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1

Forty years of TTG research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) are one of the archetypical lithologies of Archaean cratons. Since their original description in the 1970s, they have been the subject of many studies and discussions relating to Archaean geology. In this paper, we review the ideas, concepts and arguments brought forward in these 40 years, and try to address some open questions — both old and new. The late 1960s and the 1970s mark the appearance of "grey gneisses" (TTG) in the scientific literature. During this period, most work was focused on the identification and description of this suite, and the recognition that it is a typical Archaean lithology. TTGs were already recognised as generated by melting of mafic rocks. This was corroborated during the next decade, when detailed geochemical TTG studies allowed us to constrain their petrogenesis (melting of garnet-bearing metamafic rocks), and to conclude that they must have been generated by Archaean geodynamic processes distinct from their modern counterparts. However, the geodynamic debate raged for the following 30 years, as many distinct tectonic scenarios can be imagined, all resulting in the melting of mafic rocks in the garnet stability field. The 1990s were dominated by experimental petrology work. A wealth of independent studies demonstrated that melting of amphibolites as well as of mafic eclogites can give rise to TTG liquids; whether amphibolitic or eclogitic conditions are more likely is still an ongoing debate. From 1990s onwards, one of the key questions became the comparison with modern adakites. As originally defined these arc lavas are reasonably close equivalents to Archaean TTGs. Pending issues largely revolve around definitions, as the name TTG has now been applied to most Archaean plutonic rocks, whether sodic or potassic, irrespective of their HREE contents. This leads to a large range of petrogenetic and tectonic scenarios; a fair number of which may well have operated concurrently, but are applicable only to some of the rocks lumped together in the ever-broadening TTG "bin".

Moyen, Jean-François; Martin, Hervé

2012-09-01

2

The first forty years, 1947-1987  

SciTech Connect

This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward.

Rowe, M.S. (ed.); Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

1987-01-01

3

Forty years of genetic recombination in bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between April and June 1946, Joshua Lederberg and Edward L. Tatum carried out a series of experiments that proved that bacteria can exchange their genes by sexual crossings. The experiments were reported in Nature just 40 years ago1. In the following pair of articles, Joshua Lederberg first provides a personal reminiscence of the circumstances of the discovery and then, together

Joshua Lederberg

1986-01-01

4

Forty years of Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule  

PubMed Central

In 1972 Erich Clar formulated his aromatic ?-sextet rule that allows discussing qualitatively the aromatic character of benzenoid species. Now, 40 years later, Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule is still a source of inspiration for many chemists. This simple rule has been validated both experimentally and theoretically. In this review, we select some particular examples to highlight the achievement of Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule in many situations and we discuss two recent successful cases of its application. PMID:24790950

Solà, Miquel

2013-01-01

5

Forty Years of Northern Natural Science  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. In a review of some of the research activities in the North over the past 40 years, with special reference to the arctic areas of Canada and Alaska, we find that most of the objectives outlined in the early 1950s have been achieved. We now know much more about the plants, terrestrial arthropods, freshwater ecology, marine ecology and terrestrial vertebrates. We have at least a conceptual view of how the different organisms fit together in the natural arctic ecosystem. The ecosystems appear to be rather simple and relatively stable, but do not have unlimited resilience. Key words: Arctic, northern, biology, review, 40 years RÉSUMÉ. Une recension des activités de recherche qui a eu lieu dans le Nord au cours des 40 dernières années, tout particulièrement dans les régions arctiques du Canada et de l’Alaska, montre que la plupart des objectifs définis au début des années 50 ont été atteints. Nous en savons maintenant beaucoup plus sur les plantes, les arthropodes terrestres et l’écologie de l’eau douce et de l’eau de mer ainsi que sur les vertébrés terrestres. Nous saisissons, au moins au niveau des concepts, la façon dont les divers organismes s’imbriquent da s I’écosystbme naturel de l’Arctique. Les écosystbmes paraissent plutôt simples et relativement stables, bien que n’ayant pas une résistance à toute épreuve. Mots clés: Arctique, Nord, biologie, recension, 40 années Traduit pour le journal par Nésida Loyer.

unknown authors

1987-01-01

6

Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had been successfully retrieved from outdated wide band video media, required similar metadata reconstruction. TM data from Landsats 4 and 5 relied on questionable on-board lamp data for calibration, thus the calibration history for these missions was reconstructed to account for sensor degradation over time. To improve continuity between platforms, Landsat 7 and 8 missions employed 'under-flight' maneuvers to reduce inter-calibration error. Data from the various sensors, platforms and sources were integrated into a common metadata standard, with quality assurance information, to ensure understandability of the data for long-term preservation. Because of these efforts, the current Landsat archive can now support the creation of the long-term climate data records and essential climate variables required to monitor changes on the Earth's surface quantitatively over decades of observations.

Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

2013-12-01

7

A matter of meaning: reflections on forty years of JCL.  

PubMed

The entry into language via first words and, the acquisition of word meanings is considered from the perspective of publications in the Journal of Child Language over the past forty years. Problems in achieving word meanings include the disparate and sparse concepts available to the child from past prelanguage experience. Variability in beginning word learning and in its progress along a number of dimensions suggests the problems that children may encounter, as well as the strategies and styles they adopt to make progress. Social context and adult practices are vitally involved in the success of this process. Whereas much headway has been made over the past decades, much remains to be revealed through dynamic systems theory and developmental semiotic analyses, as well as laboratory research aimed at social context conditions. PMID:25023499

Nelson, Katherine

2014-07-01

8

Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

1997-01-01

9

Karst Conservation in the Ozarks: Forty Years at Tumbling  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we detail nearly 40 years of scientific work and land manage - ment in and around Tumbling Creek Cave, Missouri. Tumbling Creek Cave is a famous educational and research cave on a rural property called the \\

Creek Cave; William R. Elliott; Thomas J. Aley

10

Forty years on from Aerobee 150: a personal perspective.  

PubMed

X-ray astronomy has evolved from a chance beginning 40 years ago to become a major branch of observational astronomy, underpinning a revolution in high-energy astrophysics. The intervening development can be seen in three phases, starting in the 1960s with a decade of pioneering exploration with sounding rockets, and consolidated by further discoveries with a series of dedicated small satellites, led by Uhuru, building up to NASA's HEAO-1 and Einstein Observatory missions in 1978-1981. The remaining years of the last century saw X-ray astronomy become a broad international effort with strong contributions from Europe and Japan balancing a temporary loss of momentum in the NASA programme. A brief account of those early years in X-ray astronomy is given, from a personal (UK) perspective, as an introduction to the review of the current status of the discipline, which was the subject of the Discussion Meeting. PMID:12804236

Pounds, Ken

2002-09-15

11

-Forty Years of Research in a Changing Society Henry Nielsen  

E-print Network

, Aarhus University Keld Nielsen, the Danish Museum of Electricity Flemming Petersen, the Danish Museum years ago... ...was one of the largest, single investments in Danish research. The intention. The result was a book in Danish entitled Til samfundets tarv - Forskningscenter Risøs historie by Henry

12

Forty Years of Psychological and Psychiatric Selection of NASA Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this presentation is to chronicle the history and development of the psychological selection process for NASA astronauts. For over 40 years, astronaut applicants have undergone rigorous medical testing to qualify for candidacy. Psychological selection has an equally long history, dating back to 1958, when psychological requirements were established for astronauts during the Mercury program. However, for many years, psychological selection consisted of psychiatric screening for psychopathology. As we approach the day in which the first ISS crew will live and work in space for months at a time, it becomes clear that both the psychological criteria and the selection system to detect said criteria have changed. This presentation discusses the events that led to the current, dual-phase selection system that is used to select individuals into the astronaut corps. Future directions for psychological selection will also be addressed.

Holland, Albert W.

2000-01-01

13

Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited - Forty Years after Eduard Imhof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps represent in a symbolised way the main features of the Earth's surface shape as well as the major, mostly visible objects covering the topography. The clear and readable depiction of the relief is one of the main challenges in topographic cartography. The Swiss cartographer Eduard Imhof had a significant influence on the development of modern topographic cartography. He published his trend-setting findings 40 years ago in his textbook "Cartographic Relief Presentation". This overview paper reviews his major contributions to topographic cartography and presents today's state of cartographic relief depiction, illustrated by current map examples and projects elaborated at Imhof's Alma Mater, the Institute of Cartography of ETH Zurich.

Hurni, Lorenz

14

Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River floodplain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wet-dry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 5-10 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting.

Johnson, W. Carter; Dixon, Mark D.; Scott, Michael L.; Rabbe, Lisa; Larson, Gary; Volke, Malia; Werner, Brett

2012-01-01

15

Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River Floodplain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wetdry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 510 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting. ?? 2012 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

Johnson, W.C.; Dixon, M.D.; Scott, M.L.; Rabbe, L.; Larson, G.; Volke, M.; Werner, B.

2012-01-01

16

Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited - Forty Years after Eduard Imhof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps represent in a symbolised way the main features of the Earth’s surface shape as well as the major, mostly visible objects covering the topography. The clear and readable depiction of the relief is one of the main challenges in topographic cartography. The Swiss cartographer Eduard Imhof had a significant influence on the development of modern topographic cartography. He published his trend-setting findings 40 years ago in his textbook “Cartographic Relief Presentation”. This overview paper reviews his major contributions to topographic cartography and presents today’s state of cartographic relief depiction, illustrated by current map examples and projects elaborated at Imhof’s Alma Mater, the Institute of Cartography of ETH Zurich.

Hurni, Lorenz

17

Forty-five years of developmental biology of photosynthetic bacteria.  

PubMed

Developmental biology and cell differentiation of photosynthetic prokaryotes are less noticed fields than the showpieces of eukaryotes, e.g. Drosophila melanogaster. The large metabolic versatility of the facultative purple bacteria and their great capability to adapt to different ecological conditions, however, aroused the inquisitiveness to investigate the process of cell differentiation and to use these bacteria as model system to study structure, function and biosynthesis of the photosynthetic apparatus. The great progress in research in this field paved the way to study principal mechanisms of cellular organization and differentiation in these bacteria. In this article, the history of the research on membrane structure and development of anoxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes during the last 45 years is described. A personal account of how I entered the field through research on the phototaxis of cyanobacteria is given. Intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM) were detected by electron microscopy in cyanobacteria and in purple non-sulfur bacteria. The formation of ICM by invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane in purple bacteria was observed for the first time. Investigations on the effect of changes in oxygen tension and light intensity on the formation of pigments and intracytoplasmic membranes followed. The isolation, purification, and analysis of light-harvesting complexes and of pigment-binding proteins was the next step of our research. Lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans were detected and analyzed in the outer membrane of photosynthetic bacteria. Functional membrane differentiation includes variations in the rates of photophosphorylation and electron transport. Molecular genetic approaches have initiated the investigation of transcriptional regulation and the analysis of correlation between pigment and protein synthesis. Molecular analysis of assembly of light-harvesting complexes and membrane differentiation are the present aspects of our research. Cell differentiation has been considered under evolutionary view. PMID:24271475

Gerhart, D

1996-06-01

18

Forty Years in Search of the Perfect Contact Lens  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the pathophysiological changes produced by contact lens wear that predispose the cornea to infection and search for prospective, modifiable risk factors that could reduce the incidence of this critical complication in millions of patients worldwide. Methods Significant experimental and clinical publications are reviewed and the results of ongoing studies are presented. Results Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the most common pathogen causing lens-related infectious keratitis over three decades. Contact lens wear can increase the risk of infection by increasing surface cell PA binding thereby promoting invasion between broken tight junctions (TJs), and initiating direct intracellular invasion mediated by lens-induced membrane lipid rafts. Prevention of upregulation of specific surface binding receptors for PA with concomitant increase in infection risk, is a Zero Damage Game where independent interactions between lens type, mode of wear, oxygen transmissibility, polymer and toxic effects of associated care solutions ideally should collectively produce no increased ability for PA to attach and/or to invade, thus minimizing the risk for lens-associated infections. The specific hypothesis tested is: “no increased epithelial surface damage…no increased PA binding or invasion…no increased risk for infection.” Testing of this new paradigm has been performed in vitro, and in animal and human clinical trials and correlated clinically with relative risk results from robust current epidemiological studies. Results to date clearly support the use of lens-related increases in PA binding (bench) as a non-invasive clinical predictor of risk for lens-related infection in subsequent large scale population studies (bedside). Currently, results suggest that use of common commercial multi-purpose care solutions (MPS) with soft lenses may alone significantly increase infection risk by enhancing lens-related PA binding as compared to use of non-preserved solutions (hydrogen peroxide). Clinical testing also shows that only peroxide solutions show significant disinfection capability against amoebic cysts. Further case-control studies to examine relative risk for infection by lens type and lens care solution are urgently needed. Conclusions Millions of patients are dependent on contact lenses for vision worldwide; and, over three decades lens use has increased while risk for lens-related infection has remained stubbornly unchanged. Unfortunately, recent introduction of a new generation of hyper oxygen transmissible lenses used with traditional MPS solutions has not lowered overall risks for lens-related infections; however, similar lenses used with non-preserved care solutions (peroxide) recently demonstrated no significant increases in PA binding in a one-year clinical trial. Collectively, these findings along with the urgent need for amoebic cysticidal disinfection, have led to a current recommendation to patients to use non-preserved (hydrogen peroxide) care solutions in soft lens wear. PMID:20622672

Cavanagh, H. Dwight; Robertson, Danielle M.; Petroll, W. Matthew; Jester, James V.

2010-01-01

19

Neurostimulation therapy for epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurostimulation therapy for epilepsy is growing in popularity. By appropriate targeting of applied electrical activation\\u000a at selected nervous system sites, antiseizure effects may be achieved without the common sedative side effects of antiepileptic\\u000a medications. Risks of neurostimulation therapy are those associated with the device implantation surgical procedures. Vagus\\u000a nerve stimulation (VNS) reduces seizures by 45% and has been employed in

Douglas Labar; Andy Dean

2002-01-01

20

FORTY-TWO YEARS OF HICSS A Brief History of the  

E-print Network

and the ACM are celebrating over 50 years of service. HICSS has been an important event in the worldFORTY-TWO YEARS OF HICSS A Brief History of the Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Very few conferences have grown and developed as HICSS has in its 42 years. The IEEE Computer Society

21

Still "Unfinished Education": Latino Students Forty Years after the Mexican American Education Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The onus of this dissertation was to evaluate the educational conditions of Mexican American students forty years after the "Mexican American Education Study" published a six-volume study detailing the findings of the "Mexican American Education Study" (1970-1974). The "MAES" study focused on five southwest states…

Madrigal-Gonzalez, Lizely

2012-01-01

22

Forty Years of Land Use and Land Ownership Change in Central Sierra Nevada  

E-print Network

Forty Years of Land Use and Land Ownership Change in Central Sierra Nevada Oak Woodlands1 Matt owned, and, therefore, highly susceptible to changes in land use and ownership as well as land fragmentation. This is particularly true in the Central Sierra Nevada, where significant changes in land use

Standiford, Richard B.

23

Learning from the Tragedy at Kent State: Forty Years after May 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author reflects on the learning opportunities provided by the tragedy at Kent State University forty years ago for educators and learners. Four students were slain and nine students were wounded by the bullets of National Guardsmen who had been sent to quell anti-war demonstrations and vandalism. The events of May 4, 1970,…

Eckert, Erica

2010-01-01

24

NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-PIFSC-40 Forty Years of Research: Recovery Records  

E-print Network

-2013 Irene Nurzia Humburg George H. Balazs Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center National Marine Fisheries the following format: Nurzia Humburg, I., and G. H. Balazs. 2014. Forty years of research: recovery records Islands" authored by George Balazs included tagging and sighting data for 294 individual turtles witnessed

25

Forty years on --the Hall Effect with constant-voltage Peter Fenwick  

E-print Network

-fashioned) for studying the Zeeman effect. The other produced a lower field, about 0.3 T, but very uniformForty years on -- the Hall Effect with constant-voltage drive Peter Fenwick July 12, 2006 Abstract. The problem itself involves the solution of potentials over a Hall-effect plate driven with a constant voltage

Fenwick, Peter

26

Stable isotope separation in calutrons: Forty years of production and distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable isotope separation program, established in 1945, has operated continually to provide enriched stable isotopes and selected radioactive isotopes, including the actinides, for use in research, medicine, and industrial applications. This report summarizes the first forty years of effort in the production and distribution of stable isotopes. Evolution of the program along with the research and development, chemical processing,

W. A. Bell; J. G. Tracy

1987-01-01

27

THE 2010 HORIZONTAL MERGER GUIDELINES: FROM HEDGEHOG TO FOX IN FORTY YEARS  

E-print Network

THE 2010 HORIZONTAL MERGER GUIDELINES: FROM HEDGEHOG TO FOX IN FORTY YEARS CARL SHAPIRO* The U PERSPECTIVE: THE HEDGEHOG AND THE FOX The 2010 Guidelines are best understood in historical context the Hedgehog and the Fox view the world is a useful model for how to think about the evolution of the Merger

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

28

Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NASA's History Office Web site is offering a publication for public review entitled Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium. The two hundred and fifty page document chronicles NASA's history from the Sputnik era to the present including insights from Buzz Aldrin, perspectives on the future, the international space station, and much more. Readers will enjoy the frank discussions, telling photographs, and keen insights from those involved with this sometimes dangerous and always breathtaking pursuit.

Garber, Stephen J.

2002-01-01

29

Prescribing Multiple Neurostimulants during Rehabilitation for Severe Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Background. Despite a lack of clear evidence, multiple neurostimulants are commonly provided after severe brain injury (BI). The purpose of this study is to determine if the number of neurostimulants received during rehabilitation was associated with recovery of full consciousness or improved neurobehavioral function after severe BI. Method. Data from 115 participants were extracted from a neurobehavioral observational study database for this exploratory, retrospective analysis. Univariate optimal data analysis was conducted to determine if the number of neurostimulants influenced classification of four outcomes: recovery of full consciousness during rehabilitation, recovery of full consciousness within one year of injury, and meaningful neurobehavioral improvement during rehabilitation defined as either at least a 4.7 unit (minimal detectable change) or 2.58 unit (minimal clinically important difference) gain on the Disorders of Consciousness Scale-25 (DOCS-25). Results. Number of neurostimulants was not significantly (P > 0.05) associated with recovery of full consciousness during rehabilitation, within one year of injury, or meaningful neurobehavioral improvement using the DOCS-25. Conclusions. Receiving multiple neurostimulants during rehabilitation may not influence recovery of full consciousness or meaningful neurobehavioral improvement. Given costs associated with additional medication, future research is needed to guide physicians about the merits of prescribing multiple neurostimulants during rehabilitation after severe BI. PMID:25587576

Herrold, Amy A.; Pape, Theresa Louise-Bender; Guernon, Ann; Mallinson, Trudy; Collins, Eileen; Jordan, Neil

2014-01-01

30

Forty years abuse of baking soda, rhabdomyolysis, glomerulonephritis, hypertension leading to renal failure: a case report.  

PubMed

We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment. PMID:24179353

Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja

2008-01-01

31

Forty Years of E/PO: Can You Have it All? (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In forty years of education and public outreach (E/PO), 25 years of which have been funded by various NSF and NASA programs, several lessons (some tough) have been learned. We have done teacher workshops, teacher semester-long courses, student summer programs, outreach fairs and exhibits, and generally the response of the participants has been very high. Generally the longer programs reach fewer people but in greater depth and impact; the shorter programs reach more, but with lesser depth. This paper shows some of the statistics of learning in our various venues, include teacher courses, online material, and planetarium shows. We also performed an online survey of users of NASA materials and contrasted with a random group of 144 adults. We find that teachers and museum educators have nearly all been "significantly" or "changed my life" impacted by NASA educational materials, and even 24% of the general public have as well, with 14% of the general public reporting that NASA encouraged them to study STEM and go into STEM careers. Virtually all said that NASA should continue producing educational materials. Some of the stumbling blocks include: the difficulty of obtaining funds, the general lack of recognition for outreach in tenure decisions, the difficulty of trying to keep active in research while also active in outreach; and the general problem of "having a life" while juggling many responsibilities. Yet it is worth it!

Reiff, P. H.

2013-12-01

32

Epilepsy: new drug targets and neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Despite advances in the medical and surgical therapy for epilepsy, about 30% of patients do not achieve full seizure control. In the past 5 years new antiepileptic drugs have been approved for clinical use. Some of these drugs have unique, novel mechanisms of action. Overall efficacy of these agents, however, seems similar to other antiepileptic drugs. Vagus nerve stimulation is a well-established palliative therapy for medically resistant epilepsy. Neurostimulation, with newer devices and targets becoming available, is a rapidly expanding field in epileptology. Considerable development and research are still necessary before these newer techniques become the standard of care for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID:23896505

Asconapé, Jorge J

2013-08-01

33

A Reviewof Forty-Five YearsStudy of Hiroshimaand Nagasaki Atomic BombSurvivors II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS  

E-print Network

A Reviewof Forty-Five YearsStudy of Hiroshimaand Nagasaki Atomic BombSurvivors II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS Atomic Bomb and Leukemia MICHITO ICHIMARU, MASAO TOMONAGA, TATSUHIKO AMENOMORI AND TATSUKI MATSUO,and the occurrenceof CML wasthought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia

Laughlin, Robert B.

34

A Review of the "Summary and Review of Investigations Relating to Reading" After Forty-One Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summary data are reported for the forty-one annual reviews of studies related to reading reported in The Journal of Educational Research. Total studies reported each year are reported along with lists of journals cited most frequently in the areas of sociology, psychology, physiology, and the teaching of reading. (Authors)

Smith, Kenneth M.; Otto, Wayne

1973-01-01

35

Characterization of Forty Seven Years of Particulate Chemical Composition in the Finnish Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty seven years of weekly total suspended particle filters collected at Kevo, Finland from October 1964 through 2010 by the Finnish Meteorological Institute were analyzed for near-total trace elements, soluble trace elements, black carbon (BC), and major ions and methane sulfonic acid (MSA). Kevo is located in Northern Finland, 350 km north of the Arctic Circle. The samples from 1964-1978 were collected with Whatman 42 cellulous filters and the samples from 1979-2010 collected on Whatman GF/A glass-fiber filters. A portion of the filters was microwave acid-digested (ad) and analyzed for near-total trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Another portion was water extracted (we) and analyzed for soluble trace elements by ICP-MS and ionic species by ion chromatography (IC). Black carbon (BC) was determined using optical and thermal optical techniques at SUNY Albany. A clear seasonal trend with winter/spring maxima and summer minima is observed for most species attributed to enhanced transport of pollutants from anthropogenic mid-latitude sources to the Arctic in the winter and early spring. Compared to more remote Arctic sampling sites, species of anthropogenic origin (V, Co, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, SO4) have significantly higher concentrations and a less pronounced seasonality. High concentrations of Cu (14.1 ng/m3), Ni (0.97 ng/m3), and Co (0.04 ng/m3) indicate the influence of non-ferrous metal smelters on the Kola Peninsula, although Cu unexpectedly did not correlate with Ni or Co. Ni and Co were highly correlated. Significant long-term decreasing trends were detected for most species. All constituents except Sn-ad, Re-ad, Sn-we, Mo-we, V-we, have significant (p < 0.001) decreasing trends from 1964-2010. The largest decreases were Sb (-3.90 %/yr), Pb (-3.87 %/yr), Mn (-3.45 %/yr), Cd (-3.42 %/yr), and Ca (-3.13 %/yr ). As, Pb, and Cd concentrations at Kevo were consistent with the reported time-trends of European emissions inventories. Pb concentrations at Kevo have dramatically decreased (92%) in the past 47 years due to the reduced use of leaded gasoline in automobiles. Non sea salt SO4 concentrations were found to have a very similar trend to European and Former Soviet Union SO2 emissions. SO4 concentrations declined dramatically in the early 1990s a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to estimate source locations of the species. PSCF plots for anthropogenic species (V, Cd, Mn, Mo, Sb, Tl, W, and SO4) suggest source areas predominantly in Eastern Europe, European Russia, and the Baltics. Markers of stationary fuel combustion (V, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and SO4) also pointed towards possible source regions in the Pechora Basin and Ural industrial areas in Russia, and near gas and oil fields in western Kazakhstan. Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is marker of marine planktonic algae. MSA concentrations at Kevo peak from May to July and have estimated source locations in the Barents, Norwegian, and Greenland Seas, coinciding with warmer waters and increased biogenic activity. Using monthly averages from June and Jul, MSA concentrations were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.200; p < 0.001) with sea surface temperature anomalies in the surrounding seas and negatively (r2 = 0.280; p = 0.0018) with sea ice extent. The chemical composition dataset was analyzed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF5). The entire dataset (1964-2010) was modeled as well as three separate time periods, 1964-1978, 1979-1990, and 1991-2010. The dataset was split in 1979 due to a change from Whatman 42 cellulose filters to a glass fiber filters, and in 1990 due to drops in concentrations related to the economic collapse of the Soviet Union. Two factors representing non-ferrous metal smelters were found for all time periods. One factor was dominated by Cu and the other by Ni and Co. Each of the time periods contained a factor describing stationary fuel combustion with high percentages of V, BC, and nss-SO4; a ferrous metal f

Laing, James

36

Neurostimulation for Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background. Loss of normal bowel function caused by nerve injury, neurological disease or congenital defects of the nervous system is termed neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). It usually includes combinations of fecal incontinence, constipation, abdominal pain and bloating. When standard treatment of NBD fails surgical procedures are often needed. Neurostimulation has also been investigated, but no consensus exists about efficacy or clinical use. Methods. A systematic literature search of NBD treated by sacral anterior root stimulation (SARS), sacral nerve stimulation (SNS), peripheral nerve stimulation, magnetic stimulation, and nerve re-routing was made in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Results. SARS improves bowel function in some patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Nerve re-routing is claimed to facilitate defecation through mechanical stimulation of dermatomes in patients with complete or incomplete SCI or myelomeningocele. SNS can reduce NBD in selected patients with a variety of incomplete neurological lesions. Peripheral stimulation using electrical stimulation or magnetic stimulation may represent non-invasive alternatives. Conclusion. Numerous methods of neurostimulation to treat NBD have been investigated in pilot studies or retrospective studies. Therefore, larger controlled trials with well-defined inclusion criteria and endpoints are recommended before widespread clinical use of neurostimulation against NBD. PMID:23573076

Worsøe, J.; Rasmussen, M.; Christensen, P.; Krogh, K.

2013-01-01

37

Neurostimulation for traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant public health problem and is a leading cause of death and disability in many countries. Durable treatments for neurological function deficits following TBI have been elusive, as there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutic modalities for mitigating the consequences of TBI. Neurostimulation strategies using various forms of electrical stimulation have recently been applied to treat functional deficits in animal models and clinical stroke trials. The results from these studies suggest that neurostimulation may augment improvements in both motor and cognitive deficits after brain injury. Several studies have taken this approach in animal models of TBI, showing both behavioral enhancement and biological evidence of recovery. There have been only a few studies using deep brain stimulation (DBS) in human TBI patients, and future studies are warranted to validate the feasibility of this technique in the clinical treatment of TBI. In this review, the authors summarize insights from studies employing neurostimulation techniques in the setting of brain injury. Moreover, they relate these findings to the future prospect of using DBS to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits following TBI. PMID:25170668

Shin, Samuel S; Dixon, C Edward; Okonkwo, David O; Richardson, R Mark

2014-11-01

38

FORTY YEARS OF SCHOOL PLANT DISSERTATIONS. A REVIEW WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATIONS RELATED TO SCHOOL PLANTS IS COMPILED BY YEARS BEGINNING WITH STUDIES PRODUCED IN 1921 AND IS CROSS INDEXED BY TOPIC. IT REVIEWS THE SCHOOL PLANT PROBLEMS MOST INVESTIGATED BY STUDENTS. A BRIEF HISTORY OF SCHOOL BUILDING DEVELOPMENT IS PRESENTED IN LIGHT OF CORRESPONDING ECONOMIC AND…

CLASEN, ROBERT E.

39

Forty Years of Finnish Pre-School Education: The Development of Curricula between 1972 and 2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning…

Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

2012-01-01

40

History of the International Atomic Energy Agency: The First Forty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

International Atomic Energy Agency: Personal Reflections 1997 (Vienna: IAEA) 311 pp AS260 (hardback) ISBN 92 0 102497 5 These two books are a contribution to the 40th birthday celebrations of the IAEA. I have worked in the field of Health Physics for 39 of those years, and have contributed to projects for the Agency during that time so these volumes

J A B Gibson

1998-01-01

41

The Advisory Structure of the Drilling Program Over the Past Forty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The JOIDES advisory structure for DSDP and ODP has changed in significant ways during the 36-year existence of these ocean drilling programs. This paper discusses these changes in the light of the new IODP drilling program that will have started by the time of the AGU fall meeting. In the first phase of drilling, the advisory structure was centered on

C. G. Harrison; E. Urquhart

2003-01-01

42

Long Term Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases at NOAA - a Forty Year Record  

Microsoft Academic Search

NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory and its precursor organizations have been monitoring trends and distributions of greenhouse gases and other climatically relevant constituents in the atmosphere for over 40 years (http:\\/\\/www.esrl.noaa.gov\\/gmd). The focus of these measurements has been to obtain reliable records of global trends and distributions, but the experimental design and use of these measurements have advanced over time

J. H. Butler

2009-01-01

43

Forty years of inoculating seedlings with truffle fungi: past and future perspectives.  

PubMed

The first commercialization of seedlings inoculated with truffle fungi occurred in 1973. Over the last 40 years, considerable progress has been made relative to quality control for inoculated seedlings. A recently published paper by Andrés-Alpuente and colleagues (Mycorrhiza 24:29-37, 2014) reviewed and tested the different methods of mycorrhization assessment currently used in Europe. The aim of this paper is to augment their findings by adding information to the discussion about the most important steps in seedling quality control. Additionally, the history of seedlings inoculated with truffles, procedures currently used in France for seedling control quality, and a reflection on future research aimed at increasing truffle production will be presented. PMID:24989673

Murat, Claude

2015-01-01

44

The Effelsberg 100-m Radio Telescope: Construction and Forty Years of Radio Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Effelsberg 100-m dish represents a major breakthrough in the technology of radio telescope construction. Using new methods of computation a big step in the direction of improved surface accuracy for large structures was achieved. In conjunction with the decision to build the 100-m radio telescope the Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (MPG) founded the Max-Planck-Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR) in Bonn. The MPIfR grew out of the Bonn University Astronomy Department to become one of the leading institutes for radio astronomy in the world. This new institute received strong support from the MPG in the form of new positions and operating funds. As a result, the 100-m radio telescope could be quickly opened up for astronomical observations. The technical divisions provided state-of-the-art receivers and astronomical software. Teams of astronomical researchers made inroads in several important directions of astronomical research. Over the years virtually all the observing methods of radio astronomy were implemented at Effelsberg. In later years the MPIfR became involved in mm, sub-mm and infrared astronomy research. However, the 100-m radio telescope remained the `work horse' of the Institute. The Effelsberg Radio Telescope will celebrate its 40th anniversary of operations in May 2011 and is still going strong. The observations with the 100-m radio telescope have resulted in thousands of publications. It has served several generations of radio astronomers and has given hundreds of students the opportunity to complete doctoral degrees. The 100-m radio telescope has been upgraded continuously, is in excellent condition and can look to a further period as an important research instrument.

Wielebinski, Richard; Junkes, Norbert; Grahl, Berndt H.

2011-03-01

45

Large Clitoral Leiomyoma in a Forty-Two Years Old Premenopausal Woman  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Clitromegaly can be congenital or acquired with the former type being more prevalent. The main etiology behind the acquired type is hormonal imbalance affecting mainly adult women. This type is seen mostly in association with polycystic ovarian syndrome, hyperthecosis, ovarian tumors, and clitoral cysts or it can be drug-induced. Clitoral leiomyoma is a rare benign tumor of female genitalia and is an uncommon cause of clitromegaly. Case Report: We reported a 42-year-old premenopausal woman with a progressively increasing mass since five years ago, who had attended our clinic with urinary retention. It was a fungating mass with ulceration arising from the crus of the clitoris with the size was 11 × 9 cm. After detailed laboratory investigations, she had normal karyotyping. Hormonal assay for testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, and follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, parathormone, and prolactin levels revealed values within the normal range. Twenty-four hours urinary excretion levels of free cortisol and ketosteroids were within normal limits. Beta-hCG level was also in normal range. Thyroid function tests and X-ray chest results were normal. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) of the abdomen showed no abnormality in adrenals and there was no pituitary enlargement on brain MRI. Pelvis MRI showed a large 11 × 9 × 8 cm clitoral mass. Diagnostic biopsy done from ulcer margin was suggestive of leiomyoma. The mass was completely excised preserving the tip of clitoris. The histopathology showed spindle-shaped cells arranged in palisading form. On immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA) as well as for estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR), confirming the diagnosis of leiomyoma. The patient was regularly followed, and was doing well with no voiding difficulty. Conclusions: We reported the world largest clitoral leiomyoma presenting with symptoms of acute urinary retention. MRI has important role in diagnosis and biopsy is confirmative with spindle-shaped cells arranged in palisading pattern and simple excision would be curative. PMID:25032139

Kumar, Santosh; Agrawal, Swati; Jayant, Kumar; Shankargowda, Sriharsha Ajjoor

2014-01-01

46

Forty-Year Calibrated Record of Earth-Surface Reflected Radiance from Landsat: A Review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensors on Landsat satellites have been collecting images of the Earth's surface for nearly 40 years. These images have been invaluable for characterizing and detecting changes in the land cover and land use of the world. Although initially conceived as primarily picture generating sensors, even the early sensors were radiometrically calibrated and spectrally characterized prior to launch and incorporated some capabilities to monitor their radiometric calibration once on orbit. Recently, as the focus of studies has shifted to monitoring Earth surface parameters over significant periods of time, serious attention has been focused toward bringing the data from all these sensors onto a common radiometric scale over this 40-year period. This effort started with the most recent systems and then was extended back in time. Landsat-7 ETM+, the best-characterized sensor of the series prior to launch and once on orbit, and the most stable system to date, was chosen to serve as the reference. The Landsat-7 project was the first of the series to build an image assessment system into its ground system, allowing systematic characterization of its sensors and data. Second, the Landsat-5 TM (still operating at the time of the Landsat-7 launch and continues to operate) calibration history was reconstructed based on its internal calibrator, vicarious calibrations, pseudo-invariant sites and a tie to Landsat-7 ETM+ at the time of the commissioning of Landsat-7. This process was performed in two iterations: the earlier one relied primarily on the TM internal calibrator. When this was found to have some deficiencies, a revised calibration was based more on pseudo-invariant sites, though the internal calibrator was still used to establish the short-term variations in response due to icing build up on the cold focal plane. As time progressed, a capability to monitor the Landsat-5 TM was added to the image assessment system. The Landsat-4 TM, which operated from 1982-1992, was the third system to which the radiometric scale was extended. The limited and broken use of the Landsat-4 TM made this analysis more difficult. Eight-day separated image pairs from Landsat-5 combined with analysis of pseudo invariant sites established this history. The fourth and most challenging effort was making the Landsat-1 to -5 MSS sensors' data internally radiometrically consistent. This effort was particularly complicated by the age of the MSS data, varying formats and processing levels in the archive, limited datasets, and limited documentation available. Ultimately, pseudo-invariant sites were identified in North America and used for this effort. Note that most of the Landsat-MSS archived data had already been calibrated using the MSS internal calibrators, so this processing was imbedded in the result. The final effort was developing an absolute scale for Landsat MSS similar to what was already established for the "TM" sensors. This was accomplished by using simultaneous data from Landsat-5 MSS and Landsat-5 TM, accounting for spectral differences between the sensors using EO-1 Hyperion data. The recalibrated history of the Landsat data and implications to users are discussed. The key result from this work is a consistently calibrated Landsat data archive that spans nearly 40 years with total uncertainties on the order of 10% or less for most sensors and bands.

Markham, Brian; Helder, Dennis

2011-01-01

47

Forty million years of mutualism: Evidence for Eocene origin of the yucca-yucca moth association  

PubMed Central

The obligate mutualism between yuccas and yucca moths is a major model system for the study of coevolving species interactions. Exploration of the processes that have generated current diversity and associations within this mutualism requires robust phylogenies and timelines for both moths and yuccas. Here we establish a molecular clock for the moths based on mtDNA and use it to estimate the time of major life history events within the yucca moths. Colonization of yuccas had occurred by 41.5 ± 9.8 million years ago (Mya), with rapid life history diversification and the emergence of pollinators within 0–6 My after yucca colonization. A subsequent burst of diversification 3.2 ± 1.8 Mya coincided with evolution of arid habitats in western North America. Derived nonpollinating cheater yucca moths evolved 1.26 ± 0.96 Mya. The estimated age of the moths far predates the host fossil record, but is consistent with suggested host age based on paleobotanical, climatological, biogeographical, and geological data, and a tentative estimation from an rbcL-based molecular clock for yuccas. The moth data are used to establish three alternative scenarios of how the moths and plants have coevolved. They yield specific predictions that can be tested once a robust plant phylogeny becomes available. PMID:10430916

Pellmyr, Olle; Leebens-Mack, James

1999-01-01

48

[The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].  

