis resulted in a more intensive inflammatory response and pathological change than in mice. The microarray analysis revealed that 162 miRNAs were expressed in both species, with 12 in liver, 32 in spleen and 34 in lung being differentially expressed in M. fortis. The functions of the differentially expressed miRNAs were mainly revolved in nutrient metabolism, immune regulation, etc. Further analysis revealed that important signaling pathways were triggered after infection by S. japonicum in M. fortis but not in the mice. These results provide new insights into the general mechanisms of regulation in the non-permissive schistosome host M. fortis that exploits potential miRNA regulatory networks. Such information will help improve current understanding of schistosome development and host–parasite interactions. PMID:24391986

Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Hong, Yang; Fu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jianmei; Tao, Jianping; Lin, Jiaojiao

2013-01-01

161

Psychosocial versus biomedical risk factors in Kevorkian's first forty-seven physician-assisted deaths.  

PubMed

This article examines biomedical and psychosocial data on the first forty-seven cases of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) of Kevorkian as collected by means of both a physical autopsy and a preliminary psychological autopsy. The following patterns emerge: 1) The physical condition of these PAS patients was not typical of the conditions that lead to death in the United States. 2) Consistent with the above findings, our pilot data indicate that only 31.1 percent of these patients were terminal. While 73.9 percent were described as reporting pain, only 42.6 percent were revealed at autopsy to have a specific anatomical basis for their pain. However 36 percent were described as depressed, 66 percent as having some disability, and perhaps of key importance, 90 percent expressed a fear of dependency. Most important, our pilot data suggest the possibility of large gender differences, since 3) 68.1 percent of these forty-seven PAS's are women and only 31.9 percent are men. This represents the reverse of the gender pattern for completed suicides in the United States in 1995, resembling instead the approximate pattern for unsuccessful suicide attempts. 4) Approximately 75 percent of both men and women in the above sample were described as reporting pain. Men were almost twice as likely to have had an anatomical basis for the pain and three times as likely to be terminal. Our pilot data indicate PAS women are more likely to be described as depressed and twice as likely to have had a history of previous unsuccessful suicide attempts. 5) Kevorkian's patients were older than the typical unaided suicides in America. Reported pain decreases with age as does depression; however anatomical basis for pain increases slightly with age, and no age effect emerges for terminality. 6) Approximately two-thirds of those physician-assisted suicides were at middle SES levels. History of disability was the biggest risk factor for the low SES patients and fear of dependency for the high SES patients. PMID:12577936

Kaplan, K J; Lachenmeier, F; Harrow, M; O'Dell, J C; Uziel, O; Schneiderhan, M; Cheyfitz, K

162

A Microtus fortis protein, serum albumin, is a novel inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf ) is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin) and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05). We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis. PMID:24271043

Li, Rong; Wu, Guo-Jun; Xiong, De-Hui; Gong, Qiang; Yu, Ruan-Jing; Hu, Wei-Xin

2013-01-01

163

Spinal posture and pelvic position in three hundred forty-five elementary school children: a rasterstereographic pilot study  

PubMed Central

Children's posture has been of growing concern due to observations that it seems to be impaired compared to previous generations. So far there is no reference data for spinal posture and pelvic position in healthy children available. Purpose of this pilot study was to determine rasterstereographic posture values in children during their second growth phase. Three hundred and forty-five pupils were measured with a rasterstereographic device in a neutral standing position with hanging arms. To further analyse for changes in spinal posture during growth, the children were divided into 12-month age clusters. A mean kyphotic angle of 47.1°±7.5 and a mean lordotic angle of 42.1°±9.9 were measured. Trunk imbalance in girls (5.85 mm±0.74) and boys (7.48 mm± 0.83) varied only little between the age groups, with boys showing slightly higher values than girls. The trunk inclination did not show any significant differences between the age groups in boys or girls. Girls' inclination was 2.53°±1.96 with a tendency to decreasing angles by age, therefore slightly smaller compared to boys (2.98°±2.18). Lateral deviation (4.8 mm) and pelvic position (tilt: 2.75 mm; torsion: 1.53°; inclination: 19.8°±19.8) were comparable for all age groups and genders. This study provides the first systematic rasterstereographic analysis of spinal posture in children between 6 and 11 years. With the method of rasterstereography a reliable three-dimensional analysis of spinal posture and pelvic position is possible. Spinal posture and pelvic position does not change significantly with increasing age in this collective of children during the second growth phase. PMID:23705065

Furian, Thimm Christoph; Rapp, Walter; Eckert, Stefanie; Wild, Michael; Betsch, Marcel

2013-01-01

164

32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...45 DoD civilian employees may be competed...fewer DoD civilian employees may be directly... (b) In no case shall any CA involving...than forty-five employees be modified, reorganized...basis of civilian performance. (d) A most...is required for studies involving 11...

2010-07-01

165

32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...45 DoD civilian employees may be competed...fewer DoD civilian employees may be directly... (b) In no case shall any CA involving...than forty-five employees be modified, reorganized...basis of civilian performance. (d) A most...is required for studies involving 11...

2012-07-01

166

32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...45 DoD civilian employees may be competed...fewer DoD civilian employees may be directly... (b) In no case shall any CA involving...than forty-five employees be modified, reorganized...basis of civilian performance. (d) A most...is required for studies involving 11...

2014-07-01

167

32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...45 DoD civilian employees may be competed...fewer DoD civilian employees may be directly... (b) In no case shall any CA involving...than forty-five employees be modified, reorganized...basis of civilian performance. (d) A most...is required for studies involving 11...

2011-07-01

168

32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...45 DoD civilian employees may be competed...fewer DoD civilian employees may be directly... (b) In no case shall any CA involving...than forty-five employees be modified, reorganized...basis of civilian performance. (d) A most...is required for studies involving 11...

2013-07-01

169

"Fortis/Lenis" Revisited One More Time: The Aerodynamics of Some Oral Stop Contrasts in Three Continents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The terms "fortis" and "lenis" are variously regarded as having one single underlying phonetic correlate or many. An exploratory analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic data on contrasting stop series in a number of European and non-European languages confirms that a significant variation in peak intra-oral pressure and in articulatory stricture…

Butcher, Andrew

2004-01-01

170

A Brief History of Cannon Music Camp This summer, Cannon Music Camp completed its forty-fifth session on the  

E-print Network

A Brief History of Cannon Music Camp This summer, Cannon Music Camp completed its forty. Historically, Cannon Music Camp was also a cornerstone for the development of the University's summer cultural. MacWilliam Disbrow) was appointed to develop a plan for the establishment of a summer music camp

Thaxton, Christopher S.

171

Far-UV observations of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with FORTIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Far-UV imagery and objective grating spectroscopy of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) were acquired from NASA sounding rocket 36.296 UG, launched on 20 November 2013 at 04:40 MST (20.48 Nov 2013 UT), 8.32 days pre-perihelion, from the White Sands Missile Range, NM. The comet was 0.1° below ground horizon, 0.44 AU from the Sun, 0.86 AU from the Earth, and at a solar elongation of 26.3°. The payload reached an apogee of 279 km and the total time pointed at the comet was 353 s. At the time of launch ISON was undergoing a factor of 5 increase in water production rate, going from 3.5e29 to 19.6e29 molecules s-1between 19.6 and 21.6 Nov (Combi et al. 2014), marking what is thought to be a final fragmentation event (Sekanina & Kracht 2014). Our instrument, a wide-field multi-object spectro-telescope called FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy), observed Ly? emissions in an objective grating mode through an open microshutter array, developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center, over a (1/2°)2 field-of-view. After accounting for slit losses and deadtime corrections we find a preliminary lower limit to the Ly? surface brightness of ~ 400 kilorayleighs, yielding a hydrogen production rate of QH ~ 5e29 atoms s-1, in reasonable agreement with the Combi result. We also acquired a broadband image of the comet in the 1280 to 1900 Å bandpass. This image shows a drop in count rate proportional to altitude caused by increased absorption of cometary emissions by terrestrial O2 located in the lower thermosphere. O2 absorption acts as a selective time dependent filter that attenuates cometary emissions from different atomic and molecular species at different rates during descent. Preliminary analysis suggests that the dominant species in a (1e5 km)2 nuclear region is neutral carbon. The radial profile in comparison to a Haser model suggests that the C parent molecule had a lifetime (at 1 AU) ~ 105 s; much shorter than the expected lifetime of CO. We conclude there was little CO produced from the interior volume that was exposed during the final fragmentation of this dynamically new comet, in accord with the low CO production rate derived from HST/COS spectra obtained on 1 November 2013 (Weaver et al. 2014).

McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, Samuel H.

2015-01-01

172

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

173

The Forty-Eight-Hour Rule: Emotional Engagement and the Student Athlete  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several years ago, the author taught a course called First-Year experience. A student named Sean mentioned that he played "water pong." Sean, a high-achieving student who was also a member of the lacrosse team, explained that water pong was a game with the rules of beer pong, using water rather than beer. Sean volunteered an explanation of his…

Mueller, Alan C. R.

2009-01-01

174

An Eleven Institution Study of Four-Year and Five-Year Teacher Education Program Graduates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports and discusses some of the results of a comprehensive survey of approximately 3,000 1985-90 graduates of 11 teacher education programs in the Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, and Southwest. Forty-nine percent graduated from 4-year programs, 36 percent from integrated 5-year programs, and 14 percent from fifth-year (graduate only)…

Baker, Thomas E.; Andrew, Michael D.

175

The International Student Question: 45 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since the publication of Dremuk's article 45 years ago, the landscape of international educational exchange has changed significantly. Some of the most notable trends distinguishing the past from the present are highlighted. Forty-five years ago, Dremuk's article emphasized the importance of institutional commitment to international educational…

Aw, Fanta

2012-01-01

176

[Karyological and allozyme variability of far eastern voles Microtus fortis Büchner, 1889 (Cricetidae, Rodentia) from the Russian Far East].  

PubMed

Karyological (G-, C-, and NOR-banding) and allozyme analyses were carried out for island and continental populations of the vole Microtus fortis from the Far East of Russia. Variability of the autosome pair 7 was found. The presence of variation in the number of telomere heterochromatin blocks in the populations of Far Eastern voles was confirmed. NOR-staining of the Far Eastern vole chromosomes was carried out, showing stability of the number and the positions of the nucleolus organizer regions. Ten enzyme systems and three non-enzyme proteins (controlled in total by 25 interpretable loci) were examined in the Far Eastern vole from the island and continental populations. All of the loci were shown to be monomorphic, except for one esterase locus, which exhibited polymorphism at the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels. The issue of distribution of the Far Eastern vole subspecies is discussed. It is suggested that M. fortis pelliceus occurs not only in the Russian Far East, but also in Northern Transbaikalia. PMID:16871789

Sheremet'eva, I N; Kartavtseva, I V; Frisman, L V

2006-06-01

177

Forty-four-hour interdialytic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and cardiovascular risk in pediatric hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Background Children undergoing chronic hemodialysis are at risk of cardiovascular disease and often develop left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is known to better predict cardiovascular morbidity than casual blood pressure (BP) measurement. Given the BP variability attributed to interdialytic fluid overload, 44-h ABPM should better delineate cardiovascular morbidity in pediatric hemodialysis patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 17 children (16.7 ± 2.9 years) on chronic hemodialysis underwent 44-h interdialytic ABPM and routine echocardiogram. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated by height-based equation; LVH was defined as an LVMI in the ?95th percentile for height-age and gender. Hypertension was defined by the recommendations of the Fourth Report of the National High Blood Pressure Education Program for casual measurements, and by those of the American Heart Association for ABPM. Results Twenty-four percentage of patients were hypertensive by casual post-dialytic systolic BP, whereas 59% were hypertensive by ABPM. Eighty-eight percentage of patients had abnormal cardiac geometry: 53% had LVH. Thirty-five percentage (6 of 17) had masked hypertension, including four with abnormal cardiac geometry, of which, three had LVH. LVMI correlated with ABPM, but not with casual measurements. Strongest correlations with an increased LVMI were with 44-h diastolic BP: at night (r = 0.53, P = 0.03) and total load (r = 0.57, P = 0.02). LVH was similarly associated with 44-h nighttime BP: systolic (P = 0.02), diastolic (P = 0.01) and mean arterial (P = 0.01). Conclusions Casual BP measurement underestimates hypertension in pediatric hemodialysis patients and does not correlate well with indicators of cardiovascular morbidity. In contrast, 44-h interdialytic ABPM better characterizes hypertension, with nighttime parameters most strongly predicting increased LVMI and LVH.

Katsoufis, Chryso P.; Seeherunvong, Wacharee; Sasaki, Nao; Abitbol, Carolyn L.; Chandar, Jayanthi; Freundlich, Michael; Zilleruelo, Gaston E.

2014-01-01

178

[Possible impacts of the Three Gorges Project and converting farmland into lake on the Microtus fortis population in Dongting Lake region].  

PubMed

The outbreak of Yantze vole (Microtus fortis) population in Dongting Lake region is closely related to the evolvement of lake beaches, because the deposition of lake sediments results in the expansion of lake beaches, which provides the possibility of the increase of the vole's population. Reclaiming farmland from lake via building cofferdams, eliminating snails by building cofferdams for eradicating schistosomiasis, and over-hunting predators in the region cause the voles becoming a pest after the 1970s. In recent years, the Three Gorges Project and the conversion from farmland into lake have had deep impacts on the environment in the Lake region. The dispatching of the down flow rate by the Project induces the expansion of the low and medium level beaches in the Lake region, while converting farmland into lake directly induces the increase of beach area, both of which expand the potential habitats of the vole's population. Therefore, more attention should be paid on the quantitative variation trend of the vole's population in the future. PMID:23189685

Zhang, Mei-Wen; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Huang, Guo-Xian; Guo, Cong

2012-08-01

179

Forty-Fourth Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Administrative Report Including Technical Reports Nos. 1342 to 1392  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with act of Congress, approved March 3, 1915, as amended (U.S.C., title 50, .sw 151), which established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Committee submits its Forty-fourth Annual Report for the fiscal year 1958. This is the Committee's final report to the Congress. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568) provides in section 301 that the NACA "shall cease to exist" and "all functions, powers, duties, and obligations, and all real and personal property, personnel (other than members of the Committee), funds, and records of the NACA shall be transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The aforesaid act provides that "this section shall take effect 90 days after the date of the enactment of this act, or on any earlier date on which the Administrator shall determining and announce by proclamation published in the Federal Register, that the Administration has been organized and is prepared to discharge the duties and exercise the power conferred upon it by this act." The Administrator, Hon. T. Keith Glennan has advised the Committee of his intention to issue such proclamation, effective October 1,1958.

1959-01-01

180

Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

Kahlenberg, Richard D.

2008-01-01

181

At the Crossroads: A Report on the Financial Condition of the Forty-Eight Liberal Arts Colleges Previously Studied in "The Golden Years, The Turning Point." No. 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document reports on the financial condition of 48 liberal arts colleges. Emphasis is placed on the deficit picture between 1970 and 1973; income and expenditure trends for the 48 colleges; implications of the decline in expenditure growth; needed measures of inflation and real resource growth; indicators of financial and academic health in…

Wynn, G. Richard

182

Forty Years of Excellence and Beyond. Proceedings of the Annual North East Association for Institutional Research (NEAIR) Conference (40th, Newport, Rhode Island, November 9-12, 2013)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The NEAIR 2013 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Newport, Rhode Island, conference. Papers in this document include: (1) Aspiring to the Role of "Data Badass:" Some Thoughts on the Political Context of IR (Mark Freeman); (2) Data-Driven Internal Benchmarks and Successful Learning Outcomes (Mamta Saxena…

Parker, Tiffany, Ed.

2013-01-01

183

Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome in a Forty-Three-Year-Old Man With High-Dose Oxycodone/Naloxone  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is an increasing cause of chronic pain in most countries. This poses high costs to both patients and National Health Organizations. Case Presentation: In this report, multimodal pain management based on daily high-dose oxycodone/naloxone (OXN 180/90 mg) led to reduced patient's pain score and improved quality of life. Conclusions: Oxycodone/naloxone can be a good alternative for the management of FBSS when other interventional or pharmacologic strategies have failed. In this case report, higher doses than those recommended as a maximum daily ceiling (80/40 mg) were safely used in one selected patient with noncancer severe pain. PMID:25893186

Bujedo, Borja Mugabure

2015-01-01

184

Forty Years Later: Long-Term Consequences of Massive Traumatization as Manifested by Holocaust Survivors from the City and the Kibbutz.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared Holocaust survivors (N=34) and controls (N=34) who lived in city or on kibbutz. Survivors were worse off psychologically than controls on quality of emotional life, emotional expression, and quality of interpersonal relationships. Survivors assigned relatively greater value to postwar families. City survivors seemed worse off than kibbutz…

Nadler, Arie; Ben-Shushan, Dan

1989-01-01

185

Forty Years Later: Long-Term Consequences of Massive Traumatization as Manifested by Holocaust Survivors From the City and the Kibbutz  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored the differences between male and female Holocaust survivors (n = 34) and controls (n = 34) who were similar to the survivors but had not been victims of the Holocaust. Half of the respondents were from the city and the other half were from the Kibbutz. The main dependent measures included the CAQ, the TSCS, and

Arie Nadler; Dan Ben-Shushan

1989-01-01

186

The IUCN International Red List of Threatened Species, conceived more than forty years ago, has been an essential tool for international species conservation. Traditionally,  

E-print Network

www.stateofthesalmon.org SSG Workflow Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) illustration by Kate for members of the genera Oncorhynchus and Hucho. To do so, we are relying in large part on new data presented the range of seven species of anadromous Oncorhynchus--and therefore offers us the first opportunity

Gross, Mart

187

Forty Years of Movie Hacking: Considering the Potential Implications of the Popular Media Representation of Computer Hackers from 1968 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly movies are being produced which feature plots that incorporate elements of computer security and hacking, and cumulatively these movies are creating a public perception as to the nature of computer security. This research examines movies that feature hackers (and hacking) to identify if any common themes emerge from these movies in their representation of these issues. To achieve this,

Damian Gordon

2010-01-01

188

Monthly Highlights from Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station February/March 2009 1967-2007: Forty Years of Urban Fringe Farming Change  

E-print Network

Monthly Highlights from Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station February/March 2009 1967's Gloucester County ap- proach $50,000 to 100,000 per acre. · High farmland taxes, even after 1965 passage allocated $208,000 and purchased three ad- joining farms, totaling 264 acres, establishing the Rutgers

Goodman, Robert M.

189

The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline isolated from the arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis inhibits marine micro- and macrobiofouling.  

PubMed

The inhibition of marine biofouling by the bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline, isolated from the Arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis, is described. All major stages of the fouling process are investigated. The effect of ianthelline on adhesion and growth of marine bacteria and microalgae is tested to investigate its influence on the initial microfouling process comparing with the known marine antifoulant barettin as a reference. Macrofouling is studied via barnacle (Balanus improvisus) settlement assays and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) phenoloxidase inhibition. Ianthelline is shown to inhibit both marine micro- and macrofoulers with a pronounced effect on marine bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 0.1-10 ?g/mL) and barnacle larval settlement (IC50?=?3.0 ?g/mL). Moderate effects are recorded on M. edulis (IC50?=?45.2 ?g/mL) and microalgae, where growth is more affected than surface adhesion. The effect of ianthelline is also investigated against human pathogenic bacteria. Ianthelline displayed low micromolar MIC values against several bacterial strains, both Gram positive and Gram negative, down to 2.5 ?g/mL. In summary, the effect of ianthelline on 20 different representative marine antifouling organisms and seven human pathogenic bacterial strains is presented. PMID:25051957

Hanssen, Kine O; Cervin, Gunnar; Trepos, Rozenn; Petitbois, Julie; Haug, Tor; Hansen, Espen; Andersen, Jeanette H; Pavia, Henrik; Hellio, Claire; Svenson, Johan

2014-12-01

190

Serial 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans after urinary infections presenting before the age of 5 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty five children presenting with a first proven urinary tract infection under the age of 5 years were studied by sequential 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans. Forty nine kidneys in 40 children had definite defects at presentation, and 39 (80%) of these defects were still present when the DMSA scan was repeated. Changes in the appearance of defects were independent

I G Verber; S T Meller

1989-01-01

191

Indications for the Gasless Transaxillary Robotic Approach to Thyroid Surgery: Experience of Forty-Seven Procedures at the American Hospital of Paris  

PubMed Central

Background Thyroid surgery is in a state of evolution from traditional open approaches to novel robotic techniques. The gasless transaxillary approach to thyroid surgery is effective in the management of thyroid cancer, and complications after robotic thyroidectomy are no higher than experienced after open or endoscopic techniques. The transaxillary robotic approach also avoids an anterior neck scar. This paper presents what the authors believe to be the largest cohort of patients reported in Europe undergoing gasless transaxillary robotic thyroid surgery, with the aim of defining the indications for this procedure. Methods Forty-six patients underwent robotic thyroid surgery via the transaxillary approach and were enrolled in this study between March 2010 and September 2012. All patients were operated on by one surgeon at one clinical center. Reviewed data included patient characteristics, pathological characteristics, extent of surgery and postoperative complications. The mean follow-up time was 7.29 months. Results Forty-six patients underwent 47 procedures, the average age of the patients was 43 years and the male to female ratio was 1:22. Undertaken were 30 lobectomies, 3 subtotal thyroidectomies, 13 total thyroidectomies and 1 totalization. One case was converted to an open procedure. The ratio of malignant to benign disease was 1:6.67 (6:40 cases) and analysis of the surgical specimens showed 6 follicular lesions, 24 follicular adenomas, 3 colloid lesions, 1 case of thyroiditis/lymphatic lesion, 3 adenomatoid lesions, 3 oncocytic adenomas, 3 papillary cancers and 3 microcapillary cancers. The overall average size of an individual specimen removed was 45.40 ± 28.95 cm3 (range 5-160, n = 47) and the average largest diameter of the lesion removed was 3.72 ± 0.95 cm (range 1.4-6.0, n = 47). Postoperatively, there were 5 recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries (4 transient), 2 transient brachial plexopathies, 1 case of postoperative dysphagia and 1 of collection of blood at the site of surgery. There were no cases of disease recurrence at follow-up. Conclusions The gasless robotic transaxillary approach to thyroid surgery has been predicted to become a standard technique. It has been shown to be efficacious in the management of thyroid cancer with lateral neck metastases; however, more data relating to oncological safety in long-term follow-up is required. This intervention is also appropriate for benign thyroid disease including Graves' disease. To achieve consistently successful results, careful patient selection is fundamental in terms of patient characteristics and the anatomical aspects of the lesion. This is especially important with a geographical expansion to include North America and Europe. The excellent cosmetic results of this procedure make it ideal for patients who have esthetic concerns regarding particular difficulties with healing; however, in common with all new surgical procedures, further evidence must be sought to confirm its indications over time. PMID:24783047

Aidan, Patrick; Pickburn, Helen; Monpeyssen, Hervé; Boccara, Gilles

2013-01-01

192

Puzzlemaking and Part-Whole Perception of Two-Year-Old and Four-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relationship between preschoolers' puzzlemaking strategies and part-whole perception was investigated in the present study. Forty-eight two year olds and 48 four year olds were randomly selected from eight licensed childcare centers. Puzzlemaking strategies (image, form, color, and trial and error) were measured by performance in the…

Montford, Emily I. Purvis; Readdick, Christine A.