PubMed

The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens. PMID:22586775

Barzilay, Willemjan

2009-01-01

49

Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the First Forty Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Throughout history, the great achievements of civilizations and cultures have been recorded in lists of dates and events. But to look only at the machinery, discoveries, or milestones is to miss the value of these achievements. Each goal achieved or discovery or made represents a supreme effort on the part of individual people who came and worked together for a purpose greater than themselves. Driven by an innate curiosity of the spirit, we have built civilizations and discovered new worlds, always reaching out beyond what we knew or thought was possible. These efforts may have used ships or machinery, but the achievement was that of the humans who made those machines possible- remarkable people willing to endure discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and the risk of failure in the hope of finding out something new. This is the case with the history of the Goddard Space Flight Center. This publication traces the legacy of successes, risks, disappointments and internationally recognized triumphs of the Center's first 40 years. It is a story of technological achievement and scientific discovery; of reaching back to the dawn of time and opening up a new set of eyes on our own planet Earth. In the end, it is not a story about machinery or discoveries, but a story about ourselves. If we were able to step off our planet, and if we continue to discover new mysteries and better technology, it is because the people who work at Goddard always had a passion for exploration and the dedication to make it happen. The text that follows is a testimony to the challenges people at the Goddard Space Flight Center have faced and overcome over almost half a century. Today, we stand on the threshold of a new and equally challenging era. It will once again test our ingenuity, skills, and flexibility as we find new ways of working with our colleagues in industry, government, and academia. Doing more with less is every bit as ambitious as designing the first science instrument to study the heavens. But if we are to continue exploring our world and our universe, it is every bit as important. Robert H. Goddard once said, "The dream of yesterday is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow." This is our heritage. Our challenge is to keep our spirit of dedication, vision, and innovative thinking alive, so we can turn today's dreams into a new century of possibility and progress. Our journeys into space are the greatest ongoing adventure the human race has ever undertaken, and everyone here has played an important role in that endeavor. This book is about everyone who has worked at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

Wallace, Lane E.

1999-01-01

50

SEMPRE: Forty Years on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This historical account traces the beginnings of the Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) to the founding of the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education (SRPMME) in 1972, which in turn had evolved from Arnold Bentley's Research in Music Education conferences instituted in 1966. The paper charts the…

Cox, Gordon; Crickmore, Leon; Plummeridge, Charles; Sergeant, Desmond

2012-01-01

51

Edison After Forty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edison After Forty: The Challenge of Success is a virtual exhibition provided by the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of American History (discussed in the {September 19, 1997 Scout Report http://scout.cs.wisc.edu/report/sr/1997/scout-970919.html#8}). This exhibit documents the last 44 years of the prolific career of Thomas Alva Edison, the quintessential American inventor who held over one thousand patents at the time of his death in 1931. Historical narrative accompanies the exhibit's seven galleries of black and white photographs: The Challenge of Success, Before Forty, Changes at Forty, Home Life, The New Technical World, Fame and Its Distractions, and Edison in His Eighties.

52

Summary and Future Directions of Therapeutic Brain Stimulation: Neurostimulation and Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies that use electromagnetism applied to nervous tissue for the purpose of neurostimulation have made rapid advancements in recent years. This leap forward in brain treatment challenges the traditional categorical divisions between neurologists, psychiatrists, and neurosurgeons. The therapy itself invites a rethinking of terminology as physicians debate its place within standard therapeutic models. Several areas of concern have manifested themselves

Mark S. George

2001-01-01

53

Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: Final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. Methods Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS System). Subjects with medically intractable partial onset seizures from one or two foci were implanted, and 1 month postimplant were randomized 1:1 to active or sham stimulation. After the fifth postimplant month, all subjects received responsive stimulation in an open label period (OLP) to complete 2 years of postimplant follow-up. Results All 191 subjects were randomized. The percent change in seizures at the end of the blinded period was ?37.9% in the active and ?17.3% in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.012, Generalized Estimating Equations). The median percent reduction in seizures in the OLP was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years, which represents a progressive and significant improvement with time (p < 0.0001). The serious adverse event rate was not different between subjects receiving active and sham stimulation. Adverse events were consistent with the known risks of an implanted medical device, seizures, and of other epilepsy treatments. There were no adverse effects on neuropsychological function or mood. Significance Responsive stimulation to the seizure focus reduced the frequency of partial-onset seizures acutely, showed improving seizure reduction over time, was well tolerated, and was acceptably safe. The RNS System provides an additional treatment option for patients with medically intractable partial-onset seizures. PMID:24621228

Heck, Christianne N; King-Stephens, David; Massey, Andrew D; Nair, Dileep R; Jobst, Barbara C; Barkley, Gregory L; Salanova, Vicenta; Cole, Andrew J; Smith, Michael C; Gwinn, Ryder P; Skidmore, Christopher; Van Ness, Paul C; Bergey, Gregory K; Park, Yong D; Miller, Ian; Geller, Eric; Rutecki, Paul A; Zimmerman, Richard; Spencer, David C; Goldman, Alica; Edwards, Jonathan C; Leiphart, James W; Wharen, Robert E; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Worrell, Gregory A; Gross, Robert E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Duckrow, Robert B; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Bazil, Carl; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Sun, Felice T; Courtney, Tracy A; Seale, Cairn G; Morrell, Martha J

2014-01-01

54

Forty-years history of development and up-to-date status of industrial types of internally heated quartz resonators (IHQRs) and oscillators on their basis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article forty-years histroy of development and up-to-date status of industrial types of internally heated quartz resonators (IHORs) and oscillators are described. Each model has its own advantages. The problems like change in significant temperature gradients, breakage in a relatively short time vacuum were not overcome by IHQR with a bimetallic switch and with a film heater and a

YAKOV L. VOROKHOVSKY; INNA G. PETROSYAN; ALEXANDER A. VOLKOV

2003-01-01

55

A Comparison of Solar Wind Conditions During the Genesis Mission with Forty Years of Solar Wind Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To better understand how the solar wind sample collected during the Genesis mission relates to the average solar wind composition, we analyze the average plasma state of the solar wind during the Genesis mission and compare it to solar wind observations collected over the past 40 years.

Reisenfeld, D. B.; Steinberg, J. T.; Wiens, R. C.; Lepri, S.; Raines, J.

2011-03-01

56

Development of a Neurostimulation Method Using Pulsed Ultrasound.  

E-print Network

??Neurostimulation methods currently include deep brain stimulation (DBS), optogenetic, transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS and tDCS are noninvasive techniques whereas… (more)

Tufail, Yusuf

2011-01-01

57

The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.  

PubMed

The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use', the 'Global handbook for family planning providers', the 'Definition of core competencies in primary health care', and designing tools for operationalizing a human rights approach to sexual and reproductive health programmes. PMID:23146950

Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

2012-01-01

58

Occipital neurostimulation in primary headaches: update.  

PubMed

A subset of headache patients are chronic and results refractory to standard medical treatments, they are unsatisfied or unable to tolerate the side effects of medications. In the lack of more effective prophylactic treatment, there is need of alternative approach. Migraine is conceptualized as a chronic and potentially progressive disorder. It is conceivable that more aggressive therapeutic efforts could be warranted in drug-refractory chronic migraine. In this prospective, the new, device-based therapies that allow to affect brain function in less invasive ways may represent a therapeutic opportunity. Peripheral occipital neurostimulation resulted in several trials and case reports to be beneficial in a large variety of headache and craniofacial pain disorders, with chronic primary headache the most studied. We comment on our experience in the application of ONS in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache and chronic migraine patients. PMID:23695057

Proietti Cecchini, A; Leone, M; Tullo, V; Curone, M; Di Fiore, P; Bussone, G

2013-05-01

59

Fibre optics: Forty years later  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

Dianov, Evgenii M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-01-31

60

Forty Years on: Touchstones Now  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Touchstones" series of poetry anthologies was first published in the UK between 1968 and 1972 in five volumes. Over a million copies and three revisions later, "Touchstones Now 11-14" appeared in the summer of 2008. Few, if any, books for the classroom can claim such longevity. In this article, the compilers of the anthologies, Michael and…

Benton, Michael; Benton, Peter

2008-01-01

61

Fabrication of FORTIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is building the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS), which is a Gregorian telescope with rulings on the secondary mirror. FORTIS will be launched on a sounding rocket from White Sand Missile Range to study the relationship between Lyman alpha escape and the local gas-to-dust ratio in star forming galaxies with non-zero redshifts. It is designed to acquire images of a 30' x 30' field and provide fully redundant "on-the-fly" spectral acquisition of 43 separate targets in the field with a bandpass of 900 - 1800 Angstroms. FORTIS is an enabling scientific and technical activity for future cutting edge far- and near-uv survey missions seeking to: search for Lyman continuum radiation leaking from star forming galaxies, determine the epoch of He II reionization and characterize baryon acoustic oscillations using the Lyman forest. In addition to the high efficiency "two bounce" dual-order spectro-telescope design, FORTIS incorporates a number of innovative technologies including: an image dissecting microshutter array developed by GSFC; a large area (~ 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector with central imaging and "outrigger" spectral channels provided by Sensor Sciences; and an autonomous targeting microprocessor incorporating commercially available field programable gate arrays. We discuss progress to date in developing our pathfinder instrument.

McCandliss, Stephan R.; Fleming, Brian; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffrey; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Goodwin, Phillip A.; Rapchun, David; Lyness, Eric; Brown, Ari D.; Moseley, Harvey; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John

2010-07-01

62

Analysis of induced electrical currents from magnetic field coupling inside implantable neurostimulator leads  

PubMed Central

Background Over the last decade, the number of neurostimulator systems implanted in patients has been rapidly growing. Nearly 50, 000 neurostimulators are implanted worldwide annually. The most common type of implantable neurostimulators is indicated for pain relief. At the same time, commercial use of other electromagnetic technologies is expanding, making electromagnetic interference (EMI) of neurostimulator function an issue of concern. Typically reported sources of neurostimulator EMI include security systems, metal detectors and wireless equipment. When near such sources, patients with implanted neurostimulators have reported adverse events such as shock, pain, and increased stimulation. In recent in vitro studies, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to inhibit the stimulation pulse of an implantable neurostimulator system during low frequency exposure at close distances. This could potentially be due to induced electrical currents inside the implantable neurostimulator leads that are caused by magnetic field coupling from the low frequency identification system. Methods To systematically address the concerns posed by EMI, we developed a test platform to assess the interference from coupled magnetic fields on implantable neurostimulator systems. To measure interference, we recorded the output of one implantable neurostimulator, programmed for best therapy threshold settings, when in close proximity to an operating low frequency RFID emitter. The output contained electrical potentials from the neurostimulator system and those induced by EMI from the RFID emitter. We also recorded the output of the same neurostimulator system programmed for best therapy threshold settings without RFID interference. Using the Spatially Extended Nonlinear Node (SENN) model, we compared threshold factors of spinal cord fiber excitation for both recorded outputs. Results The electric current induced by low frequency RFID emitter was not significant to have a noticeable effect on electrical stimulation. Conclusions We demonstrated a method for analyzing effects of coupled magnetic field interference on implantable neurostimulator system and its electrodes which could be used by device manufacturers during the design and testing phases of the development process. PMID:22014169

2011-01-01

63

Forty Years of Civics in the J. E. R.: Changes in Civics Teaching since World War II as Seen in the Journal of Educational Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Journal of Educational Research" has reflected educational and social changes for 80 years. A survey of articles since 1945 reveals the effect of sociocultural developments, new inventions (television), world affairs, and educational innovations such as team teaching on education in general and social studies teaching in particular. (SB)

Kay, Linda

1980-01-01

64

Forty-seven years of weekly atmospheric black carbon measurements in the Finnish Arctic: Decrease in black carbon with declining emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of atmospheric black carbon, [BC], were determined from filter samples collected weekly at Kevo, Finland (69°45'N, 27°02'E), from 1964 to 2010 using optical and thermal optical methods. The data provide the longest record of directly measured [BC] in the Arctic. The mean winter, spring, summer, and autumn [BC] based on the entire data set were 339, 199, 127, and 213 ng m-3, respectively. Annual mean [BC] decreased from ~300 in ~1970 to 82 ng m-3 in 2010. [BC] data sets from other Arctic sites show similar trends, but concentrations at Kevo are generally higher. From ~1970 to 2010 the [BC] decreased by ~1.8% yr-1. However, [BC] did not decrease monotonically. Instead, cyclical peaks occurred around 1976-1977, 1985-1987, and 1999. During such periods, nickel concentrations were well correlated with [BC]. This suggests that emissions from extensive ore smelting on the Kola Peninsula were significant contributors of particulate matter observed at Kevo. Simulations of [BC] at Kevo using the OsloCTM3 model using different emission inventories and meteorological data sets were performed. Modeled concentrations were lower than observed by a factor of 4. The results indicated that circulation changes can explain year to year variability, but the downward trend in the observations is mostly explained by emissions. Emission inventories in Europe, Russia, and the former Soviet Union are poorly constrained and appear to need revision in order to match observed trends in BC atmospheric concentrations.

Dutkiewicz, Vincent A.; DeJulio, Anthony M.; Ahmed, Tanveer; Laing, James; Hopke, Philip K.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Viisanen, Yrjö; Paatero, Jussi; Husain, Liaquat

2014-06-01

65

Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation  

PubMed Central

Abstract ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies. PMID:21738408

Kotze, D. Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J.; Lövei, Gábor L.; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

2011-01-01

66

Design and validation of chronic research tools for an implantable closed-loop neurostimulator  

E-print Network

Neurostimulators today provide high frequency Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for therapeutic modulation of diseased neural circuits. These devices are approved for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, Essential Tremor and ...

Shafquat, Afsah

2011-01-01

67

Development of Implantable Neuro-Stimulator Used for Brain and Nerve Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to develop a program- mable and implantable neuro-stimulator for animal research and clinical application. The neuro-stimulator includes im- plantable pulse generator, extension (if necessary) and lead implanted in the body, and controller, PDA and magnet used outside the body for telemetry\\/programming. It provides elec- trical pulse stimulation to the target nerve or brain nucleus,

L. M. Li; H. W. Hao; X. W. Wen; F. J. Liu; C. H. Hu

2008-01-01

68

Ultrasonographic evaluation of neck hematoma and block salvage after failed neurostimulation-guided interscalene block.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-guided regional anesthetic techniques have shown some advantages over conventional paresthesia and neurostimulation techniques. We report the case of a neurostimulation-guided continuous interscalene block that would have ended in complication were it not for experience with ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Familiarity with ultrasound-guided block techniques permitted assessment of a neck hematoma during interscalene block and ultimately allowed successful peripheral nerve block. PMID:21056816

Howell, Stephen M; Unger, M W Todd; Colson, James D; Serafini, Mario

2010-11-01

69

Combined neurostimulation and neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience: past, present and future  

PubMed Central

Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioural consequences. This enables causal structure-function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging has provided novel insights into the basic mechanisms of action of neurostimulation on distributed networks. For example more recent work has established the capacity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe causal interregional influences, and their interaction with cognitive state changes. Combinations of neurostimulation and neuroimaging now face the challenge of integrating the known physiological effects of neurostimulation with theoretical and biological models of cognition, for example, when theoretical stalemates between opposing cognitive theories need to be resolved. This will be driven by novel developments including biologically informed computational network analyses for predicting the impact of neurostimulation on brain networks, as well as novel neuroimaging and neurostimulation techniques. We anticipate that such future developments will offer an expanded set of tools with which to interrogate structure-function relationships, and to formulate and reconceptualise testable hypotheses about complex neural network interactions and their causal role for cognition. PMID:23631540

Bestmann, Sven; Feredoes, Eva

2013-01-01

70

Chemical neurostimulation using pulse code modulation (PCM) microfluidic chips.  

PubMed

We report the implementation of a chemical neurostimulation technique using microfluidic devices. The microfluidic chip in this research is used for the in vitro study of the nervous system of Aplysia californica under localized chemical stimulation. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device is a one-bit pulse code modulator that digitally controls the concentration of the non-hydrolysable cholinergic agonist carbachol injected directly above a ganglion. The chip was successful in repeatedly and controllably inducing bursts of ingestive-like patterns. The ability of the chip to induce rhythmic activity through the sheath of the ganglion suggests that it could serve as the basis for an implantable, in vivo device to control neural activity and motor behavior using chemical stimulation. PMID:20670654

Azizi, Farouk; Lu, Hui; Chiel, Hillel J; Mastrangelo, Carlos H

2010-10-15

71

Supraorbital transcutaneous neurostimulation has sedative effects in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Transcutaneous neurostimulation (TNS) at extracephalic sites is a well known treatment of pain. Thanks to recent technical progress, the Cefaly® device now also allows supraorbital TNS. During observational clinical studies, several patients reported decreased vigilance or even sleepiness during a session of supraorbital TNS. We decided therefore to explore in more detail the potential sedative effect of supraorbital TNS, using standardized psychophysical tests in healthy volunteers. Methods We performed a double-blind cross-over sham-controlled study on 30 healthy subjects. They underwent a series of 4 vigilance tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale, d2 test). Each subject was tested under 4 different experimental conditions: without the neurostimulation device, with sham supraorbital TNS, with low frequency supraorbital TNS and with high frequency supraorbital TNS. Results As judged by the results of three tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale) there was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in vigilance and attention during high frequency TNS, while there were no changes during the other experimental conditions. Similarly, performance on the d2 test was impaired during high frequency TNS, but this change was not statistically significant. Conclusion Supraorbital high frequency TNS applied with the Cefaly® device decreases vigilance in healthy volunteers. Additional studies are needed to determine the duration of this effect, the underlying mechanisms and the possible relation with the stimulation parameters. Meanwhile, this effect opens interesting perspectives for the treatment of hyperarousal states and, possibly, insomnia. PMID:22035386

2011-01-01

72

Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

Sulentic, J.

2010-10-01

73

Forty years of UBV photometry at Hvar  

E-print Network

The history of the program of systematic UBV photometric monitoring of Be stars, binaries, CP stars and some other targets is briefly summarized. It is shown that a careful data homogenization, reduction and transformation to the standard Johnson system can be carried out successfully even at a station nearly the sea level when some strict measures are taken.

Harmanec, P

2013-01-01

74

Forty years of cytochrome P450.  

PubMed

The term "cytochrome P450" first appeared in literature in 1962. It was a microsomal membrane-bound hemoprotein without known physiological functions at that time and was characterized by a unique 450-nm optical absorption peak of its carbon monoxide-bound form, which was originally reported as the spectrum of a novel "microsomal carbon monoxide-binding pigment" in 1958. Elucidation of its function as the oxygenase in 1963 triggered a rapid expansion of research on this hemoprotein. Annual numbers of the published papers dealing with cytochrome P450, which were listed in Biological Abstracts, increased from 60 in 1970 to 500 in 1980, 900 in 1990, and 1500 in 1997. Cytochrome P450 is now regarded as the collective name of a large family of hemoproteins, "cytochrome P450 superfamily, "which seems to have diversified from a single ancestral protein to many forms during the course of biological evolution and is distributed widely among various forms of life from animals and plants to fungi and bacteria. Multicellular eukaryotic organisms including animals and plants have about 100 or more P450 genes in their genomes, and those many P450 genes are expressed tissue specifically and developmental stage specifically, indicating their diverse physiological functions. In mammals, various P450s participate in the biosynthesis and metabolism of sterols and steroid hormones and the metabolism of various lipid biofactors including eicosanoids, vitamin D3, and retinoids. Oxidative metabolism of foreign hydrophobic compounds as the first step of their excretion from the animal body is apparently another major function of cytochrome P450, which protects animals from noxious foreign compounds, man-created and natural. PMID:10603307

Omura, T

1999-12-29

75

[A forty-year study on hypertension].  

PubMed

Since 1959 the investigations on prevalence of hypertension and studies on the prevention and treatment of this disease have been carried out. The vascular mechanism of hypertension and the depressor effect of Chinese traditional herbs were also studied in Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. The results revealed that: (1) The prevalence of hypertension in Chinese adults increased from 7.73% in 1979 to 11.26% in 1991, both much higher than that in 1959 (5.11%). The rate of awareness, treatment and control was only 26.3%, 12.1%, and 2.8% respectively. The risk factors of hypertension included overweight and alcohol drinking. High sodium, low potassium, low calcium, and low animal protein diet were also very important risk for elevation of blood pressure. Hypertension was the most important causal risk factor of coronary heart disease and stroke. (2) Hypertension diagnosis and staging criteria were established in 1959. Secondary hypertension was found to constitute 1.1% among community hypertensive patients. The new concept of aortitis was formed and found to be the most common cause of renal vascular hypertension. Patient education together with low dose compounds of antihypertensive drugs was implicated widely. Randomized clinical trials Syst-China, Post-stroke Antihypertensive Treatment Study, Chinese Acute Stroke Trial, and Chinese Cardiac Study 1 demonstrated benefits of treatment for hypertensive, stroke or acute myocardial infarction affordable by Chinese population at large. (3) A series of functional changes and abnormalities with evident hereditary characteristics were found in the processes of cellular Ca2+ transportation, utilization, metabolism and their modulation of the vascular smooth muscle in SHR, and SHRsp, which seem to be the principal cause of the increase in peripheral vascular resistance in hypertension. (4) Alkaloid of Rauwolfia verticilata and Ligustrazine had marked depressor effect. Flavones of Radix Pueraricae could reduce the cardiac and cerebral ischemic damage and symptoms in hypertensive patients. PMID:12905663

Liu, Li-sheng; Chen, Meng-qin; Zeng, Gui-yun; Zhou, Bei-fan

2002-08-01

76

Cholinesterase Confabs and Cousins: Approaching Forty Years  

PubMed Central

In the past four decades of cholinesterase (ChE) research, we have seen substantive evolution of the field from one centered around substrate and inhibitor kinetic profiles and compound characterizations to the analysis of ChE structure, first through the gene families and then by x-ray crystallographic determinations of the free enzymes and their complexes and conjugates. Indeed, these endeavors have been facilitated by recombinant DNA technologies, structure determinations and parallel studies in related proteins in the ?/?-hydrolase fold family. This approach has not only contributed to a fundamental understanding of structure and function of a large family of hydrolase-like proteins possessing functions other than catalysis, but also has been used to develop new practical strategies for scavenging and antidotal activity in cases of organophosphate insecticide or nerve agent exposure. PMID:23085121

Taylor, Palmer; De Jaco, Antonella; Comoletti, Davide; Miller, Meghan; Camp, Shelley

2013-01-01

77

Neurostimulation as an intervention for treatment resistant depression: From research on mechanisms towards targeted neurocognitive strategies.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that several interventions for major depression have proven efficacy, a substantial number of patients are or become treatment resistant to various forms of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Biological interventions that directly target brain activity such as electroconvulsive therapy are used to treat these patients, but some of these interventions are unlikely to be easily accepted because of their more invasive nature or side-effects. The efficacy of non-invasive neurostimulation with a favorable side effect profile, such as repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, could not be sufficiently demonstrated for treatment resistant depressed patients (TRD). We argue that research on the working mechanisms of these neurostimulation techniques is necessary to develop more efficient treatment protocols. After an overview of current neurostimulation approaches to treatment resistance and the introduction of a neurobiological and a cognitive framework of depression, we provide an integrative review of research on both the neurobiological and cognitive working mechanisms of neurostimulation in TRD, with a specific emphasis on the work of our lab. Thereafter, we describe our own studies and studies from other labs on new neurocognitive interventions. Finally we discuss how all this knowledge can be used to further develop new strategies to deal with treatment resistance, in combining neurostimulation and cognitive interventions. PMID:25468571

De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Baeken, Chris

2014-11-01

78

Responsive neurostimulation for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy.  

PubMed

With an annual incidence of 50/100,000 people, nearly 1% of the population suffers from epilepsy. Treatment with antiepileptic medication fails to achieve seizure remission in 20-30% of patients. One treatment option for refractory epilepsy patients who would not otherwise be surgical candidates is electrical stimulation of the brain, which is a rapidly evolving and reversible adjunctive therapy. Therapeutic stimulation can involve direct stimulation of the brain nuclei or indirect stimulation of peripheral nerves. There are three stimulation modalities that have class I evidence supporting their uses: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT), and, the most recently developed, responsive neurostimulation (RNS). While the other treatment modalities outlined deliver stimulation regardless of neuronal activity, the RNS administers stimulation only if triggered by seizure activity. The lower doses of stimulation provided by such responsive devices can not only reduce power consumption, but also prevent adverse reactions caused by continuous stimulation, which include the possibility of habituation to long-term stimulation. RNS, as an investigational treatment for medically refractory epilepsy, is currently under review by the FDA. Eventually systems may be developed to enable activation by neurochemical triggers or to wirelessly transmit any information gathered. We review the mechanisms, the current status, the target options, and the prospects of RNS for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. PMID:23735806

Liu, Chong; Wen, Xiong-Wei; Ge, Yan; Chen, Ning; Hu, Wen-Han; Zhang, Tan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Meng, Fan-Gang

2013-08-01

79

Enhanced long-term memory encoding after parietal neurostimulation.  

PubMed

Neurostimulation, e.g., transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), shows promise as an effective cognitive intervention. In spite of low spatial resolution, limited penetration, and temporary influence, evidence highlights tDCS-linked cognitive benefits in a range of cognitive domains. The left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an accessible node in frontoparietal networks engaged during long-term memory (LTM). Here, we tested the hypothesis that tDCS can facilitate LTM by pairing LTM encoding and retrieval with PPC stimulation. Healthy young adults performed a verbal LTM task (California Verbal Learning Task) with four different stimulation parameters. In Experiment 1, we applied tDCS to left PPC during LTM encoding. In Experiment 2, we applied tDCS just prior to retrieval to test the temporal specificity of tDCS during a LTM task. In later experiments, we tested hemispheric specificity by replicating Experiment 1 while stimulating the right PPC. Experiment 1 showed that tDCS applied during LTM encoding improved the pace of list learning and enhanced retrieval after a short delay. Experiment 2 indicated anodal left PPC tDCS only improved LTM when applied during encoding, and not during maintenance. Experiments 3 and 4 confirmed that tDCS effects were hemisphere specific and that no effects were found after right PPC stimulation during encoding. These findings indicate that anodal tDCS to the PPC helps verbal LTM in healthy young adults under certain conditions. First, when it is applied to the left, not the right, PPC and second, when it is applied during encoding. PMID:25200180

Jones, Kevin T; Gözenman, Filiz; Berryhill, Marian E

2014-12-01

80

Impact of brain tissue filtering on neurostimulation fields: a modeling study  

PubMed Central

Electrical neurostimulation techniques, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are increasingly used in the neurosciences, e.g., for studying brain function, and for neurotherapeutics, e.g., for treating depression, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. The characterization of electrical properties of brain tissue has guided our fundamental understanding and application of these methods, from electrophysiologic theory to clinical dosing-metrics. Nonetheless, prior computational models have primarily relied on ex-vivo impedance measurements. We recorded the in-vivo impedances of brain tissues during neurosurgical procedures and used these results to construct MRI guided computational models of TMS and DBS neurostimulatory fields and conductance-based models of neurons exposed to stimulation. We demonstrated that tissues carry neurostimulation currents through frequency dependent resistive and capacitive properties not typically accounted for by past neurostimulation modeling work. We show that these fundamental brain tissue properties can have significant effects on the neurostimulatory-fields (capacitive and resistive current composition and spatial/temporal dynamics) and neural responses (stimulation threshold, ionic currents, and membrane dynamics). These findings highlight the importance of tissue impedance properties on neurostimulation and impact our understanding of the biological mechanisms and technological potential of neurostimulatory methods. PMID:23850466

Wagner, Tim; Eden, Uri; Rushmore, Jarrett; Russo, Christopher J.; Dipietro, Laura; Fregni, Felipe; Simon, Stephen; Rotman, Stephen; Pitskel, Naomi B.; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Zahn, Markus; Valero-Cabre, Antoni

2013-01-01

81

Clinical utility of implantable neurostimulation devices as adjunctive treatment of uncontrolled seizures  

PubMed Central

About one third of patients with epilepsy are refractory to medical treatment. For these patients, alternative treatment options include implantable neurostimulation devices such as vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and responsive neurostimulation systems (RNS). We conducted a systematic literature review to assess the available evidence on the clinical efficacy of these devices in patients with refractory epilepsy across their lifespan. VNS has the largest evidence base, and numerous randomized controlled trials and open-label studies support its use in the treatment of refractory epilepsy. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1997 for treatment of partial seizures, but has also shown significant benefit in the treatment of generalized seizures. Results in adult populations have been more encouraging than in pediatric populations, where more studies are required. VNS is considered a safe and well-tolerated treatment, and serious side effects are rare. DBS is a well-established treatment for several movement disorders, and has a small evidence base for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus has shown the most encouraging results, where significant decreases in seizure frequency were reported. Other potential targets include the centromedian thalamic nucleus, hippocampus, cerebellum, and basal ganglia structures. Preliminary results on RNS, new-generation implantable neurostimulation devices which stimulate brain structures only when epileptic activity is detected, are encouraging. Overall, implantable neurostimulation devices appear to be a safe and beneficial treatment option for patients in whom medical treatment has failed to adequately control their epilepsy. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are required to provide a sufficient evidence base for the inclusion of DBS and RNS in clinical guidelines. PMID:25484587

Cox, Joanna H; Seri, Stefano; Cavanna, Andrea E

2014-01-01

82

320-channel active probe for high-resolution neuromonitoring and responsive neurostimulation.  

PubMed

We present a 320-channel active probe for high-spatial-resolution neuromonitoring and responsive neurostimulation. The probe comprises an integrated circuit (IC) cell array bonded to the back side of a pitch-matched microelectrode array. The IC enables up to 256-site neural recording and 64-site neural stimulation at the spatial resolution of 400 ? m and 200 ? m, respectively. It is suitable for direct integration with electrode arrays with the shank pitch of integer multiples of 200 ?m. In the presented configuration, the IC is bonded with a 8 × 8 400 ? m-pitch Utah electrode array (UEA) and up to additional 192 recording channels are used for peripheral neuromonitoring. The 0.35 ? m CMOS circuit array has a total die size of 3.5 mm × 3.65 mm. Each stimulator channel employs a current memory for simultaneous multi-site neurostimulation, outputs 20 ?A-250 ?A square or arbitrary waveform current, occupies 0.02 mm (2), and dissipates 2.76 ? W quiescent power. Each fully differential recording channel has two stages of amplification and filtering and an 8-bit single-slope ADC, occupies 0.035 mm (2) , and consumes 51.9 ? W. The neural probe has been experimentally validated in epileptic seizure propagation studies in a mouse hippocampal slice in vitro and in responsive neurostimulation for seizure suppression in an acute epilepsy rat model in vivo . PMID:25486647

Shulyzki, Ruslana; Abdelhalim, Karim; Bagheri, Arezu; Salam, M Tariqus; Florez, Carlos M; Velazquez, Jose Luis Perez; Carlen, Peter L; Genov, Roman

2015-02-01

83

Pre-frontal control of closed-loop limbic neurostimulation by rodents using a brain-computer interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. There is great interest in closed-loop neurostimulators that sense and respond to a patient's brain state. Such systems may have value for neurological and psychiatric illnesses where symptoms have high intraday variability. Animal models of closed-loop stimulators would aid preclinical testing. We therefore sought to demonstrate that rodents can directly control a closed-loop limbic neurostimulator via a brain-computer interface (BCI). Approach. We trained rats to use an auditory BCI controlled by single units in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BCI controlled electrical stimulation in the medial forebrain bundle, a limbic structure involved in reward-seeking. Rigorous offline analyses were performed to confirm volitional control of the neurostimulator. Main results. All animals successfully learned to use the BCI and neurostimulator, with closed-loop control of this challenging task demonstrated at 80% of PFC recording locations. Analysis across sessions and animals confirmed statistically robust BCI control and specific, rapid modulation of PFC activity. Significance. Our results provide a preliminary demonstration of a method for emotion-regulating closed-loop neurostimulation. They further suggest that activity in PFC can be used to control a BCI without pre-training on a predicate task. This offers the potential for BCI-based treatments in refractory neurological and mental illness.

Widge, Alik S.; Moritz, Chet T.

2014-04-01

84

The IEEE Oceanic Engineering Society at Forty: The Challenges of an Evolving Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE oceanic engineering society (OES) has completed forty years of active engagement: the initial eight years in the form of the oceanography coordinating committee (OCC), followed by seven years as the council of oceanic engineering (COE), then the past twenty-five years in the form of an IEEE society. During those forty years, the OCC\\/COE\\/OES has existed to serve society,

Stanley G. Chamberlain; Joseph Czika; Norman D. Miller; Glen N. Williams

2008-01-01

85

Toward a fully integrated neurostimulator with inductive power recovery front-end.  

PubMed

In order to investigate new neurostimulation strategies for micturition recovery in spinal cord injured patients, custom implantable stimulators are required to carry-on chronic animal experiments. However, higher integration of the neurostimulator becomes increasingly necessary for miniaturization purposes, power consumption reduction, and for increasing the number of stimulation channels. As a first step towards total integration, we present in this paper the design of a highly-integrated neurostimulator that can be assembled on a 21-mm diameter printed circuit board. The prototype is based on three custom integrated circuits fabricated in High-Voltage (HV) CMOS technology, and a low-power small-scale commercially available FPGA. Using a step-down approach where the inductive voltage is left free up to 20 V, the inductive power and data recovery front-end is fully integrated. In particular, the front-end includes a bridge rectifier, a 20-V voltage limiter, an adjustable series regulator (5 to 12 V), a switched-capacitor step-down DC/DC converter (1:3, 1:2, or 2:3 ratio), as well as data recovery. Measurements show that the DC/DC converter achieves more than 86% power efficiency while providing around 3.9-V from a 12-V input at 1-mA load, 1:3 conversion ratio, and 50-kHz switching frequency. With such efficiency, the proposed step-down inductive power recovery topology is more advantageous than its conventional step-up counterpart. Experimental results confirm good overall functionality of the system. PMID:23853175

Mounaïm, Fayçal; Sawan, Mohamad

2012-08-01

86

Path Integration in Desert Ants, Cataglyphis fortis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraging desert ants, Cataglyphis fortis, continually keep track of their own positions relative to home--i.e., integrate their tortuous outbound routes and return home along straight (inbound) routes. By experimentally manipulating the ants' outbound trajectories we show that the ants solve this path integration problem not by performing a true vector summation (as a human navigator does) but by employing a

Martin Muller; Rudiger Wehner

1988-01-01

87

Localization of ultrasound-induced in vivo neurostimulation in the mouse model.  

PubMed

Developments in the use of ultrasound to stimulate and modulate neural activity have raised the possibility of using ultrasound as a new investigative and therapeutic tool in brain research. Although the phenomenon of ultrasound-induced neurostimulation has a long history dating back many decades, until now there has been little evidence of a clearly localized effect in the brain, a necessary requirement for the technique to become genuinely useful. Here we report clearly distinguishable effects in sonicating rostral and caudal regions of the mouse motor cortex. Motor responses measured by normalized electromyography in the neck and tail regions changed significantly when sonicating the two different areas of motor cortex. Response latencies varied significantly according to sonication location, suggesting that different neural circuits are activated depending on the precise focus of the ultrasound beam. Taken together, our findings present good evidence of the ability to target selective parts of the motor cortex with ultrasound neurostimulation in the mouse, an advance that should help to set the stage for developing new applications in larger animal models, including humans. PMID:24642220

King, Randy L; Brown, Julian R; Pauly, Kim Butts

2014-07-01

88

High cervical epidural neurostimulation for post-traumatic headache management.  

PubMed

Headache following head injuries has been reported for centuries. The majority of post-traumatic headache (PTH) patients will report resolution of their complaints within a few months from the time of the initial injury. PTHs can contribute to disability, lost productivity, and health care costs. In this article we discuss a 40-year-old male with a history of motor vehicle accident and basal skull fracture. The patient had no headache history prior to the accident. He presented with more than 3 years persistent daily headache. The patient described constant throbbing and stabbing quality headaches predominantly on the left hemicranium with constant facial pain. He denies having aura, nausea, or vomiting, but reported occasional neck tightness. An extensive workup was carried out under the direction of the patient's primary neurologist. Secondary to persistent intractable pain, the patient was referred to the pain clinic for further evaluation. As his headaches were resistant to all trialed strategies, we decided to turn our therapeutic focus toward electrical neuromodulation along with continuing multimodal medications and multidisciplinary approach. During 7 days of high cervical dorsal column electrical nerve stimulation trial, he reported almost 90% pain reduction and significant improvement on his quality of life. On 12 months follow-up after he underwent a permanent implant of high cervical dorsal column electrical nerve stimulation, he reported the same level of pain reduction along with 100% satisfaction rate. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no publications to date concerning the application of high cervical nerve stimulation for PTH. PMID:25054404

Elahi, Foad; Reddy, Chandan

2014-01-01

89

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals.  

PubMed

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-04-01

90

An Arbitrary Waveform Wearable Neuro-stimulator System for Neurophysiology Research on Freely Behaving Animals  

PubMed Central

Portable wireless neuro-stimulators have been developed to facilitate long-term cognitive and behavioral studies on the central nervous system in freely moving animals. These stimulators can provide precisely controllable input(s) to the nervous system, without distracting the animal attention with cables connected to its body. In this study, a low power backpack neuro-stimulator was developed for animal brain researches that can provides arbitrary stimulus waveforms for the stimulation, while it is small and light weight to be used for small animals including rats. The system consists of a controller that uses an RF link to program and activate a small and light microprocessor-based stimulator. A Howland current source was implemented to produce precise current controlled arbitrary waveform stimulations. The system was optimized for ultra-low power consumption and small size. The stimulator was first tested for its electrical specifications. Then its performance was evaluated in a rat experiment when electrical stimulation of medial longitudinal fasciculus induced circling behavior. The stimulator is capable of delivering programmed stimulations up to ± 2 mA with adjusting steps of 1 ?A, accuracy of 0.7% and compliance of 6 V. The stimulator is 15 mm × 20 mm × 40 mm in size, weights 13.5 g without battery and consumes a total power of only 5.l mW. In the experiment, the rat could easily carry the stimulator and demonstrated the circling behavior for 0.1 ms current pulses of above 400 ?A. The developed system has a competitive size and weight, whereas providing a wide range of operation and the flexibility of generating arbitrary stimulation patterns ideal for long-term experiments in the field of cognitive and neuroscience research. PMID:24761373

Samani, Mohsen Mosayebi; Mahnam, Amin; Hosseini, Nasrin

2014-01-01

91

Forty-eighth annual power distribution conference  

SciTech Connect

This book contains papers presented at the Forty-eighth Annual Power Distribution Conference held in 1995 at Austin, Texas. The topics of the papers include power quality in power distribution systems, methods to improve power quality, power system communications, automation of distribution systems, distributed data acquisition, energy efficiency in industrial plants, weather data in operation of distribution systems, detection and location of failed or failing equipment in power distribution systems, lightning and overvoltage protection, distribution cable research update, and equipment protection devices for residential power distribution systems.

NONE

1995-12-31

92

Forty years of the 93D puff of Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

The 93D puff of Drosophila melanogaster became attractive in 1970 because of its singular inducibility by benzamide and has since then remained a major point of focus in my laboratory. Studies on this locus in my and several other laboratories during the past four decades have revealed that (i) this locus is developmentally active, (ii) it is a member of the heat shock gene family but selectively inducible by amides, (iii) the 93D or heat shock RNA omega (hsr row) gene produces multiple nuclear and cytoplasmic large non-coding RNAs (hsr row-n, hsr row-pre-c and hsr row-c), (iv) a variety of RNA-processing proteins, especially the hnRNPs, associate with its > 10 kb nuclear (hsr row-n) transcript to form the nucleoplasmic omega speckles, (v) its genomic architecture and hnRNP-binding properties with the nuclear transcript are conserved in different species although the primary base sequence has diverged rapidly, (vi) heat shock causes the omega speckles to disappear and all the omega speckle associated proteins and the hsr row-n transcript to accumulate at the 93D locus, (vii) the hsr row-n transcript directly or indirectly affects the localization/ stability/activity of a variety of proteins including hnRNPs, Sxl, Hsp83, CBP, DIAP1, JNK-signalling members, proteasome constituents, lamin C, ISWI, HP1 and poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase and (viii) a balanced level of its transcripts is essential for the orderly relocation of various proteins, including hnRNPs, RNA pol II and HP1, to developmentally active chromosome regions during recovery from heat stress. In view of such multitudes of interactions, it appears that large non-coding RNAs like those produced by the hsr row gene may function as hubs to coordinate multiple cellular networks and thus play important roles in maintenance of cellular homeostasis. PMID:21799254

Lakhotia, Subhash C

2011-08-01

93

Closing the Gap: Forty Years of Economic Progress for Blacks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents the findings on the long-term economic progress of American blacks. The report consists of seven sections. The first is a general introduction. Section 2 describes major changes in the racial wage gap for males from 1940 to 1980 and identifies the distribution of wage gains among important subgroups in the black population.…

Smith, James P.; Welch, Finis R.

94

Forty-Five Years of Marburg Virus Research  

PubMed Central

In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology. PMID:23202446

Brauburger, Kristina; Hume, Adam J.; Mühlberger, Elke; Olejnik, Judith

2012-01-01

95

Changes in Patterns of Health Care: Plus Forty Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author presents an update of Herman's article ["Changes in Patterns of Health Care," "School Health Review," 1(9-14)1969] that focuses on the changes in patterns of health care. He discusses the poverty, insurance, and access to medical care as well as the quality of medical care for adults and minors. He stresses that…

Sofalvi, Alan J.

2010-01-01

96

Forty years of stress research: principal remaining problems and misconceptions.  

PubMed Central

An overview of the main problems and misconceptions in the clinical application and theoretic evaluation of the stress concept reveals that the same 10 problems appear to cause the greatest difficulties in its application, irrespective of the specialty in which it is used: (1) the correct definition of stress, stressors and the general adaptation syndrome; (2) the concept of nonspecificity in biology and medicine; (3) the conditioning of stress responses by diverse endogenous (mainly genetically determined) and exogenous (environmental) factors; (4) the relation between the genral and the local adaptation syndromes; (5) the difference between direct and indirect pathogens; (6) the definition of the morbid lesions in whose pathogenesis stress plays a particularly prominent role--the so-called diseases of adaptation; (7) the role of genetics versus that of factors under voluntary self-control in mastering biologic stress; (8) the mode of action of syntoxic and catatoxic hormones, drugs and behavioural attitudes; (9) the so-called first mediator of the stress response, which carries the message that a state of stress exists from the directly affected area to the neurohormonal regulatory centres; and (10) the prophylaxis and treatment of stress-induced damage by pharmacologic and behavioural techniques. PMID:1277062

Selye, H.

1976-01-01

97

Renal radionuclide imaging, an evergreen forty years old.  

PubMed

Urinary tract congenital abnormalities (UCA) and febrile infections (UTI) are, respectively, 2 of the commonest congenital and acquired health problems in childhood. In both, radionuclide imaging still represent a cornerstone of diagnostic imaging, although the involved techniques are more or less the same from the early '80?s. During the last 2 decades, published papers focused on a deep revision about the optimal use and usefulness of such imaging tools in affected children, with the aim of reducing invasiveness, radiation burden and costs without losing efficacy. This approach leads to different results. In UCA, no consensus for a diagnostic algorithm was up to now reached, whilst, about febrile UTIs, guidelines were published in 2007 by the UK's National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) and by the European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR), in 2011 by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), and in 2012 by the Italian Society of Paediatric Nephrology (SINP). Nevertheless, new data continuously arise and the scientific debate always revives. Every imaging tool now available has its own strengths and weaknesses, and so all published guidelines. All this body of knowledge must be critically analysed for obtaining a complete, up-to-date and flexible overview about these "always hot" topics. PMID:24668457

De Palma, D; Santos, A I

2014-07-01

98

Forty-Year-Old Foam Springs Back With New Benefits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most recognized and widely used NASA spinoff is at it again. Temper foam, whose origins date back to 1966 when it was developed to absorb shock and, thus, offer improved protection and comfort in NASA s airplane seats, has paid its dividends to Earth repeatedly, and in many different ways. It has padded the helmets of the Dallas Cowboys throughout the 1970s and 1980s, protected bedridden patients from bedsores, and comforted the feet of thousands wearing stylish shoes that incorporate the cushioning material in their insoles. Four decades later, the world has come to realize that there are no bounds to temper foam s benefits. Though the rights to the technology have been shared amongst various manufacturers, the original product maker is still going strong, pushing temper foam into new arenas, including automotives, amusement parks, prosthetics, and modern art.

2005-01-01

99

Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe 55 Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe from  

E-print Network

and conservation D. Johan Kotze1 , Pietro Brandmayr2 , Achille Casale3 , Emmanuelle Dauffy-Richard4 , Wouter Paarmann10 , Roberto Pizzolotto2 , Pavel Saska11 , Axel Schwerk12 , José Serrano13 , Jan Szyszko12 , Angela 24 March 2011 | Published 20 May 2011 Citation: Kotze DJ, Brandmayr P, Casale A, Dauffy-Richard E

Boyer, Edmond

100

FORTY NINTH CONVOCATION JULY 20, 2012  

E-print Network

technical education, conduct research and perform industrial consultancy. It is expected to be an exemplar institutions respectively. The #12;1-year preparatory course programme for students from disadvantaged sections are: 21 QIP candidates (teachers from other colleges), 18 sponsored candidates, 24 External and 48 Uo

Sivalingam, Krishna M.

101

Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option.  

PubMed

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

2013-12-01

102

Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option?  

PubMed Central

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

2013-01-01

103

Systematic analysis and experiment of inductive coupling and induced voltage for inductively coupled wireless implantable neurostimulator application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main strategy for wireless power transfer to implantable devices is to use inductive coupling technology. The induced voltage of implanted devices highly depends on factors such as mutual inductance between the external transmitter coil and the receiver coil, quality factor of the receiver circuit and operation frequency. In this paper, the mutual inductance under a variety of geometries of external coil and under the condition of different vertical distances, lateral displacements and angular misalignments between two coils were theoretically calculated and simulated. To ascertain the condition of maximum power transmission for certain coils’ position requirements, an LC tank (2.7 mm × 2 mm) consisting of a microfabricated gold inductor coil and a small surface mounted capacitor was designed and fabricated as the telemetric part of a neurostimulator. The induced voltage of the LC tank was measured in both air and artificial tissue media under different sizes of power coil and operation frequencies. As a result, the optimum size of a transmitter coil is selected to be of 4 mm inner radius with six turns of coil, while the whole coupling system operates at 94 MHz resonant frequency within 5-11 mm vertical distance, 0-4 mm lateral and 0°-50° angular misalignment between two coils. With the change of the above coils’ positions, the measured induced voltage drops within 30%, satisfying the surgical requirement for neurostimulator implantation.

Xue, Ning; Cho, Sung-Hoon; Chang, Sung-Pil; Lee, Jeong-Bong

2012-07-01

104

Fronto-Tectal White Matter Connectivity Mediates Facilitatory Effects of Non-invasive Neurostimulation on Visual Detection  

PubMed Central

The causal ability of pre-target FEF activity to modulate visual detection for perithreshold stimuli has been recently demonstrated in humans by means of non-invasive neurostimulation. Yet in spite of the network-distributed effects of these type of techniques, the white matter (WM) tracts and distant visual nodes contributing to such behavioral impact remain unknown. We hereby used individual data from a group of healthy human subjects, who received time-locked pulses of active or sham Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to the right Frontal Eye Field (FEF) region, and experienced increases in visual detection sensitivity. We then studied the extent to which interindividual differences in visual modulation might be dependent on the WM patterns linking the targeted area to other regions relevant for visuo-attentional behaviors. We report a statistically significant correlation between the probability of connection in a right fronto-tectal pathway (FEF-Superior Colliculus) and the modulation of visual sensitivity during a detection task. Our findings support the potential contribution of this pathway and the superior colliculus in the mediation of visual performance from frontal regions in humans. Furthermore, we also show the ability of a TMS/DTI correlational approach to contribute to the disambiguation of the specific long-range pathways driving network-wide neurostimulatory effects on behavior, anticipating their future role in guiding a more efficient use of focal neurostimulation. PMID:23707586

Quentin, Romain; Chanes, Lorena; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Valabrègue, Romain; Valero-Cabré, Antoni

2013-01-01

105

An Evaluation of the Brachial Plexus Block at the Humeral Canal Using a Neurostimulator (1417 Patients): The Efficacy, Safety, and Predictive Criteria of Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the multiple pe- ripheral nerve block technique at the humeral canal (humeral block) with the use of a neurostimulator, we prospectively studied 1417 patients undergoing upper limb surgery with a brachial plexus block at the hu- meral canal (1468 blocks). The success rate (defined as sensory block (in all nerve distributions) and\\/or the

Michel Carles; Alphonse Pulcini; Philippe Macchi; Patrick Duflos; Marc Raucoules-Aime; Dominique Grimaud

2001-01-01

106

MARCH 1999 NOTICES OF THE AMS 329 TheIHSatForty  

E-print Network

, and down a lawn of trimmed grass, a low one-story building. This is no ordinary park. It is the Bois Scientifiques (IHÃ?S). Now forty years old, the IHÃ?S has spent nearly its entire lifetime in the Bois to Switzerland with his family. He had studied mathematics and physics in Russia and served for a time

Stein, William

107

A novel, forty-two volt, horizontal plate battery design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors present a novel, forty-two volt, lead acid battery design having horizontal plates. The horizontal plate configuration allows two lugs to be placed on each plate so that the plate's conductive distances are reduced. The short conductive distances coupled with a thin plate design that reduces the battery's ionic resistance results in a high power battery.

D. B. Edwards; Song Zhang

2002-01-01

108

The Poisoning in Hong Kong --An Episode of Life in China Forty Years Ago  

E-print Network

is poisoned. Take mustard [teaspoonful] in warm water; 1/2 pint & afterwards warm water; after vomiting freely was to leave by the mail, greatly excited. "Have you taken your mustard? No? Well, come on. There think we had better take our mustard." And we did, under Bussche's administration, but very reluctantly

Gray, Robert M.

109

[Forty years of progress in the therapeutic management of lung cancer].  

PubMed

This article reviews and describes the progress made in the therapeutic management of patients suffering from a lung cancer, outlining the major improvements made and suggesting some perspectives for the future. PMID:25195118

Van Houtte, P; Roelandts, M; Mornex, F

2014-10-01

110

Education and Geopolitics in a Changing Europe: Forty Years of Scholarship in "European Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article chronicles the history of the journal "European Education" since its establishment in 1969 by placing it within the larger context of geopolitical changes of the twentieth century and the historical debates on theory and method in the field of comparative education. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 40…

Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

2009-01-01

111

Change and Continuity in Modern Japanese Educational History: Allied Occupational Reforms Forty Years Later.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the efforts of post-World War II U.S. occupiers to change radically the structure, philosophies, content, and teaching methods of Japanese elementary, secondary, and higher education. Compares prewar and current conditions. Discusses cultural and political reasons why these efforts to transplant foreign institutions and values largely…

Wray, Harry

1991-01-01

112

Operation for partial atrioventricular septal defect: a forty-year review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We describe the long-term outcome of repair of partial atrioventricular septal defect by determining the rates of survival, reoperation, and occurrence of left atrioventricular valve regurgitation, left atrioventricular valve stenosis, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and arrhythmia. Methods: We studied 334 patients who underwent repair of partial atrioventricular septal defect before 1995. Results: The 30-day and 5-, 10-, 20-,

Eyad K. El-Najdawi; David J. Driscoll; Francisco J. Puga; Joseph A. Dearani; Bruce E. Spotts; Douglas W. Mahoney; Gordon K. Danielson

2000-01-01

113

Forty-five years after Broadbent (1958): still no identification without attention  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to D. E. Broadbent's (1958) selective filter theory, people do not process unattended stimuli beyond the analysis of basic physical properties. This theory was later rejected on the basis of numerous findings that people identify irrelevant (and supposedly unattended) stimuli. A careful review of this evidence, however, reveals strong reasons to doubt that these irrelevant stimuli were in fact unattended. This review exposed a clear need for new experiments with tight control over the locus of attention. The authors present 5 such experiments using a priming paradigm. When steps were taken to ensure that irrelevant stimuli were not attended, these stimuli produced no priming effects. Hence, the authors found no evidence that unattended stimuli can be identified. The results support a modern version of Broadbent's selective theory, updated to reflect recent research advances. 2004 APA.

Lachter, Joel; Forster, Kenneth I.; Ruthruff, Eric

2004-01-01

114

Forty Years of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science": A Quantitative Analysis, Part I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the first part of a two-part quantitative analysis of volume 1-40 (1969-2008) of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science" (formerly the "Journal of Librarianship"). It provides an overview of the current state of LIS research journal publishing in the UK; a review of the publication and printing history of…

Furner, Jonathan

2009-01-01

115

Forty Years On: Norbert Elias and the Young Worker Project. CLMS Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study performed in 1962 by Norbert Elias on the adjustment of young people to the transition from school to work had five areas of inquiry; adjustment to relationships with older workers and supervisors; adjustment to job problems; adjustment to role as workers; adjustment to role as money-earner in home relations; and adjustment to role as…

Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta

116

In Search of the Audience - Forty Years of German Public Television and Its Audience Driven Commercialization  

E-print Network

like to especially thank Doris Heinze, and the Tatort producers Mende and Ramcke at Studio Hamburg, Melanie Wolber and Ulrich Herman, Dr. Gebhard Henke, Dr. Schröder-Zebralla, and Gregor Winkowski at Ziegler Film in Berlin. This dissertation would...

Goebel, Baerbel

2011-04-11

117

Forty years experience in developing and using rainfall simulators under tropical and Mediterranean conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainfall simulation has been used as a practical tool for evaluating the interaction of falling water drops on the soil surface, to measure both stability of soil aggregates to drop impact and water infiltration rates. In both cases it is tried to simulate the effects of natural rainfall, which usually occurs at very different, variable and erratic rates and intensities.

Ildefonso Pla-Sentís; Silvana Nacci

2010-01-01

118

Forty Years of Litigation Involving Medical Students and Their Education: I. General Educational Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of 110 state and federal court decisions from 1950-89 involving medical students and undergraduate medical education found 51 percent were disputes over general issues, most concerning admissions and dismissal. Recently, readmission, course repetition, and cheating have been increasingly addressed. Medical schools have generally prevailed…

Helms, Lelia B.; Helms, Charles M.

1991-01-01

119

Forty Years of Giessen EP-Activities and the Recent RIT-Microthruster Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 60ies, gridded ion thrusters with rf-ionizaton of the propellant (first mercury, lateron xenon) have been designed, built, investigated, optimized, and tested at Giessen University. Since 1970, the industry (now EADS Space Transportation) carried out related D & Q programs. The joint work was at first focused on the 10-cm NSSK engine RIT-10, which was flown onboard \\

H. W. Loeb; K.-H. Schartner; B. K. Meyer; D. Feili; D. Kirmse

2005-01-01

120

Forty Years in the Union: Incubating, Supporting, and Catalyzing Socially Just Educational Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

North American teacher unions' positive contributions to educational change have historically flown under the radar of educational policy makers, a situation that has been reified by recent attacks on public sector unions. In this article, I draw on social movement theory and an institutional case study of a self described social justice union to…

Rottmann, Cindy

2012-01-01

121

Enduring Documents and Public Doctrines: Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail" after Forty Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the century just past, the immense ethical and political destructiveness of intellectuals was so frequent and protean in form that intellectual historians have a story as complex as it is tragic to tell, and one that many of them do not relish, perhaps out of occupational solidarity or shame. The "treason of the intellectuals," to use Julien…

Aeschliman, M. D.

2005-01-01

122

Forty years of change: a northern Alaskan seabird's response to a warming Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While recent decadal-scale decreases in the snow and ice habitats of the Arctic are well documented, there are few concurrent long-term biological data sets, especially for species dependent on the cryopelagic ecosystem associated with arctic sea ice. The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandti), a marine apex predator specializing on prey associated with arctic pack ice has been studied annually since 1975 at a colony on Cooper Island, 35 km east of Point Barrow, Alaska. Over the last four decades critical components of the species' life history have been found to be sensitive to a number of physical and biological effects associated with the region's increasing atmospheric temperatures. Black Guillemots first colonized northern Alaska in the late 1960s and early 1970s as the annual snow-free period increased sufficiently to allow access to nesting cavities for the 80 days required to successfully raise young. At the Cooper Island colony abundance increased during the 1970s and 1980s as summer length continued to increase and wooden nest cavities were provided to increase sample size for monitoring. During this time breeding success was high as summer sea ice remained in the 30-km foraging range of guillemot parents, providing Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), the principal forage fish associated with sea ice and the preferred prey of Black Guillemots. Decreasing summer sea ice extent in the 1990s that accelerated in the last decade reduced the guillemots' access to cryopelagic prey during the critical period when parents are provisioning nestlings. Distance from the colony to the pack ice on 15 August averaged <25 km from 1975-2002 but increased to an average of >100 km from 2003-2011. This ice retreat had a major affect on Arctic Cod availability, causing parent guillemots to shift to lower quality benthic fish resulting in decreases in nestling quality and breeding success when sea ice had retreated and SST was > 4o C. Increasing loss of summer ice in the last decade also facilitated changes in the distribution of a guillemot nest competitor and nest predator resulting in major losses of eggs and young. Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) recently expanded their breeding range from the subarctic to northern Alaska and regularly disrupt guillemot nesting by displacing eggs and killing guillemot nestlings while prospecting for nest sites. Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus), rare on Cooper Island until 2002 are now seen regularly in August as they seek refuge on land and prey on guillemot young. While the loss of cryopelagic prey led to reductions in the guillemot population, the loss of eggs and nestlings to puffins and bears was severe enough to threaten the existence of the colony. In 2011 all nest sites at the colony were replaced with plastic nest cases that eliminate disturbance by bears and puffins. Upper trophic level predators are recognized as important indicators of variation in and perturbations to marine ecosystems and in the near future the waters of the western Arctic will be experiencing a range of alterations due to both atmospheric warming and industrial development. The ongoing research at the Cooper Island Black Guillemot colony, combined with its historic database. will allow assessment of those changes.

Divoky, G.; Suydam, R.

2012-12-01

123

Forty years of landscape change in Attwater's Prairie Chicken habitat within the Coastal Prairie of Texas  

E-print Network

by regressing log A on log P, with Dl equal to the slope of the line (Milne 1988, Lovejoy 1982) In this case, as Dl approaches I, the area represents large, regular, landscape- fifiing patches. When Dl approaches 2, small, regular patches are dispersed...

McKinney, Lloyd B.

1996-01-01

124

Forty years on: Uta Frith's contribution to research on autism and dyslexia, 1966–2006  

PubMed Central

Uta Frith has made a major contribution to our understanding of developmental disorders, especially autism and dyslexia. She has studied the cognitive and neurobiological bases of both disorders and demonstrated distinctive impairments in social cognition and central coherence in autism, and in phonological processing in dyslexia. In this enterprise she has encouraged psychologists to work in a theoretical framework that distinguishes between observed behaviour and the underlying cognitive and neurobiological processes that mediate that behaviour. PMID:18038335

Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

2008-01-01

125

Forty Years of Diffusion of Innovations: Utility and Value in Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issues is created to mark the 40 anniversary of Everett Rogers’ Diffusion of Innovations (DOI) model. Diffusion is the process through which an innovation, defined as an idea perceived as new, spreads via certain communication channels over time among the members of a particular social system. A great deal of research in a variety of academic disciplines (about

MUHIUDDIN HAIDER; GARY L. KREPS

2004-01-01

126

Forty years of the international association for study of lung cancer pathology committee.  

PubMed

Lung cancer classification during the last four decades has undergone major changes and evolution, mostly lead by pathologists who were actively involved in the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Pathology Committee. The Committee members have led the development and writing of the second (1981), third (1999 and 2004), and fourth (2015) editions of the World Health Organization classifications on lung tumors. Committee members were responsible for defining and refining the classifications of small-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma subtypes that are relevant to their clinical behavior. Particularly notable was development of the 2011 IASLC/American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society international, multidisciplinary lung adenocarcinoma classification. The multidisciplinary approach that represents the IASLC culture in research, education, and practice in clinical management of lung cancer patients have paved the way for integrating pathology practice into the new era of personalized cancer care. PMID:25393791

Tsao, Ming-Sound; Travis, William D; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Nicholson, Andrew G; Noguchi, Masayuki; Hirsch, Fred R

2014-12-01

127

Habitat evaluation for outbreak of Yangtze voles, Microtus fortis, and management implications.  

PubMed

Rodent pests severely damage agricultural crops. Outbreak risk models of rodent pests often do not include sufficient information regarding geographic variation. Habitat plays an important role in rodent-pest outbreak risk, and more information about the relationship between habitat and crop protection is urgently needed. The goal of the present study was to provide an outbreak risk map for the Dongting Lake region and to understand the relationship between rodent-pest outbreak variation and habitat distribution. The main rodent pests in the Dongting Lake region are Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis, Buchner, 1889). These pests cause massive damage in outbreak years, most notably in 2007. Habitat evaluation and ecological details were obtained by analyzing the correlation between habitat suitability and outbreak risk, as indicated by population density and historical events. For the source-sink population, 96.18% Yangtze vole disaster regions were covered by a 10-km buffer zone of suitable habitat in 2007. Historical outbreak frequency and peak population density were significantly correlated with the proportion of land covered by suitable habitat (r = 0.68, p = 0.04 and r = 0.76, p = 0.03, respectively). The Yangtze vole population tends to migrate about 10 km in outbreak years. Here, we propose a practical method for habitat evaluation that can be used to create integrated pest management plans for rodent pests when combined with basic information on the biology, ecology, and behavior of the target species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:25316099

Xu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Yunlin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Meiwen; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong

2014-10-14

128

Non-invasive interactive neurostimulation (InterX ™) reduces acute pain in patients following total knee replacement surgery: a randomised, controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Adequate post-operative pain relief following total knee replacement (TKR) is very important to optimal post-operative recovery. Faster mobilisation and rehabilitation ultimately results in optimum recovery outcomes, but pain is often the limiting factor. This study evaluates the potential clinical benefit of the InterX neurostimulation device on pain reduction and rehabilitative outcome. Methods A clinical trial under the Hywel Dda Clinical Audit Committee to validate the clinical benefit of Non-invasive Interactive Neurostimulation (NIN) therapy using the InterX device was performed in patients undergoing TKR. 61 patients were randomised to treatment groups in blocks of two from the Theatre Operation List. The control group received the standard hospital course of pain medication and rehabilitation twice daily for 3 post-op days. The experimental group received 8 sessions of NIN therapy over 3 post-op days in addition to the standard course received by the Control group. Pain and range of motion were collected as the primary study measures. Results Sixty one subjects were enrolled and randomised, but 2 subjects (one/group) were excluded due to missing data at Baseline/Final; one subject in the InterX group was excluded due to pre-existing rheumatoid pain conditions confounding the analysis. The experimental group pre- to post-session Verbal Rating Scale for pain (VRS) showed that NIN therapy consistently reduced the pain scores by a mean of 2.3 points (SE 0.11). The NIN pre-treatment score at Final was used for the primary ANCOVA comparison, demonstrating a significantly greater cumulative treatment effect of a mean 2.2 (SE 0.49) points pain reduction (p = 0.002). Control subjects only experienced a mean 0.34 (SE 0.49) point decrease in pain. Ninety degrees ROM was required to discharge the patient and this was attained as an average despite the greater Baseline deficit in the InterX group. Eight control patients and three experimental patients did not achieve this ROM. Conclusions The results clearly demonstrated the clinical benefit of NIN therapy as a supplement to the standard rehabilitation protocol. The subjects receiving InterX fared significantly better clinically. Within a relatively short 3-day period of time, patients in the experimental group obtained the necessary ROM for discharge and did it experiencing lower levels of pain than those in the control group. PMID:21864362

2011-01-01

129

Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes  

SciTech Connect

Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

1984-12-01

130

Forty-Four Pass Fibre Optic Loop for Improving the Sensitivity of Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors  

E-print Network

A forty-four pass fibre optic surface plasmon resonance sensor that enhances detection sensitivity according to the number of passes is demonstrated for the first time. The technique employs a fibre optic recirculation loop that passes the detection spot forty- four times, thus enhancing sensitivity by a factor of forty-four. Presently, the total number of passes is limited by the onset of lasing action of the recirculation loop. This technique offers a significant sensitivity improvement for various types of plasmon resonance sensors that may be used in chemical and biomolecule detections.

Chin B Su; Jun Kameoka

2007-09-21

131

Abraham Lincoln and the German Immigrants: Turners and Forty-Eighters  

E-print Network

general practice of the 1850s. 1 Frederick C. Luebke, Ethnic Voters and the Election of Lincoln (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971). Baron, Frank. Abraham Lincoln and the German Immigrants: Turners and Forty-Eighters. Yearbook of German...

Baron, Frank

2012-01-01

132

77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,655] Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services...

2012-09-06

133

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis)  

E-print Network

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis) Annelies Genbrugge,1,2 Anne morphology; Darwin's finches; ontogeny. Introduction From a single common ancestor, 14 species of Darwin

Gent, Universiteit

134

Effects of Microtus fortis lymphocytes on Schistosoma japonicum in a bone marrow transplantation model.  

PubMed

Microtus fortis is a non-permissive host for Schistosoma japonicum. While M. fortis lymphocytes are known to provide natural resistance against S. japonicum, the specific mechanism remains unclear. A bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model was established using immunodeficient mice, either nude (experiment 1) or V(D)J recombination activation gene deficient mice (RAG-1(-/-)) (experiment 2) as recipients and M. fortis or C57BL/6 mice as donors. The growth and development of S. japonicum were evaluated in each group to assess the role of M. fortis lymphocytes in the response to infection. Lymphocyte ratios and S. japonicum-specific antibody production in transplanted groups increased significantly compared to those in non-transplanted group. Spleen indices and density of splenic lymphocytes in transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice were higher than those in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. No difference in the worm burden was observed among group A (transplants derived from M. fortis), B (transplants derived from C57BL/6 mouse) and C (non-transplanted mice), although worms in group A were shorter than those in other groups, except non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Reproductive systems of worms in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from M. fortis were not as mature as those in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from C57BL/6 mouse and non-transplanted nude mice, but they were more mature than worms in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Therefore, the transplantation model using nude and RAG-1(-/-) mice was successfully established. The M. fortis lymphocytes did not appear to affect the S. japonicum worm burden, but they led to schistosome shortening and a significant reduction in parasite spawning. Thus, M. fortis cellular and humoral immunity provides a defense against schistosomes by negatively impacting the parasite growth and reproductive development. PMID:24746640

Hu, Yuan; Xu, Yuxin; Lu, Weiyuan; Quan, Hong; Shen, Yujuan; Yuan, Zhongying; Zhang, Jing; Zang, Wei; He, Yongkang; Cao, Jianping

2014-07-01

135

Draft Genome Sequence of Vibrio fortis Dalian14 Isolated from Diseased Sea Urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius)  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Vibrio fortis Dalian14 isolated from diseased sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius) during disease outbreaks in North China. The availability of this genome sequence will facilitate the study of the mechanisms of pathogenicity and evolution of Vibrio species. PMID:24994792

Ding, Jun; Dou, Yan; Wang, Yinan

2014-01-01

136

Nonunion of the clavicle treated with plate fixation: a review of forty-seven consecutive cases.  

PubMed

Forty-seven consecutive patients underwent superior plating for clavicular nonunion between 1995 and 2005. This retrospective analysis was performed to assess the efficacy of plate fixation and the need for iliac crest bone grafting. Forty-three patients were treated with pelvic reconstruction plates and four with straight dynamic compression plates. Of the patients, 30 were treated with local bone graft only, 14 with demineralized bone matrix, and 3 with distant autogenous bone graft. Of the fractures, 93% united after a single operation. Of the patients, 69% returned the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. The mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score was 14.6 (range, 0-53). Plate prominence or sensitivity resulted in removal in 20% of cases. We believe that superiorly applied plate fixation is effective for the treatment of clavicular nonunion. Distant autogenous bone graft is not necessary in most cases to obtain union. PMID:18805024

Endrizzi, Donald P; White, Raymond R; Babikian, George M; Old, Andrew B

2008-01-01

137

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

138

First report of genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Microtus fortis in northeastern China.  

PubMed

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite which imperils the health of almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. The objective of this study was to determine genetic characterization of T. gondii in free-living Microtus fortis (reed vole) in Jilin province, northeastern China. A total of 104 DNA samples, 74 from Gongzhuling and 30 from Baicheng, were extracted from lung tissues of M. fortis , and 56 (53.8%) of them were positive for T. gondii by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction of the B1 gene. These positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, BUTB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico. Four samples were successfully genotyped at all genetic loci and grouped to 2 distinct genotypes; 2 samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype no. 10 (Type I) and the other 2 presented ToxoDB Genotype no. 9 ( http://toxodb.org/toxo/ ); 4 samples were genotyped at 8 genetic loci, in which 2 samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype no. 10 and 2 presented ToxoDB Genotype no. 9. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii from free-living M. fortis in northeast China. The results suggest that the Type I and ToxoDB Genotype no. 9 could be a potential risk factor for transmission through the reed vole in this region. PMID:24684624

Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Ying-Guang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Quan

2014-10-01

139

Survey of Yucca Mountain, Forty-Mile Canyon, and Jackass Flats in Nye County, Nevada for desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this brief survey was to determine if G. agassizii is present west of Forty-Mile Canyon in the Yucca Mountain.. area, or along the major access roads which lead through Jackass Flats to Forty-Mile Canyon and Yucca Mountain

Medica, P.A.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Collins, E.

1981-10-01

140

Stifle Lameness in Cattle at Two Veterinary Teaching Hospitals: A Retrospective Study of Forty-two Cases  

PubMed Central

Records of two veterinary teaching hospitals from January 1, 1976 to June 1, 1982 were searched for diagnoses of stifle lameness. Forty-two records were found and information was recorded regarding signalment, history and clinical presentation. The following abnormalities were associated with stifle lameness: subchondral bone cyst (18 cases), joint instability (15 cases), degenerative joint disease (12 cases), cranial cruciate ligament injury (9 cases), cytological or bacteriological evidence of sepsis (9 cases), collateral ligament injury (3 cases), femorotibial luxation (2 cases) and intra-articular fracture (2 cases). The duration of lameness presentation ranged from 0.3 to 24 weeks and the mean follow-up period was 20.47 ± 11.44 months (three animals were lost to follow-up). Animals (n = 15) with subchondral bone cysts as the sole association with lameness presented at an early age (range — 6 to 18 months) and apparently regardless of treatment, had a good prognosis as determined by 75% (three lost to follow-up) returning to their intended function. Cattle (n = 9) with septic arthritis were presented at an age ranging from two months to seven years and only 22.2% returned to function. Cattle (n = 15) with joint instability presented at an age varying from nine months to 13 years also did poorly as only 26.6% returned to function. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:17422551

Ducharme, N. G.; Stanton, M. E.; Ducharme, G. R.

1985-01-01

141

A Forty-Year Retrospective 1950-1990: The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority's Conservation Education Programmes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recounts the growth of Conservation Authorities in Ontario from the first partnerships between schools and conservation in the 1950s, to the opening of a pioneer village, flood control dam, nature trails, and residential conservation education centers through the 1960s and 1970s. Increased public environmental concern sparked more growth in the…

Carr, Allen Terry

1996-01-01

142

Reflections on Forty Years in the School Counseling Profession: Is the Glass Half Full or Half Empty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author narrates on his experience in the school counseling profession in Wisconsin. Highlighted are the challenges in becoming a school counselor, significance of the National Defense Education Act for the growth of the profession, and the author's views on microcounseling. (Contains 64 references.) (GCP)

Baker, Stanley B.

2001-01-01

143

A forty-three year museum study of northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) abnormalities in Arkansas: upward trends and distributions.  

PubMed

The northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) is a resident of streams, rivers, and wetlands of eastern North America. We documented abnormalities in A. crepitans housed in the Arkansas State University Museum of Zoology Herpetology Collection. Abnormality frequency increased from 1957 to 2000 (chi 2 = 43.76, df = 3, P < 0.001). From 1957 through 1979 only 3.33% of specimens were unusual. This rate was 6.87% during the 1990s, and in 2000 it was 8.48%. High frequencies of abnormalities were identified in the following Ozark highland counties: Sharp, Lawrence, and Randolph. We observed 104 abnormalities among 1,464 frogs (7.10%). The differential abnormality frequencies observed between the Arkansas lowlands and highlands are striking. The Ozarks had significantly higher frequencies of abnormalities than other Arkansas regions (chi 2 = 59.76, df = 4, P < 0.001). The Ouachita Mountains had significantly higher frequencies than the Gulf Coastal Plain, Delta, or Arkansas River Valley (chi 2 = 13.172, df = 3, P < 0.01). There was no difference in abnormality frequency between the Gulf Coastal Plain, Delta, and Arkansas River Valley (chi 2 = 0.422, df = 2, P > 0.70). Proposed hypotheses for distributions include: 1) A. crepitans might possess naturally high abnormality levels, and land use practices of the Delta may reduce this variability; 2) an unknown xenobiotic may be in Ozark streams causing increased numbers of abnormalities; 3) the museum's collection effort may be skewed; 4) Delta habitat might be more favorable for green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) allowing this species to drive out A. crepitans through competition; here, abnormal metamorphs are not detected because they are even less competitive than normal individuals. PMID:14567212

McCallum, Malcolm L; Trauth, Stanley E

2003-07-01

144

Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis).  

PubMed

Darwin's finches are a model system in ecological and evolutionary research, but surprisingly little is known about their skull morphology and development. Indeed, only the early beak development and external variation in adult beak shape has been studied. Understanding the development of the skull from embryo up to the adult is important to gain insights into how selection acts upon, and drives, variation in beak shape. Here, we provide a detailed description of the skeletal development of the skull in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis). Although the ossification sequence of the cranial elements is broadly similar to that observed for other birds, some differences can be observed. Unexpectedly, our data show that large changes in skull shape take place between the nestling and the juvenile phases. The reorientation of the beak, the orbit and the formation of well-developed processes and cristae suggest that these changes are likely related to the use of the beak after leaving the nest. This suggests that the active use of the jaw muscles during seed cracking plays an important role in shaping the adult skull morphology and may be driving some of the intra-specific variation observed in species such as G. fortis. Investigating the development of the jaw muscles and their interaction with the observed ossification and formation of the skull and lower jaw would allow further insights into the ecology and evolution of beak morphology in Darwin's finches. PMID:21599660

Genbrugge, Annelies; Heyde, Anne-Sophie; Adriaens, Dominique; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Podos, Jeffrey; Herrel, Anthony

2011-08-01

145

Celebrating 40 Years Recovering Threatened  

E-print Network

Recovery Stories 15 Marine Turtles 16 Central California Coast Coho 17 Gulf Sturgeon 19 Shortnose Sturgeon 3 Forty Years of Endangered Species Protection: What's Worked and What's next? This year we protection from human actions, many of our nation's living resources would become extinct. Although previous

146

Effect of population density on reproduction in Microtus fortis under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

Between December 2011 and March 2012, the reproductive characteristics of Microtus fortis reared in the laboratory at different population densities were assessed. In all, 258 male and female voles were randomly divided into 4 groups and reared at densities of 2, 4, 6, and 8 animals per cage (sex ratio: 1:1). The results showed that the pregnancy rate (?2 = 21.671, df = 3, P < 0.001) and first farrowing interval (F = 12.355, df = 3, P < 0.001) were significantly different among the different population density groups, but the mean litter size (mean ± SD) was not (F = 2.669, df = 3, P > 0.05). In particular, the reproductive index and sex hormone levels showed a significant difference among the different density groups studied. PMID:24873906

Han, Qunhua; Zhang, Meiwen; Guo, Cong; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Xu, Zhenggang

2014-06-01

147

Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection  

SciTech Connect

This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

Farr, L.E.