2008-01-01

193

Animism Begins at Forty: Evidence that Animism and Other Naive Beliefs Are Established before the Onset of Old Age  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animism (erroneously believing inanimate objects are alive) is present in older adults (McDonald & Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). However, it is unclear if animism arises in later life or middle age. The current study tested 34 middle-aged adults (mean age 48 years) on Piaget's animism task and found a significant level of animism. Strength of animism…

Parry, Robert; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian

2010-01-01

194

Pregnancy outcome and intelligence at age five years  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to determine the influence of being small for gestational age at term and being preterm <34 weeks on cognitive functioning at age 5 years. STUDY DESIGN: Five hundred forty-six children of black low-income mothers, nearly all at risk for being small for gestational age, followed up prenatally with early ultrasonographic gestational age dating, were classified as

Robert L. Goldenberg; Mary B. DuBard; Suzanne P. Cliver; Kathleen G. Nelson; Kwamena Blankson; Sharon L. Ramey; Allen Herman

1996-01-01

195

Revisiting First-Year Teacher Burnout: New South Carolina Educators in the Era of Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-six percent of the nation's teachers are expected to leave the profession by their fifth year in the classroom. This alarming statistic has grabbed the attention of federal, state, and local leaders. In South Carolina alone, 28,500 teachers left the profession in the last five years, or an average of 5,700 per year. This translates to a…

Ilagan, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

196

Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

2012-01-01

197

[Forty-one cases of Cushing's syndrome: a comparison between Cushing's syndrome (adrenal adenoma) and Cushing's disease (adrenal hyperplasia)].  

PubMed

We experienced 41 cases of Cushing's syndrome (12 males and 29 females, 15 years old - 65 years old) during the last 20 years. These included 20 patients with unilateral adrenal adenoma (Cushing's syndrome), 19 patients with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (Cushing's disease), one patient with adrenal carcinoma and one patient with primary adrenocortical nodular dysplasia (PAND). Moreover, these cases included some special ones, i.e. 5 cases with destructive thyroiditis after treatment, 2 cases with aggravation of arthritis after treatment, a case of Carney's complex with PAND, one case with paradoxical response to dexamethasone, and one case combined with empty sella syndrome. The most specific clinical signs were moon face (95% occurrence), hypertension (95%) and subcutaneous bruising (80%). Other significant signs were eye edema (66%), buffalo hump (68%), subcutaneous purpura (63%) and osteoporosis (49%). Skin striae was not a common sign in our cases (41%). Renal stone was observed in only 20% of our patients but was a significant sign in this syndrome. There was no difference in the occurrence of each clinical sign between Cushing's syndrome and Cushing's disease. The elevation of white blood cell count (WBC) and serum sodium, a decrease of serum potassium, and a decrease of reabsorption of phosphate (%TRP) were observed. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and human growth hormone (HGH) were suppressed in patients with Cushing's syndrome and patients with Cushing's disease. These results were consistent with those of previous reports. However, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and prolactin (PRL) were high in those patients with Cushing's syndrome and those with Cushing's disease. Oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in 34 patients before and after treatment. Thirty-one percent of those had diabetes mellitus and 26% had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The response of IRI in this test was high in patients with Cushing's syndrome and patients with Cushing's disease, and decreased 4 weeks after treatment in those with Cushing's syndrome but remained high in those with Cushing's disease. Plasma ACTH level and urinary 17-OHCS excretion were significantly higher in Cushing's disease than in Cushing's syndrome. During an 8mg-high-dose dexamethasone suppression test, urinary 17-OHCS excretion in 13 of 14 patients with Cushing's disease (93%) was suppressed by more than 50% of baseline on the second day of testing. However, all of 18 patients with Cushing's syndrome, who had an 8mg-dexamethasone suppression test, failed to suppress urinary 17-OHCS by 50% of baseline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1633931

Komiya, I; Takasu, N; Ohara, N; Nagasawa, Y; Ohtsuka, H; Asawa, T; Yamada, T

1992-06-20

198

HER2/neu negative salivary duct carcinoma of parotid: A case with forty months recurrence free follow up  

PubMed Central

Introduction Salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) is very rare, only 1–3% of all salivary gland tumors are reported as SDC. SDC predominantly occurs in elderly males, SCD is characterized by an aggressive clinical course of the disease with less than 60% five years survival from the day of initial diagnosis, lymph node metastasis and facial nerve involvement is common, the current literature lacks protocol regarding management of this entity and the advantage of adjuvant therapy has not been evaluated due to its rare occurrence. Presentation of case We report patient with stage IV HER2/neu negative SDC successfully treated with surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy, patient is followed up for 40 months without evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Discussion SDC is reported to be similar to mammary duct carcinoma in clinical and immunohistologic typing, further it shows an association of expression of HER-2/neu and p53, with early local disease recurrence, distant metastasis and survival, however; current case was adequately followed up and reevaluated after 26 months, MRI did not show evidence of recurrence. Conclusion SDC is a rare tumor and information on association of HER2/neu with survival is useful in further research on this tumor. PMID:25603487

Gokavarapu, Sandhya; Fonseca, Daphne; Puthamakula, Sreenivasa; Reddy, Bal P.; Reddy, B. Sridhar; Murthy, Sudha

2015-01-01

199

Oral Communication in Business Textbooks: A Twenty-Four Year Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight textbooks used in business communication courses over the past 24 years were examined in an effort to determine whether they (1) were essentially different from textbooks used in speech communication courses, (2) showed a trend across the years to move from primarily writ ten to primarily spoken communication as the central thrust of study, and (3) offered training designed

Gerald M. Gibson; Ethel C. Glenn

1982-01-01

200

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005  

E-print Network

Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005 Open.S. Geological Survey scientists measuring discharge at the mouth of the Forty-mile River in Yukon Territories, Canada, August 2004 #12;Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year

201

Is the U-Curve of Marital Satisfaction an Illusion? A 40-Year Study of Marriage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-year study of 169 college men and their wives examined marital satisfaction prospectively and retrospectively. Examined retrospectively, marital satisfaction followed weak curvilinear patterns with lowest point of marriage at approximately 20 years. Studied prospectively, U-curve disappeared and marital satisfaction remained relatively…

Vaillant, Caroline O.; Vaillant, George E.

1993-01-01

202

FORTY-SEVENTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT  

E-print Network

human security in terms of health, infant mortality, crime, fear, violence, civic participation, voting Degen Horowitz, Trustee Berry, Vice Chancellor Dobrin, honored guests on the platform from the Graduate Marable. Today, 334 of you will graduate from the Graduate Center of the City University of New York

Dennehy, John

203

FORTY-EIGHTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT  

E-print Network

-à-vis the government. The movement's refusal to nail down demands was clarified for me on my first visit to Zuccotti a response from Republican leaders as well; all of the GOP presidential candidates served up populist claims

Dennehy, John

204

FORTY-FIFTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT  

E-print Network

; Slavery and Freedom: An Interpretation of the Old South; and The Radical and the Republican: Frederick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, and the Triumph of Antislavery Politics. In 2008, the latter received

Dennehy, John

205

The head of the finch: the anatomy of the feeding system in two species of finches (Geospiza fortis and Padda oryzivora).  

PubMed

Despite the large number of studies devoted to the evolution of beak shape in Darwin's finches, surprisingly little is known about the morphology of the skull and jaw musculature in these birds. Moreover, it remains currently unclear whether Darwin's finches are unusual in their cranial morphology compared with other seed-cracking birds. Here, we provide a detailed description of the morphology of the cranial system in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) and compare it with that of another seed-cracking bird of similar overall size and appearance, the Java finch (Padda oryzivora). Our data show an overall similarity in beak size and cranial morphology. Yet, differences in the jaw adductor size and corresponding attachments to the cranium and mandible are prominent, with the medium ground finch having much more robust jaw-closing muscles. This is reflected in differences in bite forces, with the medium ground finch biting much harder than the Java finch. These data suggest similarities in the evolution of the feeding system in birds specializing in the cracking of hard seeds, but also show the uniqueness of the cranial morphology and bite force of the medium ground finch compared with other seed-cracking birds. PMID:21999913

Genbrugge, Annelies; Herrel, Anthony; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Podos, Jeffrey; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Dominique, Adriaens

2011-12-01

206

The head of the finch: the anatomy of the feeding system in two species of finches (Geospiza fortis and Padda oryzivora)  

PubMed Central

Despite the large number of studies devoted to the evolution of beak shape in Darwin's finches, surprisingly little is known about the morphology of the skull and jaw musculature in these birds. Moreover, it remains currently unclear whether Darwin's finches are unusual in their cranial morphology compared with other seed-cracking birds. Here, we provide a detailed description of the morphology of the cranial system in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) and compare it with that of another seed-cracking bird of similar overall size and appearance, the Java finch (Padda oryzivora). Our data show an overall similarity in beak size and cranial morphology. Yet, differences in the jaw adductor size and corresponding attachments to the cranium and mandible are prominent, with the medium ground finch having much more robust jaw-closing muscles. This is reflected in differences in bite forces, with the medium ground finch biting much harder than the Java finch. These data suggest similarities in the evolution of the feeding system in birds specializing in the cracking of hard seeds, but also show the uniqueness of the cranial morphology and bite force of the medium ground finch compared with other seed-cracking birds. PMID:21999913

Genbrugge, Annelies; Herrel, Anthony; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Podos, Jeffrey; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Dominique, Adriaens

2011-01-01

207

Management of Major Tracheobronchial Injuries: A 28Year Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Tracheobronchial injuries are rare but potentially life threatening. Their successful diagnosis and treatment often require a high level of suspicion and surgical repairs unique to the given injury.Methods. We reviewed our experience with 32 patients with tracheobronchial injuries treated over the past 28 years.Results. Forty-one percent (13\\/32) of the injuries were due to blunt trauma and 59% (19\\/32), to

Mario M Rossbach; Scott B Johnson; Miguel A Gomez; Edward Y Sako; O. LaWayne Miller; John H Calhoon

1998-01-01

208

Hematozoa of hatch-year common mergansers from Michigan.  

PubMed

Fifty-five hatch-year common mergansers (Mergus merganser) were sampled for hematozoa from Douglas Lake (Michigan, USA) on 17 July 1995. Forty-one (75%) were infected with hematozoa. Haemoproteus greineri and Leucocytozoon simondi were common, infecting 28 (51%) and 26 (47%) common mergansers, respectively. Plasmodium circumflexum infected two (4%) birds. The common merganser is a new host record for H. greineri and P. circumflexum. Intensity data indicate possible negative interspecific interaction between H. greineri and L. simondi. PMID:11310899

DeJong, R J; Reimink, R L; Blankespoor, H D

2001-04-01

209

Light Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Shedding Light on Science describes how astronomical distances can be measured in units of light-years, and how the finite speed of light allows astronomers to study how the universe looked long ago.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2007-08-09

210

[Transcranial direct current stimulation: a new tool for neurostimulation].  

PubMed

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a safe method to modulate cortical excitability. Anodal stimulation can improve the stimulated area's functions whereas cathodal stimulation reduces them. Currently, a lot of clinical trials have been conducted to study the effect of tDCS on post-stroke motor and language deficits, in depression, chronic pain, memory impairment and tinnitus in order to decrease symptoms. Results showed that, if an effect is observed with tDCS, it does not persist over time. Current studies suggest that direct current stimulation is a promising technique that helps to improve rehabilitation after stroke, to enhance cognitive deficiencies, to reduce depression and to relieve chronic pain. Moreover, it is a safe, simple and cheap device that could be easily integrated in a rehabilitation program. PMID:22959705

Thibaut, A; Chatelle, C; Gosseries, O; Laureys, S; Bruno, M-A

2013-02-01

211

Laser patterning of platinum electrodes for safe neurostimulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Laser surface modification of platinum (Pt) electrodes was investigated for use in neuroprosthetics. Surface modification was applied to increase the surface area of the electrode and improve its ability to transfer charge within safe electrochemical stimulation limits. Approach. Electrode arrays were laser micromachined to produce Pt electrodes with smooth surfaces, which were then modified with four laser patterning techniques to produce surface structures which were nanosecond patterned, square profile, triangular profile and roughened on the micron scale through structured laser interference patterning (SLIP). Improvements in charge transfer were shown through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biphasic stimulation at clinically relevant levels. A new method was investigated and validated which enabled the assessment of in vivo electrochemically safe charge injection limits. Main results. All of the modified surfaces provided electrical advantage over the smooth Pt. The SLIP surface provided the greatest benefit both in vitro and in vivo, and this surface was the only type which had injection limits above the threshold for neural stimulation, at a level shown to produce a response in the feline visual cortex when using an electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of the eye. This surface was found to be stable when stimulated with more than 150 million clinically relevant pulses in physiological saline. Significance. Critical to the assessment of implant devices is accurate determination of safe usage limits in an in vivo environment. Laser patterning, in particular SLIP, is a superior technique for improving the performance of implant electrodes without altering the interfacial electrode chemistry through coating. Future work will require chronic in vivo assessment of these electrode patterns.

Green, R. A.; Matteucci, P. B.; Dodds, C. W. D.; Palmer, J.; Dueck, W. F.; Hassarati, R. T.; Byrnes-Preston, P. J.; Lovell, N. H.; Suaning, G. J.

2014-10-01

212

Development and Implantation of a Minimally Invasive Wireless Subretinal Neurostimulator  

E-print Network

A wirelessly operated, minimally invasive retinal prosthesis was developed for preclinical chronic implantation studies in Yucatan minipig models. The implant conforms to the outer wall of the eye and drives a microfabricated ...

Theogarajan, Luke

213

A Century of Change: The History of Two-Year Education in the State of Alabama, 1866-1963  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much has been written about two-year education in Alabama during the governorships of George C. Wallace, but little about two-year education prior to his first inauguration in 1963. Yet nearly a third of the forty-three junior, technical, and community college institutions that eventually formed the Alabama Community College System had been…

Smith, Dustin P.

2012-01-01

214

Years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now 60 years since Kurt G6del published his remarkable discoveries on incompleteness. These discoveries changed the face of mathematical logic and, in large measure, discredited two of the three philosophies of mathematics that were prominent at the time: Hilbert's formalism and Russell's logicism. Hilbert's program was discredited by showing that to prove an axiom system consistent requires a

Karen V. H. Parshall

1991-01-01

215

The Effect of Priming on Referential Communication in Four Year Olds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted in light of a neo-Piagetian theory of cognitive development to interpret the effect of priming executive schemes for describing relevant features in a referential communication task. Forty-eight 4-year-old children were divided into primed and nonprimed groups and were asked to describe in isolation a black and white…

Foorman, Barbara R.

216

Emotional and Personality-Related Career Decision-Making Difficulties: A 3-Year Follow-Up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tests the temporal stability and the concurrent and predictive validity of the Emotional and Personality-related Career decision-making Difficulties (EPCD) model and questionnaire. Five hundred forty-three participants filled out the EPCD twice, 3 years apart. The Anxiety cluster was the most stable of the three, followed by the…

Gati, Itamar; Asulin-Peretz, Lisa; Fisher, Ahinoam

2012-01-01

217

Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

Bugos, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

218

Dropped into the Deep End: A Study of Personal Journals in First-Year Composition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the lived experiences of first-year college students who kept personal and private journals in an English composition course. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the lived experiences of keeping those journals from the point-of-view of the journal writers themselves. Forty-eight students were involved…

Wester, Jason Michael

2012-01-01

219

A Study of First-Year Chemistry Students' Understanding of Solution Concentration at the Tertiary Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on students' understanding of sugar concentration in aqueous solutions presented in two different modes: a visual submicroscopic mode for particles and a verbal mode referring to macroscopic amounts of sugar. One hundred and forty-five tertiary college students studying some form of first-year chemistry participated in the…

de Berg, Kevin

2012-01-01

220

The Development of Truth-Functional Language: 1 1/2 - 3 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of language development was intended to chart the developmental course of the spontaneous use of negatives and affirmatives by 1 1/2 - 3-year-olds in response to true or false statements concerning familiar objects, properties, and actions. Forty children, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age, were assessed for knowledge of the words used…

Pea, Roy D.

221

Counselling for prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disease and beta thalassaemia major: a four year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-directive programme of prenatal counselling was used during a four year period. Forty-three couples at risk for having a baby with a haemoglobinopathy were identified. Prenatal diagnosis was offered in 19 pregnancies to 14 couples at risk of having a baby with sickle cell anaemia and in two pregnancies in two couples at risk of a baby with beta

E N Anionwu; N Patel; G Kanji; H Renges; M Brozovi?

1988-01-01

222

The INHALE Project (Information for Nursing and Health in a Learning Environment): the first year  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two year INHALE Project, begun in November 2000 at the University of Huddersfield, is one of forty-four projects supported nationally by the JISC as part of the DNER (Distributed National Electronic Resource) learning and teaching development programme. This article describes the creation, design, utilization and evaluation of the project’s innovative interactive information retrieval skill materials.

Jennifer Brook; Margaret Weaver; David Pattern; Sheila Anderson

2002-01-01

223

Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

2012-01-01

224

26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...taxpayers who placed movie or television films (here- inafter referred to as...

2011-04-01

225

26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...taxpayers who placed movie or television films (here- inafter referred to as...

2014-04-01

226

26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...taxpayers who placed movie or television films (here- inafter referred to as...

2010-04-01

227

26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...taxpayers who placed movie or television films (here- inafter referred to as...

2012-04-01

228

26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning...taxpayers who placed movie or television films (here- inafter referred to as...