1991-12-16

148

Spinal posture and pelvic position in three hundred forty-five elementary school children: a rasterstereographic pilot study  

PubMed Central

Children's posture has been of growing concern due to observations that it seems to be impaired compared to previous generations. So far there is no reference data for spinal posture and pelvic position in healthy children available. Purpose of this pilot study was to determine rasterstereographic posture values in children during their second growth phase. Three hundred and forty-five pupils were measured with a rasterstereographic device in a neutral standing position with hanging arms. To further analyse for changes in spinal posture during growth, the children were divided into 12-month age clusters. A mean kyphotic angle of 47.1°±7.5 and a mean lordotic angle of 42.1°±9.9 were measured. Trunk imbalance in girls (5.85 mm±0.74) and boys (7.48 mm± 0.83) varied only little between the age groups, with boys showing slightly higher values than girls. The trunk inclination did not show any significant differences between the age groups in boys or girls. Girls' inclination was 2.53°±1.96 with a tendency to decreasing angles by age, therefore slightly smaller compared to boys (2.98°±2.18). Lateral deviation (4.8 mm) and pelvic position (tilt: 2.75 mm; torsion: 1.53°; inclination: 19.8°±19.8) were comparable for all age groups and genders. This study provides the first systematic rasterstereographic analysis of spinal posture in children between 6 and 11 years. With the method of rasterstereography a reliable three-dimensional analysis of spinal posture and pelvic position is possible. Spinal posture and pelvic position does not change significantly with increasing age in this collective of children during the second growth phase. PMID:23705065

Furian, Thimm Christoph; Rapp, Walter; Eckert, Stefanie; Wild, Michael; Betsch, Marcel

2013-01-01

149

Far-UV observations of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with FORTIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Far-UV imagery and objective grating spectroscopy of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) were acquired from NASA sounding rocket 36.296 UG, launched on 20 November 2013 at 04:40 MST (20.48 Nov 2013 UT), 8.32 days pre-perihelion, from the White Sands Missile Range, NM. The comet was 0.1° below ground horizon, 0.44 AU from the Sun, 0.86 AU from the Earth, and at a solar elongation of 26.3°. The payload reached an apogee of 279 km and the total time pointed at the comet was 353 s. At the time of launch ISON was undergoing a factor of 5 increase in water production rate, going from 3.5e29 to 19.6e29 molecules s-1between 19.6 and 21.6 Nov (Combi et al. 2014), marking what is thought to be a final fragmentation event (Sekanina & Kracht 2014). Our instrument, a wide-field multi-object spectro-telescope called FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy), observed Ly? emissions in an objective grating mode through an open microshutter array, developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center, over a (1/2°)2 field-of-view. After accounting for slit losses and deadtime corrections we find a preliminary lower limit to the Ly? surface brightness of ~ 400 kilorayleighs, yielding a hydrogen production rate of QH ~ 5e29 atoms s-1, in reasonable agreement with the Combi result. We also acquired a broadband image of the comet in the 1280 to 1900 Å bandpass. This image shows a drop in count rate proportional to altitude caused by increased absorption of cometary emissions by terrestrial O2 located in the lower thermosphere. O2 absorption acts as a selective time dependent filter that attenuates cometary emissions from different atomic and molecular species at different rates during descent. Preliminary analysis suggests that the dominant species in a (1e5 km)2 nuclear region is neutral carbon. The radial profile in comparison to a Haser model suggests that the C parent molecule had a lifetime (at 1 AU) ~ 105 s; much shorter than the expected lifetime of CO. We conclude there was little CO produced from the interior volume that was exposed during the final fragmentation of this dynamically new comet, in accord with the low CO production rate derived from HST/COS spectra obtained on 1 November 2013 (Weaver et al. 2014).

McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, Samuel H.

2015-01-01

150

Recent increase of breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Geneva Cancer Registry, we found that in 2002–2004, breast cancer incidence in women aged 25–39 years increased by 46.7% per year (95% CI: 7.1–74.0, P=0.015), which surveillance or detection bias may not fully explain. PMID:17533391

Bouchardy, C; Fioretta, G; Verkooijen, H M; Vlastos, G; Schaefer, P; Delaloye, J-F; Neyroud-Caspar, I; Balmer Majno, S; Wespi, Y; Forni, M; Chappuis, P; Sappino, A-P; Rapiti, E

2007-01-01

151

Recent increase of breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the Geneva Cancer Registry, we found that in 2002–2004, breast cancer incidence in women aged 25–39 years increased by 46.7% per year (95% CI: 7.1–74.0, P=0.015), which surveillance or detection bias may not fully explain.

C Bouchardy; G Fioretta; H M Verkooijen; G Vlastos; P Schaefer; J-F Delaloye; I Neyroud-Caspar; S Balmer Majno; Y Wespi; M Forni; P Chappuis; A-P Sappino; E Rapiti

2007-01-01

152

Recent increase of breast cancer incidence among women under the age of forty.  

PubMed

Using data from the Geneva Cancer Registry, we found that in 2002-2004, breast cancer incidence in women aged 25-39 years increased by 46.7% per year (95% CI: 7.1-74.0, P=0.015), which surveillance or detection bias may not fully explain. PMID:17533391

Bouchardy, C; Fioretta, G; Verkooijen, H M; Vlastos, G; Schaefer, P; Delaloye, J-F; Neyroud-Caspar, I; Balmer Majno, S; Wespi, Y; Forni, M; Chappuis, P; Sappino, A-P; Rapiti, E

2007-06-01

153

The Forty-Eight-Hour Rule: Emotional Engagement and the Student Athlete  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several years ago, the author taught a course called First-Year experience. A student named Sean mentioned that he played "water pong." Sean, a high-achieving student who was also a member of the lacrosse team, explained that water pong was a game with the rules of beer pong, using water rather than beer. Sean volunteered an explanation of his…

Mueller, Alan C. R.

2009-01-01

154

Forty-first annual report of the Director of the United States Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The appropriations for the public work under the United States Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1919-20 comprised items amounting to $1,586,353.50. In general the results of the varied activities of the Geological Survey may be regarded as meeting with a constantly increasing measure of public approval, as shown by the larger use that is being made of this branch of the public service. Correspondence with all classes of citizens—ranchers and corporation officials, school children and university professors, prospectors and mining engineers—has continued to increase, and this gain has been evident in the requests both for specific information and for publications. Ten years ago a telegraphic request for a map or report was a notable incident; now telegrams of this kind are of daily occurrence. Especially gratifying has been the popular demand for topographic maps, the increase in sales this year being 70 per cent. The number of all publications—books and maps—distributed during the year exceeded the number printed this year, this disproving the common assertion that Government publications simply accumulate until they become only waste paper. Indeed, an embarrassing feature of much of the correspondence during the year has been the thousands of requests for reports that were out of print, and more reprints than usual of exhausted editions have been authorized to meet an insistent demand. The public is making use of the publications of the Geological Survey as never before.

Smith, George Otis

1920-01-01

155

Runners in their forties dominate ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study investigated performance trends and the age of peak running speed in ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles. METHODS: The running speed and age of the fastest competitors in 50-, 100-, 200-, 1,000- and 3,100-mile events held worldwide from 1971 to 2012 were analyzed using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: The number of events and competitors increased exponentially in 50- and 100-mile events. For the annual fastest runners, women improved in 50-mile events, but not men. In 100-mile events, both women and men improved their performance. In 1,000-mile events, men became slower. For the annual top ten runners, women improved in 50- and 100-mile events, whereas the performance of men remained unchanged in 50- and 3,100-mile events but improved in 100-mile events. The age of the annual fastest runners was approximately 35 years for both women and men in 50-mile events and approximately 35 years for women in 100-mile events. For men, the age of the annual fastest runners in 100-mile events was higher at 38 years. For the annual fastest runners of 1,000-mile events, the women were approximately 43 years of age, whereas for men, the age increased to 48 years of age. For the annual fastest runners of 3,100-mile events, the age in women decreased to 35 years and was approximately 39 years in men. CONCLUSION: The running speed of the fastest competitors increased for both women and men in 100-mile events but only for women in 50-mile events. The age of peak running speed increased in men with increasing race distance to approximately 45 years in 1,000-mile events, whereas it decreased to approximately 39 years in 3,100-mile events. In women, the upper age of peak running speed increased to approximately 51 years in 3,100-mile events. PMID:24626948

Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

2014-01-01

156

Fatty acid profiles from forty-nine plant species that are potential new sources of ?-linolenic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-nine plant species from Spain, belonging to the Boraginaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Onagraceae, and Ranunculaceae families,\\u000a were surveyed in a search of new sources of ?-linolenic acid (18?3?6, GLA). Fatty acid profiles from seeds, stems, roots,\\u000a flowers and leaves were determined. GLA was detected mainly in seed and root tissues. High GLA amounts were found in seeds\\u000a of Boraginaceae species, with a

J. L. Guil-Guerrero; F. F. García Maroto; A. Giménez Giménez

2001-01-01

157

[Two historical changes in the vicissitudes of Hungarian psychoanalysts in the forties].  

PubMed

Between 1940 and 1950, Hungarian history struck two blows at psychoanalysts--as a movement and in their personal lives. The paper relates several episodes from this period and briefly traces the birth and development of the "Budapest School". Between the two world wars, the small group of Hungarian analysts played a relatively important role in the international movement. During the years of Fascism it was in Hungary that psychoanalysis was able to survive the longest. But in 1944, a quarter of all the Hungarian analysts perished. After the war the analysts' activity was notable chiefly for its extensive nature but after a few years the Association was dissolved. The paper describes the analysts' problems and fluctuating fortunes and also their incessant efforts, inspired by the hope of a theoretical and practical renewal of Hungarian psycho-analysis. PMID:11640262

Nemes, L

1988-01-01

158

40 years of neutrino physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wolfgang Pauli and Enrico Fermi pioneered the hypothesis and characteristics of the weak interaction and the elementary particle called the neutrino. Since its discovery some forty years ago the neutrino has been shown to be a fundamental constituent of matter with a surprisingly rich, and in very many ways unexpected, set of characteristics ranging from basic roles in the generation of energy in the sun to supernovæ.

Reines, Frederick

159

Forty-six genes causing nonsyndromic hearing impairment: which ones should be analyzed in DNA diagnostics?  

PubMed

Hearing impairment is the most common sensory disorder, present in 1 of every 500 newborns. With 46 genes implicated in nonsyndromic hearing loss, it is also an extremely heterogeneous trait. Here, we categorize for the first time all mutations reported in nonsyndromic deafness genes, both worldwide and more specifically in Caucasians. The most frequent genes implicated in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss are GJB2, which is responsible for more than half of cases, followed by SLC26A4, MYO15A, OTOF, CDH23 and TMC1. None of the genes associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss accounts for a preponderance of cases, although mutations are somewhat more frequently reported in WFS1, KCNQ4, COCH and GJB2. Only a minority of these genes is currently included in genetic diagnostics, the selection criteria typically reflecting: (1) high frequency as a cause of deafness (i.e. GJB2); (2) association with another recognisable feature (i.e. SLC26A4 and enlarged vestibular aqueduct); or (3) a recognisable audioprofile (i.e. WFS1). New and powerful DNA sequencing technologies have been developed over the past few years, but have not yet found their way into DNA diagnostics. Implementing these technologies is likely to happen within the next 5 years, and will cause a breakthrough in terms of power and cost efficiency. It will become possible to analyze most - if not all - deafness genes, as opposed to one or a few genes currently. This ability will greatly improve DNA diagnostics, provide epidemiological data on gene-based mutation frequencies, and reveal novel genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:18804553

Hilgert, Nele; Smith, Richard J H; Van Camp, Guy

2009-01-01

160

Forty-six genes causing nonsyndromic hearing impairment: which ones should be analyzed in DNA diagnostics?  

PubMed Central

Hearing impairment is the most common sensory disorder, present in 1 of every 500 newborns. With 46 genes implicated in nonsyndromic hearing loss, it is also an extremely heterogeneous trait. Here, we categorize for the first time all mutations reported in nonsyndromic deafness genes, both worldwide and more specifically in Caucasians. The most frequent genes implicated in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss are GJB2, which is responsible for more than half of cases, followed by SLC26A4, MYO15A, OTOF, CDH23 and TMC1. None of the genes associated with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss accounts for a preponderance of cases. Mutations are somewhat more frequently reported in WFS1, KCNQ4, COCH and GJB2. Only a minority of these genes is currently included in genetic diagnostics, the selection criteria typically reflecting: 1) high frequency as a cause of deafness (i.e. GJB2); 2) association with another recognizable feature (i.e. SLC26A4 and enlarged vestibular aqueduct); or 3) a recognizable audioprofile (i.e. WFS1). New and powerful DNA sequencing technologies have been developed over the past few years, but have not yet found their way into DNA diagnostics. Implementing these technologies is likely to happen within the next 5 years, and will cause a breakthrough in terms of power and cost efficiency. It will become possible to analyze most - if not all - deafness genes, as opposed to one or a few genes currently. This ability will greatly improve DNA diagnostics, provide epidemiological data on gene-based mutation frequencies, and reveal novel genotype-phenotype correlations. PMID:18804553

Hilgert, Nele; Smith, Richard J.H.; Van Camp, Guy

2010-01-01

161

Sexual Complaints, Pelvic Floor Symptoms, and Sexual Distress in Women over Forty  

PubMed Central

Introduction The American Psychiatric Association recommends considering sexually related personal distress when assessing female sexual dysfunction. Currently, there is little data regarding the impact of sexual complaints on sexual distress. Aim To investigate the association between sexual complaints and perceived sexual distress in a population of ambulatory adult women. Methods Using the short forms of the Personal Experiences Questionnaire and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire, we assessed sexual complaints among 305 women seeking outpatient gynecologic care. Depressive symptoms were quantified using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) score. Sexual distress was measured using the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS). Using multivariable logistic regression, we compared sexual complaints between distressed and nondistressed women. Main Outcome Measures Sexual distress, defined by FSDS score ?15. Results FSDS scores were available for 292/305 participants. Seventy-six (26%) scores reflected distress. Distressed women were more likely to be younger (55.2 ± 1.0 years vs. 56.7 ± 0.8 years, P = 0.017); have higher CESD scores (16.6 vs. 9.5, P = 0.001); and report decreased arousal (56.8% vs. 25.1%, P = 0.001), infrequent orgasm (54% vs. 28.8%, P = 0.001), and dyspareunia (39.7% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.001). Women with sexual distress were also more likely to report sexual difficulty related to pelvic floor symptoms, including urinary incontinence with sexual activity (9% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.005), sexual avoidance due to vaginal prolapse (13.9% vs. 1%, P = 0.001), or sexual activity restriction due to fear of urinary incontinence (14.9% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.001). After multivariate analysis, sexual distress was significantly associated with dyspareunia (odds ratio [OR] 3.11, P = 0.008) and depression score (OR 1.05, P = 0.006), and inversely associated with feelings of arousal during sex (OR 0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusion Our results indicate that sexually related personal distress is significantly associated with dyspareunia, depressive symptoms, and decreased arousal during sexual activity. This contributes to our understanding of how sexual complaints may adversely affect women’s quality of life. PMID:20704643

Knoepp, Leise R.; Shippey, Stuart H.; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace; Cundiff, Geoffrey W.; Derogatis, Leonard R.; Handa, Victoria L.

2011-01-01

162

Effects of Ayurvedic treatment on forty-three patients of ulcerative colitis  

PubMed Central

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease with a relapsing nature. It is a very challenging disease affecting a patient during the most active period of his life i.e. 20 to 40 years of age. The main features are ano-rectal bleeding with increased frequency of bowel evacuation, general debility and with abnormal structural pathology in the descending colon, particularly sigmoid colon. In modern medical science, there is no permanent curative and safe treatment for this disease. This study can be helpful for reducing the need of steroids and surgical processes in the patients of ulcerative colitis. A clinical study of 43 patients of ulcerative colitis has been conducted at the O.P.D. (outdoor patient department) and I.P.D. (indoor patient department) of the P D Patel Ayurveda Hospital, Nadiad. They were given Udumbara kvatha basti with oral Ayurveda medicaments including Kutaj ghan vati, Udumbara kvatha, and combination of Musta, Nagakesara, Lodhra, Mukta panchamrut rasa for a one-month period. Results were analyzed statistically by using the ‘t’ test. In this study, it was observed that the symptoms and signs, daily dose of steroids and other anti-inflammatory drugs were reduced by more than 75% with a highly significant result. The hemoglobin level was also increased. PMID:22048543

Patel, Manish V.; Patel, Kalapi B.; Gupta, S. N.

2010-01-01

163

Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

Kahlenberg, Richard D.

2008-01-01

164

Forty-Fourth Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Administrative Report Including Technical Reports Nos. 1342 to 1392  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In accordance with act of Congress, approved March 3, 1915, as amended (U.S.C., title 50, .sw 151), which established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Committee submits its Forty-fourth Annual Report for the fiscal year 1958. This is the Committee's final report to the Congress. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568) provides in section 301 that the NACA "shall cease to exist" and "all functions, powers, duties, and obligations, and all real and personal property, personnel (other than members of the Committee), funds, and records of the NACA shall be transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The aforesaid act provides that "this section shall take effect 90 days after the date of the enactment of this act, or on any earlier date on which the Administrator shall determining and announce by proclamation published in the Federal Register, that the Administration has been organized and is prepared to discharge the duties and exercise the power conferred upon it by this act." The Administrator, Hon. T. Keith Glennan has advised the Committee of his intention to issue such proclamation, effective October 1,1958.

1959-01-01

165

Digital Archives - Thomas M. Bown's Bighorn Basin Maps: The Suite of Forty-Four Office Master Copies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This CD-ROM is a digitally scanned suite of master 'locality' maps produced by Dr. Thomas M. Bown. The maps are archived in the US Geological Survey Field Records. The maps feature annual compilations of newly established fossil (nineteen 7.5 degree maps) of central basin data collections. This master suite of forty-four maps represents a considerably broader geographic range within the basin. Additionally, three field seasons of data were compiled into the master suite of maps after the final editing of the Professional Paper. These maps are the culmination of Dr. Bown's Bighorn Basin research as a vertebrate paleontologist for the USGS. Data include Yale, Wyoming, Duke, Michigan and USGS localities. Practical topographic features are also indicated, such as jeep=trail access, new reservoirs, rerouted roadbeds, measured sections, fossil reconnaissance evaluations (G=good, NG=no good and H=hideous), faults, palcosol stages, and occasionally 'camp' vernacular for locality names.

McKinney, Kevin C.

2001-01-01

166

Bacillus farraginis sp. nov., Bacillus fortis sp. nov. and Bacillus fordii sp. nov., isolated at dairy farms.  

PubMed

Forty-eight bacterial strains were isolated at dairy farms from raw milk, the milking apparatus, green fodder or feed concentrate after a heat treatment of 30 min at 100 degrees C. In this way, spore-forming bacteria with a very high intrinsic heat resistance were selected for. The aerobic spore-forming isolates were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomical study, including repetitive element sequence-based PCR typing, whole-cell protein profiling, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base composition, fatty acid analysis, and morphological and biochemical characteristics. A comparison of the REP- and (GTG)5-PCR and whole-cell protein SDS-PAGE profiles resulted in three clusters of similar strains. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness data showed that these clusters represented three novel species. The highest 16S rDNA similarity to a recognized species found for the three groups was around 94% with Bacillus lentus and Bacillus sporothermodurans. Further phenotypic characterization supported the proposal of three novel species in the genus Bacillus, Bacillus farraginis, Bacillus fortis and Bacillus fordii. The respective type strains are R-6540T (=LMG 22081T=DSM 16013T), R-6514T (=LMG 22079T=DSM 16012T) and R-7190T (=LMG 22080T=DSM 16014T); their G+C DNA base contents are 43.7, 44.3 and 41.9 mol%, respectively. Although in variable amounts, a predominance of the branched fatty acids iso-C(15 : 0) and anteiso-C(15 : 0) was observed in all three novel species. PMID:15280314

Scheldeman, Patsy; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; Goris, Johan; Pil, Annelies; De Clerck, Elke; Herman, Lieve; De Vos, Paul; Logan, Niall A; Heyndrickx, Marc

2004-07-01

167

Forty Years of Movie Hacking: Considering the Potential Implications of the Popular Media Representation of Computer Hackers from 1968 to 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly movies are being produced which feature plots that incorporate elements of computer security and hacking, and cumulatively these movies are creating a public perception as to the nature of computer security. This research examines movies that feature hackers (and hacking) to identify if any common themes emerge from these movies in their representation of these issues. To achieve this,

Damian Gordon

2010-01-01

168

Forty Years of Excellence and Beyond. Proceedings of the Annual North East Association for Institutional Research (NEAIR) Conference (40th, Newport, Rhode Island, November 9-12, 2013)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The NEAIR 2013 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Newport, Rhode Island, conference. Papers in this document include: (1) Aspiring to the Role of "Data Badass:" Some Thoughts on the Political Context of IR (Mark Freeman); (2) Data-Driven Internal Benchmarks and Successful Learning Outcomes (Mamta Saxena…

Parker, Tiffany, Ed.

2013-01-01

169

The IUCN International Red List of Threatened Species, conceived more than forty years ago, has been an essential tool for international species conservation. Traditionally,  

E-print Network

www.stateofthesalmon.org SSG Workflow Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) illustration by Kate for members of the genera Oncorhynchus and Hucho. To do so, we are relying in large part on new data presented the range of seven species of anadromous Oncorhynchus--and therefore offers us the first opportunity

Gross, Mart

170

A remedial program for first year engineering students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year about a forty percent of our freshmen obtain very bad academic results. These failing students lack the abilities and personal characteristics needed to meet the requirements of the first year engineering courses. As a result of this they must leave the University. However, since 1991 the Tecnica Federico Santa Maria (UTFSM), Valparaiso, Chile, has implemented a remedial program,

Ana M. Urbina

1999-01-01

171

Through a Rear Vision Mirror. Change and Education. A Perspective on the Seventies from the Forties. ACER Research Series No. 97.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The early seventies were strikingly similar in some ways to the early forties. In both periods strong forces operated to reform education. These pressures arose in the main from a pervasive sense of crisis and threat to the culture. A major purpose of this study is to shed some light on the nature and impact of the forces of change that affect…

Fitzgerald, R. T.

172

Kainji resettlement housing: 40 years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nigeria's Kainji Dam, completed in 1968, displaced 44,000 people from 239 settlements. Three housing forms were designed to provide for urban, semi?urban, and rural settings, respectively. Forty years later, the urban and semi?urban forms are integrated into the community while the rural form, modeled after a grain storage structure (rumbu) has been less successful. Five lessons are derived from this

Ruth Shinenge Gyuse; Timothy Terver Gyuse

2008-01-01

173

Five Year Charter School Study: An Overview. Arizona Education Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether charter schools in Arizona were accomplishing the goals communicated in their charter applications and explored the evolutionary nature of charter schools. Forty highly varied charter schools in Arizona were tracked over 5 years of continuous operation, from 1995 to 2000. Interviews lasting 4 hours were arranged at each…

Gifford, Mary; Phillips, Karla; Ogle, Melinda

174

Revisiting First-Year Teacher Burnout: New South Carolina Educators in the Era of Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forty-six percent of the nation's teachers are expected to leave the profession by their fifth year in the classroom. This alarming statistic has grabbed the attention of federal, state, and local leaders. In South Carolina alone, 28,500 teachers left the profession in the last five years, or an average of 5,700 per year. This translates to a…

Ilagan, Daniel J.

2010-01-01

175

Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

2012-01-01

176

Effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride for twenty to forty days on carcass cutability and subprimal yield of calf-fed Holstein steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is de- signed to increase carcass leanness, chilled side weight (CSW), and percent saleable yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single dose of ZH on cutability and subprimal yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for increasing durations. Two hundred forty steers were fed 8.3 mg\\/kg of ZH on a

D. D. Boler; S. F. Holmer; F. K. McKeith; J. Killefer; D. L. VanOverbeke; G. G. Hilton; R. J. Delmore; J. L. Beckett; J. C. Brooks; R. K. Miller; D. B. Griffin; J. W. Savell; T. E. Lawrence; N. A. Elam; M. N. Streeter; W. T. Nichols; J. P. Hutcheson; D. A. Yates; D. M. Allen

2009-01-01

177

Trends in augmented reality tracking, interaction and display: A review of ten years of ISMAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Augmented Reality technology was first developed over forty years ago, there has been little survey work giving an overview of recent research in the field. This paper reviews the ten- year development of the work presented at the ISMAR conference and its predecessors with a particular focus on tracking, interaction and display research. It provides a roadmap for future

Feng Zhou; Henry Been-Lirn Duh; Mark Billinghurst

2008-01-01

178

Light Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Shedding Light on Science describes how astronomical distances can be measured in units of light-years, and how the finite speed of light allows astronomers to study how the universe looked long ago.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

179

PROCEEDINGS FORTY-SIXTH ANNUAL  

E-print Network

The Wild Hog (Feral Pig) Problem in Michigan-Brown, Smithfield Foods AFTERNOON SESSION ­ Billy Wooding, Moderator 2:30 PM Feral Pigs in Virginia and Why We Should Be Concerned Mr. Aaron Proctor, Virginia Department of Game & Inland Fisheries 3:10 PM Feral Pigs

Buehrer, R. Michael

180

FORTY-FIFTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT  

E-print Network

; Slavery and Freedom: An Interpretation of the Old South; and The Radical and the Republican: Frederick framework to analyze the careers of the wartime President and the nation's most important black leader many of my fellow historians, I've been besieged with unusual invitations--to speak at the annual black

Dennehy, John

181

Hematozoa of hatch-year common mergansers from Michigan.  

PubMed

Fifty-five hatch-year common mergansers (Mergus merganser) were sampled for hematozoa from Douglas Lake (Michigan, USA) on 17 July 1995. Forty-one (75%) were infected with hematozoa. Haemoproteus greineri and Leucocytozoon simondi were common, infecting 28 (51%) and 26 (47%) common mergansers, respectively. Plasmodium circumflexum infected two (4%) birds. The common merganser is a new host record for H. greineri and P. circumflexum. Intensity data indicate possible negative interspecific interaction between H. greineri and L. simondi. PMID:11310899

DeJong, R J; Reimink, R L; Blankespoor, H D

2001-04-01

182

Years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now 60 years since Kurt G6del published his remarkable discoveries on incompleteness. These discoveries changed the face of mathematical logic and, in large measure, discredited two of the three philosophies of mathematics that were prominent at the time: Hilbert's formalism and Russell's logicism. Hilbert's program was discredited by showing that to prove an axiom system consistent requires a

Karen V. H. Parshall

1991-01-01

183

FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF CHILDREN WITH LOW-TO-MODERATE LEAD ABSORPTION: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Forty-nine children aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for residual effects of lead exposure using psychometric, electrophysiological, and medical tests five years after initial assessment. The original range of blood lead (PbB) levels was 6-59 micrograms/dl; the current range was...

184

Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture.  

PubMed

Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction. PMID:25585479

Kotozaki, Yuka

2014-01-01

185

Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

Bugos, Jennifer A.

2014-01-01

186

Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Technical Workforce Training at Two-Year Colleges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the outcomes of a workshop held at the National Science Foundation on August 15-16, 2005. Forty-six participants, representing academia, industry, government agencies, professional associations, and special projects met to: (1) discuss how geospatial technology training at two-year colleges can address workforce needs; and…

National Council for Geographic Education (NJ1), 2006

2006-01-01

187

Counselling for prenatal diagnosis of sickle cell disease and beta thalassaemia major: a four year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-directive programme of prenatal counselling was used during a four year period. Forty-three couples at risk for having a baby with a haemoglobinopathy were identified. Prenatal diagnosis was offered in 19 pregnancies to 14 couples at risk of having a baby with sickle cell anaemia and in two pregnancies in two couples at risk of a baby with beta

E N Anionwu; N Patel; G Kanji; H Renges; M Brozovi?

1988-01-01

188

Alienation and First-Year Student Retention. Professional File. Number 116, Spring 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since Summerskill's study on college attrition forty years ago, the interest in this topic has never waned. This study was particularly interested in the relationship of race to retention. Various theoretical frames of references have been proposed: Price's organization theory, Durkheim's Suicide, and Marx's Alienation have been used to guide…

Liu, Richard

2010-01-01

189

Past Years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

Lodge, Oliver

2012-07-01

190

Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.  

E-print Network

of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

Olsen, Paul E.

191

Influences on First-Year Recovery From Traumatic Brain Injury in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined recovery over the first year following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children 6–12 years of age. Forty-two children with severe TBI and 52 with moderate TBI were compared to 58 children with orthopedic injuries. The children and their families were evaluated at a baseline assessment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Findings documented cognitive, achievement, and behavioral

H. Gerry Taylor; Keith Owen Yeates; Shari L. Wade; Dennis Drotar; Susan K. Klein; Terry Stancin

1999-01-01

192

Surgery for atrial fibrillation using radiofrequency catheter ablation: assessment of results at one year  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The results obtained in 43 patients using direct intraoperative radiofrequency catheter ablation, as an alternative to surgical incisions, to perform atrial fibrillation surgery, are presented. Methods: Forty-three patients with ages ranging from 43 to 74 years (x?=59), with chronic atrial fibrillation with an average duration 6±5 years were operated. Eleven patients suffered from clinically relevant tachyarrythmia and eight had

João Melo; Pedro Adragão; José Neves; Manuel M Ferreira; Maria M Pinto; Maria J Rebocho; Leonor Parreira; Teresa Ramos

1999-01-01

193

[Chronic fatigue. IV--Assessment of a 40-year-old patient].  

PubMed

A forty year old patient was referred by the federal insurance for medical assessment. His presenting complaint was chronic fatigue. The patient had been an intravenous drug user for years and had been infected with hepatitis C. He was treated with interferon. The patient history showed that he also suffered from anaemia and depression. He participated in a methadone substitution program. Our diagnostic procedures showed that he also has Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:18050603

Mettler, J; Battegay, E; Zimmerli, L

2007-11-01

194

Physiological and Behavioral Regulation in Two-Year-Old Children with Aggressive\\/Destructive Behavior Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 99 two-year-old children was selected on the basis of parents' responses to two administrations of the Child Behavior Checklist for two- to three-year-olds. Forty-nine of these children displayed symptoms of aggressive\\/destructive (externalizing) problems that were in the borderline clinical range (labelled “high risk”) and 50 children displayed few such symptoms (“low risk”). The children were assessed in

Susan D. Calkins; Susan E. Dedmon

2000-01-01

195

One-year outcome of adolescent females referred for conduct disorder and substance abuse\\/dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether substance abuse\\/dependence, conduct disorder, and other psychiatric disorders improved in adolescent females who were referred to outpatient treatment and which variables were related to 1-year outcome. Forty-six out of 60 conduct-disordered (CD) adolescent females with substance abuse or dependence were re-evaluated approximately 1 year after discharge. Treatment length averaged 16 weeks. Significant improvements were seen in three

Elizabeth A Whitmore; Susan K Mikulich; Kristen M Ehlers; Thomas J Crowley

2000-01-01

196

Effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride for twenty to forty days on carcass cutability and subprimal yield of calf-fed Holstein steers.  

PubMed

Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is designed to increase carcass leanness, chilled side weight (CSW), and percent saleable yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a single dose of ZH on cutability and subprimal yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for increasing durations. Two hundred forty steers were fed 8.3 mg/kg of ZH on a DM basis for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d, with a 3-d withdrawal before slaughter. After slaughter, steers were fabricated into 4 pieces (round, loin/flank, rib/plate, and chuck), packaged in combos, shipped to 2 locations, and further fabricated into subprimal pieces and trim. Trim was collected from each primal and separated into groups based on composition of 90, 80, and 50% lean. Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased (P = 0.01) CSW by 6.22 kg and saleable yield by 6.4 kg when included in the diet for 20 d. Furthermore, saleable yield as a percentage of CSW was increased (P = 0.03) 1.18 percentage units when included in the diet for 20 d. Steers fed ZH for 20 d had heavier strip loins (4.47 vs. 4.12 kg, P = 0.02), tenderloins (2.75 vs. 2.49 kg, P = 0.02), and ribeye rolls (5.74 vs. 5.30 kg, P = 0.01) than steers not fed ZH. These advantages are further demonstrated as a percentage of CSW. Strip loins (P = 0.06), tenderloins (P = 0.04), and ribeye rolls (P = 0.04) of ZH-fed steers had a greater percentage of CSW than controls. Zilpaterol hydrochloride also increased the percentage of CSW of the 3 primary components of the round when fed for 20 d. The knuckle was 0.10 percentage units heavier (P = 0.11), the top round was 0.24 percentage units heavier (P = 0.04), and the bottom round was 0.22 percentage units heavier (P = 0.03) in ZH-fed steers when compared with steers not fed ZH. Based on these data, it can be concluded that ZH significantly increased subprimal cutting weights, yields, and percentage saleable yield of calf-fed Holstein steers when fed for at least 20 d before slaughter. Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased percentage of CSW of subprimal cuts from Holstein steers in the round and to a lesser degree in the loin. PMID:19574574

Boler, D D; Holmer, S F; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J; VanOverbeke, D L; Hilton, G G; Delmore, R J; Beckett, J L; Brooks, J C; Miller, R K; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Lawrence, T E; Elam, N A; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Allen, D M

2009-11-01

197

Development and Implantation of a Minimally Invasive Wireless Subretinal Neurostimulator  

E-print Network

A wirelessly operated, minimally invasive retinal prosthesis was developed for preclinical chronic implantation studies in Yucatan minipig models. The implant conforms to the outer wall of the eye and drives a microfabricated ...

Theogarajan, Luke

198

ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND RENEWABLE POWER FOR IMPLANTABLE NEUROSTIMULATORS  

E-print Network

series across varying loads with 1000 concentration ratio Open Circuit (circuit analysis. In this case, 26 cells are in a series andcircuit potential recorded was 100mV from 6 cells connected in series.

Pantchenko, Oxana S.

2012-01-01

199

Neurostimulation at pterygopalatine fossa for cluster headaches and cerebrovascular disorders.  

PubMed

There are numerous neural structures (parasympathetic, sympathetic, and trigeminal sensory) that are compacted in a small well defined area of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF). These targets can be readily accessed via minimally invasive neuromodulation techniques making the methods more desirable than neurosurgical deep brain or hypothalamic intervention. Recent research has shed light over the important role of the sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG), which is located within the PPF, in cerebrovascular autonomic physiology as well as in the pathophysiology of different headache disorders (cluster headache, migraine, and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias). Accordingly, neuromodulation of the autonomic fibers (parasympathetic and sympathetic) may play a key role in the management of headaches, stroke, or cerebral vasospasm. Another important structure within the PPF is the maxillary nerve (V2), which passes through the roof of the fossa. Here the trigeminal system is accessible for a reliable neuromodulation by targeting its second branch -the maxillary nerve- and this could be utilized in various painful conditions of the head and face. PMID:24859567

Narouze, Samer

2014-07-01

200

Instrumentation, working hypotheses, and clinical aspects of neurostimulation.  