2013-04-01

229

Past Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

Lodge, Oliver

2012-07-01

230

Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of Vietnam, with the description of forty-two new species and three new genera  

PubMed Central

Abstract The species of seventeen genera of Agathidinae (Braconidae) from Vietnam are revised: Agathis Latreille, 1804, Bassus Fabricius, 1804; Biroia Szépligeti, 1900; Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894; Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920; Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892; Coronagathis gen. n. (type species: Coronagathis cornifera sp. n.); Cremnops Foerster, 1862; Disophrys Foerster, 1862; Earinus Wesmael, 1837; Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900; Gyragathis gen. n. (type species: Gyragathis quyi sp. n.), Gyrochus Enderlein, 1920; Lytopylus Foerster, 1862; Therophilus Wesmael, 1837; Troticus Brullé, 1846, and Zelodia gen. n. (type species: Zelomorpha varipes van Achterberg & Maetô, 1990). Keys to the Vietnamese species are given. Sixty-five species are recognised, of which twelve species are newly recorded for Vietnam: Bassus albifasciatus (Watanabe, 1934), Coccygidium angostura (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), Cremnops atricornis (Smith, 1874), stat. n., Disophrys erythrocephala Cameron, 1900, Gyrochus yunnanensis Wang, 1984, Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus festivus (Muesebeck, 1953), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lienhuachihensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus marshi (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia absoluta (Chen & Yang, 1998), comb. n. and Zelodia longidorsata (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n. Forty-two species are new to science: Agathis citrinisoma sp. n., Bassus albobasalis sp. n., Bassus albozonatus sp. n., Biroia soror sp. n., Braunsia bicolorata sp. n., Braunsia devriesi sp. n., Braunsia maculifera sp. n., Braunsia nigrapiculata sp. n., Braunsia pumatica sp. n., Camptothlipsis hanoiensis sp. n., Coronagathis cornifera sp. n., Earinus aurantius sp. n., Earinus brevistigmus sp. n., Euagathis flavosoma sp. n., Disophrys maculifera sp. n., Disophrys quymanhi sp. n., Disophrys rhinoides sp. n., Gyragathis quyi sp. n., Therophilus annuliferus sp. n., Therophilus cattienensis sp. n., Therophilus contrastus sp. n., Therophilus crenulisulcatus sp. n., Therophilus depressiferus sp. n., Therophilus elongator sp. n., Therophilus levisoma sp. n., Therophilus marucae sp. n., Therophilus mellisoma sp. n., Therophilus nigrolineatus sp. n., Therophilus nuichuaensis sp. n., Therophilus parasper sp. n., Therophilus planifrons sp. n., Therophilus punctiscutum sp. n., Therophilus robustus sp. n., Therophilus rugosiferus sp. n., Therophilus scutellatus sp. n., Troticus alloflavus sp. n., Troticus giganteus sp. n., Zelodia albobasalis sp. n., Zelodia anginota sp. n., Zelodia bicoloristigma sp. n., Zelodia brevifemoralis sp. n. and Zelodia flavistigma sp. n. The following new synonyms are proposed: Euagathis nigrithorax Bhat & Gupta, 1977, Euagathis variabilis Enderlein, 1920, Euagathis variabilis var. tibialis Enderlein, 1920, Euagathis variabilis var. melanopleura Enderlein, 1920 and Euagathis variabilis var. sucarandana Enderlein, 1920 with Euagathis abbotti (Ashmead, 1900); Euagathis jinshanensis Chen & Yang, 2006 and Euagathis sharkeyi Chen & Yang, 2006, with Euagathis forticarinata (Cameron, 1899). The genus Amputostypos Sharkey, 2009, is synonymised with Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892, syn. n. The following new combinations are given: Bassus subrasa (Enderlein, 1920), comb. n., Gyragathis angulosa (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus annulus (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus asper (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus cingulipes (Nees, 1812), comb. n., Therophilus daanyuanensis (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus fujianicus (Chen & Yang, 2006), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lanyuensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus luzonicus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus muesebecki (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus rudimentarius (Enderlein, 1920), comb. n., Therophilus similis (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus sungkangensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus tanycoleosus (Chen & Yang, 2006

van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang

2010-01-01

231

Partnering To Build a Quality Workforce: Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges. A Report of the National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges (Washington, D.C., March 2-4, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges addressed critical issues relevant to environmental technology education in the United States. Forty-three participants from across the country who attended the 1995 Forum represented business and industry, two-year colleges, four-year colleges and…

Kabat, Ellen J.; Friedel, Janice Nahra; Senew, Mike

232

One-year outcome of adolescent females referred for conduct disorder and substance abuse\\/dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether substance abuse\\/dependence, conduct disorder, and other psychiatric disorders improved in adolescent females who were referred to outpatient treatment and which variables were related to 1-year outcome. Forty-six out of 60 conduct-disordered (CD) adolescent females with substance abuse or dependence were re-evaluated approximately 1 year after discharge. Treatment length averaged 16 weeks. Significant improvements were seen in three

Elizabeth A Whitmore; Susan K Mikulich; Kristen M Ehlers; Thomas J Crowley

2000-01-01

233

The Economic Benefits of Reducing the Dropout Rate for Students of Color in the Nation's Forty-Five Largest Metropolitan Areas. Summary of Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Years of data have consistently underscored the persistent graduation gap between America's students of color and their peers. The most recent estimate shows that high school graduation rates for African American, Latino, and American Indian students hover only slightly higher than 50 percent. This is more than 20 percentage points lower than that…

Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

2010-01-01

234

"No Shoes; They Walked Away?": Effects of Enhancements on Learning and Using Blissymbols by Normal 3-Year-Old Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty 3-year-olds learned either 12 standard Blissymbols (SBS) or their enhanced forms (EBS). Results demonstrated that the subjects learned EBS faster than SBS, remembered more EBS than SBS, did not differ in the communicative use of SBS and EBS, and were affected more negatively when presented with the untrained SBS than EBS. (Author/JDD)

Raghavendra, Parimala; Fristoe, Macalyne

1995-01-01

235

Six-Year Follow-Up of Children With Intrauterine Growth Retardation: Long-Term, Prospective Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective study was designed to characterize the neurodevelopmental and cognitive difficulties specific to children with intrauterine growth retardation and to detect early clinical predictors of these difficulties. Eighty-one children with intrauterine growth retardation were monitored up to 6 to 7 years of age using biometric parameters, perinatal risk questionnaires, and detailed neurodevelopmental and cognitive assessments. Forty-one children served as

Yael Leitner; Aviva Fattal-Valevski; Ronny Geva; Haim Bassan; Edith Posner; Miriam Kutai; Ariel Many; Ariel J. Jaffa; Shaul Harel

2000-01-01

236

Exercise maintains bone density at spine and hip EFOPS: a 3-year longitudinal study in early postmenopausal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is an important aim in the prevention of osteoporosis to stop or decelerate bone loss during the early postmenopausal years. Here we report on results of the 3-year EFOPS exercise trial in osteopenic women. The exercise strategy emphasized low-volume high-resistance strength training and high-impact aerobics. Forty-eight fully compliant women (55.1±3.3 years) with no medication or illness affecting bone metabolism participated

K. Engelke; W. Kemmler; D. Lauber; C. Beeskow; R. Pintag; W. A. Kalender

2006-01-01

237

Treatment of fulminant hepatic failure with infusions of Co-factors and mannitol and charcoal-hemoperfusions during Forty-one days.  

PubMed

The clinical course of a 26 year old female patient with acute liver necrosis and coma due to hepatitis B is reported. The disturbances of conciousness had improved. The patient survived 41 days after the beginning of the coma and developed liver cell regeneration and an acute post-hepatitic liver cirrhosis. As a grave complication a septicemia with aspergillus was observed. The patient died because of gastro-intestinal hemorrhage. At autopsy there were no signs of brain edema. The treatment consisted in: daily infusions with coenzyme A, nicotinamid-adenin-dinucleotide, alpha lipoic acid and cocarboxylase to improve the metabolic disorders and the clinical picture; mannitol intravenously to prevent and to treat cerebral edema; 33 charcoal-hemoperfusions to remove toxic substances of acute liver failure. Treatment of the aspergillus infection with 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericine B and infusion of concentrated ascites led to a decompensation of liver functions. From this observation the following conclusions can be drawn: after an acute viral hepatic necrosis, new synthetic functions and improvements of the disturbed intermediary metabolism in regenerated liver-cells can eventually be seen only after twenty-four to thirty days. With systematically applicated mannitol infusions it is possible to treat cerebral edema effectively. PMID:502361

Thölen, H; Bianchi, L; Ulrich, J; Heierli, C; Ritz, R

1979-09-17

238

Ancient and Medieval History Year One Year Two Year Three  

E-print Network

Ancient and Medieval History (V116) Year One Year Two Year Three Discovering the Middle Ages and lectures) Ancient and Medieval History in Theory and Practice (Autumn and Spring) (20 credits) 2,500 word. Taken either in Medieval History or Ancient History and Classics (individual one-to-one supervision

Miall, Chris

239

Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

2010-01-01

240

Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNA for a rice protein that contains seven repetitive segments of the Trp-Asp forty-amino-acid repeat (WD-40 repeat).  

PubMed

A cDNA clone for a polypeptide that contained seven repetitive segments of the Trp-Asp forty-amino-acid repeat (WD-40 repeat) was isolated from a cDNA library prepared from the greening leaves of rice. The cDNA was 1,285 bp long and contained an open reading frame that encoded a protein of 334 amino acid residues, which was designated it RWD (rice protein containing the WD-40 repeat). RWD exhibited greater homology to a group of receptor for activated C-kinase (RACK), a product of auxin-regulated gene from cultured cells (arcA) and a Chlamydomonas beta subunit-like polypeptide (Cblp) rather than to the beta subunits of heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The mRNA for RWD (1.3 kb) was found in all organs of rice plants, in particular, in roots. Therefore, RWD is suggested to be a protein that is expressed constitutively. PMID:7757340

Iwasaki, Y; Komano, M; Ishikawa, A; Sasaki, T; Asahi, T

1995-04-01

241

Life begins at forty - Microwave tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of microwave tubes is reviewed from a philosophical viewpoint. Attention is given to the many discarded ideas, a few of which have been resurrected - in particular, cyclotron-resonance devices which include the first microwave tube and the gyrotron recently developed in the USSR. An interesting part of this historical assessment is an examination of roles of technical forecasting

J. M. Osepchuk

1978-01-01

242

Life begins at forty: Microwave tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of microwave tubes is reviewed from a philosophical viewpoint. An interesting part of this historical assessment is an examination of roles of technical forecasting and management planning. The definition of the microwave frequency range is presented and shown to support the primacy of tubes, or electron-beam devices, in a frequency range between those dominated by discrete solid-state devices

J. M. Osepchuk

1977-01-01

243

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

244

Georgio Forti Photosynthesis Research 60: 99110, 1999.  

E-print Network

additional ATP to run the Calvin cycle. The situation seems to be different in unicellular green algae, where the world sharing my interest in photosynthesis and in other aspects of human life have been most rewarding discussed glycolysis and the Krebs cycle; he told me his ideas about the biochemical events possibly

Govindjee "Gov"

245

[The "forty-nine" and "seventeen" problems].  

PubMed

The single most common age of murderers in Japan is 49. Individuals aged between 45 and 54 are, however, likely to commit not offences but suicides comparing with other generations. One factor behind this phenomenon is the trend toward company downsizing, which is thought to affect the mental attitude of workers. This trend is destroying the Japanese lifetime employment system and undermining worker's loyalty to the company. On the other hand, in the broader category of felony crimes (assault, burglary, arson, murder), offenders aged 17 are the most common in Japan. This is thought to be partly due to the effect of so-called "school collapse" (school system failure) on the mental attitude of students. "School collapse" implies dysfunction of educational practice as a result of chattering, bullying and violence in the classroom. It is the reflection of students' dissatisfaction with the group-oriented school system. Therefore, students are unable to find any purposes in school and exhibit aggressive behaviours. In terms of mental health for both middle-age and teenage generations, it is necessary to devise new strategies whereby people can break away from the pressure of loyalty to the group. For both "normal" and "disabled" workers, rights of recuperations, adequate unemployment benefits policy, and support system for occupational change should be established. Simultaneously, for both "normal" and "disabled" students, reform of the school system under the concepts of diversity of education, rights of selection, and rights of refusal is urgently necessary. With respect to forensic psychiatry, without the provision of social supports, labeling of conduct disorder as well as other disorders should be avoided. In particular, instead of introducing security hospitals, drastic improvements of medical reformatories and medical prisons are necessary to provide adequate medical and social supports for offenders with psychiatric disorders. PMID:14560634

Takaoka, Ken

2003-01-01

246

Reproduction in feral horses: an eight-year study.  

PubMed

The reproductive rate and foal survival of the free-ranging ponies on Assateague Island National Seashore were studied for 8 years, 1975 to 1982. Most (52%) of the 86 foals were born in May, 13% were born in April, 22.6% in June, 10.4% in July, and less than 1% in August and September. The mean foaling rate was 57.1 +/- 3.9% and the survival rate was 88.3 +/- 3.6%. Forty-eight colts and 55 fillies were born (sex ratio 53% female). Mares less than 3 years old did not foal and the foaling rate of 3-year-old mares was only 23%, that of 4-year-old mares was 46%, that of 5-year-old mares was 53%, and 6-year-old mares was 69%. The relatively poor reproduction rate was believed to be a consequence of the stress of lactating while carrying a foal when forage quality on the island was low. The hypothesis was supported by the higher reproductive rate (74.4 +/- 2.4%) of the ponies in the Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge on the southern part of the island. Their foals are weaned and sold in July each year. Despite the low reproductive rate on Assateague Island National Seashore , the number of ponies increased from 43 to 80, a 90% increase in the 8-year period or greater than 10%/yr. There were 24 deaths and 8 dispersals from the study area. PMID:6732036

Keiper, R; Houpt, K

1984-05-01

247

Fiscal Year 2014 Year End Close Presentation  

E-print Network

Fiscal Year 2014 Year End Close Presentation Controller's Office & Budget and Resource Management the life of a project/award 3 Account type Sponsored Funds Non-Sponsored Funds Asset Carryforward inception-to-date balances in period 0 for all chartfields Carryforward balances in period 0 Liability Net position Revenue

Klein, Ophir

248

Stability of dysfunctional attitudes and early maladaptive schemas: A 9-year follow-up study of clinically depressed subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) have been suggested as relatively stable vulnerability markers for depression and entrenched psychological disorders, respectively. One-hundred-and-forty-nine clinically depressed (CDs), previously depressed (PDs) and never-depressed subjects (NDs) completed the DAS, the YSQ and the Beck Depression Inventory in the index study and were followed-up nine years later. Results showed: (1)

Catharina E. A. Wang; Marianne Halvorsen; Martin Eisemann; Knut Waterloo

2010-01-01

249

Sustained Suppression of Neointimal Proliferation by Sirolimus-Eluting Stents One-Year Angiographic and Intravascular Ultrasound Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We have previously reported a virtual absence of neointimal hyperplasia 4 months after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether these results are sustained over a period of 1 year. Methods and Results—Forty-five patients with de novo coronary disease were successfully treated with the implantation of a single sirolimus-eluting Bx VELOCITY stent in

J. Eduardo Sousa; Marco A. Costa; Alexandre C. Abizaid; Benno J. Rensing; Andrea S. Abizaid; Luiz F. Tanajura; Ken Kozuma; Glenn Van Langenhove; Amanda G. M. R. Sousa; Robert Falotico; Judith Jaeger; Jeffrey J. Popma; Patrick W. Serruys

250

Sustained suppression of neointimal proliferation by sirolimus-eluting stents: one-year angiographic and intravascular ultrasound follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a virtual absence of neointimal hyperplasia 4 months after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether these results are sustained over a period of 1 year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients with de novo coronary disease were successfully treated with the implantation of a single sirolimus-eluting Bx VELOCITY

J. E. Sousa; Langenhove van G. J. J; A. G. M. R. Sousa; R. Falotico; J. J. Popma; J. Jaeger; M. A. Costa; A. C. Abizaid; B. J. W. M. Rensing; L. F. Tanajura; K. Kozuma; P. W. J. C. Serruys

2001-01-01

251

Follow-up of Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Stability and Change During the Preschool Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-one children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) receiving eclectic services were assessed twice during their\\u000a preschool years. Measures were compared over time for the whole group and for diagnostic subgroups: Childhood autism (CA group)\\u000a and Other PDDs group. The mean intelligence quotient\\/developmental quotient (IQ\\/DQ) of the whole group was stable (P = 0.209) and scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)

Sigrídur Lóa Jónsdóttir; Evald Saemundsen; Gudlaug Ásmundsdóttir; Sigrún Hjartardóttir; Bryndís B. Ásgeirsdóttir; Hrafnhildur H. Smáradóttir; Solveig Sigurdardóttir; Jakob Smári

2007-01-01

252

Year of the Tiger  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Xin nian kuai le! That's happy New Year in Chinese. It's a Tiger year. The Chinese zodiac runs on a 12 year cycle and each year is governed by an animal: rat, ox , tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog...

Hacker, Randi

2010-02-03

253

Regular physical exercise, heart rate variability and turbulence in a 6-year randomized controlled trial in middle-aged men: The DNASCO study  

Microsoft Academic Search

HRV and HRT are independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality. Aging reduces HRV, but results from the physical exercise trials are controversial. The primary aim was to study changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate turbulence (HRT) in a six-year controlled randomized trial at regular low to moderate intensity physical exercise.One hundred forty men aged 53–63 years were randomized

Petri Tuomainen; Keijo Peuhkurinen; Raimo Kettunen; Rainer Rauramaa

2005-01-01

254

Pediatric-Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four  

E-print Network

Pediatric- Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four 1/10 PEM/AI-1 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Metabolic Genetics 10/90 8 General Pediatrics Ambulatory Clinic 0/100 AMBU-2 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric

Finley Jr., Russell L.

255

EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led to admission to Columbia University where he studied metallurgical engineering. After graduation, as was common at that time for able students, he was encouraged to go abroad for his doctoral work. He went to Göttingen, which was then one of the leading European universities in science, and studied under Nernst. Returning to the United States he obtained a post as a teaching assistant at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, but the atmosphere proved too hierarchical and uncongenial for a scientist who was wanting to spread his wings. Fortunately the General Electric Company (GEC) recognized his potential; he was recruited in 1909, and remained associated with the GEC for the next 48 years. He quickly established his credentials as a research scientist and was soon given the freedom to pursue his interests wherever they took him, consistent with the overall strategy of the company. His appointment as an Associate Director at the GEC came in the same year that he introduced the term 'plasma'. Interestingly, while the term gained rapid acceptance in Europe, the associated word 'sheath', which Langmuir had already been using for several years, was translated into French, German and Russian and suffered from confusion. That confusion was there in Langmuir's writings because this ion-rich region sometimes was a region with barely any electrons and sometimes it contained a significant quantity of negative charge. The structure of the plasma-sheath and its elucidation had to await new mathematical techniques and the impact of computers as evidenced by papers in this volume and those quoted therein. It is clear that Langmuir inspired and benefited from collaboration with co-workers at the GEC, notably Kingdon, Taylor, Mott-Smith, Compton, Jones, Found, Tonks and Blodgett. In several ways he was ahead of his time in his understanding of gas discharges, and a particular example is what has since come to be known as the Bohm criterion. More than once in his plasma papers published in the early 1930s Langmuir stated in words what was needed for a sheath to develop

Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

2009-02-01

256

Project Year Project Team  

E-print Network

sufficient student involvement for a year-round team development effort. For the proposed project, during the 2005-2006 school year, three students will work on extending Alan Cheng's original #12;TechnologyProject Year 2005 Project Team Gregory Hager, Professor, Department of Computer Science, Whiting

Gray, Jeffrey J.

257

Year 1 Year 2 Anne 3 Anne 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Year 3 Year 4 INGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIENINGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIEN  

E-print Network

: Biology / Chemistry / Computer Science / Economics / Energy / Mechanics and Environmental Sciences / Mathematics and Applied Mathematics / Physics / Science, Technology & Society / Software Systems / Innovation Duration: 2 years - Possibility to be directly admitted to Year 2 Master of ScienceMaster of Science #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

258

Replicability and 40-Year Predictive Power of Childhood ARC Types  

PubMed Central

We examined three questions surrounding the Undercontrolled, Overcontrolled, and Resilient--or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)--personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967, and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found: (1) Bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggested that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types; (2) this cluster structure was fuzzy, rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to three prototype Big Five profiles; and (3) ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious, but neither better nor more consistent predictors than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 68% accuracy by personality information alone, a figure approaching the 12-year accuracy of a leading medical cardiovascular risk model. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality traits for mid-life health. PMID:21744975

Chapman, Benjamin P.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

2011-01-01

259

Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 ± 9 years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year [F(4, 38) = 5.8, p = 0.001, ?2 = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that the majority of patients do not show significant change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed. PMID:24109449

Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn R.; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O.; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor K.; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan I.; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

2013-01-01

260

20 Years and Counting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,…

Kuzyk, Raya

2008-01-01

261

Epicurious Eating: New Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The holidays 'Tis the time of year for cooking, hosting, and feasting, and this site offers tips, recipes, and ideas that are useful no matter what the holiday. epicurious, an online food magazine, celebrates the New Year with recipes, menus, cocktails, food history, and menus for the morning after.

262

Celebrating 50 Years!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

Kristjansdottir, Anna

2011-01-01

263

First-Year Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Being a first-year teacher in New York City is not easy. The author received much of the same preparation and advice that he and his colleagues give their students. But even the best education courses and a positive student teaching experience do not seem to be enough to take the edge off of a year he remembers barely surviving. The author…

Hamilton, Greg, Ed.

2003-01-01

264

Final Year Project Report  

SciTech Connect

In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University

2013-06-20

265

APPLIED/LAW Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4  

E-print Network

in year 3. This is not compulsory, and if a student does not wish to overload, she or he must contact and LAWS electives (6uoc prescribed, plus 42uoc) in years 5 and/or 6 *NOTE: There is a 6uoc overload listed

Blennerhassett, Peter

266

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does each season of the year effect what you wear? 1. Review the seasons of the year Four Seasons Review 2. Play a winter weather clothes matching game Game 3. Use the next 4 pictures to fill out your chart. Winter Spring Summer Fall ...

Miss Dobbin

2010-03-24

267

THREE YEARS CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH INTESTINAL TRANSPLANTATION  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND After the successful evolution of hepatic transplantation during the last decade, small bowel and multivisceral transplantation remains the sole elusive achievement for the next era of transplant surgeons. Until recently, and for the last thirty years, the results of the sporadic attempts of intestinal transplantation worldwide were discouraging because of unsatisfactory graft and patient survival. The experimental and clinical demonstration of the superior therapeutic efficacy of FK 506, a new immunosuppressive drug, ushered in the current era of small bowel and multivisceral transplantation with initial promising results. STUDY DESIGN Forty-three consecutive patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal insufficiency, or malignant tumors with or without associated liver disease, were given intestinal (n=15), hepatic and intestinal (n=21), or multivisceral allografts that contained four or more organs (n=7). Treatment was with FK 506 based immunosuppression. The ascending and right transverse colon were included with the small intestine in 13 of the 43 grafts, almost evenly distributed between the three groups. RESULTS After six to 39 months, 30 of the 43 patients are alive, 29 bearing grafts. The most rapid convalescence and resumption of diet, as well as the highest three month patient survival (100 percent) and graft survival (88 percent) were with the isolated intestinal procedure. However, this advantage was slowly eroded during the first two postoperative years, in part because the isolated intestine was more prone to rejection. By the end of this time, the best survival rate (86 percent) was with the multivisceral procedure. With all three operations, most of the patients were able to resume diet and discontinue parenteral alimentation, and in the best instances, the quality of life approached normal. However, the surveillance and intensity of care required for these patients for the first year, and in most instances thereafter, was very high, being far more than required for patients having transplants of the liver, kidney or heart. CONCLUSIONS Although intestinal transplantation has gone through the feasibility phase, strategies will be required to increase its practicality. One possibility is to combine intestinal transplantation with contemporaneous autologous bone marrow transplantation. PMID:7522850

Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Todo, Satoru; Tzakis, Andreas; Reyes, Jorge; Nour, Bakr; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Fung, John J.; Demetris, Anthony; Starzl, Thomas E.

2009-01-01

268

Pictures of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

269

Pretty Good Year  

E-print Network

Translated into Quenya by Gilly P??t?y G?od Ye?r ???e??d? Right now it’s the 16th of March, 2013. The last time I wrote one of these for Pretty Good Year was 30th of July, 2003, a whisker shy of ten years ago. That original foreword follows this one... makes it even more obvious how incredibly formative telling these stories was in making me the storyteller I am today. Ten years isn’t all that long at all. With love, Mary Borsellino 16th March 2013 Foreword to the original pdf...

Borsellino, Mary

2013-01-01

270

7.RP Comparing Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Historically, different people have defined a year in different ways. For example, an Egyptian year is 365 days long, a Julian year is 365$\\frac14$ day...

271

Complications in IDDM are caused by elevated blood glucose level: The Stockholm Diabetes Intervention Study (SDIS) at 10-year follow up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary   Blood glucose values close to normal reduce the microvascular complications of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Stockholm\\u000a study of this effect continued after the initial 7.5-year period in order to see what happened when intensively treated patients\\u000a were left to control their own treatment while treatment was intensified in the control group. Forty-three patients with insulin-dependent\\u000a diabetes randomised to intensified

P. Reichard; M. Pihl; U. Rosenqvist; J. Sule

1996-01-01

272

A 5-year follow-up study on the use of a levonorgestrel intrauterine system in women receiving hormone replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate endometrial histology, bleeding, and the effects of replacing the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG IUS, Mirena\\/Levonova, Leiras Oy, Turku, Finland) after 5 years of combined use with estrogen.Design: Prospective cohort study.Setting: Private outpatient clinic.Patient(s): Forty postmenopausal women started hormone replacement therapy with LNG IUS and either a patch (50 ?g\\/24 h) or oral (2 mg) estradiol valerate protocol.

Eero Varila; Torsten Wahlström; Ilkka Rauramo

2001-01-01

273

Effect of Land-Based and Water-Based Fitness Programs on the Cardiovascular Fitness, Strength and Flexibility of Women Aged 65–75 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a generalized water-based exercise program (WBE) compared to a land-based exercise program (LBE) on improving cardio-respiratory fitness, body composition, forward trunk flexion and strength measurements of elderly women aged 70 ± 3.2 years (mean ± SD). Forty-one healthy, sedentary women were selected to participate in the study and were

J. E. Taunton; E. C. Rhodes; L. A. Wolski; M. Donelly; J. Warren; J. Elliot; L. McFarlane; J. Leslie; J. Mitchell; B. Lauridsen

1996-01-01

274

Primary localized stages I and II non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the nasopharynx: a retrospective 17-year single institutional experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this retrospective study was to define the natural history, clinicopathological findings, prognostic factors, and\\u000a treatment outcome of 43 patients with localized stages I and II primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) of the nasopharynx, followed\\u000a up in a single institution over a 17-year period. Forty-three (13 women and 30 men) consecutive patients with localized stages\\u000a I (N?=?12) and II

Mohammad Mohammadianpanah; Niloofar Ahmadloo; Mohammad Amin Nazer Mozaffari; Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi; Shapour Omidvari; Ahmad Mosalaei

2009-01-01

275

Rorschach Variables and Dysfunctional Attitudes as Measures of Depressive Vulnerability: A 9Year Follow-Up Study of Individuals With Different Histories of Major Depressive Episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six individuals with different histories of major depressive episodes (MDEs) completed the Rorschach (Exner, 2003) and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS; Weissman & Beck, 1978) at 2 assessment points (T1, T2) over a 9-year follow-up. At T1, history of MDE and the Rorschach variable MOR (associated with negative self-image) emerged as significant predictors of number of MDEs over the follow-up.

Ellen Hartmann; Marianne Halvorsen; Catharina E. A. Wang

2012-01-01

276

A 1-year combined weight-bearing training program is beneficial for bone mineral density and neuromuscular function in older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight community living women 66–87 years old volunteered to participate in a 12-month prospective, randomized, controlled, trial. The aim was to determine if a combined weight-bearing training program twice a week would be beneficial to bone mineral density and neuromuscular function. The participants were pairwise age-matched and randomly assigned to either an exercise group (n=24) or a control group (n=24).

Undis Englund; Håkan Littbrand; Anna Sondell; Ulrika Pettersson; Gustaf Bucht

2005-01-01

277

Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with double-looped semitendinosus and gracilis tendon graft directly fixed to cortical bone: 5-year results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-three patients who had undergone an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a doubled semitendinosus and gracilis graft were prospectively reviewed at 5-year follow-up. All had suffered subacute or chronic tears of the ligament. At surgery, the femoral tunnel was drilled first through the antero-medial portal. The correct position of the femoral and tibial guide wire was checked fluoroscopically. A

Francesco Giron; Paolo Aglietti; Pierluigi Cuomo; Nicola Mondanelli; Antonio Ciardullo

2005-01-01

278

Year of Science 2009  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website hosts information on a national year-long celebration of science to engage the public in science and improve public understanding about how science works, why it matters, and who scientists are.

Sherri Potter (COPUS Network Project Manager)

2008-08-14

279

Biochemistry Biochemist 6 years  

E-print Network

Biochemistry Biochemist ­ 6 years Objective To train professionals of a high scientific of studies has the following orientations: Vegetal and Ground Biochemistry; Microbiology and Inmunobiology ; Basic Biochemistry, Biotechnology; Clinic Biochemistry; Food Science and Nutrition. Besides, students

Groisman, Pablo

280

The Year in Echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past year, progress in echocardiographic research has again been incremental with reports describing both expanded and refined applications of tissue Doppler imag- ing (TDI), myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE), stress echocardiography, and real-time 3-dimensional (RT3D) imaging. The primary focus this year has been on the use of TDI and speckle tracking (ST) to identify left ventricular (LV) systolic and\\/or

Arthur E. Weyman

2010-01-01

281

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the seasons of the year? First, watch this video about seasons. Video on seasons Next, paint a picture about the seasons. painting the seasons After you have painted a picture, play a game to identify the seasons. Game about seasons Now, go through a step by step guide about the seasons. Different seasons in a year Next, watch another video about the seasons. Video on seasons Last, fill out this chart about the seasons. In each block, ...

2012-04-05

282

Fiscal Year 2003  

Cancer.gov

The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

283

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Cindy Starr

2003-10-23

284

Reflections on 40 years of Breeding Bird Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

After reviewing the history of monitoring in North America, I discuss the origin of the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), including the need for such a program and field testing of methodology to determine optimum starting time, length of stop, number of stops per route, and acceptable weather conditions. Before initiating the survey I ran sample routes in Maryland, New Hampshire, South Dakota, Colorado, and Alaska to become familiar with environmental factors affecting roadside counts. I also ran the same route multiple times throughout a season to measure progressive changes in detectability, and did simultaneous double sampling to study observer effects. The BBS was field-tested with 50 routes throughout Maryland and ten in Delaware in 1965, then launched in the states and provinces east of the Mississippi River in 1966, and in the rest of the continent in 1967 and 1968. For quality control, all participants in 1965 were required, in addition to their assigned 50-stop route, to also run a 50-stop route that I had run the same year. In the first few years the results were keypunched into cards, and the cards were sorted various ways to prepare summaries. The electronics age has completely changed input and analysis procedures and ways of displaying results, but the field procedures are still the same as forty years ago. Thoughts on improving the BBS are shared.

Robbins, C.S.

2005-01-01

285

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. A 6-22-year follow-up study. Clinical descriptions of the course and continuity of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven individuals (28 male and 19 female) referred for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood were followed-up 15 years later (range 6–22 years) in respect of psychiatric and personality disorders. In early adulthood, the patients could be sub-divided into 4 groups of about equal size. One group had no later OCD, another had OCD on a sub-clinical level, a

Hove per Thomsen

1994-01-01

286

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates the link between the tilt of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic and seasons of the year, length of day, effectiveness of sunlight, and polar day and night. It discusses how the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis causes seasons of the year, by varying the length of the local day and the angle at which the Sun's rays arrive on the surface of the Earth, and to recognize that seasons in the southern hemisphere (at middle latitudes) occur at opposite parts of the year from seasons in the US and Europe. The student will also realize that the seasons in the middle-latitudes in US and Europe are quite different from seasons experienced near the equator and also know about the polar day, when the Sun never sets but just marches around the horizon, and the polar night, when it never rises.

David Stern

287

Congress passes space year  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

288

Emergent technologies: 25 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

Rising, Hawley K.

2013-03-01

289

Understanding Early Years Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

2005-01-01

290

Eleventh Year Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline for Eleventh Year Mathematics in New York adheres closely to the recommendations of The Commission of Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board and thus presents a unified development of certain aspects of algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Its aim is both as a terminal course in mathematics and as a solid…

Buchman, Aaron; Zimmerman, Robert

291

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

292

Tuskegee: 100 Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the history and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute over the past 100 years. Highlights the role played by Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois; discusses the career of the school's retiring president, Luther Foster. Provides information on the new president, Dr. Benjamin Payton, and discusses future directions for the college. (APM)

Higgins, Renelda

1981-01-01

293

Election Year Protocols for  

E-print Network

, impassioned political debate has the potential to escalate into conflict of a deeply personal nature, some's integrity or intelligence. Never allow political disagreement to become personal. Always take care to avoidPolitics Election Year Politics Protocols for Most are familiar with the old adage cautioning

Ginzel, Matthew

294

ARITHMETIC PROGRAM, THIRD YEAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE THIRD YEAR OF ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTION SHOULD UTILIZE SOCIAL SETTINGS FOR LEARNING AS WELL AS MANIPULATIVE AND GRAPHIC MATERIALS. THE NUMBER SYSTEM, IN COUNTING, SHOULD DEVELOP THE SKILLS OF COUNTING BY 3'S AND 4'S AND OF RECOGNIZING ODD AND EVEN NUMBERS. CHILDREN SHOULD GAIN THE ABILITY TO READ AND WRITE NUMBERS TO FOUR PLACES. THE WHOLE…

GARBER, CLAIRE

295

Redesigning the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The senior year by all reason should be the capstone of an individual's time in the K-12 system. It should carry not only academic rigor, but also a spirit of unrivaled engagement if it is truly going to be an appropriate culminating experience. For many 12th graders across the country, it is far from that. How can educators create an educational…

Dreis, Janice R.; Rehage, Larry D.

2011-01-01

296

A Year Without Procedures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Step-by-step instructions in the chemistry lab often eliminate opportunities for inquiry, higher levels of thinking, and the sense of accomplishment students find through independent discovery. However, removing procedures from chemistry labs creates opportunities for student inquiry. This article describes a chemistry-based experimental year without procedures, but the concept can be applied to any scientific discipline.

Lisa Backus

2005-10-01

297

Project Year Summer 2010  

E-print Network

.306.01), and Separation (540.304.01), with an additional venue for the demonstration at the USA Science Fair in WashingtonProject Year Summer 2010 Project Title Lab-on-a-Chip Simulation Project Team German Drazer, Whiting and popular science websites. Our model will mimic the fluid behavior inside a "Lab-on-a-Chip," a relatively

Gray, Jeffrey J.

298

Physics in 100 Years  

E-print Network

Here I indulge in wide-ranging speculations on the shape of physics, and technology closely related to physics, over the next one hundred years. Themes include the many faces of unification, the re-imagining of quantum theory, and new forms of engineering on small, intermediate, and large scales.

Wilczek, Frank

2015-01-01

299

Black Studies Year One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…

Long, Richard A.

300

ARITHMETIC PROGRAM FOURTH YEAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE 4TH YEAR SHOULD CONTINUE THE SEQUENTIAL PRESENTATION MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDINGS AND RELATIONSHIPS. NEW LEARNINGS SHOULD BE PRESENTED CONCRETELY IN SOCIAL SETTINGS WITHIN THE CHILDREN'S FRAMEWORK OF UNDERSTANDING. GRAPHIC MATERIALS MAY BE USED TO BRIDGE THE UNDERSTANDINGS FROM THE CONCRETE TO THE ABSTRACT LEVEL. THE NUMBER SYSTEM UNIT SHOULD…

GARBER, CLAIRE N.

301

Year-Round Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication was developed in response to inquiries received from teachers and association leaders about the effect of a year-round school schedule on the livelihood and working conditions of teachers. It is intended to assist association leaders who deal with the problems related to (1) local negotiations or policy agreements for the…

National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

302

The Turbulent Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of the Fourth Annual Conference on Major Transitions in the Human Life Cycle contains a preface, introductory section on adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14 through 24 years), and the following presentations, complete with discussion text: (1) "Historical Treatment of the Age Group" (John Demos); (2) "Demographic Considerations"…

Scanlon, John, Ed.

303

Chinese New Year Dragons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

Balgemann, Linda

2000-01-01

304

Smog - the learning years  

SciTech Connect

35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

305

Ultrasound-guided technology versus neurostimulation for sciatic nerver block: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Sciatic nerve block is widely used for anesthesia and analgesia in lower limb surgery, traditional method used for sciatic nerve block is nerve stimulation guidance. Whether the use of ultrasound-guided technology can increases the success rate of sciatic nerve block and provide other benefits are not defined. This meta-analysis was aimed to clarify this issue. Method: We searched Pubmed, the Cochrane library and Google Scholar. A total of 10 RCTs met our inclusion criteria. The patients included underwent ultrasound-guided or nerve stimulation guidance for sciatic nerve block. We compared the success rate, vascular puncture, the time of procedure and Success rate of catheter placement. Results: Ultrasound-guided technology, compared with nerve stimulation for sciatic nerve block, provided higher success rate. [RR = 1.22 95% CI: 1.04-1.42, P = 0.01], Ultrasound guidance also reduce the risk of vascular puncture. [RR = 0.13 95% CI: 0.02-0.97, P = 0.05]. However, the success rate of catheter placement [RR = 1.1095% CI: 0.93-1.29, P = 0.27] and the time of performing sciatica never block [RR = -0.17 95% CI: -1.61-1.27, P = 0.82] did not differ significantly. Conclusions: Compared to traditional nerve stimulation guidance, ultrasound guidance for sciatic nerve may improve the success rate of block and reduce the risk of vascular puncture. PMID:25784997

Cao, Xiuhong; Zhao, Xiang; Xu, Jin; Liu, Zhengmei; Li, Quan

2015-01-01

306

Bruxelles, mardi 18 mars 2014 Les apnes du sommeil : leur traitement chirurgical et la neurostimulation  

E-print Network

traitements sont multiples : perte de poids, masque à pression positive nasale ou chirurgie. Lorsqu'un diagnostic de syndrome d'apnée de forme obstructive liée au sommeil est posé, un traitement par un masque à pression positive continue nasale (CPAP) est proposé au patient. Ce dernier devra alors porter un masque

Nesterov, Yurii

307

1024-Channel-Scalable Wireless Neuromonitoring and Neurostimulation Rodent Headset with  

E-print Network

-controller and a ZigBee wireless transceiver. The system is built by parallelizing up to four 0.35µm CMOS integrated, such as for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy [1]. Simultaneous electrical current stimu- lation localized.g., currently up to eight for responsive neu- rostimulation for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy

Genov, Roman

308

Applications of Neurostimulation for Urinary Storage and Voiding Dysfunction in Neurological Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of various forms of electrical stimulation is considered a therapeutic option to manage different types of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, even though lower urinary tract dysfunction is common in patients with neurological disease, apart from patients with spinal cord injury, electrostimulation is still not widely applied in a neurological patient population. Urologists frequently encounter patients with neurogenic

F. S. Van Rey; J. P. F. A. Heesakkers

2008-01-01

309

Clinical utility of implantable neurostimulation devices in the treatment of chronic migraine  

PubMed Central

Chronic migraine is a disabling disorder that is costly to individuals and society. Occipital nerve stimulation has been used to treat refractory cases of primary headache disorders including drug-resistant chronic cluster headaches and chronic migraine. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) off-labeled application of equipment used for peripheral nerve (occipital) stimulation is borrowed from FDA-labeled spinal cord stimulation. Manufacturer-sponsored randomized trials include a feasibility study (ONSTIM-Medtronic) and a safety and efficacy study (St Jude). A non-industry sponsored prospective, randomized crossover study by Serra and Marchiotretto suggests improved quality of life and a significant reduction in medication use. Though preliminary studies suggest occipital nerve stimulation is safe and efficacious in treating chronic migraine headache, complication rates, including lead migration, lead fracture, and surgical site infections remain high. Further studies are needed to demonstrate long-term outcomes, while improved surgical techniques and site-specific equipment are needed to minimize complications. PMID:24348076

Freeman, John A; Trentman, Terrance L

2013-01-01

310

A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation  

PubMed Central

The exponential growth in publications represents a major challenge for researchers. Many scientific domains, including neuroscience, are not yet fully engaged in exploiting large bodies of publications. In this paper, we promote the idea to partially automate the processing of scientific documents, specifically using text mining (TM), to efficiently review big corpora of publications. The “cognitive advantage” given by TM is mainly related to the automatic extraction of relevant trends from corpora of literature, otherwise impossible to analyze in short periods of time. Specifically, the benefits of TM are increased speed, quality and reproducibility of text processing, boosted by rapid updates of the results. First, we selected a set of TM-tools that allow user-friendly approaches of the scientific literature, and which could serve as a guide for researchers willing to incorporate TM in their work. Second, we used these TM-tools to obtain basic insights into the relevant literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) and cognitive enhancement (CE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TM readily extracted the diversity of TMS applications in CR and CE from vast corpora of publications, automatically retrieving trends already described in published reviews. TMS emerged as one of the important non-invasive tools that can both improve cognitive and motor functions in numerous neurological diseases and induce modulations/enhancements of many fundamental brain functions. TM also revealed trends in big corpora of publications by extracting occurrence frequency and relationships of particular subtopics. Moreover, we showed that CR and CE share research topics, both aiming to increase the brain's capacity to process information, thus supporting their integration in a larger perspective. Methodologically, despite limitations of a simple user-friendly approach, TM served well the reviewing process. PMID:25309356

Balan, Puiu F.; Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

2014-01-01

311

Practical considerations for the use of a Howland current source for neuro-stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the Howland current source circuit topology in detail with regards to non-ideal circuit component properties. This circuit is one of the few which can be built with a small number of discrete components, offers very good performance due to the use of an operational amplifier, and supplies true symmetric bi-directional currents, and is hence well suited for use

Philippe Pouliquen; Jacob Vogelstein; Ralph Etienne-Cummings

2008-01-01

312

Neurosurgical interventions in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease: neurostimulation and neural implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of thalamotomy for drug-refractory tremor, surgical therapy for Parkinson’s disease has been almost abondoned\\u000a as treatment for Parkinsonian symptoms between 1965 and 1985. Reasons for this development relate to inconsistent postoperative\\u000a results, complications associated with stereotactic surgical techniques and, most importantly, the advent of levodopa, which\\u000a is still considered to be the gold standard in pharmacotherapy for

Andreas Kupsch; Christopher Earl

1999-01-01

313

40 years and counting.  

PubMed

I find it hard to believe that the Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) and my career in oncology nursing are 40 years old when many of our members are not even 40 years old! So much has changed in that time to make cancer care better. In 1975, the year that ONS became incorporated, the five-year survival rate was 49% (up from 35% in 1950). By 2010, the rate increased to 68% (American Cancer Society, 2015). However, not everyone benefited equally because a gap existed in the survival rates between Caucasians and African Americans; while that gap has narrowed, it has not disappeared. In 1975, about two dozen drugs were approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat cancer (Devita & Chu, 2008). During the past 15 years, 127 new agents were approved (Centerwatch, 2015), with another 771 new medicines and vaccines currently in clinical trials or awaiting review by the FDA (Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, 2015). The first Hickman catheters, and later ports, were introduced in the late 1970s (Bjeletich & Hickman, 1980), and I remember introducing the Hickman at my institution to help keep our patients' veins patent-it was a godsend. We now have so many more options in venous access devices. Cancer care became increasingly more complex in our understanding of the disease, its treatment, and in the supportive care needs of patients during that time period. But our goals were always the same: to help our patients and their families deal with this life-altering disease and to reduce the burden of their journey.?. PMID:25840374

Mayer, Deborah K

2015-04-01

314

Natural history of herpes zoster: late follow-up of 3.9 years (n=43) and 7.7 years (n=10).  

PubMed

Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common complication after herpes zoster (HZ). Subjects who completed a longitudinal observational 6-month study (4 visits) of the natural history of HZ were recontacted for 2 additional follow-up visits that included pain and sensory symptom assessment, quantitative sensory testing, capsaicin response test, and 3-mm punch skin biopsies in HZ-affected, mirror-image, and control skin sites. Forty-three subjects (14 with PHN at 6 months) of the original 94 subjects in the cohort were comprehensively assessed at a median 3.9 years after HZ onset (visit 5), and 10 subjects underwent a final assessment at a median 7.7 years after HZ onset (visit 6). At 3.9 years, none of the 29 subjects who had been pain free at 6 months had a recurrence of pain. Only 2 of the 14 subjects with PHN at 6 months still had pain at 3.9 years. One subject with PHN at 6 months was free of symptoms at 3.9 years but had very mild pain at 7.7 years. Sensory function continued on a path toward normalization, but was still abnormal in many subjects, especially those who met criteria for PHN at 6 months. Even at 7.7 years, reinnervation of HZ-affected skin was not apparent. PMID:23719573

Reda, Haatem; Greene, Kaitlin; Rice, Frank L; Rowbotham, Michael C; Petersen, Karin L

2013-10-01

315

Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL's cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

1992-08-01

316

Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL`s cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

1992-08-01

317

Developmental milestones record - 3 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old include: Gains about 4 - 5 pounds ...