PubMed

The paper describes instrumentation developed in our laboratory for the therapy of neurological disorders, including (a) hybrid stimulator for chronic use which retains constant current characteristics, providing a low resistance path during the quiescent phase between pulses to minimize the postpulse charge; (b) brain radio stimulators, crystal controlled, with digital logic section and an optoelectric sensor for telemetry of the intensity used; (c) external stimoceiver for experimental and clinical use, combining multichannel stimulator and EEG telemetric instrument; (d) transdermal stimoceivers, totally implantable for two-way communication with the brain through the intact skin; and (e) implantable microprocessor for detection of EEG signals which are used to trigger contingent brain stimulation. Our working hypotheses for chronic brain stimulation include (a) electrical modification of the functional set point of specific cerebral areas; (b) feedback-controlled stimulation; and (c) establishment of artificial neuronal links with the aide of the computer. The paper concludes with a discussion of the indications for therapeutic use of brain stimulation and criteria for patient selection. PMID:101139

Delgado, J M

201

Instrumentation, Working Hypotheses, and Clinical Aspects of Neurostimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes instrumentation developed in our laboratory for the therapy of neurological disorders, including (a) hybrid stimulator for chronic use which retains constant current characteristics, providing a low resistance path during the quiescent phase between pulses to minimize the postpulse charge; (b) brain radio stimulators, crystal controlled, with digital logic section and an optoelectric sensor for telemetry of the

José M. R. Delgado

1977-01-01

202

The integrated approach of yoga: a therapeutic tool for mentally retarded children: a one-year controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety children with mental retardation of mild, moderate and severe degree were selected from four special schools in Bangalore, India. Forty-five children underwent yogic training for one academic year (5h in every week) with an integrated set of yogic practices, including breathing exercises and pranayama, sithilikarana vyayama (loosening exercises), suryanamaskar, yogasanas and meditation. They were compared before and after yogic

K. UMA; H. R. Nagendra; R. NAGARATHNA; S. VAIDEHI; R. SEETHALAKSHMI

2008-01-01

203

Faculty Academic Advising: An Examination of Students' and Faculty Members' Perception of a First-Year Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spring 1998 surveys of faculty and students at University of Akron, Community and Technical (C&T) College (Ohio) queried respondents regarding their first-year experience with a faculty academic advising project. Forty of the 72 (55%) full-time C&T faculty responded, and 279 of 400 (70%) student surveys were returned. Faculty findings included:…

Jones, Gwendolyn

204

Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students' Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored an initiative that created a pervasive learning environment in a middle school in South Korea and examined its impact on student academic achievement and learning engagement. Forty students received a laptop to use for class projects, online collaboration, and lesson reviews over a 3-year period. To measure the effect of laptop…

Hur, Jung Won; Oh, Jaekyeon

2012-01-01

205

A Meta-Analysis Examining the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Postsecondary Statistics Education: 40 Years of Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present meta-analysis is a comprehensive investigation of the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student achievement in postsecondary statistics education across a forty year period of time. The researchers calculated an overall effect size of 0.566 from 70 studies, for a total of 219 effect-size measures from a sample of…

Larwin, Karen; Larwin, David

2011-01-01

206

Cementless double-tapered total hip arthroplasty in patients 75 years of age and older 1 1 Benefits or funds were received in partial or total support of the research material described in this article from Biomet, Inc., Warsaw, Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerns exist with cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) femoral fixation in the elderly patient population. This study reviews the outcomes of a tapered cementless femoral component in elderly patients 75 years of age and older. Forty-seven patients (49 hips) older than 74 years of age (average age, 79 years) underwent primary cementless THA with a double-tapered stem between 1996 and

Keith R Berend; Adolph V Lombardi; Thomas H Mallory; Kathie L Dodds; Joanne B Adams

2004-01-01

207

Persistence/Attrition: A Longitudinal Study of the Freshman Class of 1974. Indiana Studies in Higher Education Number Forty-One.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The persistence of the freshman class (5,052 students) of 1974 at Indiana University's Bloomington campus was investigated. The students were classified into three groups according to their enrollment status in the fall of 1976. Two-thirds were persisters who were enrolled for their third academic year. Among the students who were no longer…

Brigman, S. Leellen; Jacobs, Lucy Cheser

208

Year of last Year of last  

E-print Network

FMP Stock Year of last assessment Year of last data used in last stock assessment Source document, but no status determination could be made. - A51 - #12;FMP Stock Year of last assessment Year of last data used for stock assessment Atlantic Sea Scallop Atlantic Sea Scallop 2000 2000 Stock Assessment Workshop (SAW

209

A Clinical Assessment Tool for Advanced Theory of Mind Performance in 5 to 12 Year Olds  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred forty typically developing 5- to 12-year-old children were assessed with a test of advanced theory of mind employing\\u000a Happé’s strange stories. There was no significant difference in performance between boys and girls. The stories discriminated\\u000a performance across the different ages with the lowest performance being in the younger children who nevertheless managed to\\u000a achieve a third of their

Anne E. O’Hare; Lynne Bremner; Marysia Nash; Francesca Happé; Luisa M. Pettigrew

2009-01-01

210

Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

2010-01-01

211

Mixed-sclerosing-bone-dystrophy: 42-year follow-up of a case reported as osteopetrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We present a detailed metabolic investigation and 42-year radiological follow-up of a 52-year-old man with mixed-sclerosing-bone-dystrophy,\\u000a the rare occurrence of two or more distinct patterns of sclerosing-bone-dysplasia (e.g., osteopathia striata, osteopoikilosis,\\u000a melorheostosis) in a single subject. Review of radiographs from 1942, when he was reported to have osteopetrosis, demonstrated\\u000a diffuse osteosclerosis, osteopathia striata, osteopoikilosis, and focal cortical hyperostosis. Forty-two years

Roberto Pacifici; William A. Murphy; Steven L. Teitelbaum; Michael P. Whyte

1986-01-01

212

Cataclysmic Variables from SDSS II. The Second Year  

E-print Network

The first full year of operation following the commissioning year of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has revealed a wide variety of newly discovered cataclysmic variables. We show the SDSS spectra of forty-two cataclysmic variables observed in 2002, of which thirty-five are new classifications, four are known dwarf novae (CT Hya, RZ Leo, T Leo and BZ UMa), one is a known CV identified from a previous quasar survey (Aqr1) and two are known ROSAT or FIRST discovered CVs (RX J09445+0357, FIRST J102347.6+003841). The SDSS positions, colors and spectra of all forty-two systems are presented. In addition, the results of follow-up studies of several of these objects identify the orbital periods, velocity curves and polarization that provide the system geometry and accretion properties. While most of the SDSS discovered systems are faint (>18th mag) with low accretion rates (as implied from their spectral characteristics), there are also a few bright objects which may have escaped previous surveys due to changes in the mass transfer rate.

Paula Szkody; Oliver Fraser; Nicole Silvestri; Arne Henden; Scott F. Anderson; James Frith; Brandon Lawton; Ethan Owens; Sean Raymond; Gary Schmidt; Michael Wolfe; John Bochanski; Kevin Covey; Hugh Harris; Suzanne Hawley; Gillian R. Knapp; Bruce Margon; Wolfgang Voges; Lucianne Walkowicz; J. Brinkmann; D. Q. Lamb

2003-08-16

213

Cataclysmic Variables from SDSS II. The Second Year  

E-print Network

The first full year of operation following the commissioning year of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey has revealed a wide variety of newly discovered cataclysmic variables. We show the SDSS spectra of forty-two cataclysmic variables observed in 2002, of which thirty-five are new classifications, four are known dwarf novae (CT Hya, RZ Leo, T Leo and BZ UMa), one is a known CV identified from a previous quasar survey (Aqr1) and two are known ROSAT or FIRST discovered CVs (RX J09445+0357, FIRST J102347.6+003841). The SDSS positions, colors and spectra of all forty-two systems are presented. In addition, the results of follow-up studies of several of these objects identify the orbital periods, velocity curves and polarization that provide the system geometry and accretion properties. While most of the SDSS discovered systems are faint (>18th mag) with low accretion rates (as implied from their spectral characteristics), there are also a few bright objects which may have escaped previous surveys due to changes in the ...

Szkody, P; Silvestri, N M; Henden, A A; Anderson, S F; Frith, W J; Lawton, B; Owens, E; Raymond, S; Schmidt, G; Wolfe, M; Bochanski, J J; Covey, K; Harris, H; Hawley, S; Knapp, G R; Margon, B; Voges, W; Walkowicz, L; Brinkmann, J; Lamb, D Q; Anderson, Scott F.; Bochanski, John; Covey, Kevin; Fraser, Oliver; Frith, James; Harris, Hugh; Hawley, Suzanne; Henden, Arne; Knapp, Gillian R.; Lawton, Brandon; Margon, Bruce; Owens, Ethan; Raymond, Sean; Schmidt, Gary; Silvestri, Nicole; Szkody, Paula; Voges, Wolfgang; Walkowicz, Lucianne; Wolfe, Michael

2003-01-01

214

The Second Year Progression  

E-print Network

The Second Year Study Progression Year Two Induction Lecture Ulrich Berger Faraday Tower Room 306 Head of Year 28 September 2007 1 / 29 #12;The Second Year Study Progression In the second year you learn . . . . . . the nuts and bolts of computer science 2 / 29 #12;The Second Year Study Progression

Berger, Ulrich

215

The Second Year Progression  

E-print Network

The Second Year Progression Looking forward Year Two Induction Lecture Monika Seisenberger Head Second Year Progression Looking forward In the Second Year You Learn: The Nuts and Bolts of Computer Year Project 2 / 23 #12;The Second Year Progression Looking forward More Programming Imperative

Harman, Neal.A.

216

The Second Year Progression  

E-print Network

The Second Year Progression Looking forward Year Two Induction Lecture Monika Seisenberger Office Second Year Progression Looking forward In the Second Year You Learn: the nuts and bolts of computer year project 2 / 25 #12;The Second Year Progression Looking forward Programming New: Functional

Seisenberger, Monika

217

Surgical pathology of the thymus: 20 years' experience.  

PubMed Central

Fifty five patients underwent thymic surgery at Papworth Hospital from April 1964 to March 1984. The number presenting and the percentage with symptoms annually remained unchanged during this period. Forty four of these 55 patients had tumours. Twenty eight had thymomas (18% of whom had myasthenia gravis and 7% red cell aplasia), nine Hodgkin's disease, four germ cell tumours, and three secondary carcinomatous tumours. Five tumours were cystic. Six further patients had non-tumourous cystic lesions (four simple, one foregut, one lymphangiectatic). The remaining five patients had follicular hyperplasia; all of these had myasthenia gravis. Complete excision was performed in 41 of the 55 patients. So far survival is 100% in those with benign lesions other than benign thymomas, where the survival was 70% at five years. Those with malignant thymomas had a 60% survival rate at five years and those with Hodgkin's disease 29%. PMID:3704966

Large, S R; Shneerson, J M; Stovin, P G; Wallwork, J

1986-01-01

218

Einstein's Miraculous Year  

E-print Network

With each passing year, the young Albert Einstein's achievements in physics in the year 1905 seem to be ever more miraculous. We describe why the centenary of this remarkable year is worthy of celebration.

Natarajan, Vasant; Mukunda, N

2013-01-01

219

Year of the Tiger  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: Xin nian kuai le! That's happy New Year in Chinese. It's a Tiger year. The Chinese zodiac runs on a 12 year cycle and each year is governed by an animal: rat, ox , tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog...

Hacker, Randi

2010-02-03

220

Five Years of SAFENET  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety and health reporting system SAFENET has been in existence for five years. Close call reporting systems enjoy widespread use in high risk organizations throughout the world, and are studied closely in the academic community. SAFENET has now collected Wildland fire safety data for five years, which is published on a yearly basis in the SAFENET year end reports.

John E. Gould

221

Pediatric-Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four  

E-print Network

Pediatric- Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four 1/10 PEM/AI-1 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Metabolic Genetics 10/90 8 General Pediatrics Ambulatory Clinic 0/100 AMBU-2 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric

Finley Jr., Russell L.

222

Sustained suppression of neointimal proliferation by sirolimus-eluting stents: one-year angiographic and intravascular ultrasound follow-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We have previously reported a virtual absence of neointimal hyperplasia 4 months after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether these results are sustained over a period of 1 year. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients with de novo coronary disease were successfully treated with the implantation of a single sirolimus-eluting Bx VELOCITY

J. E. Sousa; Langenhove van G. J. J; A. G. M. R. Sousa; R. Falotico; J. J. Popma; J. Jaeger; M. A. Costa; A. C. Abizaid; B. J. W. M. Rensing; L. F. Tanajura; K. Kozuma; P. W. J. C. Serruys

2001-01-01

223

Sustained Suppression of Neointimal Proliferation by Sirolimus-Eluting Stents One-Year Angiographic and Intravascular Ultrasound Follow-Up  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—We have previously reported a virtual absence of neointimal hyperplasia 4 months after implantation of sirolimus-eluting stents. The aim of the present investigation was to determine whether these results are sustained over a period of 1 year. Methods and Results—Forty-five patients with de novo coronary disease were successfully treated with the implantation of a single sirolimus-eluting Bx VELOCITY stent in

J. Eduardo Sousa; Marco A. Costa; Alexandre C. Abizaid; Benno J. Rensing; Andrea S. Abizaid; Luiz F. Tanajura; Ken Kozuma; Glenn Van Langenhove; Amanda G. M. R. Sousa; Robert Falotico; Judith Jaeger; Jeffrey J. Popma; Patrick W. Serruys

224

Follow-up of Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Stability and Change During the Preschool Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-one children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) receiving eclectic services were assessed twice during their\\u000a preschool years. Measures were compared over time for the whole group and for diagnostic subgroups: Childhood autism (CA group)\\u000a and Other PDDs group. The mean intelligence quotient\\/developmental quotient (IQ\\/DQ) of the whole group was stable (P = 0.209) and scores on the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)

Sigrídur Lóa Jónsdóttir; Evald Saemundsen; Gudlaug Ásmundsdóttir; Sigrún Hjartardóttir; Bryndís B. Ásgeirsdóttir; Hrafnhildur H. Smáradóttir; Solveig Sigurdardóttir; Jakob Smári

2007-01-01

225

The Socio-Cultural and Leadership Experiences of Latina Four-Year College and University Presidents: A Traves de sus Voces (Through Their Voices)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Latina population in the United States is one of the largest of all racial and ethnic groups, and it is expected to grow exponentially within the next forty years. Despite these large numbers of Latinas in the U.S., there is a disparity with this population who are leading our nation's four-year colleges and universities. A reason for…

Maes, Johanna B.

2012-01-01

226

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

227

RAMANUJAN'S FORTY IDENTITIES FOR THE ROGERSRAMANUJAN FUNCTIONS  

E-print Network

. Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's famous fictional detective Sherlock Holmes and his sidekick Dr. Watson go camping and pitch their tent under the stars. During the night, Holmes wakes his companion and says on these planets." Holmes replies, "Watson, you idiot. Somebody stole our tent." When seeking proofs of Ramanujan

Yee, Ae Ja

228

Georgio Forti Photosynthesis Research 60: 99110, 1999.  

E-print Network

; photophosphorylation; photosynthetic electron transport; thylakoids flavopro- tein Abstract The major theme of my work in photosynthesis has been electron transport in green plant thylakoids. In particular, we investigated the properties and the role of the NADP-reducing flavoprotein and its possible function in cyclic electron

Govindjee "Gov"

229

Project Year Project Team  

E-print Network

Project Year 2003 Project Team Faculty: Deborah Mifflin, German Department, Krieger School of Arts of Engineering Project Title Advanced German Audience Students taking both second-year and third-year German, and customize their own studying. Consequently, this team proposes to develop online materials for vocabulary

Gray, Jeffrey J.

230

EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led to admission to Columbia University where he studied metallurgical engineering. After graduation, as was common at that time for able students, he was encouraged to go abroad for his doctoral work. He went to Göttingen, which was then one of the leading European universities in science, and studied under Nernst. Returning to the United States he obtained a post as a teaching assistant at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, but the atmosphere proved too hierarchical and uncongenial for a scientist who was wanting to spread his wings. Fortunately the General Electric Company (GEC) recognized his potential; he was recruited in 1909, and remained associated with the GEC for the next 48 years. He quickly established his credentials as a research scientist and was soon given the freedom to pursue his interests wherever they took him, consistent with the overall strategy of the company. His appointment as an Associate Director at the GEC came in the same year that he introduced the term 'plasma'. Interestingly, while the term gained rapid acceptance in Europe, the associated word 'sheath', which Langmuir had already been using for several years, was translated into French, German and Russian and suffered from confusion. That confusion was there in Langmuir's writings because this ion-rich region sometimes was a region with barely any electrons and sometimes it contained a significant quantity of negative charge. The structure of the plasma-sheath and its elucidation had to await new mathematical techniques and the impact of computers as evidenced by papers in this volume and those quoted therein. It is clear that Langmuir inspired and benefited from collaboration with co-workers at the GEC, notably Kingdon, Taylor, Mott-Smith, Compton, Jones, Found, Tonks and Blodgett. In several ways he was ahead of his time in his understanding of gas discharges, and a particular example is what has since come to be known as the Bohm criterion. More than once in his plasma papers published in the early 1930s Langmuir stated in words what was needed for a sheath to develop

Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

2009-02-01

231

Year 1 Year 2 Anne 3 Anne 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Year 3 Year 4 INGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIENINGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIEN  

E-print Network

: Biology / Chemistry / Computer Science / Economics / Energy / Mechanics and Environmental Sciences / Mathematics and Applied Mathematics / Physics / Science, Technology & Society / Software Systems / Innovation Duration: 2 years - Possibility to be directly admitted to Year 2 Master of ScienceMaster of Science #12

Cengarle, María Victoria

232

Replicability and 40-Year Predictive Power of Childhood ARC Types  

PubMed Central

We examined three questions surrounding the Undercontrolled, Overcontrolled, and Resilient--or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)--personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967, and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found: (1) Bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggested that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types; (2) this cluster structure was fuzzy, rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to three prototype Big Five profiles; and (3) ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious, but neither better nor more consistent predictors than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 68% accuracy by personality information alone, a figure approaching the 12-year accuracy of a leading medical cardiovascular risk model. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality traits for mid-life health. PMID:21744975

Chapman, Benjamin P.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

2011-01-01

233

Celebrating 50 Years!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

Kristjansdottir, Anna

2011-01-01

234

Gap year volunteer tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The valorisation of cross-cultural understanding and promotion of an ethic of global citizenship are at the forefront of the recent development and proliferation of international ‘gap year’ travel programs and policies. Governments and industry alike promote gap year travel uncritically as a guaranteed pathway to the development of inclusive ideologies associated with global citizenship. In this paper we examine how

Stephen Wearing; John Neil

235

Multi-year ice  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

ARCTIC OCEAN - A multi-year ice floe slides down the starboard side of the Coast Guard Cutter Healy Aug. 11, 2009, as the ship heads north into even thicker ice. "You can tell that this is a multi-year ice floe by the light blue melt ponds that have formed on top of the floe," said Pablo Clemente-Co...

2010-02-19

236

Double Spring Year  

E-print Network

--and such an anomaly is practically an astrological guarantee of marital bliss. To fuel the frenzy even further, this double spring year will be followed by the ominous Year of the Widow which pretty much everyone would argue sounds like a bad time to get married...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; vonHolten, Leslie

2006-12-13

237

Final Year Project Report  

SciTech Connect

In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

Hubsch, Tristan [Howard University

2013-06-20

238

Pictures of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the oldest and most prestigious photojournalism competitions, Pictures of the Year was established 58 years ago by a University of Missouri-Columbia photojournalism professor. This year's overall winners will be announced on April 19, but in the meantime, readers can view the winning photos and those that received the Award of Excellence in the three major categories: Newspaper, Magazine, and General. These images were selected from over 32,000 entries, and they run the full gamut of subject matter and emotion. Visitors will find images that are amusing, inspiring, beautiful, and heartbreaking. Highly recommended and well worth a visit.

239

7.RP Comparing Years  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Historically, different people have defined a year in different ways. For example, an Egyptian year is 365 days long, a Julian year is 365$\\frac14$ day...

240

MoonYear Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet displays the phases of the Moon for calendar years 1971-2052 by month. Clicking on the day and phase gives the phase and lumination at local noon. A downloadable version is also available.

Giesen, Juergen

241

Project Year Project Team  

E-print Network

Project Year 2005 Project Team Daniel Ursu, Student, Biomedical Engineering Department, Whiting, optimizations, finite element analysis and CNC manufacturing. However, most students enter these classes School of Engineering; Daniel Stoianovici, Faculty, Department of Urology, School of Medicine Project

Gray, Jeffrey J.

242

Biochemistry Biochemist 6 years  

E-print Network

Biochemistry Biochemist ­ 6 years Objective To train professionals of a high scientific of studies has the following orientations: Vegetal and Ground Biochemistry; Microbiology and Inmunobiology ; Basic Biochemistry, Biotechnology; Clinic Biochemistry; Food Science and Nutrition. Besides, students

Groisman, Pablo

243

Happy (Chinese) New Year!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

Johnson, Georgia G.

1979-01-01

244

Cranial Ultrasound Lesions in the NICU Predict Cerebral Palsy at Age 2 Years in Children Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age  

PubMed Central

Our prospective cohort study of extremely low gestational age newborns evaluated the association of neonatal head ultrasound abnormalities with cerebral palsy at age 2 years. Cranial ultrasounds in 1053 infants were read with respect to intraventricular hemorrhage, ventriculomegaly, and echolucency, by multiple sonologists. Standardized neurological examinations classified cerebral palsy, and functional impairment was assessed. Forty-four percent with ventriculomegaly and 52% with echolucency developed cerebral palsy. Compared with no ultrasound abnormalities, children with echolucency were 24 times more likely to have quadriparesis and 29 times more likely to have hemiparesis. Children with ventriculomegaly were 17 times more likely to have quadriparesis or hemiparesis. Forty-three percent of children with cerebral palsy had normal head ultrasound. Focal white matter damage (echolucency) and diffuse damage (late ventriculomegaly) are associated with a high probability of cerebral palsy, especially quadriparesis. Nearly half the cerebral palsy identified at 2 years is not preceded by a neonatal brain ultrasound abnormality. PMID:19168819

Kuban, Karl C. K.; Allred, Elizabeth N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Paneth, Nigel; Pagano, Marcello; Dammann, Olaf; Leviton, Alan; Du Plessis, Adré; Westra, Sjirk J.; Miller, Cindy R.; Bassan, Haim; Krishnamoorthy, Kalpathy; Junewick, Joseph; Olomu, Nicholas; Romano, Elaine; Seibert, Joanna; Engelke, Steve; Karna, Padmani; Batton, Daniel; O’Connor, Sunila E.; Keller, Cecelia E.

2009-01-01

245

Yearly Arctic Temperature Anomaly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the yearly temperature anomaly over the Arctic region from 1981-82 through 2002-03. Years run from August 1 through July 31. Blue hues indicate cooling regions; red hues depict warming. Light regions indicate less change while darker regions indicate more. The temperature scale used ranges from -7.0 to +7.0 degrees Celsius in increments of .25 degrees. (See color bar below)

Starr, Cindy; Comiso, Josefino

2003-10-23

246

Fiscal Year 2003  

Cancer.gov

The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

247

Reflections on 40 years of Breeding Bird Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

After reviewing the history of monitoring in North America, I discuss the origin of the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS), including the need for such a program and field testing of methodology to determine optimum starting time, length of stop, number of stops per route, and acceptable weather conditions. Before initiating the survey I ran sample routes in Maryland, New Hampshire, South Dakota, Colorado, and Alaska to become familiar with environmental factors affecting roadside counts. I also ran the same route multiple times throughout a season to measure progressive changes in detectability, and did simultaneous double sampling to study observer effects. The BBS was field-tested with 50 routes throughout Maryland and ten in Delaware in 1965, then launched in the states and provinces east of the Mississippi River in 1966, and in the rest of the continent in 1967 and 1968. For quality control, all participants in 1965 were required, in addition to their assigned 50-stop route, to also run a 50-stop route that I had run the same year. In the first few years the results were keypunched into cards, and the cards were sorted various ways to prepare summaries. The electronics age has completely changed input and analysis procedures and ways of displaying results, but the field procedures are still the same as forty years ago. Thoughts on improving the BBS are shared.

Robbins, C.S.

2005-01-01

248

Replicability and 40-year predictive power of childhood ARC types.  

PubMed

We examined 3 questions surrounding the undercontrolled, overcontrolled, and resilient-or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)-personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967 and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggesting that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types. This cluster structure was fuzzy rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to 3 prototype Big Five profiles; ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious but, depending on the outcome, comparable or slightly worse classifiers than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 67% accuracy by childhood personality information alone and stroke incidence with over 70% accuracy. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality for midlife health. PMID:21744975

Chapman, Benjamin P; Goldberg, Lewis R

2011-09-01

249

A 1-year combined weight-bearing training program is beneficial for bone mineral density and neuromuscular function in older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight community living women 66–87 years old volunteered to participate in a 12-month prospective, randomized, controlled, trial. The aim was to determine if a combined weight-bearing training program twice a week would be beneficial to bone mineral density and neuromuscular function. The participants were pairwise age-matched and randomly assigned to either an exercise group (n=24) or a control group (n=24).

Undis Englund; Håkan Littbrand; Anna Sondell; Ulrika Pettersson; Gustaf Bucht

2005-01-01

250

Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents. A 6-22-year follow-up study. Clinical descriptions of the course and continuity of obsessive-compulsive symptomatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-seven individuals (28 male and 19 female) referred for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in childhood were followed-up 15 years later (range 6–22 years) in respect of psychiatric and personality disorders. In early adulthood, the patients could be sub-divided into 4 groups of about equal size. One group had no later OCD, another had OCD on a sub-clinical level, a

Hove per Thomsen

1994-01-01

251

Seasons of the Year  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson demonstrates the link between the tilt of the Earth's axis to the plane of the ecliptic and seasons of the year, length of day, effectiveness of sunlight, and polar day and night. It discusses how the inclination of the Earth's rotation axis causes seasons of the year, by varying the length of the local day and the angle at which the Sun's rays arrive on the surface of the Earth, and to recognize that seasons in the southern hemisphere (at middle latitudes) occur at opposite parts of the year from seasons in the US and Europe. The student will also realize that the seasons in the middle-latitudes in US and Europe are quite different from seasons experienced near the equator and also know about the polar day, when the Sun never sets but just marches around the horizon, and the polar night, when it never rises.

Stern, David

252

Emergent technologies: 25 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

Rising, Hawley K.

2013-03-01

253

Five years of Trials  

PubMed Central

This editorial marks the launch of a special collection of articles highlighting 'Five years of Trials' (http://www.trialsjournal.com/series/5years). The journal's achievements on its objectives since 2006 are described and some of the challenges still ahead are outlined - in particular further innovating in the reporting of trials and the publication of negative results. The other articles in this series are examples of where Trials has demonstrated progress on its objectives. These include the publication of raw data, extended versions of previously published trial-related articles, descriptions of 'lessons learned', negative results, and educational articles regarding ethics and reporting bias. PMID:22112799

2011-01-01

254

Developmental milestones record - 4 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 years; Growth milestones for children - 4 years; Childhood growth milestones - 4 years ... of about 6 grams per day The average 4 year old weighs 40 lbs and is 40 ...

255

Developmental milestones record - 3 years  

MedlinePLUS

Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old may include: Gains about 4 - 5 ...

256

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover,

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-01-01

257

ARITHMETIC PROGRAM FOURTH YEAR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE 4TH YEAR SHOULD CONTINUE THE SEQUENTIAL PRESENTATION MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDINGS AND RELATIONSHIPS. NEW LEARNINGS SHOULD BE PRESENTED CONCRETELY IN SOCIAL SETTINGS WITHIN THE CHILDREN'S FRAMEWORK OF UNDERSTANDING. GRAPHIC MATERIALS MAY BE USED TO BRIDGE THE UNDERSTANDINGS FROM THE CONCRETE TO THE ABSTRACT LEVEL. THE NUMBER SYSTEM UNIT SHOULD…

GARBER, CLAIRE N.

258

Year 6 Booster Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These eight booster units have been designed to provide extra, targeted support for pupils in Year 6. Each unit is based on teaching objectives from the National Literacy Strategy Framework but also focuses on Target Statements for Writing (spelling, sentence construction, language effects, punctuation, purpose and organization, and process). Each…

Department for Education and Employment, London (England).

259

The Lost Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

2008-01-01

260

European Music Year 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

1984-01-01

261

Eleventh Year Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This outline for Eleventh Year Mathematics in New York adheres closely to the recommendations of The Commission of Mathematics of the College Entrance Examination Board and thus presents a unified development of certain aspects of algebra, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. Its aim is both as a terminal course in mathematics and as a solid…

Buchman, Aaron; Zimmerman, Robert

262

Project Year Project Title  

E-print Network

Project Year 2011-2012 Project Title Natural Language Processing Java-Based e-Library Project Team of natural language processing and translation. Solution It is time for a more integrated educational approach. A Java-based e-library will allow students to solve real problems in natural language processing

Gray, Jeffrey J.

263

The Turbulent Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This summary of the Fourth Annual Conference on Major Transitions in the Human Life Cycle contains a preface, introductory section on adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14 through 24 years), and the following presentations, complete with discussion text: (1) "Historical Treatment of the Age Group" (John Demos); (2) "Demographic Considerations"…

Scanlon, John, Ed.

264

ACADEMIC YEAR 1997 POSTGRADUATE  

E-print Network

Nearly 1,500 students attend the Naval Postgraduate School. The student body consists of officers from, EngineeringAcoustics,EngineeringScience,InformationTechnologyManagement,International Resource Planning1 ACADEMIC YEAR 1997 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL CATALOG #12;2 OVERVIEW The School The Naval

265

Smog - the learning years  

SciTech Connect

35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

1989-01-01

266

Recasting the Senior Year  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, their approaches to the problem have largely fallen into one of three types of responses: vertical acceleration; remediation; and structured containment. New Trier…

Drels, Janice; Rehage, Larry

2008-01-01

267

ISME Celebrates 50 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

Teaching Music, 2004

2004-01-01

268

Year 1 Year 2 Anne 3 Anne 4 Year 5 Year 6 Year 7Year 3 Year 4 INGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIENINGENIEUR POLYTECHNICIEN  

E-print Network

Ecole Polytechnique -- TUTU MMüünchennchen Double Degree ProgramDouble Degree Program Three degrees in 6 years to the Stars - Laser, Optics, Plasmas - From Atom to Material - From Materials to Applications Mathematics of the candidate's academic records and his or her results in the examinations. Double Degree ProgramDouble Degree

Cengarle, María Victoria

269

Ensembl's 10th year.  

PubMed

Ensembl (http://www.ensembl.org) integrates genomic information for a comprehensive set of chordate genomes with a particular focus on resources for human, mouse, rat, zebrafish and other high-value sequenced genomes. We provide complete gene annotations for all supported species in addition to specific resources that target genome variation, function and evolution. Ensembl data is accessible in a variety of formats including via our genome browser, API and BioMart. This year marks the tenth anniversary of Ensembl and in that time the project has grown with advances in genome technology. As of release 56 (September 2009), Ensembl supports 51 species including marmoset, pig, zebra finch, lizard, gorilla and wallaby, which were added in the past year. Major additions and improvements to Ensembl since our previous report include the incorporation of the human GRCh37 assembly, enhanced visualisation and data-mining options for the Ensembl regulatory features and continued development of our software infrastructure. PMID:19906699

Flicek, Paul; Aken, Bronwen L; Ballester, Benoit; Beal, Kathryn; Bragin, Eugene; Brent, Simon; Chen, Yuan; Clapham, Peter; Coates, Guy; Fairley, Susan; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Fernandez-Banet, Julio; Gordon, Leo; Gräf, Stefan; Haider, Syed; Hammond, Martin; Howe, Kerstin; Jenkinson, Andrew; Johnson, Nathan; Kähäri, Andreas; Keefe, Damian; Keenan, Stephen; Kinsella, Rhoda; Kokocinski, Felix; Koscielny, Gautier; Kulesha, Eugene; Lawson, Daniel; Longden, Ian; Massingham, Tim; McLaren, William; Megy, Karine; Overduin, Bert; Pritchard, Bethan; Rios, Daniel; Ruffier, Magali; Schuster, Michael; Slater, Guy; Smedley, Damian; Spudich, Giulietta; Tang, Y Amy; Trevanion, Stephen; Vilella, Albert; Vogel, Jan; White, Simon; Wilder, Steven P; Zadissa, Amonida; Birney, Ewan; Cunningham, Fiona; Dunham, Ian; Durbin, Richard; Fernández-Suarez, Xosé M; Herrero, Javier; Hubbard, Tim J P; Parker, Anne; Proctor, Glenn; Smith, James; Searle, Stephen M J

2010-01-01

270

[Ryazan hospital--80 years].  

PubMed

In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area. PMID:22558855

Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F

2012-02-01

271

Ten Years of Chandra  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

Weisskopf, Martin C.

2009-01-01

272

[NVOG celebrates 125 years].  

PubMed

In light of the 125th anniversary of the Dutch Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (NVOG), the Netherlands Journal of Medicine (NTvG) will publish a series of articles over the coming months. The articles will cover various topics from the specialty areas of gynaecology and obstetrics. We hope that these articles will inspire you, so that, in another 25 years, we can report again on positive developments of our specialty for patients, doctors and the community. PMID:22784596

Kenter, Gemma; Wijma, Sjaak

2012-01-01

273

100 Years of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through comparative socio-historical analysis of American school-based drug education, this review critically examines past perspectives and practices and how they shaped current pro grams. Among the key findings emerging from this analysis: Contrary to the popular belief that drug education began in the 1960s, its roots actually go back at least 115 years to the advent of compulsory temperance tnstruction.

Jerome Beck

1998-01-01

274

Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL's cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

1992-08-01

275

Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL`s cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

1992-08-01

276

500 years after Columbus.  

PubMed

The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

Imbach, A

1992-01-01

277

Fifty years of stacking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common-Mid-Point (CMP) stacking is a major process to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in seismic data. Since its appearance fifty years ago, CMP stacking has gone through different phases of prosperity and negligence within the geophysical community. During those times, CMP stacking developed from a simple process of averaging into a sophisticated process that involves complicated mathematics and state-of-the-art computation. This article summarizes the basic principles, assumptions, and violations related to the CMP stacking technique, presents a historical overview on the development stages of CMP stacking, and discusses its future potentiality.

Rashed, Mohamed

2014-06-01

278

100 Years of Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Industrial Designers Society of America, this interesting site highlights some of the most influential people and groundbreaking products in this field. Titled 100 Years of Design, the site has content that spans the 20th century and "is a monthly installment of excerpts from a proposed book" along the same lines. Fifteen famous designers are profiled, along with over 50 products. One of the people mentioned is Harley Earl, the subject of a recent line of television commercials. Many of the products are related to the automobile, but other examples include the Polaroid camera and the Wurlitzer jukebox.

Gantz, Carroll.

2002-01-01

279

20 Years of AIDS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC), May 31 marked the 20-year anniversary of the first discovery of AIDS. Perhaps not surprisingly, the Web has seen a corresponding flurry of activity devoted to the history and current status of research on the disease. The CDC has posted this site, which collects research findings from the Centers' Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, videos covering the epidemic's history and current status, and CDC bulletins and commentary. For further sites devoted to AIDS/HIV see the June 6, 2001 Scout Report for Science & Engineering).

2001-01-01

280

Neuroticism and Extraversion in Youth Predict Mental Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction 40 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later. PMID:24563560

Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mõttus, René; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J

2014-01-01

281

International Year of Biodiversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations has declared the year 2010 as the year of biodiversity, and none too soon. The definition and importance of biodiversity is explained on the "About" page, but in brief, it's a "rich diversity [in nature which] is being lost at a greatly accelerated rate because of human activities. This...weakens the ability of the living systems, on which we depend, to resist growing threats such as climate change." The list of "Major Upcoming Celebrations" is on the middle of the homepage below the written and video "Welcome Messages" from various representatives of national governments and large non-profits. Some of the celebrations include an International Art Exhibition by young people. Visitors can click on "More Celebrations" to be taken to an interactive map of celebrations "By Countries", "Calendar" or "Success Stories". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Red List", which can be found on the homepage or in the "About" section. The "Red List of Threatened Species" highlights one species of plant or animal each day, with a photo and a couple of paragraphs on its location, vulnerability, origins, etc. The current month is shown, but visitors can view the species of the days for the "Previous Months" of 2010 as well.

UN. General Assembly (61st sess. : 2006-2007)

282

International Heliophysical Year  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, will be conducted in 2007. This will be a major international event of great interest to the member States. The M Y will involve the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. The IHY 2007 will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957. The IGY was organized to study global phenomena of the Earth and Geospace involving about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, around the world to obtain simultaneous, global observations from the ground and space. Building on results obtained during IGY 1957, the IHY will expand to the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments. The study of energetic events in the solar system will pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

Davila, Joseph, M.

2005-01-01

283

Developmental milestones record - 2 years  

MedlinePLUS

Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... both the content and quantity of television viewing. Limit screen time to less than 3 hours per ...

284

Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Throughout her second year, ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

285

Pneumothorax developing for the first time in a 73-year-old woman diagnosed with Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome.  

PubMed

Spontaneous pneumothorax in the elderly commonly occurs due to underlying pulmonary diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial lung disease, lung cancer, etc. A 73-year-old woman developed pneumothorax for the first time that was a clinical clue to a diagnosis of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS), an autosomal dominant condition characterized by fibrofolliculomas of the skin, renal tumors and multiple lung cysts predisposing to pneumothorax. Although BHDS patients frequently develop pneumothorax during their twenties to forties, the present case indicates that BHDS should be considered as an underlying cause of pneumothorax in the elderly with undisclosed BHDS. PMID:24190151

Kunogi Okura, Makiko; Yae, Toshifumi; Nagashima, Osamu; Hirai, Shu; Kumasaka, Toshio; Iwase, Akihiko

2013-01-01

286

All Year Long  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, each student will keep a science journal during each of the four seasons. Students will record observations of the general outdoor environment they visit and then will make observations of one specific item from the habitat in each season. At the end of the school year, students will compare their seasonal drawings and share their results with the class. This is the 1st of 3 sets of learning activities that are part of a unit on seasons that are companion activities to the Elementary GLOBE children's book, "Mystery of the Missing Hummingbirds." Includes a teacher implementation guide. GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

287

The 34 Year Starship  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1974, the designers and leadership of a mission then known as ``Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977'' decided that the name was a mouthful. They briefly deliberated and decided to rename it ``Voyager'' [1]. Similarly, we believe that ``DARPA 100 Year Starship'' is unnecessarily verbose. We propose to call it ``Enterprise.'' Among the many challenges facing such a mission is that of earning public support - we should let half a century of Hollywood storytelling do that for us. This paper is composed of four parts. Part 1 will discuss the parallels between the Voyager program and a future Enterprise program. Part 2 will go into greater detail regarding the Voyager program and the challenges and opportunities that defined it. Part 3 will discuss some of the major technical challenges for Voyager and Enterprise in greater detail. Part 4 will discuss next steps and various strategies to meet DARPA's challenge of sustainable industry-funded research into interstellar flight.

Nosanov, J.; Shapiro, A.; Garrett, H.

2012-09-01

288

Class I and II posterior composite resin restorations after 5 and 10 years.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare and evaluate Class I- and Class II-restorations performed in two different composite posterior materials after 5 and 10 years. Both materials were introduced in 1983 and adapted to stress-bearing restorations. The only difference between the two materials was that one contained barium-aluminium silicate, which made the material radiopaque. All 137 restorations were performed according to standardized clinical procedures by two experienced clinicians and placed in premolars (59) or molars (78). Forty-five of the restorations were Class I and 92 Class II. The restorations were followed for the first 5 years according to the U. S. Public Health Service (USPHS) evaluation criteria. After 10 years an evaluation based on the documentation sent in by the patient's present dentist was made. Of the original 137 restorations, 127 could be examined after 5 years and 117 after 10 years. The evaluation showed that after 5 years, 114 of the examined restorations were in clinical function and after 10 years 92, which means 90 and 79 per cent respectively, of the restorations evaluated. PMID:10901600

Lundin, S A; Koch, G

1999-01-01

289

A 3-year cohort study of the natural history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Only a few prospective studies have determined which clinical symptoms and factors are associated with the disease severity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A multicenter longitudinal cohort study was conducted to clarify both the natural history of SCA6 in Japan and the factors influencing disease progression. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited between 2007 and 2008. Scores from the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and Barthel Index (BI) were collected prospectively each year. Additionally, data from the Japan intractable diseases research (IDR) registry were collected both retrospectively, from 2003 to 2006, and prospectively, from 2007 to 2010. As a result, we were able to collect 3 years of retrospective data and 4 years of prospective data during the course of 3 yearly visits. Results Forty-six patients were registered. The follow-up rate of the third year was 93%. The SARA scores worsened significantly each year. Over 3 years, the decline of the SARA scores was 1.33?±?1.40 points/year. The results of multivariate analysis of the decline of the SARA score were not significant. The IDR scores correlated well with the SARA and BI scores. Kaplan-Meier curves of 7 years of data from the IDR registry illustrated the correlation between the ability to walk and the time course of the disease. Conclusions Information regarding the progression of ataxia and the decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with SCA6 was obtained by a 3-year cohort study and a 7-year IDR study. The decline of the SARA score of patients with SCA6 was 1.33?±?1.40 points/year. The results elucidate the natural history of SCA6, factors influencing disease severity, and utility of data from the IDR registry of Japan. PMID:25053188

2014-01-01

290

Aminoglycosides--50 years on.  