318

Early Years Policy  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we analyze the role that early years policy might play in narrowing educational attainment gaps. We begin by examining gaps in school readiness between low-, middle-, and high-income children, drawing on data from new large and nationally representative birth cohort studies in the US and UK. We find that sizable income-related gaps in school readiness are present in both countries before children enter school and then decompose these gaps to identify the factors that account for the poorer scores of low-income children. We then consider what role early years policy could play in tackling these gaps, drawing on the best available evidence to identify promising programs. PMID:21731827

Waldfogel, Jane; Washbrook, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

319

International Polar Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the International Polar Year, which started in March 2007 and runs through March 2009, a team of thousands of scientists from 60 nations will be examining a wide range of physical, biological, and social research topics that deal with the Arctic and the Antarctic. The project is sponsored by a number of organizations, including the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council for Science. Visitors to their homepage will find that they can look over such thematic sections as "Atmosphere", "Ice", "Land", "Oceans", and so on. Within each of these sections, visitors can look over news items, events, blog listings, and of course, a set of links and resources. Educators should not pass up the "Educators" area, as it contains a selection of classroom tested activities and links to the International Polar Year Youth portal which is designed for both students and educators.

320

International Polar Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the International Polar Year, which started in March 2007 and ran through March 2009, a team of thousands of scientists from 60 nations will be examining a wide range of physical, biological, and social research topics that deal with the Arctic and the Antarctic. The project is sponsored by a number of organizations, including the World Meteorological Organization and the International Council for Science. Visitors to their homepage will find that they can look over such thematic sections as "Atmosphere", "Ice", "Land", "Oceans", and so on. Within each of these sections, visitors can look over news items, events, blog listings, and of course, a set of links and resources. Educators should not pass up the "Educators" area, as it contains a selection of classroom tested activities and links to the International Polar Year Youth portal which is designed for both students and educators.

321

Aeropropulsion in year 2000  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper demonstrates that many advances can be anticipated in propulsion systems for aircraft in the next 20 years. A survey is presented of probable future engine types, including convertible engines for helicopters, turboprops for fuel efficient airliners, and variable cycle engines for supersonic transports. Also examined is the use of rotary engines in general aviation aircraft. Finally, a review is given of related technology improvements in propellers, materials, noise suppression, and digital electronic controls.

Weber, R. J.

1980-01-01

322

Twenty years of marriages.  

PubMed

In 1994, a total of 159,959 marriages were performed in Canada, up only slightly from 159,316 the year before. This small increase had no effect on the crude marriage rate, which remained at 5.5 marriages per 1,000 population. Aside from a brief uptum in the late 1980s, Canada's marriage rate has fallen quite steadily since the early 1970s. The overall decline is also evident when rates are disaggregated by the prior marital status of the bride and groom (single, divorced or widowed). Since 1974, the average ages of brides and grooms have risen about five years to 30.1 and 32.6, respectively. Nonetheless, the peak ages for marriage are the twenties. In this age range, women's marriage rates exceed those of men, but at older ages, men's rates are higher. And at progressively older ages, a growing proportion of grooms have brides at least 10 years their junior. The marriage patterns of Quebec residents differ from those of other Canadians. Quebec residents are much more likely to remain single or live common-law, and if they do marry, they are slightly more likely to divorce. Once divorced or widowed, people in Quebec are less likely than those in the rest of Canada to remarry. This article is based on data compiled by Statistics Canada from marriage registration forms provided by the central Vital Statistics Registry in each province and territory. PMID:9110964

Nault, F

1996-01-01

323

500 years after Columbus.  

PubMed

The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

Imbach, A

1992-01-01

324

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You are going to watch some videos of the seasons of the year.Use your worksheet to help you remember the types of weather and the clothes we wear during the different seasons. What is different about each season? Seasons Chart 1. This is what you will click on to watch the video on winter. Winter Video 2. In the spring video make sure you notice the changes in weather Spring Video 3. Now watch the summer video Summer Video 4.This is what you will click on to watch the video on fall. Fall Video 5. Click here to watch a video ...

Ms. Larrimore

2012-04-11

325

Fifty years of stacking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common-Mid-Point (CMP) stacking is a major process to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in seismic data. Since its appearance fifty years ago, CMP stacking has gone through different phases of prosperity and negligence within the geophysical community. During those times, CMP stacking developed from a simple process of averaging into a sophisticated process that involves complicated mathematics and state-of-the-art computation. This article summarizes the basic principles, assumptions, and violations related to the CMP stacking technique, presents a historical overview on the development stages of CMP stacking, and discusses its future potentiality.

Rashed, Mohamed

2014-06-01

326

Early Years Centre Senior Early Years Practitioner (Level 2b)  

E-print Network

Early Years Centre Senior Early Years Practitioner (Level 2b) 3.56 FTE Early Years Centre Co-ordinator (Level 3) 2 FTE Early Years Centre Manager (Level 4) 1 FTE Early Years Practitioner (Level 2a) 23.32 FTE Assistant (Level 2a) 4 FTE Enabling Service Practitioners (Level 4) 13 FTE including: First Support

Molinari, Marc

327

75 Years of the Junior Year in Munich  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not only has the US Senate designated 2006 the Year of Study Abroad; the year also marks the anniversary of a distinguished tradition of study abroad in Germany that reaches back 75 years. Founded in 1931, suspended during the war years, and re-opened in 1953 by Wayne State University, the Junior Year in Munich is America's oldest study abroad…

Ferguson, Mark

2007-01-01

328

Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data  

PubMed Central

Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

2010-01-01

329

Einstein Year 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Einstein Year marks the centenary of the three papers that Albert Einstein published in 1905, which of course, included the paper on photoelectric effect that led to his Nobel Prize in Physics. The primary aim of Einstein Year is "to enthuse young people, and those who influence them, about physics, whilst building a sustainable increase in public awareness of physics and its role in society." On the site, visitors can learn about the various ongoing activities being coordinated around the world, read a biography about Einstein, and check out the "Experiment" section, where users can explore physics through a number of simple and thoughtful experiments. A real highlight of the site is the "If you could teach the world just one thing about science" feature, which was conducted by the online magazine, _spiked_. The magazine asked dozens of scientists what "one thing" they would pick to teach the world about science, and their responses (including a few video clips) are posted on the site.

330

International Year of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has declared the year 2010 as the year of biodiversity, and none too soon. The definition and importance of biodiversity is explained on the "About" page, but in brief, it's a "rich diversity [in nature which] is being lost at a greatly accelerated rate because of human activities. This...weakens the ability of the living systems, on which we depend, to resist growing threats such as climate change." The list of "Major Upcoming Celebrations" is on the middle of the homepage below the written and video "Welcome Messages" from various representatives of national governments and large non-profits. Some of the celebrations include an International Art Exhibition by young people. Visitors can click on "More Celebrations" to be taken to an interactive map of celebrations "By Countries", "Calendar" or "Success Stories". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Red List", which can be found on the homepage or in the "About" section. The "Red List of Threatened Species" highlights one species of plant or animal each day, with a photo and a couple of paragraphs on its location, vulnerability, origins, etc. The current month is shown, but visitors can view the species of the days for the "Previous Months" of 2010 as well.

UN. General Assembly (61st sess. : 2006-2007)

331

Year of oceans?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John V. Byrne, administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has proposed that 1984 be observed as the Year of the Oceans. The year should be devoted to defining and clarifying the U.S.'s ocean and coastal goals and “rallying the support to achieve them,” Byrne recently told oceanographers attending the Coastal Zone ?83 gathering in San Diego, Calif.“Today we see ferment in ocean and coastal concerns,” Byrne said. Among the examples he cited was the proclamation issued by President Reagan on March 10 declaring an exclusive economic zone within 200 miles of the coast where the United States will exercise jurisdiction for the purposes of exploring, exploiting, conserving, and managing natural resources (Eos, June 7, 1983, p. 402). In addition, “legislation has been introduced to define the outer continental shelf, deep seabed minerals, ocean thermal energy, marine pollution, fisheries, and other oceanic concerns,” Byrne said. “In both houses of the U.S. Congress, legislators are considering bills that would establish a National Oceans Policy Commission,” he added.

332

Twenty years of KSHV.  

PubMed

Twenty years ago, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill's Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men-in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

2014-11-01

333

The 34 Year Starship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1974, the designers and leadership of a mission then known as ``Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977'' decided that the name was a mouthful. They briefly deliberated and decided to rename it ``Voyager'' [1]. Similarly, we believe that ``DARPA 100 Year Starship'' is unnecessarily verbose. We propose to call it ``Enterprise.'' Among the many challenges facing such a mission is that of earning public support - we should let half a century of Hollywood storytelling do that for us. This paper is composed of four parts. Part 1 will discuss the parallels between the Voyager program and a future Enterprise program. Part 2 will go into greater detail regarding the Voyager program and the challenges and opportunities that defined it. Part 3 will discuss some of the major technical challenges for Voyager and Enterprise in greater detail. Part 4 will discuss next steps and various strategies to meet DARPA's challenge of sustainable industry-funded research into interstellar flight.

Nosanov, J.; Shapiro, A.; Garrett, H.

2012-09-01

334

Twenty Years of KSHV  

PubMed Central

Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

2014-01-01

335

40 years of whistlers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history and present state of research on whistlers are reviewed. Systematic research in this field began in the 1920s, and led in the 1950s to the discovery of the magnetosphere. Since the early 1960s, satellite data have contributed immensely to the understanding of whistlers and related VLF phenomena, notably those involving interactions between whistler-mode waves and energetic particles. Artificial as well as natural whistler-mode waves have been used to study the distribution and dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma, as well as in the study of wave-particle interactions. Recently the latter phenomena have also been studied by direct injection of energetic particles into the ionosphere and magnetosphere from sounding-rockets. Nevertheless, many problems remain to be solved in years to come.

Alpert, Ia.

1980-01-01

336

Forty Years after Brown: The Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education. Proceedings of the National Conference on Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education (9th, Oswego, NY, April 9-11, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings identify, clarify, and address the problems of the post-Brown era from a variety of perspectives. The first two papers are: The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Banquet Keynote Speech (L. J. Bennett) and the Luncheon Session, "Integrating the Recruitment Preparation and Retention Strategies of Persons of Color in Teaching" (J. Vaughn).…

Middleton, E., Ed.; And Others

337

Language Development: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Development: 2 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two-year- ... At this time, there’s more variation in language development than in any other area. While some preschoolers ...

338

EDITORIAL: Happy New Year!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As many of you are aware that Chinese science is at the crucial stage of development. We are now seeing more and more high quality works being produced by Chinese scientists working in China. However, high quality scientific works are rarely published in Chinese scientific journals so far. Therefore, the development of scientific journals publishing in China now becomes a more and more important indication of the science development in China. In the development of the chemical physics research field in China, the Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics (CJCP) has made significant contributions in the past 18 years. Since CJCP is primarily a Journal published in Chinese previously, its impact in the international scientific community has been quite limited. At this moment, we believe CJCP should increase its impact in the international community. We believe that making CJCP an English journal is a crucial step to increase its influence internationally. Therefore, upon the recommendation of senior editorial members, we now change CJCP into an full English journal from this issue on. We have also formed a high quality editorial board to help the editorial matters in CJCP, and a prestigious advisory board to advise us of the future development. I am very honored to be selected as the new Editor-in-Chief for the next four years. I hope by the end of my term, the impact of this journal is significantly improved through the efforts of our editorial team. Building a high quality scientific journal is not an easy task. I hope that every member of our chemical physics community can provide strong support to this journal by sending your high quality research papers in the future. We are also thinking about adding new sections of this journal to attract more readers. With the support of our community, I am confident that we can make this journal a more successful one. Here, I want to take this opportunity to thank the great leadership provided by the Editor-in-Chief since the foundation of this journal, Professor Nan-quan Lou, who has just become a senior advisory board member of this journal. I also want to thank the senior associate editor, Prof. Shu-qin Yu, who has made great contributions to the development of CJCP. Many thanks also go to the other senior associate editors, Profs. Die-yan Chen, Hai-lung Dai, Xing-xiao Ma, Han-qing Wang, Hou-wen Xin, Cun-hao Zhang and Qi-he Zhu, who have made important contributions to CJCP in the past 18 years. We plan that CJCP will soon become available online so that members of our community can access this journal easily through internet. This will also help us to provide greater visibility of this journal in the international research community.

Yang, Xue-ming

2006-02-01

339

WMAP First Year Results  

E-print Network

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) science team has released results from the first year of operation at the Earth-Sun L2 Lagrange point. The maps are consistent with previous observations but have much better sensitivity and angular resolution than the COBE DMR maps, and much better calibration accuracy and sky coverage than ground-based and balloon-borne experiments. The angular power spectra from these ground-based and balloon-borne experiments are consistent within their systematic and statistical uncertainties with the WMAP results. WMAP detected the large angular-scale correlation between the temperature and polarization anisotropies of the CMB caused by electron scattering since the Universe became reionized after the "Dark Ages", giving a value for the electron scattering optical depth of 0.17+/-0.04. The simplest Lambda-CDM model with n=1 and Omega_tot=1 provides an adequate fit to the WMAP data and gives parameters which are consistent with determinations of the Hubble constant and observations of the accelerating Universe using supernovae. The time-ordered data, maps, and power spectra from WMAP can be found at http://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov along with 13 papers by the WMAP science team describing the results in detail.

E. L. Wright

2003-06-05

340

Projects of the year  

SciTech Connect

The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

Hansen, T.

2007-01-15

341

TFTR Twenty Year Perspective  

SciTech Connect

Deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with core parameters almost identical to those expected in the core of ignited plasmas in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have served as a test bed to carry out the first detailed studies of D-T plasma physics, including the first observations of alpha-particle heating and alpha-driven instabilities. TFTR operated above the original engineering design requirements and with high availability in D-T until experimental operation was terminated due to U.S. fusion budget cutbacks. A most valuable lesson learned was that D-T operation of a large experimental device is feasible, as TFTR operation could have continued many more years while remaining within tritium and neutron activation limits. The flexibility and control of plasma parameters (e.g., plasma rotation) and the comprehensive diagnostic system enabled TFTR to make seminal contributions to tokamak plasma science, such as first confirmation of the bootstrap current in a tokamak, detailed turbulence studies leading to a new paradigm for transport understanding, first observations of neoclassical tearing modes, and detailed measurements and modeling of plasma disruptions. Recent advances in understanding the fundamental processes controlling plasma transport provide new opportunities for improving tokamak plasma performance. Implementation of recent knowledge could lead to D-T operating regimes with strong alpha heating with modest extensions of the TFTR operating regimes.

D.M. Meade

1998-04-01

342

Fourteen years in resistance.  

PubMed

Resistance trends have changed greatly over the 14 years (1997-2011) whilst I was Director of the UK Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory (ARMRL). Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) first rose, then fell with improved infection control, although with the decline of one major clone beginning before these improvements. Resistant pneumococci too have declined following conjugate vaccine deployment. If the situation against Gram-positive pathogens has improved, that against Gram-negatives has worsened, with the spread of (i) quinolone- and cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, (ii) Acinetobacter with OXA carbapenemases, (iii) Enterobacteriaceae with biochemically diverse carbapenemases and (iv) gonococci resistant to fluoroquinolones and, latterly, cefixime. Laboratory, clinical and commercial aspects have also changed. Susceptibility testing is more standardised, with pharmacodynamic breakpoints. Treatments regimens are more driven by guidelines. The industry has fewer big profitable companies and more small companies without sales income. There is good and bad here. The quality of routine susceptibility testing has improved, but its speed has not. Pharmacodynamics adds science, but over-optimism has led to poor dose selection in several trials. Guidelines discourage poor therapy but concentrate selection onto a diminishing range of antibiotics, threatening their utility. Small companies are more nimble, but less resilient. Last, more than anything, the world has changed, with the rise of India and China, which account for 33% of the world's population and increasingly provide sophisticated health care, but also have huge resistance problems. These shifts present huge challenges for the future of chemotherapy and for the edifice of modern medicine that depends upon it. PMID:22386741

Livermore, David M

2012-04-01

343

20 Years of RECONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets, including an astrometric search of several hundred of the nearest red dwarfs for planetary systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

2014-01-01

344

Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Muddy Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Muddy Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. Forty-three cross sections were surveyed and 14 cross sections were synthesized along a 6.7-mile reach of Muddy Creek. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface flood elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile shows the streambed elevation and the location of one bridge, one culvert, and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

Omang, R.J.

1994-01-01

345

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

346

A Modified School Year: Perspectives from the Early Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A balanced or modified school year is a rearrangement of the traditional school calendar to provide more continuous learning throughout the school year. Students receive the same amount of instructional time as those on the traditional calendar but in-school time is more evenly balanced with out-of-school time throughout the year. It has been the…

Winter, Eileen C.

2005-01-01

347

The Year-Round School or the Rescheduled School Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This indepth study examines literature on the concept of the year round school, the experiences of those who have tried this approach to education, and the recent trends in this direction. Guidelines used in developing the study were (1) past or present experiences with the year round school, (2) format of present year round schools, (3) degree to…

Cuddy, Edward H.

348

A Different New Year: Chinese New Year, Teacher's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides: (1) background information on the traditional celebration of the Chinese New Year and on the Chinese New Year Festival as celebrated in the United States; (2) a three day lesson plan which focuses, respectively, on the Chinese New Year Festival in San Francisco, a field trip to San Francisco's Chinatown, and the Chinese…

Huang, Joe

349

[50 years after Anne Frank: reactive of a transgenerational trauma in countertransference].  

PubMed

Traumatizations suffered in the course of the atrocities perpetrated by the National Socialists defy symbolization and, if unresolved, are passed on to subsequent generations. With reference to the psychoanalytic treatment of a forty-year-old homosexual of the "second generation", the author traces the problematic of the transgenerational handing-down of unresolved traumatizations. The son of a Jewess whose brother was murdered in a concentration camp, the patient had to stand in for his lost uncle and remained caught up in a "symbiotic illusion" with this omni-present/absent object and with the mother, thus being unable to attain to a personality of his own and achieve the Oedipal triad. The article concentrates entirely on this case and provides an impressive record of the mechanisms of transference and counter-transference involved and the various stages of the psychoanalytic process. PMID:7871187

Halberstadt-Freud, H C

1995-01-01

350

Alley Oop: 75 Years of the Comic World of V.T. Hamlin  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1932 by cartoonist V.T. Hamlin, the comic strip Alley Oop chronicled the adventures of a prehistoric man as he made his way through daily life in the kingdom of Moo. Oop's various trials and tribulations also offered trenchant commentaries on suburban life in the United States, and Hamlin drew the strip himself for forty years. This online exhibition, created by the University of Missouri Libraries Special Collections, draws interested parties into the world of Alley Oop through a series of thoughtful essays and examples of Hamlin's work. The sections of the exhibit include "V.T. Hamlin", "Alley Oop and Popular Culture", and "After Alley Oop". Visitors should definitely check out the "Alley Oop and Popular Culture" area as it contains shots of the Alley Oop figurine, information on the short-lived Alley Oop musical, and the Alley Oop commemorative stamp.

351

A Randomized Prospective Study on Outcomes of an Empathy Intervention among Second-year Student Pharmacists  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the impact of a single, 3-day intervention on empathy levels as measured by the validated Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS). Methods. Forty second-year student pharmacists were recruited to participate in a non-blinded prospective study. Subjects were randomized to an intervention group (n=20) or control group (n=20) and completed the JSE-HPS at baseline, 7 days postintervention, and 90 days postintervention. The intervention group consisted of a 3-day simulation, each day including a designated activity with loss of dominant hand usage, vision, and speech. Results. The 3-day simulation increased empathy levels in the intervention group compared to the control group 7 days postintervention (p=0.035). However, there were no effects on empathy levels 90 days postintervention (p=0.38). Conclusion. Empathy scores increased but were not sustained in the long-term with a 3-day empathy intervention.

Truong, Julie T; Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J

2015-01-01

352

A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later.  

PubMed

In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:23500455

2013-09-01

353

A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later.  

PubMed

In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:24034806

2013-10-01

354

Poor sleep in adolescents: a study of 869 17-year-old Italian secondary school students.  

PubMed

Subjective sleep quality and its related factors were investigated in 869 (530 F, 339 M) 17-year-old adolescents, who were selected from the pupils of state-run secondary schools in the city of Pavia in the north west of Italy. The study was conducted cross sectionally, and it consisted of a questionnaire based survey. One hundred and forty-two subjects (16.5% of the whole sample, 19% of the females and 11.7% of the males) met the criteria chosen for definition as poor sleepers (namely, a complaint of 'non restorative nocturnal sleep', 'often' or 'always' over the previous 12 mo). A significant association was found between chronic poor sleep and (1) gender (female) (2) emotional factors, such as worries, anxiety and depression (3) poor sleep hygiene (4) arousal related parasomnia. Only 4% of poor sleepers took sleep promoting drugs (including benzodiazepines, homeopathic products and other medications), generally without seeking medical advice. PMID:9125698

Manni, R; Ratti, M T; Marchioni, E; Castelnovo, G; Murelli, R; Sartori, I; Galimberti, C A; Tartara, A

1997-03-01

355

Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement: 12-year single center experience  

PubMed Central

Background This study reports the single center experience on minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR), performed through a right anterior minithoracotomy or ministernotomy (MS). Methods Eight hundred and fifty-three patients, who underwent MIAVR from 2002 to 2014, were retrospectively analyzed. Survival was evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The Cox multivariable proportional hazards regression model was developed to identify independent predictors of follow-up mortality. Results Median age was 73.8, and 405 (47.5%) of patients were female. The overall 30-day mortality was 1.9%. Four hundred and forty-three (51.9%) and 368 (43.1%) patients received biological and sutureless prostheses, respectively. Median cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross-clamping time were 108 and 75 minutes, respectively. Nineteen (2.2%) cases required conversion to full median sternotomy. Thirty-seven (4.3%) patients required re-exploration for bleeding. Perioperative stroke occurred in 15 (1.8%) patients, while transient ischemic attack occurred postoperative in 11 (1.3%). New onset atrial fibrillation was reported for 243 (28.5%) patients. After a median follow-up of 29.1 months (2,676.0 patient-years), survival rates at 1 and 5 years were 96%±1% and 80%±3%, respectively. Cox multivariable analysis showed that advanced age, history of cardiac arrhythmia, preoperative chronic renal failure, MS approach, prolonged mechanical ventilation and hospital stay as well as wound revision were associated with higher mortality. Conclusions MIAVR via both approaches is safe and feasible with excellent outcomes, and is associated with low conversion rate and low perioperative morbidity. Long term survival is at least comparable to that reported for conventional sternotomy AVR.

Solinas, Marco; Farneti, Pier Andrea; Cerillo, Alfredo Giuseppe; Kallushi, Enkel; Santarelli, Filippo; Glauber, Mattia

2015-01-01

356

20-Year CCOP Research Bases  

Cancer.gov

Community Clinical Oncology Program Celebrates 20 Years of Research 20-Year CCOP Research Bases Research Bases develop and implement the cancer prevention and control clinical trials of the CCOP program. The following Research Bases have been a continuous

357

SMESA PRESENTATIONS YEARS 1995 2000  

E-print Network

, 1996, Prague, Czech. J.D. Romero, H. Liu and W. Jia, "Dispersion effects of population gratingSMESA PRESENTATIONS YEARS 1995 2000 YEAR 9596 W. Jia, H. Liu, and W.M. Yen, "Photoexitation at SouthEaster APS Meeting, Tallahassee, Florida, November 911, 1995. YEAR 9697 H. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Jia

Gilbes, Fernando

358

Year-Round Education Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is designed to aid school districts that are considering either implementing a year-round program for the first time or improving and expanding an existing year-round program. The handbook is organized in 11 chapters that discuss the following topics: introduction to the year-round school, reorganizing the school calendar, adopting…

California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Program Planning and Development.

359

Assessment and 2-Year Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a national study of the current availability and use of commercially and institutionally developed educational assessment instruments. Indicates that two-year institutions reported less activity than four-year institutions in assessing the major fields of study but that 77% of all two-year institutions assessed basic skills. (MAB)

Bradley, Jama L.; And Others

1994-01-01

360

The Year 1999 in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

Speights, Dave

2001-01-01

361

Language Development: 1 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Language Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Early in the second year, your toddler will ... Teach him the correct names of objects and body parts, and stop using cute substitutes ... By providing a good language model, you’ll help him learn to talk ...

362

Geology -Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4  

E-print Network

Geology - Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 32160 or BL2170, and CH 1120 are not required for the Earth and Space Science teaching major as described by the Department of Education. The B.S. in Geology with the Earth and Space Science Education

363

Effectiveness of dietary allergen exclusion therapy on eosinophilic colitis in chinese infants and young children ? 3 years of age.  

PubMed

Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet), anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists) and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen exclusion on clinical remission of eosinophilic colitis in infants and young children. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all infants and children ?3 years of age who were diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (defined as mucosal eosinophilia ?20 hpf-1) from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 at a tertiary children's hospital in China. Forty-nine children were identified with eosinophilic colitis. Elemental formula, simple elimination diet or combination therapy resulted in clinical improvement in 75%, 88.2% and 80% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic colitis in infants and children ?3 years of age responded well to dietary allergen exclusion. PMID:25768952

Yang, Min; Geng, Lanlan; Chen, Peiyu; Wang, Fenghua; Xu, Zhaohui; Liang, Cuiping; Li, Huiwen; Fang, Tiefu; Friesen, Craig A; Gong, Sitang; Li, Dingyou

2015-01-01

364

Stability of narcissistic personality disorder: tracking categorical and dimensional rating systems over a two-year period.  

PubMed

Personality disorders are characterized as temporally stable patterns of symptoms (APA, 2000). However, evidence on the stability of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is generally lacking. This study tracked the prevalence and remission rates of individual criteria for NPD over the course of 2 years. In addition, the stability of dimensional personality pathology in patients with NPD (assessed with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology, DAPP-BQ) was assessed over time. A sample of 96 patients with a diagnosis of NPD was recruited at baseline. Forty patients participated in the follow-up assessment 2 years later. Our results indicate a moderate remission rate (53%) for NPD as a categorical diagnosis. However, single NPD criteria differed in their prevalence and temporal stability, similar to findings for other personality disorders. Moreover, scores on dimensional subscales of the DAPP-BQ remained stable over time. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:24512458

Vater, Aline; Ritter, Kathrin; Strunz, Sandra; Ronningstam, Elsa F; Renneberg, Babette; Roepke, Stefan

2014-07-01

365

Microprocessors --10 Years Back, 10 Years Gurindar S. Sohi  

E-print Network

Microprocessors -- 10 Years Back, 10 Years Ahead Gurindar S. Sohi Computer Sciences Department computer architects with an increasing number of faster transistors with which to build microprocessors. In the past decade, architects have seized these opportunities to build microprocessors that bear lit- tle

Sohi, Guri S.

366

Compost 101Turn this year's trash into next year's treasure  

E-print Network

Compost 101Turn this year's trash into next year's treasure Filling and Maintaining Compost Georgia://ceps.georgiasouthern.edu/garden This brochure is funded in part by a grant from a Museums for America Grant. Types of Composting Bins To fill your compost bin, alternate brown and green materials. Keep in mind that the ideal ratio is three

Hutcheon, James M.

367

5-Year Review Guidance: Procedures for Conducting 5-Year Reviews  

E-print Network

classification of a species as threatened or endangered on the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife an5-Year Review Guidance: Procedures for Conducting 5-Year Reviews Under the Endangered Species Act U-1 Appendix E. FWS Endangered and Threatened Species Listing and Recovery Priority Guidance

368

Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

US Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

369

Multivariate statistical analyses of groundwater surrounding Forty mile wash  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater chemistry data from 211 sampling locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed using multivariate statistical methods in order to better understand groundwater chemical evolution, ascertain potential flow paths and determine hydrochemical facies. Correspondence analysis of the major ion chemistry is used to define relationships between and among major ions and sampling locations. A k-means cluster analysis is used to determine hydrochemical facies based on correspondence analysis dimensions. The derived dimensions and hydrochemical facies are presented as bi-plots and overlaid on a digital elevation model of the region giving a visual picture of potential interactions and flow paths. A distinct signature of the groundwater chemistry along the extended flow path of Fortymile Wash can be observed along with some potential interaction at possible fault lines near Highway I-95. The signature from Fortymile Wash is believed to represent the relict of water that infiltrated during past pluvial periods when the amount of runoff in the wash was significantly larger than during the current drier period. This hypothesis appears to be supported by hydrogen-2 and oxygen-18 data which indicate that younger groundwater is found in the upper part of the wash near Yucca Mountain and older groundwater is found in the lower region of the wash near Amargosa River. The range of the hydrogen-2 data corresponds to precipitation in a period of relatively cold climate and has a similar spatial signature to the oxygen-18 data. If the hypothesis that current groundwater chemistry primarily reflects past focused infiltration of surface runoff rather than regional groundwater migration is correct, then saturated zone transport from Yucca Mountain may be much slower than is currently anticipated. (authors)

Woocay, A.; Walton, J.C. [El Paso Univ. of Texas, Environmental Science and Engineering, TX (United States)

2007-07-01

370

An Aristotelian notion of size Vieri Benci, Marco Forti  

E-print Network

lineari" and "O- minimalit`a, metodi e modelli non standard, linguaggi per la computabilit`a". 1 #12 barrier. Historically the fundamental principles AP and CP revealed incompatible for infinite collections the impossibility of infinite numbers. Cantor relaxed AP to A B = s(A) s(B), and developed its beautiful theory

Di Nasso, Mauro

371

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Vertical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

372

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Polar)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

373

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Stereo)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this stereo view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. It is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

374

RESEARCH ARTICLE Forty percent revenue increase by combining organic  

E-print Network

and Springer-Verlag, France 2012 Abstract Linkages between poverty and soil fertility de- cline in sub- cultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa (Sanchez 2002) and fertilizer use lags behind other developing of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA S. J. Fonte (*) Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Women's tidal power plant Forty candles for Kislaya Guba TPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal energy has been used for centuries. Tidal current and rise and fall of tides were both put to work. They provided power for flour mills, saw mills, breweries, etc. Tide mills dotted several regions of Europe from The Netherlands to Spain and from Wales to England. Immigrants brought the technique to the “New World” to the United States and

Marie-Claire Chaineux; Roger H. Charlier

2008-01-01

376

Naive (Bayes) at forty: The independence assumption in information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naive Bayes classifier, currently experiencing a\\u000a renaissance in machine learning, has long been a core\\u000a technique in information retrieval. We review some of the\\u000a variations of naive Bayes models used for text retrieval\\u000a and classification, focusing on the distributional\\u000a assumptions made about word occurrences in documents.

David D. Lewis

1998-01-01

377

Sibling Incest: Reports from Forty-One Survivors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study was conducted with a convenience sample of 41 adult survivors of sibling incest using a retrospective survey design. Participants were interviewed about their childhood sexual experiences with a sibling. Most participants reported vaginal or oral intercourse and coercive experiences. Half of the sample reported sexual…

Carlson, Bonnie E.; Maciol, Katherine; Schneider, Joanne

2006-01-01

378

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

379

Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors; A 10-year Experience  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of germ cell tumors in patients admitted to our center during a ten year period. Methods: In a retrospective descriptive study, patients with the pathological diagnosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) were included. All records were evaluated and patients followed by personal visit in clinic or phone call. Data regarding age, sex, tumor site, bio-chemical assay, pathology, treatment and outcomes were gathered. For qualitative variables we computed frequency and percentage and for quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version16.0. Findings : Forty four patients consisted of 32 girls (72.7%) and 12 boys (27.3%). Their median age was 23 months. The most common pathological tumor types were 18 (40.9%) mature teratomas and 14 (31.8%) yolk sac tumors. Extra gonadal tumors were more prevalent (32 cases) and consisted of 21 (47.7%) sacrcoccygeal, 7 (15.9%) retroperitoneal, 2 (4.4%) mediastinal and 2 (4.4%) cervical tumors. In gonadal tumors 9 patients had ovarian and 3 patients testicular involvement. Staging at the time of diagnosis revealed stage one in 23 (52.3%) cases. All patients were treated surgically and the most common procedure was total resection in 41 (93.2%) patients. Fifteen (34.1%) patients received chemotherapy. In follow-up 31 (77.5%) patients were in complete remission, 9 (22.5%) had died, and 4 cases did not appear to follow-up visits. The median survival was 16 months (IQR 4-49 months). The highest mortality rate was found in patients with yolk sac tumors (8 of 13 cases). Conclusion: The patients with extra-gonadal GCT and a high AFP level have the worst prognosis and lower survival rate. Combination of surgery and chemotherapy can lead to a better prognosis. PMID:25755868

Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Leily; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Nasibeh; Hasas-Yeganeh, Shaghayegh

2014-01-01

380

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2001  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the HSN, there were 477 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2001 on the data acquisition system. Of these triggers, 176 were earthquakes. Forty-five earthquakes were located in the HSN area; 1 earthquake occurred in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 43 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 1 was earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 44 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was on a major structure, and no earthquakes were classified as random occurrences. The Horse Heaven Hills earthquake swarm area recorded all but one event during the first quarter of FY 2001. The peak of the activity occurred over December 12th, 13th, and 14th when 35 events occurred. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the first quarter of FY 2001.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Valenta, Michelle M.

2001-02-27

381

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-03-21

382

1000 Years of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of solar forcing varies with the amount of solar activity. In addition to the 10–12 year variations, solar activity varies over centennial and millenial periods. During the past 1000 years, of particular interest were the Medieval Warming Period (high solar activity), the Maunder Minimum, (minimal solar activity) and the sharp multi-decadal increase in solar maxima during the first

Charles F Keller

2004-01-01

383

1000 Years of climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The magnitude of solar forcing varies with the amount of solar activity. In addition to the 10-12 year variations, solar activity varies over centennial and millenial periods. During the past 1000 years, of particular interest were the Medieval Warming Period (high solar activity), the Maunder Minimum, (minimal solar activity) and the sharp multi-decadal increase in solar maxima during the first

Charles F. Keller

2004-01-01

384

Outlook: The Next Twenty Years  

SciTech Connect

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-12-07

385

AAIA PUBLICATIONS YEARS 2000 2004  

E-print Network

AAIA PUBLICATIONS YEARS 2000 ­ 2004 YEAR 00-01 V. Manian, R. Vasquez, and P. Katiyar, "Texture, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4381, 2001. V. Manian, Armando Vega, and R. Vasquez, "Comparison of Feature Classifier", Proceedings of IGARSS 2000, Honolulu, Hawaii, July 2000. V. Manian, Roger Hernandez, and R

Gilbes, Fernando

386

Endocrinology: the next 60 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next 60 years promise to arouse the interest of scientists and clinicians while challenging the central dogmas of endocrine physiology. In this review we consider the fundamental changes in the understanding of endocrine physiology that have taken place in recent years and the new hormones discovered. We discuss how the brain is emerging as an important regulator of endocrine

J. R E Davis; Kevin G Murphy; Steve Bloom

2006-01-01

387

Project LIFT: Year 1 Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

2014-01-01

388

Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2012-13 school year.  

PubMed

State and local school vaccination requirements are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and minimize the risk from vaccine preventable diseases. To assess school vaccination coverage and exemptions, CDC annually analyzes school vaccination coverage data from federally funded immunization programs. These awardees include 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), five cities, and eight U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions. This report summarizes vaccination coverage from 48 states and DC and exemption rates from 49 states and DC for children entering kindergarten for the 2012-13 school year. Forty-eight states and DC reported vaccination coverage, with medians of 94.5% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.1% for local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination; and 93.8% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among awardees with a 2-dose requirement. Forty-nine states and DC reported exemption rates, with the median total of 1.8%. Although school entry coverage for most awardees was at or near national Healthy People 2020 targets of maintaining 95% vaccination coverage levels for 2 doses of MMR vaccine, 4 doses of DTaP† vaccine, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination and high exemption levels can cluster within communities, increasing the risk for disease. Reports to CDC are aggregated at the state level; however, local reporting of school vaccination coverage might be accessible by awardees. These local-level data can be used to create evidence-based health communication strategies to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the benefits of vaccinations to the health of their children and other kindergarteners. PMID:23903595

2013-08-01

389

A New Years Trip A New Years Trip  

E-print Network

................................................................................................................................................ #12;A New Years Trip 6 I dreamed I'd delectably dined with the gods, Had crammed down Olympian fodder guides, pieces on their histories, and track maps. Also, I boarded with folders crammed

Wilson, W. Stephen

390

Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2000 Report  

SciTech Connect

The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of he Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2000. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance,(3) ecosystem mapping, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species were conducted for 24 NTS projects. Seventeen sites were in desert tortoise habitat, and six acres of tortoise habitat were documented as being disturbed this year. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed. A topical report describing the classification of habitat types o n the NTS was completed. The report is the culmination of three years of field vegetation mapping and the analysis of vegetation data from over 1,500 ecological landform units. A long-term monitoring plan for important plant species that occur on the NTS was completed. Sitewide inventories were conducted for the western burrowing owl, bat species of concern, wild horses, raptor nests, and mule deer. Fifty-nine of 69 known owl burrows were monitored. Forty-four of the known burrows are in disturbed habitat. As in previous years, some owls were present year round on the NTS. An overall decrease in active owl burrows was observed within all three ecoregions (Mojave Desert, Transition, Great Basin Desert) from October through January. An increase in active owl burrows was observed from mid-March to early April. A total of 45 juvenile owls was detected from eight breeding pairs. One nest burrow was detected in the Mojave Desert,one in the Great Basin Desert, and six in the Transition ecoregion. Seventy bats, representing four bat species of concern, were captured in mist-nets at water sources in the Great Basin Desert ecoregion. Bats were detected with the Anabat II call-recording system at selected tunnel and mine entrances verifying that some NTS mines and tunnels are used as bat roosts. Thirty-seven adult horses and 11 foals were counted this year. Four of the five foals observed last year have survived to yearlings. A monitoring plan for NTS horses was completed. Six active red-tailed hawk nests and 10 nestling red-tailed hawks were detected this year. Two spotlighting surveys for mule deer were conducted, each over three consecutive nights in October 1999 and August 2000. The mean sighting rate in October was 1.2 deer/10 kilometers (km) and 1.6 deer/10 km in August. Selected wetlands and man-made water sources were monitored for physical parameters and wildlife use. No dead animals were observed this year in any plastic-lined sump. Pahute Mesa Pond was confirmed to have vegetation,hydrology, and soil indicators that qualify the site as a jurisdictional wetland. The chemical spill test plan for one experiment at the HAZMAT Spill Center was reviewed for its potential to impact biota downwind of spills on Frenchman Lake playa.

Wills, C.A.

2000-12-01

391

World Year of Physics 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1905 a 26-year-old patent clerk named Albert Einstein published four exceedingly strange research papers-and gave us a whole new way to think about light, matter, energy, space and time. Indeed, his ideas about atoms, quanta and relativity laid the foundations for most of modern physics, not to mention microchips, lasers and a host of modern technologies. In 2005 the National Science Foundation celebrated the centennial of that miraculous year, an event known across the globe as the World Year of Physics. Explore what Einstein actually did in 1905-and all that has come of it since...

392

Visualizing Twenty Years of Applications  

SciTech Connect

This issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications marks the 20th anniversary of the Applications department as a regular feature of the magazine. We thought it might be interesting to look back at the 20 years of Applications department articles to assess its evolution over that time. By aggregating all twenty years of articles and applying a little statistical and visual analytics, we’ve uncovered some interesting characteristics and trends we thought we’d share to mark this 20 year milestone.

Potel, Mike; Wong, Pak C.

2014-11-01

393

Chapeau! First-Year French  

E-print Network

Chapeau! is a first-year college text. Although it may appear, at first glance, o move very fast and introduce a large amount of material early, the vocabulary and grammatical structures that we expect students to control ...

Dinneen, David A.; Kernen, Madeleine

1989-01-01

394

Two Year College Financial Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of the seventh annual national comparative data study on public two-year college financial characteristics are summarized, including statistics on expenditures and revenues, staffing, and credit enrollments. (MSE)

Cirino, Anna Marie; Dickmeyer, Nathan

1985-01-01

395

Sixty years of genome biology  

PubMed Central

Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery. PMID:23651518

2013-01-01

396

STUDENT AFFAIRS YEAR 1 ORIENTATION  

E-print Network

STUDENT AFFAIRS YEAR 1 ORIENTATION Student Affairs Team #12;Objectives: ·Introductions ·Services Offered ·Policies ·Student Disability Services #12;Student Affairs Team: · Assistant Dean of Student/Events Guru: Allison Gherardini · Student Organizations: Tracey Eady · Glue: Benita Patrick, Jean Mc

Finley Jr., Russell L.

397

Accountability report - fiscal year 1997  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

NONE

1998-04-01

398

MESA PUBLICATIONS YEARS 1995 2000  

E-print Network

. 15 (1996) 459. B. Taheri, H. Liu, B. Jassemnejad, D. Appling, R.C. Powell and J.J. Song, "IntensityMESA PUBLICATIONS YEARS 1995 ­ 2000 YEAR 95-96 P.G. Zverev, W. Jia, H. Liu, and T.T. Basiev-97 H. Liu, Y. Wang, W. Jia, F. Lin and S. Mao, "Optical properties of fullerene in glass" Nonlinear Opt

Gilbes, Fernando

399

High-Dose-Rate Rotte 'Y' Applicator Brachytherapy for Definitive Treatment of Medically Inoperable Endometrial Cancer: 10-Year Results  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the intermediate clinical outcomes of medically inoperable patients with endometrial cancer treated with definitive Rotte 'Y' applicator high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) over a 10-year period. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine inoperable patients were treated with HDRB from 1997 to 2007. Forty three (84%) were markedly obese (body mass index >35 kg/m{sup 2}). Thirty-one patients (63.3%) underwent two-dimensional treatment planning, whereas 18 patients (36.7%) underwent three-dimensional treatment planning. Thirty five of the patients (71.4%) were first treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). For patients receiving EBRT in addition to HDRB, the median Y-applicator dose was 20 Gy in 5 fractions; for patients receiving HDRB alone it was 35 Gy in 5 fractions. All patients received two Y-applicator treatments per day. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 33 months. Acute HDRB toxicities were limited to Grade 1 and 2 occurring in 5 patients. One patient had a myocardial infarction. Four patients had late Grade 2 or 3 toxicity. Three patients had local recurrence (median time to recurrence, 16 months). The 3- and 5-year actuarial cause-specific survival rates were 93% and 87%, respectively; the overall survival rate was 83% and 42%, respectively, at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions: Twice-daily HDRB using a Y-applicator is a well-tolerated and efficacious regimen for the definitive treatment of medically inoperable patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. The recent incorporation of three-dimensional treatment planning has the potential to further decrease treatment morbidities.

Coon, Devin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Beriwal, Sushil [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)], E-mail: beriwals@upmc.edu; Heron, Dwight E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Zorn, Kristin K.; Krivak, Thomas C. [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

2008-07-01

400

Stress among First and Third Year Medical Students at University Kebangsaan Malaysia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify the stress-prevalence and coping-strategies among University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) medical students. Methods: This was an observational study conducted among 234 UKM first and third year medical students. Standardized questionnaire on stress and coping strategies was used. Stress data was related to subjective experiences on some positive and negative adjectives such as tense, relaxed etc. Positive adjectives were measured by sign “++” and “+” scoring “1” while stress-negative adjectives were measured by sign “?” and “–“ scoring “0”. Forty-eight coping items under task, emotion and avoidance strategies were measured using 5-point Likert-scale. Results: Overall stress-prevalence was 49%. Female and Malay respondents were more stressed. Significant differences of stress-level was observed between Malays and non Malays in first year (p=0.04) and in third year (p=0.01). Most common strategies used to cope stress was task-oriented while emotion oriented was least. Conclusion: Stress-prevalence and stress-level in UKM medical students was high. Most of the respondents coped stress using task-oriented strategies. Stressor and its effective management must be ensured. Educational institutions should act as a creative designer of learning environment to get relieve from educational stressor.