PubMed Central

1. The aminoglycoside antibiotics are 50 years old. Their success and continuing use can be attributed to various factors including rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal effect, synergism with beta-lactam antibiotics, clinical effectiveness, a low rate of true resistance and low cost. 2. The aminoglycosides remain drugs of choice in many circumstances including septicaemia, other serious infections due to Gram negative bacilli, and bacterial endocarditis. 3. Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity have been the main drawbacks clinically for the aminoglycosides. 4. There has been an evolution in dosing strategies largely aimed at reducing toxicity. Therapeutic drug monitoring has been used extensively to assist dosing, and target concentrations have been advocated, such as peak concentrations of between 6 and 10 mg l-1 and through concentrations of < 2 mg l-1 for gentamicin, tobramycin and netilmicin. 5. Recently there has been a minor revolution in the approach to aminoglycoside dosing, with a change to larger doses, given less frequently. In its most convenient form this is 'Once-daily aminoglycoside dosing'. It offers the hope of better efficacy, less toxicity, and easier administration and monitoring. 6. This article summarises the background of aminoglycoside usage, leading up to the recent changes in dosing strategy. PMID:7654476

Begg, E J; Barclay, M L

1995-01-01

291

Four years of HELAS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European Coordination Action on HELio- and ASteroseismology (HELAS) has completed its fourth and final year of initial funding by the European Commission. Set up as a network which combines solar and stellar physics communities in the important and vigorously evolving field of seismology, HELAS has been able to coordinate the efforts of European astronomers with remarkable success. Four large international conferences including the HELAS-IV conference on Lanzarote as well as many workshops were organized with a substantial contribution from HELAS. About a dozen workshops, addressing specialized questions in global and local helioseismology and asteroseismology were entirely organized by HELAS. Data analysis tools to prepare the European communities for the upcoming influx of data from new missions have been prepared, tested and demonstrated. Lecture notes and outreach material have been assembled and prepared for general access. As a result, HELAS has an important impact on the scientific output of the astrophysics seismology communities and significantly increased the visibility of European research in this field. This paper summarizes the activities and accomplishments of HELAS.

Roth, M.; Lühe, O. v. d.; Aerts, C.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Corbard, T.; Daszy?ska-Daszkiewicz, J.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Gizon, L.; Jiménez-Reyes, S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.; Pallé, P. L.; Thompson, M. J.

2010-12-01

292

A 9,000-year record of Chagas' disease  

PubMed Central

Tissue specimens from 283 principally spontaneously (naturally) desiccated human mummies from coastal and low valley sites in northern Chile and southern Peru were tested with a DNA probe directed at a kinetoplast DNA segment of Trypanosoma cruzi. The time interval spanned by the eleven major cultural groups represented in the sample ranged from ?9,000 years B.P. (7050 B.C.) to approximately the time of the Spanish conquest, ?450 B.P. (?1500 A.D.). Forty-one percent of the tissue extracts, amplified by the PCR reacted positively (i.e., hybridized) with the probe. Prevalence patterns demonstrated no statistically significant differences among the individual cultural groups, nor among subgroups compared on the basis of age, sex, or weight of specimen tested. These results suggest that the sylvatic (animal-infected) cycle of Chagas' disease was probably well established at the time that the earliest humans (members of the Chinchorro culture) first peopled this segment of the Andean coast and inadvertently joined the many other mammal species acting as hosts for this parasite. PMID:14766963

Aufderheide, Arthur C.; Salo, Wilmar; Madden, Michael; Streitz, John; Buikstra, Jane; Guhl, Felipe; Arriaza, Bernardo; Renier, Colleen; Wittmers, Lorentz E.; Fornaciari, Gino; Allison, Marvin

2004-01-01

293

Serum prostate-specific antigen and prostate volume predict long-term changes in symptoms and flow rate: results of a four-year, randomized trial comparing finasteride versus placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine whether baseline prostate-specific antigen (PSA), in addition to prostate volume, is associated with long-term changes in symptoms and urinary flow rate.Methods. Three thousand forty men with benign prostatic hyperplasia enrolled in the PLESS trial were randomly assigned to finasteride 5 mg or placebo for 4 years. Symptoms and flow rate were assessed every 4 months, and data

Claus G. Roehrborn; Peter Boyle; Donald Bergner; Todd Gray; Marc Gittelman; Thomas Shown; Arnold Melman; R. Bruce Bracken; Ralph deVere White; Alice Taylor; Daniel Wang; Joanne Waldstreicher

1999-01-01

294

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2014-01-01

295

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2010-01-01

296

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2013-01-01

297

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2011-01-01

298

7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

2012-01-01

299

20 Years of RECONS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets, including an astrometric search of several hundred of the nearest red dwarfs for planetary systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402 and AST-1109445, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

2014-01-01

300

Water-surface profile and flood boundaries for the computed 100-year flood, Muddy Creek, Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydrologic and hydraulic evaluations of Muddy Creek were made to determine the magnitude of the 100-year flood and the extent of flooding that would occur as the result of this flood. Forty-three cross sections were surveyed and 14 cross sections were synthesized along a 6.7-mile reach of Muddy Creek. Data from the surveys were used to calculate the water-surface flood elevation at each cross section using a computer program (WSPRO) developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The water-surface profile of the computed 100-year flood elevations was then drawn. The profile shows the streambed elevation and the location of one bridge, one culvert, and cross sections. The computed 100-year flood elevation at each cross section was used to delineate the width of the flood plain at that section. Flood boundaries between cross sections were interpolated using contour lines on topographic maps.

Omang, R.J.

1994-01-01

301

2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS!  

E-print Network

2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS! Daniel McCarthy and Joseph Schaefer NOAA/NWS Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK 1. INTRODUCTION 2004 will be known as the biggest tornado year since recordkeeping began in 1950. The sheer numbers of tornadoes were unprecedented: 1,819. This number eclipsed

302

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1982-2012 Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1982-2012 Fiscal Year Year-end market value (in 000's) Return (1) Spending Rate (2) Endowment Income as % of University Operating Revenue 1982 1,617,290 0.0% 5 Market Value of Endowment Funds as of June 30, 2012 Endowment Market Value Market Value % of Total Arts

303

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1981-2011 Fiscal Year  

E-print Network

Endowment Performance, Fiscal Years 1981-2011 Fiscal Year Year-end market value (in 000's) Return (1) Spending Rate (2) Endowment Income as % of University Operating Revenue 1981 1,622,734 11.2% 5 REPORTS Market Value of Endowment Funds as of June 30, 2011 Endowment Market Value Market Value % of Total

304

A Different New Year: Chinese New Year, Teacher's Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides: (1) background information on the traditional celebration of the Chinese New Year and on the Chinese New Year Festival as celebrated in the United States; (2) a three day lesson plan which focuses, respectively, on the Chinese New Year Festival in San Francisco, a field trip to San Francisco's Chinatown, and the Chinese…

Huang, Joe

305

50 Year Mark Guidelines Primary 50 Year Mark  

E-print Network

Primary and Secondary master brand logo. For all materials (digital and print) where the UCI 50 Year Mark will appear with the UCI Primary and Secondary master brand logo. Note: The Secondary UCI 50 Year Mark should not be placed next to the UCI Primary and Secondary master brand logo's. Secondary 50 Year Mark For all

Rose, Michael R.

306

A Modified School Year: Perspectives from the Early Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A balanced or modified school year is a rearrangement of the traditional school calendar to provide more continuous learning throughout the school year. Students receive the same amount of instructional time as those on the traditional calendar but in-school time is more evenly balanced with out-of-school time throughout the year. It has been the…

Winter, Eileen C.

2005-01-01

307

YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

Christopher J. Zygarlicke

2004-11-01

308

Language Development: 1 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Language Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Early in ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

309

Language Development: 2 Year Olds  

MedlinePLUS

... Language Development: 2 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two- ... Pay attention to how he also is using language to describe ideas and information and to express ...

310

10 Years of Great Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights selected issues on early childhood education which have been discussed in CHILD CARE INFORMATION EXCHANGE articles over the past ten years. Provides an alphabetized, index of these articles, topically arranged, which indicates month and year of publication. (RWB)

Child Care Information Exchange, 1988

1988-01-01

311

Forty Years after Brown: The Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education. Proceedings of the National Conference on Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education (9th, Oswego, NY, April 9-11, 1995).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The proceedings identify, clarify, and address the problems of the post-Brown era from a variety of perspectives. The first two papers are: The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Banquet Keynote Speech (L. J. Bennett) and the Luncheon Session, "Integrating the Recruitment Preparation and Retention Strategies of Persons of Color in Teaching" (J. Vaughn).…

Middleton, E., Ed.; And Others

312

CELEBRATING 50 YEARS OF THE  

E-print Network

CELEBRATING 50 YEARS OF THE Centre of African Studies 1962-2012 #12;Contents 2 Director's welcome 4 CAS@50 conference 8 Centre of African Studies: The early years 10 Africa and Edinburgh: Africanus. The unprecedented expansion of recent years has been built on rising student numbers ­ currently some 50 students

Hall, Christopher

313

The Year 1999 in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

Speights, Dave

2001-01-01

314

Year in Review Annual Report  

E-print Network

Year in Review 2005-06 Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies University Center This has been an extraordinary year for the Center for Latin American Studies. It has been a year- ments, and contributions of the faculty and students associated with the Center for Latin American

Machery, Edouard

315

Geology -Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4  

E-print Network

Geology - Earth and Space Science Education Model Schedule Effective Fall 2007 YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 32160 or BL2170, and CH 1120 are not required for the Earth and Space Science teaching major as described by the Department of Education. The B.S. in Geology with the Earth and Space Science Education

316

Fiscal Year 2014 Application Guide  

E-print Network

of school education have engaged #12;2 in more than 2 years of research at universities or equivalent1 Fiscal Year 2014 Application Guide Education of Global Medical and Health Science Leaders of Admission is April 1, 2014. The period of study is, in principle, for four years with the expected

Banbara, Mutsunori

317

Fiscal Year 2013 Application Guide  

E-print Network

of school education have engaged #12;2 in more than 2 years of research at universities or equivalent1 Fiscal Year 2013 Application Guide Education of Global Medical and Health Science Leaders of Admission is October 1, 2013. The period of study is, in principle, for four years with the expected

Banbara, Mutsunori

318

Fiscal Year 2013 Application Guide  

E-print Network

is October 1, 2013. The period of study is, in principle, for four years with the expected graduation date have completed, or are scheduled to complete by the time of admission, 18 years of school education in veterinary medicine). (ii) Those who, after completing at least 16 years of school education have engaged

Banbara, Mutsunori

319

Laser-micromachined, chip-scaled ceramic carriers for implantable neurostimulators.  

PubMed

Hermetic encapsulation of long-term implantable devices using ceramics has been investigated over several decades. Our studies focus on the miniaturization of ceramic encapsulations for large numbers of stimulation channels. Laser-patterning of screen printed platinum (Pt) paste on cofired ceramics has been shown to enable the construction of features comparable in size to classical screen printing. A novel technique for embedding Pt structures into the surface of Al(2)O(3) substrates is shown to produce features with a line width minimum of 20 ?m and a pitch of 40 ?m. Polishing the ceramic substrates enables flip-chip bonding of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) using gold stud bumps. A new technique for fine tuning of an ASIC stimulator with stud bump bridges is described. The technique eliminates the need for wire bond loops and increases reliability and integration density of the system, which are major requirements used to construct a visual prosthesis or other implantable devices requiring miniaturization. The methods for laser-patterned Pt tracks in alumina for fine pitch structures are described. Feasibility studies for flip-chip bonding and stud bump bridges were undertaken and the results were found to be promising. PMID:22254502

Guenther, Thomas; Mintri, Apoorv; Lim, William W; Jung, Louis H; Lehmann, Torsten; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

2011-01-01

320

Clinical utility of implantable neurostimulation devices in the treatment of chronic migraine  

PubMed Central

Chronic migraine is a disabling disorder that is costly to individuals and society. Occipital nerve stimulation has been used to treat refractory cases of primary headache disorders including drug-resistant chronic cluster headaches and chronic migraine. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) off-labeled application of equipment used for peripheral nerve (occipital) stimulation is borrowed from FDA-labeled spinal cord stimulation. Manufacturer-sponsored randomized trials include a feasibility study (ONSTIM-Medtronic) and a safety and efficacy study (St Jude). A non-industry sponsored prospective, randomized crossover study by Serra and Marchiotretto suggests improved quality of life and a significant reduction in medication use. Though preliminary studies suggest occipital nerve stimulation is safe and efficacious in treating chronic migraine headache, complication rates, including lead migration, lead fracture, and surgical site infections remain high. Further studies are needed to demonstrate long-term outcomes, while improved surgical techniques and site-specific equipment are needed to minimize complications. PMID:24348076

Freeman, John A; Trentman, Terrance L

2013-01-01

321

Practical considerations for the use of a Howland current source for neuro-stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyze the Howland current source circuit topology in detail with regards to non-ideal circuit component properties. This circuit is one of the few which can be built with a small number of discrete components, offers very good performance due to the use of an operational amplifier, and supplies true symmetric bi-directional currents, and is hence well suited for use

Philippe Pouliquen; Jacob Vogelstein; Ralph Etienne-Cummings

2008-01-01

322

A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation  

PubMed Central

The exponential growth in publications represents a major challenge for researchers. Many scientific domains, including neuroscience, are not yet fully engaged in exploiting large bodies of publications. In this paper, we promote the idea to partially automate the processing of scientific documents, specifically using text mining (TM), to efficiently review big corpora of publications. The “cognitive advantage” given by TM is mainly related to the automatic extraction of relevant trends from corpora of literature, otherwise impossible to analyze in short periods of time. Specifically, the benefits of TM are increased speed, quality and reproducibility of text processing, boosted by rapid updates of the results. First, we selected a set of TM-tools that allow user-friendly approaches of the scientific literature, and which could serve as a guide for researchers willing to incorporate TM in their work. Second, we used these TM-tools to obtain basic insights into the relevant literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) and cognitive enhancement (CE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TM readily extracted the diversity of TMS applications in CR and CE from vast corpora of publications, automatically retrieving trends already described in published reviews. TMS emerged as one of the important non-invasive tools that can both improve cognitive and motor functions in numerous neurological diseases and induce modulations/enhancements of many fundamental brain functions. TM also revealed trends in big corpora of publications by extracting occurrence frequency and relationships of particular subtopics. Moreover, we showed that CR and CE share research topics, both aiming to increase the brain's capacity to process information, thus supporting their integration in a larger perspective. Methodologically, despite limitations of a simple user-friendly approach, TM served well the reviewing process. PMID:25309356

Balan, Puiu F.; Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

2014-01-01

323

Breast biopsy in women 30 years old or less.  

PubMed

Forty women 30 years of age or less underwent breast biopsy at Roswell Park Cancer Institute between January 1980 and January 1989. Thirty-eight of the 40 women had a palpable breast mass. Thirty-one of these young women had self-detected breast masses, and the median duration before presentation was 6 months. Physical characteristics were described in 30 of the masses. Twenty-three were described as "fibroadenomas" or smooth, firm, and mobile. Seven masses were described as irregular. The median size of the breast mass was 1.5 cm (range: 0.5 to 9.0 cm). Mammography was performed in 20 patients, but results were reported as abnormal in only 6. Twenty of the masses were described histologically as fibroadenoma. Twelve were described histologically as "fibrocystic disease" or "stromal fibrosis." One case (2.5%) was invasive adenocarcinoma. Probability of serious underlying breast pathology in young women is low but not nil. Noninvasive and minimally invasive techniques are proposed by some authors as cost-efficient methods that may substitute for open biopsy in these patients. Unfortunately, false-negative results persist and are particularly unacceptable in these young women. During the same time period as our study, 54 women aged 30 years or less were referred to Roswell Park Cancer Institute with a previously diagnosed invasive breast cancer. The incidence of breast cancer in this biopsy series was 2.5%. The potential costs of misdiagnosed early breast cancer in young women negate any rationalization for less invasive biopsy techniques. Following aspiration to rule out a benign cyst, and a possible period of brief observation for spontaneous resolution (2 or 3 months), excisional biopsy is recommended for young women with a breast mass. PMID:8506971

Palmer, M L; Tsangaris, T N

1993-06-01

324

An exploratory study of first year nursing students' learning in the clinical workplace.  

PubMed

This study explored how first year undergraduate nursing students learn in clinical placements as part of a program informed by Wenger's (1998) social theory of learning. Forty-nine written student narrative accounts of a learning experience were analysed and three triggers for learning were identified. The first trigger is that participation (or observation) of a task or procedure leads students into a complex, dramatic reading of nursing work. The second is that when students are personally (emotionally) confronted by the work, it presents a high challenge situation, recognized by students as a significant learning opportunity. The third trigger is encounters with different nurses assist students to construct an image of what they want to be as a nurse. These three triggers appear to align with Wenger's Communities of Practice constructs for identity, engagement, imagination, and alignment, and provides preliminary evidence supportive of the social theory of learning for nursing students on clinical placement. PMID:19715498

Grealish, Laurie; Ranse, Kristen

2009-08-01

325

Uterine sarcoma: a report of 57 cases over a 16-year period analysis.  

PubMed

Uterine sarcomas comprese approximately 4-9% of all uterine malignant tumors with a poor prognosis. We report 57 cases of sarcoma originating in the uterus treated from 1990 to 2006 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Democritus University of Thrace, Greece and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Aschaffenburg Hospital, Germany. The median age of occurrence was 49 years with the commonest symptom being abnormal uterine bleeding. Forty-nine patients underwent a total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy whereas 17 cases underwent radical lymphadenectomy. During the last followup (December 2006), six patients were alive and well with no evidence of disease, 23 patients had died of undercurrent disease, and 28 were alive with recurrence of disease. These rare cancers can be aggressive, and account for a greatly disproportionate number of deaths from uterine cancers. Treatment for this rare disease should be performed according to international protocols in order to have the most updated information. PMID:18459545

Tsikouras, P; Liberis, V; Galazios, G; Savidis, A; Grapsa, A; Grapsas, X; Teichmann, A T; Maroulis, G

2008-01-01

326

Renal tolerance to cisplatin in patients 70 years and older.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate cisplatin nephrotoxicity in patients 70 years and older and to identify factors influencing nephrotoxicity occurrence. Forty-nine (N = 49) patients older than 70 years were studied retrospectively. All patients received treatment with cisplatin. Variables under study were as follows: prechemotherapy serum creatinine levels (Crb), maximum serum creatinine level during treatment (Crmax), steady serum creatinine level 3 months after treatment completion (Crstb), as well as their corresponding creatinine clearance values (CrbC, CrmaxC, CrstbC) as calculated by the Cockroft and Gault formula. Maximum creatinine increment (Imax = Crmax - Crb), stable creatinine increment (Istb = Crstb - Crb) and the corresponding clearance decrements (Dmax and Dstb) were calculated as well. The potential relationship of the above variables to cisplatin dose intensity and accumulated dose as well as to different prognostic factors were also considered. Assessment of associated conditions was carried out by means of Charlson comorbidity index. The patients' mean age was 73 years (range: 70-79 years). There were 43 men (88%) and 6 women (12%). Mean cisplatin dose intensity was 27 mg/m2/wk. A total of 157 chemotherapy courses were administered with a mean of 3.2 per patient. Mean Crb was 1.02 mg/dl (95% CI = 1.02-1.12), mean Crmax was 1.45 (95% CI = 1.34-1.46), and mean Crstb was 1.24 (95% CI = 1.16-1.32). Imax was equal to 0 in 13 patients (26%) and more than 0.4 mg/dl in 21 patients (43%). Istb was equal to 0 or negative in 22 (45%) and more than 0.4 in only 9 patients (18.3%). No significant relationship of serum creatinine levels, creatinine clearance levels, or of their increments or decrements to cisplatin dose intensity or accumulated dose were found. These levels also did not correlate with age, sex, comorbidity or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score. In 85% of patients, Crmax was reached between chemotherapy initiation and the third chemotherapy course, and thereafter renal function began to recover despite continued administration of cisplatin. Cisplatin is well tolerated by patients 70 years and older and dose intensity does not seem to influence renal function deterioration. Therefore, we failed to find reasons to encourage modification or limitation of cisplatin treatment in the elderly population. PMID:11319297

Cubillo, A; Cornide, M; López, J L; Molina, R; Feliu, J; Espinosa, E; Zamora, P; de Castro, J; Ordoñez, A; González Barón, M

2001-04-01

327

FISCAL YEAR 2011 BUDGET FISCAL YEAR 2010 REVISIONS  

E-print Network

........................................................................ 11 D. ORGANIZATION FUNCTIONS................................................ 14 DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATION CHART (FIGURE 3).............................. 15 E. POWER DIVISION).......................................60 APPENDIX A. FISCAL YEAR 2010 REVISIONS ........................61 APPENDIX B. INFORMATION SYSTEMS

328

FISCAL YEAR 2009 BUDGET FISCAL YEAR 2008 REVISIONS  

E-print Network

........................................................................ 11 D. ORGANIZATION FUNCTIONS................................................ 14 DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATION CHART (FIGURE 3).............................. 15 E. POWER DIVISION).......................................57 APPENDIX A. FISCAL YEAR 2008 REVISIONS ........................58 APPENDIX B. INFORMATION SYSTEMS

329

FISCAL YEAR 2010 BUDGET FISCAL YEAR 2009 REVISIONS  

E-print Network

........................................................................ 11 D. ORGANIZATION FUNCTIONS................................................ 14 DIVISIONAL ORGANIZATION CHART (FIGURE 3).............................. 15 E. POWER DIVISION).......................................58 APPENDIX A. FISCAL YEAR 2009 REVISIONS ........................59 APPENDIX B. INFORMATION SYSTEMS

330

Comparison of the effects block and traditional schedules have on the number of students who are proficient on the Biology End-of-Course Test in forty public high schools in the state of North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the difference between the number of overall students, African-American students, and students with disabilities on a semester 4 x 4 block schedule who were proficient on the North Carolina Biology End-of-Course Test and the number of the same group of students on a traditional 45-50 minute yearlong schedule who were proficient on the NC Biology End-of-Course Test in the state of North Carolina during the 2009--2010 school year. A causal-comparative design was used and three null hypotheses were tested using chi-square analysis. Archival data was used. The results showed that there was a significant association between the number of the overall students and African-American students who were proficient on the NC Biology EOC Test when taught biology on a 4 x 4 semester block versus a traditional schedule. However, no statistically significant relationship existed between the number of students with disabilities who were educated on 4 x 4 semester block schedule and those students with disabilities who were educated on a six or seven period traditional schedule in biology. Suggestions for further research are included.

Bonner, Tonia Anita

331

Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

US Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

332

Compost 101Turn this year's trash into next year's treasure  

E-print Network

Compost 101Turn this year's trash into next year's treasure Filling and Maintaining Compost Georgia://ceps.georgiasouthern.edu/garden This brochure is funded in part by a grant from a Museums for America Grant. Types of Composting Bins To fill your compost bin, alternate brown and green materials. Keep in mind that the ideal ratio is three

Hutcheon, James M.

333

Microprocessors --10 Years Back, 10 Years Gurindar S. Sohi  

E-print Network

Microprocessors -- 10 Years Back, 10 Years Ahead Gurindar S. Sohi Computer Sciences Department computer architects with an increasing number of faster transistors with which to build microprocessors. In the past decade, architects have seized these opportunities to build microprocessors that bear lit- tle

Sohi, Guri S.

334

2008 Year in Review 1 2008 Year in Review  

E-print Network

.sutherland@canterbury.ac.nz Augmentative and alternative communication Gina Tillard MSLT: gina.tillard@canterbury.ac.nz Clinical methods2008 Year in Review 1 2008 Year in Review The Science of Communication Disorders Departmental: christine.wyles@canterbury.ac.nz Aphasia and dementia related communication and nutrition disorders

Hickman, Mark

335

Environmental Studies: 4-Year Colleges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) has provided this document on four year colleges offering environmental studies curriculum. The chart shows how a two-year energy systems degree student can transfer to complete a four-year environmental studies degree. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

336

Clinical and imaging predictors of 1-year and long-term mortality in light chain (AL) amyloidosis: a 5-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

Light chain amyloidosis (AL) involves multiorgan failure induced by amyloidogenic light chain proteins, and is associated with high mortality. We aimed to identify clinical, laboratory, and imaging parameters that would predict 1-year and long-term AL mortality. Forty-four biopsy-proven AL patients (61.5 ± 12 years, 20 females) underwent clinical evaluation including laboratory assays, echocardiography, and contrast cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR, n = 31) prior to chemotherapy. Patients were prospectively followed for median duration of 62.7 months (interquartile range 35.5 months). Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between 1-year survivors and nonsurvivors. Univariate Kaplan-Meier survival plots were calculated followed by stepwise logistic regression analysis to assess independent predictors of long-term survival. Eighteen (40.9 %) patients died within 1 year and an additional 10 subjects died during long-term follow-up. Patients who expired within 1 year presented with more advanced class of heart failure, higher alkaline phosphatase and uric acid, lower limb lead voltage on electrocardiography, shorter left ventricular ejection time (ET) on echocardiography, and a higher proportion of late gadolinium enhancement on CMR. On multivariable analysis, only ET ?240 ms on echocardiography (hazard ratio (HR) 5.07, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.83-14.1, P = 0.002) and New York Heart Association functional class II-IV presentation (HR 1.0058, 95 % CI 1.0014-1.0103, P = 0.01) were independent predictors of AL mortality. In conclusion, AL amyloidosis is associated with high 1-year and long-term mortality. Among clinical, laboratory, and imaging parameters tested, an echocardiographic finding of ET ?240 ms has independent and additive prognostic value to clinical heart failure evaluation in determining long-term survival of AL patients. This result may be important in the early identification of patients at risk. PMID:24141988

Migrino, Raymond Q; Harmann, Leanne; Christenson, Richard; Hari, Parameswaran

2014-11-01

337

Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design  

PubMed Central

We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

2014-01-01

338

Year-Round School Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the use of a model to compare the costs of two alternatives: initiation of a K-5, 45-15 year-round school, or the construction of an elementary school building in the Annville-Cleona, Pennsylvania, school district. The results of the analysis indicated that the initiation of a 45-15 year round plan would save the district…

Geisinger, Robert W.; Coleman, Alvin F.

339

Outlook: The Next Twenty Years  

SciTech Connect

I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

Murayama, Hitoshi

2003-12-07

340

When Is Chinese New Year?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese New Year is the main holiday for more than one quarter of the world's population; very few people, however, know how to compute the date. People who are knowledgeable about science often feel that the Chinese calendar is back-wards, while people who care about Chinese culture usually lack the scientific knowledge to understand how it works. For many years,

Helmer Aslaksen

341

Nutritional risk and 5-year mortality of older community-dwelling Canadian men: the Manitoba Follow-Up Study.  

PubMed

This study examines nutritional risk and 5-year mortality rates of community-dwelling older Canadian men participating in the Manitoba Follow-Up Study. The surviving cohort (n = 690; mean age = 86.8 years) was mailed a self-administered Nutrition Survey consisting of SCREEN II, a validated nutrition risk screening tool and health-related questions. Five hundred fifty-three completed surveys (80% completion rate) were returned, with 522 (94%) containing complete responses necessary to score nutritional risk, comprising the participants for this analysis. Forty-four percent of the 522 respondents were scored as high risk, 24% at moderate risk, and 32% at low risk. Over five years from 2007 to 2012, 212 (41%) of the men died, with 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, and 4-year survival rates of 92%, 86%, 77%, and 66%, respectively. Men in the lowest 40th percentile of the nutritional risk distribution accounted for half of all deaths. Adjusted for other characteristics, Cox proportional hazard models demonstrated that with each unit decline on the nutritional risk scale there was a 4% greater risk of mortality (hazard ratio = 0.96 [95% CI 0.94,0.98]). Early identification of older men at nutritional risk and timely nutrition interventions are essential in delaying the progression of morbidity and mortality. PMID:24224939

Broeska, Valerie E; Lengyel, Christina O; Tate, Robert B

2013-01-01

342

Sexuality and reproduction in bulimia nervosa patients over 10 years.  

PubMed

The reproductive and sexual histories of women who had recovered or were recovering from bulimia nervosa were examined. Of 48 consecutive female patients, 43 were studied 10-15 years after first presenting for treatment. At follow-up, 74% were considered recovered and 26% still had an eating disorder. Only 2 women fulfilled the criteria for bulimia nervosa. A history of amenorrhea was common (81% of women), 63% of women being without their menstrual periods for more than 12 months. Menstruation was present in women at a body mass index of 19 or more who were no longer using the weight loss practices of self-induced vomiting, laxative abuse, and starvation. Bulimia nervosa women are more likely to be investigated for infertility when their eating disorder is active. Bulimia sufferers are sexually active, but have times of withdrawing from their partners and ceasing sexual behavior. They associate their sexual feeling with body weight, pregnancy, breastfeeding, and status of their relationships. Marital breakdown is also more common but only if the eating disorder was active at the time of marriage. Forty-five percent left their relationship had a negative effect on their eating disorder. Short-term episodes of bulimic-free behavior are associated with pregnancy and breastfeeding in some pregnancies. Termination of pregnancy occurs more often. The prevalence of miscarriage, hyperemesis gravidarum, and postnatal depression was greater among women who had not recovered from their eating disorder at the time of their pregnancy. Recovery from eating disorder behavior before attempting conception reduces the prevalence of the gynecologic, obstetric, and psychiatric problems associated with eating disorder behavior. PMID:9587891

Abraham, S

1998-01-01

343

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2001  

SciTech Connect

Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the HSN, there were 477 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2001 on the data acquisition system. Of these triggers, 176 were earthquakes. Forty-five earthquakes were located in the HSN area; 1 earthquake occurred in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 43 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 1 was earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 44 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was on a major structure, and no earthquakes were classified as random occurrences. The Horse Heaven Hills earthquake swarm area recorded all but one event during the first quarter of FY 2001. The peak of the activity occurred over December 12th, 13th, and 14th when 35 events occurred. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the first quarter of FY 2001.

Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Valenta, Michelle M.

2001-02-27

344

First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-03-21

345

Visualizing Twenty Years of Applications  

SciTech Connect

This issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications marks the 20th anniversary of the Applications department as a regular feature of the magazine. We thought it might be interesting to look back at the 20 years of Applications department articles to assess its evolution over that time. By aggregating all twenty years of articles and applying a little statistical and visual analytics, we’ve uncovered some interesting characteristics and trends we thought we’d share to mark this 20 year milestone.

Potel, Mike; Wong, Pak C.

2014-11-01

346

Sex-Related and Age-Related Differences in Knee Strength of Basketball Players Ages 11–17 Years  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players ages 11–13 and 15–17 years. Design and Setting: This cross-sectional study occurred during the 2000 American Youth Basketball Tour National Tournament. We investigated whether sex- or age-related strength differences existed among study participants. Subjects: Forty-one tournament participants (22 girls, 19 boys; 11–13 or 15–17 years old) who reported no history of knee sprain or surgery were recruited. Measurements: We used a Cybex II dynamometer to obtain isokinetic concentric peak torques relative to body mass (Nm/kg) at 60°/s for hamstrings and quadriceps bilaterally. From average peak torques, we determined ipsilateral hamstrings:quadriceps and homologous muscle-group ratios. Results: Correlations between hamstrings and quadriceps strength measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.97. Players 15–17 years old had greater relative hamstrings and quadriceps strength than 11- to 13-year-old athletes. Age and sex interacted significantly for quadriceps strength. The quadriceps strength of 15- to 17-year-old girls did not differ from that of 11- to 13-year-old girls, whereas 15- to 17-year-old boys had stronger quadriceps than 11- to 13-year-old boys. Boys 15–17 years old had greater quadriceps strength than girls 15–17 years old. Conclusions: This study is unique in providing normative data for the hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players 11–13 and 15–17 years old. Age-related strength differences did not occur consistently between the sexes, as girls 11–13 and 15–17 years old had similar relative quadriceps strength. PMID:14608433

Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

2003-01-01

347

ION CHEMISTRY 40 Years of  

E-print Network

children or grandchildren will have a ball riding go karts, playing miniature golf, racing through the mazeION CHEMISTRY 40 Years of Gateway Park Barbeque Gateway Park is a popular spot in Boulder. Your

Lineberger, W. Carl

348

Sixty years of genome biology  

PubMed Central

Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery. PMID:23651518

2013-01-01

349

Feline urinary tract pathogens: prevalence of bacterial species and antimicrobial resistance over a 10-year period.  

PubMed

The purpose of this retrospective study was to identify bacterial species in cats with bacterial urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to investigate their antimicrobial susceptibilities over a 10-year period. Three hundred and thirty cultures from 280 cats were included in the study. The mean age of affected cats was 9.9?years; female cats with bacterial UTIs were significantly older than male cats with UTIs. The most common pathogen identified was Escherichia coli (42.3 per cent), followed by Streptococcus species (19.3 per cent), Staphylococcus species (15.6 per cent), Enterococcus species (6.6 per cent) and Micrococcaceae (5.8 per cent). Forty specimens (12.1 per cent) yielded growth of more than one isolate. Streptococcus and Enterococcus isolates were resistant to a significantly higher number of antimicrobial agents than E coli and Staphylococcus species isolates. Applying the formula to select rational antimicrobial therapy, bacterial isolates were most likely to be susceptible to nitrofurantoin, amoxicillin clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin and gentamicin. The antimicrobial impact factor for nitrofurantoin increased significantly over the 10-year period, whereas there was no significant change in antimicrobial impact factors for doxycycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, enrofloxacin, cephalothin and amoxicillin clavulanic acid. The detected changes in in vitro antimicrobial efficacy could help to develop hospital-specific guidelines for antimicrobial use to prevent the further development of resistance in feline uropathogens. PMID:25351232

Dorsch, Roswitha; von Vopelius-Feldt, Clara; Wolf, Georg; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Hartmann, Katrin

2014-10-28

350

Injury profile in junior tennis players: a prospective two year study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prospectively make a survey of injuries in junior players from a Swedish local tennis club during a 2-year period in relation to gender, anatomic location, month of the year when injured, injury type and injury severity. All 12-18 years old members in a tennis club playing more than twice weekly were asked to participate. Fifty-five junior tennis players, 35 boys and 20 girls accepted to participate. All tennis-related injuries were prospectively registered and evaluated. Time of exposure for playing tennis was recorded. Thirty-nine players sustained 100 injuries, 73 in boys and 27 in girls. Injury incidence for boys was 1.7 injuries/1000 h of tennis playing time and for girls 0.6 injuries/1000 h. Ankle sprains, low back pain and knee injuries were the most common ones. Sixty-five percent were new injuries, and the majority of these injuries were located at the knee joint followed by the ankle joint, while most of the recurrent injuries were found in the lumbar spine. Boys suffered mainly from low back pain and ankle injuries and girls from low back pain and knee injuries. Forty-three percent of the injuries caused absence from tennis for more than 4 weeks and 31% more than 1 week. PMID:20238099

Hjelm, Nina; Werner, Suzanne; Renstrom, Per

2010-06-01

351

Research in child psychoanalysis: twenty-five-year follow-up of a severely disturbed child.  

PubMed

In an era of managed care, psychoanalytic treatment of children is under fire as critics question whether the evidence of success in child analysis is sufficiently robust to warrant the large commitment of time and money required for this treatment. This article chronicles the history and current state of research at the Anna Freud Centre, and describes the evolution of a database that has methodically recorded and systematically organized data from over 750 cases of children referred to the Centre over a forty-five-year period. Analysis of this database has determined what kinds of childhood disorders are best treated with intensive psychoanalysis, and what kinds do not respond to this form of treatment. A long-term follow-up of a small sample of these childreen suggests the kinds of long-term benefits that can be gained when an individual is treated with intensive psychoanalysis as a child. As an example, clinical material from the analysis of an eight-year-old is presented along with follow-up interview data twenty-five years later. PMID:19724072

Tyson, Phyllis

2009-08-01

352

Flap reconstruction following gynaecological tumour resection for advanced and recurrent disease--a 12 year experience.  