Salam, Abdus; Mahadevan, Raynuha; Abdul Rahman, Amir; Abdullah, Norsyafiqah; Abd Harith, Aimi Aqilah; Shan, Chu Pei

2015-01-01

401

Research in child psychoanalysis: twenty-five-year follow-up of a severely disturbed child.  

PubMed

In an era of managed care, psychoanalytic treatment of children is under fire as critics question whether the evidence of success in child analysis is sufficiently robust to warrant the large commitment of time and money required for this treatment. This article chronicles the history and current state of research at the Anna Freud Centre, and describes the evolution of a database that has methodically recorded and systematically organized data from over 750 cases of children referred to the Centre over a forty-five-year period. Analysis of this database has determined what kinds of childhood disorders are best treated with intensive psychoanalysis, and what kinds do not respond to this form of treatment. A long-term follow-up of a small sample of these childreen suggests the kinds of long-term benefits that can be gained when an individual is treated with intensive psychoanalysis as a child. As an example, clinical material from the analysis of an eight-year-old is presented along with follow-up interview data twenty-five years later. PMID:19724072

Tyson, Phyllis

2009-08-01

402

Feline urinary tract pathogens: prevalence of bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance over a 10-year period.  

PubMed

The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify bacterial species in cats with bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to investigate their antimicrobial susceptibilities over a 10-year period. Three hundred and thirty cultures from 280 cats were included in the study. The mean age of affected cats was 9.9?years; female cats with bacterial UTIs were significantly older than male cats with UTIs. The most common pathogen identified was Escherichia coli (42.3 per cent), followed by Streptococcus species (19.3 per cent), Staphylococcus species (15.6 per cent), Enterococcus species (6.6 per cent) and Micrococcaceae (5.8 per cent). Forty specimens (12.1 per cent) yielded growth of more than one isolate. Streptococcus and Enterococcus isolates were resistant to a significantly higher number of antimicrobial agents than E coli and Staphylococcus species isolates. Applying the formula to select rational antimicrobial therapy, bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin and gentamicin. The antimicrobial impact factor for nitrofurantoin increased significantly over the 10-year period, whereas there was no significant change in antimicrobial impact factors for doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, cephalothin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid. The detected changes in in vitro antimicrobial efficacy could help to develop hospital-specific guidelines for antimicrobial use to prevent the further development of resistance in feline uropathogens. PMID:25351232

Dorsch, Roswitha; von Vopelius-Feldt, Clara; Wolf, Georg; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Hartmann, Katrin

2015-02-21

403

Pilot study on the prevalence of abuse and mistreatment during clinical internship: a cross-sectional study among first year residents in Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate perceptions of being mistreated during internship among first year Oman Medical Specialty Board residents. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Training centres for Oman Medical Specialty Board. Participants First year medical residents following completion of internship during the study period 2009–2010. Method A cross-sectional survey of first year medical residents. Results Of 58 residents (response rate 84%), 96.6% perceived that mistreatment exists. Among different types of mistreatment reported, verbal and academic abuses were the most common (87.9%), followed by sexual harassment (24.1%), then physical abuse (22.4%). Forty-four (75.9%) residents had advised at least one of their relatives not to join medical school. Conclusions Mistreatment of medical interns is an ethical issue challenging the quality of clinical training. Further research is needed to understand factors influencing mistreatment and to draw guidelines to limit such problems. PMID:23396558

Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Kaabi, Yousuf; Al-Farsi, Yousuf; White, Gillian; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Adawi, Samir

2013-01-01

404

Provo's Year Round Education Program. First Year Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The costs and benefits of Year Round Education (YRE), a system in which students have short, staggered vacation periods, so that only a subgroup of students are attending school at any one time, were explored by the Provo (Utah) City School District. In an effort to accommodate a growing number of students without building additional classrooms,…

Van Mondfrans, Adrian P.; And Others

405

Ocular Firework Injuries at New Year’s Eve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To prospectively study mechanisms and injury characteristics of ocular firework burns. Methods: A prospective analysis of all patients with firework injuries attending the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, between 1994 and 2001. We looked for classes of fireworks and mechanisms of injuries. The number of diagnoses was established and their severity classified. Results: During this period (8 years)

Stefan Sacu; Nikolaus Ségur-Eltz; Karin Stenng; Martin Zehetmayer

2002-01-01

406

LNG to the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

By 2000, about 190 MM metric-tpy of LNG will be moving in world trade, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer By the year 2000, approximately 190 million metric tons per year of LNG will be moving in worldwide trade. Production of LNG will be spread throughout most of the world, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer. LNG will be delivered only to the heavily industrialized areas of North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. The success of any LNG project will be dependent on its individual economics, market needs, financial planning, and governmental permit processes. We hope industry will be able to put together the LNG projects required to meet the quanitities of production forecast here for the year 2000.

Davenport, S.T.

1984-04-01

407

Ten Thousand Years of Solitude  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Benford, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) California Univ., Irvine, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA). Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Pasqualetti, M.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))

1991-03-01

408

[Omphalocele: 10-year-experience].  

PubMed

We review our experience of 32 cases of omphalocele treated in the last ten years. Improved neonatal intensive care unit, as well as other support care measures, allowed to extend even to the large defects the indication to radical primary repair. Our experience has supported that this is the method of choice in almost all cases. At present the surgical success depend on associated anomalies, cardiac especially (25% in our series), and on development of sepsis. Analysis of the results shows an overall mortality rate of 41% in the period 1973/1982, significantly decreased to 33% in the last five years. PMID:6085401

Canavese, F; Bardini, T; Freni, G; Lanino, E

1984-01-01

409

35 years of DEB research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory started 35 years ago. Initially much emphasis was put on the development of a consistent theory. During recent years attention was paid on parameterizing DEB models for a huge collection of species. This enables the search for patterns in parameter values in an ecological and evolutionary context. This special issue presents some of the results of this quest, among other things focusing on the development of metabolic acceleration, combined with various applications of DEB theory in fisheries, aquaculture, climate science and ecotoxicology.

van der Meer, Jaap; Klok, Chris; Kearney, Michael R.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

2014-11-01

410

Kuru-fifty years later.  

PubMed

Kuru, the first human neurodegenerative disease classified as a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, prion disease or, in the past, slow unconventional virus disease, was first reported to Western medicine in 1957 by D. Carleton Gajdusek and Vincent Zigas. Thus, this year marks the 50th anniversary of kuru discovery, highlighted by the symposium The end of kuru: 50 years of research into an extraordinary disease organized by John Collinge and Michael Alpers at the Royal Society, London, November 11-12, 2007. In this review, we summarize some data on the epidemiology, neuropathology and clinical picture of kuru. PMID:18224577

Liberski, Pawe? P; Brown, Paul

2007-01-01

411

25 Years of Family Practice  

PubMed Central

It is difficult to assess and analyze current history. A selected number of the important events that have occurred in Canadian medicine during the past 25 years are analyzed from the point of view of their impact on and revelance to family practice. Many of the events and advances that will have further impact in the next 25 years have been omitted, such as developments in computer technology and space age medicine. To date, these have had little effect on the majority of family physicians. The opinions expressed are those of the author. PMID:21301579

Bean, Irwin

1979-01-01

412

The Furlong hydroxyapatite-coated total hip replacement in patients under age 51. A 6-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Forty-five Furlong hydroxyapatite-coated total hip replacements were reviewed at an average of 71 months (46-89) after surgery. Patient's average age at surgery was 46 years (31-50). The average Harris hip score at the time of final review was 89, and 38 hips (84%) had no pain (28) or only slight pain (10). Three hips were revised, none for aseptic loosening. Two cups were loose. The remainder of the cups and all the stems were radiographically stable with positive evidence of bone ingrowth and no signs of impending failure. One cup showed definite wear of the polyethylene liner. Focal progressive osteolytic lesions occurred in the calcar region in 3 stable hips (7%). To date the Furlong hydroxyapatite-coated implant has produced encouraging results in this group of young patients, although longer follow-up is needed to determine its durability. PMID:9586246

Loupasis, G; Morris, E W; Hyde, I D

1998-03-01

413

Children's Order 10 Years on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten years ago I wrote an article on the Children's Order, which was coming into force in Northern Ireland in October 1996. I examined the principles behind the Children's Order and considered how these principles interacted with the practice of family mediation (at that stage I was Coordinator of the Family Mediation service). Since that date…

Kerr, Linda

2006-01-01

414

Results Report, Fiscal Year 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Illinois, 39 community college districts and one multi-community college center provide access to nearly one million students each year. The Illinois Community College System developed this strategic plan, the "Promise for Illinois," to outline the role community colleges should play in building a strong future for the state and its residents.…

Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

415

Thirty years of chlorophyll modeling.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the progress over approximately thirty-year's work of the author in developing a model of photosynthesis involving chlorophyll on polymeric substrates that would photosensitize endergonic electron transfer. The system finally achieved might, with proper modifications, serve as a means of generating power from solar energy. PMID:24821443

Seely, G R

2014-03-01

416

Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years  

E-print Network

was to become the foundation of our modern concepts of electricity, magnetism and light, James Clerk Maxwell Engineering in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the birth of James Clerk Max- well and of Michael#12;#12;LINES AND WAVES Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years Of Electromagnetism Robert D. Friedel Center

Jones, R. Victor

417

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 117 + BIOL 118 GENERAL BIOLOGY II and LAB Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 115 + BIOL 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY I and LAB Introductory Chemistry

Suzuki, Masatsugu

418

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 202 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 201 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

419

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 132 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 131 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

420

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 1580 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 1570 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

421

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 105 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 104 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

422

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 01400 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 01300 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

423

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 115 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

424

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

425

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 117 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 118 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

426

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 220 BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 210 BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY I CHE 201

Suzuki, Masatsugu

427

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 1520 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 1510 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

428

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 110 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 109 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

429

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 156 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 155 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

430

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

431

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

432

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

433

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 151 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

434

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 / BY 52 MODERN BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 150 / BY 50 MODERN BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

435

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY SC 139 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: ANIMALS AND PLANTS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY SC 135 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: MOLECULES AND CELLS Introductory Chemistry

Suzuki, Masatsugu

436

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 106H GENERAL BIOLOGY II HONORS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 105H GENERAL BIOLOGY I HONORS Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

437

Twenty years of TIRGO telescope  

E-print Network

We present the characteristics and the current status of the "Telescopio Infrarosso del Gornergrat" (Tirgo), the national infrared facility operating from the beginning of the 80s over the swiss alps. We describe its current instrumentation and resume its activities during its 20 years of life.

F. Mannucci

2002-05-29

438

Personnel Management: Two Year Colleges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is one of five manuals designed to improve management practices in Ohio two-year colleges. A chapter on organizing for personnel management discusses basic personnel functions, roles and responsibilities of administrators, and the need for a central statewide office of personnel affairs. A chapter on planning, policies, and…

Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus. Management Improvement Program.

439

2007: A Year In Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most high-profile story of the year touching the higher education community was undisputedly the killings at Virginia Tech in April when student Seung-Hui Cho opened fire, leaving 33 people dead, including himself. To date, it is the deadliest campus shooting in U.S. history. However, in September, the Delaware State University (DSU) community…

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

440

Annual Review of the Year  

E-print Network

Forestry Strategy 14 Climate change 16 Timber 19 Business development 22 Community development 26 Access's objectives in the year to come. Public awareness of the challenge of climate change grew significantly over such as concrete and steel in our buildings and in construction. I was delighted to open our new, Scottish

441

Digital holography: 30 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital holography is analysis, synthesis and simulation of wave fields by means of digital computers and processors. Since first publications in digital holography, more than 30 years have passed. From then on, the ideas of digital holography formulated at that time has found quite a number of applications and implementations; but not all of them. Some old dreams such as

Leonid P. Yaroslavsky

2002-01-01

442

AAIA PRESENTATIONS YEARS 1995 -2000  

E-print Network

3-7, 1995. Supercomputing Conference, December 1995, San Diego, California. Dr. Ramon Vasquez. IEEE, at University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Dr. Hamed Parsiani. YEAR 97-98 L.O Jimenez, "On-Mayaguez and Raytheon". Society of Hispanic and Professional Engineers 20th Annual National Technical and Career

Gilbes, Fernando

443

Humanities Computing 25 Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the development of humanities computing during the past 25 years. Mentions the major applications of the computer to humanities disciplines including the generation of concordances, attempts at dating works of major authors, proving authorship, defining style, and compiling indexes. Discusses lexicographical uses and…

Raben, Joseph

1991-01-01

444

The Year of the Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher in…

Hinshaw, Craig

2010-01-01

445

"Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Almost 20 years ago, the author wrote--and then privately published--the two "Lake Woebegone" reports, named after Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota town where "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." The first "Lake Woebegone" report documented that all 50 states were testing above the…

Cannell, John Jacob

2006-01-01

446

2012: A Year in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When historians review 2012 for its noteworthy moments, events and milestones, they will find the year was a trying one for the American higher education system, despite its being able to educate and enlighten thousands in search of more choices and preparation for adult self-sufficiency. Many academicians and students worked for and celebrated…

Stuart, Reginald

2012-01-01

447

Science After the Year 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses possibilities for science after the year 2000, focusing on the nature of complex matter, collective properties of complex systems, role of engineering in future science, and technology (applied science). Indicates that energy supply is the outstanding world scientific/technological problem of the twenty-first century. (Author/JN)

Cottrell, Alan

1982-01-01

448

The Four-Year Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that in 1996, Alabama officials approved the "4 x 4" plan, which made their state the first in the country to require students to complete four years, or four credits each, of math and science for high school graduation. Other states have since followed suit, with policymakers arguing that higher standards are necessary to…

Cavanagh, Sean

2009-01-01

449

29 and Leap Years - Numberphile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7-minute video astronomer Dr Meghan Gray explains the relationship of the Earth's rotation and its revolution around the Sun, resulting in the need to add an extra day to our calendar every four years. She describes additional adjustments required to keep our calendar aligned with the Earth's movements. Dr Gray explains the Julian date and its usefulness.

Dr Meghan Gray

2012-02-29

450

First-year student diary.  

PubMed

Spring is finally here: the sun is shining and generally everyone seems a lot perkier says Rosie Perrett, first-year student at Liverpool. Whether that's related to the Easter break is not clear as the past month has been as busy as ever. PMID:25859005

Perrett, Rosie

2015-04-11

451

Kyoto University 1 Year Contents  

E-print Network

Research established. 1963 Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences and Research Reactor Institute Research Center established. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE #12;Kyoto University2 1972 Research Center for Sports#12;#12;Kyoto University 1 Year Contents 1897 Founded as Kyoto Imperial University. College

Takada, Shoji

452

Twenty Years of Institutional Liberalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world has now experienced what could be regarded as 20 years of Institutional Liberalism: the dominance of the view that cooperation in world politics can be enhanced through the construction and support of multilateral institutions based on liberal principles. E. H. Carr was famously skeptical of liberalism as he understood that tradition. This essay, prepared originally as the E.

Robert O. Keohane

2012-01-01

453

Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

Gray, Andrew

454

The Year-Round School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study consists of a review of the literature, a discussion of some of the vital questions concerning the year-round school, and a bibliography. Discussed are (1) quarter schedules of various types and their applications to school calendars, (2) transitions to quarter schedules from conventional schedules, (3) teacher and staff assignments,…

Torge, Herman

455

Liberal Studies: Thirty Years' Retrospect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven critical pressures or influences have modified general education since 1946: (1) three waves of G.I. Bill holders; (2) racial and ethnic integration; (3) television; (4) student protest; (5) demands of the job market; (6) overlap of the secondary school curriculum with that of freshman and sophomore years of college; and (7) changing student…

Willey, Darrell S.

1977-01-01

456

Fuel ethanol after 25 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 25 years, Brazil and North America are still the only two regions that produce large quantities of fuel ethanol, from sugar cane and maize, respectively. The efficiency of ethanol production has steadily increased and valuable co-products are produced, but only tax credits make fuel ethanol commercially viable because oil prices are at an all-time low. The original motivation for

Alan E Wheals; Luiz C Basso; Denise M. G Alves; Henrique V Amorim

1999-01-01

457

Year in Review Annual Report  

E-print Network

the productivity and innovation of our faculty and students and the quality, diversity, and richness are in the professional schools. This year, the School of Engineering's Mascaro Sustainability Initiative (MSI), in collaboration with CLAS, was awarded an Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) grant

Machery, Edouard

458

Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

2002-05-30

459

Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

2002-05-01

460

Donor Age and Corneal Endothelial Cell Loss 5 Years after Successful Corneal Transplantation: Specular Microscopy Ancillary Study Results  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether endothelial cell loss 5 years after successful corneal transplantation is related to the age of the donor. Design Multicenter, prospective, double-masked clinical trial. Participants Three hundred forty-seven subjects participating in the Cornea Donor Study who had not experienced graft failure 5 years after corneal transplantation for a moderate-risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema). Testing Specular microscopic images of donor corneas obtained before surgery and postoperatively at 6 months, 12 months, and then annually through 5 years were submitted to a central reading center to measure endothelial cell density (ECD). Main Outcome Measure Endothelial cell density at 5 years. Results At 5 years, there was a substantial decrease in ECD from baseline for all donor ages. Subjects who received a cornea from a donor 12 to 65 years old experienced a median cell loss of 69% in the study eye, resulting in a 5-year median ECD of 824 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 613–1342), whereas subjects who received a cornea from a donor 66 to 75 years old experienced a cell loss of 75%, resulting in a median 5-year ECD of 654 cells/mm2 (interquartile range, 538–986) (P [adjusted for baseline ECD] = 0.04). Statistically, there was a weak negative association between ECD and donor age analyzed as a continuous variable (r [adjusted for baseline ECD] = ?0.19; 95% confidence interval, ?0.29 to ?0.08). Conclusions Endothelial cell loss is substantial in the 5 years after corneal transplantation. There is a slight association between cell loss and donor age. This finding emphasizes the importance of longer-term follow-up of this cohort to determine if this relationship affects graft survival. PMID:18387408

2010-01-01

461

Adoption of a wiki within a large internal medicine residency program: a 3-year experience  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the creation and evaluate the use of a wiki by medical residents, and to determine if a wiki would be a useful tool for improving the experience, efficiency, and education of housestaff. Materials and methods In 2008, a team of medical residents built a wiki containing institutional knowledge and reference information using Microsoft SharePoint. We tracked visit data for 3?years, and performed an audit of page views and updates in the second year. We evaluated the attitudes of medical residents toward the wiki using a survey. Results Users accessed the wiki 23?218, 35?094, and 40?545 times in each of three successive academic years from 2008 to 2011. In the year two audit, 85 users made a total of 1082 updates to 176 pages and of these, 91 were new page creations by 17 users. Forty-eight percent of residents edited a page. All housestaff felt the wiki improved their ability to complete tasks, and 90%, 89%, and 57% reported that the wiki improved their experience, efficiency, and education, respectively, when surveyed in academic year 2009–2010. Discussion A wiki is a useful and popular tool for organizing administrative and educational content for residents. Housestaff felt strongly that the wiki improved their workflow, but a smaller educational impact was observed. Nearly half of the housestaff edited the wiki, suggesting broad buy-in among the residents. Conclusion A wiki is a feasible and useful tool for improving information retrieval for house officers. PMID:22140210

Mostaghimi, Arash; Reynolds, Eileen E

2011-01-01

462

Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: a 5-year longitudinal study.  

PubMed

Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and depression in adolescence. The so-called principle-effect and stress-buffer models could explain relationships between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms, yet no study has used both models to test bidirectional relationships between teacher support and depressive symptoms in students separately by sex. Four-thousand three-hundred forty-one students (boys: n = 2,063; girls: n = 2,278) from Grades 8 to 12 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTEQ), and an instrument developed for the study to measure teacher support annually for 5 years. Results support neither of the 2 proposed models. Instead, they indicate that in the 1st years of high school, students of both sexes with average and high numbers of stressful events benefit from teacher support, while teacher support might have iatrogenic effects on students experiencing low numbers of stressful events. Possible explanations for the findings and future research are discussed. PMID:23379297

Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G; Spence, Susan H; Bjerg, Annie C

2013-11-01

463

A multi-year field olfactometry study near a concentrated animal feeding operation.  

PubMed

This study developed and tested a protocol for monitoring odors near a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO). The Nasal Ranger, a portable field olfactometry instrument, was used by a panel of trained individuals to conduct the monitoring near a swine CAFO. Monitors were selected based on olfactory sensitivity, scheduling availability, and lack of association with the CAFO or residential neighbors of the CAFO. Monitors were trained to use the Nasal Ranger, collect and record weather data, and characterize any odors detected. Data were collected over a 3-year period (2007-2009) for approximately 9 months each year. The data recorded included odor intensity, a description of the odor, date and time of the reading, and weather conditions. Of more than 50,000 readings, forty-one (0.1%) odor readings had a dilution to threshold ratio (D/T) of +/- 7:1 and were attributed to hog manure. The frequency of odor readings attributed to hog manure with D/T +/-7:1 was found to negatively correlate with log wind speed and positively correlate with wind from the direction of the farm. Other meteorological variables (temperature, precipitation, cloud cover) and time of day did not influence the frequency. PMID:22263428

Dalton, Pamela; Caraway, Edward A; Gibb, Herman; Fulcher, Keri

2011-12-01

464

One-year treatment follow-up of plantar fasciitis: radial shockwaves vs. conventional physiotherapy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To compare radial shockwave treatment with conventional physiotherapy for plantar fasciitis after 12 months of follow-up. METHOD: This was a randomized, prospective, comparative clinical study. Forty patients with a diagnosis of plantar fasciitis were divided randomly into two treatment groups: group 1, with 20 patients who underwent ten physiotherapy sessions comprising ultrasound, kinesiotherapy and guidance for home-based stretching; and group 2, with 20 patients who underwent three applications of radial shockwaves, once a week, and guidance for home-based stretching. All patients were assessed regarding pain and functional abilities before treatment, immediately after and 12 months after treatment. The mean age was 49.6±11.8 years (range: 25-68 years), 85% were female, 88% were overweight, 63% were affected bilaterally, and 83% used analgesics regularly. RESULTS: At the 12-month follow-up, both treatments were effective for improving pain and functional ability among the patients with plantar fasciitis. The improvement with shockwaves was faster. CONCLUSION: Shockwave treatment was not more effective than conventional physiotherapy treatment 12 months after the end of the treatment. PMID:24037003

Grecco, Marcus Vinicius; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andrea

2013-01-01

465

The surgical management of infants and children with ambiguous genitalia. Lessons learned from 25 years.  

PubMed Central

Over a 25-year period, 91 children with ambiguous genitalia have received surgical management. Female sex assignment was made for 79. Of these, 60 patients underwent extensive clitoral reconstruction consonant with the female assignment. Forty-two patients had vaginal reconstruction. Factors relating to success include: (1) prompt and appropriate sex assignment; (2) early and accurate diagnosis; (3) conservative reconstruction of the clitoris at an early age (less than 1 year); and (4) choice of vaginal reconstruction based on the severity of the malformation. Long-term follow-up demonstrates satisfactory anatomic and functional results when clitoral surgery alone was required. Functional results for patients with extensive vaginal reconstruction have been compromised. Physicians caring for children with congenital intersexual anomalies can expect to encounter a wide spectrum of anatomic and physiologic derangements. Cosmetic appearance alone is an inadequate measure of success because endocrinologic, social, psychological, and sexual factors must be blended into comprehensive evaluation of these patients. The management plan must be flexible and individualized, incorporating long-term follow-up to adulthood. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. FIG. 5. FIG. 6. FIG. 7. FIG. 8. FIG. 8. FIG. 8. FIG. 9. FIG. 10. FIG. 11. PMID:1632686

Newman, K; Randolph, J; Anderson, K

1992-01-01

466

Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

2013-01-01

467

Risk Factors for Dementia in a Senegalese Elderly Population Aged 65 Years and Over  

PubMed Central

Background With the aging of the population, dementia is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dementia in an elderly population utilizing a primary health care service in Dakar, Senegal. Methods Through a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2004 to December 31, 2005, 507 elderly patients aged ?65 years who came to the Social and Medical Center of IPRES, Dakar, Senegal, were first screened with the screening interview questionnaire ‘Aging in Senegal’. Those who were cognitively impaired underwent a clinical examination to detect dementia. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results The whole population had a mean age of 72.4 years (±5.2) and was mostly male, married, and non-educated. Hypertension, arthritis, and gastrointestinal diseases were the main health conditions reported in the past medical history. Smoking was important while alcohol consumption was rare. Social network was high. Forty-five patients (8.87%) had dementia. In the multivariate model, only advanced age, education, epilepsy, and family history of dementia were independently associated with dementia. Conclusion The risk factors identified are also found in developed countries confirming their role in dementia. It is important to take dementia into consideration in Senegal and to sensitize the community for prevention. PMID:22590476

Toure, K.; Coume, M.; Ndiaye, M.; Zunzunegui, M. V.; Bacher, Y.; Diop, A. G.; Ndiaye, M. M.

2012-01-01

468

Seven year follow up of children presenting to the accident and emergency department with irritable hip.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess an established protocol for managing children with irritable hip in the accident and emergency department. METHODS: Retrospective seven year follow up of all children managed under an established hip pain protocol. The main outcome measure was of failure of the protocol to identify serious pathology. RESULTS: A total of 103 children met the criteria for assessment using the protocol. Sixty were allowed home, and outpatient follow up arranged. All of these children except one were diagnosed as having transient synovitis. This child had Perthes' disease and was diagnosed at first presentation. Forty three children were admitted, with eight subsequently having a diagnosis other than transient synovitis of the hip. It was possible to review 80 children seven years later. Of these children no long term problems were encountered. CONCLUSION: The protocol used in the department for children with irritable hip is successful in identifying those children with transient synovitis of the hip, or other benign causes, and therefore not requiring hospital admission. Long term follow up showed that no serious pathology was missed. PMID:10505915

Mattick, A; Turner, A; Ferguson, J; Beattie, T; Sharp, J

1999-01-01

469

Experience with a theme-based integrated renal module for a second-year MBBS class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Integrated learning is the need of the hour. We at Shifa College of Medicine switched to an integrated modular curriculum last year. In the present article, we describe our experience with the renal module in year 2 of a 5-yr undergraduate medical curriculum. A multidisciplinary renal modular team developed the relevant objectives, themes, and clinical cases. The learning strategies used were large-group interactive sessions, small-group learning, problem-based learning, practicals, and self-directed learning. Assessment was both formative and summative. Student and faculty feedback questionnaires were administered at the end of the module. Forty-four percent of the students agreed that the basic science and clinical concepts were well balanced and integrated. Fifty-seven percent of the students believed that important learning issues could be identified and that participation and critical thinking were encouraged during the small-group sessions. Eighty-five percent of the facilitators agreed that they were able to motivate students for critical thinking and better learning through integrating various disciplines. In conclusion, the integrated method of curricular delivery was well received by students and faculty members, and it can be used successfully in undergraduate medical education in developing countries.

Riffat Shafi (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences)

2010-03-01

470

Carcinoembryonic antigen in an unselected elderly population: a four year follow up.  

PubMed Central

Sera obtained in 1969 from 956 unselected elderly persons in Busselton, Western Australia were tested for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) by a "double antibody" microradioimmunoassay. Forty-four (4-5%) were positive for CEA (5 ng/ml or greater). Review of health records for the 4-year period subsequent to accession of sera showed that 6 (14%) of the 44 persons positive for CEA died of CEA associated cancers, 15 were heavy smokers, 2 had colonic diverticula and 1 a peptic ulcer. On the other hand, 18 (2%) of the 912 persons negative for CEA developed CEA associated cancers. Thus, a significantly greater proportion of cancers (P = 0-01) was found in the persons positive for CEA. Furthermore, when 21 persons who were positive for CEA in 1969, but clinically well 4 years later, were examined 2 had occult cancer of lung and colon respectively. However, the relatively low yield of diagnosis of cancer from our present population survey led to the conclusion that, if screening for cancer were to be solely dependent on testing for CEA, increased specificity and sensitivity of test systems should be awaited. PMID:1212349

Stevens, D. P.; Mackay, I. R.; Cullen, K. J.

1975-01-01

471

Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achieved final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

Jenifer Nordstrom

2012-11-01

472

The International Year of Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics is a subject for all seasons and years, but 2013 is the International Year of Statistics, a designation supported by almost 1,850 organizations. The primary movers behind this noble activity include the American Statistical Association, the International Biometric Society, and the Royal Statistical Society. The goal of this initiative is to promote "the importance of statistics to the scientific community, business and government data users, the media," and a range of other users. On the website, visitors can make their way through four main sections, including What is Statistics?, Statistics as a Career, Teacher Resources, and Statistics 2013 Posters. The Teacher Resources area is a real pip, as it features teacher resources for over two dozen countries, along with statistics education videos from the United States and Mexico. The site also includes a Statistic of the Day, a quote of the week, and a most efficacious Statistical Word of the Week.

2013-01-01

473

Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: Summary of each site Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location Actions and Resolutions for each site. Six disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. One has achieved final stabilization. The remaining five sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

Jenifer Nordstrom

2013-11-01

474

Five-year science outlook  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on water quality, on solar activity's possible link to earth climate, and on potential resource deposits will be among the top scientific and technological problems to be tackled during the next 5 years, according to a National Research Council (NRC) report, ‘Outlook for Science and Technology: The Next Five Years.’ Written and reviewed by more than 200 scientists, the report is the second in a series describing current research trends; the first report was issued in 1979. The NRC report also offers a concise overview and comparison of the research environments in the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, and France. In addition, the report identifies prospects for new technologies in seven fields with emerging technologies or emerging situations that rely heavily on technology. The fields discussed are recombinant DNA, superconductivity, medical technology, energy storage, potential new resource deposits, the space shuttle and the space telescope, and information processing.

Richman, Barbara T.

475

Wilson's disease, 100 years later….  

PubMed

Texts published, in 1912, 100 years ago, by Sir K. Wilson on his eponymous disease in Brain, The Lancet and La Revue Neurologique highlight the relevance of his descriptions in the light of the current knowledge. Wilson's invocation of an "unknown toxin" appears today as a prophetic intuition as the presence of excess copper in the liver was mentioned for the first time a year later whereas the role of copper in this disease was not described until 1929. Progress has been made to better understand the physiology of Wilson's disease (WD). The ATP7B gene implicated in WD is located on chromosome 13 and more than 500 mutations and 100 polymorphisms have been to date identified. The phenotypic expression is highly variable, even within a family. This can partly be explained by environmental factors as nutrition. Modulator genes are also involved in the phenotypic expression of the disease. Most of symptoms observed in WD have already been described in detail by Wilson in 1912, but subsequent progress was made over the following 100 years, helping the physician diagnose WD. Hepatic and neurological symptoms are the most frequent expressions of the disease. Other extrahepatic features include renal manifestations, osteoarticular disorders, myocardial abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, realizing a multisystemic disease. The diagnosis of the disease is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, biological, radiological and genetic data and new tools (Brain MRI, relative exchangeable copper…) allow reducing delay to diagnosis. Therapeutic findings have also changed the disease prognosis. Treatment is based on the use of copper chelators to promote copper excretion from the body (D-penicillamine and Triethylenetetramine) and zinc salts to reduce copper absorption. Tetratiomolybdate appears to be a promising treatment. While significant progress has been made during this century, many physiological aspects of this disease remain unknown and require further research to find answers in the next 100 years. PMID:24119853

Trocello, J-M; Broussolle, E; Girardot-Tinant, N; Pelosse, M; Lachaux, A; Lloyd, C; Woimant, F

2013-12-01

476

First year results from LHCf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a brief description of the purpose of the LHCf experiment, detectors and their performance, and what has been done in the first year experiment. A short summary of results at s = 900 GeV is given although the energy is not an ``intrinsic'' LHC energy. Since detailed results at s = 7 TeV will appear soon elsewhere, here we limit ourselves to giving also a brief account of what will come in that paper.

Kasahara, K.; Nakai, M.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Torii, S.; Yoshida, K.; Tamura, T.; Fukatsu, K.; Itow, Y.; Kawade, K.; Mase, T.; Masuda, K.; Matsubara, Y.; Mitsuka, G.; Sako, T.; Suzuki, K.; Taki, K.; Menjo, H.; Muraki, Y.; Haguenauer, M.; Turner, W. C.; Adriani, O.; Bonechi, L.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G.; D'Alessandro, R.; Grandi, M.; Papini, P.; Ricciarini, S.; Noda, K.; Tricomi, A.; Faus, A.; Velasco, J.; Macina, D.; Perrot, A.-L.

2011-09-01

477

Spermine oxidase: ten years after  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spermine oxidase (SMO) was discovered much more recently than other enzymes involved in polyamine metabolism; this review\\u000a summarizes 10 years of researches on this enzyme. Spermine oxidase (SMO) is a FAD-dependent enzyme that specifically oxidizes\\u000a spermine (Spm) and plays a dominant role in the highly regulated mammalian polyamines catabolism. SMO participates in drug\\u000a response, apoptosis, response to stressful stimuli and etiology

Manuela Cervelli; Roberto Amendola; Fabio Polticelli; Paolo Mariottini

478

International Year of Natural Fibres  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has designated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fibres. The goals of this year are three-fold: to raise the profile of natural fibers in a market increasingly dominated by synthetic fibers; convey the value of using natural fibers to consumers; and help sustain the income of the often poor farmers of natural fibers. This very interesting website for the "Year" is available in English, French, Chinese and Spanish. Visitors interested in learning about the history of natural fibers, as well as what different types of natural fibers there are, what they look like, and what they are used for, will find this website fits the bill. On the menu on the far right side of the page, visitors can click on the link "15 Natural Fibres" to peruse a brief history and learn about the different natural fibers that come from plants and animals. Most of the fibers featured include information on what the fiber is, who produces it, how it's produced, and how much is produced, which can be accessed by rolling the mouse over the name or picture of the fiber, and clicking. The link on the menu on the far right side of the page entitled "Fibre Stories" has four stories about new innovations for several different natural fibers. There is a story about cotton in Asia, hemp in China, alpaca in Peru, and sisal in Tanzania. Events around the world celebrating the International Year of Natural Fibres can be found on the far right menu, at the "Events" link.

479

The 'Year without summer 1816  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One famous example of an extreme climatic event is the cold summer of 1816 in Europe and North America. This specific year, which was later called the "Year without summer 1816", had profound social and environmental effects. The cataclysmic eruption of Mt Tambora is now commonly known to have largely contributed to the negative temperature anomalies of the summer 1816, but some uncertainties remain. The eruption which occurred in April 1815 is the largest within the last 500 years and this extreme climatic forcing provides a real test for climate models. A crucial parameter to assess in order to simulate this eruption is the aerosol size distribution, which strongly influences the radiative impact of the aerosols (through changes in albedo and residence time in the stratosphere, among others) and the impacts on dynamics and chemistry. The representation of this major forcing is done by using the AER-2D aerosol model which calculates the size distribution of the aerosols formed after the eruption. The modeling of the climatic impacts is then done by the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate model (CCM) SOCOL. The characteristics of the Tambora eruption and results from simulations made using the aerosol model/CCM, with an emphasis on the radiative and chemical implications of the large aerosol, will be shown. For instance, the specific absorption/scattering ratio of Mt.Tambora aerosols induced a large stratospheric warming which will be analyzed. The climatic impacts will also be discussed in regards of the high sedimentation rate of Mt. Tambora aerosols, leading to a fast decrease of the atmospheric optical depth in the first two years after the eruption. The link will be made between the modeling results and proxy-reconstructions as well as with available historical daily data from Geneva, Switzerland. Finally, insights on the contemporary response to this climatic extreme will be shown.

Arfeuille, F.; Rozanov, E.; Peter, T.; Weisenstein, D.; Hadorn, G.; Bodenmann, T.; Brönnimann, S.

2010-09-01

480

Earth: 15 Million Years Ago  

E-print Network

In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the solar system has been orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s. The present theory concludes that the earth did not have seasons 15 million years ago. Therefore, the water on the earth was accumulated near the poles as ice and the sea level was very low. Geological evidence exists that confirms this effect. The resulting global ice-melting started 15 million years ago and is ending now.

Masataka Mizushima

2008-10-13

481

Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical parameters.

Jaen, Javier, E-mail: javier.jaen.sspa@juntadeandalucia.es [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain)] [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain); Vazquez, Gonzalo [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain)] [Unidad de Atencion Integral al Cancer, Hospital Universitario Puerta del Mar, Cadiz (Spain); De Las Heras, Manuel [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria del Hospital Clinico San Carlos (IdISSC), Madrid (Spain); Perez-Regadera, Jose F. [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain)] [Servicio de Oncologia Radioterapica, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre, Madrid (Spain)

2012-12-01

482

Vancomycin Revisited – 60 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Vancomycin is one of the older antibiotics that has been now in clinical use close to 60?years. Earlier on, vancomycin was associated with many side effects including vestibular and renal, most likely due to impurities contained in early vancomycin lots. Over the years, the impurities have been removed and the compound has now far less vestibular adverse effects, but still possesses renal toxicity if administered at higher doses rendering trough serum levels of >15?mcg/mL or if administered for prolonged periods of time. Vancomycin is effective against most Gram-positive cocci and bacilli with the exception of rare organisms as well as enterococci that became vancomycin resistant, mostly Enterococcus faecium. The major use of vancomycin today is for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and amoxicillin-resistant enterococci. In its oral form, vancomycin is used to treat diarrhea caused by Clsotridium difficile. With S. aureus, there are only a handful of vancomycin-resistant strains. Nevertheless, a “vancomycin creep” that is slow upward trending of vancomycin MIC from <1?mcg/mL to higher values has been noted in several parts of the world, but not globally, and strains that have MIC’s of 1.5–2?mcg/mL are associated with high therapeutic failure rates. This phenomenon has also been recently recognized in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). While vancomycin is relatively a safe agent adverse events include the “red man” syndrome, allergic reactions, and various bone marrow effects as well as nephrotoxicity. Vancomycin has been a very important tool in our therapeutic armamentarium that remained effective for many years, it is likely remain effective as long as resistance to vancomycin remains controlled. PMID:25401098

Rubinstein, Ethan; Keynan, Yoav

2014-01-01

483

50 years of holographic interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

Stetson, Karl A.

2015-01-01

484

Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

2010-11-01

485

Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Michael Lewis

2009-10-01

486

Histamine pharmacology: four years on  

PubMed Central

The histamine field has moved on rapidly in the last four years, with expansion in roles and clinical development, particularly in the newest two of four histamine receptors. This themed volume is a testament to this expansion with 16 original and review articles spanning a wide spectrum of histamine-related topics, with therapeutic translational relevance to addiction, dementias, anxiety disorders, cancers, vestibular disorders, migraine and autoimmune disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Histamine Pharmacology Update. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.170.issue-1 PMID:23944741

Chazot, Paul L

2013-01-01

487

Diffraction Dissociation - 50 Years Later  

E-print Network

The field of Diffraction Dissociation, which is the subject of this workshop, began 50 years ago with the analysis of deuteron stripping in low energy collisions with nuclei. We return to the subject in a modern context- deuteron dissociation in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 200$ GeV d-Au collisions recorded during the 2003 RHIC run in the PHENIX experiment. At RHIC energy, d$\\to$n+p proceeds predominantly (90%) through Electromagnetic Dissociation and the remaining fraction via the hadronic shadowing described by Glauber. Since the dissociation cross section has a small theoretical error we adopt this process to normalize other cross sections measured in RHIC.

Sebastian N. White

2005-07-18

488

[Friedrich Nietzsche's last lucid year].  

PubMed

As an outstanding philosopher Nietzsche poses the question whether his creativeness persisted in spite of his deteriorating disease or appeared, among other features, as a consequence of his illness. A thorough psychopathological understanding of his last lucid year is attempted. He had an exaggerated self-esteem and grandiose sense of confidence and achievements. But his lack of insight did not lead him to engage in activities that could harm himself or his loved ones. Between January 1888 and until his ultimate deterioration in January 1889, Nietzsche was exceedingly productive. During this period, polar changes along with moderately overlapping periods appeared. PMID:17657337

Figueroa, Gustavo

2007-05-01

489

Earth's Yearly Revolution Around Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation depicting Earth as it revolves around the sun. The animation shows the tilt of Earth's axis and shows that the tilt of the axis points in the same direction throughout the yearly revolution. The animation can be viewed from an oblique view and from a top view and includes optional labels of the months, so students can see where the Earth is located in its revolution for each of those months. The animation can also be started and stopped at any point in the revolution and shows the amount of Earth receiving light from the sun at all times during the revolution.

490

International Heliophysical Year: European Activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The First European General Assembly of the "International Heliophysical Year" (IHY) took place at the headquarters of the Centre Nationial de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) in Paris, France, 10-13 January 2006. There were 113 participants representing 27 nations. The science concerned with the International Heliophysical Year programme was first illustrated. Then, the status of current instruments as well as practical information on the campaign management policy was given. Twenty European National Coordinators described the progress of their IHY activities. Representatives from Egypt, Angola and the coordinator of the Balkan, Black and Caspian Sea Region also reported on the progress of IHY activities in their respective regions. People from the IHY Secretariat provided a summary of the global IHY efforts including the United Nations Basic Space Sciences Program. In the education and public outreach front, a variety of activities have been planned: TV and radio shows, board games on space weather, specific programmes for schools and universities, workshops for teachers are some of the actions that were presented by the delegates. Beyond of these national and individual initiatives, specific activities requiring European coordination were discussed. This paper provides an extended summary of the main talks and discussions that held during the meeting.

Briand, C.

2007-08-01

491

The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Contact Lens Experience: One-Year Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Purpose We describe our experience correcting a cohort of infants with contact lenses in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Materials and Methods Fifty-seven infants 1 to 6 months of age were randomized to contact lens wear. An examination under anesthesia was performed at the time of enrollment and at approximately 1 year of age. A traveling examiner assessed visual acuity at approximately 1 year of age. Results Forty-two treated eyes (74 %) were fitted with silicone elastomer (SE) contact lenses; twelve eyes (21 %) with rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses and three eyes (5%) wore both lens types. Median visual acuity was +0.80 logMAR in both lens type-wearing groups. The mean (± SD) keratometric power of the treated eyes was 46.3 ± 2.8 D at baseline and 44.6 ± 2.3 D at one year of age for a mean decrease of 0.2 ± 0.2 D/mo. Keratometric astigmatism of treated eyes was 1.98 ± 1.37 D at baseline and 1.62 ± 0.98 D at one year of age for a mean decrease of 0.05 ± 0.2 D/mo. The mean RGP lens base curve at baseline was 47.62 D ±2.62 D vs 47.00 D ± 3.50 D at 12 months after surgery. Children wearing SE lenses required a mean of 10.9 replacements (range 2–24) compared to 16.8 replacements (range 8–32) for children wearing RGP lenses. Three adverse events occurred. Conclusions Contact lenses were worn successfully with relatively few adverse events by a cohort of infants with unilateral aphakia. The visual acuity results were identical independent of the contact lens material or modality. RGP lenses needed replacement more