PubMed

We have reviewed all the cases of flap reconstruction following resection of a gynaecological malignancy at the Royal Marsden Hospital over 12 years from 1993 until 2005. Forty-six patients were identified who required 53 flaps. The predominant site of the primary tumour was vulva, accounting for 83% of the cases, with cervix, ovary, vagina and endometrium making up the remainder. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histological type, accounting for 71% of cases, with adenocarcinoma, Paget disease, leiomyosarcoma, melanoma and basosquamous carcinoma making up the remainder. Most patients (73%) had recurrent disease at the time of reconstruction and most patients (80%) had been treated with radiotherapy either before and/or after surgery. Local flaps accounted for 49% of the reconstructions performed, with 16 rhomboid flaps, five lotus petal flaps and five advancement flaps. Of the pedicled myocutaneous flaps, there were 21 rectus abdominis flaps, four gracilis flaps and one tensor fascia lata flap. There was one free flap. The complication rate was 53%, with wound breakdown predominating. The 5 year survival was 14%, with 67% of patients surviving 1 year. This group of patients often have advanced disease and a limited life span. The complications associated with performing a major reconstructive procedure need to be balanced against the potential wound problems associated with leaving these advanced tumours untreated surgically. PMID:18784004

Staiano, Jonathan J; Wong, Lisa; Butler, John; Searle, Adam E; Barton, Desmond P J; Harris, Paul A

2009-03-01

353

Psychological predictors of male smokeless tobacco use initiation and cessation: A 16-year longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Aims To test whether psychological factors longitudinally predict male smokeless tobacco (SLT) initiation and cessation. Design Sixteen year longitudinal design with 95% retention at year six and 82% at year sixteen. Setting Forty Washington State school districts. Participants SLT use data were gathered on a cohort of adolescents (91% Caucasian). For SLT initiation, the sample size was 2,468. For SLT cessation, sample sizes were 219 (age 20 outcome) and 192 (age 28 outcome). Measurements Self-reported psychological measures of parental disobedience (“parent-noncompliance”), peer influence (“friend-compliance”), rebelliousness, and thrill-seeking were taken at ages 12 and 18. SLT use was measured at ages 12, 18, 20, and 28. Findings For SLT initiation, scoring high on the following psychological factors at age 12 at least doubled the odds of daily SLT use at age 18 (p < .001): friend-compliance (OR: 2.56, 95% CI: 1.78 – 3.68), rebelliousness (OR: 2.16, 95% CI: 1.46 – 3.19), and thrill-seeking (OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.45 – 3.75). For SLT cessation, none of the psychological factors at age 18 predicted SLT cessation at age 20 or 28 (p value range: .06 to .94). Conclusion Peer influence, rebelliousness, and thrill-seeking appear to strongly predict smokeless tobacco initiation among male youth in the USA. PMID:23607490

Holman, Leela R.; Bricker, Jonathan B.; Comstock, Bryan A.

2013-01-01

354

Four Mars Years of Change  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

23 May 2005 These two Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images were acquired a little more than four Mars years apart. One Mars year is about 687 Earth days long. The two images show a portion of the south polar cap, which is composed of frozen, layered, carbon dioxide. Each Mars year since MGS has been observing the planet, the mesas and buttes composed of carbon dioxide have gotten a little bit smaller, and the pits and holes have become a little bit wider. The scarps formed in frozen carbon dioxide in the south polar region are retreating at an average rate of about 3 meters per Mars year. The example shown here includes an image obtained in August 1999, and a more recent picture from April 2005. Arrow '1' points to a dramatic example of the changes that have occurred; in this case a mesa shrank to a small butte in just four martian years. Arrow '2' indicates pits that developed in the cap layer of a carbon dioxide mesa that eroded during the same interval. Acquired during early southern spring, both images are illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

2005-01-01

355

10{10 years} 11 stories Celebrating 10 years  

E-print Network

;Without doubt the most gratifying aspect of the ten-year journey subsequently taken by the Asia the diversity of backgrounds and roles which make the sector so lively. Some direct their passion the journey! Dr Michael Liffman Director Asia-Pacific Centre for Social Investment & Philanthropy (APCSIP

Liley, David

356

Ocular Firework Injuries at New Year’s Eve  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To prospectively study mechanisms and injury characteristics of ocular firework burns. Methods: A prospective analysis of all patients with firework injuries attending the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Vienna, between 1994 and 2001. We looked for classes of fireworks and mechanisms of injuries. The number of diagnoses was established and their severity classified. Results: During this period (8 years)

Stefan Sacu; Nikolaus Ségur-Eltz; Karin Stenng; Martin Zehetmayer

2002-01-01

357

Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the first year of life reduces caries prevalence in the primary dentition at 9 years of age.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on oral health, at age 9 years, of daily oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri, strain ATCC 55730, to mothers during the last month of gestation and to children through the first year of life. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial involving 113 children: 60 in the probiotic and 53 in the placebo group. The subjects underwent clinical and radiographic examination of the primary dentition and carious lesions, plaque and gingivitis were recorded. Saliva and plaque were sampled for determination of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) in saliva and plaque as well as salivary secretory IgA (SIgA). Forty-nine (82%) children in the probiotic group and 31 (58%) in the placebo group were caries-free (p < 0.01). The prevalence of approximal caries lesions was lower in the probiotic group (0.67 ± 1.61 vs. 1.53 ± 2.64; p < 0.05) and there were fewer sites with gingivitis compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to frequency of toothbrushing, plaque and dietary habits, but to intake of fluoride supplements (p < 0.05). There were no intergroup differences with respect to L. reuteri, MS, LB or SIgA in saliva. Within the limitation of this study it seems that daily supplementation with L. reuteri from birth and during the first year of life is associated with reduced caries prevalence and gingivitis score in the primary dentition at 9 years of age. PMID:24296746

Stensson, M; Koch, G; Coric, S; Abrahamsson, T R; Jenmalm, M C; Birkhed, D; Wendt, L-K

2014-01-01

358

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Polar)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

359

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Vertical)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

360

Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Stereo)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this stereo view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

This view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. It is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

2007-01-01

361

Women's tidal power plant Forty candles for Kislaya Guba TPP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tidal energy has been used for centuries. Tidal current and rise and fall of tides were both put to work. They provided power for flour mills, saw mills, breweries, etc. Tide mills dotted several regions of Europe from The Netherlands to Spain and from Wales to England. Immigrants brought the technique to the “New World” to the United States and

Marie-Claire Chaineux; Roger H. Charlier

2008-01-01

362

Warner-Bratzler Shear evaluations of forty bovine muscles  

E-print Network

the long and lateral heads, and the gluteobiceps differed in WBS values (P cranial, and caudal portions. The trapezius pars cervicus did not differ between the cranial and caudal portions. Larger muscles were evaluated...

Belew, Jason Burl

2000-01-01

363

Naive (Bayes) at forty: The independence assumption in information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

The naive Bayes classifier, currently experiencing a\\u000a renaissance in machine learning, has long been a core\\u000a technique in information retrieval. We review some of the\\u000a variations of naive Bayes models used for text retrieval\\u000a and classification, focusing on the distributional\\u000a assumptions made about word occurrences in documents.

David D. Lewis

1998-01-01

364

Ramanujan's Forty Identities for the RogersRamanujan Functions  

E-print Network

Chapter 7. New Identities for G(q) and H(q) and Final Remarks 93 Bibliography 95 v #12;Abstract Sir Arthur likely that a few of them are planets just like Earth. Therefore there may also be life on these planets to Watson, Rogers, and Bressoud, but most are new. Moreover, for several identities, we present two or three

Yesilyurt, Hamza

365

Sibling incest: reports from forty-one survivors.  

PubMed

An exploratory study was conducted with a convenience sample of 41 adult survivors of sibling incest using a retrospective survey design. Participants were interviewed about their childhood sexual experiences with a sibling. Most participants reported vaginal or oral intercourse and coercive experiences. Half of the sample reported sexual experiences with family members, as well as other child abuse. Half of the participants showed evidence of distorted beliefs about child sexual abuse. Disclosure of the incest during childhood was rare. doi:10.1300/ J070v15n04_02. PMID:17200052

Carlson, Bonnie E; Maciol, Katherine; Schneider, Joanne

2006-01-01

366

35 years of DEB research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory started 35 years ago. Initially much emphasis was put on the development of a consistent theory. During recent years attention was paid on parameterizing DEB models for a huge collection of species. This enables the search for patterns in parameter values in an ecological and evolutionary context. This special issue presents some of the results of this quest, among other things focusing on the development of metabolic acceleration, combined with various applications of DEB theory in fisheries, aquaculture, climate science and ecotoxicology.

van der Meer, Jaap; Klok, Chris; Kearney, Michael R.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

2014-11-01

367

50 Years of Neutrino Physics  

E-print Network

Some important topics from history of neutrino physics over the last fifty years are discussed. History of neutrinos is older, at 4th December 2010 it will be eightieth anniversary of the "neutrino birth". In that day W. Pauli wrote the famous letter to participants of the physics conference at Tubingen with the suggestion that "there could exist in the nuclei electrically neutral particle". We will concentrate mostly on the 50 years of neutrino history just to show the long tradition of the Zakopane Theoretical School.

Marek Zralek

2010-12-10

368

World Year of Physics 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Because of the decreasing numbers of physics students and declining general interests in the subject, the World Year of Physics 2005 was created during the World Congress of Physical Societies in 2000 by 40 physical societies from around the world. Educators can learn about international physics activities and projects and get ideas about how they can stimulate their students' interests in physics. The website features presentations of European events, meetings about the World Year of Physics 2005, and contacts for the coordinators throughout the world. This website presents a great example of a worldwide effort to excite visitors about the importance of physics in our lives.

369

Upper Year Progression YWA 5059% for  

E-print Network

Upper Year Progression YWA 5059% for 2nd time YWA >60% Continue to next year Adjudication comments: Failed year Must repeat all courses under 60% (including labs and tutorials) Leave UWO for one year ­ reapply

Sinnamon, Gordon J.

370

Graduation 2010: Third Year Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third-year implementation of Graduation 2010, a districtwide public-school initiative, had its beginnings in brain-based research and involvement from both school and community. The original plan for the program had eight strands: Arts, Music, Foreign Language, Reading/Language Development, Thinking Skills, Health/Emotional Health, Family…

O'Phelan, Mary H.; Norman, Antony D.; Ecton, Gayle W.

371

Graduation 2010: Second Year Implementation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second-year implementation of Graduation 2010, a districtwide public-school initiative, had its beginnings in brain-based research and involvement from both school and community. The original plan for the program had eight strands: (1) Arts; (2) Music; (3) Foreign Language; (4) Reading/Language Development; (5) Thinking Skills; (6)…

O'Phelan, Mary H.; Norman, Antony D.; Ecton, Gayle W.

372

Turing Test: 50 Years Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Turing Test is one of the most disputed topics in artificial intelligence, philosophy of mind, and cognitive science. This paper is a review of the past 50 years of the Turing Test. Philo- sophical debates, practical developments and repercussions in related disciplines are all covered. We discuss Turing's ideas in detail and present the important comments that have been

AYSE PINAR SAYGIN; ILYAS CICEKLI; VAROL AKMAN

2000-01-01

373

25 Years Down the Line  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this final of three Special 25th Anniversary Reports, the authors attempt to paint a picture of what the future of education should, could, or might be. They asked readers, industry experts, authors, tech gurus and scientists, "What will "school" look like in the year 2030?" This compendium reflects their varied predictions, hopes, cautions,…

McLester, Susan

2005-01-01

374

Club theory: Thirty years later  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a self-contained survey of club theory with an emphasis on the contributions of the last fifteen years. Club goods are contrasted with pure public goods, and equilibrium and optimality notions are contrasted. After presenting three basic represen- tations of club theory, we focus on recent advances and generalizations that include hetero- geneous memberships, transaction costs, uncertain utilization,

Todd Sandler; John Tschirhart

1997-01-01

375

Research Councils UK Sixty years  

E-print Network

, the revolution of forensic science and provision of an infallible method of paternity testing. Sixty years of DNA-range of uses, from forensic analysis to drug discovery, the diagnosis of disease and farming techniques Francis Crick, RCUK-funded researchers, famously described the structure of DNA in the scientific journal

Berzins, M.

376

Year in Review Annual Report  

E-print Network

Year in Review 2006-07 Annual Report Center for Latin American Studies University Center in Latin American Studies in 2006-07. In addition to certificate students, we had over 7,200 enrollments in Latin American Studies courses. Included in these enrollment figures are encouraging statistics

Machery, Edouard

377

METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS  

E-print Network

METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS Center commemorates golden anniversary with symposium, lecture's largest mass extinction event MEET THE METEORITE MEN Science Channel's meteorite hunters Geoff Notkin and Steve Arnold talk space rocks TALES FROM THE VAULT Explore what's in the meteorite vault S O U R C ES O

Rhoads, James

378

Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years  

E-print Network

was to become the foundation of our modern concepts of electricity, magnetism and light, James Clerk Maxwell Engineering in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the birth of James Clerk Max- well and of Michael#12;#12;LINES AND WAVES Faraday, Maxwell And 150 Years Of Electromagnetism Robert D. Friedel Center

Jones, R. Victor

379

Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

Gray, Andrew

380

Reflections on International Literacy Year.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The International Taskforce on Literacy, which is composed of nongovernmental organizations, has carried the literacy message to people everywhere. Two particularly noteworthy activities of the Taskforce are the People's Launch of International Literacy Year at the International Council for Adult Education conference in Thailand in January 1990…

Cassara, Beverly Benner

381

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 117 + BIOL 118 GENERAL BIOLOGY II and LAB Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 115 + BIOL 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY I and LAB Introductory Chemistry

Suzuki, Masatsugu

382

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 220 BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 210 BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY I CHE 201

Suzuki, Masatsugu

383

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 110 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 109 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

384

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 156 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 155 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

385

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

386

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 105 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 104 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

387

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY SC 139 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: ANIMALS AND PLANTS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY SC 135 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY: MOLECULES AND CELLS Introductory Chemistry

Suzuki, Masatsugu

388

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

389

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

390

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 102 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 101 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

391

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 132 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 131 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

392

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BI 202 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BI 201 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

393

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 116 GENERAL BIOLOGY 2 Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 115 GENERAL BIOLOGY 1 Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

394

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 01400 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 01300 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

395

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 / BY 52 MODERN BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 150 / BY 50 MODERN BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

396

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 106H GENERAL BIOLOGY II HONORS Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 105H GENERAL BIOLOGY I HONORS Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

397

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 152 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 151 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

398

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 1580 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 1570 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

399

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIO 117 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY I Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIO 118 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY II Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107

Suzuki, Masatsugu

400

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years  

E-print Network

BIOLOGY MAJOR First two years Introductory Biology with labs Biology 117 AND INTRODUCTION TO ORGANISMAL AND POPULATION BIOLOGY BIOL 1520 GENERAL BIOLOGY II Biology 118 INTRODUCTION TO CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY BIOL 1510 GENERAL BIOLOGY I Introductory Chemistry with labs Chemistry 107 AND INTRODUCTORY

Suzuki, Masatsugu

401

The Year 1998 in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The year 1998 was one of immense change for adult learning and literacy, as significant new legislation was passed and the field headed more deeply into the mainstream. Along with these developments came greater demands for program accountability, expanded strategic alliances and partnerships, new instructional methodologies, changes in public…

Tracy-Mumford, Fran

1999-01-01

402

The Year of the Pond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher in…

Hinshaw, Craig

2010-01-01

403

Integration Multi-Year Program  

E-print Network

EERE Grid Integration Multi-Year Program Plan U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy February 2014 DRAFT #12;ii #12;iii Acronyms BA balancing authorities BES building energy.S. Department of Energy DR demand response EE energy efficiency EERE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable

404

Columbine High: Five Years Later  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the country. That…

Hurst, Marianne D.

2004-01-01

405

2012: A Year in Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When historians review 2012 for its noteworthy moments, events and milestones, they will find the year was a trying one for the American higher education system, despite its being able to educate and enlighten thousands in search of more choices and preparation for adult self-sufficiency. Many academicians and students worked for and celebrated…

Stuart, Reginald

2012-01-01

406

Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho

Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

2010-01-01

407

1987: Alternative energy's watershed year  

Microsoft Academic Search

1987 is a watershed year in shaping the near and long-term future for alternative energy. Major events are taking place that will determine how power will be sold through the end of the 20th century and perhaps beyond. These events may, upon reflection, prove to be history in the making for the alternative energy industry. Some of the changes that

Ganotis

1988-01-01

408

CPA: The First Ten Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The roots and early stresses of organizational psychology in Canada are described. The impetus of World War II manpower selection and training and the immediate post war growth of universities are seen as central to the beginning years of the Canadian Psychological Association.

Mary J. Wright

1974-01-01

409

Annual Review of the Year  

E-print Network

will play a major role in cutting Scotland's carbon footprint as well as positioning forestry to be an increasingly important player in the national economy in the next few years. But carbon-sequestering wood can substitute for more than just carbon-emitting fuels. It can also replace carbon-intensive materials

410

Fiscal Year 2007 ANNUAL REPORT  

E-print Network

DRAFT Fiscal Year 2007 ANNUAL REPORT To Congress and Citizens of the Pacific Northwest October 1, 2006 - September 30, 2007 Document 2007-16 #12;27th ANNUAL REPORT of the Northwest Power and involve the public in decision-making. This annual report has been developed pursuant to Section 4(h)(12

411

2007: A Year In Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most high-profile story of the year touching the higher education community was undisputedly the killings at Virginia Tech in April when student Seung-Hui Cho opened fire, leaving 33 people dead, including himself. To date, it is the deadliest campus shooting in U.S. history. However, in September, the Delaware State University (DSU) community…

Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007

2007-01-01

412

The Four-Year Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports that in 1996, Alabama officials approved the "4 x 4" plan, which made their state the first in the country to require students to complete four years, or four credits each, of math and science for high school graduation. Other states have since followed suit, with policymakers arguing that higher standards are necessary to…

Cavanagh, Sean

2009-01-01

413

ANNUAL REPORT Fiscal Year 1980  

E-print Network

by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Baltimore District, the Interstate Commission on the Potomac River by the Office of Water Research and Technology, The U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D Year 1980 by MAMADOU H. WATT THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA WATER PROBLEMS The Potomac and Anacostia Rivers

District of Columbia, University of the

414

Progressive improvement of impaired visual acuity during the first year after transsphenoidal surgery for non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma  

PubMed Central

Objective Improvement of visual field defects continues even years after the initial surgical treatment. Because this process of continuing improvement has not been documented for visual acuity, we audited our data to explore the pattern of recovery of visual acuity until 1 year after transsphenoidal surgery for non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma. Design Retrospective follow-up study. Patients Forty-three patients (mean age 56 ± 14 years), treated by transsphenoidal surgery for non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma, were included in this analysis. Results Visual acuity improved significantly within 3 months after transsphenoidal surgery. The mean visual acuity increased from 0.65 ± 0.37 to 0.75 ± 0.36 (P < 0.01) (right eye), and from 0.60 ± 0.32 to 0.82 ± 0.30 (P < 0.01) (left eye). Visual acuity was improved 1 year after transsphenoidal surgery compared to the 3 months postoperative values. The mean visual acuity increased from 0.75 ± 0.36 to 0.82 ± 0.34 (P < 0.05) (right eye), and from 0.82 ± 0.30 to 0.88 ± 0.27 (P < 0.05) (left eye). Conclusion Visual acuity improves progressively after surgical treatment for non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas, at least within the first year after transsphenoidal surgery. PMID:17318437

de Keizer, R. J. W.; Roelfsema, F.; vd Klaauw, A. A.; Honkoop, P. J.; van Dulken, H.; Smit, J. W. A.; Romijn, J. A.; Pereira, A. M.

2007-01-01

415

The integrated approach of yoga: a therapeutic tool for mentally retarded children: a one-year controlled study.  

PubMed

Ninety children with mental retardation of mild, moderate and severe degree were selected from four special schools in Bangalore, India. Forty-five children underwent yogic training for one academic year (5 h in every week) with an integrated set of yogic practices, including breathing exercises and pranayama, sithilikarana vyayama (loosening exercises), suryanamaskar, yogasanas and meditation. They were compared before and after yogic training with a control group of 45 mentally retarded children matched for chronological age, sex, IQ, socio-economic status and socio environmental background who were not exposed to yoga training but continued their usual school routine during that period. There was highly significant improvement in the IQ and social adaptation parameters in the yoga group as compared to the control group. This study shows the efficacy of yoga as an effective therapeutic tool in the management of mentally retarded children. PMID:2795647

Uma, K; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, R; Vaidehi, S; Seethalakshmi, R

1989-10-01

416

Trochanteric fixation using a third-generation cable device--minimum follow-up of 3 years.  

PubMed

Third-generation trochanteric fixation cable systems are designed to overcome implant breakage, nonunion, and bony escape. The study prospectively assessed the functional and radiologic outcomes using such an implant. Forty-seven trochanteric fixations in 46 patients were performed over 4 years at 2 institutions using the Accord Cable Plate system (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, Tenn). Serial evaluation at a mean follow-up of 57 months demonstrated that the mean Harris hip scores improved from 52.3 preoperatively to 88.2 postoperatively (P < .001), and the mean pain score improved from 6.2 to 2.3, respectively (P < .001). No cable breakage, fretting, or fraying occurred. There were 2 cases of nonunion. A third-generation cable system appears to improve upon early-generation implants and provide favorable outcomes for reattachment of a trochanteric fragment in a variety of clinical scenarios. PMID:21908164

Patel, Shelain; Soler, Juan A; El-Husseiny, Moataz; Pegg, Derek J; Witt, Johan D; Haddad, Fares S

2012-03-01

417

66 million years agopresent25266 million years ago541252 million years ago PRECAMBRIAN ERA  

E-print Network

the Black Country became interested in seismology (the study of earthquakes) and co-designed the Milne The Lapworth Museum is approximately 130 years old and contains the largest and finest geological collection Permian Period n What are fossils and how do they form? n How complete is the fossil record? The Museum

Birmingham, University of

418

Typhoid fever below five years.  

PubMed

During a seven year period (1981-87), 53 cases of typhoid fever in children below five years were seen. This accounted for 13.5% of all typhoid admission in pediatrics during the above period. Predominant symptoms were fever (100%), vomiting (52.8%), diarrhea (30.2%) and anorexia (24.5%). Chills and rigor associated with fever was noticed in 38% of the children. Salmonella typhi was isolated from blood in 22 of 53 (41.7%) cases. A significant finding on peripheral smear was eosinopenia (86.8%). Complications like endotoxic shock, enteric encephalopathy and gastrointestinal hemorrhage were noticed in only few cases (7.6%). There were no deaths. PMID:2361759

Pandey, K K; Srinivasan, S; Mahadevan, S; Nalini, P; Rao, R S

1990-02-01

419

The International Year of Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Statistics is a subject for all seasons and years, but 2013 is the International Year of Statistics, a designation supported by almost 1,850 organizations. The primary movers behind this noble activity include the American Statistical Association, the International Biometric Society, and the Royal Statistical Society. The goal of this initiative is to promote "the importance of statistics to the scientific community, business and government data users, the media," and a range of other users. On the website, visitors can make their way through four main sections, including What is Statistics?, Statistics as a Career, Teacher Resources, and Statistics 2013 Posters. The Teacher Resources area is a real pip, as it features teacher resources for over two dozen countries, along with statistics education videos from the United States and Mexico. The site also includes a Statistic of the Day, a quote of the week, and a most efficacious Statistical Word of the Week.

2013-01-01

420

Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: Summary of each site Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location Actions and Resolutions for each site. Six disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. One has achieved final stabilization. The remaining five sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

Jenifer Nordstrom

2013-11-01

421

Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achieved final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

Jenifer Nordstrom

2012-11-01

422

The 'Year without summer 1816  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One famous example of an extreme climatic event is the cold summer of 1816 in Europe and North America. This specific year, which was later called the "Year without summer 1816", had profound social and environmental effects. The cataclysmic eruption of Mt Tambora is now commonly known to have largely contributed to the negative temperature anomalies of the summer 1816, but some uncertainties remain. The eruption which occurred in April 1815 is the largest within the last 500 years and this extreme climatic forcing provides a real test for climate models. A crucial parameter to assess in order to simulate this eruption is the aerosol size distribution, which strongly influences the radiative impact of the aerosols (through changes in albedo and residence time in the stratosphere, among others) and the impacts on dynamics and chemistry. The representation of this major forcing is done by using the AER-2D aerosol model which calculates the size distribution of the aerosols formed after the eruption. The modeling of the climatic impacts is then done by the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate model (CCM) SOCOL. The characteristics of the Tambora eruption and results from simulations made using the aerosol model/CCM, with an emphasis on the radiative and chemical implications of the large aerosol, will be shown. For instance, the specific absorption/scattering ratio of Mt.Tambora aerosols induced a large stratospheric warming which will be analyzed. The climatic impacts will also be discussed in regards of the high sedimentation rate of Mt. Tambora aerosols, leading to a fast decrease of the atmospheric optical depth in the first two years after the eruption. The link will be made between the modeling results and proxy-reconstructions as well as with available historical daily data from Geneva, Switzerland. Finally, insights on the contemporary response to this climatic extreme will be shown.

Arfeuille, F.; Rozanov, E.; Peter, T.; Weisenstein, D.; Hadorn, G.; Bodenmann, T.; Brönnimann, S.

2010-09-01

423

International Year of Natural Fibres  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization has designated 2009 as the International Year of Natural Fibres. The goals of this year are three-fold: to raise the profile of natural fibers in a market increasingly dominated by synthetic fibers; convey the value of using natural fibers to consumers; and help sustain the income of the often poor farmers of natural fibers. This very interesting website for the "Year" is available in English, French, Chinese and Spanish. Visitors interested in learning about the history of natural fibers, as well as what different types of natural fibers there are, what they look like, and what they are used for, will find this website fits the bill. On the menu on the far right side of the page, visitors can click on the link "15 Natural Fibres" to peruse a brief history and learn about the different natural fibers that come from plants and animals. Most of the fibers featured include information on what the fiber is, who produces it, how it's produced, and how much is produced, which can be accessed by rolling the mouse over the name or picture of the fiber, and clicking. The link on the menu on the far right side of the page entitled "Fibre Stories" has four stories about new innovations for several different natural fibers. There is a story about cotton in Asia, hemp in China, alpaca in Peru, and sisal in Tanzania. Events around the world celebrating the International Year of Natural Fibres can be found on the far right menu, at the "Events" link.

424

The Internet After Thirty Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ARPANET began operation in 1969 with four nodes as an experiment in resource sharing among computers. By 1971 fifteen nodes were operating and by 1973 thirty-seven nodes. In 1977 it started using the Internet Protocol (IP), a universal connector of networks. Twenty years later its prolific offspring, the Internet, had burgeoned into a world-wide research network of over 60,000

Peter J. Denning

425

Earth: 15 Million Years Ago  

E-print Network

In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the solar system has been orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s. The present theory concludes that the earth did not have seasons 15 million years ago. Therefore, the water on the earth was accumulated near the poles as ice and the sea level was very low. Geological evidence exists that confirms this effect. The resulting global ice-melting started 15 million years ago and is ending now.

Masataka Mizushima

2008-10-13

426

Fifty years of paediatric ethics.  

PubMed

In 1965, when the first issue of Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health appeared, medical ethics was just becoming established as a discipline. The sub-speciality of paediatric ethics did not make an appearance until the late 1980s, with the first key texts appearing in the 1990s. Professional concern to practice ethically in paediatrics obviously goes much further back than that, even if not named as such. In clinical areas of paediatrics, the story of the last 50 years is essentially a story of progress - better understanding of disease, better diagnosis, more effective treatment, better outcomes. In paediatric ethics, the story of the last 50 years is a bit more complicated. In ethics, the idea of progress, rather than just change, is not so straightforward and is sometimes hotly contested. There has certainly been change, including some quite radical shifts in attitudes and practices, but on some issues, the ethical debate now looks remarkably similar to that of 40-50 years ago. This is the story of some things that have changed in paediatric ethics, some things that have stayed the same and the key ethical ideas lying beneath the surface. PMID:25586839

Gillam, Lynn

2015-01-01

427

Experience with a theme-based integrated renal module for a second-year MBBS class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Integrated learning is the need of the hour. We at Shifa College of Medicine switched to an integrated modular curriculum last year. In the present article, we describe our experience with the renal module in year 2 of a 5-yr undergraduate medical curriculum. A multidisciplinary renal modular team developed the relevant objectives, themes, and clinical cases. The learning strategies used were large-group interactive sessions, small-group learning, problem-based learning, practicals, and self-directed learning. Assessment was both formative and summative. Student and faculty feedback questionnaires were administered at the end of the module. Forty-four percent of the students agreed that the basic science and clinical concepts were well balanced and integrated. Fifty-seven percent of the students believed that important learning issues could be identified and that participation and critical thinking were encouraged during the small-group sessions. Eighty-five percent of the facilitators agreed that they were able to motivate students for critical thinking and better learning through integrating various disciplines. In conclusion, the integrated method of curricular delivery was well received by students and faculty members, and it can be used successfully in undergraduate medical education in developing countries.

Riffat Shafi (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences); K. H. M. Quadri (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences); Waseem Ahmed (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences); Syed N. Mahmud (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences); Mobeen Iqbal (Shifa College of Medicine Basic Health Sciences)

2010-03-01

428

A multi-year field olfactometry study near a concentrated animal feeding operation.  

PubMed

This study developed and tested a protocol for monitoring odors near a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO). The Nasal Ranger, a portable field olfactometry instrument, was used by a panel of trained individuals to conduct the monitoring near a swine CAFO. Monitors were selected based on olfactory sensitivity, scheduling availability, and lack of association with the CAFO or residential neighbors of the CAFO. Monitors were trained to use the Nasal Ranger, collect and record weather data, and characterize any odors detected. Data were collected over a 3-year period (2007-2009) for approximately 9 months each year. The data recorded included odor intensity, a description of the odor, date and time of the reading, and weather conditions. Of more than 50,000 readings, forty-one (0.1%) odor readings had a dilution to threshold ratio (D/T) of +/- 7:1 and were attributed to hog manure. The frequency of odor readings attributed to hog manure with D/T +/-7:1 was found to negatively correlate with log wind speed and positively correlate with wind from the direction of the farm. Other meteorological variables (temperature, precipitation, cloud cover) and time of day did not influence the frequency. PMID:22263428

Dalton, Pamela; Caraway, Edward A; Gibb, Herman; Fulcher, Keri

2011-12-01

429

The role of colonoscopy in the management of intestinal obstruction: a 20-year retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The aim of the study was to assess the use colonoscopy over time in the assessment of large bowel obstruction in a tertiary university hospital. Methods Retrospective analysis of surgical and colonoscopy records for the years 1990-2009 in a university hospital. All patients diagnosed with non-conservatively managed bowel obstruction were included. Results We recorded 644 patients diagnosed with non-conservatively managed bowel obstruction. Four hundred forty-one (67.3%) were managed only by surgery, 157 (23.6%) were managed by colonoscopy, and 46 (6.9%) by combined colonoscopy and surgery. Patients over 77 years were more likely to receive colonoscopy as monotherapy or combined with surgery as compared to younger patients. Management by colonoscopy only and by combined colonoscopy and surgery increased over time. Conclusions Colonoscopy in the management of non-conservatively treated bowel obstruction increased over time. However, therapeutic colonoscopy still has a limited role in bowel obstruction either as monotherapy or combined with surgery. PMID:21059218

2010-01-01

430

Trisomy 21--incidence and outcomes in the first year, in Ireland today.  

PubMed

Incidence of Trisomy 21 in Ireland, 1:546 live births, is the highest in Europe. This project aimed to define the incidence of T21 amongst liveborn infants at Cork University Maternity Hospital (CUMH), and to describe neonatal outcomes and progress in their first year. Infants were identified from Social Work department records. A retrospective review of the neonatal inpatient database, outpatient letters and medical charts was performed. Forty three infants with T21 were born in CUMH in 2010 and 2011. Incidence of T21 was 1:411. Antenatal diagnosis was uncommon at 14% (6). 34 (79%) were admitted to the neonatal unit. Co-morbidities included congenital heart disease 22 (51%) and duodenal atresia 2 (5%). Thirty four were followed-up in CUMH outpatient department. Of these, 34 (100%) had thyroid function testing, 29 (85%) ophthalmology and audiology referral, and 7 (21%) were referred for hip review. Mortality rate was 9% (4). Readmission to hospital in the first year of life was 42% (18). PMID:25282970

Ni She, R; Filan, P M

2014-09-01

431

The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities.  

PubMed

Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

Latham, Andrew J; Patston, Lucy L M; Tippett, Lynette J

2013-01-01

432

The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities  

PubMed Central

Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

2013-01-01

433

Feedback of final year ophthalmology postgraduates about their residency ophthalmology training in South India  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: This study documents a survey of final-year ophthalmology postgraduate students on the subject of their residency training. A similar survey conducted 7 years ago published in IJO had concluded that the residency program was not up to expectations in many centers. Our study aimed to see if ophthalmology training and student perceptions differed since then. Materials and Methods: For our study, we added a few questions to the same questionnaire used in the article “which is the best method to learn ophthalmology? Resident doctors’ perspective of ophthalmology training” published in IJO, Vol. 56 (5). Results: Forty-nine students (62.02%) returned completed forms. Most students desired an orientation program on entering residency, and wished to undergo diagnostic training initially. Case-presentation with demonstration and Wet-lab learning were most preferred. There was a big difference between the number of surgeries students actually performed and the number they felt would have been ideal. Conclusion: On the whole, the students still felt the need for improved training across all aspects of ophthalmology. PMID:25116778

Ajay, K.; Krishnaprasad, R.

2014-01-01

434

Fifty years with nuclear fission  

SciTech Connect

The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. (eds.) (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

1989-01-01

435

Vancomycin Revisited – 60 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Vancomycin is one of the older antibiotics that has been now in clinical use close to 60?years. Earlier on, vancomycin was associated with many side effects including vestibular and renal, most likely due to impurities contained in early vancomycin lots. Over the years, the impurities have been removed and the compound has now far less vestibular adverse effects, but still possesses renal toxicity if administered at higher doses rendering trough serum levels of >15?mcg/mL or if administered for prolonged periods of time. Vancomycin is effective against most Gram-positive cocci and bacilli with the exception of rare organisms as well as enterococci that became vancomycin resistant, mostly Enterococcus faecium. The major use of vancomycin today is for infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) and amoxicillin-resistant enterococci. In its oral form, vancomycin is used to treat diarrhea caused by Clsotridium difficile. With S. aureus, there are only a handful of vancomycin-resistant strains. Nevertheless, a “vancomycin creep” that is slow upward trending of vancomycin MIC from <1?mcg/mL to higher values has been noted in several parts of the world, but not globally, and strains that have MIC’s of 1.5–2?mcg/mL are associated with high therapeutic failure rates. This phenomenon has also been recently recognized in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). While vancomycin is relatively a safe agent adverse events include the “red man” syndrome, allergic reactions, and various bone marrow effects as well as nephrotoxicity. Vancomycin has been a very important tool in our therapeutic armamentarium that remained effective for many years, it is likely remain effective as long as resistance to vancomycin remains controlled. PMID:25401098

Rubinstein, Ethan; Keynan, Yoav

2014-01-01

436

Diffraction Dissociation - 50 Years Later  

E-print Network

The field of Diffraction Dissociation, which is the subject of this workshop, began 50 years ago with the analysis of deuteron stripping in low energy collisions with nuclei. We return to the subject in a modern context- deuteron dissociation in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 200$ GeV d-Au collisions recorded during the 2003 RHIC run in the PHENIX experiment. At RHIC energy, d$\\to$n+p proceeds predominantly (90%) through Electromagnetic Dissociation and the remaining fraction via the hadronic shadowing described by Glauber. Since the dissociation cross section has a small theoretical error we adopt this process to normalize other cross sections measured in RHIC.

Sebastian N. White

2005-07-18

437

[100 years' of clinical electrocardiography].  

PubMed

In 1903 Willem Einthoven published in Pflügers Arch his classic article on the investigation of human electrocardiogram by his string galvanometer. Many historians of medicine, Einthoven also marked that publication as the beginning of clinical electrocardiography. Many investigators like Galvani, Manteucci, Kölliker, Müller, Lipmann, Waller, Ader, Einthoven, Lewis, Wilson and others participated in creation and development of electrocardiogram. From that time electrocardiogram quickly became, and has remained the most essential diagnostic laboratory tool in investigation of heart diseases. The aim of this article is to remind us of the beginning of this part of cardiology 100 years ago. PMID:15209030

Bergovec, Mijo

2003-01-01

438

Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Michael Lewis

2009-10-01

439

Patriot of the Year Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a partner, you will study a famous person who lived during the time of the American Revolution (1775-1781). You will be desiging a medal, as well as a testimonial and acceptance speech for this individual should they win they win the Patriot of the Year Award. THE PROCESS AND RESOURCES In this WebQuest you will be working with your partner to fill out your Outstanding Patriot Outline. You and your partner will explore Web pages from people all over the world who care about the American Revolution. Because these are real Web pages we're tapping into resource not ...

Wheeler, Mrs.

2009-12-31

440

Diffraction Dissociation - 50 Years Later  

E-print Network

The field of Diffraction Dissociation, which is the subject of this workshop, began 50 years ago with the analysis of deuteron stripping in low energy collisions with nuclei. We return to the subject in a modern context- deuteron dissociation in $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 200$ GeV d-Au collisions recorded during the 2003 RHIC run in the PHENIX experiment. At RHIC energy, d$\\to$n+p proceeds predominantly (90%) through Electromagnetic Dissociation and the remaining fraction via the hadronic shadowing described by Glauber. Since the dissociation cross section has a small theoretical error we adopt this process to normalize other cross sections measured in RHIC.

White, S N

2005-01-01

441

Exercise During the Childbearing Year  

PubMed Central

Many women wish to continue to pursue an active lifestyle during pregnancy, while the pregnancy itself may provide the motivation for other more sedentary women to begin an exercise program for the sake of improved health/fitness. Also, female competitive athletes, upon becoming pregnant, may wish to continue sports performance and require careful monitoring to assure maternal-fetal safety. This review is designed to assist the perinatal educator who is in the position to advise the pregnant patient on the risks and benefits of physical activity during the childbearing year and provide suggestions for developing individualized exercise programs. PMID:17273187

Hammer, Roger L.; Perkins, Jan; Parr, Richard

2000-01-01

442

AFI's 100 Years 100 Laughs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On June 13, the American Film Institute (AFI) revealed its list of the 100 funniest movies as chosen by "leaders of the entertainment community" from a list of 500 nominated movies. At this site, users can view both the top 100 list and the 500 nominated films. Each listing links to a short description with principal cast, director, producer, and screenwriter. The list of the 500 nominated films may also be keyword searched by title, cast, director, producer, screenwriter, year, or description. Users can also make their own top ten list and submit it to the site.

443

50 years of holographic interferometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

Stetson, Karl A.

2015-01-01

444

Earth's Yearly Revolution Around Sun  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation depicting Earth as it revolves around the sun. The animation shows the tilt of Earth's axis and shows that the tilt of the axis points in the same direction throughout the yearly revolution. The animation can be viewed from an oblique view and from a top view and includes optional labels of the months, so students can see where the Earth is located in its revolution for each of those months. The animation can also be started and stopped at any point in the revolution and shows the amount of Earth receiving light from the sun at all times during the revolution.

445

A hundred years of gemellology.  

PubMed

Over the past hundred years, since Sir Francis Galton first pointed out its scientific value, the study of twins has considerably widened its scope and significance. Gemellology has come to represent an important branch of human genetics and to be applied to the most diverse fields of biomedical and behavioral research, besides obviously contributing to the study of the specific biological, medical, and psychological aspects of the twin condition. More recently, then, it has in turn originated a new branch of modern genetic research, chronogenetics. Finally, sponsored and coordinated by the Mendel Institute in Rome, an International Society for Twins Studies has developed. PMID:570213

Gedda, L; Brenci, G

1978-09-01

446

Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

2010-11-01

447

Medication errors in a paediatric teaching hospital in the UK: five years operational experience  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—In the past 10 years, medication errors have come to be recognised as an important cause of iatrogenic disease in hospital patients.?AIMS—To determine the incidence and type of medication errors in a large UK paediatric hospital over a five year period, and to ascertain whether any error prevention programmes had influenced error occurrence.?METHODS—Retrospective review of medication errors documented in standard reporting forms completed prospectively from April 1994 to August 1999. Main outcome measure was incidence of error reporting, including pre- and post-interventions.?RESULTS—Medication errors occurred in 0.15% of admissions (195 errors; one per 662 admissions). While the highest rate occurred in neonatal intensive care (0.98%), most errors occurred in medical wards. Nurses were responsible for most reported errors (59%). Errors involving the intravenous route were commonest (56%), with antibiotics being the most frequent drug involved (44%). Fifteen (8%) involved a tenfold medication error. Although 18 (9.2%) required active patient intervention, 96% of errors were classified as minor at the time of reporting. Forty eight per cent of parents were not told an error had occurred. The introduction of a policy of double checking all drugs dispensed by pharmacy staff led to a reduction in errors from 9.8 to 6 per year. Changing the error reporting form to make it less punitive increased the error reporting rate from 32.7 to 38 per year.?CONCLUSION—The overall medication error rate was low. Despite this there are clear opportunities to make system changes to reduce error rates further.? PMID:11087283

Ross, L; Wallace, J; Paton, J; STEPHENSON, T.

2000-01-01

448

Epidemiological Follow-up 15 Years after the Breast Cancer Scandal in Essen.  

PubMed

Purpose: In the years 1993-1996 a number of presumably false-positive breast cancer diagnoses were made by a pathologist in Essen. A follow-up, undertaken 15 years later, investigated how many women had tumour recurrence and/or metastasis or had died from breast cancer. Material and Methods: A total of 151 (68?%) out of 222 women could be traced. One hundred and forty-seven (66.2?%) of the 222 women were alive. The observed survival rate, number of recurrences and/or metastases, and number of deaths from breast cancer were compared with data from the Munich Tumour Registry. The number of breast cancer cases among daughters of the affected women was ascertained. Results: The total observed survival rate at follow-up after 15 years was 93?%, a much higher figure than the survival rate of 45?% given by the Munich Tumour Registry. Recurrence and/or metastasis or death from breast cancer occurred in 9/222 cases (4.1?%). The incidence for these events calculated according to data from the Munich Tumour Registry is 13?%. Two daughters (2.2?%) out of a total of 90 were diagnosed with breast cancer whereas, according to the German Cancer Research Centre, the expected rate would have been between 5 and 10?%. Conclusions: The results of our follow-up after 15 years show that more women survived than expected and that the number of recurrences and/or metastases and deaths due to breast cancer was lower than expected. Fewer daughters of affected women were diagnosed with breast cancer than expected. These results support our suspicion that not all women diagnosed with breast cancer by a pathologist in Essen actually had breast cancer. PMID:25284840

Hauth, E A M; Berkemeyer, S; Jaeger, H; Forsting, M; Hoffmann, B; Jöckel, K-H

2012-06-01

449

Accidental ingestion or aspiration of foreign objects at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital over last 4 years.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate cases of accidental ingestion or aspiration occurring at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital over the last 4 years in order to determine how the incidence of such events could be reduced. Forty cases of accidents occurring at our hospital over a 4-year period commencing in 2008 (representing 27% of the total number of accidents) included accidental ingestion in 39 patients and aspiration in one. Most of these accidents occurred during the removal or placement of restorations or prosthetics, and the ingested objects were mostly crowns and inlays. Accidental ingestion or aspiration occurred more frequently in the right molar region and when procedures were conducted by practitioners with less than 1 to 7 years of experience, and especially 1 to 3 years only. A higher rate of such accidents was observed in male patients in their 50s to 70s. The conventional safety procedures developed by the Medical Risk Management Team should be adhered to wherever possible. Furthermore, we propose the following measures based on the present results: accident prevention training for students and clinical trainees; improvement of the in-hospital manual; personal coaching for those breaching the guidelines of the safety manual; and raising awareness of the need for greater care in preventing incidents of accidental ingestion or aspiration at the Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. PMID:24717931

Hisanaga, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Toru; Yajima, Yasutomo; Morinaga, Kazuki; Ohata, Hitoshi; Hirata, SoIchiro; Mamiya, Hideki; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yakushiji, Takashi; Hagita, Keiko

2014-01-01

450

Determinants of all causes of death in samples of Italian middle-aged men followed up for 25 years.  

PubMed Central

A total of 1712 men aged 40 to 59 years in two rural cohorts of northern and central Italy have been followed up for 25 years after an entry examination in 1960. Forty one individual characteristics have been considered as possible predictors of death in the next 25 years. After exclusion of 55 men with life threatening diseases (cardiovascular and cancer) and of 161 men because of missing measurements, 1495 men have been analysed for relation between entry factors and subsequent death (n = 670). Twelve factors eventually emerged as powerful predictors of future death: in hierarchical order, age, blood pressure, forced expiratory volume, cigarette smoking, xanthelasma, mother life-status, arm circumference, father life-status, shoulder-pelvis ratio, vital capacity, arcus senilis, and serum cholesterol. Discrimination as provided by logistic modelling placed 19.6% of all cases in the upper decile of the estimated risk, 36.8% in the upper quintile, 2.5% in the lowest decile, and 7.1% in the lowest quintile. Out of those located in the lowest decile of risk, 11.4% died within 25 years while the corresponding percentage in the upper decile was 87.3%. Use of the Cox model yielded slightly better coefficients than logistic function. PMID:3443819

Menotti, A; Mariotti, S; Seccareccia, F; Torsello, S; Dima, F

1987-01-01

451

Community-Based Training-Detraining Intervention in Older Women: A Five-Year Follow-Up Study.  

PubMed

This five-year follow-up non-randomized controlled study evaluated community-based training and detraining on body composition and functional ability in older women. Forty-two volunteers (64.3±5.1 yrs) were divided into four groups: aerobic training, strength training, combined aerobic and strength, and control. Body composition and physical fitness were measured at baseline, after nine months of training and after three months of detraining every year. After five years of training, body fat decreased, and fat free mass, strength, and chair test performance increased (p < .05) in all training groups. Training-induced favourable adaptations were reversed during detraining but eventually, training groups presented better values than the control group even after detraining. Thus, nine months of annual training, during a five-year period, induced favorable adaptations on body composition, muscular strength and functional ability in elderly women. Three months of detraining, however, changed the favorable adaptations and underlined the need for uninterrupted exercise throughout life. PMID:25415933

Douda, Helen T; Kosmidou, Konstantina V; Smilios, Ilias; Volaklis, Konstantinos A; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

2014-11-21

452

5-year follow-up study of children with low-to-moderate lead absorption: electrophysiological evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Forty-nine children aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for residual effects of lead exposure using psychometric, electrophysiological, and medical tests 5 years after initial assessment. The original range of blood lead (PbB) levels was 6-59 (anti x = 28) g/dl; the current range was 6-30 (anti x = 14) g/dl. A linear relationship between PbB and slow brain wave voltage during sensory conditioning was observed at initial evaluation and at 2-year follow-up. No significant relationship between PbB and slow wave voltage during passive conditioning was found at the 5-year follow-up, although a linear increase in slow wave negativity relative to the current PbB level during active conditioning was suggested by exploratory analyses. Another exploratory analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between the original PbB levels and the latency of waves III and V of the brainstem auditory evoked potential. The latency of both waves increased as a function of original PbB. Increased latency of these waves is suggestive of subclinical pathology of the auditory pathway rostral to the cochlear nucleus, although end-organ impairment cannot be ruled out. No threshold for the effect of Pb on auditory function was apparent.

Otto, D.; Robinson, G.; Baumann, S.; Schroeder, S.; Mushak, P.; Kleinbaum, D.; Boone, L.

1985-10-01

453

The International Polar Year, 2007-2008, an opportunity to focus on infectious diseases in Arctic regions.  

PubMed

On 3 occasions over the past 125 years, scientists from around the world have worked together to organize scientific and exploration activities in polar regions (www.ipy.org). The first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1881-1884 marked the first major coordinated international scientific initiative to collect standardized meteorological and geophysical data in polar regions. Fifteen expeditions led by 12 nations amassed a large amount of data, but the scientific value was diminished by disjointed publication efforts and lack of long-term institutional commitment; lessons were learned and corrected in subsequent polar years. The second IPY began in 1932. Forty-four nations led expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic, resulting in greater understanding of the aurora, magnetism, and meteorology. Air and marine navigation, radio operations, and weather forecasting were greatly improved as a result. The third IPY, in 1957-58, was renamed the International Geophysical Year and capitalized on technologic advances developed during World War II. Technologic and scientific momentum was redirected toward research, particularly to studies of the upper atmosphere, a legacy that continues to the present day. Notable achievements included launching the first satellite, measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases, delineating the system of mid-ocean ridges, and confirming the theory of plate tectonics. PMID:18258069

Parkinson, Alan J

2008-01-01

454

Third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty in patients younger than 30 years with osteonecrosis of femoral head.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiographic results of patients younger than 30 years who underwent cementless third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Forty-one patients (56 hips) with a minimum follow-up of 6 years were included. In all cases, third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic articulation was used. Average Harris Hip Scores improved from 52.9 preoperatively to 98.2, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score, from 95.2 to 25.2. Thirty-nine patients returned to their normal occupations. No aseptic loosening or osteolysis was observed. Total hip arthroplasty performed using third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic bearings for osteonecrosis of femoral head was found to provide satisfactory clinical and radiologic results, especially in active, young patients. PMID:22153948

Byun, Jae-Wook; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Park, Kyung-Soon; Seon, Jong-Keun

2012-08-01

455

Fifty years with nuclear fission  

SciTech Connect

The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. (eds.) (National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States))

1989-01-01

456

International Year of Rice 2004  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The importance of rice as a basic foodstuff to over half of the world's populations can not be underestimated, and it was with this fact in mind that the International Rice Research Institute first developed the idea for the International Year of Rice in 1999. Working in tandem with the United Nations General Assembly, the Institute set up a number of partnerships, conferences, lectures, and research agendas to take place throughout the year 2004 and beyond. The site contains links to numerous important papers, such as the collection available here from the recent conference titled Rice in Global Markets and Sustainable Production Systems, which was held in Rome. Beyond various scholarly and policy-oriented resources, visitors can learn about the rice photography contest, submit recipes to a forthcoming rice-themed cookbook, and explore a kids section that offers some basic facts about rice, along with a short quiz. The site is available in a number of different languages, including Italian, Spanish, French, Arabic, and Japanese.

457

Gunshot residue, ten years later.  

PubMed

Gunshot residues may be central to a competent reconstruction of a shooting incident. When a young boy was shot in the neck by a playmate using a .22-caliber single-action revolver, permanent paralysis from mid-thorax downward ensued. Ten years later the victim sued the importer, the vendor, the German manufacturer, and the shooter's family. Investigative reports indicated "horseplay" and questionable emergency medical team care. Depositions were contradictory. The entry wound, removed at surgery, was fixed and processed for slides. The histopathologist referred to "black pigment granules" in the wound track. The 10-year-old slides and block were retrieved. The coverslip was removed from a representative slide that was examined under the scanning, x-ray dispersive microscope. The black granules contained amounts of lead, barium, and antimony far beyond any normal range. The firing range had to have been no greater than 6-12 in (15.24-30.48 cm). The case was promptly settled out of court. PMID:1750390

Wilber, C G; Lantz, R K; Sulik, P L

1991-09-01

458

Smoking Patterns, Attitudes and Motives: Unique Characteristics among 2-Year versus 4-Year College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the previously documented higher rates of smoking among 2-year college students in comparison with 4-year university students, this study compares smoking patterns, attitudes and motives among 2-year and 4-year college students. Two thousand two hundred and sixty-five undergraduate students aged 18-25 years at a 2-year college and a 4-year

Berg, C. J.; An, L. C.; Thomas, J. L.; Lust, K. A.; Sanem, J. R.; Swan, D. W.; Ahluwalia, J. S.

2011-01-01

459

B. Math I Year P. Theory II B.Math II Year Algebra IV  

E-print Network

Year Statistics V /Algebraic Number Theory B.Math II Year Computer Science II B.Math III YearB. Math I Year P. Theory II B.Math II Year Algebra IV B.Math III Year Dynamical Systems /Diffl. Geo. II /Statistics IV B.Math I Year Algebra II B.Math II Year Analysis IV B.Math III Year Representation

Bandyopadhyay, Antar

460

[Pediatric aids, 30 years later].  

PubMed

Thirty years after the first descriptions of AIDS in children in May 1983, the risk of viral transmission from mother to child has been reduced to almost zero and the disease in infected children has become an asymptomatic condition, stable in the long-term, thanks to antiretroviral drugs. Unbelievable though it may have seemed until the mid-1990s, children infected during the perinatal period are now growing up to be adults in a chronic, stable, asymptomatic medical condition with often satisfactory personal, family, and social lives. The French perinatal epidemiological cohort, which was set up in 1984 and has included more than 18,000 mother-child pairs to date, traces the steps in this extraordinary revolution in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection in children. PMID:23850051

Blanche, S; Dollfus, C; Faye, A; Rouzioux, C; Mandelbrot, L; Tubiana, R; Warszawski, J

2013-08-01

461

Twenty Years of Tevatron Operation  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting Tevatron accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) has surpassed twenty years of operation. The Tevatron is still the highest energy particle accelerator in the world and will remain so until the commissioning of the LHC in Europe later this decade. The Tevatron has operated in a Fixed Target mode, accelerating a proton beam into stationary targets/detectors, as well as a Colliding Beam mode, continuously colliding counter rotating beams of protons and antiprotons. Upon completion, the Tevatron cryogenic system became the world's largest helium refrigeration system. In 1993, the Tevatron cryogenic system was given the designation of International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The operational history, experiences and statistics of the Tevatron, with an emphasis on the cryogenic system, is presented. Improvements, upgrades and current challenges of the cryogenic system are discussed.

Theilacker, J.C. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, 60510 (United States)

2004-06-23

462

Twenty Years of Tevatron Operation  

SciTech Connect

The superconducting Tevatron accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) has surpassed twenty years of operation. The Tevatron is still the highest energy particle accelerator in the world and will remain so until the commissioning of the LHC in Europe later this decade. The Tevatron has operated in a Fixed Target mode, accelerating a proton beam into stationary targets/detectors, as well as a Colliding Beam mode, continuously colliding counter rotating beams of protons and antiprotons. Upon completion, the Tevatron cryogenic system became the world's largest helium refrigeration system. In 1993, the Tevatron cryogenic system was given the designation of International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The operational history, experiences and statistics of the Tevatron, with an emphasis on the cryogenic system, is presented. Improvements, upgrades and current challenges of the cryogenic system are discussed.

Jay C. Theilacker

2004-07-15

463

Civil partnerships five years on.  

PubMed

The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe. PMID:21987019

Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

2011-01-01

464

Mariel refugees: six years after.  

PubMed

In 1983, the economic situation of Mariel Cubans could be summarized as abysmal. Those without a job represented close to 1/2 of the sample; the unemployment rate amounted to 27%. A study conducted by Johns Hopkins University in collaboration with Miami-Dade Community College and Florida International University has investigated whether Mariels remain a group apart within the broader Cuban community or whether they have melted into the rest of the community. The study followed a large sample of Mariel refugees living in the Miami area over a period of several years. A sample of 514 Mariel men and women were interviewed in 1983 and were reinterviewed during 1985-1986. The authors conclude that, as a group, Mariel refugees have made rapid progress toward integration into the South Florida economy. There has been a rapid decline in unemployment during the past 2 years and a rapid shift into self-employment. There is still a sizable gap in labor force participation and earnings between this group and the pre-Mariel Cuban population. Mariel incorporation into South Florida society has taken place almost completely through their absorption into the pre-existing Cuban community; there is tension, however, as Mariel refugees see themselves as more discriminated against by fellow Cubans than by outside Anglos. This minority-within-a-minority syndrome is likely to underlie the reported willingness of many to leave the US if conditions in Cuba were to change for the better. Despite these problems, the majority of Mariel refugees would come again to the US if they had to make the choice anew and declare themselves satisfied with their present lives. Within Dade County, the more positive indicators of economic advancement and general adaptation are found among refugees in the cities of Miami and Hialeah. The most problematic economic situation and the greatest alienation from their surroundings is detected among refugees living elsewhere, primarily in Miami Beach. Results indicate that official and private programs targeted on this refugee group should give priority to 4 aspects: 1) support of small entrepreneurship through credit and training facilities to buttress the widespread efforts in this direction; 2) provision of English language courses and help to overcome extreme language deficiencies; 3) promotion of the reunification of the Mariel refugee families who were separated against their will; and 4) additional efforts by Cuban-American organizations to combat lingering prejudice against Mariel refugees. PMID:12341948

Portes, A; Clark, J M

1987-01-01

465

Early Years Enquiry College of Education  

E-print Network

years. Members of the EYE research hub are involved in collaborative writing, research, supporting earlyEarly Years Enquiry College of Education Education For content enquiries contact Associate.mscs.canterbury.ac.nz/eye/gathering_registration.shtml The Early Year Enquiry (EYE) Research Group presents the "The Gathering 2013" The Early Years Enquiry

Hickman, Mark

466

250 Years of Advances Against Cancer  

Cancer.gov

250 Years of Advances Against Cancer 250 Years of Advances Against Cancer (Text-Only Version) During the past 250 years, we have witnessed many remarkable advances against cancer, a disease known to humanity for thousands of years. Here are a few key

467

29 CFR 548.306 - Average earnings for year or quarter year preceding the current quarter.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Average earnings for year or quarter year preceding the current quarter. 548.306 Section 548.306 Labor ...§ 548.306 Average earnings for year or quarter year preceding the current quarter....

2010-07-01

468

Five Years at the Movies  

E-print Network

GAIA is an astrometric satellite which has been approved by the European Space Agency for launch in about 2010. It will measure the angles between objects in fields that are separated on the sky by about a radian. Data will stream continuously at 1 Mbps from GAIA's three telescopes, providing information on the positions and velocities of the billion or more astrophysical objects brighter than 20th magnitude. The motion of objects across the sky caused by their space motion and their parallactic motion, and the variability of objects in 15 wavebands, will be measured because each object is observed at least 150 times during the 5 year mission lifetime. From the raw time series, a three-dimensional movie of the motions of stars in the Galaxy will be synthesized. The alert despatcher in the GAIA mission will provide forewarning of many kinds of bursting and variable phenomena. We discuss two applications of the GAIA movie show in detail here. First, the astrometric microlensing signal will allow us to take a complete inventory of all objects -- no matter how dark -- in the solar neighbourhood. Second, the catalogue of supernovae detections will be the largest ever taken. It will provide opportunities both for follow-ups in other wavebands and numerous examples of scarce phenomena (like subluminous SNe).

N. W. Evans; V. Belokurov

2002-12-02

469

Thirteen years of pair production  

SciTech Connect

This talk surveys a thirteen-year collaboration with Chris Bottcher on various aspects of strong field electrodynamics. Most of the work centers on the atomic physics associated with the peripheral collisions of ultrarelativistic heavy atoms. The earliest, beginning in about 1979, dealt with the spontaneous emission of positrons from nuclear quasimolecules and touched briefly on the formation of axions as a possible explanation of the anomalous peaks in the spectrum. This work stimulated the extensive studies of particle production from coherent fields that laid the foundations for investigations of nuclear form factors, structure functions, and production mechanisms for the Higgs and other exotic particles. Chris conjectured that the strong fields that are present in these collisions would give rise to nonperturbative effects. Thus, during this time, Chris also worked to develop basis-spline collocation methods for solving dynamical relativistic fermions in super strong fields. This was perhaps one of the best of times for Chris; on these problems alone, he co-authored fifty articles with more than twenty different collaborators.

Strayer, M.R.

1994-12-31

470

Five Years of GWAS Discovery  

PubMed Central

The past five years have seen many scientific and biological discoveries made through the experimental design of genome-wide association studies (GWASs). These studies were aimed at detecting variants at genomic loci that are associated with complex traits in the population and, in particular, at detecting associations between common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and common diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, auto-immune diseases, and psychiatric disorders. We start by giving a number of quotes from scientists and journalists about perceived problems with GWASs. We will then briefly give the history of GWASs and focus on the discoveries made through this experimental design, what those discoveries tell us and do not tell us about the genetics and biology of complex traits, and what immediate utility has come out of these studies. Rather than giving an exhaustive review of all reported findings for all diseases and other complex traits, we focus on the results for auto-immune diseases and metabolic diseases. We return to the perceived failure or disappointment about GWASs in the concluding section. PMID:22243964

Visscher, Peter M.; Brown, Matthew A.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Yang, Jian

2012-01-01

471

The isoprostanes-25 years later.  

PubMed

Isoprostanes (IsoPs) are prostaglandin-like molecules generated independent of the cyclooxygenase (COX) by the free radical-induced peroxidation of arachidonic acid. The first isoprostane species discovered were isomeric to prostaglandin F2? and were thus termed F2-IsoPs. Since the initial discovery of the F2-IsoPs, IsoPs with differing ring structures have been identified as well as IsoPs from different polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexanenoic acid. The discovery of these molecules in vivo in humans has been a major contribution to the field of lipid oxidation and free radical research over the course of the past 25 years. These molecules have been determined to be both biomarkers and mediators of oxidative stress in numerous disease settings. This review focuses on recent developments in the field with an emphasis on clinical research. Special focus is given to the use of IsoPs as biomarkers in obesity, ischemia-reperfusion injury, the central nervous system, cancer, and genetic disorders. Additionally, attention is paid to diet and lifestyle factors that can affect endogenous levels of IsoPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Oxygenated metabolism of PUFA: Analysis and biological relevance." PMID:25449649

Milne, Ginger L; Dai, Qi; Roberts, L Jackson

2014-10-30

472

The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Sixty years ago, Karl Lashley suggested that complex action sequences, from simple motor acts to language and music, are a fundamental but neglected aspect of neural function. Lashley demonstrated the inadequacy of then-standard models of associative chaining, positing a more flexible and generalized “syntax of action” necessary to encompass key aspects of language and music. He suggested that hierarchy in language and music builds upon a more basic sequential action system, and provided several concrete hypotheses about the nature of this system. Here, we review a diverse set of modern data concerning musical, linguistic, and other action processing, finding them largely consistent with an updated neuroanatomical version of Lashley's hypotheses. In particular, the lateral premotor cortex, including Broca's area, plays important roles in hierarchical processing in language, music, and at least some action sequences. Although the precise computational function of the lateral prefrontal regions in action syntax remains debated, Lashley's notion—that this cortical region implements a working-memory buffer or stack scannable by posterior and subcortical brain regions—is consistent with considerable experimental data. PMID:24697242

Fitch, W Tecumseh; Martins, Mauricio D

2014-01-01

473

100 years of Lewy pathology.  

PubMed

In 1817, James Parkinson described the symptoms of the shaking palsy, a disease that was subsequently defined in greater detail, and named after Parkinson, by Jean-Martin Charcot. Parkinson expected that the publication of his monograph would lead to a rapid elucidation of the anatomical substrate of the shaking palsy; in the event, this process took almost a century. In 1912, Fritz Heinrich Lewy identified the protein aggregates that define Parkinson disease (PD) in some brain regions outside the substantia nigra. In 1919, Konstantin Nikolaevich Tretiakoff found similar aggregates in the substantia nigra and named them after Lewy. In the 1990s, ?-synuclein was identified as the main constituent of the Lewy pathology, and its aggregation was shown to be central to PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In 2003, a staging scheme for idiopathic PD was introduced, according to which ?-synuclein pathology originates in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve and progresses from there to other brain regions, including the substantia nigra. In this article, we review the relevance of Lewy's discovery 100 years ago for the current understanding of PD and related disorders. PMID:23183883

Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko

2013-01-01

474

Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis in a heterogeneous Brazilian population: an eight-year follow-up study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to describe the outcomes of Brazilian patients with undifferentiated spondyloarthritis during an eight-year follow-up period. Patients fulfilling the European Spondyloarthritis (SpA) Study Group Classification Criteria were enrolled. Forty patients were seen at baseline, and 36 participated in the follow-up study. Twenty-three (58%) were female, and there were 24 (60%) African Brazilians enrolled. HLA-B27 was positive in 18 (45%) patients. At disease onset, the first presenting symptoms were pure peripheral manifestations in 26 (72.2%) patients. After the study period, mixed disease (axial + peripheral) predominated occurring in 25 (69.4%) patients. The Assessment of SpA International society (ASAS) classification criteria for axial SpA were fulfilled by 77% of patients, and the ASAS criteria for peripheral SpA were fulfilled by 59% of patients. After 2.5 years, 6 (16.7%) of the 36 patients fulfilled the modified New York Criteria for ankylosing spondylitis and 1 (2.7%) progressed to psoriatic arthritis. A total of 10 (27.8%) patients progressed to definite SpA during the eight-year study period. Buttock pain (p = 0.006, OR 10.55; 95% CI 2.00-65.90) and low-grade radiographic sacroiliitis (p = 0.025, OR = 11.50; 95% CI 1.33-83.39) at baseline were associated with definite SpA. Thus, in this Brazilian cohort, which had a predominance of female African-Brazilian patients, prevalent peripheral onset symptoms were followed by a high frequency of axial manifestations during the follow-up period. Evidence of clinical or radiological sacroiliitis was associated with progression to definite SpA. PMID:23765202

da Cruz Lage, Ricardo; de Souza Bomtempo, Carlos Alexandre; Kakehasi, Adriana Maria; de Carvalho, Marco Antônio Parreiras

2014-07-01

475

One-year clinical evaluation of a Glass Carbomer fissure sealant, a preliminary study.  

PubMed

Glass Carbomer is a new generation of restorative material developed from glass-ionomer cements with possibility of gradual mineralization into fluorapatite. The aim of this clinical trial was to investigate the retention of Glass Carbomer fissure sealant after 12 months, in comparison to a commonly used conventional resin-based sealant. Forty-eight teeth in 24 patients [mean (SD) = 8 (2.3) years] with well-delineated fissure morphology were randomly divided into two equal groups and sealed with Bis-GMA resin-based Helioseal F (group A, Ivoclar Vivadent, Liechtenstein) and Glass Carbomer (group B, Glass Carbomer Sealant, Glass Carbomer Products, Leiden, Netherlands) using the split mouth design. Materials were placed and set according to the manufacturer's instructions using a polymerization unit Bluephase 16i (Vivadent, Liechtenstein). Complete sealant retentions in both groups were 100% and 75% after 6 and 12 months of clinical service, respectively. There were there were no secondary caries lesions in both groups after 6 months; two new carious lesions were detected in both groups after 12 months. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed no significant difference between the two groups at both evaluations points (P > 0.05). Glass Carbomer material showed a similar retention rate when compared with a resin-based sealant. Future studies are required to examine the long-term performance of Glass Carbomer sealants. PMID:25134364

Gorseta, K; Glavina, D; Borzabadi-Farahani, A; Van Duinen, R N; Skrinjaric, I; Hill, R G; Lynch, E

2014-06-01

476

A 5-year retrospective review of fungal keratitis at hospital universiti sains malaysia.  

PubMed

Background. Corneal blindness from healed infected keratitis is one of the most preventable causes of monocular blindness in developing countries, including Malaysia. Our objectives were to identify the causative fungi, predisposing risk factors, the proportion of correct clinical diagnosis, and visual outcome of patients treated in our hospital. Methods. A retrospective review of medical and microbiology records was conducted for all patients who were treated for fungal keratitis at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2007 until December 2011. Results. Forty-seven patients (47/186, 25.27%) were treated for fungal keratitis during the study period. This demonstrated that the incidence of fungal keratitis has increased each year from 2007 to 2011 by 12.50%, 17.65%, 21.21%, 26.83%, and 28.57%, respectively. The most common predisposing factors were injury to the eye followed by use of topical steroid, and preexisting ocular surface disease. Fusarium species were the most common fungal isolated, followed by Candida species. Clinical diagnosis of fungal keratitis was made in 26 of the 41 (63.41%) cases of positive isolates. Of these, in eleven cases (23.40%) patients required surgical intervention. Clinical outcome of healed scar was achieved in 34 (72.34%) cases. Conclusions. The percentage of positive fungal isolated has steadily increased and the trend of common fungal isolated has changed. The latest review regarding fungal keratitis is important for us to improve patients' outcome in the future. PMID:23304138

Mohd-Tahir, Fadzillah; Norhayati, A; Siti-Raihan, Ishak; Ibrahim, M

2012-01-01

477

Are microbial indicators and pathogens correlated? A statistical analysis of 40 years of research.  

PubMed

Indicator organisms are used to assess public health risk in recreational waters, to highlight periods of challenge to drinking water treatment plants, and to determine the effectiveness of treatment and the quality of distributed water. However, many have questioned their efficacy for indicating pathogen risk. Five hundred and forty cases representing independent indicator-pathogen correlations were obtained from the literature for the period 1970-2009. The data were analyzed to assess factors affecting correlations using a logistic regression model considering indicator classes, pathogen classes, water types, pathogen sources, sample size, the number of samples with pathogens, the detection method, year of publication and statistical methods. Although no single indicator was identified as the most correlated with pathogens, coliphages, F-specific coliphages, Clostridium perfringens, fecal streptococci and total coliforms were more likely than other indicators to be correlated with pathogens. The most important factors in determining correlations between indicator-pathogen pairs were the sample size and the number of samples positive for pathogens. Pathogen sources, detection methods and other variables have little influence on correlations between indicators and pathogens. Results suggest that much of the controversy with regards to indicator and pathogen correlations is the result of studies with insufficient data for assessing correlations. PMID:21942192

Wu, J; Long, S C; Das, D; Dorner, S M

2011-06-01

478

Predictors of Institutionalization of Dementia Patients in Mild and Moderate Stages: A 4-Year Prospective Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Institutionalization is the most important milestone in the care of dementia patients. This study was aimed at identifying relevant predictors of institutionalization in a broad empirical context and interpreting them on the basis of the predictor model proposed by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Methods At the start of this study, 357 patients with mild to moderate dementia were examined by their general practitioners, and a telephone interview was conducted with their caregivers. Four years later, the outcomes ‘institutionalization’ and ‘death’ were determined from health insurance data. Forty-one variables were examined for their predictive influence by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Results The risk of institutionalization increased significantly (p ? 0.05) with older ages of patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05] and caregivers (HR = 1.03), a higher educational level of the caregiver (HR = 1.83), greater use of community health services (HR = 1.59), greater caregiver burden (HR = 1.02), and when the caregiver and patient lived apart (HR = 1.97). Conclusion The results show that there is a multifactorial influence on institutionalization of dementia patients by sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological aspects as well as the care situation, thus validating the predictor model by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Caregiver burden was found to be the strongest predictor accessible to interventions. PMID:24348504

Eska, Kathrin; Graessel, Elmar; Donath, Carolin; Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Lauterberg, Joerg; Holle, Rolf

2013-01-01

479

An endoscopic wireless gastrostimulator (with video) Sanchali Deb, PhD,1  

E-print Network

gastroparesis. The currently available commercial stimulator, the Enterra neurostimulator (Medtronic Inc- ment of GP,3-5 is now most commonly provided through the Enterra neurostimulator (Medtronic Inc

Chiao, Jung-Chih

480

Even-Odd Year Differences in Walleye Year-Class Strength Related to Mayfly Production 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young-of-the-year walleyes Stizostedion vitreum are more abundant in even-num- bered years than in odd-numbered years in Savanne Lake, Ontario. Differences among years were related to emergences of the burrowing mayfly Hexagenia limbata. Adult walleyes from even- numbered year classes are more abundant than those from odd-numbered year classes. We hy- pothesize that pulse production of H. limbata in even-numbered years

BEVERLEE J. RITCHIE; PETER J. COLBY

1988-01-01

481

Even-Odd Year Differences in Walleye Year-Class Strength Related to Mayfly Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young-of-the-year walleyes Stizostedion vitreum are more abundant in even-numbered years than in odd-numbered years in Savanne Lake, Ontario. Differences among years were related to emergences of the burrowing mayfly Hexagenia limbata. Adult walleyes from evennumbered year classes are more abundant than those from odd-numbered year classes. We hypothesize that pulse production of H. limbata in even-numbered years positively affects walleye

Beverlee J. Ritchie; Peter J. Colby

1988-01-01

482

29 CFR 4010.5 - Information year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information year. 4010.5 Section 4010.5 Labor...REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.5 Information year. (a) Determinations based on...

2012-07-01

483

29 CFR 4010.5 - Information year.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information year. 4010.5 Section 4010.5 Labor...REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.5 Information year. (a) Determinations based on...

2014-07-01

484

Performance & Accountability Report, Fiscal Year 2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report sets forth the National Endowment for the Humanities' goals and objectives and highlights its related accomplishments for the year just concluded. Also included in the report is information on the Endowment's finances and operations during the year.

National Endowment for the Humanities, 2007

2007-01-01

485

Au Boulot! First-Year French  

E-print Network

Au boulot! is a two-year college French program consisting of: two textbooks, one for each year; four workbooks, one for each semester; four cassette sets to accompany the four workbooks; and a reference grammar, to be ...

Dinneen, David A.; Christiansen, Hope; Kernen, Madeleine; Pensec, Herve

1995-01-01

486

7 CFR 63.6 - Fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.6 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means a...

2013-01-01

487

7 CFR 63.6 - Fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.6 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means a...

2012-01-01

488

7 CFR 63.6 - Fiscal year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.6 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means a...

2011-01-01

489

7 CFR 63.6 - Fiscal year.  

...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.6 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means a...

2014-01-01

490

Fun Ideas for Being Active All Year  

MedlinePLUS

... nih.gov/Go4Life Fun Ideas for Being Active All Year January: Start the new year by trying ... in your garden. Bending, lifting, and stretching are all great exercises. May: Build your endurance and strength ...

491

Preparing for a New School Year  

MedlinePLUS

... School Year Ages & Stages Listen Preparing for a New School Year Article Body The start of each ... friends again, they might be apprehensive about a new teacher and, in some cases, a new school. ...

492

7 CFR 930.4 - Crop year.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.4 Crop year. Crop year means the...

2010-01-01

493

20-Year Community Clinical Oncology Programs  

Cancer.gov

Community Clinical Oncology Program Celebrates 20 Years of Research 20-Year Community Clinical Oncology Programs CCOPs that have been continuously funded since 1983: Carle Cancer Center CCOP, Urbana, Illinois Columbus CCOP, Columbus, Ohio Dayton

494

Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

495

Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic…

Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

496

Long-Term Results after Placement of Aortic Bifurcation Self-Expanding Stents: 10 Year Mortality, Stent Restenosis, and Distal Disease Progression  

SciTech Connect

Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the 10 year follow-up results in patients who had 'kissing' self-expanding stent aortic bifurcation reconstruction. Methods. Forty-three patients were treated with 'kissing' self-expanding stents for aortoiliac occlusive disease. Early follow-up with clinical and ankle brachial pressure indices (ABPI) was performed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography at 12-24 months; clinical and angiographic follow-up was performed for symptom recurrence up to 10 years after treatment. Retrospective record review was performed to assess mortality, clinical patency, angiographic patency, and secondary assisted patency of both stents and downstream peripheral vessels at 5 and 10 years follow-up. Results. The 2 year primary angiographic and secondary assisted stent patencies were 89% and 93%, respectively. At 10 years follow-up in 40 patients the mortality was 38% (due to myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic renal failure, malignancy, and liver failure). At 5 and 10 years follow-up the primary clinical stent patency was 82% and 68%, and the secondary assisted stent patency 93% and 86%, respectively. At 5 and 10 years, the distal vessel patency was 86% and 72%, and the secondary assisted distal vessel patency treated by surgical or endovascular techniques was 94% and 88%, respectively. At 10 years there was no limb loss. Conclusion. The long-term (10 year) results of aortic bifurcation arterial self-expanding stent placement in patients with arterial occlusive disease show a 10 year primary stent patency rate of 68% but a secondary assisted patency rate of 86%. In addition there is a high overall mortality due to other cardiovascular causes and the rate of distal disease progression and loss of patency is similar to the loss of stent patency rate.

Houston, J. Graeme, E-mail: ghouston@nhs.net; Bhat, Raj [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Clinical Radiology (United Kingdom); Ross, Rose [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Vascular Laboratory (United Kingdom); Stonebridge, Peter A. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom)