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Sample records for neurostimulation forty years

  1. Forty years of TTG research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, Jean-François; Martin, Hervé

    2012-09-01

    TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) are one of the archetypical lithologies of Archaean cratons. Since their original description in the 1970s, they have been the subject of many studies and discussions relating to Archaean geology. In this paper, we review the ideas, concepts and arguments brought forward in these 40 years, and try to address some open questions — both old and new. The late 1960s and the 1970s mark the appearance of "grey gneisses" (TTG) in the scientific literature. During this period, most work was focused on the identification and description of this suite, and the recognition that it is a typical Archaean lithology. TTGs were already recognised as generated by melting of mafic rocks. This was corroborated during the next decade, when detailed geochemical TTG studies allowed us to constrain their petrogenesis (melting of garnet-bearing metamafic rocks), and to conclude that they must have been generated by Archaean geodynamic processes distinct from their modern counterparts. However, the geodynamic debate raged for the following 30 years, as many distinct tectonic scenarios can be imagined, all resulting in the melting of mafic rocks in the garnet stability field. The 1990s were dominated by experimental petrology work. A wealth of independent studies demonstrated that melting of amphibolites as well as of mafic eclogites can give rise to TTG liquids; whether amphibolitic or eclogitic conditions are more likely is still an ongoing debate. From 1990s onwards, one of the key questions became the comparison with modern adakites. As originally defined these arc lavas are reasonably close equivalents to Archaean TTGs. Pending issues largely revolve around definitions, as the name TTG has now been applied to most Archaean plutonic rocks, whether sodic or potassic, irrespective of their HREE contents. This leads to a large range of petrogenetic and tectonic scenarios; a fair number of which may well have operated concurrently, but are

  2. Forty Years with Emerging Viruses.

    PubMed

    Peters, C J

    2014-11-01

    I was raised in a middle-class family in West Texas and was lucky in my preparation through high school faculty, short government programs arising from the politics of Sputnik, inspiring high school mentors, and university training at a first-rate institution. My educational background led me to apply to medical school. With some financial aid, I managed to graduate and then obtain a first-class internal medicine residency at Parkland Hospital, where I acquired skills in discerning evaluation and treatment of patients with complicated diseases. In spite of a liking for and ability in clinical medicine, I entered the Public Health Service and worked for 5 years at the National Institutes of Health laboratory in Panama; there, I began to see the fascination of ecological impacts on virus transmission in nature and its spillover into human populations. I shifted my interests to these themes and their interaction with viral pathogenesis. At each stage of my career, I picked an institution to work where there were strong leaders and other inspiring scientists. I think the young scientist should choose the best available institution and one that offers a career direction that leads to a life where he or she awakens and cannot wait to arrive at his or her job-regardless of the details of each choice, the outcome will be a satisfied person who will contribute greatly to his or her chosen field. PMID:26958712

  3. The first forty years, 1947-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

    1987-01-01

    This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward.

  4. The Forties field: 20 years young

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, P.J.; Clyne, P.A.; Kirkwood, F.G.; Williams, P.W.

    1996-04-01

    In Oct. 1970, BP`s semisubmersible drilling rig SeaQuest struck oil in Upper Paleocene (Tertiary) sandstones of U.K. Continental Shelf Block 21/10. Four appraisal wells drilled in 1970 and 1971 delineated a large oil reservoir at a depth of 7,000 ft., covering an area of 36 sq miles. The maximum thickness of the oil-bearing sandstone was estimated at 614 ft. Reserves were calculated to be 1,800 MMSTB from an oil in place (OIP) of 4,600 MMSTB, and production was projected to continue until Year 2000. In 1971, Shell/Esso drilled a successful well, Well 22/6-1, that demonstrated the southeastern extension of the field into Block 22/6. The field is a four-way-dip-closed anticline that overlies the Forties-Montrose Ridge and is close to the junction of the Central, South Viking, and Witch Ground grabens. The reservoir occurs in thick Upper Paleocene sandstones deposited as a sand-rich submarine fan sequence. This paper describes how the development of the Forties field has evolved over the past 20 years, the current issues and activities, and the direction for the future.

  5. Forty Years of Radio Astronomy at Hartebeesthoek

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaylard, M. J.; Nicolson, G. D.

    2007-07-01

    In 1961 an 85-foot (26-metre) diameter radio antenna was erected at Hartebeesthoek near Johannesburg, as NASA's Deep Space Instrumentation Facility 51. A young South African engineer employed there soon initiated a radio astronomy research programme to use free time between tracking spacecraft. On the closure of the facility by NASA in 1974, it was re-constituted as a radio astronomy observatory operated by the CSIR. In this paper, we highlight various strands of the forty year history of radio astronomy at Hartebeesthoek. We also cover some of the perhaps surprising spinoffs that it has generated, both scientifically and practically. Some of these hark back to measurements taken by the Abbé de la Caille at the Cape in the 1750's, and to the reasons for establishing a Royal Observatory there in the 1820's.

  6. Molecular motors: forty years of interdisciplinary research

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.

    2011-01-01

    A mere forty years ago it was unclear what motor molecules exist in cells that could be responsible for the variety of nonmuscle cell movements, including the “saltatory cytoplasmic particle movements” apparent by light microscopy. One wondered whether nonmuscle cells might have a myosin-like molecule, well known to investigators of muscle. Now we know that there are more than a hundred different molecular motors in eukaryotic cells that drive numerous biological processes and organize the cell's dynamic city plan. Furthermore, in vitro motility assays, taken to the single-molecule level using techniques of physics, have allowed detailed characterization of the processes by which motor molecules transduce the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical movement. Molecular motor research is now at an exciting threshold of being able to enter into the realm of clinical applications. PMID:22039067

  7. Forty Years of Kinesiology: A Canadian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a brief history of the world's first two kinesiology programs at the University of Waterloo and Simon Fraser University, and then gives an overview of the development of kinesiology in Canada over the last 40 years. The issues addressed include departmental affiliation and accreditation, the development of provincial and…

  8. Forty Years of Clathrin-coated Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Margaret S

    2015-12-01

    The purification of coated vesicles and the discovery of clathrin by Barbara Pearse in 1975 was a landmark in cell biology. Over the past 40 years, work from many labs has uncovered the molecular details of clathrin and its associated proteins, including how they assemble into a coated vesicle and how they select cargo. Unexpected connections have been found with signalling, development, neuronal transmission, infection, immunity and genetic disorders. But there are still a number of unanswered questions, including how clathrin-mediated trafficking is regulated and how the machinery evolved. PMID:26403691

  9. Nuclear chain reaction: forty years later

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings from a 1982 symposium 40 years after the first controlled nuclear chain reaction took place in Chicago covers four sessions and public discussion. The session covered the history of the chain reaction; peaceful uses in technology, medicine, and biological science; peaceful uses in power generation; and nuclear weapons control. Among the speakers were Eugene Wigner, Glenn Seaborg, Alvin Weinberg, and others who participated in the first chain reaction experiments. The proceedings reflect differences of opinion among the scientists as well as the general public. References, slides, and tables used to illustrate the individual talks are included with the papers.

  10. Rotavirus in India: Forty Years of Research.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-07-01

    Rotavirus was first identified as a human pathogen just over 40 years ago, and work on this pathogen in India started shortly thereafter. Subsequent studies have confirmed its pre-eminent role in gastroenteritis in children in India. Standardized surveillance has enabled the documentation of the high burden of disease, and has demonstrated that there is considerable geographic and temporal variation in strain circulation. Internationally licensed vaccines, vaccine candidates based on indigenous strains and out-licensed strains have been tested for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy; three vaccines are now licensed in India and are used in the private sector. Public sector vaccination has begun, and it will be path-breaking for Indian vaccinologists to measure impact of vaccine introduction in terms of safety and effectiveness. So far, India has kept pace with international epidemiologic and vaccine research on rotavirus, and these efforts should continue. PMID:27508532

  11. Forty years of surface plasma source development

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-15

    The cesiation effect, a significant enhancement of negative ion emission from a gas discharge with decrease of co-extracted electron current below negative ion current, was observed for the first time on July 1, 1971 by placing into the discharge a compound with 1 mg of cesium. Subsequent developments of surface plasma sources (SPS) for highly efficient negative ion production caused by the interaction of plasma particles with electrodes on which the adsorbed cesium reduced the surface work function are described. In the last 40 years, the intensity of negative ion beams has increased by cesiation up to 10{sup 4} times from 3 mA to tens of amperes. Here, the main attention is concentrated on earlier SPS developments because recent results are well known and widely available.

  12. Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

    2013-12-01

    In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had

  13. Sciatic Neuroma Presenting Forty Years After Above-Knee Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Kitcat, M; Hunter, J.E; Malata, C.M

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of a sciatic neuroma presenting forty years after above knee amputation. Patients developing neuroma following a limb amputation can present with stump pain which is commonly resistant to medical intervention. The length of interval from the initial injury to presentation is widely variable. Diagnosis relies on clinical suspicion and accurate assessment, radiological imaging and, if indicated, surgical exploration. MRI provides a better soft tissue definition than CT and is more accurate in identifying small lesions than ultrasound. The aim of treatment for symptomatic neuroma is pain relief and improvement of function. This is often achieved by surgical excision. PMID:20224738

  14. [Neurostimulation for treatment of headaches].

    PubMed

    Diener, H C; Rabe, K; Gerwig, M; Müller, O; Sure, U; Gaul, C

    2012-08-01

    Only a small portion of patients with primary headaches are refractory to treatment concerning relief of headache episodes and prophylactic therapy of headaches. New methods of central and peripheral neurostimulation have been developed for these patients during the last few years and experience was mostly gained in small case series. The following overview gives a description of new stimulation methods, such as deep brain stimulation, occipital nerve stimulation, vagal nerve stimulation, neurostimulation of the sphenopalatine ganglion and transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:22801664

  15. Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This symposium reflects on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, its role over the next four decades and beyond. The topics include: 1) Perspectives on the Past Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; 2) The Experience of Spaceflight; 3) Perspectives on the Next Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; and 4) The International Space Station and the Future of Human Spaceflight.

  16. Neurostimulation for chronic cluster headache

    PubMed Central

    Kaube, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Neurostimulation techniques for the treatment of primary headache syndromes, particularly of chronic cluster headache, have received much interest in recent years. Occipital nerve stimulation (ONS) has yielded favourable clinical results and, despite the limited numbers of published cases, is becoming a routine treatment for refractory chronic cluster headache in specialized centres. Meanwhile, other promising techniques such as spinal cord stimulation (SCS) or sphenopalate ganglion stimulation have emerged. In this article the current state of clinical research for neurostimulation techniques for chronic cluster headache is reviewed. PMID:22590481

  17. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  18. Forty years on from Aerobee 150: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Pounds, Ken

    2002-09-15

    X-ray astronomy has evolved from a chance beginning 40 years ago to become a major branch of observational astronomy, underpinning a revolution in high-energy astrophysics. The intervening development can be seen in three phases, starting in the 1960s with a decade of pioneering exploration with sounding rockets, and consolidated by further discoveries with a series of dedicated small satellites, led by Uhuru, building up to NASA's HEAO-1 and Einstein Observatory missions in 1978-1981. The remaining years of the last century saw X-ray astronomy become a broad international effort with strong contributions from Europe and Japan balancing a temporary loss of momentum in the NASA programme. A brief account of those early years in X-ray astronomy is given, from a personal (UK) perspective, as an introduction to the review of the current status of the discipline, which was the subject of the Discussion Meeting. PMID:12804236

  19. Forty Years of Organization Studies: Reflections from a Micro Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Lyman W.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews 40 years of organizational studies from a micro perspective representing the author's roots in psychology. The field's major accomplishment is its interdisciplinarity. Organizational studies helped put organizational management under critical scrutiny and demonstrate the futility of devising simplistic solutions to organizational and…

  20. Forty Years of Library Automation: A Personal Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Line, Maurice B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of one person's involvement with computer systems in libraries over the last 40 years. Design/methodology/approach: Personal memories corroborated with published articles. Findings: There have been very many developments in libraries in a comparatively short period of time as a result of using computer systems, and…

  1. Reflections on Finally Becoming a Professor after Forty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, J. Foster

    2016-01-01

    I wrote this reflective piece in 1999 as I was assuming my first full-time position as a professor with limited administrative responsibilities at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). After 30-plus years in administrative roles in higher education that provided the opportunity to teach on a part-time basis only, I quickly became aware of…

  2. Circulation Autumn: Some Thoughts on Forty Fulfillment Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Brian

    1998-01-01

    Discusses some of the people and events that influenced academic journal publishing in the past 30-40 years and how this may affect the future. Topics considered include changes in printing technology, automation of accounting and subscriber information, economic considerations, library collection development and funding, and electronic journals.…

  3. Forty six years of health financing in Fiji (1962 - 2008).

    PubMed

    Lingam, Dharam; Roberts, Graham

    2009-11-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the Fiji Ministry of Health (MoH) budget for the last 46 years, its share of the national budget and annual percentage of GDP, its revenues, per-capita health expenditure, staff costs, and the performance on key population health indicators and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite annual increases in dollar terms, the proportion of GDP allocated to the national public health system has fallen from 4% to 2.6% over the last 15 years. Consequently the national performance on key health service indicators and MDGs is declining and health staff are migrating. We outline factors to retrieve the public health system in Fiji, such as the need for political commitment to the health of the people, public policy debate on the nature of the health system, the revision of hospital charges, the need to protect the poor by strengthening means testing, and propose compulsory health insurance for the employed. PMID:20443521

  4. Forty Years of Psychological and Psychiatric Selection of NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to chronicle the history and development of the psychological selection process for NASA astronauts. For over 40 years, astronaut applicants have undergone rigorous medical testing to qualify for candidacy. Psychological selection has an equally long history, dating back to 1958, when psychological requirements were established for astronauts during the Mercury program. However, for many years, psychological selection consisted of psychiatric screening for psychopathology. As we approach the day in which the first ISS crew will live and work in space for months at a time, it becomes clear that both the psychological criteria and the selection system to detect said criteria have changed. This presentation discusses the events that led to the current, dual-phase selection system that is used to select individuals into the astronaut corps. Future directions for psychological selection will also be addressed.

  5. Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River Floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W.C.; Dixon, M.D.; Scott, M.L.; Rabbe, L.; Larson, G.; Volke, M.; Werner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wetdry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 510 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting. ?? 2012 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  6. Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Carter; Dixon, Mark D.; Scott, Michael L.; Rabbe, Lisa; Larson, Gary; Volke, Malia; Werner, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wet-dry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 5-10 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting.

  7. Forty years of research--its impact on dental practice.

    PubMed

    Mandel, I D

    1989-03-01

    With the multiple use of fluorides the philosophical basis of dental practice shifted from the restoration of the dentition to the prevention of the initiation of dental disease. In the United States, the profound impact on caries in children, with 50 per cent of the 5-17 year olds caries-free, has changed the relative distribution of the various dental services and the pattern of dental care. The child orientation has been superceded by greater attention to the restorative and other needs of the middle-aged and geriatric population. The research-generated insights into the role of plaque in the periodontal diseases and the wide-scale efforts to improve oral hygiene via plaque control have resulted in a marked reduction in gingivitis and manageable levels of periodontis in the employed population below the age of 65. More advanced disease can be treated more effectively because of new diagnostic procedures and new technologies as well as the use of anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory agents. Major research advances in oral biology, oral medicine and oral diagnosis have extended both the depth and breadth of preventive dental practice. The scope of preventive dentistry now goes well beyond caries and periodontal disease to include: (1) injury, oro-facial defects, malocclusion and temporomandibular joint dysfunction; (2) oral mucosal lesions; (3) systemic diseases with oral manifestations and (4) hazards associated with dental practice. Dentistry is now being practised with an ordered set of priorities. PMID:2703266

  8. Still "Unfinished Education": Latino Students Forty Years after the Mexican American Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal-Gonzalez, Lizely

    2012-01-01

    The onus of this dissertation was to evaluate the educational conditions of Mexican American students forty years after the "Mexican American Education Study" published a six-volume study detailing the findings of the "Mexican American Education Study" (1970-1974). The "MAES" study focused on five southwest states…

  9. Learning from the Tragedy at Kent State: Forty Years after May 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Erica

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the learning opportunities provided by the tragedy at Kent State University forty years ago for educators and learners. Four students were slain and nine students were wounded by the bullets of National Guardsmen who had been sent to quell anti-war demonstrations and vandalism. The events of May 4, 1970,…

  10. Forty years abuse of baking soda, rhabdomyolysis, glomerulonephritis, hypertension leading to renal failure: a case report.

    PubMed

    Forslund, Terje; Koistinen, Arvo; Anttinen, Jorma; Wagner, Bodo; Miettinen, Marja

    2008-01-01

    We present a patient who had ingested sodium bicarbonate for treatment of alcoholic dyspepsia during forty years at increasing doses. During the last year he had used more than 50 grams daily. He presented with metabolic alkalosis, epileptic convulsions, subdural hematoma, hypertension and rhabdomyolysis with end stage renal failure, for which he had to be given regular intermittent hemodialysis treatment. Untreated hypertension and glomerulonephritis was probably present prior to all these acute incidents. Examination of the kidney biopsy revealed mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis and arterial wall thickening causing nephrosclerosis together with interstitial calcinosis. The combination of all these pathologic changes might be responsible for the development of progressive chronic renal failure ending up with the need for continuous intermittent hemodialysis treatment. PMID:24179353

  11. Channels of synthesis forty years on: integrated analysis of spatial economic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewings, Geoffrey J. D.; Nazara, Suahasil; Dridi, Chokri

    . Isard's vision of integrated modeling that was laid out in the 1960s book Methods of Regional Science provided a road map for the development of more sophisticated analysis of spatial economic systems. Some forty years later, we look back at this vision and trace developments in a sample of three areas - demographic-econometric integrated modeling, spatial interaction modeling, and environmental-economic modeling. Attention will be focused on methodological advances and their motivation by new developments in theory as well as innovations in the applications of these models to address new policy challenges. Underlying the discussion will be an evaluation of the way in which spatial issues have been addressed, ranging from concerns with regionalization to issues of spillovers and spatial correlation.

  12. Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong.

    PubMed

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2005-08-01

    Forty-five years ago, Roger Sperry, Joseph Bogen and I embarked on what are now known as the modern split-brain studies. These experiments opened up new frontiers in brain research and gave rise to much of what we know about hemispheric specialization and integration. The latest developments in split-brain research build on the groundwork laid by those early studies. Split-brain methodology, on its own and in conjunction with neuroimaging, has yielded insights into the remarkable regional specificity of the corpus callosum as well as into the integrative role of the callosum in the perception of causality and in our perception of an integrated sense of self. PMID:16062172

  13. Neurostimulation of the Gastrointestinal Tract: Review of Recent Developments

    PubMed Central

    Abell, Thomas L.; Chen, Jiande; Emmanuel, Anton; Jolley, Christopher; Sarela, Abeezar I.; Törnblom, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Neurostimulation is one manifestation of neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This manuscript reviews the history of neurostimulation of the GI tract with emphasis on current methods of stimulation. Upper GI disorders can be modulated with both temporary (placed endoscopically or surgically) or permanent (placed surgically) gastric electrical stimulation (GES) devices. The current gastrointestinal (GI) neurostimulation of stomach (GES) devices have been used in both children and adults and some patients have been followed in excess of 15 years with good long-term results. Similar GES devices have also been used for a variety of lower GI disorders, including constipation and fecal incontinence, for a number of years. Based on these recent developments, the future uses of neurostimulation in the GI tract are discussed with an emphasis on new applications and innovations. PMID:25581846

  14. Forty Years of E/PO: Can You Have it All? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    In forty years of education and public outreach (E/PO), 25 years of which have been funded by various NSF and NASA programs, several lessons (some tough) have been learned. We have done teacher workshops, teacher semester-long courses, student summer programs, outreach fairs and exhibits, and generally the response of the participants has been very high. Generally the longer programs reach fewer people but in greater depth and impact; the shorter programs reach more, but with lesser depth. This paper shows some of the statistics of learning in our various venues, include teacher courses, online material, and planetarium shows. We also performed an online survey of users of NASA materials and contrasted with a random group of 144 adults. We find that teachers and museum educators have nearly all been "significantly" or "changed my life" impacted by NASA educational materials, and even 24% of the general public have as well, with 14% of the general public reporting that NASA encouraged them to study STEM and go into STEM careers. Virtually all said that NASA should continue producing educational materials. Some of the stumbling blocks include: the difficulty of obtaining funds, the general lack of recognition for outreach in tenure decisions, the difficulty of trying to keep active in research while also active in outreach; and the general problem of "having a life" while juggling many responsibilities. Yet it is worth it!

  15. A case study of systemic curricular reform: A forty-year history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, Timothy Alan

    What follows is a description of the development of a particular inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum program and how its theoretical underpinnings positively influenced a school district's (K-12) science program and also impacted district- and state-wide curriculum reform initiatives. The district's science program has evolved since the inception of the inquiry-based elementary school science curriculum reform forty years ago. Therefore, a historical case study, which incorporated grounded theory methodology, was used to convey the forty-year development of a science curriculum reform effort and its systemic influences. Data for this study were collected primarily through artifacts, such as technical and non-technical documents, and supported and augmented with interviews. Fifteen people comprised the interview consortium with professional responsibilities including (a) administrative roles, such as superintendents, assistant superintendents, principals, and curriculum consultants/coordinators; (b) classroom roles, such as elementary and secondary school teachers who taught science; (c) partnership roles, such as university faculty who collaborated with those in administrative and classroom positions within the district; and (d) the co-director of SCIS who worked with the SCIS trial center director. Data were analyzed and coded using the constant comparative method. The analysis of data uncovered five categories or levels in which the curriculum reform evolved throughout its duration. These themes are Initiation, Education, Implementation, Confirmation, and Continuation. These five categories lead to several working hypotheses that supported the sustaining and continuing of a K-12 science curriculum reform effort. These components are a committed visionary; a theory base of education; forums promoting the education of the theory base components; shared-decision making; a university-school partnership; a core group of committed educators and teachers

  16. Characterization of Forty Seven Years of Particulate Chemical Composition in the Finnish Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, James

    Forty seven years of weekly total suspended particle filters collected at Kevo, Finland from October 1964 through 2010 by the Finnish Meteorological Institute were analyzed for near-total trace elements, soluble trace elements, black carbon (BC), and major ions and methane sulfonic acid (MSA). Kevo is located in Northern Finland, 350 km north of the Arctic Circle. The samples from 1964-1978 were collected with Whatman 42 cellulous filters and the samples from 1979-2010 collected on Whatman GF/A glass-fiber filters. A portion of the filters was microwave acid-digested (ad) and analyzed for near-total trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Another portion was water extracted (we) and analyzed for soluble trace elements by ICP-MS and ionic species by ion chromatography (IC). Black carbon (BC) was determined using optical and thermal optical techniques at SUNY Albany. A clear seasonal trend with winter/spring maxima and summer minima is observed for most species attributed to enhanced transport of pollutants from anthropogenic mid-latitude sources to the Arctic in the winter and early spring. Compared to more remote Arctic sampling sites, species of anthropogenic origin (V, Co, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, SO4) have significantly higher concentrations and a less pronounced seasonality. High concentrations of Cu (14.1 ng/m3), Ni (0.97 ng/m3), and Co (0.04 ng/m3) indicate the influence of non-ferrous metal smelters on the Kola Peninsula, although Cu unexpectedly did not correlate with Ni or Co. Ni and Co were highly correlated. Significant long-term decreasing trends were detected for most species. All constituents except Sn-ad, Re-ad, Sn-we, Mo-we, V-we, have significant (p < 0.001) decreasing trends from 1964-2010. The largest decreases were Sb (-3.90 %/yr), Pb (-3.87 %/yr), Mn (-3.45 %/yr), Cd (-3.42 %/yr), and Ca (-3.13 %/yr ). As, Pb, and Cd concentrations at Kevo were consistent with the reported time-trends of European

  17. Forty Years Of Artificial Selection In U.S. Holstein Cattle Had Genome-wide Signatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome signatures of 40 years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle were identified by comparing allele frequencies and extended haplotype homozygosity in a Holstein resource population composed of a contemporary group, a group born in 1975-1985, and a group unselected since 1964. Results ...

  18. FORTY YEARS OF SCHOOL PLANT DISSERTATIONS. A REVIEW WITH SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLASEN, ROBERT E.

    A BIBLIOGRAPHIC REVIEW OF PUBLISHED AND UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATIONS RELATED TO SCHOOL PLANTS IS COMPILED BY YEARS BEGINNING WITH STUDIES PRODUCED IN 1921 AND IS CROSS INDEXED BY TOPIC. IT REVIEWS THE SCHOOL PLANT PROBLEMS MOST INVESTIGATED BY STUDENTS. A BRIEF HISTORY OF SCHOOL BUILDING DEVELOPMENT IS PRESENTED IN LIGHT OF CORRESPONDING ECONOMIC AND…

  19. Forty Years on: Presidential Address to the History of Education Society, London, 4 November 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This paper, based on the author's presidential address to the History of Education Society in November 2006, explores aspects of continuity and change over the past 40 years with particular reference to educational reform and the development of the History of Education Society itself. It assesses the significance of the work of the playwright Alan…

  20. Forty Years of Finnish Pre-School Education: The Development of Curricula between 1972 and 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turunen, Tuija A.; Maatta, Kaarina; Uusiautti, Satu

    2012-01-01

    Since 2001 in Finland, all six year olds have had the right to free pre-school education, and almost all pre-school-aged children take advantage of this opportunity. The purpose of this article is to dissect the development of Finnish pre-school education curricula within the societal context and within the changes in trends of curriculum planning…

  1. Forty eight years of rice improvement in Texas since the release of cultivar Bluebonnet in 1944

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of Texas rice breeding to changes in cultivars released during the 50 years since its first cultivar release in 1942. Twenty-three cultivars were evaluated in three environments and two N levels. Days to heading, plant height, whole and t...

  2. Past, Present and Future: Forty Years of Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Christine; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    We cast a retrospective view on 40 years of publishing the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, founded in 1974. The journal is peer-reviewed, has appeared regularly since its foundation, and continues to attract original research papers, mostly by Mexican and Latin American authors. We share some musings about the future of our journal, in view of recent developments in the scientific publishing field.

  3. Forty-Six Years of IRE: A Statistical and Documentary Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwippert, Knut

    2002-03-01

    This paper surveys the articles published in IRE between 1955and 2000, analysing and comparing a range of data. Variables analysedinclude the gender and nationality of the authors, the countries andsubjects dealt with, the research methodologies used, and the way inwhich the articles reflect political ideological and social changes.This exercise, which has never before been undertaken in IRE,provides a detailed documentation of significant trends and developmentsin the journal over 46 years.

  4. Forty-five Years of e{sup +}e{sup -} Annihilation Physics: 1956 to 2001

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Richter, B.

    1984-08-01

    The history of e{sup +}e{sup -} physics in the 1950's and 1960's is reviewed, followed by some highlights of the spectacular discoveries in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation made during the 1970's. The consolidation of knowledge during the last few years is summarized. Some predictions are made for the field of e{sup +}e{sup -} physics for the next decade and beyond. (LEW)

  5. Forty-Year Analysis of Colonoscopic Surveillance Program for Neoplasia in Ulcerative Colitis: An Updated Overview

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chang-Ho Ryan; Rutter, Matthew D; Askari, Alan; Lee, Gui Han; Warusavitarne, Janindra; Moorghen, Morgan; Thomas-Gibson, Siwan; Saunders, Brian P; Graham, Trevor A; Hart, Ailsa L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study provides an overview of the largest and longest-running colonoscopic surveillance program for colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: Data were obtained from medical records, endoscopy, and histology reports. Primary end points were defined as death, colectomy, withdrawal from surveillance, or censor date (1 January 2013). Results: A total of 1,375 UC patients were followed up for 15,234 patient-years (median, 11 years per patient). CRC was detected in 72 patients (incidence rate (IR), 4.7 per 1,000 patient-years). Time-trend analysis revealed that although there was significant decrease in incidence of colectomy performed for dysplasia (linear regression, R=−0.43; P=0.007), IR of advanced CRC and interval CRC have steadily decreased over past four decades (Pearson's correlation, −0.99; P=0.01 for both trends). The IR of early CRC has increased 2.5-fold in the current decade compared with past decade (χ2, P=0.045); however, its 10-year survival rate was high (79.6%). The IR of dysplasia has similarly increased (χ2, P=0.01), potentially attributable to the recent use of chromoendoscopy that was twice more effective at detecting dysplasia compared with white-light endoscopy (χ2, P<0.001). CRCs were frequently accompanied by synchronous CRC or spatially distinct dysplasia (37.5%). Finally, the risk of CRC was not significantly different between “indefinite” or low-grade dysplasia (log-rank, P=0.78). Conclusions: Colonoscopic surveillance may have a significant role in reducing the risk of advanced and interval CRC while allowing more patients to retain their colon for longer. Given the ongoing risk of early CRC, patients with any grade of dysplasia who are managed endoscopically should be monitored closely with advanced techniques. PMID:25823771

  6. Forty-five years of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation physics: 1956 to 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1985-04-01

    The history of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics in the 1950's and 1960's is reviewed, followed by some highlights of the spectacular discoveries in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation made during the 1970's. The consolidation of knowledge during the last few years is summarized. Some predictions are made for the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics for the next decade and beyond. (LEW)

  7. Forty-five years of open plan office experience: An unusual case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, Dennis A.

    2005-09-01

    The open plan office design concept has been around for at least 45 years. Through research, design, and practical experience, the basic concepts and parameters that impact acoustics and speech privacy have been fairly well developed and documented. The psychological aspects of human response and expectation to open plan environments, and the conceptual designs that emerge from the architect and interior designers are frontiers that still allow for ongoing study. A large open plan project completed during the dot-com bubble allowed an opportunity to design and experience an unusual open plan environment that utilized exposed sound masking system loudspeakers and minimal sound absorption.

  8. Forty Years of Dengue Surveillance at a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, 1973-2012.

    PubMed

    Nisalak, Ananda; Clapham, Hannah E; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Klungthong, Chonticha; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Fernandez, Stefan; Reiser, Julia; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Macareo, Louis R; Lessler, Justin T; Cummings, Derek A T; Yoon, In-Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Long-term observational studies can provide valuable insights into overall dengue epidemiology. Here, we present analysis of dengue cases at a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, during a 40-year period from 1973 to 2012. Data were analyzed from 25,715 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection. Several long-term trends in dengue disease were identified including an increase in mean age of hospitalized cases from an average of 7-8 years, an increase after 1990 in the proportion of post-primary cases for DENV-1 and DENV-3, and a decrease in the proportion of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome cases in primary and post-primary cases over time. Exploratory mechanistic analysis of these observed trends considered changes in diagnostic methods, demography, force of infection, and Japanese encephalitis vaccination as possible explanations. Thailand is an important setting for studying DENV transmission as it has a "mature" dengue epidemiology with a strong surveillance system in place since the early 1970s. We characterized changes in dengue epidemiology over four decades, and possible impact of demographic and other changes in the human population. These results may inform other countries where similar changes in transmission and population demographics may now or may soon be occurring. PMID:27022151

  9. The ODAS Italia 1 buoy: More than forty years of activity in the Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepa, Elisa; Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Faimali, Marco; Traverso, Pierluigi; Cavaleri, Luigi

    2015-06-01

    The Ligurian Sea plays a relevant role in driving both the circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea and the weather and climate of the area. In order to better understand the peculiarities of this basin, the Oceanographic Data Acquisition System (ODAS) Italia 1 buoy was developed and deployed in the early '70s. Throughout the years, the buoy has been fitted with updated measuring and data acquiring systems. Since 2003 the buoy has been part of the Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array network of fixed open ocean observatories with the W1-M3A identifier and presently constitutes one of the Mediterranean sites of the European FixO3 network. Recently, a deep-ocean sub-surface mooring line was, and is, deployed close to it in relation to specific projects. This multidisciplinary observing system is able to perform both long-term operational and ad-hoc monitoring from the lower atmosphere to the deep ocean. It is used for analysis of air-sea interaction processes, study of the physical proprieties of the water column, bio-geo-chemical monitoring of the sea, meteorological and oceanographic model evaluation, calibration of remotely sensed measurements, and development of innovative marine monitoring technologies. After reporting some historical notes and the description of the observing system, this paper summarises and reviews the main oceanographic and atmospheric studies performed during the last 15 years using the data acquired on board.

  10. Forty years of inoculating seedlings with truffle fungi: past and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Murat, Claude

    2015-01-01

    The first commercialization of seedlings inoculated with truffle fungi occurred in 1973. Over the last 40 years, considerable progress has been made relative to quality control for inoculated seedlings. A recently published paper by Andrés-Alpuente and colleagues (Mycorrhiza 24:29-37, 2014) reviewed and tested the different methods of mycorrhization assessment currently used in Europe. The aim of this paper is to augment their findings by adding information to the discussion about the most important steps in seedling quality control. Additionally, the history of seedlings inoculated with truffles, procedures currently used in France for seedling control quality, and a reflection on future research aimed at increasing truffle production will be presented. PMID:24989673

  11. A career in culture and psychiatry research: reflections on forty-plus years.

    PubMed

    Beiser, Morton

    2011-04-01

    The report chronicles a 44-year career in cultural psychiatry spent at Duke, Cornell, Harvard, the University of British Columbia, the University of Toronto, and Ryerson Universities. It describes my studies in a rural community in Nova Scotia, in traditional villages in Senegal, West Africa, on Canadian First Nations reserves and American Indian reservations, in refugee camps in Southeast Asia, among immigrant and refugee communities in Canada, in Ethiopia, and in Israel. The report summarizes major findings resulting from these research efforts, and discusses contributions to theory as well as potential implications for practice as well as policy. The article concludes with reflections about the present state of cultural psychiatry, raises concerns about where the field seems to be in danger of going wrong, and offers suggestions about what needs to be done next. PMID:21511843

  12. Forty-Year Calibrated Record of Earth-Surface Reflected Radiance from Landsat: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Helder, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Sensors on Landsat satellites have been collecting images of the Earth's surface for nearly 40 years. These images have been invaluable for characterizing and detecting changes in the land cover and land use of the world. Although initially conceived as primarily picture generating sensors, even the early sensors were radiometrically calibrated and spectrally characterized prior to launch and incorporated some capabilities to monitor their radiometric calibration once on orbit. Recently, as the focus of studies has shifted to monitoring Earth surface parameters over significant periods of time, serious attention has been focused toward bringing the data from all these sensors onto a common radiometric scale over this 40-year period. This effort started with the most recent systems and then was extended back in time. Landsat-7 ETM+, the best-characterized sensor of the series prior to launch and once on orbit, and the most stable system to date, was chosen to serve as the reference. The Landsat-7 project was the first of the series to build an image assessment system into its ground system, allowing systematic characterization of its sensors and data. Second, the Landsat-5 TM (still operating at the time of the Landsat-7 launch and continues to operate) calibration history was reconstructed based on its internal calibrator, vicarious calibrations, pseudo-invariant sites and a tie to Landsat-7 ETM+ at the time of the commissioning of Landsat-7. This process was performed in two iterations: the earlier one relied primarily on the TM internal calibrator. When this was found to have some deficiencies, a revised calibration was based more on pseudo-invariant sites, though the internal calibrator was still used to establish the short-term variations in response due to icing build up on the cold focal plane. As time progressed, a capability to monitor the Landsat-5 TM was added to the image assessment system. The Landsat-4 TM, which operated from 1982-1992, was the third

  13. [The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Willemjan

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens. PMID:22586775

  14. Heart and Lung Metastases From Endometrial Stromal Sarcoma in a Forty-Two-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Shakerian, Behnam; Mandegar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi, Bahieh; Roshanali, Farideh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS) is a malignant intrauterine tumor that rarely presents with distant metastasis. Simultaneous lung and cardiac metastases from LG-ESS is also an extremely rare event. Case Presentation: A 42-year-old woman presented with dyspnea and exercise intolerance. She had a history of hysterectomy and left salpingoophorectomy. She underwent second laparotomy as well as right oophorectomy after new finding of vaginal mass with histopathologic diagnosis of LG-ESS. Cardiac imaging techniques demonstrated tumoral process in the right atrium and ventricle, coronary sinus, and pulmonary outlet tract as well as multiple metastases in the lung fields. Successful complete surgical resection of the metastatic tumor in the right side of the heart and then radiotherapy were done. After 28 months, follow-up examination revealed no abnormality. Conclusions: We describe the first documented case of isolated intracardiac and lung metastases of a LG-ESS without concurrent abdominal or caval metastasis. PMID:26436070

  15. Homicide among Indigenous South Australians: a forty-year study (1969-2008).

    PubMed

    Temlett, Julia; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    A retrospective review of homicide cases among Aboriginal people in South Australia examined at Forensic Science SA was undertaken over a 40-year period from 1969 to 2008. A total of 90 Indigenous homicide victims were identified compared to 599 non-Indigenous victims over the same time period. Although homicide rates have fallen, the Indigenous homicide rate (ranging from 73.5 to 223.97 per 100,000) significantly exceeded the non-Indigenous rate (ranging from 8.16 to 12.6 per 100,000) for all decades (p<0.001). The most common methods of homicide in the Indigenous population involved blunt force and sharp force trauma, with gunshot, strangulation and other forms of homicides being encountered less often. While lack of access to firearms may explain the lower numbers of gunshot deaths it would not explain the low numbers of deaths due to strangulation. Considerable variability may, therefore, exist in the types of unnatural deaths that may be found in different cultural and ethnic groups, even within the same community. PMID:23084305

  16. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: regional policy-industry interactions with global impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, Monica; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank; Guizzardi, Diego; Sindelarova, Katerina; Muntean, Marilena; Van Dingenen, Rita; Granier, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The EDGARv4.3.1 (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) global anthropogenic emissions inventory of gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emissions scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in energy consumption and efficiency, technology progress and end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields at European and global scale. The reference EDGARv4.3.1 emissions include observed and reported changes in activity data, fuel consumption and air pollution abatement technologies over the past 4 decades, combined with Tier 1 and region-specific Tier 2 emission factors. Two further retrospective scenarios assess the interplay of policy and industry. The highest emission STAG_TECH scenario assesses the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe reduction measures in the European Union, by considering historical fuel consumption, along with a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors since 1970, and assuming no further abatement measures and improvement imposed by European emission standards. The lowest emission STAG_ENERGY scenario evaluates the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy consumption since the year 1970, but assuming the technological development, end-of-pipe reductions, fuel mix and energy efficiency of 2010. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject to multi-pollutant European Union Air Quality regulations. Stagnation of technology and air pollution reduction measures at 1970 levels would have led to 129 % (or factor 2.3) higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions in Europe (EU27), demonstrating the large role that technology has

  17. Long Term Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases at NOAA - a Forty Year Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory and its precursor organizations have been monitoring trends and distributions of greenhouse gases and other climatically relevant constituents in the atmosphere for over 40 years (http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd). The focus of these measurements has been to obtain reliable records of global trends and distributions, but the experimental design and use of these measurements have advanced over time with evolving scientific questions. In earlier days, measurements and data products were global in nature (e.g., Annual Greenhouse Gas Index, http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi). Later, they addressed intra-hemispheric properties, continental contributions, and eventually regional sources and sinks (e.g., http://CarbonTracker.noaa.gov). Today, and into this century, scientific questions continue to progress and the observation systems will need to progress accordingly. Critical questions likely will center on greenhouse gas emission reduction efforts, ecosystem feedbacks, and climate surprises. Regional information will become increasingly important for supporting greenhouse gas emission reduction efforts, and this information must be accurate, precise, and without bias. With emerging diverse, regionalized efforts to monitor greenhouse gases, comparability of measurements and measurement systems becomes more important than ever. NOAA, with its long-standing networks and its role as the WMO Central Calibration Laboratory for the major greenhouse gases, is well positioned to provide the linkages necessary to assure that regional measurements are comparable. Policy-makers, businesses, and regulatory organizations will need the best information available for decision-making. This presentation will identify major, climate-relevant findings that have come from NOAA's networks and those of others over the past several decades and will address the long-term monitoring needs to support decision-making over the next decades as society begins to

  18. Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the First Forty Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Lane E.

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the great achievements of civilizations and cultures have been recorded in lists of dates and events. But to look only at the machinery, discoveries, or milestones is to miss the value of these achievements. Each goal achieved or discovery or made represents a supreme effort on the part of individual people who came and worked together for a purpose greater than themselves. Driven by an innate curiosity of the spirit, we have built civilizations and discovered new worlds, always reaching out beyond what we knew or thought was possible. These efforts may have used ships or machinery, but the achievement was that of the humans who made those machines possible- remarkable people willing to endure discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and the risk of failure in the hope of finding out something new. This is the case with the history of the Goddard Space Flight Center. This publication traces the legacy of successes, risks, disappointments and internationally recognized triumphs of the Center's first 40 years. It is a story of technological achievement and scientific discovery; of reaching back to the dawn of time and opening up a new set of eyes on our own planet Earth. In the end, it is not a story about machinery or discoveries, but a story about ourselves. If we were able to step off our planet, and if we continue to discover new mysteries and better technology, it is because the people who work at Goddard always had a passion for exploration and the dedication to make it happen. The text that follows is a testimony to the challenges people at the Goddard Space Flight Center have faced and overcome over almost half a century. Today, we stand on the threshold of a new and equally challenging era. It will once again test our ingenuity, skills, and flexibility as we find new ways of working with our colleagues in industry, government, and academia. Doing more with less is every bit as ambitious as designing the first science instrument to study the

  19. SEMPRE: Forty Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gordon; Crickmore, Leon; Plummeridge, Charles; Sergeant, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    This historical account traces the beginnings of the Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) to the founding of the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education (SRPMME) in 1972, which in turn had evolved from Arnold Bentley's Research in Music Education conferences instituted in 1966. The paper charts the…

  20. Forty Years and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarris, Greg

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author aims to answer three questions that Ken Lincoln asked in the introduction to his book. Where have Indians come? What have they learned? And what lies ahead? The author argues that many Indian tribes have power now with their business opportunities. Things are changing in many ways for them. They can say what they want…

  1. Neurostimulation for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shin, Samuel S; Dixon, C Edward; Okonkwo, David O; Richardson, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant public health problem and is a leading cause of death and disability in many countries. Durable treatments for neurological function deficits following TBI have been elusive, as there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutic modalities for mitigating the consequences of TBI. Neurostimulation strategies using various forms of electrical stimulation have recently been applied to treat functional deficits in animal models and clinical stroke trials. The results from these studies suggest that neurostimulation may augment improvements in both motor and cognitive deficits after brain injury. Several studies have taken this approach in animal models of TBI, showing both behavioral enhancement and biological evidence of recovery. There have been only a few studies using deep brain stimulation (DBS) in human TBI patients, and future studies are warranted to validate the feasibility of this technique in the clinical treatment of TBI. In this review, the authors summarize insights from studies employing neurostimulation techniques in the setting of brain injury. Moreover, they relate these findings to the future prospect of using DBS to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits following TBI. PMID:25170668

  2. The peripatetic cultural psychiatrist: reflections on a forty-five year longitudinal study of a South India village.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2011-04-01

    This article presents one woman's odyssey, which began with a career in linguistics and later incorporated cultural psychiatry. While engaged in fieldwork as a linguist, studying the syntactic structure of Havyaka Kannada and dialectal accommodation among the castes in a South India village, I developed language skills and rapport with the village residents. Then I transferred my community-wide rapport to research on depression as a cultural psychiatrist. The articles I wrote on depression and its relationship to socialized passivity and endorsed assertiveness in progressive generations of South Indian women, illustrate the impact of change on mental health. The cultural background from my community-based longitudinal study of more than forty-five years has contributed to my understanding disorders in Indian patients living in a globalized world. PMID:21511853

  3. David Blackwell’s Forty Years in the Idaho Desert, The Foundation for 21st Century Geothermal Research

    SciTech Connect

    McLing, Travis; McCurry, Mike; Cannon, Cody; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Wood, Thomas; Podgorney, Robert; Welhan, John; Mines, Greg; Mattson, Earl; Wood, Rachel; Palmer, Carl

    2015-04-01

    Dr. David Blackwell has had a profound influence on geo-thermal exploration and R&D in Idaho. Forty years have elapsed since the first Southern Methodist University (SMU) temperature logging truck rolled onto the high desert in Southern Idaho, yet even after so much time has elapsed, most recent and ongoing geothermal R&D can trace its roots to the foundational temperature studies led by Dr. Blackwell. We believe that the best way to honor any scientist is to see their work carried forward by others. As this paper demonstrates, it has been an easy task to find a host of Idaho researchers and students eager to contribute to this tribute paper. We organize this paper by ongoing or recent projects that continue to benefit left to Idaho by Dr. David Blackwell.

  4. Building on and Honoring Forty Years of PBL Scholarship from Howard Barrows: A Scientometric, Large-Scale Data, and Visualization-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xian, Hanjun; Madhavan, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Over the past forty years, Howard Barrows' contributions to PBL research have influenced and guided educational research and practice in a diversity of domains. It is necessary to make visible to all PBL scholars what has been accomplished, what is perceived as significant, and what is the scope of applicability for Barrows' groundbreaking…

  5. Genetic progress resulting from forty-three years of breeding of the carioca common bean in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barili, L D; Vale, N M; Moura, L M; Paula, R G; Silva, F F; Carneiro, J E S

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate 40 common bean cultivars recommended by various Brazilian research institutions between 1970 and 2013 and estimate the genetic progress obtained for grain yield and other agronomic traits. Additionally, we proposed a bi-segmented nonlinear regression model to infer the year in which breeding began to show significant gains in Brazil. The experiment was carried out in Viçosa/MG and Coimbra/MG, in the dry and winter seasons of 2013. For this, a randomized complete block design with three replications was employed. The following traits were evaluated: number of pods per plant (NPP); number of seeds per pod (NSP); 1000-seed weight (W1000); grain yield (Yield); plant architecture (Arch); and grain aspect (GA). Genotypic means were estimated over years using linear mixed models, and genetic gains were estimated using bi-segmented nonlinear regression models. In summary, the methodology proposed in the present study indicated that bean breeding programs in Brazil began to influence Yield beginning in 1990, resulting in a gain of 6.74% per year (68.15 kg/ha per year). The years from which estimated genetic progress for NPP (5.62% per year), NSP (4.59% per year), W1000 (2.08% per year), and GA (1.36% per year) began to increase were 1994, 1990, 1989, and 1986, respectively. PMID:27525922

  6. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: Final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Christianne N; King-Stephens, David; Massey, Andrew D; Nair, Dileep R; Jobst, Barbara C; Barkley, Gregory L; Salanova, Vicenta; Cole, Andrew J; Smith, Michael C; Gwinn, Ryder P; Skidmore, Christopher; Van Ness, Paul C; Bergey, Gregory K; Park, Yong D; Miller, Ian; Geller, Eric; Rutecki, Paul A; Zimmerman, Richard; Spencer, David C; Goldman, Alica; Edwards, Jonathan C; Leiphart, James W; Wharen, Robert E; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Worrell, Gregory A; Gross, Robert E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Duckrow, Robert B; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Bazil, Carl; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Sun, Felice T; Courtney, Tracy A; Seale, Cairn G; Morrell, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. Methods Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS System). Subjects with medically intractable partial onset seizures from one or two foci were implanted, and 1 month postimplant were randomized 1:1 to active or sham stimulation. After the fifth postimplant month, all subjects received responsive stimulation in an open label period (OLP) to complete 2 years of postimplant follow-up. Results All 191 subjects were randomized. The percent change in seizures at the end of the blinded period was −37.9% in the active and −17.3% in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.012, Generalized Estimating Equations). The median percent reduction in seizures in the OLP was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years, which represents a progressive and significant improvement with time (p < 0.0001). The serious adverse event rate was not different between subjects receiving active and sham stimulation. Adverse events were consistent with the known risks of an implanted medical device, seizures, and of other epilepsy treatments. There were no adverse effects on neuropsychological function or mood. Significance Responsive stimulation to the seizure focus reduced the frequency of partial-onset seizures acutely, showed improving seizure reduction over time, was well tolerated, and was acceptably safe. The RNS System provides an additional treatment option for patients with medically intractable partial-onset seizures. PMID:24621228

  7. Effects of Child Care on Young Children: Forty Years of Research. Early Childhood Study Paper No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiltree, Gay

    This book provides an overview of research on infants and young children who have experienced non-maternal or non-parental care during their preschool years. It focuses on studies conducted in Australia, but also considers the vast body of research conducted elsewhere, especially in the United States. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the issues…

  8. Forty-Year Follow-up of Full-Thickness Skin Graft After Thermal Burn Injury to the Volar Hand

    PubMed Central

    Kasdan, Morton L.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The hands are commonly affected in severe thermal burn injuries. Resulting contractures lead to significant loss of function. Burn contracture release and skin grafting are necessary to restore hand function. We report a case in which surgical reconstruction of a volar hand burn was performed with full-thickness skin grafting. The patient had a 40-year follow-up to assess the function and cosmesis of the repaired hand. Methods: We report a case in which a 15-month-old boy presented after receiving third-degree burns to the left volar hand, including the flexural aspects of the index, long, and ring fingers by placing it on a hot kitchen stove burner. The patient subsequently underwent scar contracture release and full-thickness skin grafting. Results: Eleven years after reconstruction, further contractures developed associated with the patient's growth, which were reconstructed with repeat full-thickness skin graft from the inguinal region. No recurrence was witnessed afterward and 40 years after initial injury, the patient maintains full activities of daily living and use of his hand in his occupation. Conclusions: There is debate regarding the superiority of split-thickness versus full-thickness grafts during reconstruction. Our case strengthens the argument for durability of a full-thickness skin graft following thermal burn injury. PMID:27555888

  9. Forty years continous monitoring for bluetongue virus at an Australian site of high arbovirus activity. What have we achieved?

    PubMed

    Melville, Lorna; Weir, Richard; Hunt, Neville; Davis, Steven; Walsh, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Beatrice Hill Farm (BHF) near Darwin, Australia was identified in the early 1970's as a site of high arbovirus activity. The first isolation of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Australia was made on BHF in 1975. Since then, there has been continuous monitoring for BTV at BHF, the virus has been isolated on a yearly basis, with the only exception of 1990. All 10 serotypes known in Australia have been isolated at this site and an assessment of their biological behaviour made. Over the years, the methods and intensity of monitoring have been changed. In recent years molecular techniques have permitted more detailed examination of the origins of the viruses and their natural behaviour in field situations. Data collected at BHF have allowed modelling to detect likely origins of the BTVs that regularly enter Australia through wind borne infected Culicoides from South East Asia. Concurrent vector monitoring led to assess the Culicoides species more likely to be involved with transmission of these viruses. PMID:26741242

  10. Impaired IQ and Academic Skills in Adults Who Experienced Moderate to Severe Infantile Malnutrition: A Forty-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Waber, Deborah P.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Girard, Jonathan M.; Zichlin, Miriam; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Galler, Janina R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate IQ and academic skills in adults who experienced an episode of moderate to severe infantile malnutrition and a healthy control group, all followed since childhood in the Barbados Nutrition Study. Methods IQ and academic skills were assessed in 77 previously malnourished adults (mean age=38.4 years; 53% male) and 59 controls (mean age=38.1 years; 54% male). Group comparisons were carried out by multiple regression and logistic regression, adjusted for childhood socioeconomic factors. Results The previously malnourished group showed substantial deficits on all outcomes relative to healthy controls (p<0.0001). IQ scores in the Intellectual Disability range (< 70) were 9 times more prevalent in the previously malnourished group (OR=9.18; 95% CI=3.50-24.13). Group differences in IQ of approximately one standard deviation were stable from adolescence through mid-life. Discussion Moderate to severe malnutrition during infancy is associated with a significantly elevated incidence of impaired IQ in adulthood, even when physical growth is completely rehabilitated. An episode of malnutrition during the first year of life carries risk for significant lifelong functional morbidity. PMID:23484464

  11. The special programme of research in human reproduction: forty years of activities to achieve reproductive health for all.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; d'Arcangues, Catherine; Harris Requejo, Jennifer; Schafer, Alessandra; Say, Lale; Merialdi, Mario

    2012-01-01

    The Special Programme of Research in Human Reproduction (HRP), co-sponsored by the UNDP, UNFPA, WHO, and the World Bank, is celebrating 40 years of activities with an expansion of its mandate and new co-sponsors. When it began, in 1972, the main focus was on evaluating the acceptability, effectiveness, and safety of existing fertility-regulating methods, as well as developing new, improved modalities for family planning. In 1994, HRP not only made major contributions to the Plan of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD); it also broadened its scope of work to include other aspects of health dealing with sexuality and reproduction, adding a specific perspective on gender issues and human rights. In 2002, HRP's mandate was once again broadened to include sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS and in 2003 it was further expanded to research activities on preventing violence against women and its many dire health consequences. Today, the work of the Programme includes research on: the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents, women, and men; maternal and perinatal health; reproductive tract and sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS); family planning; infertility; unsafe abortion; sexual health; screening for cancer of the cervix in developing countries, and gender and reproductive rights. Additional activities by the Programme have included: fostering international cooperation in the field of human reproduction; the elaboration of WHO's first Global Reproductive Health Strategy; work leading to the inclusion of ICPD's goal 'reproductive health for all by 2015' into the Millennium Development Goal framework; the promotion of critical interagency statements on the public health, legal, and human rights implications of female genital mutilation and gender-biased sex selection. Finally, HRP has been involved in the creation of guidelines and tools, such as the 'Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use

  12. Six-Degree Head-Down Tilt Bed Rest: Forty Years of Development as a Physiological Analog for Weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeffrey D.; Cromwell, Ronita L.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Charles, John B.

    2011-01-01

    -degrees HDT model must continue to be scrutinized, re-examined, validated and compared to other analog environments whenever possible. Only by understanding the strengths and limits of this model, will it continue to serve as a critical physiological analog to spaceflight for many more years to come.

  13. Forty years with nondestructive methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoru, George

    1999-12-01

    The author takes the opportunity to strike the balance of his activity. He was the first establishing the qualitative and quantitative influence of curing conditions of concrete on the relations between nondestructively measured values, ultrasonic pulse velocity or attenuation and rebound indices (V,A,R) and its compressive strength. Since 1969 he had been behind a new approach for simultaneous use of concrete. The advantage of this multiple correlation concept (an off-spring of an original method for statistical quality analysis for the control of concrete quality) have been already well documented. The author established also a new criterium for the frost resistance of concrete, based on the variation of the logarithmic decrement of the vibrations (both free or forced). His activity as an expert led to the foundation of the "Engineering Society Cologne." He was entrusted with its presidency. Further examples shall inform about different field investigations carried out.

  14. Fibre optics: Forty years later

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M

    2010-01-31

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

  15. [Treatment of spasticity with a transcutaneous neurostimulator. A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, R; Jordt, M; Hansen, E

    1995-04-24

    In this pilot study the neurostimulator KDC 5000 is used with efficacy on seven out of 11 patients with spastic palsy, and treatment was given without any side-effects. No other treatment has sufficiently helped these patients, and we therefore conclude that such treatment with a neuro-stimulator could be beneficial for selected patients with spastic palsy of extremities. PMID:7762102

  16. neuroBi: A Highly Configurable Neurostimulator for a Retinal Prosthesis and Other Applications

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Kyle D.; Nelson, Timothy S.; Blamey, Peter J.; Mcdermott, Hugh J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis, a highly configurable external neurostimulator is required. In order to meet functional and safety specifications, it was necessary to develop a custom device. A system is presented which can deliver charge-balanced, constant-current biphasic pulses, with widely adjustable parameters, to arbitrary configurations of output electrodes. This system is shown to be effective in eliciting visual percepts in a patient with approximately 20 years of light perception vision only due to retinitis pigmentosa, using an electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of the eye. The flexibility of the system also makes it suitable for use in a number of other emerging clinical neurostimulation applications, including epileptic seizure suppression and closed-loop deep brain stimulation. Clinical trial registration number NCT01603576 (www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:27170910

  17. Neurostimulation for neck pain and headache.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jennifer; Ball, Perry A; Fanciullo, Gilbert J

    2014-03-01

    Patients with medically refractory headache disorders are a rare and challenging-to-treat group. The introduction of peripheral neurostimulation (PNS) has offered a new avenue of treatment for patients who are appropriate surgical candidates. The utility of PNS for headache management is actively debated. Preliminary reports suggested that 60-80% of patients with chronic headache who have failed maximum medical therapy respond to PNS. However, complications rates for PNS are high. Recent publication of 2 large randomized clinical trials with conflicting results has underscored the need for further research and careful patient counseling. In this review, we summarize the current evidence for PNS in treatment of chronic migraine, trigeminal autonomic cephalagias and occipital neuralgia, and other secondary headache disorders. PMID:24527699

  18. Getting the Lead Out of Bermuda; The Legacy of a Forty Year Record in the North Atlantic Using a Transient Experiment in the Atmosphere and Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Church, T. M.; Alleman, L. Y.; Veron, A. J. J.; Boyle, E. A.; Zurbrick, C.; Patterson, C. C.; Flegal, A. R., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    Some forty years ago, Schaule and Patterson established the first accurate profile of lead in waters off Bermuda. In evidence was a massive environmental insult from lead emissions being carried seaward by the atmosphere over the Sargasso Sea. Further documentation was possible using contiguous time series in the atmosphere on Bermuda, surface sea water nearby and recorded in local corals. Lead had then an overwhelming source from the combustion of gasoline, primarily in the USA and secondarily in Europe. These were carried to Bermuda on seasonally alternating temperate and trade winds from the west and east, respectively. The anthropogenic sources were well distinguished based on the unique radiogenic nature of stable lead isotopes in the gasoline being used by these countries. Subsequently, decreasing use in the west (USA) followed by that in the east (Europe) was isotopically evident. As such, the two signatures were subjected to transient mixing in the atmosphere and subsequently with depth in ocean. A transient experiment uses data during 1996-1998, a period of transition in leaded gasoline use in the USA and Europe. Here are complimentary records of lead concentration and stable isotopes in atmospheric deposition and surface waters. The results allow an isotopic mass balance, indicating much of the lead in Bermuda surface water at that time may not have been deposited locally. As such, it may be presumed to reflect easterly advection of some lead at the surface under limited scavenging via the prevailing subtropical gyre circulation. These annual circulation periods are consistent with both physical data and another lead isotopic mass balance in the east. Going forward, Bermuda time series of trace elements and isotopes such as lead could continue to record climatological (e.g. NAO) transients in atmospheric scavenging, potential impact on surface ecosystems, and changes in mixing into deeper waters of the Sargasso Sea and points further afield.

  19. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters. PMID:21658266

  20. [Comparison of specific genomic DNA fragment between Microtus fortis calamorum and Microtus fortis fortis].

    PubMed

    Xu, Bing; Hu, Wei-Xin; Yang, Rong; Yu, Yuan-Jing; Wang, Yong; Liu, Xin-Fa; Peng, Xing-Hua

    2003-06-01

    Microtus fortis(Taxonomy ID: 100897), also named as reed vole, is classified as Microtus, Micotinae, Cricetidae, Rodentia, Mammalia on taxonomy. Microtus fortis mainly distributes in China. Some areas of Russia, North Korea and Mongolia close to Northeast borderland of China also have a small number of Microtus fortis in distribution. Microtus fortis in China has principally 4 subspecies, and most of them live is the drainage area of Yangtse River. Schistosoma japonicum (one of commonly parasites in China) can infect about 40 kinds of mammalian animals, including the human being, but could not infect Microtus foris. It is known as the only animal in Dongting Lake region of China which has the ability of natural resistance to Schistosoma japonicum. The Microtus fortis domesticated in laboratory has the same biological characteristics as the wild one and these characteristics could be inherited to its progeny steadily. We got a specific DNA fragment from genomic library of Microtus fortis. This DNA fragment in genomic DNA of human beings, Kunming mice, Balb/c mice and C57BL/6J mice could not be detected by dot blot hybridization and PCR, apart from genomic DNA of Microtus fortis. In this report, the differences of genomic DNA in 34 Microtus fortis were compared between Microtus fortis calamorum(Dongting Lake region of southern China) and Microtus fortis fortis (Ningxia province of northern China). The residing localion of these two subspecies is far away about 1,200 kilometers from each other. The genomic DNA of Microtus fortis calamorum and Microtus fortis fortis were extracted and amplified by PCR according to the specific genomic DNAs sequence of Microtus fortis reported previously (Accession number in GenBank: AF277394). The amplified DNA fragments were inserted into pGEM-T easy vector and sequenced. The DNA fragment sequencing results from the two subspecies were compared to detect whether there was any difference. 19 alleles were found from Microtus fortis (20

  1. Analysis of induced electrical currents from magnetic field coupling inside implantable neurostimulator leads

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, the number of neurostimulator systems implanted in patients has been rapidly growing. Nearly 50, 000 neurostimulators are implanted worldwide annually. The most common type of implantable neurostimulators is indicated for pain relief. At the same time, commercial use of other electromagnetic technologies is expanding, making electromagnetic interference (EMI) of neurostimulator function an issue of concern. Typically reported sources of neurostimulator EMI include security systems, metal detectors and wireless equipment. When near such sources, patients with implanted neurostimulators have reported adverse events such as shock, pain, and increased stimulation. In recent in vitro studies, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to inhibit the stimulation pulse of an implantable neurostimulator system during low frequency exposure at close distances. This could potentially be due to induced electrical currents inside the implantable neurostimulator leads that are caused by magnetic field coupling from the low frequency identification system. Methods To systematically address the concerns posed by EMI, we developed a test platform to assess the interference from coupled magnetic fields on implantable neurostimulator systems. To measure interference, we recorded the output of one implantable neurostimulator, programmed for best therapy threshold settings, when in close proximity to an operating low frequency RFID emitter. The output contained electrical potentials from the neurostimulator system and those induced by EMI from the RFID emitter. We also recorded the output of the same neurostimulator system programmed for best therapy threshold settings without RFID interference. Using the Spatially Extended Nonlinear Node (SENN) model, we compared threshold factors of spinal cord fiber excitation for both recorded outputs. Results The electric current induced by low frequency RFID emitter was not significant to

  2. Forty Years of "Pastoral Care": An Appraisal of Michael Marland's Seminal Book and Its Significance for Pastoral Care in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Michael Marland's seminal book: "Pastoral Care" was published 40 years ago this year. The thesis of the book--that pastoral care is the central task of the school, and must be planned and institutionalized through pastoral roles and structures--is explored against the background of the social, cultural and educational developments…

  3. Transitions in a Life-World: Looking Backward and Forward after Forty-Five Years of Social Pedagogical Research and Teaching in Leuven

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildemeersch, Danny

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the author's reflection on research and teaching over a period of 45 years in a social pedagogy program in the Leuven University (Belgium). While the case is interesting in its own right, it holds broader significance for its contribution to understanding developments in education, adult and community education and social…

  4. What Forty Years of Research Says about the Impact of Technology on Learning: A Second-Order Meta-Analysis and Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamim, Rana M.; Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Abrami, Philip C.; Schmid, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    This research study employs a second-order meta-analysis procedure to summarize 40 years of research activity addressing the question, does computer technology use affect student achievement in formal face-to-face classrooms as compared to classrooms that do not use technology? A study-level meta-analytic validation was also conducted for purposes…

  5. The Growth of Outdoor Teacher Education: Forty Years after the Vision. Lorado Taft Field Campus, 40th Anniversary, 1951-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Clifford E., Ed.

    In 1949 the newly-inaugurated president of Northern Illinois University (NIU), Dr. Leslie Holmes, announced his intention to establish a program in outdoor teacher education. The program would provide opportunities for teaching and experiential learning in a naturalistic setting. Two years later, NIU acquired a 66-acre camp near Oregon, Illinois,…

  6. A review of forty-five years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Cancer risk among in utero-exposed survivors.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) continues to conduct a follow-up study initiated some years ago of cancer mortality and incidence among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki exposed in utero. Although only 18 incident cases of cancer were identified in the years 1950-1984 (of which 5 cases were in the 0 dose group), cancer risk appears to increase significantly as maternal uterine dose increases. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these individuals in the first 14 years of life; both had been exposed to greater than or equal to 0.30 Gy. All other cases developed cancer in adulthood, and the cancers they developed are, in the main, the ones known to be elevated in frequency among the postnatally exposed survivors. The estimated relative risk for cancer at 1 Gy (uterine dose) is 3.77. The results suggest that the in utero group may have a higher risk than that seen among exposed adults because the individuals exposed in utero have not reached the major cancer prone age. However, since the observed cases are too few to allow a site-specific review, further follow-up studies are required to determine if the observed increased cancer risk can definitely be attributed to A-bomb radiation, although there appears to be a significant dose-related cancer response. PMID:1762110

  7. Forty years of embryo transfer in cattle: a review focusing on the journal Theriogenology, the growth of the industry in North America, and personal reminisces.

    PubMed

    Hasler, John F

    2014-01-01

    After the first successful transfer of mammalian embryos in 1890, it was approximately 60 years before significant progress was reported in the basic technology of embryo transfer (ET) in cattle. Starting in the early 1970s, technology had progressed sufficiently to support the founding of commercial ET programs in several countries. Today, well-established and reliable techniques involving superovulation, embryo recovery and transfer, cryopreservation, and IVF are utilized worldwide in hundreds, if not thousands, of commercial businesses located in many countries. The mean number of embryos produced via superovulation has changed little in 40 years, but there have been improvements in synchrony and hormonal protocols. Cryopreservation of in vivo-derived embryos is a reliable procedure, but improvements are needed for biopsied and in vitro-derived embryos. High pregnancy rates are achieved when good quality embryos are transferred into suitable recipients and low pregnancy rates are often owing to problems in recipient management and not technology per se. In the future, unanticipated disease outbreaks and the ever-changing economics of cattle and milk prices will continue to influence the ET industry. The issue of abnormal pregnancies involving in vitro embryos has not been satisfactorily resolved and the involvement of abnormal epigenetics associate with this technology merits continued research. Last, genomic testing of bovine embryos is likely to be available in the foreseeable future. This may markedly decrease the number of embryos that are actually transferred and stimulate the evolution of more sophisticated ET businesses. PMID:24274419

  8. Forty Years On1: Teachers’ Assessments of Children’s Personality Traits Predict Self-Reported Health Behaviors and Outcomes at Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2005-01-01

    A life-span health-behavior model was investigated in this longitudinal study of personality influences on health. Teachers assessed 963 elementary school children on traits that formed scales assessing the dimensions of the five-factor (Big Five) model of personality. Smoking, alcohol use, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health were assessed 40 years later in midlife. Childhood personality traits were significantly associated with all four outcomes, and the effects were consistently larger for women than men. For men and women, childhood Conscientiousness was associated with less adult smoking and better adult self-rated health and, for women only, with lower adult BMI. Mediation analyses suggested that the effects of Conscientiousness on self-rated health were partially mediated by smoking and BMI. These findings add to the growing evidence that childhood personality traits predict adult health outcomes, and are discussed in terms of future testing of the life-span health-behavior model. PMID:16448298

  9. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, D. Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J.; Lövei, Gábor L.; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years

  10. Forty-Year Trends in Tooth Loss Among American Adults With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huabin; Pan, Wei; Sloan, Frank; Feinglos, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the trends in tooth loss among adults with and without diabetes mellitus in the United States and racial/ethnic disparities in tooth loss patterns, and to evaluate trends in tooth loss by age, birth cohorts, and survey periods. Methods Data came from 9 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1971 through 2012. The trends in the estimated tooth loss in people with and without diabetes were assessed by age groups, survey periods, and birth cohorts. The analytical sample was 37,609 dentate (ie, with at least 1 permanent tooth) adults aged 25 years or older. We applied hierarchical age-period-cohort cross-classified random-effects models for the trend analysis. Results The estimated number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes increased more with age than that among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (z = 4.05, P < .001) or Mexican Americans with diabetes (z = 4.38, P < .001). During 1971–2012, there was a significant decreasing trend in the number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (slope = −0.20, P < .001) and non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes (slope = −0.37, P < .001). However, adults with diabetes had about twice the tooth loss as did those without diabetes. Conclusion Substantial differences in tooth loss between adults with and without diabetes and across racial/ethnic groups persisted over time. Appropriate dental care and tooth retention need to be further promoted among adults with diabetes. PMID:26632952

  11. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J.

    2010-10-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

  12. Forty Years Later: Updating the Fossilization Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, ZhaoHong

    2013-01-01

    A founding concept in second language acquisition (SLA) research, fossilization has been fundamental to understanding second language (L2) development. The Fossilization Hypothesis, introduced in Selinker's seminal text (1972), has thus been one of the most influential theories, guiding a significant bulk of SLA research for four decades; 2012…

  13. Forty years of plumbing noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherill, Ewart

    2005-09-01

    The noise of fluid movement in piping systems is a frequent source of distraction and annoyance in buildings ranging from remote mining camps to private homes and luxurious resorts. However, in most cases this problem is easy to avoid if simple precautions are taken in design and construction. This paper reviews specific examples illustrating inexpensive methods of plumbing noise control.

  14. Technical aspects of neurostimulation: Focus on equipment, electric field modeling, and stimulation protocols.

    PubMed

    Klooster, D C W; de Louw, A J A; Aldenkamp, A P; Besseling, R M H; Mestrom, R M C; Carrette, S; Zinger, S; Bergmans, J W M; Mess, W H; Vonck, K; Carrette, E; Breuer, L E M; Bernas, A; Tijhuis, A G; Boon, P

    2016-06-01

    Neuromodulation is a field of science, medicine, and bioengineering that encompasses implantable and non-implantable technologies for the purpose of improving quality of life and functioning of humans. Brain neuromodulation involves different neurostimulation techniques: transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), and deep brain stimulation (DBS), which are being used both to study their effects on cognitive brain functions and to treat neuropsychiatric disorders. The mechanisms of action of neurostimulation remain incompletely understood. Insight into the technical basis of neurostimulation might be a first step towards a more profound understanding of these mechanisms, which might lead to improved clinical outcome and therapeutic potential. This review provides an overview of the technical basis of neurostimulation focusing on the equipment, the present understanding of induced electric fields, and the stimulation protocols. The review is written from a technical perspective aimed at supporting the use of neurostimulation in clinical practice. PMID:27021215

  15. Fabrication and Calibration of FORTIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Rapchun, David A.; Lyness, Eric; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group is entering the final fabrication phase of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of-view. Using "on-the-fly" target acquisition and spectral multiplexing enabled by a GSFC microshutter array, FORTIS will be capable of observing the brightest regions in the far-UV of nearby low redshift (z approximately 0.002 - 0.02) star forming galaxies to search for Lyman alpha escape, and to measure the local gas-to-dust ratio. A large area (approximately 45 mm x 170 mm) microchannel plate detector built by Sensor Sciences provides an imaging channel for targeting flanked by two redundant spectral outrigger channels. The grating is ruled directly onto the secondary mirror to increase efficiency. In this paper, we discuss the recent progress made in the development and fabrication of FORTIS, as well as the results of early calibration and characterization of our hardware, including mirror/grating measurements, detector performance, and early operational tests of the micro shutter arrays.

  16. Attempted reversible sympathetic ganglion block by an implantable neurostimulator

    PubMed Central

    Kopelman, Doron; Costa, Mario G.; Bejar, Jacob; Zaretsky, Asaph; Hashmonai, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Primary palmar hyperhidrosis is a pathological condition of excessive perspiration of the hands of unknown aetiology. The only effective treatment for permanent cure is the ablation of the sympathetic ganglia supplying the hands. One of the sequelae is compensatory sweating, namely increased perspiration in other parts of the body. Its mechanism is unknown. In a small proportion of patients, it may attend devastating proportions. It has practically no remedy, and the degree of compensatory hyperhidrosis is unpredictable prior to sympathectomy. The purpose of the present study was to obtain a reversible sympathetic block which may disclose subjects prone to develop severe compensatory hyperhidrosis and unfit for permanent ganglionic ablation. METHODS In three dogs, an experimental electrode was implanted via a left thoracotomy on the stellate ganglion, connected to a stimulator. The stimulation was activated after recovery. The contralateral ganglion served as control. Effect of the stimulation was assessed by observing the development of Horner's syndrome, which includes the appearance of miosis, ptosis and enophthalmus. Reversal of the sympathetic block was expected when the neurostimulation was discontinued and assessed by the disappearance of these signs. RESULTS Stimulation produced only a partial effect – an incomplete Horner's syndrome (miosis and sometime ptosis), which was not completely reversible after ceasing the stimulation. CONCLUSIONS Although neurostimulation achieved a partial sympathetic block, the present method failed to obtain a completely reversible effect. However, these results may indicate that different nervous pathways moderate the various components of the Horner's triad. Concerning the creation of a reversible sympathectomy; other approaches must be sought after. PMID:22316522

  17. Neurostimulation of the Lacrimal Nerve for Enhanced Tear Production

    PubMed Central

    Kossler, Andrea L.; Wang, Jianhua; Feuer, William; Tse, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To design a proof-of-concept study to assess the effect of lacrimal nerve stimulation (LNS) with an implantable pulse generator (IPG) to increase aqueous tear production. Methods Experimental animal study design of six Dutch Belted rabbits. Ultra high-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) quantified tear production by measuring the baseline tear volume of each rabbit’s right and left eye. A neurostimulator was implanted adjacent to the right lacrimal nerve. After two minutes of LNS (100 μs, 1.6 mAmp, 20 Hz, 5–8 volts), the tear volumes were measured with UHR-OCT. The change in tear volume was quantified and compared to the non-stimulated left eye. Three rabbits underwent chronic LNS (100 μS, 1.6 mAmp, 10 Hz, 2 volts) and their lacrimal glands were harvested for histopathologic analysis. Results UHR-OCT imaging of the right eyes tear volume showed a 441% average increase in tear production after LNS as a percent of baseline. After stimulation, right eyes had statistically significant greater increase in tear volumes than left eyes (p=0.028, Wilcoxon test). Post-stimulation right eye tear volumes were significantly greater compared to baseline (p=0.028, Wilcoxon test). Histopathologic examination of the lacrimal glands showed no discernible tissue damage from chronic neurostimulation. Additionally, there were no gross adverse effects on the general well-beings of the animals due to chronic stimulation. Conclusions Lacrimal nerve stimulation with an implantable pulse generator appears to increase aqueous tear production. Chronic LNS showed no histopathologic lacrimal gland damage. This study suggests LNS is a promising new treatment strategy to increase aqueous tear production. PMID:25126767

  18. An implantable neurostimulator with an integrated high-voltage inductive power-recovery frontend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Wang; Xu, Zhang; Ming, Liu; Peng, Li; Hongda, Chen

    2014-10-01

    This paper present a highly-integrated neurostimulator with an on-chip inductive power-recovery frontend and high-voltage stimulus generator. In particular, the power-recovery frontend includes a high-voltage full-wave rectifier (up to 100 V AC input), high-voltage series regulators (24/5 V outputs) and a linear regulator (1.8/3.3 V output) with bandgap voltage reference. With the high voltage output of the series regulator, the proposed neurostimulator could deliver a considerably large current in high electrode-tissue contact impedance. This neurostimulator has been fabricated in a CSMC 1 μm 5/40/700 V BCD process and the total silicon area including pads is 5.8 mm2. Preliminary tests are successful as the neurostimulator shows good stability under a 13.56 MHz AC supply. Compared to previously reported works, our design has advantages of a wide induced voltage range (26-100 V), high output voltage (up to 24 V) and high-level integration, which are suitable for implantable neurostimulators.

  19. Neurostimulation in Alzheimer's disease: from basic research to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Tezzon, Frediano; Christova, Monica; Schwenker, Kerstin; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Brigo, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The development of different methods of brain stimulation provides a promising therapeutic tool with potentially beneficial effects on subjects with impaired cognitive functions. We performed a systematic review of the studies published in the field of neurostimulation in Alzheimer's disease (AD), from basic research to clinical applications. The main methods of non-invasive brain stimulation are repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation. Preliminary findings have suggested that both techniques can enhance performances on several cognitive functions impaired in AD. Another non-invasive emerging neuromodulatory approach, the transcranial electromagnetic treatment, was found to reverse cognitive impairment in AD transgenic mice and even improves cognitive performance in normal mice. Experimental studies suggest that high-frequency electromagnetic fields may be critically important in AD prevention and treatment through their action at mitochondrial level. Finally, the application of a widely known invasive technique, the deep brain stimulation (DBS), has increasingly been considered as a therapeutic option also for patients with AD; it has been demonstrated that DBS of fornix/hypothalamus and nucleus basalis of Meynert might improve or at least stabilize cognitive functioning in AD. Initial encouraging results provide support for continuing to investigate non-invasive and invasive brain stimulation approaches as an adjuvant treatment for AD patients. PMID:25721941

  20. Modulating the pain network--neurostimulation for central poststroke pain.

    PubMed

    Hosomi, Koichi; Seymour, Ben; Saitoh, Youichi

    2015-05-01

    Central poststroke pain (CPSP) is one of the most under-recognized consequences of stroke, occurring in up to 10% of patients, and is also one of the most difficult to treat. The condition characteristically develops after selective lesions to the spinothalamic system, most often to the ventral posterior thalamus. Here, we suggest that CPSP is best characterized as a disorder of brain network reorganization, and that this characterization offers insight into the inadequacy of most current pharmacological treatments. Accordingly, we review the progress in identification of nonpharmacological treatments, which could ultimately lead to mechanism-based therapeutics. Of the invasive neurostimulation treatments available, electrical motor cortex stimulation seems to be superior to deep brain stimulation of the thalamus or brainstem, but enthusiasm for clinical use of the procedure is limited by its invasiveness. The current preference is for noninvasive transcranial magnetic stimulation, which, though effective, requires repeated application, causing logistical difficulties. Although CPSP is often severe and remains difficult to treat, future characterization of the precise underlying neurophysiological mechanisms, together with technological innovation, should allow new treatments to evolve. PMID:25896085

  1. Advanced technologies and novel neurostimulation targets in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias.

    PubMed

    Lambru, Giorgio; Giakoumakis, Emmanouil; Al-Kaisy, Adnan

    2015-05-01

    The trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are a group of rare but disabling primary headache disorders. Their management is challenging, since only few effective treatments are available and high doses may be required to control the headache, compromising patients' adherence to treatments. A significant minority of patients, who fail to respond to or tolerate established treatments, are left with enormous level of disability and disruption to their quality of life. A growing body of evidence demonstrates the efficacy of central and peripheral neuromodulation approaches for management of patients with refractory TACs. In view of the potential risks related to deep brain stimulation of the posterior hypothalamic region, occipital nerve stimulation is currently considered the first treatment option for refractory chronic TACs. However, in view of the presence of paraesthesia induced by the stimulator, no robust controlled trials have been possible so far. Additionally, the equipment used for occipital nerve stimulation is not designed specifically for peripheral nerve stimulation, thus a significant proportion of patients experience device-related complications that often require surgical revisions. To overcome these issues, new neurostimulation technologies using less invasive or non-invasive approaches and modulating different neuroanatomical targets have been recently studied. PMID:26017527

  2. Effectiveness of Gastric Neurostimulation in Patients With Gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jeremy; Gonzalez-Heredia, Raquel; Elli, E. Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with gastroparesis have significantly delayed gastric emptying because of impaired nerve function. Gastric neurostimulation from Enterra Therapy provides electrical pulses to the stomach tissue that promotes stimulation of stomach smooth muscle, thereby enhancing gastric emptying. This study evaluates the effectiveness of Enterra Therapy (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota) in reducing symptoms and improving the quality of life of patients with drug-refractory gastroparesis. Material and Methods: In this study 25 patients underwent minimally invasive, laparoscopic placement of the Enterra Therapy device. Patients were asked to rank their severity of symptoms and quality of life retrospectively by completing the Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale and Short Form 36 Health Survey with respect to their condition before and 6 months after initiation of Enterra Therapy. Results: Eighteen patients completed the surveys. Patients showed statistically significant improvement in their overall Gastrointestinal Symptoms Rating Scale scores and the mental health component of the Short Form 36 Health Survey. Discussion: Currently, Enterra Therapy has Humanitarian Use Device status, which means that more clinical evidence is needed to prove its effectiveness in gastroparesis. By showing that Enterra Therapy reduces symptoms of gastroparesis and improves patient quality of life, this study contributes to the increasing amount of data supporting its use and potential Food and Drug Administration approval. PMID:25392675

  3. Can Nanofluidic Chemical Release Enable Fast, High Resolution Neurotransmitter-Based Neurostimulation?

    PubMed

    Jones, Peter D; Stelzle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal. Nanofluidic technology-rather than microfluidic-will be necessary; this should come as no surprise given the nanofluidic nature of neurotransmission. This perspective reviews the state of the art of high resolution electrical neuroprostheses and their anticipated limitations. Chemical release rates from nanopores are compared to rates achieved at synapses and with iontophoresis. A review of microfluidic technology justifies the analysis that microfluidic control of chemical release would be insufficient. Novel nanofluidic mechanisms are discussed, and we propose that hydrophobic gating may allow control of chemical release suitable for mimicking neurotransmission. The limited understanding of hydrophobic gating in artificial nanopores and the challenges of fabrication and large-scale integration of nanofluidic components are emphasized. Development of suitable nanofluidic technology will require dedicated, long-term efforts over many years. PMID:27065794

  4. Can Nanofluidic Chemical Release Enable Fast, High Resolution Neurotransmitter-Based Neurostimulation?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter D.; Stelzle, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Artificial chemical stimulation could provide improvements over electrical neurostimulation. Physiological neurotransmission between neurons relies on the nanoscale release and propagation of specific chemical signals to spatially-localized receptors. Current knowledge of nanoscale fluid dynamics and nanofluidic technology allows us to envision artificial mechanisms to achieve fast, high resolution neurotransmitter release. Substantial technological development is required to reach this goal. Nanofluidic technology—rather than microfluidic—will be necessary; this should come as no surprise given the nanofluidic nature of neurotransmission. This perspective reviews the state of the art of high resolution electrical neuroprostheses and their anticipated limitations. Chemical release rates from nanopores are compared to rates achieved at synapses and with iontophoresis. A review of microfluidic technology justifies the analysis that microfluidic control of chemical release would be insufficient. Novel nanofluidic mechanisms are discussed, and we propose that hydrophobic gating may allow control of chemical release suitable for mimicking neurotransmission. The limited understanding of hydrophobic gating in artificial nanopores and the challenges of fabrication and large-scale integration of nanofluidic components are emphasized. Development of suitable nanofluidic technology will require dedicated, long-term efforts over many years. PMID:27065794

  5. Facial Pain Update: Advances in Neurostimulation for the Treatment of Facial Pain.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Rajivan; Kaye, Alan David; Vadivelu, Nalini; Urman, Richard D

    2016-04-01

    Craniofacial pain, including trigeminal neuralgia, trigeminal neuropathic pain, and persistent idiopathic facial pain, is difficult to treat and can have severe implications for suffering in patients afflicted with these conditions. In recent years, clinicians have moved beyond treating solely with pharmacological therapies, which are generally not very effective, and focused on new interventional pain procedures. These procedures have evolved as technology has advanced, and thus far, early results have demonstrated efficacy in small patient cohorts with a variety of craniofacial pain states. Some of the most promising interventional pain procedures include peripheral nerve field stimulation, high-frequency spinal cord stimulation, sphenopalatine ganglion stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. This review focuses on a better understanding of craniofacial pain and emerging interventional pain therapies. With the advent of newer miniature wireless devices and less invasive implantation techniques, this should allow for more widespread use of neurostimulation as a therapeutic modality for treating craniofacial pain. Larger studies should assist in best practice strategies vis-à-vis traditional pharmacological therapies and emerging interventional pain techniques. PMID:26896948

  6. Electrical neurostimulation for chronic pain: On selective relay of sensory neural activities in myelinated nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Sacré, Pierre; Sarma, Sridevi V; Guan, Yun; Anderson, William S

    2015-08-01

    Chronic pain affects about 100 million adults in the US. Despite their great need, neuropharmacology and neurostimulation therapies for chronic pain have been associated with suboptimal efficacy and limited long-term success, as their mechanisms of action are unclear. Yet current computational models of pain transmission suffer from several limitations. In particular, dorsal column models do not include the fundamental underlying sensory activity traveling in these nerve fibers. We developed a (simple) simulation test bed of electrical neurostimulation of myelinated nerve fibers with underlying sensory activity. This paper reports our findings so far. Interactions between stimulation-evoked and underlying activities are mainly due to collisions of action potentials and losses of excitability due to the refractory period following an action potential. In addition, intuitively, the reliability of sensory activity decreases as the stimulation frequency increases. This first step opens the door to a better understanding of pain transmission and its modulation by neurostimulation therapies. PMID:26737344

  7. Massively-parallel neuromonitoring and neurostimulation rodent headset with nanotextured flexible microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Arezu; Gabran, S R I; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Mansour, Raafat R; Salama, M M A; Genov, Roman

    2013-10-01

    We present a compact wireless headset for simultaneous multi-site neuromonitoring and neurostimulation in the rodent brain. The system comprises flexible-shaft microelectrodes, neural amplifiers, neurostimulators, a digital time-division multiplexer (TDM), a micro-controller and a ZigBee wireless transceiver. The system is built by parallelizing up to four 0.35 μm CMOS integrated circuits (each having 256 neural amplifiers and 64 neurostimulators) to provide a total maximum of 1024 neural amplifiers and 256 neurostimulators. Each bipolar neural amplifier features 54 dB-72 dB adjustable gain, 1 Hz-5 kHz adjustable bandwidth with an input-referred noise of 7.99 μVrms and dissipates 12.9 μW. Each current-mode bipolar neurostimulator generates programmable arbitrary-waveform biphasic current in the range of 20-250 μA and dissipates 2.6 μW in the stand-by mode. Reconfigurability is provided by stacking a set of dedicated mini-PCBs that share a common signaling bus within as small as 22 × 30 × 15 mm³ volume. The system features flexible polyimide-based microelectrode array design that is not brittle and increases pad packing density. Pad nanotexturing by electrodeposition reduces the electrode-tissue interface impedance from an average of 2 MΩ to 30 kΩ at 100 Hz. The rodent headset and the microelectrode array have been experimentally validated in vivo in freely moving rats for two months. We demonstrate 92.8 percent seizure rate reduction by responsive neurostimulation in an acute epilepsy rat model. PMID:24144667

  8. Impact of brain tissue filtering on neurostimulation fields: a modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Tim; Eden, Uri; Rushmore, Jarrett; Russo, Christopher J.; Dipietro, Laura; Fregni, Felipe; Simon, Stephen; Rotman, Stephen; Pitskel, Naomi B.; Ramos-Estebanez, Ciro; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Zahn, Markus; Valero-Cabre, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Electrical neurostimulation techniques, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are increasingly used in the neurosciences, e.g., for studying brain function, and for neurotherapeutics, e.g., for treating depression, epilepsy, and Parkinson’s disease. The characterization of electrical properties of brain tissue has guided our fundamental understanding and application of these methods, from electrophysiologic theory to clinical dosing-metrics. Nonetheless, prior computational models have primarily relied on ex-vivo impedance measurements. We recorded the in-vivo impedances of brain tissues during neurosurgical procedures and used these results to construct MRI guided computational models of TMS and DBS neurostimulatory fields and conductance-based models of neurons exposed to stimulation. We demonstrated that tissues carry neurostimulation currents through frequency dependent resistive and capacitive properties not typically accounted for by past neurostimulation modeling work. We show that these fundamental brain tissue properties can have significant effects on the neurostimulatory-fields (capacitive and resistive current composition and spatial/temporal dynamics) and neural responses (stimulation threshold, ionic currents, and membrane dynamics). These findings highlight the importance of tissue impedance properties on neurostimulation and impact our understanding of the biological mechanisms and technological potential of neurostimulatory methods. PMID:23850466

  9. Forty Years of Education: Will the Next Forty Be Any Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1981-01-01

    Ponders the transitory nature of some educational innovations, the resistence of the school system to outside forces, and two conditions without precedence: the reality of nuclear weapons and the women's movement. (MLF)

  10. Calibration and flight qualification of FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Brian T.; McCandliss, Stephan R.; Redwine, Keith; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Kruk, Jeffery; Feldman, Paul D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Li, Mary J.; Moseley, S. H.; Siegmund, Oswald; Vallerga, John; Martin, Adrian

    2013-09-01

    The Johns Hopkins University sounding rocket group has completed the assembly and calibration of the Far-ultraviolet Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (FORTIS); a sounding rocket borne multi-object spectro-telescope designed to provide spectral coverage of up to 43 separate targets in the 900 - 1800 Angstrom bandpass over a 30' x 30' field-of-view. FORTIS is capable of selecting the far-UV brightest regions of the target area by utilizing an autonomous targeting system. Medium resolution (R ~ 400) spectra are recorded in redundant dual-order spectroscopic channels with ~40 cm2 of effective area at 1216 Å. The maiden launch of FORTIS occurred on May 10, 2013 out of the White Sands Missile Range, targeting the extended spiral galaxy M61 and nearby companion NGC 4301. We report on the final flight calibrations of the instrument, as well as the flight results.

  11. Forty Projects by Groups of Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Commission on Resources for Youth, Inc., New York, NY.

    Ways in which young people have delivered needed services to their communities and have improved on previously established systems for delivering these services are described. The forty projects suggest some of the ways to provide teenagers with learning experiences that meet their own particular needs and, at the same time, offer a genuine and…

  12. Stereotactic Bony Trajectory Preservation for Responsive Neurostimulator Lead Placement Following Depth EEG Recording

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Casey H

    2016-01-01

    Responsive neurostimulation (RNS) is rapidly gaining traction as a therapy for medically refractory epilepsy. Depth electrode placement for stimulation of a deep seizure focus may be indicated after the focus has been electrophysiologically localized using depth electroencephalography (depth EEG). We describe a simple technique whereby the bony trajectories created during initial stereotactic placement of depth EEG electrodes are preserved and reused for RNS with depth electrodes. This technique may help to improve targeting and maximize surgical efficiency. PMID:27158578

  13. Stereotactic Bony Trajectory Preservation for Responsive Neurostimulator Lead Placement Following Depth EEG Recording.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kai; Halpern, Casey H

    2016-01-01

    Responsive neurostimulation (RNS) is rapidly gaining traction as a therapy for medically refractory epilepsy. Depth electrode placement for stimulation of a deep seizure focus may be indicated after the focus has been electrophysiologically localized using depth electroencephalography (depth EEG). We describe a simple technique whereby the bony trajectories created during initial stereotactic placement of depth EEG electrodes are preserved and reused for RNS with depth electrodes. This technique may help to improve targeting and maximize surgical efficiency. PMID:27158578

  14. Pre-frontal control of closed-loop limbic neurostimulation by rodents using a brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Widge, Alik S.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is great interest in closed-loop neurostimulators that sense and respond to a patient’s brain state. Such systems may have value for neurological and psychiatric illnesses where symptoms have high intraday variability. Animal models of closed-loop stimulators would aid preclinical testing. We sought to demonstrate that rodents can directly control a closed-loop limbic neurostimulator via a brain-computer interface (BCI). Approach We trained rats to use an auditory BCI controlled by single units in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BCI controlled electrical stimulation in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a limbic structure involved in reward-seeking. Rigorous offline analyses were performed to confirm volitional control of the neurostimulator. Main Results All animals successfully learned to use the BCI and neurostimulator, with closed-loop control of this challenging task demonstrated at 80% of PFC recording locations. Analysis across sessions and animals confirmed statistically robust BCI control and specific, rapid modulation of PFC activity. Significance Our results provide a preliminary demonstration of a method for emotion-regulating closed-loop neurostimulation. They further suggest that activity in prefrontal cortex can be used to control a BCI without pre-training on a predicate task. This offers the potential for BCI-based treatments in refractory neurological and mental illness. PMID:24608127

  15. Pre-frontal control of closed-loop limbic neurostimulation by rodents using a brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widge, Alik S.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. There is great interest in closed-loop neurostimulators that sense and respond to a patient's brain state. Such systems may have value for neurological and psychiatric illnesses where symptoms have high intraday variability. Animal models of closed-loop stimulators would aid preclinical testing. We therefore sought to demonstrate that rodents can directly control a closed-loop limbic neurostimulator via a brain-computer interface (BCI). Approach. We trained rats to use an auditory BCI controlled by single units in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BCI controlled electrical stimulation in the medial forebrain bundle, a limbic structure involved in reward-seeking. Rigorous offline analyses were performed to confirm volitional control of the neurostimulator. Main results. All animals successfully learned to use the BCI and neurostimulator, with closed-loop control of this challenging task demonstrated at 80% of PFC recording locations. Analysis across sessions and animals confirmed statistically robust BCI control and specific, rapid modulation of PFC activity. Significance. Our results provide a preliminary demonstration of a method for emotion-regulating closed-loop neurostimulation. They further suggest that activity in PFC can be used to control a BCI without pre-training on a predicate task. This offers the potential for BCI-based treatments in refractory neurological and mental illness.

  16. Forty-Five Years of Marburg Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    Brauburger, Kristina; Hume, Adam J.; Mühlberger, Elke; Olejnik, Judith

    2012-01-01

    In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology. PMID:23202446

  17. Changes in Evapotranspiration in China During the Last Forty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (ETo) is important to hydrological cycling and the global energy balance. Based on a modified FAO56-Penman-Monteith model, ETo was simulated for 603 meteorological stations across China in the period 1971-2008. Spatial distribution and temporal change of ETo were characterized, and the determining factors in ETo were revealed by sensitivity analysis. Results show obvious regional differences in annual average ETo and its determining factor. In general, annual average ETo decreased in the period 1971-2008, but increased since the 1990s. Wind speed and sunshine duration were determining factors in the annual ETo trend, with smaller contributions from relative humidity and temperature. Declining wind speed was the determining factor in decreasing annual ETo in northern temperate regions and the Tibetan Plateau. The spatial extent of wind speed influence contracted to northwest China in summer, and expanded to the whole country in autumn. Decreasing sunshine duration was the determining factor in decreasing annual ETo in subtropical and tropical regions, especially in summer, with a larger spatial influence mainly to the southeast of the farming-pastoral region. ETo change has distinct impacts on earth surface ecosystems and environment depending on different determining factors.

  18. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  19. Hamilton's forces of natural selection after forty years.

    PubMed

    Rose, Michael R; Rauser, Casandra L; Benford, Gregory; Matos, Margarida; Mueller, Laurence D

    2007-06-01

    In 1966, William D. Hamilton published a landmark paper in evolutionary biology: "The Moulding of Senescence by Natural Selection." It is now apparent that this article is as important as his better-known 1964 articles on kin selection. Not only did the 1966 article explain aging, it also supplied the basic scaling forces for natural selection over the entire life history. Like the Lorentz transformations of relativistic physics, Hamilton's Forces of Natural Selection provide an overarching framework for understanding the power of natural selection at early ages, the existence of aging, the timing of aging, the cessation of aging, and the timing of the cessation of aging. His twin Forces show that natural selection shapes survival and fecundity in different ways, so their evolution can be somewhat distinct. Hamilton's Forces also define the context in which genetic variation is shaped. The Forces of Natural Selection are readily manipulable using experimental evolution, allowing the deceleration or acceleration of aging, and the shifting of the transition ages between development, aging, and late life. For these reasons, evolutionary research on the demographic features of life history should be referred to as "Hamiltonian." PMID:17542838

  20. Forty-Year "Drift" and Change of the SAA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, Epaminondas G,; Xapsos, Michael A.; Stauffer, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted to evaluate the change in the location and size of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) as a function of time, primarily in relation to trapped Van Allen Belt proton populations. The study was limited to one altitude only (800 km), which is still within the Earth's atmosphere but is removed from the atmospheric cut-off level located at about 100-200 km.

  1. NAMRU-3: forty-six years of infectious disease research.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, R G

    1993-07-01

    The United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 (NAMRU-3), Cairo, Egypt, has been in continuous operation studying infectious diseases of military importance since its establishment in 1946, even during the lapse in diplomatic relations from 1967-1974. Other overseas research laboratories of the Naval Medical Research and Development Command include NAMRU-2 in Jakarta, Indonesia, with a detachment in Manila, and the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment Lima, Peru. Comparable U.S. Army overseas research laboratories are located in Thailand, Brazil, Korea, and Kenya. Department of Defense overseas laboratories conduct research on infectious diseases endemic to their respective geographic regions which could adversely impact on the health of deployed military forces. This article describes the history of one such laboratory, NAMRU-3, and the important infectious disease research it conducts to enhance the health of military forces deployed to its strategic geographical region of the world. PMID:8351052

  2. Forty-five years of cell-cycle genetics

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Brian J.; Culotti, Joseph G.; Nash, Robert S.; Pringle, John R.

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1970s, studies in Leland Hartwell’s laboratory at the University of Washington launched the genetic analysis of the eukaryotic cell cycle and set the path that has led to our modern understanding of this centrally important process. This 45th-anniversary Retrospective reviews the steps by which the project took shape, the atmosphere in which this happened, and the possible morals for modern times. It also provides an up-to-date look at the 35 original CDC genes and their human homologues. PMID:26628751

  3. Forty Years of Change in Schools: Some Personal Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses 10 major school change strategies engaging the author's energy, beginning with training in group dynamics in the 1950s through today's emphasis on school restructuring. Other strategies included innovation diffusion and transfer, organizational self-renewal, knowledge transfer, creation of new schools, supported implementation, local…

  4. Forty-Year-Old Foam Springs Back With New Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The most recognized and widely used NASA spinoff is at it again. Temper foam, whose origins date back to 1966 when it was developed to absorb shock and, thus, offer improved protection and comfort in NASA s airplane seats, has paid its dividends to Earth repeatedly, and in many different ways. It has padded the helmets of the Dallas Cowboys throughout the 1970s and 1980s, protected bedridden patients from bedsores, and comforted the feet of thousands wearing stylish shoes that incorporate the cushioning material in their insoles. Four decades later, the world has come to realize that there are no bounds to temper foam s benefits. Though the rights to the technology have been shared amongst various manufacturers, the original product maker is still going strong, pushing temper foam into new arenas, including automotives, amusement parks, prosthetics, and modern art.

  5. Forty Years of School Readiness Research: What Have We Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Suzanne M.; Kelley, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of children's school readiness concerns parents and teachers worldwide. Kindergarten teachers have reported that approximately one-third of U.S. children entering school are ill-prepared to achieve success. Experts also warn that many children are entering school lacking the fundamental skills to achieve academic success. It is…

  6. Changes in Patterns of Health Care: Plus Forty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofalvi, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an update of Herman's article ["Changes in Patterns of Health Care," "School Health Review," 1(9-14)1969] that focuses on the changes in patterns of health care. He discusses the poverty, insurance, and access to medical care as well as the quality of medical care for adults and minors. He stresses that…

  7. Toward a fully integrated neurostimulator with inductive power recovery front-end.

    PubMed

    Mounaïm, Fayçal; Sawan, Mohamad

    2012-08-01

    In order to investigate new neurostimulation strategies for micturition recovery in spinal cord injured patients, custom implantable stimulators are required to carry-on chronic animal experiments. However, higher integration of the neurostimulator becomes increasingly necessary for miniaturization purposes, power consumption reduction, and for increasing the number of stimulation channels. As a first step towards total integration, we present in this paper the design of a highly-integrated neurostimulator that can be assembled on a 21-mm diameter printed circuit board. The prototype is based on three custom integrated circuits fabricated in High-Voltage (HV) CMOS technology, and a low-power small-scale commercially available FPGA. Using a step-down approach where the inductive voltage is left free up to 20 V, the inductive power and data recovery front-end is fully integrated. In particular, the front-end includes a bridge rectifier, a 20-V voltage limiter, an adjustable series regulator (5 to 12 V), a switched-capacitor step-down DC/DC converter (1:3, 1:2, or 2:3 ratio), as well as data recovery. Measurements show that the DC/DC converter achieves more than 86% power efficiency while providing around 3.9-V from a 12-V input at 1-mA load, 1:3 conversion ratio, and 50-kHz switching frequency. With such efficiency, the proposed step-down inductive power recovery topology is more advantageous than its conventional step-up counterpart. Experimental results confirm good overall functionality of the system. PMID:23853175

  8. Ipsi- and Contralateral Motor Response Using Ultrasound-induced Neurostimulation in Deeply Anesthetized Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Hermes; Wang, Shutao; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qi; Aurup, Christian; Fan, Kathtleen; Carneiro, Antonio; Konofagou, Elisa

    Ultrasound neurostimulation has been proven capable of eliciting motor responses. However, the studies in sedated rodents presented problems with target specificity due to the use of low ultrasound frequencies (<700 kHz). Here, we show that focused ultrasound (FUS) in mega-Hz range was able to evoke motor responses in mice under deep anesthesia. Contralateral movements of the hind limbs were observed when sonications were carried out at +2 mm of Lambda and ±2 mm lateral of midline in three mice. Moreover, stimulating other regions of the somatosensory and cerebellum induced trunk and ipsilateral limb movements in all six mice.

  9. Improved Anatomical Specificity of Non-invasive Neuro-stimulation by High Frequency (5 MHz) Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guo-Feng; Zhao, Hui-Xia; Zhou, Hui; Yan, Fei; Wang, Jing-Yao; Xu, Chang-Xi; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Niu, Li-Li; Meng, Long; Wu, Song; Zhang, Huai-Ling; Qiu, Wei-Bao; Zheng, Hai-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Low frequency ultrasound (<1 MHz) has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for non-invasive neuro-stimulation. However, the focal width is limited to be half centimeter scale. Minimizing the stimulation region with higher frequency ultrasound will provide a great opportunity to expand its application. This study first time examines the feasibility of using high frequency (5 MHz) ultrasound to achieve neuro-stimulation in brain, and verifies the anatomical specificity of neuro-stimulation in vivo. 1 MHz and 5 MHz ultrasound stimulation were evaluated in the same group of mice. Electromyography (EMG) collected from tail muscles together with the motion response videos were analyzed for evaluating the stimulation effects. Our results indicate that 5 MHz ultrasound can successfully achieve neuro-stimulation. The equivalent diameter (ED) of the stimulation region with 5 MHz ultrasound (0.29 ± 0.08 mm) is significantly smaller than that with 1 MHz (0.83 ± 0.11 mm). The response latency of 5 MHz ultrasound (45 ± 31 ms) is also shorter than that of 1 MHz ultrasound (208 ± 111 ms). Consequently, high frequency (5 MHz) ultrasound can successfully activate the brain circuits in mice. It provides a smaller stimulation region, which offers improved anatomical specificity for neuro-stimulation in a non-invasive manner.

  10. Improved Anatomical Specificity of Non-invasive Neuro-stimulation by High Frequency (5 MHz) Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-Feng; Zhao, Hui-Xia; Zhou, Hui; Yan, Fei; Wang, Jing-Yao; Xu, Chang-Xi; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Niu, Li-Li; Meng, Long; Wu, Song; Zhang, Huai-Ling; Qiu, Wei-Bao; Zheng, Hai-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency ultrasound (<1 MHz) has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for non-invasive neuro-stimulation. However, the focal width is limited to be half centimeter scale. Minimizing the stimulation region with higher frequency ultrasound will provide a great opportunity to expand its application. This study first time examines the feasibility of using high frequency (5 MHz) ultrasound to achieve neuro-stimulation in brain, and verifies the anatomical specificity of neuro-stimulation in vivo. 1 MHz and 5 MHz ultrasound stimulation were evaluated in the same group of mice. Electromyography (EMG) collected from tail muscles together with the motion response videos were analyzed for evaluating the stimulation effects. Our results indicate that 5 MHz ultrasound can successfully achieve neuro-stimulation. The equivalent diameter (ED) of the stimulation region with 5 MHz ultrasound (0.29 ± 0.08 mm) is significantly smaller than that with 1 MHz (0.83 ± 0.11 mm). The response latency of 5 MHz ultrasound (45 ± 31 ms) is also shorter than that of 1 MHz ultrasound (208 ± 111 ms). Consequently, high frequency (5 MHz) ultrasound can successfully activate the brain circuits in mice. It provides a smaller stimulation region, which offers improved anatomical specificity for neuro-stimulation in a non-invasive manner. PMID:27093909

  11. Scientific advances in headache research: an update on neurostimulation.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jan; Magis, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    The pathophysiological understanding of migraine and other primary headaches has been substantially improved over the last 20 years. A milestone that paved the way for successful research was the development of the International Classification of Headache Disorders published by the International Headache Society in 1988. The classification facilitated a clear clinical diagnosis of headache disorders and allowed research efforts to be focused on clearly defined syndromes. Recent advances in the understanding of headache disorders have been driven by the availability of new research tools, such as advanced imaging techniques, genetic tools, pharmaceutical compounds and devices for electrical or magnetic stimulation. The latest scientific and clinical advances were presented at the recent European Headache and Migraine Trust International Congress (EHMTIC) in London (UK). PMID:23253387

  12. High cervical epidural neurostimulation for post-traumatic headache management.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Foad; Reddy, Chandan

    2014-01-01

    Headache following head injuries has been reported for centuries. The majority of post-traumatic headache (PTH) patients will report resolution of their complaints within a few months from the time of the initial injury. PTHs can contribute to disability, lost productivity, and health care costs. In this article we discuss a 40-year-old male with a history of motor vehicle accident and basal skull fracture. The patient had no headache history prior to the accident. He presented with more than 3 years persistent daily headache. The patient described constant throbbing and stabbing quality headaches predominantly on the left hemicranium with constant facial pain. He denies having aura, nausea, or vomiting, but reported occasional neck tightness. An extensive workup was carried out under the direction of the patient's primary neurologist. Secondary to persistent intractable pain, the patient was referred to the pain clinic for further evaluation. As his headaches were resistant to all trialed strategies, we decided to turn our therapeutic focus toward electrical neuromodulation along with continuing multimodal medications and multidisciplinary approach. During 7 days of high cervical dorsal column electrical nerve stimulation trial, he reported almost 90% pain reduction and significant improvement on his quality of life. On 12 months follow-up after he underwent a permanent implant of high cervical dorsal column electrical nerve stimulation, he reported the same level of pain reduction along with 100% satisfaction rate. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no publications to date concerning the application of high cervical nerve stimulation for PTH. PMID:25054404

  13. A microscale photovoltaic neurostimulator for fiber optic delivery of functional electrical stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yoon-Kyu; Stein, John; Patterson, William R.; Bull, Christopher W.; Davitt, Kristina M.; Serruya, Mijail D.; Zhang, Jiayi; Nurmikko, Arto V.; Donoghue, John P.

    2007-09-01

    Recent advances in functional electrical stimulation (FES) show significant promise for restoring voluntary movement in patients with paralysis or other severe motor impairments. Current approaches for implantable FES systems involve multisite stimulation, posing research issues related to their physical size, power and signal delivery, surgical and safety challenges. To explore a different means for delivering the stimulus to a distant muscle nerve site, we have elicited in vitro FES response using a high efficiency microcrystal photovoltaic device as a neurostimulator, integrated with a biocompatible glass optical fiber which forms a lossless, interference-free lightwave conduit for signal and energy transport. As a proof of concept demonstration, a sciatic nerve of a frog is stimulated by the microcrystal device connected to a multimode optical fiber (core diameter of 62.5 µm), which converts optical activation pulses (~100 µs) from an infrared semiconductor laser source (at 852 nm wavelength) into an FES signal.

  14. Electrically evoked hearing perception by functional neurostimulation of the central auditory system.

    PubMed

    Tatagiba, M; Gharabaghi, A

    2005-01-01

    Perceptional benefits and potential risks of electrical stimulation of the central auditory system are constantly changing due to ongoing developments and technical modifications. Therefore, we would like to introduce current treatment protocols and strategies that might have an impact on functional results of auditory brainstem implants (ABI) in profoundly deaf patients. Patients with bilateral tumours as a result of neurofibromatosis type 2 with complete dysfunction of the eighth cranial nerves are the most frequent candidates for auditory brainstem implants. Worldwide, about 300 patients have already received an ABI through a translabyrinthine or suboccipital approach supported by multimodality electrophysiological monitoring. Patient selection is based on disease course, clinical signs, audiological, radiological and psycho-social criteria. The ABI provides the patients with access to auditory information such as environmental sound awareness together with distinct hearing cues in speech. In addition, this device markedly improves speech reception in combination with lip-reading. Nonetheless, there is only limited open-set speech understanding. Results of hearing function are correlated with electrode design, number of activated electrodes, speech processing strategies, duration of pre-existing deafness and extent of brainstem deformation. Functional neurostimulation of the central auditory system by a brainstem implant is a safe and beneficial procedure, which may considerably improve the quality of life in patients suffering from deafness due to bilateral retrocochlear lesions. The auditory outcome may be improved by a new generation of microelectrodes capable of penetrating the surface of the brainstem to access more directly the auditory neurons. PMID:15986735

  15. Does a single neurostimulation session really affect mood in healthy individuals? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Remue, Jonathan; Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi

    2016-05-01

    Non-invasive neurostimulation or neuromodulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were welcomed as promising tools for investigating cognitive and mood processes in healthy participants as well as in patients suffering from neuropsychiatric conditions. Due to their rather easy application, both modalities have been used to experimentally examine prefrontal cognitive and emotional control. However, it remains unclear whether a single session of such stimulation may affect the mood of participants in a healthy state. We provide a systematic review of studies reporting the effects of a single session of rTMS or tDCS (…-2014) on self-reported mood in healthy participants. Although early studies reported significant effects on self-reported mood in healthy participants, more recent work investigating mood effects after a single rTMS/tDCS session has failed to find any significant changes in self-reported mood. Therefore it appears that a single session of rTMS/tDCS has no impact on mood in the healthy state. PMID:26988115

  16. Use of noninvasive interactive neurostimulation to improve short-term recovery in patients with surgically repaired bimalleolar ankle fractures: a prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gorodetskyi, Igor G; Gorodnichenko, Anatolyi I; Tursin, Petr S; Reshetnyak, Vitalyi K; Uskov, Oleg N

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a trial with 60 patients who had undergone operative reduction and internal fixation of bimalleolar, AO type B2 ankle fractures with comminution. Patients were randomized into 2 groups, one of which received postoperative treatment using a noninvasive interactive neurostimulation device (InterX) and the other with a sham device. The trial was designed to test the hypothesis that incorporation of noninvasive interactive neurostimulation into the rehabilitation protocol would result in reduced pain, increased range of motion, reduced edema, and reduced consumption of pain medication, in comparison with the sham therapy group. Outcome measurements included the patient's subjective assessment of level of pain, range of motion, and the extent of edema in the involved ankle, and the use of ketorolac for postoperative control of pain. The results showed significantly better results in the patients receiving treatment with active neurostimulation (repeated measures analysis of variance, P < .001). PMID:20688546

  17. Detail of center of swing span rotation. Forty (40) rods ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of center of swing span rotation. Forty (40) rods radiate out from a center cap stand (like spokes on a bicycle) and hold 40 20-inch diameter wheels onto a rim bearing circular track on which they roll when swing span is opened and closed. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  18. "Forty Acres and a Mule" as a Pedagogical Motif

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    This essay revisits an iconic yet now languishing phrase in United States political culture--"Forty Acres and a Mule"--to clarify the meaning of freedom and to assess the contemporary meaning of its betrayal by the U.S. government immediately after the Civil War. Among the few citizens for whom the phrase still retains a semblance of…

  19. Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option☆

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

  20. Platinum nanowire microelectrode arrays for neurostimulation applications: Fabrication, characterization, and in-vitro retinal cell stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, John J., III

    Implantable electrical neurostimulating devices are being developed for a number of applications, including artificial vision through retinal stimulation. The epiretinal prosthesis will use a two-dimensional array microelectrodes to address individual cells of the retina. MEMS fabrication processes can produce arrays of microelectrodes with these dimensions, but there are two critical issues that they cannot satisfy. One, the stimulating electrodes are the only part of the implanted electrical device that penetrate through the water impermeable package, and must do so without sacrificing hermeticity. Two, As electrode size decreases, the current density (A cm-2 ) increases, due to increased electrochemical impedance. This reduces the amount of charge that can be safely injected into the tissue. To date, MEMS processing method, cannot produce electrode arrays with good, prolonged hermetic properties. Similarly, MEMS approaches do not account for the increased impedance caused by decreased surface area. For these reasons there is a strong motivation for the development of a water-impermeable, substrate-penetrating electrode array with low electrochemical impedance. This thesis presents a stimulating electrode array fabricated from platinum nanowires using a modified electrochemical template synthesis approach. Nanowires are electrochemically deposited from ammonium hexachloroplatinate solution into lithographically patterned nanoporous anodic alumina templates to produce microarrays of platinum nanowires. The platinum nanowires penetrating through the ceramic aluminum oxide template serve as parallel electrical conduits through the water impermeable, electrically insulating substrate. Electrode impedance can be adjusted by either controlling the nanowire hydrous platinum oxide content or by partially etching the alumina template to expose additional surface area. A stepwise approach to this project was taken. First, the electrochemistry of ammonium

  1. Natural Marine and Synthetic Xenobiotics Get on Nematode’s Nerves: Neuro-Stimulating and Neurotoxic Findings in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lieke, Thora; Steinberg, Christian E. W.; Ju, Jingjuan; Saul, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae release a plethora of organic halogenated compounds, many of them with unknown ecological impact if environmentally realistic concentrations are applied. One major compound is dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) which was tested for neurotoxicity in the invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This natural compound was compared with the widespread synthetic xenobiotic tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) found in marine sediments and mussels. We found a neuro-stimulating effect for DBAA; this is contradictory to existing toxicological reports of mammals that applied comparatively high dosages. For TBBP-A, we found a hormetic concentration-effect relationship. As chemicals rarely occur isolated in the environment, a combination of both organobromines was also examined. Surprisingly, the presence of DBAA increased the toxicity of TBBP-A. Our results demonstrated that organohalogens have the potential to affect single organisms especially by altering the neurological processes, even with promoting effects on exposed organisms. PMID:25955755

  2. Treatment of bleeding gastroesophageal varices: a report of forty-four cases.

    PubMed

    Tay, S K; Leong, Y P; Meah, F A; Abdullah, T; Zain, A R

    1992-12-01

    Bleeding gastroesophageal varices is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Forty-four cases of bleeding gastroesophageal varices were treated at the Department of Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur over four and a half years. Thirty-two of them had liver cirrhosis. Hepatitis B infection was noted in 13 and alcoholic abuse was present in 14 patients. Five patients had associated hepatoma. Thirty-four percent had gastric fundal varices and a third of these bled from them. A total of 179 endoscopic injection sclerotherapy sessions were performed averaging 4 per person. Rebleeding rate was 4% and mortality was high (50%) in these cases. It was concluded that injection sclerotherapy is a safe and effective means of controlling bleeding oesophageal varices. Operative surgery was employed in those who rebled after injection and would be considered in those in Child's A. PMID:1303478

  3. Elevated Hippocampal Cholinergic Neurostimulating Peptide Precursor Protein (HCNP-pp) mRNA in the amygdala in major depression

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Sabrina; Seney, Marianne L.; Argibay, Pablo; Sibille, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala is innervated by the cholinergic system and is involved in major depressive disorder (MDD). Evidence suggests a hyper-activate cholinergic system in MDD. Hippocampal Cholinergic Neurostimulating Peptide (HCNP) regulates acetylcholine synthesis. The aim of the present work was to investigate expression levels of HCNP-precursor protein (HCNP-pp) mRNA and other cholinergic-related genes in the postmortem amygdala of MDD patients and matched controls (females: N=16 pairs; males: N=12 pairs), and in the mouse unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) model that induced elevated anxiety-/depressive-like behaviors (females: N=6 pairs; males: N=6 pairs). Results indicate an up-regulation of HCNP-pp mRNA in the amygdala of women with MDD (p<0.0001), but not males, and of UCMS-exposed mice (males and females; p=0.037). HCNP-pp protein levels were investigated in the human female cohort, but no difference was found. There were no differences in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscarinic (mAChRs) or nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) between MDD subjects and controls or UCMS and control mice, except for an up-regulation of AChE in UCMS-exposed mice (males and females; p=0.044). Exploratory analyses revealed a baseline expression difference of cholinergic signaling-related genes between women and men (p<0.0001). In conclusion, elevated amygdala HCNP-pp expression may contribute to mechanisms of MDD in women, potentially independently from regulating the cholinergic system. The differential expression of genes between women and men could also contribute to the increased vulnerability of females to develop MDD. PMID:25819500

  4. Forty Years of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science": A Quantitative Analysis, Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furner, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of a two-part quantitative analysis of volume 1-40 (1969-2008) of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science" (formerly the "Journal of Librarianship"). It provides an overview of the current state of LIS research journal publishing in the UK; a review of the publication and printing history of…

  5. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: the role of EU policy-industry interplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Dentener, F.; Guizzardi, D.; Sindelarova, K.; Muntean, M.; Van Dingenen, R.; Granier, C.

    2015-07-01

    The EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) v4.3 global anthropogenic emissions inventory of several gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon (BC and OC)) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emission scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in fuels consumption, technology, end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields. This database presents changes in activity data, fuels and air pollution abatement technology for the past 4 decades, using international statistics and following guidelines for bottom-up emission inventory at the Tier 1 and Tier 2 levels with region-specific default values. With two further retrospective scenarios we assess (1) the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe (EOP) reduction measures in the European Union (EU) by considering a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors from 1970 and with no further abatement measures and improvement in European emissions standards, but fuel consumption occurring at historical pace, and (2) the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy use with constant fuel consumption since 1970, but technological development and end-of-pipe reductions. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, the manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject of multi-pollutant EU Air Quality regulations. If technology and European EOP reduction measures had stagnated at 1970 levels, EU air quality in 2010 would have suffered from 129 % higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions, demonstrating the large role of technology in reducing emissions in 2010. However, if fuel consumption had remained constant starting in 1970, the EU would have benefited from current technology and emission control standards, with reductions in NOx by even 13 % more. Such further savings are not observed for SO2 and PM2.5. If the EU consumed the same amount of fuels as in 1970 but with the current technology and emission control standards, then the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 would be 42 % respectively 10 % higher. This scenario shows the importance for air quality of abandoning heavy residual fuel oil and shifting fuel types (from, e.g., coal to gas) in the EU. A reduced-form TM5-FASST (Fast Screening Scenario Tool based on the global chemical Transport Model 5) is applied to calculate regional and global levels of aerosol and ozone concentrations and to assess the impact of air quality improvements on human health and crop yield loss, showing substantial impacts of export of EU technologies and standards to other world regions.

  6. [Odón de Buen: forty-five years of commitment to the university].

    PubMed

    Gomis, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aragonese naturalist Odón de Buen y del Cos for twenty-two annual academic courses professor of natural history at the University of Barcelona and for twenty-three of the University of Madrid. Strong supporter of Darwin's evolutionary theory, experimental work in the field and laboratory, in this paper puts the value of their efforts, as an educator, to popularize the natural sciences and thus separated from the concerns, superstition and fanaticism, which they were basic reasons of the moral and material backwardness in which Spain was found. PMID:22371988

  7. Enduring Documents and Public Doctrines: Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail" after Forty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aeschliman, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    In the century just past, the immense ethical and political destructiveness of intellectuals was so frequent and protean in form that intellectual historians have a story as complex as it is tragic to tell, and one that many of them do not relish, perhaps out of occupational solidarity or shame. The "treason of the intellectuals," to use Julien…

  8. Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, Alan; Mu, Mingquan; Vinnikov, Konstantin; Trofimova, Iryna V.; Adamenko, Tatyjana I.

    2005-02-01

    We present the longest data set of observed soil moisture available in the world, 45 yr of gravimetrically-observed plant available soil moisture for the top 1 m of soil, observed every 10 days for April-October for 141 stations from fields with either winter or spring cereals from the Ukraine for 1958-2002. We averaged the summer observations over the entire region to account for the observed scale of soil moisture variations, to enhance the portion of the variance that is related to meteorological forcing. The observations show a positive soil moisture trend for the entire period of observation, with the trend leveling off in the last two decades. Although models of global warming predict summer desiccation in a greenhouse-warmed world, there is no evidence for this in the observations yet, even though the region has been warming for the entire period. While the interannual variations of soil moisture simulated by both the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Prediction and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalyses are close to the observations, neither reanalysis simulates the observed upward trend. Climate model simulations for the period show the same general shape as the observations, but differ quite a bit from each other and from the observations. An observed downward trend in insolation may have produced a downward trend in evaporation and may have contributed to the upward soil moisture trend.

  9. Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Mu, M.; Vinnikov, K. Y.; Trofimova, I. V.; Adamenko, T. I.

    2004-12-01

    We present the longest data set of observed soil moisture available in the world, 45 yr of gravimetrically-observed plant available soil moisture for the top 1 m of soil, observed every 10 days for April-October for 141 stations from fields with either winter or spring cereals from the Ukraine for 1958-2002. We averaged the summer observations over the entire region to account for the observed scale of soil moisture variations, to enhance the portion of the variance that is related to meteorological forcing. The observations show a positive soil moisture trend for the entire period of observation, with the trend leveling off in the last decade. Although models of global warming predict summer desiccation in a greenhouse-warmed world, there is no evidence for this in the observations yet, even though the region has been warming for the entire period. While the interannual variations of soil moisture simulated by both the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Prediction and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalyses are close to the observations, neither reanalysis simulates the observed upward trend. Climate model simulations for the period show the same general shape as the observations, but differ quite a bit from each other and from the observations. An observed downward trend in insolation may have produced a downward trend in evaporation and may have contributed to the upward soil moisture trend.

  10. Forty Years in the Making: Understanding the Molecular Mechanism of Peptide Regulation in Bacterial Development

    PubMed Central

    Perego, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction systems are influenced by positive and negative forces resulting in an output reflecting the sum of the opposing forces. The Rap family of regulatory protein modules control the output of two-component signal transduction systems through protein∶protein and protein∶peptide interactions. These modules and their peptide regulators are found in complex signaling pathways, including the bacterial developmental pathway to sporulation, competence, and protease secretion. Two articles published in the current issue of PLOS Biology reveal by means of crystallographic analyses how the Rap proteins of bacilli are regulated by their inhibitor Phr peptide and provide a mechanistic explanation for a genetic phenotype isolated decades earlier. The Rap-Phr module of bacterial regulators was the prototype of a family that now extends to other bacterial signaling proteins that involve the use of the tetratricopeptide repeat structural fold. The results invite speculation regarding the potential exploitation of this module as a molecular tool for applications in therapeutic design and biotechnology. PMID:23526885

  11. Genome changes due to forty years of artificial selection associated with divergent dairy production and reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial selection in dairy cattle since 1964 has achieved steady increase in milk production that was accompanied by unintended declines in fertility. Direct comparison of 45,878 SNPs between a group of Holstein cattle unselected since 1964 and the contemporary Holsteins was conducted to identify...

  12. Forty five years with membrane phospholipids, phospholipases and lipid mediators: A historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Chap, Hugues

    2016-06-01

    Phospholipases play a key role in the metabolism of phospholipids and in cell signaling. They are also a very useful tool to explore phospholipid structure and metabolism as well as membrane organization. They are at the center of this review, covering a period starting in 1971 and focused on a number of subjects in which my colleagues and I have been involved. Those include determination of phospholipid asymmetry in the blood platelet membrane, biosynthesis of lysophosphatidic acid, biochemistry of platelet-activating factor, first attempts to define the role of phosphoinositides in cell signaling, and identification of novel digestive (phospho)lipases such as pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2) or phospholipase B. Besides recalling some of our contributions to those various fields, this review makes an appraisal of the impressive and often unexpected evolution of those various aspects of membrane phospholipids and lipid mediators. It is also the occasion to propose some new working hypotheses. PMID:27059515

  13. The Changing Frontiers of Comparative Education: A Forty-Year Retrospective on "European Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2009-01-01

    "European Education" (originally known as "Western European Education") may no longer be directly associated with the field of comparative and international education, yet its establishment in 1969 was an attempt to make a direct contribution to the academic debates about the future of comparative education. The journal emerged at a time when…

  14. The prejudiced personality, racism, and anti-Semitism: the PR scale forty years later.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, E

    1995-10-01

    The relationship of prejudiced personality traits with racism and anti-Semitism was examined with 150 Asian American and White university students. The Prejudice (PR) scale, composed of 32 items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, was administered along with the McConahay racism scale and the Selznick and Steinberg Anti-Semitism scale. Results indicated that for Whites, the PR scale was significantly correlated with old-fashioned and modern racism and anti-Semitism, replicating Gough's 1951 study (Gough, 1951b) with the PR scale. However, no such relationship was observed for the Asian American group. This suggests that personality traits of prejudicial attitudes may be relatively stable for Whites but may not be related to outgroup bias for other racial or ethnic groups. PMID:8656327

  15. Forty years on: Uta Frith's contribution to research on autism and dyslexia, 1966–2006

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2008-01-01

    Uta Frith has made a major contribution to our understanding of developmental disorders, especially autism and dyslexia. She has studied the cognitive and neurobiological bases of both disorders and demonstrated distinctive impairments in social cognition and central coherence in autism, and in phonological processing in dyslexia. In this enterprise she has encouraged psychologists to work in a theoretical framework that distinguishes between observed behaviour and the underlying cognitive and neurobiological processes that mediate that behaviour. PMID:18038335

  16. Forty Years in the Union: Incubating, Supporting, and Catalyzing Socially Just Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottmann, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    North American teacher unions' positive contributions to educational change have historically flown under the radar of educational policy makers, a situation that has been reified by recent attacks on public sector unions. In this article, I draw on social movement theory and an institutional case study of a self described social justice union to…

  17. Forty years experience in developing and using rainfall simulators under tropical and Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Nacci, Silvana

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulation has been used as a practical tool for evaluating the interaction of falling water drops on the soil surface, to measure both stability of soil aggregates to drop impact and water infiltration rates. In both cases it is tried to simulate the effects of natural rainfall, which usually occurs at very different, variable and erratic rates and intensities. One of the main arguments against the use of rainfall simulators is the difficulty to reproduce the size, final velocity and kinetic energy of the drops in natural rainfall. Since the early 70´s we have been developing and using different kinds of rainfall simulators, both at laboratory and field levels, and under tropical and Mediterranean soil and climate conditions, in flat and sloping lands. They have been mainly used to evaluate the relative effects of different land use and management, including different cropping systems, tillage practices, surface soil conditioning, surface covers, etc. on soil water infiltration, on runoff and on erosion. Our experience is that in any case it is impossible to reproduce the variable size distribution and terminal velocity of raindrops, and the variable changes in intensity of natural storms, under a particular climate condition. In spite of this, with the use of rainfall simulators it is possible to obtain very good information, which if it is properly interpreted in relation to each particular condition (land and crop management, rainfall characteristics, measurement conditions, etc.) may be used as one of the parameters for deducing and modelling soil water balance and soil moisture regime under different land use and management and variable climate conditions. Due to the possibility for a better control of the intensity of simulated rainfall and of the size of water drops, and the possibility to make more repeated measurements under very variable soil and land conditions, both in the laboratory and specially in the field, the better results have been obtained with small size 500-1000 cm2, easily dismantled, drop former simulators, than with larger, nozzle, or more sophisticated equipments. In this contribution there are presented some of the rainfall simulators developed and used by the main author, and some of the results obtained in different studies of practical problems under tropical and Mediterranean conditions. References Pla, I.,G.Campero, y R.Useche.1974.Physical degradación of agricultural soils in the Western Plains of Venezuela. "Trans.10th Int.Cong.Soil.Sci.Soc". 1:231-240. .Moscú Pla, I. 1975.Effects of bitumen emulsion and polyacrilamide on some physical properties of Venezuelan soils. En "Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication"• 7. 35-46. Madison. Wisconsin . (USA). Pla, I. 1977.Aggregate size and erosion control on sloping land treated with hydrophobic bitumen emulsion."Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics".109-115. John Wiley & Sons. Pla, I.1981.Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986.A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia).

  18. Education and Geopolitics in a Changing Europe: Forty Years of Scholarship in "European Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta; Brehm, William C.

    2009-01-01

    This article chronicles the history of the journal "European Education" since its establishment in 1969 by placing it within the larger context of geopolitical changes of the twentieth century and the historical debates on theory and method in the field of comparative education. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 40…

  19. Forty years of change: a northern Alaskan seabird's response to a warming Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoky, G.; Suydam, R.

    2012-12-01

    While recent decadal-scale decreases in the snow and ice habitats of the Arctic are well documented, there are few concurrent long-term biological data sets, especially for species dependent on the cryopelagic ecosystem associated with arctic sea ice. The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandti), a marine apex predator specializing on prey associated with arctic pack ice has been studied annually since 1975 at a colony on Cooper Island, 35 km east of Point Barrow, Alaska. Over the last four decades critical components of the species' life history have been found to be sensitive to a number of physical and biological effects associated with the region's increasing atmospheric temperatures. Black Guillemots first colonized northern Alaska in the late 1960s and early 1970s as the annual snow-free period increased sufficiently to allow access to nesting cavities for the 80 days required to successfully raise young. At the Cooper Island colony abundance increased during the 1970s and 1980s as summer length continued to increase and wooden nest cavities were provided to increase sample size for monitoring. During this time breeding success was high as summer sea ice remained in the 30-km foraging range of guillemot parents, providing Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), the principal forage fish associated with sea ice and the preferred prey of Black Guillemots. Decreasing summer sea ice extent in the 1990s that accelerated in the last decade reduced the guillemots' access to cryopelagic prey during the critical period when parents are provisioning nestlings. Distance from the colony to the pack ice on 15 August averaged <25 km from 1975-2002 but increased to an average of >100 km from 2003-2011. This ice retreat had a major affect on Arctic Cod availability, causing parent guillemots to shift to lower quality benthic fish resulting in decreases in nestling quality and breeding success when sea ice had retreated and SST was > 4o C. Increasing loss of summer ice in the last decade also facilitated changes in the distribution of a guillemot nest competitor and nest predator resulting in major losses of eggs and young. Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) recently expanded their breeding range from the subarctic to northern Alaska and regularly disrupt guillemot nesting by displacing eggs and killing guillemot nestlings while prospecting for nest sites. Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus), rare on Cooper Island until 2002 are now seen regularly in August as they seek refuge on land and prey on guillemot young. While the loss of cryopelagic prey led to reductions in the guillemot population, the loss of eggs and nestlings to puffins and bears was severe enough to threaten the existence of the colony. In 2011 all nest sites at the colony were replaced with plastic nest cases that eliminate disturbance by bears and puffins. Upper trophic level predators are recognized as important indicators of variation in and perturbations to marine ecosystems and in the near future the waters of the western Arctic will be experiencing a range of alterations due to both atmospheric warming and industrial development. The ongoing research at the Cooper Island Black Guillemot colony, combined with its historic database. will allow assessment of those changes.

  20. Forty years of atmospheric radiocarbon monitoring around Bohunice nuclear power plant, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Povinec, P P; Chudý, M; Sivo, A; Simon, J; Holý, K; Richtáriková, M

    2009-02-01

    Radiocarbon variations in the atmospheric CO(2) with attenuating amplitudes and decreasing mean values with typical maxima in summer and minima in winter have been observed since 1967 in two localities of Slovakia, in Bratislava and Zlkovce, situated about 60 km NE from Bratislava, only 5 km from the Bohunice Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The (14)C record in Bratislava has been influenced mainly by fossil CO(2) emissions, in contrast to the Zlkovce record which has been more variable, as it has clearly been affected by operation of the Bohunice NPP. However, during specific meteorological conditions with NE transport of air masses to Bratislava, the effect of the Bohunice NPP has been visible in Bratislava as well. Maximum (14)C concentrations (up to 120% above a natural background) were observed around A1 NPP which used CO(2) with admixture of air as a cooling agent. The (14)C concentrations around four pressurized light water reactors were up to 30% above the background. The Delta(14)C values in the heavily polluted atmosphere of Bratislava were up to 10% and at Zlkovce up to 5% lower than the European clean air represented by the Jungfraujoch Delta(14)C data. Later the Delta(14)C values were similar at both sites, and from 2003 they were close to the European clean air levels. The observed Delta(14)C behaviour in the atmosphere provides a unique evidence of decreased fossil fuel CO(2) emissions in the region, as well as the long-term effect of the Bohunice NPP on the Bratislava and Zlkovce stations. The estimated annual radiation doses to the local public due to digestion of radiocarbon contaminated food have been estimated to be around 3 microSv. PMID:18926606

  1. Forty Years of Progress: Where Have We Been? Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rhonda S.; Salas, Beverly A.

    This paper uses personal profiles to highlight major events across the past five decades that have affected the lives of individuals with mental retardation and their families. Each of the scenarios provided represents a creation of prototypical families, communities, school climates, issues, and social attitudes during a particular decade.…

  2. Forty-five years after Broadbent (1958): still no identification without attention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachter, Joel; Forster, Kenneth I.; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    According to D. E. Broadbent's (1958) selective filter theory, people do not process unattended stimuli beyond the analysis of basic physical properties. This theory was later rejected on the basis of numerous findings that people identify irrelevant (and supposedly unattended) stimuli. A careful review of this evidence, however, reveals strong reasons to doubt that these irrelevant stimuli were in fact unattended. This review exposed a clear need for new experiments with tight control over the locus of attention. The authors present 5 such experiments using a priming paradigm. When steps were taken to ensure that irrelevant stimuli were not attended, these stimuli produced no priming effects. Hence, the authors found no evidence that unattended stimuli can be identified. The results support a modern version of Broadbent's selective theory, updated to reflect recent research advances. 2004 APA.

  3. Forty years of litigation involving medical students and their education: II. Issues of finance.

    PubMed

    Helms, L B; Helms, C M

    1991-02-01

    An analysis of reported state and federal adjudication from 1950 through 1989 was undertaken to identify trends in litigation involving medical students and undergraduate medical education. Of the 110 cited judicial decisions during that time, 59 (54%) involved disputes over financing medical education; 43 (73%) were litigated since 1985. This dramatic increase arises primarily from challenges to National Health Service Corps obligations and from attempts to discharge or reorganize debt under the Bankruptcy Code. Medical school graduates enjoyed very little success in these cases. Analysis of court decisions points to a need for informed counseling for medical students, particularly as to the consequences of timing in default on service obligations and of incurring loans under the Health Education Assistance Loan (HEAL) program as opposed to other loan sources. The growing educational debt of today's medical students foreshadows continued litigation in this area. PMID:1993104

  4. Target of Opportunity - Far-UV Observations of Comet ISON with FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan

    The goal of this one year program is to acquire spectra and imagery of the sungrazing Oort cloud comet known as ISON in the far-UV bandpass between 800 -- 1950 Angstroms over a 1/2 degree field-of-view (FOV), during its ingress and egress from the sun. This bandpass and FOV provides access to a particularly rich set of spectral diagnostics for determining the volatile production rates of CO, H, C, C+, O and S, and to search for previously undetected atomic and molecular species such as Ar, N, N+, N2, O+ and O5+. We are particularly interested in searching for compositional changes associated with the intense heating episode at the comet's perihelion to address an outstanding question in cometary research; do Oort cloud comets carry a chemical composition similar to the proto-stellar molecular cloud from which the Solar System formed? Sounding rockets are uniquely suited to observing cometary emissions in the far-UV as they can point to within 25 degrees of the sun, whereas HST is limited to observations at angles greater than 50 degrees. The projected ephemeris of this comet shows that on ingress it is expected to reach ~ +4 mag at 25 degrees from the sun on 21 November 2013 and, should it survive its trip to within 2.7 Rsun from the sun, it is expected to reach a similar magnitude during egress at 25 degrees on 08 December 2013. This will be a reflight of the JHU sounding rocket borne spectro-telescope called FORTIS, currently scheduled to fly in May of 2013 on NASA sounding rocket 36.268 UG. The instrumental configuration of FORTIS is uniquely suited to accomplishing the goals of this task.

  5. The cost-effectiveness of forty health interventions in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Jha, P; Bangoura, O; Ranson, K

    1998-09-01

    Addressing diseases of a high burden with the most cost-effective interventions could do much to reduce disease in the population. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of 40 health interventions in Guinea, a low-income country in sub-Saharan Africa, using local data. Interventions were selected from treatment protocols at health centres, first referral hospitals and national programmes in Guinea, based upon consultation with health care providers and government plans. For each intervention, we calculated the costs (comprising labour, drugs, supplies, equipment, and overhead) in relation to years of life saved, discounted at 3%. The results show that the per capita costs and effectiveness of any intervention vary considerably. Average costs show no clear pattern by level of care, but effectiveness is generally highest for curative hospital interventions. Several interventions have a cost-effectiveness of US$100 per year of life saved (LYS) or less, and address more than 5% of total years of life lost. These include health centre interventions such as: treatment of childhood pneumonia ($3/LYS); rehydration therapy for diarrhoea ($7/LYS); integrated management of childhood pneumonia, malaria and diarrhoea ($8/LYS); short-course treatment of tuberculosis ($12/LYS); treatment of childhood malaria ($13/LYS), and childhood vaccination ($25/LYS). Outreach programmes for impregnated bed nets against malaria cost $43/LYS. Maternal and perinatal diseases, have slightly less cost-effective interventions: integrated family planning, prenatal and delivery care at health centres ($109/LYS) or outreach programmes to provide prenatal and delivery care ($283/LYS). A minimum package of health services would cost approximately $13 per capita, and would address a large proportion (69%) of major causes of premature mortality. This minimum package would cost about three times the current public spending on health, suggesting that health spending needs to rise to achieve good health

  6. The Rearranged Workweek of Four Days, Forty Hours with a Treatment of Military Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, William J.

    The primary purpose of the study was to develop a military reference on the rearranged workweek, especially the four-day, forty-hour arrangement. In the research an extensive review of pertinent literature was accomplished to provide the necessary background to properly evaluate the military four-day, forty-hour workweek experience at McGuire Air…

  7. Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

  8. Cortical neurostimulation for neuropathic pain: state of the art and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The treatment of neuropathic pain by neuromodulation is an objective for more than 40 years in modern clinical practice. With respect to spinal cord and deep brain structures, the cerebral cortex is the most recently evaluated target of invasive neuromodulation therapy for pain. In the early 90s, the first successes of invasive epidural motor cortex stimulation (EMCS) were published. A few years later was developed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a noninvasive stimulation technique. Then, electrical transcranial stimulation returned valid and is currently in full development, with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Regarding transcranial approaches, the main studied and validated target was still the motor cortex, but other cortical targets are under investigation. The mechanisms of action of these techniques share similarities, especially between EMCS and rTMS, but they also have differences that could justify specific indications and applications. It is therefore important to know the principles and to assess the merit of these techniques on the basis of a rigorous assessment of the results, to avoid fad. Various types of chronic neuropathic pain syndromes can be significantly relieved by EMCS or repeated daily sessions of high-frequency (5-20 Hz) rTMS or anodal tDCS over weeks, at least when pain is lateralized and stimulation is applied to the motor cortex contralateral to pain side. However, cortical stimulation therapy remains to be optimized, especially by improving EMCS electrode design, rTMS targeting, or tDCS montage, to reduce the rate of nonresponders, who do not experience clinically relevant effects of these techniques. PMID:26785160

  9. Habitat evaluation for outbreak of Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis) and management implications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhenggang; Zhao, Yunlin; Li, Bo; Zhang, Meiwen; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Rodent pests severely damage agricultural crops. Outbreak risk models of rodent pests often do not include sufficient information regarding geographic variation. Habitat plays an important role in rodent-pest outbreak risk, and more information about the relationship between habitat and crop protection is urgently needed. The goal of the present study was to provide an outbreak risk map for the Dongting Lake region and to understand the relationship between rodent-pest outbreak variation and habitat distribution. The main rodent pests in the Dongting Lake region are Yangtze voles (Microtus fortis). These pests cause massive damage in outbreak years, most notably in 2007. Habitat evaluation and ecological details were obtained by analyzing the correlation between habitat suitability and outbreak risk, as indicated by population density and historical events. For the source-sink population, 96.18% of Yangtze vole disaster regions were covered by a 10-km buffer zone of suitable habitat in 2007. Historical outbreak frequency and peak population density were significantly correlated with the proportion of land covered by suitable habitat (r = 0.68, P = 0.04 and r = 0.76, P = 0.03, respectively). The Yangtze vole population tends to migrate approximately 10 km in outbreak years. Here, we propose a practical method for habitat evaluation that can be used to create integrated pest management plans for rodent pests when combined with basic information on the biology, ecology and behavior of the target species. PMID:25316099

  10. Characterization of cyclic and acyclic alkanes in Forties and Kuwait petroleum crudes

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W. ); Pakdel, H. ); Bartle, K.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Alkane hydrocarbon fractions from Forties (North Sea) and Kuwait petroleum crudes, separated by distillation, solvent extraction and silicagel column chromatography and sub-fractionated by molecular-sieve adsorption, have been examined by gas chromatography (GC), {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy, GC-mass spectrometry (MS) and field desorption (FD)MS. GC indicates that Forties contains rather more acyclic isoprenoids and cyclic alkanes than Kuwait; FDMS of Kuwait shows molecular-weight ranges for mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentacyclic alkanes. {sup 13}C NMR spectra provide evidence of higher aromatic carbon, C{sub A}, in Forties than Kuwait and longer T{sub 1} relaxation times.

  11. Measurement of the room temperture R(1) line width of forty-two rubies.

    PubMed

    Benedict, R A; Nester, J F; Kellington, C M

    1967-03-01

    Accurate measurement of the room temperature R(1) fluorescent line width of forty-two ruby laser crystals has been made using a pressure-scanned Fabry-Perot etalon. In forty-one of these rubies the chromium content was nearly the same, and the R(1) line width for all was 5.0 +/- 0.3 A, in agreement with present theories. PMID:20057772

  12. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  13. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  14. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  15. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  16. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  17. Bovine Cryptosporidiosis: Clinical and Pathological Findings in Forty-two Scouring Neonatal Calves

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, S. E.; Josephson, G. K. A.

    1982-01-01

    Cryptosporidia organisms were identified in 42 of 161 (26%) neonatal, diarrheic calves, over a 32 month period commencing July 1979. Forty of the 161 calves were submitted alive and cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed in 63% (25 of 40) of them. The cryptosporidia infected calves were usually one to two weeks old and came from 26 herds where the typical history was profuse, watery diarrhea in nearly all neonatal calves. The diarrhea usually started around one week of age, was unresponsive to all conventional antidiarrhea therapies, lasted for two or more weeks and was usually fatal. Twenty-nine (69%) of the cryptosporidia infected calves were submitted between December and February. These calves were often hutch reared. Histopatholoical examination revealed large numbers of the coccidial parasite Cryptosporidium sp embedded in the microvilli of jejunal and ileal absorptive enterocytes of all affected calves. The organisms were identified as trophozoites and schizonts (asexual stages) and macrogametes (female sexual stages) with the electron microscope. Microgametes (male sexual stages) were not identified. Occasionally a merozoite (asexual stage) was also seen apparently burrowing into or about to be enveloped by a host microvillus. Observation of the organisms was much easier when diarrheic calves were submitted alive. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli were often cultured from intestines of dead calves and occasionally from calves submitted alive. Coronavirus particles were seen in one calf. In the last year of this study, oocysts were identified in fecal smears stained with May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain and fecal samples using a dichromate solution flotation technique. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:17422204

  18. IR Laboratory Astrophysics at Forty: Some Highlights and a Look to the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allamandola, Louis John

    2016-06-01

    Space was thought to be chemically barren until about forty years ago. Astrochemistry was in its infancy, the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the presence of mixed molecular ices in dense molecular clouds was not taken seriously, and the notion of large, gas phase, carbon-rich molecules (PAHs) abundant and widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) was inconceivable. The rapid development of infrared astronomy between 1970 and 1985, especially observations made by the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS), which made it possible to measure mid-infrared spectra between 2.5 to 14 µm, changed all that. Since then observations made from ground-based, airborne and orbiting IR telescopes, together with radio and submm observations, have revealed that we live in a Universe that is not a hydrogen-dominated, physicist's paradise, but in a molecular Universe with complex molecules directly interwoven into its fabric. Today we recognize that molecules are an abundant and important component of astronomical objects at all stages of their evolution and that they play important roles in many processes that contribute to the structure and evolution of galaxies. Furthermore, many of these organic molecules are thought to be delivered to habitable planets such as Earth, and their composition may be related to the origin of life. Laboratory astrophysics has been key to making this great progress; progress which has only been made possible thanks to the close collaboration of laboratory experimentalists with astronomers and theoreticians. These collaborations are essential to meet the growing interdisciplinary challenges posed by astrophysics. This talk will touch on some of the milestones that have been reached in IR astrospectroscopy over the past four decades, focusing on the experimental work that revealed the widespread presence of interstellar PAHs and the composition of interstellar/precometary ices

  19. Switching from neurostimulant therapy to atomoxetine in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder : clinical approaches and review of current available evidence.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Suyash; Steer, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This review provides practical information on and clinical reasons for switching children and young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from neurostimulants to atomoxetine, detailing currently available evidence, and switching options. The issue is of particular relevance following recent guidance from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and European ADHD guidelines endorsing the use of atomoxetine, along with the stimulants methylphenidate and dexamphetamine, in the management of ADHD in children and adolescents in the UK. The selective norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, is a non-stimulant drug licensed for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, and in adults who have shown a response in childhood. Following the once-daily morning dose, its therapeutic effects extend through the waking hours, into late evening, and in some patients, through to early the next morning. Atomoxetine may be considered for patients who are unresponsive or incompletely responsive to stimulant treatment, have co-morbid conditions (e.g. tics, anxiety, depression), and have sleep disturbances or eating problems, for patients in whom stimulants are poorly tolerated, and for situations where there is potential for drug abuse or diversion. Atomoxetine has been shown to be effective in relapse prevention and there is suggestion that atomoxetine may have a positive effect on global functioning; specifically health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and social and family functioning. According to one study, approximately 50% of non-responders to methylphenidate will respond to atomoxetine therapy and approximately 75% of responders to methylphenidate will also respond to atomoxetine. Atomoxetine may be initiated by a schedule of dose increases and cross-tapering with methylphenidate. A slow titration schedule with divided doses minimizes the impact of adverse events within the first several weeks of

  20. CHLORINATION, WATER HARDNESS, AND SERUM CHOLESTEROL IN FORTY-SIX WISCONSIN COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program measured serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. he purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroi...

  1. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register on Monday, July 23, 2012 (77 FR 43123). ] At the request of... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and...

  2. 3-D flexible nano-textured high-density microelectrode arrays for high-performance neuro-monitoring and neuro-stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gabran, S R I; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Dian, Joshua; El-Hayek, Youssef; Perez Velazquez, J L; Genov, Roman; Carlen, Peter L; Salama, M M A; Mansour, Raafat R

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a new 3-D flexible microelectrode array for high performance electrographic neural signal recording and stimulation. The microelectrode architecture maximizes the number of channels on each shank and minimizes its footprint. The electrode was implemented on flexible polyimide substrate using microfabrication and thin-film processing. The electrode has a planar layout and comprises multiple shanks. Each shank is three mm in length and carries six gold pads representing the neuro-interfacing channels. The channels are used in recording important precursors with potential clinical relevance and consequent electrical stimulation to perturb the clinical condition. The polyimide structure satisfied the mechanical characteristics required for the proper electrode implantation and operation. Pad postprocessing technique was developed to improve the electrode electrical performance. The planar electrodes were used for creating 3-D "Waterloo Array" microelectrode with controlled gaps using custom designed stackers. Electrode characterization and benchmarking against commercial equivalents demonstrated the superiority of the Flex electrodes. The Flex and commercial electrodes were associated with low-power implantable responsive neuro-stimulation system. The electrodes performance in recording and stimulation application was quantified through in vitro and in vivo acute and chronic experiments on human brain slices and freely-moving rodents. The Flex electrodes exhibited remarkable drop in the electric impedance (100 times at 100 Hz), improved electrode-electrolyte interface noise (dropped by four times) and higher signal-to-noise ratio (3.3 times). PMID:24876130

  3. Effects of neurostimulation for advanced Parkinson’s disease patients on motor symptoms: A multiple-treatments meta-analysas of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Cheng-Long; Shao, Bei; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Yi; Lin, Shi-Yi; Wang, Wen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). We aim to evaluate the efficacy of GPi (globus pallidus internus), STN (subthalamic nucleus)-DBS and medical therapy for PD. We conducted a systematic review and multiple-treatments meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of neurostimulation and medical therapy for PD patients. Sixteen eligible studies were included in this analysis. We pooled the whole data and found obvious difference between GPi-DBS versus medical therapy and STN-DBS versus medical therapy in terms of UPDRS scores (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale). Meanwhile, we found GPi-DBS had the similar efficacy on the UPDRS scores when compared with STN-DBS. What is more, quality of life, measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson’s disease Questionnaire) showed greater improvement after GPi-DBS than STN-DBS. Five studies showed STN-DBS was more effective for reduction in medication than GPi-DBS. Overall, either GPi-DBS or STN-DBS was an effective technique to control PD patients’ symptoms and improved their functionality and quality of life. Meanwhile, the UPDRS scores measuring parkinsonian symptoms revealed no significant difference between GPi-DBS and STN-DBS. STN-DBS was more effective for reduction in medication than GPi-DBS. Alternatively, GPi-DBS was more effective for improving the PDQ-39 score than STN-DBS. PMID:27142183

  4. Effects of neurostimulation for advanced Parkinson's disease patients on motor symptoms: A multiple-treatments meta-analysas of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Xie, Cheng-Long; Shao, Bei; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Yi; Lin, Shi-Yi; Wang, Wen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the surgical procedure of choice for patients with advanced Parkinson disease (PD). We aim to evaluate the efficacy of GPi (globus pallidus internus), STN (subthalamic nucleus)-DBS and medical therapy for PD. We conducted a systematic review and multiple-treatments meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of neurostimulation and medical therapy for PD patients. Sixteen eligible studies were included in this analysis. We pooled the whole data and found obvious difference between GPi-DBS versus medical therapy and STN-DBS versus medical therapy in terms of UPDRS scores (Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale). Meanwhile, we found GPi-DBS had the similar efficacy on the UPDRS scores when compared with STN-DBS. What is more, quality of life, measured by PDQ-39 (Parkinson's disease Questionnaire) showed greater improvement after GPi-DBS than STN-DBS. Five studies showed STN-DBS was more effective for reduction in medication than GPi-DBS. Overall, either GPi-DBS or STN-DBS was an effective technique to control PD patients' symptoms and improved their functionality and quality of life. Meanwhile, the UPDRS scores measuring parkinsonian symptoms revealed no significant difference between GPi-DBS and STN-DBS. STN-DBS was more effective for reduction in medication than GPi-DBS. Alternatively, GPi-DBS was more effective for improving the PDQ-39 score than STN-DBS. PMID:27142183

  5. The combined effects of neurostimulation and priming on creative thinking. A preliminary tDCS study on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Barbara; Bartesaghi, Noemi; Simonelli, Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in influencing creative thinking has been investigated by many researchers who, while succeeding in proving an effective involvement of PFC, reported suggestive but sometimes conflicting results. In order to better understand the relationships between creative thinking and brain activation in a more specific area of the PFC, we explored the role of dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). We devised an experimental protocol using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). The study was based on a 3 (kind of stimulation: anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham) × 2 (priming: divergent vs. convergent) design. Forty-five healthy adults were randomly assigned to one stimulation condition. Participants’ creativity skills were assessed using the Product Improvement subtest from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). After 20 min of tDCS stimulation, participants were presented with visual images of common objects. Half of the participants were instructed to visualize themselves using the object in an unusual way (divergent priming), whereas the other half were asked to visualize themselves while using the object in a common way (convergent priming). Priming was aimed at inducing participants to adopt different attitudes toward the creative task. Afterwards, participants were asked to describe all of the possible uses of the objects that were presented. Participants’ physiological activation was recorded using a biofeedback equipment. Results showed a significant effect of anodal stimulation that enhanced creative performance, but only after divergent priming. Participants showed lower skin temperature values after cathodal stimulation, a finding which is coherent with studies reporting that, when a task is not creative or creative thinking is not prompted, people show lower levels of arousal. Differences in individual levels of creativity as assessed by the Product Improvement test were not influential. The involvement of DLPFC in creativity

  6. The combined effects of neurostimulation and priming on creative thinking. A preliminary tDCS study on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Barbara; Bartesaghi, Noemi; Simonelli, Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in influencing creative thinking has been investigated by many researchers who, while succeeding in proving an effective involvement of PFC, reported suggestive but sometimes conflicting results. In order to better understand the relationships between creative thinking and brain activation in a more specific area of the PFC, we explored the role of dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). We devised an experimental protocol using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). The study was based on a 3 (kind of stimulation: anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham) × 2 (priming: divergent vs. convergent) design. Forty-five healthy adults were randomly assigned to one stimulation condition. Participants' creativity skills were assessed using the Product Improvement subtest from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). After 20 min of tDCS stimulation, participants were presented with visual images of common objects. Half of the participants were instructed to visualize themselves using the object in an unusual way (divergent priming), whereas the other half were asked to visualize themselves while using the object in a common way (convergent priming). Priming was aimed at inducing participants to adopt different attitudes toward the creative task. Afterwards, participants were asked to describe all of the possible uses of the objects that were presented. Participants' physiological activation was recorded using a biofeedback equipment. Results showed a significant effect of anodal stimulation that enhanced creative performance, but only after divergent priming. Participants showed lower skin temperature values after cathodal stimulation, a finding which is coherent with studies reporting that, when a task is not creative or creative thinking is not prompted, people show lower levels of arousal. Differences in individual levels of creativity as assessed by the Product Improvement test were not influential. The involvement of DLPFC in creativity has

  7. Survey of Yucca Mountain, Forty-Mile Canyon, and Jackass Flats in Nye County, Nevada for desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii

    SciTech Connect

    Medica, P.A.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Collins, E.

    1981-10-01

    The objective of this brief survey was to determine if G. agassizii is present west of Forty-Mile Canyon in the Yucca Mountain.. area, or along the major access roads which lead through Jackass Flats to Forty-Mile Canyon and Yucca Mountain

  8. 32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian... DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.13 CAs involving forty-five... Appendix C to this part, CAs involving 11 to 45 DoD civilian employees may be competed based on...

  9. 32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian... DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.13 CAs involving forty-five... Appendix C to this part, CAs involving 11 to 45 DoD civilian employees may be competed based on...

  10. 32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian... DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.13 CAs involving forty-five... Appendix C to this part, CAs involving 11 to 45 DoD civilian employees may be competed based on...

  11. 32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian... DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.13 CAs involving forty-five... Appendix C to this part, CAs involving 11 to 45 DoD civilian employees may be competed based on...

  12. 32 CFR 169a.13 - CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false CAs involving forty-five or fewer DoD civilian... DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.13 CAs involving forty-five... Appendix C to this part, CAs involving 11 to 45 DoD civilian employees may be competed based on...

  13. Dynamic relationship between neurostimulation and N-acetylaspartate metabolism in the human visual cortex: evidence that NAA functions as a molecular water pump during visual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Baslow, Morris H; Hrabe, Jan; Guilfoyle, David N

    2007-01-01

    N-acetyl-l-aspartic acid (NAA), an amino acid synthesized and stored primarily in neurons in the brain, has been proposed to be a molecular water pump (MWP) whose function is to rapidly remove water from neurons against a water gradient. In this communication, we describe the results of a functional (1)H proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) study, and provide evidence that in the human visual cortex, over a 10-min period of visual stimulation, there are stimulation-induced graded changes in the NAA MRS signal from that of a preceding 10-min baseline period with a decline in the NAA signal of 13.1% by the end of the 10-min stimulation period. Upon cessation of visual stimulation, the NAA signal gradually increases during a 10-min recovery period and once again approaches the baseline level. Because the NAA MRS signal reflects the NAA concentration, these changes indicate rapid focal changes in its concentration, and transient changes in its intercompartmental metabolism. These include its rates of synthesis and efflux from neurons and its hydrolysis by oligodendrocytes. During stimulation, the apparent rate of NAA efflux and hydrolysis increased 14.2 times, from 0.55 to 7.8 micromol g(-1) h(-1). During recovery, the apparent rate of synthesis increased 13.3 times, from 0.55 to 7.3 micromol g(-1) h(-1). The decline in the NAA signal during stimulation suggests that a rapid increase in the rate of NAA-obligated water release to extracellular fluid (ECF) is the initial and seminal event in response to neurostimulation. It is concluded that the NAA metabolic cycle in the visual cortex is intimately linked to rates of neuronal signaling, and that the functional cycle of NAA is associated with its release to ECF, thus supporting the hypothesis that an important function of the NAA metabolic cycle is that of an efflux MWP. PMID:17873369

  14. Azeglio Bemporad and the Astronomical Popularization between Naples and Catania During the First Forty Years of the XX Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulco, M. T.; Olostro Cirella, E.

    The scientific popularization is an important activity in the Research Institutes. In particular, at Capodimonte Astronomical Observatory and at Catania Astrophysical Observatory where in the first half of the XX century the astronomical communication reached its highest expression.

  15. It's Not Over in the South: School Desegregation in Forty-Three Southern Cities Eighteen Years After Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Washington, DC.

    The focus of this study on school desegregation is on 43 cities in the following areas: Bibb and Chatham Counties (Ga.); Orange, Duval, Hillsborough, and Pinellas Counties (Fla.); Cado, Quachita, East Baton Rouge, and Orleans Parishes (La.); and, Richland County District Number 1, Florence County District Number 1, and Orangeburg County District…

  16. A Retrospective Chronicle of the Midwest School Social Work Council: Its Vision and Influence after Forty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, James C.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the Midwest School Social Work Council celebrated its fortieth anniversary in Cleveland, Ohio. This article reviews early efforts to build alliances of school social workers across state lines, the early collaborative relationship with the National Association of Social Workers, and the eventual need for a new organization. The Midwest…

  17. Signature of forty years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle identified by long-range frequency analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three groups of U.S. Holstein cattle were analyzed for selection signature of artificial selection since 1964 using long-range frequency measures. The three groups included Holsteins unselected since 1964, contemporary Holsteins, and an elite line of contemporary Holsteins. Long-range frequencies in...

  18. Forty Years Later--The Value of Praise, Ignoring, and Rules for Preschoolers at Risk for Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Peggy P.; Hendrickson, Jo M.; Gable, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    The pivotal role of teachers in establishing positive, supportive, inclusive learning environments based on the implementation of empirically-supported teaching strategies (IDEA, 1997, 2004: NCLB, 2002) is uncontestable. Nonetheless, it is not uncommon to find classrooms characterized by teacher reprimands for inappropriate behavior, coercive…

  19. Reform Under Attack--Forty Years of Working on Better Mathematics Education Thrown on the Scrapheap? No Way!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the reform of mathematics education in the Netherlands and the attacks that presently take place against this reform. The attacks concentrate on primary education and criticize in particular the program for teaching calculation skills with long division as a case in point. The paper gives an overview of what Realistic…

  20. A Forty-Year Retrospective 1950-1990: The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority's Conservation Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Allen Terry

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the growth of Conservation Authorities in Ontario from the first partnerships between schools and conservation in the 1950s, to the opening of a pioneer village, flood control dam, nature trails, and residential conservation education centers through the 1960s and 1970s. Increased public environmental concern sparked more growth in the…

  1. Forty two years counting spots: Solar observations by D.E. Hadden during 1890-1931 revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, V. M. S.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    We have recovered the sunspot observations made by David E. Hadden during 1890-1931 from Alta, Iowa. We have digitized the available data published by Hadden in different astronomical journals. This data series have been analyzed and compared with the standard sunspot number series. Moreover, we provide additional information on two great sunspot groups, previously not described, that originated two important extreme episodes of space weather on February 1892 and September 1898.

  2. Bristow-Latarjet Technique: Still a Very Successful Surgery for Anterior Glenohumeral Instability - A Forty Year One Clinic Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ruci, Vilson; Duni, Artid; Cake, Alfred; Ruci, Dorina; Ruci, Julian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the functional outcomes of the Bristow-Latarjet procedure in patients with recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Personal clinical records of 42 patients with 45 operated shoulders were reviewed retrospectively. Patient age at time of first dislocation, injury mechanism, and number of recurring dislocations before surgery were recorded. The overall function and stability of the shoulder was evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty five (78%) of the scapulohumeral humeral instabilities were caused by trauma. The mean number of recurring dislocations was 9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0–18); one patient had had 17 recurrences. Mean follow-up 46 months (95% CI, 16-88). No dislocation happened postoperatively. Four patients have fibrous union (9%). Only two had clinical sign of pain and discomfort. One of them was reoperated for screw removal with very good post-operative result. The overall functional outcome was good, with a mean Rowe score of 88 points (95% CI, 78–100). Scores of 27 (64%) of the patients were excellent, 9 (22%) were good, 4 (9.5%) were fair, and 2 (4.5%) were poor. CONCLUSION: The Bristow-Latarjet procedure is a very good surgical treatment for recurrent anterior-inferior instability of the glenohumeral joint. It must not be used for multidirectional instability or psychogenic habitual dislocations.

  3. Thyrotoxicosis in Nigeria—a study of forty-six patients

    PubMed Central

    Olurin, E. O.

    1972-01-01

    In a review of 874 Nigerian patients with various types of thyroid gland disorders, forty-six patients were found to be thyrotoxic (5·3%), supporting the common observation of many authors that thyrotoxicosis is rarer in the African than in Europe and North America where thyrotoxicosis accounts for 20-50% of all thyroidectomies. The incidence of thyrotoxicosis is higher in the female than male though there is a higher proportion of males in this series than in the United Kingdom. There is a higher incidence of secondary thyrotoxicosis than has been reported elsewhere. The clinical features of hyperthyroidism in the Nigerian are no different from those reported in other countries, though our patients tend to report rather late. Primary thyrotoxicosis occured a decade earlier in this series than in Britain. Two of the forty-six patients had adenocarcinoma of the thyroid although only in twenty-seven patients was thyroid tissue available for histological examination. Laboratory investigations were essential in borderline cases, especially estimation of the PBI in those with multinodular goitres. The standard methods of treatment by antithyroid drugs, 131I and surgery were employed with immediately satisfactory results, though the follow-up was so poor that it is impossible to evaluate the late effects of treatment. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:5079178

  4. Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis)

    PubMed Central

    Genbrugge, Annelies; Heyde, Anne-Sophie; Adriaens, Dominique; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Podos, Jeffrey; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Darwin's finches are a model system in ecological and evolutionary research, but surprisingly little is known about their skull morphology and development. Indeed, only the early beak development and external variation in adult beak shape has been studied. Understanding the development of the skull from embryo up to the adult is important to gain insights into how selection acts upon, and drives, variation in beak shape. Here, we provide a detailed description of the skeletal development of the skull in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis). Although the ossification sequence of the cranial elements is broadly similar to that observed for other birds, some differences can be observed. Unexpectedly, our data show that large changes in skull shape take place between the nestling and the juvenile phases. The reorientation of the beak, the orbit and the formation of well-developed processes and cristae suggest that these changes are likely related to the use of the beak after leaving the nest. This suggests that the active use of the jaw muscles during seed cracking plays an important role in shaping the adult skull morphology and may be driving some of the intra-specific variation observed in species such as G. fortis. Investigating the development of the jaw muscles and their interaction with the observed ossification and formation of the skull and lower jaw would allow further insights into the ecology and evolution of beak morphology in Darwin's finches. PMID:21599660

  5. Enzymatic degradation of hybrid iota-/nu-carrageenan by Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase.

    PubMed

    Jouanneau, Diane; Boulenguer, Patrick; Mazoyer, Jacques; Helbert, William

    2010-05-01

    Hybrid iota-/nu-carrageenan was water-extracted from Eucheuma denticulatum and incubated with Alteromonas fortis iota-carrageenase. The degradation products were then separated by anion-exchange chromatography. The three most abundant fractions of hybrid iota-/nu-carrageenan oligosaccharides were purified and their structures were analyzed by NMR. The smallest hybrid was an octasaccharide with a iota-iota-nu-iota structure. The second fraction was composed of two decasaccharides with iota-iota-iota-nu-iota and iota-[iota/nu]-iota-iota structures. The third fraction was a mixture of dodecasaccharides which contained at least a iota-iota-iota-iota-nu-iota oligosaccharide. The carbon and proton NMR spectra of the octasaccharides were completely assigned, thereby completely attributing the nu-carrabiose moiety for the first time. PMID:20227066

  6. Correlations Between Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma and Other Cancers: An Ecological Study in Forty European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Pablo Fernandez-Crehuet; Serrano, Jose Luis Fernandez-Crehuet; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Navajas, Rafael Fernandez-Crehuet

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of noncutaneous neoplasms does not seem to increase the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma; however, it seems to be associated with the development of other hematological, brain, breast, uterine, and prostatic neoplasms. An ecological transversal study was conducted to study the geographic association between cutaneous malignant melanoma and 24 localizations of cancer in forty European countries. Methods: Cancer incidence rates were extracted from GLOBOCAN database of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We analyzed the age-adjusted and gender-stratified incidence rates for different localizations of cancer in forty European countries and calculated their correlation using Pearson's correlation test. Results: In males, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with testicular cancer (r = 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.89]), myeloma (r = 0.68 [95% CI: 0.46–0.81]), prostatic carcinoma (r = 0.66 [95% CI: 0.43–0.80]), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (r = 0.63 [95% CI: 0.39–0.78]). In females, significant correlations were found between cutaneous malignant melanoma with breast cancer (r = 0.80 [95% CI: 0.64–0.88]), colorectal cancer (r = 0.72 [95% CI: 0.52–0.83]), and NHL (r = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50–0.83]). Conclusions: These correlations call to conduct new studies about the epidemiology of cancer in general and cutaneous malignant melanoma risk factors in particular. PMID:27217938

  7. "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties" on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities [4]. But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40˚-50˚) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50˚-60˚) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60˚, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46˚ south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44˚ north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59˚ north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44˚ north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70˚ north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10439 - dance

  8. "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties" on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities [4]. But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40˚-50˚) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50˚-60˚) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60˚, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46˚ south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44˚ north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59˚ north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44˚ north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70˚ north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10439 - dance

  9. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

  10. Lateral optic flow does not influence distance estimation in the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis.

    PubMed

    Ronacher, B; Gallizzi, K; Wohlgemuth, S; Wehner, R

    2000-04-01

    The present account answers the question of whether desert ants (Cataglyphis fortis) gauge the distance they have travelled by using self-induced lateral optic-flow parameters, as has been described for bees. The ants were trained to run to a distant food source within a channel whose walls were covered with black-and-white gratings. From the food source, they were transferred to test channels of double or half the training width, and the distance they travelled before searching for home and their walking speeds were recorded. Since the animals experience different motion parallax cues when walking in the broader or narrower channels, the optic-flow hypothesis predicted that the ants would walk faster and further in the broader channels, but more slowly and less far in the narrower channels. In contrast to this expectation, neither the walking speeds nor the searching distances depended on the width or height of the channels or on the pattern wavelengths. Even when ventral-field visual cues were excluded by covering the eyes with light-tight paint, the ants were not influenced by lateral optic flow-field cues. Hence, walking desert ants do not depend on self-induced visual flow-field cues in gauging the distance they have travelled, as do flying honeybees, but can measure locomotor distance exclusively by idiothetic means. PMID:10708632

  11. Reproductive characteristics of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis calamorum) under laboratory feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiwen; Han, Qunhua; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Zhou, Xunjun

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive characteristics of a laboratory population of the vole Microtus fortis calamorum were examined. Voles were allowed to breed under laboratory feeding conditions. Over a period of 3 months, 61.82% of the 110 vole pairs examined produced 3 or 4 litters. There were 1-9 voles in each litter and the mean litter size was 4.67±0.28 (mean±SE). Most litters included 3-7 young voles, accounting for 83.62% of all litters. The mean farrowing interval was 25.9 days (range from 19 to 95 days), and the most farrowing intervals were 20-25 days, accounting for 79.9% of the total. When based on litter size, the reproductive index was 6.23, but was 3.42 when based on pup survival. The survival rate of offspring to weaning was 55.03%. The high rate of infanticide that occurred after removal of males from cages indicates that, in the laboratory, both parents need to be present prior to weaning. PMID:26617078

  12. Trajectories of Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status in the Early Forties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chenshu; Brook, Judith S.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To study the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unemployment status at mean age 43. Methods We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort taken from a community sample (N = 548). Forty nine percent of the original participants were females. Over 90% of the participants were white. The participants were followed from adolescence to early midlife. The mean ages of participants at the follow-up interviews were 14.1, 16.3, 22.3, 27.0, 31.9, 36.6, and 43.0, respectively. We used the growth mixture modeling (GMM) approach to identify the trajectories of marijuana use over a 29 year period. Results Five trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic users/decreasers (8.3%), quitters (18.6%), increasing users (7.3%), chronic occasional users (25.6%), and nonusers/experimenters (40.2%). Compared with nonusers/experimenters, chronic users/decreasers had a significantly higher likelihood of unemployment at mean age 43 (Adjusted Odds Ratio =3.51, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.13 – 10.91), even after controlling for the covariates. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The results of the associations between the distinct trajectories of marijuana use and unemployment in early midlife indicate that it is important to develop intervention programs targeting chronic marijuana use as well as unemployment in individuals at this stage of development. Results from this study should encourage clinicians, teachers, and parents to assess and treat chronic marijuana use in adolescents. PMID:26991779

  13. How to find home backwards? Navigation during rearward homing of Cataglyphis fortis desert ants.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Sarah E; Wittlinger, Matthias

    2016-07-15

    Cataglyphis ants are renowned for their impressive navigation skills, which have been studied in numerous experiments during forward locomotion. However, the ants' navigational performance during backward homing when dragging large food loads has not been investigated until now. During backward locomotion, the odometer has to deal with unsteady motion and irregularities in inter-leg coordination. The legs' sensory feedback during backward walking is not just a simple reversal of the forward stepping movements: compared with forward homing, ants are facing towards the opposite direction during backward dragging. Hence, the compass system has to cope with a flipped celestial view (in terms of the polarization pattern and the position of the sun) and an inverted retinotopic image of the visual panorama and landmark environment. The same is true for wind and olfactory cues. In this study we analyze for the first time backward-homing ants and evaluate their navigational performance in channel and open field experiments. Backward-homing Cataglyphis fortis desert ants show remarkable similarities in the performance of homing compared with forward-walking ants. Despite the numerous challenges emerging for the navigational system during backward walking, we show that ants perform quite well in our experiments. Direction and distance gauging was comparable to that of the forward-walking control groups. Interestingly, we found that backward-homing ants often put down the food item and performed foodless search loops around the left food item. These search loops were mainly centred around the drop-off position (and not around the nest position), and increased in length the closer the ants came to their fictive nest site. PMID:27445399

  14. Neurostimulation using subnanosecond electric pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shu; Pakhomov, Andrei; Guo, Fei; Polisetty, Swetha; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2013-02-01

    We have for the first time recorded action potentials in rat hippocampus neurons when they were stimulated by subnanosecond electric pulses. The preliminary results show that applying a series of pulses allowed the accumulation of depolarization before activating the voltage gated channels. The depolarization only occurred when the electric pulses were applied. It is unclear whether the depolarization is caused by the charge accumulation across the membrane or the cation influx due to the membrane permeabilization. We have also conducted an electromagnetic simulation of delivering subnanosecond pulses to tissues using an impulse radiating antenna. The results show that the pulses can be confined in the deep region in the brain but the amplitude is reduced significantly due to the attenuation of the tissues. A partially lossy dielectric lens may be used to reverse the decreasing trend of the electric field.

  15. "Fortis/Lenis" Revisited One More Time: The Aerodynamics of Some Oral Stop Contrasts in Three Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The terms "fortis" and "lenis" are variously regarded as having one single underlying phonetic correlate or many. An exploratory analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic data on contrasting stop series in a number of European and non-European languages confirms that a significant variation in peak intra-oral pressure and in articulatory stricture…

  16. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND...

  17. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND...

  18. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE...

  19. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND...

  20. Far-UV observations of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Far-UV imagery and objective grating spectroscopy of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) were acquired from NASA sounding rocket 36.296 UG, launched on 20 November 2013 at 04:40 MST (20.48 Nov 2013 UT), 8.32 days pre-perihelion, from the White Sands Missile Range, NM. The comet was 0.1° below ground horizon, 0.44 AU from the Sun, 0.86 AU from the Earth, and at a solar elongation of 26.3°. The payload reached an apogee of 279 km and the total time pointed at the comet was 353 s. At the time of launch ISON was undergoing a factor of 5 increase in water production rate, going from 3.5e29 to 19.6e29 molecules s-1between 19.6 and 21.6 Nov (Combi et al. 2014), marking what is thought to be a final fragmentation event (Sekanina & Kracht 2014). Our instrument, a wide-field multi-object spectro-telescope called FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy), observed Lyα emissions in an objective grating mode through an open microshutter array, developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center, over a (1/2°)2 field-of-view. After accounting for slit losses and deadtime corrections we find a preliminary lower limit to the Lyα surface brightness of ~ 400 kilorayleighs, yielding a hydrogen production rate of QH ~ 5e29 atoms s-1, in reasonable agreement with the Combi result. We also acquired a broadband image of the comet in the 1280 to 1900 Å bandpass. This image shows a drop in count rate proportional to altitude caused by increased absorption of cometary emissions by terrestrial O2 located in the lower thermosphere. O2 absorption acts as a selective time dependent filter that attenuates cometary emissions from different atomic and molecular species at different rates during descent. Preliminary analysis suggests that the dominant species in a (1e5 km)2 nuclear region is neutral carbon. The radial profile in comparison to a Haser model suggests that the C parent molecule had a lifetime (at 1 AU) ~ 105 s; much shorter than the expected lifetime of CO. We

  1. The Forty-Eight-Hour Rule: Emotional Engagement and the Student Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Alan C. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several years ago, the author taught a course called First-Year experience. A student named Sean mentioned that he played "water pong." Sean, a high-achieving student who was also a member of the lacrosse team, explained that water pong was a game with the rules of beer pong, using water rather than beer. Sean volunteered an explanation of his…

  2. Runners in their forties dominate ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated performance trends and the age of peak running speed in ultra-marathons from 50 to 3,100 miles. METHODS: The running speed and age of the fastest competitors in 50-, 100-, 200-, 1,000- and 3,100-mile events held worldwide from 1971 to 2012 were analyzed using single- and multi-level regression analyses. RESULTS: The number of events and competitors increased exponentially in 50- and 100-mile events. For the annual fastest runners, women improved in 50-mile events, but not men. In 100-mile events, both women and men improved their performance. In 1,000-mile events, men became slower. For the annual top ten runners, women improved in 50- and 100-mile events, whereas the performance of men remained unchanged in 50- and 3,100-mile events but improved in 100-mile events. The age of the annual fastest runners was approximately 35 years for both women and men in 50-mile events and approximately 35 years for women in 100-mile events. For men, the age of the annual fastest runners in 100-mile events was higher at 38 years. For the annual fastest runners of 1,000-mile events, the women were approximately 43 years of age, whereas for men, the age increased to 48 years of age. For the annual fastest runners of 3,100-mile events, the age in women decreased to 35 years and was approximately 39 years in men. CONCLUSION: The running speed of the fastest competitors increased for both women and men in 100-mile events but only for women in 50-mile events. The age of peak running speed increased in men with increasing race distance to approximately 45 years in 1,000-mile events, whereas it decreased to approximately 39 years in 3,100-mile events. In women, the upper age of peak running speed increased to approximately 51 years in 3,100-mile events. PMID:24626948

  3. Who Produces Ianthelline? The Arctic Sponge Stryphnus fortis or its Sponge Epibiont Hexadella dedritifera: a Probable Case of Sponge-Sponge Contamination.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Paco

    2016-04-01

    The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline was isolated recently from the Atlantic boreo-arctic deep-sea sponge Stryphnus fortis, and shown to have clear antitumor and antifouling effects. However, chemosystematics, field observations, and targeted metabolic analyses (using UPLC-MS) suggest that ianthelline is not produced by S. fortis but by Hexadella dedritifera, a sponge that commonly grows on S. fortis. This case highlights the importance of combining taxonomic and ecological knowledge to the field of sponge natural products research. PMID:27091193

  4. The forty-day rest period and infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Forman, M R; Hundt, G L; Towne, D; Graubard, B; Sullivan, B; Berendes, H W; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1990-03-01

    Four hundred and twelve Bedouin Arab women were interviewed within 48 hours of delivering a newborn in 1982 and two months later to examine the effect of social support during the forty-day postpartum rest period on the incidence of exclusive breast feeding at two months. Whereas the distribution of infant feeding practices at two months did not differ among women with and without support during the "forty days," the number of days of help during the "forty days" was significantly associated with type of feeding at two months. The longer the duration of help, the greater were the odds of maintaining exclusive breast feeding after adjustment for covariates by multinomial logistic regression analysis. The association between duration of help and infant feeding practices at two months was modified by the interview month and the feeding practices of the respondents' primary social supports. More respondents with infants who reached two months of age in May and June were exclusively breast feeding than respondents with infants who reached two months in the hot, dry months of July and August. Also, respondents with sisters-in-law who breast fed alone or in combination with the bottle were feeding their infants in the same way after adjustment for covariates. Given the beneficial effects of breast feeding on infant health and development, these findings identify potential avenues of intervention for programs promoting breast feeding. PMID:2233170

  5. Forty-sixth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1925-01-01

    SIR: The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1925 included 10 items, amounting to $1,735,423. In addition $110,000, to be disbursed under the direction of the Public Printer, was appropriated for printing the reports of the Survey, and allotments of $10,000 for miscellaneous printing and binding and of $4,944.75 for miscellaneous supplies were made to the Survey from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of this report. The balance shown is $15,175.31. Cooperation with the States and other public agencies continued as in other years. The value of the mapping and investigative work of the Survey and the necessity of expediting the completion of this physical inventory of the. country's resources is now so widely recognized that 37 States as well as many counties and municipalities shared with the Federal Government in meeting the cost. The total amount thus contributed was $739, 537. 94. Funds aggregating $231,208.90 were placed to the credit of the Geological Survey for services rendered to other Government bureaus and offices. Balances at the end of the year amounted to about $15,000, and the total expenditure, measuring the amount of work accomplished during the year, was $2,690,994.53.

  6. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

  7. Forty-eighth annual report of the Director of the Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, George Otis

    1927-01-01

    The appropriations made directly for the work of the Geological Survey for the fiscal year 1927 included 10 items, amounting to $1,819,440. In addition $81,000 was appropriated for printing the reports of the Geological Survey, and $11,000 for miscellaneous printing and binding, and an allotment of $13,707 for miscellaneous supplies was made from appropriations for the Interior Department. A detailed statement of the amounts appropriated and expended is given at the end of this report. The balance on August 30, including a budget reserve of $26,620, was $51,331.24.

  8. The clinical description of forty-eight cases of sexual fetishism.

    PubMed

    Chalkley, A J; Powell, G E

    1983-03-01

    This study surveys the discharge register of a large London teaching hospital over 20 years and presents data on its 48 cases of clinical sexual fetishism. An attempt was made to answer two questions: (1) What are the clinical problems these patients present? They have more to do with the perception of fetishes as personally or socially unacceptable than with 'objective' restrictions placed on sexual activity. (2) What is the classification used to describe? The data have not enabled any conclusions to be drawn about the existence of particular fetishist syndromes. Certainly, a fifth or more of the sample had fetishes for clothes or rubber or rubber items, or wore or stole a fetish or fetishes; but this information is insufficient to allow one to assume that these patients had something significant in common, and leaves open the question of what more precisely each individual was attracted to. PMID:6860882

  9. Academic health sciences library Website navigation: an analysis of forty-one Websites and their navigation tools

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Stewart M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The analysis included forty-one academic health sciences library (HSL) Websites as captured in the first two weeks of January 2001. Home pages and persistent navigational tools (PNTs) were analyzed for layout, technology, and links, and other general site metrics were taken. Methods: Websites were selected based on rank in the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, with regional and resource libraries given preference on the basis that these libraries are recognized as leaders in their regions and would be the most reasonable source of standards for best practice. A three-page evaluation tool was developed based on previous similar studies. All forty-one sites were evaluated in four specific areas: library general information, Website aids and tools, library services, and electronic resources. Metrics taken for electronic resources included orientation of bibliographic databases alphabetically by title or by subject area and with links to specifically named databases. Results: Based on the results, a formula for determining obligatory links was developed, listing items that should appear on all academic HSL Web home pages and PNTs. Conclusions: These obligatory links demonstrate a series of best practices that may be followed in the design and construction of academic HSL Websites. PMID:15494756

  10. Digital Archives - Thomas M. Bown's Bighorn Basin Maps: The Suite of Forty-Four Office Master Copies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM is a digitally scanned suite of master 'locality' maps produced by Dr. Thomas M. Bown. The maps are archived in the US Geological Survey Field Records. The maps feature annual compilations of newly established fossil (nineteen 7.5 degree maps) of central basin data collections. This master suite of forty-four maps represents a considerably broader geographic range within the basin. Additionally, three field seasons of data were compiled into the master suite of maps after the final editing of the Professional Paper. These maps are the culmination of Dr. Bown's Bighorn Basin research as a vertebrate paleontologist for the USGS. Data include Yale, Wyoming, Duke, Michigan and USGS localities. Practical topographic features are also indicated, such as jeep=trail access, new reservoirs, rerouted roadbeds, measured sections, fossil reconnaissance evaluations (G=good, NG=no good and H=hideous), faults, palcosol stages, and occasionally 'camp' vernacular for locality names.

  11. Medicaid at Forty

    PubMed Central

    Rowland, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This article examines Medicaid's evolution over the last four decades in its role as a health insurer for low-income families, a source of health and long-term care (LTC) coverage for people with disabilities, and as the supplement to Medicare for low-income aged and disabled Medicare beneficiaries. Medicaid's role and impact on each of these beneficiary groups is assessed. PMID:17290638

  12. NATO at forty

    SciTech Connect

    Golden, J.R.; Kaufman, D.J.; Clark, A.A. IV; Petraeus, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters relating to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Included are the following chapters: The foundations of NATO, The political and economic evaluation of NATO's central region, The strategic realm, NATO and some lessons of history and NATO-the challenge of the future.

  13. Forty-Fourth Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Administrative Report Including Technical Reports Nos. 1342 to 1392

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    In accordance with act of Congress, approved March 3, 1915, as amended (U.S.C., title 50, .sw 151), which established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Committee submits its Forty-fourth Annual Report for the fiscal year 1958. This is the Committee's final report to the Congress. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568) provides in section 301 that the NACA "shall cease to exist" and "all functions, powers, duties, and obligations, and all real and personal property, personnel (other than members of the Committee), funds, and records of the NACA shall be transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The aforesaid act provides that "this section shall take effect 90 days after the date of the enactment of this act, or on any earlier date on which the Administrator shall determining and announce by proclamation published in the Federal Register, that the Administration has been organized and is prepared to discharge the duties and exercise the power conferred upon it by this act." The Administrator, Hon. T. Keith Glennan has advised the Committee of his intention to issue such proclamation, effective October 1,1958.

  14. The International Student Question: 45 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aw, Fanta

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of Dremuk's article 45 years ago, the landscape of international educational exchange has changed significantly. Some of the most notable trends distinguishing the past from the present are highlighted. Forty-five years ago, Dremuk's article emphasized the importance of institutional commitment to international educational…

  15. Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome in a Forty-Three-Year-Old Man With High-Dose Oxycodone/Naloxone

    PubMed Central

    Bujedo, Borja Mugabure

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is an increasing cause of chronic pain in most countries. This poses high costs to both patients and National Health Organizations. Case Presentation: In this report, multimodal pain management based on daily high-dose oxycodone/naloxone (OXN 180/90 mg) led to reduced patient's pain score and improved quality of life. Conclusions: Oxycodone/naloxone can be a good alternative for the management of FBSS when other interventional or pharmacologic strategies have failed. In this case report, higher doses than those recommended as a maximum daily ceiling (80/40 mg) were safely used in one selected patient with noncancer severe pain. PMID:25893186

  16. Magma associations in Ediacaran granitoids of the Cachoeirinha‒Salgueiro and Alto Pajeú terranes, northeastern Brazil: Forty years of studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sial, Alcides N.; Ferreira, Valderez P.

    2016-07-01

    Granitic magmatism in the Cachoeirinha‒Salgueiro and Alto Pajeú terranes in the Transversal Zone Domain of the Borborema Province, northeastern Brazil, occurred in three main time intervals: 650-620 Ma, 590-560 Ma and 545-520 Ma. The oldest one is characterized by intrusions of magmatic-epidote (mEp) bearing calc-alkalic (some with trondhjemitic affinities) and high-K calc-alkalic plutons, synkinematic to the main regional foliation, under contractional tectonic regime, and exhibits TDM < 2.0 Ga and ƐNd (0.6 Ga) from -1 to -4, and δ18O (zircon) values from 7.1 to 10‰VSMOW. O- and Nd-isotope data for the 650‒620 Ma group of plutons is compatible with partial fusion of subducted oceanic basaltic crust (mEp-bearing calc-alkalic tonalites/granodiorites, equivalent to adakites). Voluminous intrusions in the 590-560 Ma interval are represented by abundant mEp-free high-K calc-alkalic, peralkalic, ultrapotassic, mEp-bearing high-K calc-alkalic, and less abundant shoshonitic magmas. Nd-model ages for this group of plutons vary from 1.5 to 2.5 Ga and ƐNd (0.6 Ga) ranges from -8 to -20; δ18O (zircon) varies from 6.4 to 7.9‰VSMOW. Values of δ18O (zircon) for the 590‒560 Ma old group of plutons coupled with Nd isotope data are compatible with remelting of crustal (negative ƐNd, 1.6 to 2.0 Ga old) source rocks. O- and Nd-isotope data for this group of plutons are compatible with underplating of basaltic magma in the base of the lower crust for the high-K calc-alkalic granitoids, coeval to transcurrent movements along sigmoidal shear zones. Intrusion of one shoshonitic (Serrote do Arapuá), one calc-alkalic (Riacho do Icó) plutons besides the peralkalic Manaíra-Princeza Isabel dike set have witnessed this transition from contractional to transcurrent movements along shear zones, around 610‒600 Ma.

  17. Disappearance of some human African trypanosomiasis transmission foci in Zambia in the absence of a tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control program over a period of forty years.

    PubMed

    Mwanakasale, Victor; Songolo, Peter

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a situation analysis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in Zambia from January 2000 to April 2007. The aim of this survey was to identify districts in Zambia that were still recording cases of HAT. Three districts namely, Mpika, Chama, and Chipata were found to be still reporting cases of HAT and thus lay in HAT transmission foci in North Eastern Zambia. During the period under review, 24 cases of HAT were reported from these three districts. We thereafter reviewed literature on the occurrence of HAT in Zambia from the early 1960s to mid 1990s. This revealed that HAT transmission foci were widespread in Western, North Western, Lusaka, Eastern, Luapula, and Northern Provinces of Zambia during this period. In this article we have tried to give possible reasons as to why the distribution of HAT transmission foci is so different between before and after 2000 when there has been no active national tsetse fly and trypanosomiasis control program in Zambia. PMID:21276598

  18. Forty years of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 22 December 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-09-01

    On 22 December 2010, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), devoted to the 40th anniversary of the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, was held at the Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS in Troitsk. The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division listed the following reports: (1) Matveev V A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Introductory word"; (2) Gavrin V N (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Contribution of the SAGE results to the understanding of solar physics and neutrino physics"; (3) Domogatsky G V (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Baikal neutrino experiment"; (4) Tkachev I I (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Observation of the Greisen - Zatsepin - Kuz'min effect at the Telescope Array Observatory"; (5) Kudenko Yu G (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Neutrino T2K experiment: the first results"; (6) Sadykov R A (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Fields of study of condensed media at the neutron facility at the INR, RAS"; (7) Zhuikov B L (Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow) "Production of isotopes at the INR, RAS: reality and prospects".The papers written on the base of reports 1-5 and 7 are published below. In addition, the paper "High-power diode-pumped alkali lasers" by A M Shalagin is published. The paper is based on the report presented at the scientific session of the General Assembly of the Physical Sciences Division, RAS (13 December 2010) devoted to the 50th anniversary of the laser, the main materials of the session having been published in Usp. Fiz. Nauk 181 (8) 867 (2011) [Phys. Usp. 54 837 (2011)]. • Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences turns 40, V A Matveev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 939-940 • The Russian-American gallium experiment SAGE, V N Gavrin Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 941-949 • BAIKAL neutrino experiment, G V Domogatsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 949-954 • Telescope Array Observatory observations of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect, I I Tkachev Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 954-961 • T2K neutrino experiment: first results, Yu G Kudenko Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 961-968 • Isotope production at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences: current status and prospects, B L Zhuikov Physics-Uspekhi, 2011, Volume 54, Number 9, Pages 968-974

  19. Informal caregiving to persons with AIDS in the United States: caregiver burden among central cities residents eighteen to forty-nine years old.

    PubMed

    Turner, H A; Catania, J A

    1997-02-01

    Characteristics and caregiving experiences of friends and family members caring for people with AIDS (PWAs) were examined. Based on a probability sample of informal AIDS caregivers ages 18-49 living in central cities of the United States (n = 260), analyses were conducted to (a) identify the sociodemographic characteristics of young central city caregivers; and (b) examine the effects of caregiver characteristics (relationship to PWA, gender, race/ethnicity, income, sexual orientation, HIV status, perceived susceptibility), and level of objective caregiving demands, on subjective caregiver burden. Results indicate that the largest group of caregivers in this age category are male friends of the PWA--a group not typically found among caregivers to persons with other types of illnesses. In general, gay or bisexual caregivers, caregivers who have traditional family ties to the PWA, men relative to women, and lower income caregivers, report the greatest burden. While level of caregiving demands represents the most influential predictor of caregiver burden, white and male caregivers experience greater burden, independent of level of involvement and other caregiver characteristics. Receiving instrumental support with caregiving buffers the impact of high objective demands on subjective burden. PMID:9231995

  20. Forty Years of Excellence and Beyond. Proceedings of the Annual North East Association for Institutional Research (NEAIR) Conference (40th, Newport, Rhode Island, November 9-12, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tiffany, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The NEAIR 2013 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Newport, Rhode Island, conference. Papers in this document include: (1) Aspiring to the Role of "Data Badass:" Some Thoughts on the Political Context of IR (Mark Freeman); (2) Data-Driven Internal Benchmarks and Successful Learning Outcomes (Mamta Saxena…

  1. The bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline isolated from the arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis inhibits marine micro- and macrobiofouling.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Kine O; Cervin, Gunnar; Trepos, Rozenn; Petitbois, Julie; Haug, Tor; Hansen, Espen; Andersen, Jeanette H; Pavia, Henrik; Hellio, Claire; Svenson, Johan

    2014-12-01

    The inhibition of marine biofouling by the bromotyrosine derivative ianthelline, isolated from the Arctic marine sponge Stryphnus fortis, is described. All major stages of the fouling process are investigated. The effect of ianthelline on adhesion and growth of marine bacteria and microalgae is tested to investigate its influence on the initial microfouling process comparing with the known marine antifoulant barettin as a reference. Macrofouling is studied via barnacle (Balanus improvisus) settlement assays and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) phenoloxidase inhibition. Ianthelline is shown to inhibit both marine micro- and macrofoulers with a pronounced effect on marine bacteria (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values 0.1-10 μg/mL) and barnacle larval settlement (IC50 = 3.0 μg/mL). Moderate effects are recorded on M. edulis (IC50 = 45.2 μg/mL) and microalgae, where growth is more affected than surface adhesion. The effect of ianthelline is also investigated against human pathogenic bacteria. Ianthelline displayed low micromolar MIC values against several bacterial strains, both Gram positive and Gram negative, down to 2.5 μg/mL. In summary, the effect of ianthelline on 20 different representative marine antifouling organisms and seven human pathogenic bacterial strains is presented. PMID:25051957

  2. 40 years of neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    Wolfgang Pauli and Enrico Fermi pioneered the hypothesis and characteristics of the weak interaction and the elementary particle called the neutrino. Since its discovery some forty years ago the neutrino has been shown to be a fundamental constituent of matter with a surprisingly rich, and in very many ways unexpected, set of characteristics ranging from basic roles in the generation of energy in the sun to supernovæ.

  3. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  4. Comparing Different All-Year School Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Mossie J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Although the Forty-Five-Fifteen extended school year design is a modification of the Nine-Three concept, a school community can receive the same basic results from the implementation of either design. The basic differences are found in the titles of the designs and in the methods of establishing the initial rotating-cycles. (Author/NQ)

  5. Profiles of Career Education State Planning Projects. Fiscal Year 1976 Funding and Fiscal Year 1977 Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas Buffington and Associates, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents profiles of the federally funded career education state planning projects that were conducted in forty-nine states and five territories during fiscal years 1976 and 1977 under the provisions of the Education Amendments of 1974. The fifty-four profiles, arranged alphabetically by state and varying in length (from one to…

  6. Characterization of simple wireless neurostimulators and sensors.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Daniel W; Towe, Bruce C

    2014-01-01

    A single diode with a wireless power source and electrodes can act as an implantable stimulator or sensor. We have built such devices using RF and ultrasound power coupling. These simple devices could drastically reduce the size, weight, and cost of implants for applications where efficiency is not critical. However, a shortcoming has been a lack of control: any movement of the external power source would change the power coupling, thereby changing the stimulation current or modulating the sensor response. To correct for changes in power and signal coupling, we propose to use harmonic signals from the device. The diode acts as a frequency multiplier, and the harmonics it emits contain information about the drive level and bias. A simplified model suggests that estimation of power, electrode bias, and electrode resistance is possible from information contained in radiated harmonics even in the presence of significant noise. We also built a simple RF-powered stimulator with an onboard voltage limiter. PMID:25570654

  7. Optimization of return electrodes in neurostimulating arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Thomas; Goetz, Georges; Lei, Xin; Palanker, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Objective. High resolution visual prostheses require dense stimulating arrays with localized inputs of individual electrodes. We study the electric field produced by multielectrode arrays in electrolyte to determine an optimal configuration of return electrodes and activation sequence. Approach. To determine the boundary conditions for computation of the electric field in electrolyte, we assessed current dynamics using an equivalent circuit of a multielectrode array with interleaved return electrodes. The electric field modeled with two different boundary conditions derived from the equivalent circuit was then compared to measurements of electric potential in electrolyte. To assess the effect of return electrode configuration on retinal stimulation, we transformed the computed electric fields into retinal response using a model of neural network-mediated stimulation. Main results. Electric currents at the capacitive electrode-electrolyte interface redistribute over time, so that boundary conditions transition from equipotential surfaces at the beginning of the pulse to uniform current density in steady state. Experimental measurements confirmed that, in steady state, the boundary condition corresponds to a uniform current density on electrode surfaces. Arrays with local return electrodes exhibit improved field confinement and can elicit stronger network-mediated retinal response compared to those with a common remote return. Connecting local return electrodes enhances the field penetration depth and allows reducing the return electrode area. Sequential activation of the pixels in large monopolar arrays reduces electrical cross-talk and improves the contrast in pattern stimulation. Significance. Accurate modeling of multielectrode arrays helps optimize the electrode configuration to maximize the spatial resolution, contrast and dynamic range of retinal prostheses.

  8. Animism Begins at Forty: Evidence that Animism and Other Naive Beliefs Are Established before the Onset of Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Robert; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Animism (erroneously believing inanimate objects are alive) is present in older adults (McDonald & Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). However, it is unclear if animism arises in later life or middle age. The current study tested 34 middle-aged adults (mean age 48 years) on Piaget's animism task and found a significant level of animism. Strength of animism…

  9. Puzzlemaking and Part-Whole Perception of Two-Year-Old and Four-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montford, Emily I. Purvis; Readdick, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between preschoolers' puzzlemaking strategies and part-whole perception was investigated in the present study. Forty-eight two year olds and 48 four year olds were randomly selected from eight licensed childcare centers. Puzzlemaking strategies (image, form, color, and trial and error) were measured by performance in the…

  10. Forty-four years’ experience (1963–2006) in the management of primarily infected hydatid cyst of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Prousalidis, J.; Anthimidis, G.; Fachantidis, E.; Harlaftis, N.; Aletras, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and aim. The aim of this study was to report our 44-year experience (1963–2006) in the management of primarily infected hydatid cyst of the liver. This is a retrospective review of demographic data, clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, surgical management, and long-term outcome of patients treated at our center. Material and methods. There were 77 patients with operated infected liver cysts. In the same period, a total of 460 cases with liver hydatidosis were treated surgically. Of those with suppurated cysts, 27 were men and 50 were women, with a mean age 54.5 years. Results. Clinical manifestations of an abscess were identified in 75% of the patients. In the earlier cases of the study, the diagnosis was made from the clinical picture, laboratory studies, in combination with plain X-ray, hepatic scintigraphy, and in the later cases with US (ultrasonography), CT (computed tomography) or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and ERCP (endoscopic cholangiopangreatography). Abdominal and, rarely, thoracic and abdominal or thoracoabdominal incisions were used. Total cystopericystectomy in 8 patients and partial pericystectomy and proper drainage with one or two drainage tubes of the cystic cavity in the other 69 patients were carried out. Hospital stay was between 13 and 146 days with 5 re-operations. Two patients with grossly suppurated cysts and coexistent medical problems died. The disease recurred in five patients. Conclusions. We conclude that, under good perioperative antibiotic and metabolic coverage, the infected hydatid cysts have to be completely evacuated and properly drained. The application of “conservative” surgical procedures should be preferred. Further studies are needed to solve the clinical and therapeutic problems of this serious complication. PMID:18695754

  11. Economic correlates of violent death rates in forty countries, 1962–2008: A cross-typological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bandy X.; Marotta, Phillip L.; Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Wang, Winnie; de Bourmont, Shalila

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our goal was to identify if there might be advantages to combining two major public health concerns, i.e., homicides and suicides, in an analysis with well-established macro-level economic determinants, i.e., unemployment and inequality. Methods Mortality data, unemployment statistics, and inequality measures were obtained for 40 countries for the years 1962–2008. Rates of combined homicide and suicide, ratio of suicide to combined violent death, and ratio between homicide and suicide were graphed and analyzed. A fixed effects regression model was then performed for unemployment rates and Gini coefficients on homicide, suicide, and combined death rates. Results For a majority of nation states, suicide comprised a substantial proportion (mean 75.51%; range 0–99%) of the combined rate of homicide and suicide. When combined, a small but significant relationship emerged between logged Gini coefficient and combined death rates (0.0066, p < 0.05), suggesting that the combined rate improves the ability to detect a significant relationship when compared to either rate measurement alone. Results were duplicated by age group, whereby combining death rates into a single measure improved statistical power, provided that the association was strong. Conclusions Violent deaths, when combined, were associated with an increase in unemployment and an increase in Gini coefficient, creating a more robust variable. As the effects of macro-level factors (e.g., social and economic policies) on violent death rates in a population are shown to be more significant than those of micro-level influences (e.g., individual characteristics), these associations may be useful to discover. An expansion of socioeconomic variables and the inclusion of other forms of violence in future research could help elucidate long-term trends. PMID:26028985

  12. FNL: Marking the First 40 Years | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Guest Writer Forty years ago, a single act by former President Richard Nixon created what we now know as the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) at Fort Detrick. What began as a small facility with a staff of about 20 people in the early 1970s grew into the multi-facility, nationally distinguished laboratory for cancer research that it is today.

  13. Frederick National Laboratory Celebrates 40 Years | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Forty years ago, what we now call the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research was born. Here are some highlights in the facility’s history. October 19, 1971 – President Richard Nixon announced that Fort Detrick would be converted from a biological warfare facility to a cancer research center (Covert, Norman M., Cutting Edge: A History of Fort Detrick, Maryland, 1943–1993, pp. 85–87).

  14. Phenylacetic Acid Is ISR Determinant Produced by Bacillus fortis IAGS162, Which Involves Extensive Re-modulation in Metabolomics of Tomato to Protect against Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Akram, Waheed; Anjum, Tehmina; Ali, Basharat

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus fortis IAGS162 has been previously shown to induce systemic resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium wilt disease. In the first phase of current study, the ISR determinant was isolated from extracellular metabolites of this bacterium. ISR bioassays combined with solvent extraction, column chromatography and GC/MS analysis proved that phenylacetic acid (PAA) was the potential ISR determinant that significantly ameliorated Fusarium wilt disease of tomato at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM. In the second phase, the biochemical basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR) under influence of PAA was elucidated by performing non-targeted whole metabolomics through GC/MS analysis. Tomato plants were treated with PAA and fungal pathogen in various combinations. Exposure to PAA and subsequent pathogen challenge extensively re-modulated tomato metabolic networks along with defense related pathways. In addition, various phenylpropanoid precursors were significantly up-regulated in treatments receiving PAA. This work suggests that ISR elicitor released from B. fortis IAGS162 contributes to resistance against fungal pathogens through dynamic reprogramming of plant pathways that are functionally correlated with defense responses. PMID:27148321

  15. Phenylacetic Acid Is ISR Determinant Produced by Bacillus fortis IAGS162, Which Involves Extensive Re-modulation in Metabolomics of Tomato to Protect against Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Akram, Waheed; Anjum, Tehmina; Ali, Basharat

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus fortis IAGS162 has been previously shown to induce systemic resistance in tomato plants against Fusarium wilt disease. In the first phase of current study, the ISR determinant was isolated from extracellular metabolites of this bacterium. ISR bioassays combined with solvent extraction, column chromatography and GC/MS analysis proved that phenylacetic acid (PAA) was the potential ISR determinant that significantly ameliorated Fusarium wilt disease of tomato at concentrations of 0.1 and 1 mM. In the second phase, the biochemical basis of the induced systemic resistance (ISR) under influence of PAA was elucidated by performing non-targeted whole metabolomics through GC/MS analysis. Tomato plants were treated with PAA and fungal pathogen in various combinations. Exposure to PAA and subsequent pathogen challenge extensively re-modulated tomato metabolic networks along with defense related pathways. In addition, various phenylpropanoid precursors were significantly up-regulated in treatments receiving PAA. This work suggests that ISR elicitor released from B. fortis IAGS162 contributes to resistance against fungal pathogens through dynamic reprogramming of plant pathways that are functionally correlated with defense responses. PMID:27148321

  16. Computing Trends in Small Liberal Arts Colleges: Ten Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter

    Forty-one small liberal arts colleges were visited during the 1997-98 school year in order to talk to key information technology staff and to see computing facilities. A survey containing 15 factual and 10 open-ended questions was used to gather information. This paper presents findings in the following areas and comparison with results of a…

  17. Five Year Charter School Study: An Overview. Arizona Education Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Mary; Phillips, Karla; Ogle, Melinda

    This study examined whether charter schools in Arizona were accomplishing the goals communicated in their charter applications and explored the evolutionary nature of charter schools. Forty highly varied charter schools in Arizona were tracked over 5 years of continuous operation, from 1995 to 2000. Interviews lasting 4 hours were arranged at each…

  18. Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

  19. Revisiting First-Year Teacher Burnout: New South Carolina Educators in the Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilagan, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-six percent of the nation's teachers are expected to leave the profession by their fifth year in the classroom. This alarming statistic has grabbed the attention of federal, state, and local leaders. In South Carolina alone, 28,500 teachers left the profession in the last five years, or an average of 5,700 per year. This translates to a…

  20. Full Inclusion Preschool Project: Year One Research Outcomes Brief Report, 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jan S.

    2006-01-01

    The Full Inclusion Preschool Project (FIPP) was a collaborative, county/state funded grant that included: four non-subsidized preschools, seven school districts and university support. The four-year FIPP grant fully included a total of forty-five students with disabilities, two to five years of age, over a three year period. The preschools…

  1. Early years.

    PubMed

    2011-04-01

    Healthcare professionals in Scotland who are involved in early years work now have an additional resource in the shape of NHS Scotland's Maternal and Early Years website, aimed at practitioners at all levels. The site includes evidence updates, news and events, and can be accessed at www.maternal-and-early-years.org.uk. PMID:27368523

  2. The head of the finch: the anatomy of the feeding system in two species of finches (Geospiza fortis and Padda oryzivora)

    PubMed Central

    Genbrugge, Annelies; Herrel, Anthony; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Podos, Jeffrey; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Dominique, Adriaens

    2011-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies devoted to the evolution of beak shape in Darwin's finches, surprisingly little is known about the morphology of the skull and jaw musculature in these birds. Moreover, it remains currently unclear whether Darwin's finches are unusual in their cranial morphology compared with other seed-cracking birds. Here, we provide a detailed description of the morphology of the cranial system in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) and compare it with that of another seed-cracking bird of similar overall size and appearance, the Java finch (Padda oryzivora). Our data show an overall similarity in beak size and cranial morphology. Yet, differences in the jaw adductor size and corresponding attachments to the cranium and mandible are prominent, with the medium ground finch having much more robust jaw-closing muscles. This is reflected in differences in bite forces, with the medium ground finch biting much harder than the Java finch. These data suggest similarities in the evolution of the feeding system in birds specializing in the cracking of hard seeds, but also show the uniqueness of the cranial morphology and bite force of the medium ground finch compared with other seed-cracking birds. PMID:21999913

  3. Is the U-Curve of Marital Satisfaction an Illusion? A 40-Year Study of Marriage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillant, Caroline O.; Vaillant, George E.

    1993-01-01

    Forty-year study of 169 college men and their wives examined marital satisfaction prospectively and retrospectively. Examined retrospectively, marital satisfaction followed weak curvilinear patterns with lowest point of marriage at approximately 20 years. Studied prospectively, U-curve disappeared and marital satisfaction remained relatively…

  4. Commitment to the Core: A Longitudinal Analysis of Humanities Degree Production in Four-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; Belasco, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    As many national commissions and observers have noted, the past forty years have brought unprecedented declines in humanities enrollments and programs in U.S. higher education. These changes are particularly striking in the iconic academic heart of the enterprise, the four-year college sector, where many institutions have diversified curricular…

  5. Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kotozaki, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction. PMID:25585479

  6. Experience-related reorganization of giant synapses in the lateral complex: Potential role in plasticity of the sky-compass pathway in the desert ant Cataglyphis fortis.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Franziska; Stieb, Sara Mae; Wehner, Rüdiger; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Cataglyphis desert ants undergo an age-related polyethism from interior workers to relatively short-lived foragers with remarkable visual navigation capabilities, predominantly achieved by path integration using a polarized skylight-based sun compass and a stride-integrating odometer. Behavioral and physiological experiments revealed that the polarization (POL) pattern is processed via specialized UV-photoreceptors in the dorsal rim area of the compound eye and POL sensitive optic lobe neurons. Further information about the neuronal substrate for processing of POL information in the ant brain has remained elusive. This work focuses on the lateral complex (LX), known as an important relay station in the insect sky-compass pathway. Neuroanatomical results in Cataglyphis fortis show that LX giant synapses (GS) connect large presynaptic terminals from anterior optic tubercle neurons with postsynaptic GABAergic profiles of tangential neurons innervating the ellipsoid body of the central complex. At the ultrastructural level, the cup-shaped presynaptic structures comprise many active zones contacting numerous small postsynaptic profiles. Three-dimensional quantification demonstrated a significantly higher number of GS (∼13%) in foragers compared with interior workers. Light exposure, as opposed to age, was necessary and sufficient to trigger a similar increase in GS numbers. Furthermore, the increase in GS numbers was sensitive to the exclusion of UV light. As previous experiments have demonstrated the importance of the UV spectrum for sky-compass navigation in Cataglyphis, we conclude that plasticity in LX GS may reflect processes involved in the initial calibration of sky-compass neuronal circuits during orientation walks preceding active foraging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 390-404, 2016. PMID:26138802

  7. Brain toxicity and inflammation induced in vivo in mice by the amyloid-β forty-two inducer aftin-4, a roscovitine derivative.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Johann; Borjini, Nozha; Gillis, Cyril; Villard, Vanessa; Maurice, Tangui

    2015-01-01

    Aftins (amyloid forty-two inducers) represent a novel class of tri-substituted purines derived from roscovitine, able to promote the generation of amyloid-β (Aβ)1-42 from amyloid-β protein precursor through γ-secretase activation in cell cultures. We here examined whether aftin-4 could provoke an amyloid-like toxicity in vivo in mice. The intracerebroventricular administration of aftin-4 (3-20 nmol) increased Aβ1-42, but not Aβ1-40, content in the mouse hippocampus, between 5 and 14 days after injection. Aftin-4 injection increased lipid peroxidation levels in the hippocampus, an index of oxidative stress. It increased brain contents in pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα, and GFAP immunolabeling, showing astrocytic reaction. Expression of the synaptic marker synaptophysin was decreased by aftin-4. Finally, the treatment provoked marked learning deficits, observed using different memory procedures: Spontaneous alternation in the Y-maze, place learning in the water-maze, and passive avoidance response. The systemic intraperitoneal injection of aftin-4 in the 3-30 mg/kg dose range also induced oxidative stress and learning deficits. All these alterations could be blocked by pre-treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor BMS-299,897, confirming that the mechanism of action of aftin-4 involves secretase activity. Furthermore, we examined if the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen could prevent aftin-4-induced memory impairments, cytokine release, and lipid peroxidation. Donepezil prevented all alterations, whereas ibuprofen prevented the increases in cytokine release and lipid peroxidation, but only marginally the memory impairments. As a whole, this study showed that in vivo injection of aftin-4 results in a rapid, acute Alzheimer's disease-like toxicity in the rodent brain. PMID:25298201

  8. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  9. FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF CHILDREN WITH LOW-TO-MODERATE LEAD ABSORPTION: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty-nine children aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for residual effects of lead exposure using psychometric, electrophysiological, and medical tests five years after initial assessment. The original range of blood lead (PbB) levels was 6-59 micrograms/dl; the current range was...

  10. A Century of Change: The History of Two-Year Education in the State of Alabama, 1866-1963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about two-year education in Alabama during the governorships of George C. Wallace, but little about two-year education prior to his first inauguration in 1963. Yet nearly a third of the forty-three junior, technical, and community college institutions that eventually formed the Alabama Community College System had been…

  11. A Clinical Assessment Tool for Advanced Theory of Mind Performance in 5 to 12 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Anne E.; Bremner, Lynne; Nash, Marysia; Happe, Francesca; Pettigrew, Luisa M.

    2009-01-01

    One hundred forty typically developing 5- to 12-year-old children were assessed with a test of advanced theory of mind employing Happe's strange stories. There was no significant difference in performance between boys and girls. The stories discriminated performance across the different ages with the lowest performance being in the younger…

  12. Alienation and First-Year Student Retention. Professional File. Number 116, Spring 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Since Summerskill's study on college attrition forty years ago, the interest in this topic has never waned. This study was particularly interested in the relationship of race to retention. Various theoretical frames of references have been proposed: Price's organization theory, Durkheim's Suicide, and Marx's Alienation have been used to guide…

  13. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  14. A Study of First-Year Chemistry Students' Understanding of Solution Concentration at the Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on students' understanding of sugar concentration in aqueous solutions presented in two different modes: a visual submicroscopic mode for particles and a verbal mode referring to macroscopic amounts of sugar. One hundred and forty-five tertiary college students studying some form of first-year chemistry participated in the…

  15. Dropped into the Deep End: A Study of Personal Journals in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Jason Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the lived experiences of first-year college students who kept personal and private journals in an English composition course. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the lived experiences of keeping those journals from the point-of-view of the journal writers themselves. Forty-eight students were involved…

  16. Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Technical Workforce Training at Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the outcomes of a workshop held at the National Science Foundation on August 15-16, 2005. Forty-six participants, representing academia, industry, government agencies, professional associations, and special projects met to: (1) discuss how geospatial technology training at two-year colleges can address workforce needs; and…

  17. Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of Vietnam, with the description of forty-two new species and three new genera.

    PubMed

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang

    2010-01-01

    The species of seventeen genera of Agathidinae (Braconidae) from Vietnam are revised: Agathis Latreille, 1804, Bassus Fabricius, 1804; Biroia Szépligeti, 1900; Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894; Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920; Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892; Coronagathisgen. n. (type species: Coronagathis corniferasp. n.); Cremnops Foerster, 1862; Disophrys Foerster, 1862; Earinus Wesmael, 1837; Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900; Gyragathisgen. n. (type species: Gyragathis quyisp. n.), Gyrochus Enderlein, 1920; Lytopylus Foerster, 1862; Therophilus Wesmael, 1837; Troticus Brullé, 1846, and Zelodiagen. n. (type species: Zelomorpha varipes van Achterberg & Maetô, 1990). Keys to the Vietnamese species are given.Sixty-five species are recognised, of which twelve species are newly recorded for Vietnam: Bassus albifasciatus (Watanabe, 1934), Coccygidium angostura (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), Cremnops atricornis (Smith, 1874), stat. n., Disophrys erythrocephala Cameron, 1900, Gyrochus yunnanensis Wang, 1984, Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus festivus (Muesebeck, 1953), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lienhuachihensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus marshi (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia absoluta (Chen & Yang, 1998), comb. n. and Zelodia longidorsata (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n.Forty-two species are new to science: Agathis citrinisomasp. n., Bassus albobasalissp. n., Bassus albozonatussp. n., Biroia sororsp. n., Braunsia bicoloratasp. n., Braunsia devriesisp. n., Braunsia maculiferasp. n., Braunsia nigrapiculatasp. n., Braunsia pumaticasp. n., Camptothlipsis hanoiensissp. n., Coronagathis corniferasp. n., Earinus aurantiussp. n., Earinus brevistigmussp. n., Euagathis flavosomasp. n., Disophrys maculiferasp. n., Disophrys quymanhisp. n., Disophrys rhinoidessp. n., Gyragathis quyisp. n., Therophilus annuliferussp. n., Therophilus cattienensissp. n., Therophilus contrastussp. n., Therophilus

  18. Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of Vietnam, with the description of forty-two new species and three new genera

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Cornelis; Long, Khuat Dang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The species of seventeen genera of Agathidinae (Braconidae) from Vietnam are revised: Agathis Latreille, 1804, Bassus Fabricius, 1804; Biroia Szépligeti, 1900; Braunsia Kriechbaumer, 1894; Camptothlipsis Enderlein, 1920; Coccygidium de Saussure, 1892; Coronagathis gen. n. (type species: Coronagathis cornifera sp. n.); Cremnops Foerster, 1862; Disophrys Foerster, 1862; Earinus Wesmael, 1837; Euagathis Szépligeti, 1900; Gyragathis gen. n. (type species: Gyragathis quyi sp. n.), Gyrochus Enderlein, 1920; Lytopylus Foerster, 1862; Therophilus Wesmael, 1837; Troticus Brullé, 1846, and Zelodia gen. n. (type species: Zelomorpha varipes van Achterberg & Maetô, 1990). Keys to the Vietnamese species are given. Sixty-five species are recognised, of which twelve species are newly recorded for Vietnam: Bassus albifasciatus (Watanabe, 1934), Coccygidium angostura (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), Cremnops atricornis (Smith, 1874), stat. n., Disophrys erythrocephala Cameron, 1900, Gyrochus yunnanensis Wang, 1984, Lytopylus romani (Shestakov, 1940), comb. n., Therophilus festivus (Muesebeck, 1953), comb. n., Therophilus javanus (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Therophilus lienhuachihensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), comb. n., Therophilus marshi (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n., Zelodia absoluta (Chen & Yang, 1998), comb. n. and Zelodia longidorsata (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), comb. n. Forty-two species are new to science: Agathis citrinisoma sp. n., Bassus albobasalis sp. n., Bassus albozonatus sp. n., Biroia soror sp. n., Braunsia bicolorata sp. n., Braunsia devriesi sp. n., Braunsia maculifera sp. n., Braunsia nigrapiculata sp. n., Braunsia pumatica sp. n., Camptothlipsis hanoiensis sp. n., Coronagathis cornifera sp. n., Earinus aurantius sp. n., Earinus brevistigmus sp. n., Euagathis flavosoma sp. n., Disophrys maculifera sp. n., Disophrys quymanhi sp. n., Disophrys rhinoides sp. n., Gyragathis quyi sp. n., Therophilus annuliferus sp. n., Therophilus cattienensis sp. n., Therophilus

  19. Past Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

  20. The Economic Benefits of Reducing the Dropout Rate for Students of Color in the Nation's Forty-Five Largest Metropolitan Areas. Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Years of data have consistently underscored the persistent graduation gap between America's students of color and their peers. The most recent estimate shows that high school graduation rates for African American, Latino, and American Indian students hover only slightly higher than 50 percent. This is more than 20 percentage points lower than that…

  1. Partnering To Build a Quality Workforce: Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges. A Report of the National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges (Washington, D.C., March 2-4, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabat, Ellen J.; Friedel, Janice Nahra; Senew, Mike

    The National Forum on Critical Issues in Environmental Technology Education at Two-Year Colleges addressed critical issues relevant to environmental technology education in the United States. Forty-three participants from across the country who attended the 1995 Forum represented business and industry, two-year colleges, four-year colleges and…

  2. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. PMID:26948894

  3. Ferrite core non-linearity in coils for magnetic neurostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lazzi, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The need to correctly predict the voltage across terminals of mm-sized coils, with ferrite core, to be employed for magnetic stimulation of the peripheral neural system is the motivation for this work. In such applications, which rely on a capacitive discharge on the coil to realise a transient voltage curve of duration and strength suitable for neural stimulation, the correct modelling of the non-linearity of the ferrite core is critical. A demonstration of how a finite-difference model of the considered coils, which include a model of the current-controlled inductance in the coil, can be used to correctly predict the time-domain voltage waveforms across the terminals of a test coil is presented. Five coils of different dimensions, loaded with ferrite cores, have been fabricated and tested: the measured magnitude and width of the induced pulse are within 10% of simulated values. PMID:26609390

  4. Laser patterning of platinum electrodes for safe neurostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. A.; Matteucci, P. B.; Dodds, C. W. D.; Palmer, J.; Dueck, W. F.; Hassarati, R. T.; Byrnes-Preston, P. J.; Lovell, N. H.; Suaning, G. J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Laser surface modification of platinum (Pt) electrodes was investigated for use in neuroprosthetics. Surface modification was applied to increase the surface area of the electrode and improve its ability to transfer charge within safe electrochemical stimulation limits. Approach. Electrode arrays were laser micromachined to produce Pt electrodes with smooth surfaces, which were then modified with four laser patterning techniques to produce surface structures which were nanosecond patterned, square profile, triangular profile and roughened on the micron scale through structured laser interference patterning (SLIP). Improvements in charge transfer were shown through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biphasic stimulation at clinically relevant levels. A new method was investigated and validated which enabled the assessment of in vivo electrochemically safe charge injection limits. Main results. All of the modified surfaces provided electrical advantage over the smooth Pt. The SLIP surface provided the greatest benefit both in vitro and in vivo, and this surface was the only type which had injection limits above the threshold for neural stimulation, at a level shown to produce a response in the feline visual cortex when using an electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of the eye. This surface was found to be stable when stimulated with more than 150 million clinically relevant pulses in physiological saline. Significance. Critical to the assessment of implant devices is accurate determination of safe usage limits in an in vivo environment. Laser patterning, in particular SLIP, is a superior technique for improving the performance of implant electrodes without altering the interfacial electrode chemistry through coating. Future work will require chronic in vivo assessment of these electrode patterns.

  5. A Hermetic Wireless Subretinal Neurostimulator for Vision Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Shire, Douglas B.; Chen, Jinghua; Doyle, Patrick; Gingerich, Marcus D.; Cogan, Stuart F.; Drohan, William A.; Behan, Sonny; Theogarajan, Luke; Wyatt, John L.; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    A miniaturized, hermetically encased, wirelessly operated retinal prosthesis has been developed for preclinical studies in the Yucatan minipig, and includes several design improvements over our previously reported device. The prosthesis attaches conformally to the outside of the eye and electrically drives a microfabricated thin-film polyimide array of sputtered iridium oxide film electrodes. This array is implanted into the subretinal space using a customized ab externo surgical technique. The implanted device includes a hermetic titanium case containing a 15-channel stimulator chip and discrete circuit components. Feedthroughs in the case connect the stimulator chip to secondary power and data receiving coils on the eye and to the electrode array under the retina. Long-term in vitro pulse testing of the electrodes projected a lifetime consistent with typical devices in industry. The final assembly was tested in vitro to verify wireless operation of the system in physiological saline using a custom RF transmitter and primary coils. Stimulation pulse strength, duration, and frequency were programmed wirelessly from a Peripheral Component Interconnect eXtensions for Instrumentation (PXI) computer. Operation of the retinal implant has been verified in two pigs for up to five and a half months by detecting stimulus artifacts generated by the implanted device. PMID:21859595

  6. Development of a neurostimulator for studies of epileptic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niro, J.; Manso, J.; Ballina, F.; Periolo, S.; D'Atellis, C.; Ponce, S.; Barroso, M.; Anessi, C.; Kochen, S.

    2007-11-01

    This work describes the development and use of a multi-channel, programmable physiological stimulator. The device is intended for the detection of epileptic events and crisis prediction using encephalograms. The animals were followed by the kindling model. The system program accepts several inputs of stimulation parameters such as, pulse width, separation between pulses, pulse intensity and total number of pulses. The stimulator generates constant-current, bipolar pulses with a maximum amplitude of 5 mA and a resolution of 50μA. As regards voltage, the maximum amplitude is 150 V. The stimulator was constructed with a microcontroller (PIC18F4550), the latter version being controlled by a personal computer. Experiments of achieving the epileptic events were carried out on rats.

  7. Frequency Dependence of Ultrasound Neurostimulation in the Mouse Brain.

    PubMed

    Ye, Patrick Peiyong; Brown, Julian R; Pauly, Kim Butts

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasound neuromodulation holds promise as a non-invasive technique for neuromodulation of the central nervous system. However, much remains to be determined about how the technique can be transformed into a useful technology, including the effect of ultrasound frequency. Previous studies have demonstrated neuromodulation in vivo using frequencies <1 MHz, with a trend toward improved efficacy with lower frequency. However, using higher frequencies could offer improved ultrasound spatial resolution. We investigate the ultrasound neuromodulation effects in mice at various frequencies both below and above 1 MHz. We find that frequencies up to 2.9 MHz can still be effective for generating motor responses, but we also confirm that as frequency increases, sonications require significantly more intensity to achieve equivalent efficacy. We argue that our results provide evidence that favors either a particle displacement or a cavitation-based mechanism for the phenomenon of ultrasound neuromodulation. PMID:27090861

  8. Planning a Year-Round School Operation (A Case-Study of the Valley View School District 45-15 Plan). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogge, William M.

    The year-round school operation of the Valley View School District is described from its planning stages through the implementation of the plans. A "45-15 Plan" provides for each pupil forty-five days of instruction and fifteen equivalent days of vacation. With the cycle repeated four times each year, one-fourth of the pupils are on vacation at…

  9. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize in Experimental Particle Physics Talk: 40 Years of Neutrino Physics--A Personal History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, Eugene

    2010-02-01

    In the past forty years neutrino physics has made great advances. Some of the steps and missteps that were taken on the path from the 1960's to the present will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to the development of solar neutrino physics. )

  10. Development and Social Competence after Two Years for Students Enrolled in Inclusive and Self-Contained Educational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Mary; Meyer, Luanna H.

    2002-01-01

    Forty students with severe disabilities were evaluated across two years of either inclusive or self-contained educational programming. Comparison of child development and social competence found the inclusive group made statistically significant gains on the developmental measure and realized higher social competence scores in comparison to the…

  11. Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students' Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Oh, Jaekyeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an initiative that created a pervasive learning environment in a middle school in South Korea and examined its impact on student academic achievement and learning engagement. Forty students received a laptop to use for class projects, online collaboration, and lesson reviews over a 3-year period. To measure the effect of laptop…

  12. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Postsecondary Statistics Education: 40 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen; Larwin, David

    2011-01-01

    The present meta-analysis is a comprehensive investigation of the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student achievement in postsecondary statistics education across a forty year period of time. The researchers calculated an overall effect size of 0.566 from 70 studies, for a total of 219 effect-size measures from a sample of…

  13. Follow-Up of Children Diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Stability and Change during the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsdottir, Sigridur Loa; Saemundsen, Evald; Asmundsdottir, Gudlaug; Hjartardottir, Sigrun; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis B.; Smaradottir, Hrafnhildur H.; Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Smari, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Forty-one children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs) receiving eclectic services were assessed twice during their preschool years. Measures were compared over time for the whole group and for diagnostic subgroups: Childhood autism (CA group) and Other PDDs group. The mean intelligence quotient/developmental quotient (IQ/DQ) of the…

  14. 15 Years of Terra, 14 Years of Application Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Davies, D.; Fu, G.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; Jackson, M.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Roberts, J. T.; Thompson, C. K.; Ye, G.

    2014-12-01

    The instruments onboard the Terra spacecraft were designed for long-term Earth science research but not long after launch it became apparent that this data and imagery could be made available in near real-time for applications users. During the year 2000 fire season in the western United States, the US Forest Service approached NASA with a request to expedite MODIS fire detections. The Rapid Response system was created to generate fire detections as well as true color imagery in both swath and geo-referenced formats. This imagery was used by a wide variety of applications, such as NASA's AERONET program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Antarctic resupply shipping, flood mapping for relief agencies, Deepwater Horizon monitoring, volcanic ash monitoring, as well as print, televised, and Internet media. From 2004, the University of Maryland's Web Fire Mapper helped distribute fire detection information in a variety of formats. However, the applications community expressed the need for near-real time access to the underlying data. This requirement led to the development of the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) in 2009. To achieve the latency requirements, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems had to be made more efficient. In addition, products that require ancillary data were modified to use alternate inputs. Forty Terra MODIS data products are currently available from LANCE. LANCE also includes data from other instruments including AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, and OMI. To help near-real time users navigate this large data offering, a new imagery service was begun in 2011 - Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This service provides very responsive viewing using the Web Map Tile Service protocol. These programs will continue to support and expand the use of Terra data for near-real time applications well into the future.

  15. TESOL at Forty: What Are the Issues?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh

    2006-01-01

    This overview delineates the direction of pedagogical developments since the 25th anniversary issue of "TESOL Quarterly." Three tendencies characterize our professional practice: (a) a continuation along the earlier lines of progression (i.e., in opening up the classroom to learning opportunities, integrating skills, and teaching for specific…

  16. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. Forty Targets of the Textbook Protesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkinson, Edward B.

    This paper gives a brief history of the Reverend Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority campaign against humanism in public school education. The document describes the successful textbook evaluation strategies of Mel and Norma Gabler of Texas, on which Dr. Falwell relies heavily, and lists 20 organizations protesting textbooks, library books, and…

  18. [The "forty-nine" and "seventeen" problems].

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Ken

    2003-01-01

    The single most common age of murderers in Japan is 49. Individuals aged between 45 and 54 are, however, likely to commit not offences but suicides comparing with other generations. One factor behind this phenomenon is the trend toward company downsizing, which is thought to affect the mental attitude of workers. This trend is destroying the Japanese lifetime employment system and undermining worker's loyalty to the company. On the other hand, in the broader category of felony crimes (assault, burglary, arson, murder), offenders aged 17 are the most common in Japan. This is thought to be partly due to the effect of so-called "school collapse" (school system failure) on the mental attitude of students. "School collapse" implies dysfunction of educational practice as a result of chattering, bullying and violence in the classroom. It is the reflection of students' dissatisfaction with the group-oriented school system. Therefore, students are unable to find any purposes in school and exhibit aggressive behaviours. In terms of mental health for both middle-age and teenage generations, it is necessary to devise new strategies whereby people can break away from the pressure of loyalty to the group. For both "normal" and "disabled" workers, rights of recuperations, adequate unemployment benefits policy, and support system for occupational change should be established. Simultaneously, for both "normal" and "disabled" students, reform of the school system under the concepts of diversity of education, rights of selection, and rights of refusal is urgently necessary. With respect to forensic psychiatry, without the provision of social supports, labeling of conduct disorder as well as other disorders should be avoided. In particular, instead of introducing security hospitals, drastic improvements of medical reformatories and medical prisons are necessary to provide adequate medical and social supports for offenders with psychiatric disorders. PMID:14560634

  19. The clinical outcome of scaphoid fracture malunion at 1 year.

    PubMed

    Forward, D P; Singh, H P; Dawson, S; Davis, T R C

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of malunion of scaphoid fractures on the clinical outcome at 1 year. Forty-two consecutive patients with united scaphoid waist fractures which had been treated non-operatively underwent longitudinal CT scans to confirm union and assess malunion at 12 to 18 weeks after injury. A blind clinical assessment was made and the Patient Evaluation Measure (PEM) and DASH questionnaires were completed by all the patients 1 year after injury. The group consisted of 38 men and four women with a mean age of 31 years at the time of injury. Correlation analysis revealed no significant relationships between any of the outcome measures (range of motion, grip strength and PEM and DASH scores) and any of the three measures of malunion (height-to-length ratio, the dorsal cortical angle and the lateral intra-scaphoid angle). PMID:19129358

  20. Pyogenic granuloma as a cause of bone loss in a twelve-year-old child: report of case.

    PubMed

    Goodman-Topper, E D; Bimstein, E

    1994-01-01

    The pyogenic granuloma frequently appears between the ages of eleven and forty years. It is a benign soft tissue lesion of inflammatory origin, which may be misdiagnosed as a neoplastic tumor due to its rapid development. Definitive diagnosis can only be made by histopathologic examination. Treatment is by conservative local excision. The present manuscript reports on the diagnosis and treatment of such a lesion, which caused significant maxillary bone loss in a twelve-year-old child. PMID:8182202

  1. Normative Data for the Words-in-Noise Test for 6- to 12-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard H.; Farmer, Nicole M.; Gandhi, Avni; Shelburne, Emily; Weaver, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To establish normative data for children on the Words-in-Noise Test (WIN; R. H. Wilson, 2003; R. H. Wilson & R. McArdle, 2007). Method: Forty-two children in each of 7 age groups, ranging in age from 6 to 12 years (n = 294), and 24 young adults (age range: 18-27 years) with normal hearing for pure tones participated. All listeners were…

  2. Five years' experience of injured children.

    PubMed

    Kibel, S M; Bass, D H; Cywes, S

    1990-10-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse admission data on all patients seen in the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital Trauma Unit during the period 24 April 1984 - 31 March 1989. Data were retrieved from computerised records completed on admission and were reviewed descriptively. Variations in age, sex and population group pattern for different causes of injury were evaluated together with data on the nature and place of injury and time seen. Data for analysis of nature of injury by cause were also retrieved, but over a 2-year period only (1986-1987). Accuracy of recorded data was assessed from a random sample of hospital records. During the 5-year period 57,468 patients were seen in the Trauma Unit, of whom 17.1% were admitted. In addition 6,377 cases of poisoning and 119 of near-drowning were seen by the medical departments. Forty-three per cent of injuries were due to falls, which were the most important cause of injury in both admitted and non-admitted patients of all age, sex and population groups. Other main cause groups were bumps and blows (15%), transport (11%) and burns (11%). Transport and burn injuries had the highest admission rates. This is the first study of children's injuries in southern Africa and provides information essential to future design of paediatric trauma care systems and accident prevention programmes. PMID:2218761

  3. Effects of the Emphasis on Achieving Adequate Yearly Progress on Teachers and Administrators at Schools under the Constraints of No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Cathy Ann Burnett

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the effects of the emphasis on achieving Adequate Yearly Progress at elementary schools under the regulations of the No Child Left Behind legislation. Qualitative data were gathered through interviews with fifty educators: forty-three teachers and seven administrators. All of the educators worked at six…

  4. Tuberculosis in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis: one year follow up study from Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, S S; Bhattarai, L; Manandhar, D N; Devkota, K C; Sharma, S K; Bhatta, N

    2012-09-01

    In Nepal where tuberculosis is endemic and data regarding the prevalence of tuberculosis in patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis is not known we tried to see the cumulative incidence of tuberculosis in these higher risk groups' patients. Forty patients were followed up for one year after initial screening for tuberculosis. Among forty patients 34 (85%) were male and 6 (15%) were female. During initial screening four patients had sputum positive tuberculosis and three more patients had sputum positive tuberculosis during follow up. Among nine patients with pleural effusion two patients had pulmonary tuberculosis. One patient had tubercular cervical lymphadenitis. Two patients died during follow up and the rest improved with anti tubercular treatment. So in the part of the world where tuberculosis is endemic patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis should be screened for tuberculosis regularly. PMID:24047026

  5. Surgical pathology of the thymus: 20 years' experience.

    PubMed Central

    Large, S R; Shneerson, J M; Stovin, P G; Wallwork, J

    1986-01-01

    Fifty five patients underwent thymic surgery at Papworth Hospital from April 1964 to March 1984. The number presenting and the percentage with symptoms annually remained unchanged during this period. Forty four of these 55 patients had tumours. Twenty eight had thymomas (18% of whom had myasthenia gravis and 7% red cell aplasia), nine Hodgkin's disease, four germ cell tumours, and three secondary carcinomatous tumours. Five tumours were cystic. Six further patients had non-tumourous cystic lesions (four simple, one foregut, one lymphangiectatic). The remaining five patients had follicular hyperplasia; all of these had myasthenia gravis. Complete excision was performed in 41 of the 55 patients. So far survival is 100% in those with benign lesions other than benign thymomas, where the survival was 70% at five years. Those with malignant thymomas had a 60% survival rate at five years and those with Hodgkin's disease 29%. PMID:3704966

  6. Huygens Identifies Rings Around Saturn : 350 Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deau, Estelle; Fulchignoni, M.

    2006-09-01

    On March 6, 1656, nearly forty years after Galileo discovered a strange object around Saturn and remained enigmatic until this time, a young unknown dutch of the name of Christiaan Huygens published a surprising article entitled "De Saturni luna observatio nova” in which he makes share to the erudite world of the first discovered satellite around Saturn. It finishes this article of only three pages by a logogriph which announces another discovery of which he hopes to be the first author while launching a call to all the astronomers of Europe. This second discovery much more resounding than the first ensured a world fame thereafter to him. We return here on this famous discovery: the identification of the Saturn's rings by the phyical explanation of its changing appearance. 350 years later, the physical assumptions of Huygens are used to understand ring's geometry.

  7. The Socio-Cultural and Leadership Experiences of Latina Four-Year College and University Presidents: A Traves de sus Voces (Through Their Voices)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Johanna B.

    2012-01-01

    The Latina population in the United States is one of the largest of all racial and ethnic groups, and it is expected to grow exponentially within the next forty years. Despite these large numbers of Latinas in the U.S., there is a disparity with this population who are leading our nation's four-year colleges and universities. A reason for…

  8. EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

    2009-02-01

    Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led

  9. The vicarious learning pathway to fear 40 years on.

    PubMed

    Askew, Chris; Field, Andy P

    2008-10-01

    Forty years on from the initial idea that fears could be learnt vicariously through observing other people's responses to a situation or stimulus, this review looks at the evidence for this theory as an explanatory model of clinical fear. First, we review early experimental evidence that fears can be learnt vicariously before turning to the evidence from both primate and human research that clinical fears can be acquired in this way. Finally, we review recent evidence from research on non-anxious children. Throughout the review we highlight problems and areas for future research. We conclude by exploring the likely underlying mechanisms in the vicarious learning of fear and the resulting clinical implications. PMID:18614263

  10. The International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Barbara J.

    2007-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882 and 1932, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. Fifty years later, the world s space science community will again come together for international programs of scientific collaboration: the International Heliophysical Year (IHY), the Electronic Geophysical Year (eGY), and the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007. This time, research will extend out into the Heliosphere to focus on solar-terrestrial-planetary interactions. The ambitious plans for the IHY, eGY and IPY incorporate the activities of scientists in 191 nations, as well as the IGY Gold Historical Preservation initiative, plus a series of coordinated campaigns involving more than 100 instruments and models, education and public outreach programs, a developing nations instrument development program, and opportunities for supported research worldwide. The presentation will focus on the efforts and operations which will make these activities possible.

  11. International Youth Year Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palla, Pier Giovanni, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    A digest of ideas and initiatives to make higher education more responsive to young people is provided. Part 1 includes excerpts of articles and reports concerning the International Youth Year (IYY), a United Nations' sponsored year of celebration of youth and a program of meetings to discuss youth problems and solutions. The themes selected for…

  12. The School Year Preview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Recommends looking at the entire school year in advance in order to plan for and cover the basic subject areas of art. Provides an overview of the entire school year of a fifth-grade art class, describing the various activities in detail. (CMK)

  13. First-Year Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Greg, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    Being a first-year teacher in New York City is not easy. The author received much of the same preparation and advice that he and his colleagues give their students. But even the best education courses and a positive student teaching experience do not seem to be enough to take the edge off of a year he remembers barely surviving. The author…

  14. Final Year Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubsch, Tristan

    2013-06-20

    In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

  15. 20 Years and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2008-01-01

    In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,…

  16. Celebrating 50 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansdottir, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

  17. Sexual function 1-year after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noerskov, K H; Schjødt, I; Syrjala, K L; Jarden, M

    2016-06-01

    Treatment with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with short and long-term toxicities that can result in alterations in sexual functioning. The aims of this prospective evaluation were to determine: (1) associations between HSCT and increased sexual dysfunction 1 year after treatment; and (2) associations between sexual dysfunction, body image, anxiety and depression. This controlled prospective cohort study was conducted from October 2010 to November 2013. Patients completed assessments 2-3 weeks before HSCT (N=124) and 1 year after treatment (N=63). Assessment included descriptive data, Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Body Image Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The results showed a significant decline in overall sexual function in both men and women (P=<0.001, P=0.010, respectively), although men generally scored higher than women. Forty-seven percent of men and 60% of women reported at least one physical sexual problem 1 year after HSCT. Patients with chronic GVHD trended toward reporting lower levels of sexual function. Finally, women with chronic GVHD scored lower than those without chronic GVHD on the sexual function problem subscale (P=0.008). Sexual dysfunction remains a major problem for men and women 1 year after HSCT and requires routine evaluation and treatment after HSCT. PMID:26878660

  18. Replicability and 40-Year Predictive Power of Childhood ARC Types

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined three questions surrounding the Undercontrolled, Overcontrolled, and Resilient--or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)--personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967, and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found: (1) Bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggested that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types; (2) this cluster structure was fuzzy, rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to three prototype Big Five profiles; and (3) ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious, but neither better nor more consistent predictors than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 68% accuracy by personality information alone, a figure approaching the 12-year accuracy of a leading medical cardiovascular risk model. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality traits for mid-life health. PMID:21744975

  19. Edward D. Goldberg's proposal of "the Mussel Watch": Reflections after 40years.

    PubMed

    Farrington, John W; Tripp, Bruce W; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sericano, José L; Wade, Terry L; Knap, Anthony H

    2016-09-15

    We chronicle the extensive influence over the past forty years of Professor Edward D. Goldberg and his call in 1975 for a "Mussel Watch" or bivalve sentinel organism approach to assess geographic status and temporal trends of several chemicals of environmental concern in the coastal ocean. Examples of local, regional, national and international programs are discussed briefly as are examples of interesting useful findings and limitations to the Mussel Watch concept. Mussel Watch continues to provide useful data about status and trends of chemical contamination in coastal ecosystems. PMID:27339743

  20. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn R.; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O.; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor K.; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan I.; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 ± 9 years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year [F(4, 38) = 5.8, p = 0.001, η2 = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that the majority of patients do not show significant change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed. PMID:24109449

  1. SDO: Year 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    April 21, 2012 marks the two-year anniversary of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) First Light press conference, where NASA revealed the first images taken by the spacecraft. This video highligh...

  2. International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, J. M.; Harrison, R.; Poland, A.; St.Cyr, O. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Rabin, Douglas (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In 1957 a program of international research, inspired by the International Polar Years of 1882-83 and 1932-33, was organized as the International Geophysical Year (IGY) to study global phenomena of the Earth and geospace. The IGY involved about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, from pole to pole to obtain simultaneous, global observations on Earth and in space. There had never been anything like it before. The fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year will occur in 2007. We propose to organize an international program of scientific collaboration for this time period called the International Heliophysical Year (IHY). Like it predecessors, the IHY will focus on fundamental global questions of Earth science.

  3. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  4. Year 2000 awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, C.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the challenges business face with the year 2000 software problem. Estimates, roadmaps, virtual factory software, current awareness, and world wide web references are given.

  5. [Pacemakers 16 years later].

    PubMed

    Dodinot, B

    1976-01-01

    In 1976, 10 years after the first successful implantations, the pacemaker technique is perfectly well accepted. Transvenous placement of the electrode is preferred in 95 % of the cases. Besides the 15 years nuclear power pacers (1970), conventional mercury pacemakers may reach a longevity of 4 to 5 years because of the reduction of the current drain. Lithium iodine seems a very promising source of energy. The mini-pacemakers with various iodine anodes are particularly attractive. The future is probably a well designed medium sized lithium pacemaker lasting more than 7 years. Patient follow-up is very much improved. All pacemakers exhibit an obvious rate reduction when their source of energy runs down. Therefore general practitioner and even the patients may detect this symptom. The main problem remains the lead resistance. The reduction of the frequency of pacemaker replacements and of the medical check-up makes life more simple for the pacemaker patient. PMID:1087802

  6. SETI: The NASA Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billingham, John

    This chapter, on the years of SETI in NASA, was initially prepared in 2000 for the celebration of Frank Drake's 70th birthday, but has never been previously published. All the material in these pages remains as valid today, in 2010, as it was 10 years ago. So it fits well into this volume on SETI Past, Present, and Future, with only minor revisions, and I am delighted that it is now seeing the light of day.

  7. THREE YEARS CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH INTESTINAL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Todo, Satoru; Tzakis, Andreas; Reyes, Jorge; Nour, Bakr; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Fung, John J.; Demetris, Anthony; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND After the successful evolution of hepatic transplantation during the last decade, small bowel and multivisceral transplantation remains the sole elusive achievement for the next era of transplant surgeons. Until recently, and for the last thirty years, the results of the sporadic attempts of intestinal transplantation worldwide were discouraging because of unsatisfactory graft and patient survival. The experimental and clinical demonstration of the superior therapeutic efficacy of FK 506, a new immunosuppressive drug, ushered in the current era of small bowel and multivisceral transplantation with initial promising results. STUDY DESIGN Forty-three consecutive patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal insufficiency, or malignant tumors with or without associated liver disease, were given intestinal (n=15), hepatic and intestinal (n=21), or multivisceral allografts that contained four or more organs (n=7). Treatment was with FK 506 based immunosuppression. The ascending and right transverse colon were included with the small intestine in 13 of the 43 grafts, almost evenly distributed between the three groups. RESULTS After six to 39 months, 30 of the 43 patients are alive, 29 bearing grafts. The most rapid convalescence and resumption of diet, as well as the highest three month patient survival (100 percent) and graft survival (88 percent) were with the isolated intestinal procedure. However, this advantage was slowly eroded during the first two postoperative years, in part because the isolated intestine was more prone to rejection. By the end of this time, the best survival rate (86 percent) was with the multivisceral procedure. With all three operations, most of the patients were able to resume diet and discontinue parenteral alimentation, and in the best instances, the quality of life approached normal. However, the surveillance and intensity of care required for these patients for the first year, and in most instances thereafter, was very high

  8. Comparison of patients who were violent, victimized and violent-victimized during the first year after discharge from emergency psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Roaldset, John Olav; Bjørkly, Stål

    2015-12-30

    This prospective observational study included 345 (70%) of 489 patients discharged from an emergency psychiatric hospital during one year. Episodes of offending and victimization were recorded during first year after discharge. Forty-eight persons (14%) committed violent offenses only, 27 persons (8%) were violence victims only, and 42 persons (12%) were both offenders and victims. Significant differences in demographic and clinical variables were found between the three groups. The results pointed to two distinct groups of victims: one group with a robust offender-victim overlap and another group without offender-victim overlap. The latter group was difficult to distinguish from other discharged patients. PMID:26616305

  9. Replicability and 40-year predictive power of childhood ARC types.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Goldberg, Lewis R

    2011-09-01

    We examined 3 questions surrounding the undercontrolled, overcontrolled, and resilient-or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)-personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967 and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggesting that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types. This cluster structure was fuzzy rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to 3 prototype Big Five profiles; ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious but, depending on the outcome, comparable or slightly worse classifiers than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 67% accuracy by childhood personality information alone and stroke incidence with over 70% accuracy. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality for midlife health. PMID:21744975

  10. Congress passes space year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

  11. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  12. New year, old hat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    American Geological Institute; American Institute of Physics; American Associationthe Advancement of Science; Carlowicz, Michael

    It is only August, but October 1 looms large on the calendar. That is the day when the 1997 fiscal year (FY ‧97) begins for the U.S. federal government, and like last year, that day might come without a budget.In a flurry of summer activity, the U.S. Congress has passed several landmark bills on welfare reform, expansion of health coverage for workers between jobs, a raise in the minimum wage, and a Safe Drinking Water Act. The House of Representatives even passed all 13 of its annual appropriations bills before Congress took its August recess.

  13. EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

    2009-02-01

    Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led

  14. Smog - the learning years

    SciTech Connect

    Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

  15. Tuskegee: 100 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Renelda

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the history and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute over the past 100 years. Highlights the role played by Booker T. Washington, and W. E. B. DuBois; discusses the career of the school's retiring president, Luther Foster. Provides information on the new president, Dr. Benjamin Payton, and discusses future directions for the college. (APM)

  16. Physics in 100 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Here I indulge in wide-ranging speculations on the shape of physics, and technology closely related to physics, over the next one hundred years. Themes include the many faces of unification, the re-imagining of quantum theory, and new forms of engineering on small, intermediate, and large scales.

  17. Creativity: The Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Rick; Shade, Patti Garrett

    2016-01-01

    There is a myth that some people are creative and others are not. However, all children are born creative. They love to explore, ask questions, and are incredibly imaginative. Parents are key in nurturing their child's creativity in the early years. This article offers resources and strategies parents can use at different ages and stages (newborn,…

  18. Books of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian Groombridge;…

  19. ISME Celebrates 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

  20. The Lost Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

  1. 5-Year Budget Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, John G.; Lingel, George; Piekarski, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Financial planning is the key to providing a high-quality instructional plan. A 5-year financial plan is typically updated by looking at district financial history, future instructional plans, staffing requirements, and revenue projections. Planning assumptions must be clearly understood by the financial team and the community. (MLH)

  2. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  3. Recasting the Senior Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreis, Janice; Rehage, Larry

    2008-01-01

    Many educators consider the final year of high school to be a "vast wasteland," an epidemic of disengagement. Although high schools across the country have struggled with senioritis, responses to the problem have largely fallen into vertical acceleration, in which schools typically offer an array of AP courses or dual enrollment opportunities;…

  4. Chinese New Year Dragons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgemann, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Presents an art project, used in a culturally diverse curriculum, in which second grade students create Chinese New Year dragons. Describes the process of creating the dragons, from the two-week construction of the head to the accordion-folded bodies. (CMK)

  5. Black Studies Year One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard A.

    Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…

  6. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  7. News of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lifer, Evan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This section includes three articles that review library news from the past year. Highlights include public library budgets, examined by geographic regions; government programs; flood damage; library school closings; school library media programs; publishing industry concerns, including mergers, broadening markets, and on-demand printing; and…

  8. Tenth Year Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The booklet presents the minimum material for which students are responsible on the Tenth Year Regents examination of the state of New York. The syllabus is an attempt to integrate plane geometry with arithmetic, algebra and numerical trigonometry brought about by: (1) greater use of fractions and percents in mensuration problems; (2) use of…

  9. ARITHMETIC PROGRAM, THIRD YEAR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARBER, CLAIRE

    THE THIRD YEAR OF ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTION SHOULD UTILIZE SOCIAL SETTINGS FOR LEARNING AS WELL AS MANIPULATIVE AND GRAPHIC MATERIALS. THE NUMBER SYSTEM, IN COUNTING, SHOULD DEVELOP THE SKILLS OF COUNTING BY 3'S AND 4'S AND OF RECOGNIZING ODD AND EVEN NUMBERS. CHILDREN SHOULD GAIN THE ABILITY TO READ AND WRITE NUMBERS TO FOUR PLACES. THE WHOLE…

  10. The Turbulent Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, John, Ed.

    This summary of the Fourth Annual Conference on Major Transitions in the Human Life Cycle contains a preface, introductory section on adolescence and young adulthood (ages 14 through 24 years), and the following presentations, complete with discussion text: (1) "Historical Treatment of the Age Group" (John Demos); (2) "Demographic Considerations"…

  11. Understanding Early Years Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

  12. The Year Ahead: Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschik, Scott

    1987-01-01

    The college outlook is grim for blacks 25 years after James Meredith became the first black to enroll at the University of Mississippi. Both Hispanics and Asian-Americans are misunderstood by college officials, and too little attention has been focused on community colleges, the institutions that serve the most minority students. (MLW)

  13. Correlation of Smoking and Myocardial Infarction Among Sudanese Male Patients Above 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Elkhader, Bahaaedin A.; Abdulla, Alsafi A.; Ali Omer, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary To find an association between smoking and the development of myocardial infarction in male patients above forty years of age presenting at the echocardiology department of Sudan heart center Khartoum. A prospective cohort study was carried out at the echocardiography department of Sudan Heart Center in Khartoum-Sudan between July 2012 and June 2014. The study population comprised a total of 168 adult male patients who underwent cardiac ultrasound scanning. Out of a total of 144 cases, 65% (94) of patients were smokers, 74% of the 94 cases smoked for more than 10 years, and 26% of the 94 cases smoked for less than 10 years. With this study it was concluded that smoking is a risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction. This study showed that patients with myocardial infarction are more likely to have a past history of smoking. PMID:27081418

  14. Early Years Policy

    PubMed Central

    Waldfogel, Jane; Washbrook, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the role that early years policy might play in narrowing educational attainment gaps. We begin by examining gaps in school readiness between low-, middle-, and high-income children, drawing on data from new large and nationally representative birth cohort studies in the US and UK. We find that sizable income-related gaps in school readiness are present in both countries before children enter school and then decompose these gaps to identify the factors that account for the poorer scores of low-income children. We then consider what role early years policy could play in tackling these gaps, drawing on the best available evidence to identify promising programs. PMID:21731827

  15. [Ryazan hospital--80 years].

    PubMed

    Klimov, A S; Gromov, M F

    2012-02-01

    In December 2011 marked 80 years of the founding of the Ryazan garrison hospital, originally housed in two buildings: "Redut housed"--a monument of architecture of the XVIII century and the former almshouses room "for the maimed in the war", was built in 1884 now Ryazan garrison hospital (from 2010--Branch No 6 FSI "in 1586 the district military hospital in the Western Military District", the Defense Ministry of Russia)--a multi-field medical preventive institution on the basis of which soldiers, military retirees, family members and military retirees from Ryazan, Moscow, Tambov regions are treated. Every year more than 7 thousand patients get treatment here. During the counterterrorism operations in Chechnya over 800 wounded were brought to the hospital from the battle area. PMID:22558855

  16. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... a cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination . (May still ...

  17. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 3 years; Growth milestones for children - 3 years; Childhood growth milestones - 3 years ... provider. Physical and motor milestones for a typical 3-year-old include: Gains about 4 - 5 pounds ...

  18. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination. (May still have ...

  19. Developmental milestones record - 4 years

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 years; Growth milestones for children - 4 years; Childhood growth milestones - 4 years ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR During the fourth year, a child typically: Gains weight at the rate ...

  20. Ten Years of Chandra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We celebrated the 10-th anniversary of the Launch of the Chandra X-ray Observatory on July 13, 2009. During these 10 years data from this Great Observatory have had a profound impact on 21st century astrophysics. With its unrivaled capability to produce sub-arcsecond images, the Observatory has enabled astronomers to make new discoveries in topics as diverse as comets and cosmology. We shall review some of the highlights, discuss the current status, and future plans.

  1. JCE: 80 Years New

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Participating in the National Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education Digital Library project is an exciting prospect for JCE. We expect to be able to make major contributions to the project and derive major benefits from participating in it. Your help in this important undertaking would be most welcome and greatly appreciated. Help us demonstrate that an 80-year-old can dance to a new tune!

  2. Twenty years of marriages.

    PubMed

    Nault, F

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, a total of 159,959 marriages were performed in Canada, up only slightly from 159,316 the year before. This small increase had no effect on the crude marriage rate, which remained at 5.5 marriages per 1,000 population. Aside from a brief uptum in the late 1980s, Canada's marriage rate has fallen quite steadily since the early 1970s. The overall decline is also evident when rates are disaggregated by the prior marital status of the bride and groom (single, divorced or widowed). Since 1974, the average ages of brides and grooms have risen about five years to 30.1 and 32.6, respectively. Nonetheless, the peak ages for marriage are the twenties. In this age range, women's marriage rates exceed those of men, but at older ages, men's rates are higher. And at progressively older ages, a growing proportion of grooms have brides at least 10 years their junior. The marriage patterns of Quebec residents differ from those of other Canadians. Quebec residents are much more likely to remain single or live common-law, and if they do marry, they are slightly more likely to divorce. Once divorced or widowed, people in Quebec are less likely than those in the rest of Canada to remarry. This article is based on data compiled by Statistics Canada from marriage registration forms provided by the central Vital Statistics Registry in each province and territory. PMID:9110964

  3. Five Year Flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An ultra-reliable flashlight, initially developed for rescue signaling and utility use by NASA astronauts and military aircrews, has attracted a broad commercial market. Called the Five Year Light, it has a shelf life at least that long because there is no power drain on the batteries when the flashlight is not in use. The NASA version of the light was developed under contract with Langley Research Center by ACR Electronics, Inc., now known as the Chromalloy Electronics Division of Chromalloy American Corporation, Hollywood, Florida. NASA wanted a light that had long shelf life and assured reliability in case it was needed in an emergency. Reliability was designed into the flashlight by means of a unique switch. Instead of the customary thumb-button, the Five Year Light is turned on by rotating its collar to make contact with the battery terminal; the turning motion wipes away any corrosion that might be present and makes contact virtually certain. The Five Year Light available commercially is a repackaged version of the NASA light. It is sold for car, home, industrial, police, firefighting, recreational and a variety of other uses, and sales have topped two million units.

  4. 40 Years of Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, B; Heller, A

    2003-07-08

    History is most interesting when seen through the eyes of those who lived it. In this 40th anniversary retrospective of bioscience research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we've asked 19 scientists to share their personal recollections about a major accomplishment in the program's history. We have not tried to create a comprehensive or seamless story. Rather, we've attempted to capture the perspectives of key individuals, each of whom worked on a research program that met significant milestones. We have focused particularly on programs and accomplishments that have shaped the current Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP). In addition, we have included a timeline of biosciences at LLNL, a history of the directorate that appeared in the Laboratory's magazine, ''Science & Technology Review'', in 2002, and a list of bioscience-related articles that have appeared over the years in ''Science & Technology Review and its predecessor, Energy & Technology Review''. The landscape of biological science today is stunningly different from 40 years ago. When LLNL bioscience began in 1963, we knew about the structure of DNA and that it was the carrier of genetic information. However, it would be another year before scientists would understand how DNA codes for the production of proteins and more than a decade before the earliest DNA sequence would be known. It is sometimes difficult to remember that it was only 15 years ago that the polymerase chain reaction, a synthetic method to amplify pieces of DNA was developed, and that only within the last half-dozen years has sequence data for entire organisms begun to be available. In this publication, we have tried to capture some of the landmark and seminal research history: radiation effects studies, which were a major reason for founding the biological research program, and flow sorting and chromosome painting, which dramatically changed our ability to study DNA damage and enabled the creation of chromosome

  5. Forty Years after Brown: The Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education. Proceedings of the National Conference on Recruitment and Retention of Minorities in Education (9th, Oswego, NY, April 9-11, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, E., Ed.; And Others

    The proceedings identify, clarify, and address the problems of the post-Brown era from a variety of perspectives. The first two papers are: The Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Banquet Keynote Speech (L. J. Bennett) and the Luncheon Session, "Integrating the Recruitment Preparation and Retention Strategies of Persons of Color in Teaching" (J. Vaughn).…

  6. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19... Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop year means the 12-month period beginning on August 1 of each year and ending on July 31 of the following year or such other period that...

  7. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL`s cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

  8. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL's cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

  9. TRMM 3-Year Anniversary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ever wonder about the rain? Beyond the practicality of needing an umbrella, climate researchers have wondered about the science of rainfall for a long time. But it's only in the past few years that they've begun to roll back some of its secrets. One of their tools for doing so is a powerful satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission, or TRMM. Now, after three years of continual operation, project scientists have released dramatic new maps of rainfall patterns gathered across a wide band of the Earth. And with measurements from one of the satellite's advanced sensors, meteorologists are now able to calibrate ground-based rain monitoring systems with greater precision than ever before. A complete accounting of the world's total rainfall has long been a major goal of climate researchers. Rain acts as the atmosphere's fundamental engine for heat exchange; every time a raindrop falls, the atmosphere gets churned up and latent heat flows back into the total climate system. Considering that rainfall is the primary driving force of heat in the atmosphere, and that two thirds of all rain falls in the tropics, these measurements are significant for our understanding of overall climate. The above image shows a one month average of rainfall measurements taken by the TRMM's unique precipitation radar during January of 1998. Areas of low rainfall are colored light blue, while regions with heavy rainfal are colored orange and red. TRMM began collecting data in December of 1997, and continues today. For more information about TRMM's 3-year anniversary, read Maps of Falling Water To learn more about the TRMM mission or order TRMM data, see the TRMM Home Page. Image courtesy TRMM Science team and the NASA GSFC Scientific Visualization Studio.

  10. 500 years after Columbus.

    PubMed

    Imbach, A

    1992-01-01

    The astonishing range of plants and animals of Central America's 7 countries (Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama) is disappearing, as 60% of its forests have been cut for lumber and firewood as well as for cotton, cattle, or subsistence crops. Up to 5 million Mayans lived sustainably for thousands of years in an area now being destroyed by a few hundred thousand inhabitants. The Spanish colonization that started 500 years ago was concentrated in Panama, Nicaragua, and Guatemala. The majority of the English-speaking country of Belize are descended from the black slave population whose culture spread down the coast to Central America. Panama's service economy is based on the Panama Canal and trade and finance. Costa Rica benefits from a tourist industry based on its natural beauty, however, it also has the highest rate of deforestation and its fast population growth could jeopardize earlier social and economic progress. In El Salvador and Guatemala long periods of civil conflict have taken their toll on the economy and the environment. El Salvador has a mountainous territory and limited natural resources and industrialization, while the best land is in the hands of a few families. Honduras and Nicaragua retain the highest proportion of forest cover of the countries in the region, despite Nicaragua's years of tyranny, then revolution and the Contra war, and Honduras's own turmoils. Belize has achieved some stability, and is now strengthening its Central American links. Its coral reefs and coastal areas offer potential for sustainable development through fishing and tourism. Central American countries face the challenges of their fragile environments and major social problems. PMID:12317700

  11. Fifty years of stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashed, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    Common-Mid-Point (CMP) stacking is a major process to enhance signal-to-noise ratio in seismic data. Since its appearance fifty years ago, CMP stacking has gone through different phases of prosperity and negligence within the geophysical community. During those times, CMP stacking developed from a simple process of averaging into a sophisticated process that involves complicated mathematics and state-of-the-art computation. This article summarizes the basic principles, assumptions, and violations related to the CMP stacking technique, presents a historical overview on the development stages of CMP stacking, and discusses its future potentiality.

  12. NAS: The first year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, F. R.; Kutler, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Discussed are the capabilities of NASA's Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program and its application as an advanced supercomputing system for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research. First, the paper describes the NAS computational system, called the NAS Processing System Network, and the advanced computational capabilities it offers as a consequence of carrying out the NAS pathfinder objective. Second, it presents examples of pioneering CFD research accomplished during NAS's first operational year. Examples are included which illustrate CFD applications for predicting fluid phenomena, complementing and supplementing experimentation, and aiding in design. Finally, pacing elements and future directions for CFD and NAS are discussed.

  13. 75 Years of the Junior Year in Munich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Not only has the US Senate designated 2006 the Year of Study Abroad; the year also marks the anniversary of a distinguished tradition of study abroad in Germany that reaches back 75 years. Founded in 1931, suspended during the war years, and re-opened in 1953 by Wayne State University, the Junior Year in Munich is America's oldest study abroad…

  14. International Heliophysical Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Joseph, M.

    2005-01-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY), an international program of scientific collaboration to understand the external drivers of planetary environments, will be conducted in 2007. This will be a major international event of great interest to the member States. The M Y will involve the deployment of new instrumentation, new observations from the ground and in space, and an education component. The IHY 2007 will coincide with the fiftieth anniversary of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1957. The IGY was organized to study global phenomena of the Earth and Geospace involving about 60,000 scientists from 66 nations, working at thousands of stations, around the world to obtain simultaneous, global observations from the ground and space. Building on results obtained during IGY 1957, the IHY will expand to the study of universal processes in the solar system that affect the interplanetary and terrestrial environments. The study of energetic events in the solar system will pave the way for safe human space travel to the Moon and planets in the future, and it will serve to inspire the next generation of space physicists.

  15. Einstein's Years in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plendl, Hans S.

    2005-11-01

    Albert Einstein left Germany, the country of his birth, in 1894 and moved to Switzerland in 1895. He studied, worked and taught there, except for a year's stay in Prague, until1914. That year he returned to Germany, where he lived until his emigration to the United States in 1933. In 1905, while living with his wife Mileva and their first son Hans Albert in Bern and working as a technical expert at the Swiss Patent Office, he published his dissertation on the determination of molecular dimensions, his papers on Brownian Motion that helped to establish the Kinetic Theory of Heat and on the Photo-Electric Effect that validated the Quantum Theory of Light, and the two papers introducing the Special Theory of Relativity. How the young Einstein could help to lay the foundations of these theories while still working on his dissertation, holding a full-time job and helping to raise a family has evoked much discussion among his biographers. In this contribution, the extent to which living within Swiss society and culture could have made this feat possible will be examined. Old and recent photos of places in Switzerland where Einstein has lived and worked will be shown.

  16. Twenty years of KSHV.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Twenty years ago, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill's Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men-in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

  17. Another slow year

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-08-01

    This article is a review of the petroleum activity in the Middle East. The article is accompanied by a detailed color map showing the activity in the area. Highlights of the article include the fact that Saudi Arabia's drilling and development activity has sunk to its lowest level in many years. The article also points out that discoveries are increasing production in North and South Yemen as well as in Syria. The article also highlights the fact that Qatar is beginning work on its massive North gas field in the Gulf. Also attention is paid to the effects of the Iranian and Iraq war on each other's oil and gas activities. The article also mentions the drilling activity of Dubai and Oman.

  18. Twenty Years of KSHV

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

  19. TIPS: 25 years later.

    PubMed

    Rössle, Martin

    2013-11-01

    In the 25 years since the first TIPS intervention has been performed, technical standards, indications, and contraindications have been set up. The previous considerable problem of shunt failure by thrombosis or intimal proliferation in the stent or in the draining hepatic vein has been reduced considerably by the availability of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents resulting in reduced rebleeding and improved survival. Unfortunately, most clinical studies have been performed prior to the release of the covered stent and, therefore, do not represent the present state of the art. In spite of this, TIPS has gained increasing acceptance in the treatment of the various complications of portal hypertension and vascular diseases of the liver. PMID:23811307

  20. Neuroticism and Extraversion in Youth Predict Mental Wellbeing and Life Satisfaction 40 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Gale, Catharine R; Booth, Tom; Mõttus, René; Kuh, Diana; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Neuroticism and Extraversion are linked with current wellbeing, but it is unclear whether these traits in youth predict wellbeing decades later. We applied structural equation modelling to data from 4583 people from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. We examined the effects of Neuroticism and Extraversion at ages 16 and 26 years on mental wellbeing and life satisfaction at age 60-64 and explored the mediating roles of psychological and physical health. Extraversion had direct, positive effects on both measures of wellbeing. The impact of Neuroticism on both wellbeing and life satisfaction was largely indirect through susceptibility to psychological distress and physical health problems. Personality dispositions in youth have enduring influence on wellbeing assessed about forty years later. PMID:24563560

  1. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145

  2. Bone and heart abnormalities of subclinical hyperthyroidism in women below the age of 65 years.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Pedro Weslley

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate bone and cardiac abnormalities and symptoms and signs of thyroid hormone excess in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCH) aged < 65 years. Forty-eight women with SCH were evaluated. The control group consisted of 48 euthyroid volunteers. The mean symptom rating scale score was significantly higher in patients. Cardiac involvement, both morphological and affecting systolic and diastolic functions, was also observed in patients. Women with SCH showed a significant increase in serum markers of bone formation and resorption. In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) was lower in the femoral neck but not in the lumbar spine in patients before menopause, whereas a lower BMD was observed at both sites in postmenopausal patients. SCH is not completely asymptomatic in women aged < 65 years, and is associated with heart abnormalities and with increased bone turnover and reduced BMD even before menopause. PMID:19197452

  3. Ten years of PAMELA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, Piero

    2016-07-01

    Pamela experiment has been designed as a cosmic ray observatory at 1 AU, dedicated to the precise and high statistics study of CR fluxes on a three decades energy range, form a few tens MeV up to several hundred GeV region. It is the last step of the 'Russian-Italian Mission' (RIM) program born in 1992 between several Italian and Russian institutes and with the participation of the Royal Institute of Technology of Stockholm (Sweden) and the Siegen University (German). Launched the 16 June 2006 from Baikonur cosmodrome on board of the Resurs-DK1 Russian satellite by a Soyuz rocket in an elliptical (350-610 km) quasi polar orbit (70° inclination) it was activated on 21 June 2006, afterword has been in a continuous data taking mode for ten years. The Pamela program pays particular attention to the study of particles (protons and electrons) and antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) energy spectra. It also includes search for possible signals of dark matter annihilation, search for primordial antimatter (antihelium), search for new Matter in the Universe (Strangelets?), study of cosmic-ray propagation, solar physics and solar modulation, terrestrial magnetosphere. This program is made possible thanks to the outstanding performance of the instrument, the low energy threshold, the quasi-polar orbit, the 10 years duration of the observation. Protons and helium nuclei are the most abundant components of the cosmic radiation and the precise measurements of their fluxes allow understanding the acceleration and propagation of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. Their spectral shapes cannot be well described by a single power law: at 230-240 GV they exhibit an abrupt spectral hardening. They challenge the current paradigm of cosmic-ray acceleration in supernova remnants followed by diffusive propagation in the Galaxy. Of paramount importance is the discover of the anomalous increase of the positron flux at energies higher that 50 GeV (the so called 'Pamela anomaly'). The review of

  4. EDITORIAL: Happy New Year!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-ming

    2006-02-01

    As many of you are aware that Chinese science is at the crucial stage of development. We are now seeing more and more high quality works being produced by Chinese scientists working in China. However, high quality scientific works are rarely published in Chinese scientific journals so far. Therefore, the development of scientific journals publishing in China now becomes a more and more important indication of the science development in China. In the development of the chemical physics research field in China, the Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics (CJCP) has made significant contributions in the past 18 years. Since CJCP is primarily a Journal published in Chinese previously, its impact in the international scientific community has been quite limited. At this moment, we believe CJCP should increase its impact in the international community. We believe that making CJCP an English journal is a crucial step to increase its influence internationally. Therefore, upon the recommendation of senior editorial members, we now change CJCP into an full English journal from this issue on. We have also formed a high quality editorial board to help the editorial matters in CJCP, and a prestigious advisory board to advise us of the future development. I am very honored to be selected as the new Editor-in-Chief for the next four years. I hope by the end of my term, the impact of this journal is significantly improved through the efforts of our editorial team. Building a high quality scientific journal is not an easy task. I hope that every member of our chemical physics community can provide strong support to this journal by sending your high quality research papers in the future. We are also thinking about adding new sections of this journal to attract more readers. With the support of our community, I am confident that we can make this journal a more successful one. Here, I want to take this opportunity to thank the great leadership provided by the Editor-in-Chief since the

  5. A 4 year follow-up study of alveolar bone height influenced by two dissimilar Class II amalgam restorations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, D; Markitziu, A; Fishel, D; Brayer, L

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-four paired, approximal amalgam fillings, extended (E) versus unextended (NE) were placed in forty-three patients and followed up to 4 years. Yearly measurements between the alveolar crest and (a) the apical margin of the fillings (E, NE), and (b) the cemento-enamel junction of the control group, were performed using bite-wing radiographs joined to a translucent grid magnified ten-fold. The rate of alveolar crest resorption was similar for the control (C) and the unextended filling (NE) and reached 0.45 mm after 4 years of follow-up. The resorption of the alveolar crest under the extended (E) filling was significantly higher and reached 0.80 mm after 4 years (P less than 0.001). PMID:6589386

  6. Secretin, 100 years later.

    PubMed

    Chey, William Y; Chang, Ta-Min

    2003-01-01

    One hundred years have elapsed since the discovery of secretin by Bayliss and Starling in 1902. In the past century, the research of secretin has gone by many milestones including isolation, purification and structural determination, chemical synthesis, establishment of its hormonal status by radioimmunoassay and immunoneutralization, identification of the specific receptor, cloning of secretin and its receptor, and identification of a secretin-releasing peptide. It has become clear that secretin is a hormone-regulating pancreatic exocrine secretion of fluid and bicarbonate, gastric acid secretion, and gastric motility. The release and actions of secretin is regulated by hormone-hormonal and neurohormonal interactions. The vagus nerve, particularly its afferent pathway, plays an essential role in the physiological actions of secretin. Substantial information about the property of the secretin receptor has been accumulated, but a potent secretin receptor-specific antagonist remains to be formulated. The neural regulatory mechanisms of the release and action of secretin await further elucidation. The physiological role of secretin in intestinal secretions and motility and extragastrointestinal organs remains to be defined. The presence of secretin and its receptor in the central nervous system is well documented, but its function as a neuropeptide has been recognized gradually and requires extensive study in the future. PMID:14673718

  7. NERMLS: The First Year *

    PubMed Central

    Colby, Charles C.; Bloomquist, Harold; Hodges, T. Mark

    1969-01-01

    The Countway Library, Boston, was the nation's first Regional Medical Library under the Regional Medical Library Program of the NLM. New England Regional Medical Library Service (NERMLS) began in October 1967 and is the outgrowth of traditional extramural services of the Harvard and Boston Medical Libraries (constituents of the Countway). During the first year over 27,000 requests were received of which 84 percent were filled. Some problems of document delivery (and their solution) are recounted. Other activities were: a limited amount of reference work; distribution of a Serials List; and planning for a region-wide medical library service. Proposals call for consultation and education, regional reference service, and improved document delivery service. Emphasis is placed on the role of the Community Hospital as a center for continuing education and the need to strengthen and assist hospital medical libraries. With the Postgraduate Medical Institute, Boston, NERMLS assisted in the compilation of a small physician-selected medical Core Collection which would serve as a minimum standard collection for community hospital libraries. PMID:5823504

  8. TFTR Twenty Year Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Meade

    1998-04-01

    Deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with core parameters almost identical to those expected in the core of ignited plasmas in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) have served as a test bed to carry out the first detailed studies of D-T plasma physics, including the first observations of alpha-particle heating and alpha-driven instabilities. TFTR operated above the original engineering design requirements and with high availability in D-T until experimental operation was terminated due to U.S. fusion budget cutbacks. A most valuable lesson learned was that D-T operation of a large experimental device is feasible, as TFTR operation could have continued many more years while remaining within tritium and neutron activation limits. The flexibility and control of plasma parameters (e.g., plasma rotation) and the comprehensive diagnostic system enabled TFTR to make seminal contributions to tokamak plasma science, such as first confirmation of the bootstrap current in a tokamak, detailed turbulence studies leading to a new paradigm for transport understanding, first observations of neoclassical tearing modes, and detailed measurements and modeling of plasma disruptions. Recent advances in understanding the fundamental processes controlling plasma transport provide new opportunities for improving tokamak plasma performance. Implementation of recent knowledge could lead to D-T operating regimes with strong alpha heating with modest extensions of the TFTR operating regimes.

  9. Twenty years of dendrotoxins.

    PubMed

    Harvey, A L

    2001-01-01

    Dendrotoxins are small proteins that were isolated 20 years ago from mamba (Dendroaspis) snake venoms (Harvey, A.L., Karlsson, E., 1980. Dendrotoxin from the venom of the green mamba, Dendroaspis angusticeps: a neurotoxin that enhances acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junctions. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. 312, 1-6.). Subsequently, a family of related proteins was found in mamba venoms and shown to be homologous to Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors, such as aprotinin. The dendrotoxins contain 57-60 amino acid residues cross-linked by three disulphide bridges. The dendrotoxins have little or no anti-protease activity, but they were demonstrated to block particular subtypes of voltage-dependent potassium channels in neurons. Studies with cloned K(+) channels indicate that alpha-dendrotoxin from green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps blocks Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.6 channels in the nanomolar range, whereas toxin K from the black mamba Dendroaspis polylepis preferentially blocks Kv1.1 channels. Structural analogues of dendrotoxins have helped to define the molecular recognition properties of different types of K(+) channels, and radiolabelled dendrotoxins have also been useful in helping to discover toxins from other sources that bind to K(+) channels. Because dendrotoxins are useful markers of subtypes of K(+) channels in vivo, dendrotoxins have become widely used as probes for studying the function of K(+) channels in physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:10936620

  10. Fourteen years in resistance.

    PubMed

    Livermore, David M

    2012-04-01

    Resistance trends have changed greatly over the 14 years (1997-2011) whilst I was Director of the UK Antibiotic Resistance Monitoring and Reference Laboratory (ARMRL). Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) first rose, then fell with improved infection control, although with the decline of one major clone beginning before these improvements. Resistant pneumococci too have declined following conjugate vaccine deployment. If the situation against Gram-positive pathogens has improved, that against Gram-negatives has worsened, with the spread of (i) quinolone- and cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, (ii) Acinetobacter with OXA carbapenemases, (iii) Enterobacteriaceae with biochemically diverse carbapenemases and (iv) gonococci resistant to fluoroquinolones and, latterly, cefixime. Laboratory, clinical and commercial aspects have also changed. Susceptibility testing is more standardised, with pharmacodynamic breakpoints. Treatments regimens are more driven by guidelines. The industry has fewer big profitable companies and more small companies without sales income. There is good and bad here. The quality of routine susceptibility testing has improved, but its speed has not. Pharmacodynamics adds science, but over-optimism has led to poor dose selection in several trials. Guidelines discourage poor therapy but concentrate selection onto a diminishing range of antibiotics, threatening their utility. Small companies are more nimble, but less resilient. Last, more than anything, the world has changed, with the rise of India and China, which account for 33% of the world's population and increasingly provide sophisticated health care, but also have huge resistance problems. These shifts present huge challenges for the future of chemotherapy and for the edifice of modern medicine that depends upon it. PMID:22386741

  11. Two-year follow-up of the Collision Auto Repair Safety Study (CARSS).

    PubMed

    Bejan, Anca; Parker, David L; Brosseau, Lisa M; Xi, Min; Skan, Maryellen

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the sustainability of health and safety improvements in small auto collision shops 1 year after the implementation of a year-long targeted intervention. During the first year (active phase), owners received quarterly phone calls, written reminders, safety newsletters, and access to online services and in-person assistance with creating safety programs and respirator fit testing. During the second year (passive phase), owners received up to three postcard reminders regarding the availability of free health and safety resources. Forty-five shops received an evaluation at baseline and at the end of the first year (Y1). Of these, 33 were evaluated at the end of the second year (Y2), using the same 92-item assessment tool. At Y1, investigators found that between 70 and 81% of the evaluated items were adequate in each business (mean = 73% items, SD = 11%). At Y2, between 63 and 89% of items were deemed adequate (mean = 73% items, SD = 9.5%). Three safety areas demonstrated statistically significant (P < 0.05) changes: compressed gasses (8% improvement), personal protective equipment (7% improvement), and respiratory protection (6% decline). The number of postcard reminders sent to each business did not affect the degree to which shops maintained safety improvements made during the first year of the intervention. However, businesses that received more postcards were more likely to request assistance services than those receiving fewer. PMID:25539646

  12. Two-Year Follow-up of the Collision Auto Repair Safety Study (CARSS)

    PubMed Central

    Bejan, Anca; Parker, David L.; Brosseau, Lisa M.; Xi, Min; Skan, Maryellen

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the sustainability of health and safety improvements in small auto collision shops 1 year after the implementation of a year-long targeted intervention. During the first year (active phase), owners received quarterly phone calls, written reminders, safety newsletters, and access to online services and in-person assistance with creating safety programs and respirator fit testing. During the second year (passive phase), owners received up to three postcard reminders regarding the availability of free health and safety resources. Forty-five shops received an evaluation at baseline and at the end of the first year (Y1). Of these, 33 were evaluated at the end of the second year (Y2), using the same 92-item assessment tool. At Y1, investigators found that between 70 and 81% of the evaluated items were adequate in each business (mean = 73% items, SD = 11%). At Y2, between 63 and 89% of items were deemed adequate (mean = 73% items, SD = 9.5%). Three safety areas demonstrated statistically significant (P < 0.05) changes: compressed gasses (8% improvement), personal protective equipment (7% improvement), and respiratory protection (6% decline). The number of postcard reminders sent to each business did not affect the degree to which shops maintained safety improvements made during the first year of the intervention. However, businesses that received more postcards were more likely to request assistance services than those receiving fewer. PMID:25539646

  13. 20 Years of RECONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; RECONS

    2014-01-01

    RECONS (REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars, www.recons.org) turns 20 in 2014, so we take this opportunity to review some of the highlights of the RECONS effort over the past two decades. Through comprehensive searches for new nearby stars, as well as characterization of the stars and exploration of their environments, the RECONS team has made significant contributions to our understanding of the solar neighborhood, and of our own place in the Universe. Here we highlight results detailed in more than 30 papers in The Solar Neighborhood series published in The Astronomical Journal, including: (1) a census indicating that at least 75% of all stars are red dwarfs, which have more real estate available for habitable planets than any other type of star, (2) more than 300 new stellar systems with accurate trigonometric parallaxes placing them within 25 pc, including 12 of the nearest 100 systems, (3) thousands of additional nearby star candidates identified through traditional proper motion searches and novel photometric searches for stars exhibiting minimal proper motions, (4) increases of more than 20% in the nearest white dwarf and cool subdwarf populations, (5) discovery of the nearest star, AP Col, younger than 100 million years, (6) knowledge that more than half of stellar systems contain only one star, dominated by the red dwarf multiplicity rate of only about 30%, (7) definition of the smallest main sequence star, with a radius only 9% that of the Sun (smaller than Jupiter) and a temperature of 2100K, and (8) a revelation that the smallest stars are rarely orbited by giant planets, including the elimination of planets down to half a Jupiter mass orbiting Proxima Centauri. As RECONS enters its third decade, we continue our reconnaissance of the solar neighborhood via a comprehensive survey to understand the nature of star formation by determining accurate luminosity and mass functions for the nearest stars. In addition, we are taking an inventory of nearby planets

  14. A 9,000-year record of Chagas' disease

    PubMed Central

    Aufderheide, Arthur C.; Salo, Wilmar; Madden, Michael; Streitz, John; Buikstra, Jane; Guhl, Felipe; Arriaza, Bernardo; Renier, Colleen; Wittmers, Lorentz E.; Fornaciari, Gino; Allison, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    Tissue specimens from 283 principally spontaneously (naturally) desiccated human mummies from coastal and low valley sites in northern Chile and southern Peru were tested with a DNA probe directed at a kinetoplast DNA segment of Trypanosoma cruzi. The time interval spanned by the eleven major cultural groups represented in the sample ranged from ≈9,000 years B.P. (7050 B.C.) to approximately the time of the Spanish conquest, ≈450 B.P. (≈1500 A.D.). Forty-one percent of the tissue extracts, amplified by the PCR reacted positively (i.e., hybridized) with the probe. Prevalence patterns demonstrated no statistically significant differences among the individual cultural groups, nor among subgroups compared on the basis of age, sex, or weight of specimen tested. These results suggest that the sylvatic (animal-infected) cycle of Chagas' disease was probably well established at the time that the earliest humans (members of the Chinchorro culture) first peopled this segment of the Andean coast and inadvertently joined the many other mammal species acting as hosts for this parasite. PMID:14766963

  15. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth. PMID:26757396

  16. A 5-year retrospective clinical study of the Dentium implants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong-Yol; Park, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jong-Eun; Choi, Yong-Geun; Kim, Young-Soo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate cumulative survival rate (CSR) of Implantium implants followed for 5 years and association between risk factors and the CSR. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of two hundred forty-nine Implantium Implants System (Dentium, Seoul, Korea) placed in ninety-five patients from 2004 to 2009 were investigated with several identified risk factors (sex, systemic disease, smoking, alchohol, reason of tooth loss, length, arch (maxilla or mandible), replace tooth type (incisor, canine, premolar or molar) Kennedy classification, prosthodontic type, prosthodontic design, opposite dentition, abutment type, occlusal material, occlusal unit, splint to tooth, cantilever, other surgery). Clinical examination (mobility, percussion, screw loosening, discomfort, etc.) and radiographic examination data were collected from patient records including all problems during follow-up period according to protocols described earlier. Life table analysis was undertaken to examine the CSR. Cox regression method was conducted to assess the association between potential risk factors and overall CSR. RESULTS Five of 249 implants were failed. Four of these were lost before loading. The 5-year implant cumulative survival rate was 97.37%. Cox regression analysis demonstrated a significant predictive association between overall CSR and systemic disease, smoking, reason of tooth loss, arch, Kennedy classification and prosthodontic design (P<.05). The screw related complication was rare. Two abutment screw fractures were found. Another complications of prosthetic components were porcelain fracture, resin facing fracture and denture fracture (n=19). CONCLUSION The 5-year CSR of Implantium implants was 97.37%. Implant survival may be dependent upon systemic disease, smoking reason of tooth loss, arch, Kennedy classification and prosthodontic design (P<.05). The presence of systemic diseases and combination of other surgical procedures may be associated

  17. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from

  18. Forty mouse strain survey of water and sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Reed, Danielle R.

    2007-01-01

    We measured voluntary water and sodium intakes of 40 inbred strains of mice. Groups of ~10 males and ~10 females from each strain received a series of 48-h tests with a choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of one of the following: water, 25, 75, and 225 mM NaCl, 25, 75, and 225 sodium lactate. Sodium solution intakes were influenced by strain, sex, anion and concentration: Nine strains drank significantly more chloride than lactate, and only one strain (I/LnJ) drank significantly more lactate than chloride. The other 30 strains drank similar volumes of chloride and lactate. Sodium intakes were higher in females than males of 8 strains and did not differ by sex in the other 32 strains. Some strains had consistently high sodium intakes and preferred all sodium solutions to water (129S1/SvImJ, MA/MyJ, NZW/LacJ and SWR/J), some showed indifference (i.e. preferences not significantly different from 50%) to all concentrations tested (A/J, C57BL/6J, FVB/NJ and SEA/GnJ), and some had consistently low sodium intakes (AKR/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/10J, CBA/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, JF1/Ms, LP/J, NON/LtJ, PERA/EiJ, PL/J, and RIIIS/J). The results illustrate the diversity of voluntary sodium intake in mice and will assist in the selection of appropriate strains for focused genetic and physiological analyses. PMID:17490693

  19. Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties

  20. Sibling Incest: Reports from Forty-One Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Maciol, Katherine; Schneider, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with a convenience sample of 41 adult survivors of sibling incest using a retrospective survey design. Participants were interviewed about their childhood sexual experiences with a sibling. Most participants reported vaginal or oral intercourse and coercive experiences. Half of the sample reported sexual…

  1. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a polar projection with geometric seam correction.

  2. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this stereo view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. It is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  3. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view is presented as a vertical projection with geometric seam correction.

  4. Forty project management strategies for the medical practice staff.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2010-01-01

    Most every medical practice will embark at one time or another on a large and complex new project. The practice may, for instance, undertake a project in office construction or renovation, practice expansion, new technology, or a new large-scale event. The medical practice staff may find itself creating the project plan, overseeing its execution, and working through the plan day to day until its completion. In short, the staff may find itself responsible for project management. This article contains 40 specific, easy-to-implement project management strategies medical practice employees can use to manage both the large and small projects they undertake on behalf of the practice. It suggests effective project management strategies the staff can use before the onset of a new project as well as strategies to help define the project, to deliver the project, and to close and review the project. This article also describes five reasons medical practices often fail at project management and suggests more effective approaches that will ensure that the projects the medical practice undertakes are completed well, on time, and within budget. PMID:20480774

  5. Sibling incest: reports from forty-one survivors.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bonnie E; Maciol, Katherine; Schneider, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with a convenience sample of 41 adult survivors of sibling incest using a retrospective survey design. Participants were interviewed about their childhood sexual experiences with a sibling. Most participants reported vaginal or oral intercourse and coercive experiences. Half of the sample reported sexual experiences with family members, as well as other child abuse. Half of the participants showed evidence of distorted beliefs about child sexual abuse. Disclosure of the incest during childhood was rare. doi:10.1300/ J070v15n04_02. PMID:17200052

  6. ERIC Digests, 1988-1991: A Compendium of Forty Titles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    This compendium contains 40 ERIC Digests published by the ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management from 1988 to 1991. Listed alphabetically by title, the digests discuss a wide range of topics related to school management and administrative responsibilities, followed by 8 to 15 references. Topics covered include AIDS/HIV education; evaluation…

  7. Multivariate statistical analyses of groundwater surrounding Forty mile wash

    SciTech Connect

    Woocay, A.; Walton, J.C.

    2007-07-01

    Groundwater chemistry data from 211 sampling locations in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada are analyzed using multivariate statistical methods in order to better understand groundwater chemical evolution, ascertain potential flow paths and determine hydrochemical facies. Correspondence analysis of the major ion chemistry is used to define relationships between and among major ions and sampling locations. A k-means cluster analysis is used to determine hydrochemical facies based on correspondence analysis dimensions. The derived dimensions and hydrochemical facies are presented as bi-plots and overlaid on a digital elevation model of the region giving a visual picture of potential interactions and flow paths. A distinct signature of the groundwater chemistry along the extended flow path of Fortymile Wash can be observed along with some potential interaction at possible fault lines near Highway I-95. The signature from Fortymile Wash is believed to represent the relict of water that infiltrated during past pluvial periods when the amount of runoff in the wash was significantly larger than during the current drier period. This hypothesis appears to be supported by hydrogen-2 and oxygen-18 data which indicate that younger groundwater is found in the upper part of the wash near Yucca Mountain and older groundwater is found in the lower region of the wash near Amargosa River. The range of the hydrogen-2 data corresponds to precipitation in a period of relatively cold climate and has a similar spatial signature to the oxygen-18 data. If the hypothesis that current groundwater chemistry primarily reflects past focused infiltration of surface runoff rather than regional groundwater migration is correct, then saturated zone transport from Yucca Mountain may be much slower than is currently anticipated. (authors)

  8. Power of the metaphor: forty signs on brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Gocmen, Rahsan; Guler, Ezgi; Kose, Ilgaz Cagatay; Oguz, Kader K

    2015-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed neuroradiology database at our tertiary-care hospital to search for patients with metaphoric or descriptive signs on brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Only patients who had clinical or pathological definitive diagnosis were included in this review. PMID:24593052

  9. Developmental milestones record - 5 years

    MedlinePlus

    ... milestones for children - 5 years References Feigelman S. The preschool years. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  10. Optional Extended Year Program. FEEDBACK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Wanda

    The Optional Extended Year (OEY) program was initiated in Texas in 1995 and was first implemented in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) in 1996. The OEY is designed to add an extended school year and reduce student retention through four school-day options: (1) extended day; (2) extended week; (3) intersessions for year-round schools;…

  11. The Year 1999 in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speights, Dave

    2001-01-01

    From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

  12. Light pattern preservation in rodent's cortical tissue during optogenetic neuro-stimulation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Atry, Farid; Pashaie, Ramin

    2016-03-01

    Optogenetics provides a tool for modulating activity of specific cell types by light pulses. Different light delivery mechanisms such as single optical fiber implanted on a skull or patterned illumination can be employed to direct light to a target area. For a highly scattering medium such as brain tissue, light distribution significantly depends on the scattering parameters of the tissue as well as the inherent inhomogeneity of the specimen. For in vivo studies, blood vessels which have considerable absorption coefficient in the visible spectrum play a major role in producing such inhomogeneity. Therefore, detailed information about brain optical properties and network of blood vessels which was ignored in previous studies is necessary to accurately predict light distribution and designing light delivery mechanism during optogenetic experiments to achieve the desired optical stimulation. In this paper, light pattern preservation while considering the impact of blood vessels is investigated in a rat cortex. First, the typical optical properties of rat cortical tissue were extracted by employing double integrated sphere technique, and then, optical coherence tomography was employed to obtain structure of blood vessels on the cortex. By combining the extracted optical properties and the network of blood vessels, a three-dimensional model of a rat cortical tissue was developed. Then, a Monte Carlo simulation code was used to predict light distribution in this model for different light source configurations and wavelengths. The results confirm that presence of vessels can significantly impact the light pattern in the tissue and affect the practical depth of penetration.

  13. A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation.

    PubMed

    Balan, Puiu F; Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth in publications represents a major challenge for researchers. Many scientific domains, including neuroscience, are not yet fully engaged in exploiting large bodies of publications. In this paper, we promote the idea to partially automate the processing of scientific documents, specifically using text mining (TM), to efficiently review big corpora of publications. The "cognitive advantage" given by TM is mainly related to the automatic extraction of relevant trends from corpora of literature, otherwise impossible to analyze in short periods of time. Specifically, the benefits of TM are increased speed, quality and reproducibility of text processing, boosted by rapid updates of the results. First, we selected a set of TM-tools that allow user-friendly approaches of the scientific literature, and which could serve as a guide for researchers willing to incorporate TM in their work. Second, we used these TM-tools to obtain basic insights into the relevant literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) and cognitive enhancement (CE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TM readily extracted the diversity of TMS applications in CR and CE from vast corpora of publications, automatically retrieving trends already described in published reviews. TMS emerged as one of the important non-invasive tools that can both improve cognitive and motor functions in numerous neurological diseases and induce modulations/enhancements of many fundamental brain functions. TM also revealed trends in big corpora of publications by extracting occurrence frequency and relationships of particular subtopics. Moreover, we showed that CR and CE share research topics, both aiming to increase the brain's capacity to process information, thus supporting their integration in a larger perspective. Methodologically, despite limitations of a simple user-friendly approach, TM served well the reviewing process. PMID:25309356

  14. A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Puiu F.; Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth in publications represents a major challenge for researchers. Many scientific domains, including neuroscience, are not yet fully engaged in exploiting large bodies of publications. In this paper, we promote the idea to partially automate the processing of scientific documents, specifically using text mining (TM), to efficiently review big corpora of publications. The “cognitive advantage” given by TM is mainly related to the automatic extraction of relevant trends from corpora of literature, otherwise impossible to analyze in short periods of time. Specifically, the benefits of TM are increased speed, quality and reproducibility of text processing, boosted by rapid updates of the results. First, we selected a set of TM-tools that allow user-friendly approaches of the scientific literature, and which could serve as a guide for researchers willing to incorporate TM in their work. Second, we used these TM-tools to obtain basic insights into the relevant literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) and cognitive enhancement (CE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TM readily extracted the diversity of TMS applications in CR and CE from vast corpora of publications, automatically retrieving trends already described in published reviews. TMS emerged as one of the important non-invasive tools that can both improve cognitive and motor functions in numerous neurological diseases and induce modulations/enhancements of many fundamental brain functions. TM also revealed trends in big corpora of publications by extracting occurrence frequency and relationships of particular subtopics. Moreover, we showed that CR and CE share research topics, both aiming to increase the brain's capacity to process information, thus supporting their integration in a larger perspective. Methodologically, despite limitations of a simple user-friendly approach, TM served well the reviewing process. PMID:25309356

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy of Neurostimulation for Depression: Techniques, Current Modalities, and Future Challenges.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Hafsah; Bukhari, Faiza; Nazir, Misbah; Anwar, Muhammad Nabeel; Shahzad, Adeeb

    2016-02-01

    Depression is the most prevalent debilitating mental illness; it is characterized as a disorder of mood, cognitive function, and neurovegetative function. About one in ten individuals experience depression at some stage of their lives. Antidepressant drugs are used to reduce the symptoms but relapse occurs in ~20% of patients. However, alternate therapies like brain stimulation techniques have shown promising results in this regard. This review covers the brain stimulation techniques electroconvulsive therapy, transcranial direct current stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and deep brain stimulation, which are used as alternatives to antidepressant drugs, and elucidates their research and clinical outcomes. PMID:26781880

  16. Redundant safety features in a high-channel-count retinal neurostimulator

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Shawn K.; Ellersick, William F.; Krishnan, Ashwati; Doyle, Patrick; Shire, Douglas B.; Wyatt, John L.; Rizzo, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Safety features embedded in a 256-channel retinal prosthesis integrated circuit are presented. The biology of the retina and the electrochemistry of the electrode-tissue interface demand careful planning and design of the safety features of an implantable retinal stimulation device. We describe the internal limits and communication safety features of our ASIC, but we focus on monitoring and protection circuits for the electrode-tissue interface. Two independent voltage monitoring circuits for each channel measure the electrode polarization voltage at two different times in the biphasic stimulation cycle. The monitors ensure that the charged electrode stays within the electrochemical water window potentials, and that the discharged electrode is within a small window near the counter electrode potential. A switch to connect each electrode to the counter electrode between pulses protects against a wide range of device failures. Additionally, we describe work on an active feedback system to ensure that the electrode voltage is at zero.

  17. Insulin degludec aspart: One-year real world experience

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: This retrospective analysis describes the use of insulin degludec aspart (IDegAsp) in India. Material and Methods: All subjects who had received IDegAsp for 52 weeks at two endocrine centers were included in this study. Results: Forty-eight subjects (40 men), with mean age of 54.33 ± 9.63 years and mean duration of diabetes of 6.33 ± 2.96 years, started IDegAsp as insulin of initiation (16), as an intensification regime (4), as de-escalation from basal-bolus therapy (16), or as switch from premixed insulin (12). The dose of IDegAsp fell from 43.17 ± 21.18 U/day or 0.56 ± 0.23 U/kg to 37.75 ± 17.13U/day (0.51 ± 0.12 U/kg) at 24 weeks and 41.41 ± 15.33 U/day (0.56 ± 0.17 U/kg) at 52 weeks. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), which was 9.52 ± 1.27% at the start of therapy, fell to 7.51 ± 0.46% at 26 weeks and to 7.48 ± 0.40% at 52 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose fell from 154.08 ± 33.30 mg% to 108.58 ± 22.26 mg% at 26 weeks and 102.17 ± 12.79 mg% at 52 weeks. Of the 48 subjects, 39 (81.25%) achieved a target of HbA1c <7.0% at both 26 and 52 weeks. No episode of hypoglycemia was reported in the 4 weeks preceding the analysis. Conclusion: This communication highlights the efficacy, safety, and tolerability, while providing insight into the usage patterns of IDegAsp. PMID:27186556

  18. A Randomized Prospective Study on Outcomes of an Empathy Intervention among Second-year Student Pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Julie T; Ip, Eric J; Barnett, Mitchell J

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of a single, 3-day intervention on empathy levels as measured by the validated Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Profession Students version (JSE-HPS). Methods. Forty second-year student pharmacists were recruited to participate in a non-blinded prospective study. Subjects were randomized to an intervention group (n=20) or control group (n=20) and completed the JSE-HPS at baseline, 7 days postintervention, and 90 days postintervention. The intervention group consisted of a 3-day simulation, each day including a designated activity with loss of dominant hand usage, vision, and speech. Results. The 3-day simulation increased empathy levels in the intervention group compared to the control group 7 days postintervention (p=0.035). However, there were no effects on empathy levels 90 days postintervention (p=0.38). Conclusion. Empathy scores increased but were not sustained in the long-term with a 3-day empathy intervention. PMID:25861099

  19. [50 years after Anne Frank: reactive of a transgenerational trauma in countertransference].

    PubMed

    Halberstadt-Freud, H C

    1995-01-01

    Traumatizations suffered in the course of the atrocities perpetrated by the National Socialists defy symbolization and, if unresolved, are passed on to subsequent generations. With reference to the psychoanalytic treatment of a forty-year-old homosexual of the "second generation", the author traces the problematic of the transgenerational handing-down of unresolved traumatizations. The son of a Jewess whose brother was murdered in a concentration camp, the patient had to stand in for his lost uncle and remained caught up in a "symbiotic illusion" with this omni-present/absent object and with the mother, thus being unable to attain to a personality of his own and achieve the Oedipal triad. The article concentrates entirely on this case and provides an impressive record of the mechanisms of transference and counter-transference involved and the various stages of the psychoanalytic process. PMID:7871187

  20. Quality of life after stroke: a three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, L; Christie, D

    1979-08-01

    Forty-five people who had suffered a stroke three years previously were interviewed, as were their close relatives and friends. Changes in their lives which they attributed to stroke were explored, and information was gathered about health and social care resources they had used or needed. It was evident that stroke had devastated many peoples' lives: they ceased work prematurely, their interpersonal relations had deteriorated and over 70% viewed their future with uncertainty or gloom. Physical disability in itself was less important than peoples' response to their disability; inappropriate and dysfunctional responses were present in over half. In spite of adequate medical care, 40% of subjects would have been assisted by social work assessment, counseling and direction to appropriate community services. PMID:554454

  1. Organized Physical Activity in Young School Children Predicts Subsequent 4-Year Change in Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve; McConnell, Rob; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Lam, Claudia; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participation in organized outdoor team sports and structured indoor non-school activity programs in kindergarten and first grade predicted subsequent 4-year change in Body Mass Index (BMI) across the adiposity rebound period of childhood. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Forty-five schools in 13 communities across Southern California. Participants Largely Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children (N = 4,550; average age at study entry 6.60 years, standard deviation 0.65). Main Exposures Parents completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, demographic characteristics and other relevant covariates at baseline. Data on built and social environmental variables were linked to the neighborhood around children’s homes using geographical information systems (GIS). Main Outcome Measures Each child’s height and weight were measured annually during 4-years of follow-up. Results After adjusting for several confounders, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate for children who participated in outdoor organized team sports at least twice per week as compared to children who did not. For participation in each additional indoor non-school structured activity classes, lessons, and program, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate, and the attained BMI level at age 10 was 0.48 units lower. Conclusions Engagement in organized sports and activity programs as early as kindergarten and the first grade may result in smaller increases in BMI during the adiposity rebound period of childhood. PMID:22869403

  2. Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

  3. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions...

  4. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  5. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  6. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  7. NETL: The First 100 Years

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-21

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory celebrates 100 years of innovative energy technology development. NETL has been a leader in energy technology development. This video takes a look back at the many accomplishments over the past 100 years. These advances benefit the American people, enhance our nation's energy security and protect our natural resources.

  8. Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body It’s so ... to follow the ups and downs of a two-year-old. One moment he’s beaming and friendly; ...

  9. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  10. Outlook:. the Next Twenty Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, H.

    2004-02-01

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the big questions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  11. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  12. Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: a 10-15 year second follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, I V

    1984-01-01

    Forty patients with very severe blunt head trauma (post-traumatic amnesia greater than or equal to 1 month) were initially examined at an average of 4.5 months after the injury. The patients were visited in their homes 2.5 years and 10-15 years after the accident and questionnaires were presented to patients, relatives and/or staff. Though physical impairment, dysarthria and defects of memory remained severe in many cases, the psychosocial sequelae presented the most serious problems. Permanent changes in personality and emotion were reported in two thirds and were especially frequent among the youngest patients. The worse overall outcome was seen in cases with severe brainstem involvement or anterior lesions or both. In spite of the great frequency of deficits long-term improvement of functional state was common and several regained at least some work capacity. PMID:6707671

  13. Effectiveness of Dietary Allergen Exclusion Therapy on Eosinophilic Colitis in Chinese Infants and Young Children ≤ 3 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Geng, Lanlan; Chen, Peiyu; Wang, Fenghua; Xu, Zhaohui; Liang, Cuiping; Li, Huiwen; Fang, Tiefu; Friesen, Craig A.; Gong, Sitang; Li, Dingyou

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is a well recognized clinical entity mainly associated with food allergies. Empiric treatment options include dietary allergen exclusion (extensively hydrolyzed protein formula and elimination diet), anti-allergy medications (antihistamines and leukotriene receptor antagonists) and corticosteroids. We evaluated the effectiveness of dietary antigen exclusion on clinical remission of eosinophilic colitis in infants and young children. We retrospectively reviewed charts of all infants and children ≤3 years of age who were diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (defined as mucosal eosinophilia ≥20 hpf−1) from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2013 at a tertiary children’s hospital in China. Forty-nine children were identified with eosinophilic colitis. Elemental formula, simple elimination diet or combination therapy resulted in clinical improvement in 75%, 88.2% and 80% of patients, respectively. In conclusion, eosinophilic colitis in infants and children ≤3 years of age responded well to dietary allergen exclusion. PMID:25768952

  14. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  15. Participation as a leader in immersion weight loss treatment: a 1-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L M; Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Kirschenbaum, D S

    2016-02-01

    Non-overweight individuals may follow aggressive weight management approaches alongside overweight/obese friends or family members; thus, research has begun to evaluate subsequent effects among non-overweight populations. A prior study evaluated the short-term effects of an immersion weight loss programme on healthy young adult staff leaders. Results indicated that participation seemed to benefit, not harm, the young adults. The current investigation examined 1-year eating disorder and weight trajectories in this sample. The total sample (N = 244) consisted of staff leaders (44.3%) and demographically similar comparison participants who completed eating disorder and weight assessments across four time points: baseline, end of summer, 6-week follow-up and 1-year follow-up. Forty-seven per cent of the original sample responded to all time points (staff leaders n = 60; comparison n = 55). Over the course of 1 year, risk trajectories did not differ between groups. Staff leaders did not report significant changes in body mass index, suggesting that they maintained healthy weight over the course of 1 year. Participation as an immersion weight loss programme leader appeared to be protective against weight gain, without increasing eating disorder risk, for healthy young adults. This provides further support for using weight management interventions across a wide range of individuals. PMID:26638779

  16. Pediatric Germ Cell Tumors; A 10-year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mohajerzadeh, Leily; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Nasibeh; Hasas-Yeganeh, Shaghayegh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of germ cell tumors in patients admitted to our center during a ten year period. Methods: In a retrospective descriptive study, patients with the pathological diagnosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) were included. All records were evaluated and patients followed by personal visit in clinic or phone call. Data regarding age, sex, tumor site, bio-chemical assay, pathology, treatment and outcomes were gathered. For qualitative variables we computed frequency and percentage and for quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier. All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version16.0. Findings : Forty four patients consisted of 32 girls (72.7%) and 12 boys (27.3%). Their median age was 23 months. The most common pathological tumor types were 18 (40.9%) mature teratomas and 14 (31.8%) yolk sac tumors. Extra gonadal tumors were more prevalent (32 cases) and consisted of 21 (47.7%) sacrcoccygeal, 7 (15.9%) retroperitoneal, 2 (4.4%) mediastinal and 2 (4.4%) cervical tumors. In gonadal tumors 9 patients had ovarian and 3 patients testicular involvement. Staging at the time of diagnosis revealed stage one in 23 (52.3%) cases. All patients were treated surgically and the most common procedure was total resection in 41 (93.2%) patients. Fifteen (34.1%) patients received chemotherapy. In follow-up 31 (77.5%) patients were in complete remission, 9 (22.5%) had died, and 4 cases did not appear to follow-up visits. The median survival was 16 months (IQR 4-49 months). The highest mortality rate was found in patients with yolk sac tumors (8 of 13 cases). Conclusion: The patients with extra-gonadal GCT and a high AFP level have the worst prognosis and lower survival rate. Combination of surgery and chemotherapy can lead to a better prognosis. PMID:25755868

  17. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-03-21

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

  18. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Valenta, Michelle M.

    2001-02-27

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the HSN, there were 477 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2001 on the data acquisition system. Of these triggers, 176 were earthquakes. Forty-five earthquakes were located in the HSN area; 1 earthquake occurred in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 43 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 1 was earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 44 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was on a major structure, and no earthquakes were classified as random occurrences. The Horse Heaven Hills earthquake swarm area recorded all but one event during the first quarter of FY 2001. The peak of the activity occurred over December 12th, 13th, and 14th when 35 events occurred. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the first quarter of FY 2001.

  19. Polysaccharide encapsulated bacterial infection in sickle cell anemia: a thirty year epidemiologic experience.

    PubMed

    Wong, W Y; Powars, D R; Chan, L; Hiti, A; Johnson, C; Overturf, G

    1992-03-01

    Annual age-specific incidence rates of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae bacterial septicemia in sickle cell anemia (SS) were determined for the years of 1957 through 1989. Forty-nine patients had 64 episodes of septicemia among a population of 786 SS patients observed for 8,138 person-years. Peak frequency of infection occurred between 1968-1971 and 1975-1981 with a conspicuous absence of episodes in 1972, 1973, 1982-1984, and 1986-1987, thus demonstrating cycles of high and low attack rates. The annual age-specific incidence rate of septicemia varied from 64.5 (1965) to 421.1 (1980) per 1,000 person-years for those under 2 years of age and never exceeded 10.2 per 1,000 in those over 4 years of age. Following the introduction of pneumococcal polyvalent vaccine in 1978, incidence of infection decreased in SS children greater than 2 years of age. No modification of the risk of infection was observed in immunized children less than 2 years of age. During these three decades, there has been a ten-fold increase in the number of SS adults over 20 years of age. The relative risk of chronic sickle complications comparing the survivors of septicemia to the non-infected patients was: subsequent death 1.76, retinopathy 4.06, avascular necrosis 1.95, symptomatic cholelithiasis 1.33, stroke 1.30, and priapism 1.26. These data suggest that prognosis for lifetime severe SS is initially manifested as an increased risk of septicemia during childhood. PMID:1546714

  20. Adaptive and Maladaptive Correlates of Repetitive Behavior and Restricted Interests in Persons with Down Syndrome and Developmentally-Matched Typical Children: A Two-Year Longitudinal Sequential Design

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David W.; Kleinpeter, F. Lee; Slane, Mylissa M.; Boomer, K. B.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the course of repetitive behavior and restricted interests (RBRI) in children with and without Down syndrome (DS) over a two-year time period. Forty-two typically-developing children and 43 persons with DS represented two mental age (MA) levels: “younger” 2–4 years; “older” 5–11 years. For typically developing younger children some aspects of RBRI increased from Time 1 to Time 2. In older children, these aspects remained stable or decreased over the two-year period. For participants with DS, RBRI remained stable or increased over time. Time 1 RBRI predicted Time 2 adaptive behavior (measured by the Vineland Scales) in typically developing children, whereas for participants with DS, Time 1 RBRI predicted poor adaptive outcome (Child Behavior Checklist) at Time 2. The results add to the body of literature examining the adaptive and maladaptive nature of repetitive behavior. PMID:24710387

  1. The Scottish first episode schizophrenia study. VIII. Five-year follow-up: clinical and psychosocial findings. The Scottish Schizophrenia Research Group.

    PubMed

    1992-10-01

    Forty-four schizophrenic patients were followed up for five years after their first admission to hospital for a first episode of illness. Thirteen (30%) of 43 patients had not relapsed; 28 of the 30 patients who did relapse did so within the first 42 months. The relapses occurred despite antipsychotic drug therapy. Also, 24% of patients had at least one course of ECT. Only 19% of the patients at five years were in open employment; unemployment was strongly associated with relapse. Eighteen per cent had neither relapses nor schizophrenic symptoms at follow-up. Poor outcome at five years was associated with greater psychological distress among relatives at first admission. At five years 43% of relatives continued to show case level psychological stress. PMID:1393335

  2. Visualizing Twenty Years of Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Potel, Mike; Wong, Pak C.

    2014-11-01

    This issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications marks the 20th anniversary of the Applications department as a regular feature of the magazine. We thought it might be interesting to look back at the 20 years of Applications department articles to assess its evolution over that time. By aggregating all twenty years of articles and applying a little statistical and visual analytics, we’ve uncovered some interesting characteristics and trends we thought we’d share to mark this 20 year milestone.

  3. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2000 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, C.A.

    2000-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of he Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2000. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance,(3) ecosystem mapping, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species were conducted for 24 NTS projects. Seventeen sites were in desert tortoise habitat, and six acres of tortoise habitat were documented as being disturbed this year. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed. A topical report describing the classification of habitat types o n the NTS was completed. The report is the culmination of three years of field vegetation mapping and the analysis of vegetation data from over 1,500 ecological landform units. A long-term monitoring plan for important plant species that occur on the NTS was completed. Sitewide inventories were conducted for the western burrowing owl, bat species of concern, wild horses, raptor nests, and mule deer. Fifty-nine of 69 known owl burrows were monitored. Forty-four of the known burrows are in disturbed habitat. As in previous years, some owls were present year round on the NTS. An overall decrease in active owl burrows was observed within all three ecoregions (Mojave Desert, Transition, Great Basin Desert) from October through January. An increase in active owl burrows was observed from mid-March to early April. A total of 45 juvenile owls was detected from eight breeding pairs. One nest burrow was detected in the Mojave Desert,one in the Great Basin Desert, and six in the Transition

  4. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-10-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  5. Crafts in the Middle Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, D. I. R.

    1972-01-01

    In the middle years of schooling, size, measurement, shape and form build up a child's mathematical and visual concepts. A restless drive to create, to see what happens in making something, can provide the driving force in crafts. (Editor)

  6. 1993: Year of the Perseids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P.; Rendtel, J.

    1994-01-01

    A summary of the observational results of the Aug. 1993 Perseid meteor shower along with photographs of the event are presented. Topics covered include the following: Perseid peaks, fireballs, zenithal hourly rate, and predictions for next year.

  7. One hundred years of electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Frank

    2005-03-01

    The computers of today are the result of the evolution of electronics over the past one hundred years. This path has led from the glass diode and valves, via transistors based on semiconductors, to integrated circuits and modern microprocessors.

  8. 25 Years of Landsat 5

    NASA Video Gallery

    Twenty-two years beyond its primary mission lifetime, Landsat 5 is still going strong. It has charted urban growth in Las Vegas, monitored fire scars in Yellowstone National Park, and tracked the r...

  9. Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

  10. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body By nature, ... probably are acting the same way. At age two, children view the world almost exclusively through their ...

  11. Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Emotional Development: 1 Year Olds Page Content Article Body Throughout her ... for shelter. She may seem to change from one moment to the next, or she may seem ...

  12. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-01-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  13. Three Years of SDO Data

    NASA Video Gallery

    In the three years since it first provided images of the sun in thespring of 2010, NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) has had virtuallyunbroken coverage of the sun's rise toward solar maxi...

  14. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  15. Preparing for year 2000--STAT!

    PubMed

    Rancourt, M; Keogh, D

    1998-11-01

    Apocalypse or inconvenience? Will you be ready when the clock strikes for the first time in the Year 2000? Surviving the flip of calendar with systems intact is the dream of many CIOs. One hospital shares its plan. PMID:10187099

  16. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Page Content Article Body ... Pay attention to how he also is using language to describe ideas and information and to express ...

  17. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Fitness Nutrition Toilet Training Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Toddler > Social Development: 1 Year Olds Ages & Stages Listen Español ...

  18. Diabetes Steals Years, Adds Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158312.html Diabetes Steals Years, Adds Disabilities Middle-aged adults will lose more than 3 ... with diabetes die earlier and suffer longer with disabilities than men and women without the blood-sugar ...

  19. Katrina Retrospective: 5 Years Later

    NASA Video Gallery

    Five years after Hurricane Katrina struck the Gulf Coast, NASA revisits the storm with a short video that shows Katrina as captured by satellites. Before and during the hurricane's landfall, NASA p...

  20. Vaccination coverage among children in kindergarten - United States, 2012-13 school year.

    PubMed

    2013-08-01

    State and local school vaccination requirements are implemented to maintain high vaccination coverage and minimize the risk from vaccine preventable diseases. To assess school vaccination coverage and exemptions, CDC annually analyzes school vaccination coverage data from federally funded immunization programs. These awardees include 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC), five cities, and eight U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions. This report summarizes vaccination coverage from 48 states and DC and exemption rates from 49 states and DC for children entering kindergarten for the 2012-13 school year. Forty-eight states and DC reported vaccination coverage, with medians of 94.5% for 2 doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine; 95.1% for local requirements for diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination; and 93.8% for 2 doses of varicella vaccine among awardees with a 2-dose requirement. Forty-nine states and DC reported exemption rates, with the median total of 1.8%. Although school entry coverage for most awardees was at or near national Healthy People 2020 targets of maintaining 95% vaccination coverage levels for 2 doses of MMR vaccine, 4 doses of DTaP† vaccine, and 2 doses of varicella vaccine, low vaccination and high exemption levels can cluster within communities, increasing the risk for disease. Reports to CDC are aggregated at the state level; however, local reporting of school vaccination coverage might be accessible by awardees. These local-level data can be used to create evidence-based health communication strategies to help parents understand the risks for vaccine-preventable diseases and the benefits of vaccinations to the health of their children and other kindergarteners. PMID:23903595

  1. [Middle-term result of surgery in 78 cases of complete atrioventricular canal before one year of age].

    PubMed

    Barazer, P Y; Losay, J; Lacour-Gayet, F; Planché, C; Binet, J P

    1989-05-01

    Between 1970 and 1985, 78 children with complete atrioventricular canal were operated upon before the age of one year at the Marie-Lannelongue Surgical Centre. Forty-seven survivors were followed up for periods of 3 months to 13 years after the initial operation; 2 were lost of following. Among the 13 children who survived banding, 1 died spontaneously, 1 had Blalock-Taussig anastomosis and 11 underwent full repair with 5 deaths; out of 6 survivors, 4 are doing well without any treatment, 1 was reoperated upon twice and died during the second operation, and 1 was lost sight of; the survival rates at 5 and 10 years are 46 +/- 23 p. 100 and 29 +/- 23 p. 100 respectively. Among the 34 children who survived an initial complete repair, 2 were reoperated upon 3 months after the repair, with 1 death, 7 subsequently died of infection (6 had trisomy 21); out of 26 survivors followed up for 3 years and 3 months on average after the complete repair (2 to 13 years), 18 show an excellent result and 3 a mediocre result; the survival rates at 5 and 10 years are 45 +/- 9 p. 100 and 30 +/- 27 p. 100 respectively. Whether the patients initially had banding followed by complete repair or complete repair from the start, the probability of survival at 5 and 10 years was the same. The presence of trisomy 21 is an unfavourable prognostic factor at medium-term.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2525372

  2. Twenty-Five Years of Two-year College English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Mark

    The birth of the two-year colleges created a demand for teachers which was filled largely by instructors from the high schools and by people fresh from graduate school. Teaching methods were shaped in large part by the needs of the students. Techniques were used before there were phrases to identify them or theory to explain them. The student…

  3. Homicide in Tours (Indre-et-Loire, France): a four-year review.

    PubMed

    Saint-Martin, Pauline; Bouyssy, Marie; Bathellier, Stephane; Sarraj, Saad; O'Byrne, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    This retrospective study examined homicides in two French departments located in the West of France (Indre-et-Loire and Loir-et-Cher) for a four-year period from 2000 to 2003. During this period 63 homicidal deaths were investigated at the Institute of Forensic Science of Tours (Indre-et-Loire). There were 45 male and 18 female victims with an average homicide rate of 1.55 per 100,000 persons. The mean age of the victims was 42 years-old. Forty-five assailants were identified; their mean age was 38 years-old. The most common method of homicide was the use of firearms (40% of the cases), followed by blunt-force injury (36%) and sharp-force injury (16%). 51% of the victims knew their assailant, a family member in 26% of the cases. Spousal homicides occurred in 16% of the cases. Dyadic death occurred in six cases. A review of the literature compares these findings to other populations. PMID:17023192

  4. A 3-year randomized clinical trial evaluating two different bonded posterior restorations: Amalgam versus resin composite

    PubMed Central

    Kemaloglu, Hande; Pamir, Tijen; Tezel, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the performance and postoperative sensitivity of a posterior resin composite with that of bonded amalgam in 40 (n = 20) large sized cavities and to evaluate whether resin composite could be an alternative for bonded amalgam. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial. Twenty patients in need of at least two posterior restorations were recruited. Authors randomly assigned one half of the restorations to receive bonded amalgam and the other half to composite restorations. Forty bonded amalgams (n = 20) and composites (n = 20) were evaluated for their performance on modified-US Public Health Service criteria and postoperative sensitivity using visual analogue scale (VAS) for 36-months. Results: Success rate of this study was 100%. First clinical alterations were rated as Bravo after 1 year in marginal discoloration, marginal adaptation, anatomical form, and surface roughness for both amalgam and composite. At the 3rd year, overall “Bravo” rated restorations were 12 for bonded amalgam and 13 for resin composites. There were no significant differences among the VAS scores of composites and bonded amalgams for all periods (P > 0.05) except for the comparisons at the 3rd year evaluation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Within the limitation of this study, both resin composite and bonded amalgam were clinically acceptable. Postoperative sensitivity results tend to decrease more in composite restorations rather than amalgams. Therefore, it was concluded that posterior resin composite can be used even in large sized cavities. PMID:27011734

  5. Number of mammography cases read per year is a strong predictor of sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Wasfi I.; Lewis, Sarah J.; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Evanoff, Michael G.; McEntee, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Early detection of breast cancers affects the 5-year recurrence rates and treatment options for diagnosed patients, and consequently, many countries have instituted nationwide screening programs. This study compared the performance of expert radiologists from Australia and the United States in detection of breast cancer. Forty-one radiologists, 21 from Australia and 20 from the United States, reviewed 30 mammographic cases containing two-view mammograms. Twenty cases had abnormal findings and 10 cases had normal findings. Radiologists were asked to locate malignancies and assign a level of confidence. A jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic, figure of merit (JAFROC, FOM), inferred receiver operating characteristic, area under curve (ROC, AUC), specificity, sensitivity, and location sensitivity were calculated using Ziltron software and JAFROC v4.1. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the performance of Australian and U.S. radiologists. The results showed that when experience and the number of mammograms read per year were taken into account, the Australian radiologists sampled showed significantly higher sensitivity and location sensitivity (p≤0.001). JAFROC (FOM) and inferred ROC (AUC) analysis showed no difference between the overall performance of the two countries. ROC (AUC) and location sensitivity were higher for the Australian radiologists who read the most cases per year. PMID:26158030

  6. Number of mammography cases read per year is a strong predictor of sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Wasfi I; Lewis, Sarah J; Georgian-Smith, Dianne; Evanoff, Michael G; McEntee, Mark F

    2014-04-01

    Early detection of breast cancers affects the 5-year recurrence rates and treatment options for diagnosed patients, and consequently, many countries have instituted nationwide screening programs. This study compared the performance of expert radiologists from Australia and the United States in detection of breast cancer. Forty-one radiologists, 21 from Australia and 20 from the United States, reviewed 30 mammographic cases containing two-view mammograms. Twenty cases had abnormal findings and 10 cases had normal findings. Radiologists were asked to locate malignancies and assign a level of confidence. A jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic, figure of merit (JAFROC, FOM), inferred receiver operating characteristic, area under curve (ROC, AUC), specificity, sensitivity, and location sensitivity were calculated using Ziltron software and JAFROC v4.1. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the performance of Australian and U.S. radiologists. The results showed that when experience and the number of mammograms read per year were taken into account, the Australian radiologists sampled showed significantly higher sensitivity and location sensitivity ([Formula: see text]). JAFROC (FOM) and inferred ROC (AUC) analysis showed no difference between the overall performance of the two countries. ROC (AUC) and location sensitivity were higher for the Australian radiologists who read the most cases per year. PMID:26158030

  7. Stress among First and Third Year Medical Students at University Kebangsaan Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Abdus; Mahadevan, Raynuha; Abdul Rahman, Amir; Abdullah, Norsyafiqah; Abd Harith, Aimi Aqilah; Shan, Chu Pei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the stress-prevalence and coping-strategies among University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) medical students. Methods: This was an observational study conducted among 234 UKM first and third year medical students. Standardized questionnaire on stress and coping strategies was used. Stress data was related to subjective experiences on some positive and negative adjectives such as tense, relaxed etc. Positive adjectives were measured by sign “++” and “+” scoring “1” while stress-negative adjectives were measured by sign “?” and “–“ scoring “0”. Forty-eight coping items under task, emotion and avoidance strategies were measured using 5-point Likert-scale. Results: Overall stress-prevalence was 49%. Female and Malay respondents were more stressed. Significant differences of stress-level was observed between Malays and non Malays in first year (p=0.04) and in third year (p=0.01). Most common strategies used to cope stress was task-oriented while emotion oriented was least. Conclusion: Stress-prevalence and stress-level in UKM medical students was high. Most of the respondents coped stress using task-oriented strategies. Stressor and its effective management must be ensured. Educational institutions should act as a creative designer of learning environment to get relieve from educational stressor. PMID:25878637

  8. Discovering Astronomy 50 Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Z.

    2008-09-01

    Three years after graduating in astronomy from Bucharest University, I was finally recruited by the Bucharest Observatory to participate in the International Geophysical Year. I joined the Observatory as the third fellow of the Solar Department. There, I became an expert in satellite affairs thanks to a TV broadcast shot. I was in charge of adjusting the newly received solar instruments and contributed to the international campaign, including the solar patrol. Since it was absolutely impossible for me to start a thesis at that time, I moved to France and started a new career in the Solar Department of Paris-Meudon Observatory. My experience at the Bucharest Observatory was fundamental to the rest of my work over the following 50 years. My cooperation with the Bucharest Observatory increased after 1992 and still continues today.

  9. High-Dose-Rate Rotte 'Y' Applicator Brachytherapy for Definitive Treatment of Medically Inoperable Endometrial Cancer: 10-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, Devin; Beriwal, Sushil Heron, Dwight E.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Zorn, Kristin K.; Krivak, Thomas C.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the intermediate clinical outcomes of medically inoperable patients with endometrial cancer treated with definitive Rotte 'Y' applicator high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) over a 10-year period. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine inoperable patients were treated with HDRB from 1997 to 2007. Forty three (84%) were markedly obese (body mass index >35 kg/m{sup 2}). Thirty-one patients (63.3%) underwent two-dimensional treatment planning, whereas 18 patients (36.7%) underwent three-dimensional treatment planning. Thirty five of the patients (71.4%) were first treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). For patients receiving EBRT in addition to HDRB, the median Y-applicator dose was 20 Gy in 5 fractions; for patients receiving HDRB alone it was 35 Gy in 5 fractions. All patients received two Y-applicator treatments per day. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 33 months. Acute HDRB toxicities were limited to Grade 1 and 2 occurring in 5 patients. One patient had a myocardial infarction. Four patients had late Grade 2 or 3 toxicity. Three patients had local recurrence (median time to recurrence, 16 months). The 3- and 5-year actuarial cause-specific survival rates were 93% and 87%, respectively; the overall survival rate was 83% and 42%, respectively, at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions: Twice-daily HDRB using a Y-applicator is a well-tolerated and efficacious regimen for the definitive treatment of medically inoperable patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. The recent incorporation of three-dimensional treatment planning has the potential to further decrease treatment morbidities.

  10. 35 years of DEB research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Jaap; Klok, Chris; Kearney, Michael R.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Research on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory started 35 years ago. Initially much emphasis was put on the development of a consistent theory. During recent years attention was paid on parameterizing DEB models for a huge collection of species. This enables the search for patterns in parameter values in an ecological and evolutionary context. This special issue presents some of the results of this quest, among other things focusing on the development of metabolic acceleration, combined with various applications of DEB theory in fisheries, aquaculture, climate science and ecotoxicology.

  11. 1992 five year battery forecast

    SciTech Connect

    Amistadi, D.

    1992-12-01

    Five-year trends for automotive and industrial batteries are projected. Topic covered include: SLI shipments; lead consumption; automotive batteries (5-year annual growth rates); industrial batteries (standby power and motive power); estimated average battery life by area/country for 1989; US motor vehicle registrations; replacement battery shipments; potential lead consumption in electric vehicles; BCI recycling rates for lead-acid batteries; US average car/light truck battery life; channels of distribution; replacement battery inventory end July; 2nd US battery shipment forecast.

  12. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    SciTech Connect

    Benford, G. California Univ., Irvine, CA . Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ . Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. ); Pasqualetti, M.J. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ )

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. 111 years of Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xin; Kim, Changho; Karniadakis, George Em

    2016-08-14

    We consider the Brownian motion of a particle and present a tutorial review over the last 111 years since Einstein's paper in 1905. We describe Einstein's model, Langevin's model and the hydrodynamic models, with increasing sophistication on the hydrodynamic interactions between the particle and the fluid. In recent years, the effects of interfaces on the nearby Brownian motion have been the focus of several investigations. We summarize various results and discuss some of the controversies associated with new findings about the changes in Brownian motion induced by the interface. PMID:27396746

  14. Your First Year: Tomorrow's Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The first year is the first step on a teacher's journey to the future. So often, however, because teaching requires living in the present, teachers give little thought to the future. The students they are teaching will likely live to the very edge of the twenty-first century and possibly into the twenty-second century. This article suggest some…

  15. Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

  16. The Four-Year Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that in 1996, Alabama officials approved the "4 x 4" plan, which made their state the first in the country to require students to complete four years, or four credits each, of math and science for high school graduation. Other states have since followed suit, with policymakers arguing that higher standards are necessary to…

  17. 2012: A Year in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    When historians review 2012 for its noteworthy moments, events and milestones, they will find the year was a trying one for the American higher education system, despite its being able to educate and enlighten thousands in search of more choices and preparation for adult self-sufficiency. Many academicians and students worked for and celebrated…

  18. The Year of Leo Lionni.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Molly

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the picture books of Leo Lionni and describes how Vivian Gussin Paley, a Chicago elementary school teacher, used his books for an entire year's curriculum in her kindergarten class. Highlights include children's engagement with literature, and other learning activities based on the books. (LRW)

  19. Fifty Years of Aeronautical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a detailed review of the aeronautical research conducted at Langley Research Center during the 50 years after its construction in 1917 as the first research laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The research is discussed in five parts, by decades: 1917-27, 1928-37, 1938-47, 1948-57, 1958-67.…

  20. Celebrating 75 years of research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Ag Lab in Peoria helps bridge the gap between agricultural producers and commercial manufacturers. In 2015, the Ag Lab, officially known as the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research (NCAUR), is celebrating 75 years of research in Peoria. T...

  1. The Year of the Pond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher in…

  2. Extended School Year Analysis Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Willitt S.

    The ESY Analysis Aids are a collection of materials and procedures related to and organized for use in making decisions concerning year-round school program alternatives. They are restricted largely to procedures dealing with the budgetary impact of school calendar manipulation, but can be used as a guide in monitoring progress in an ESY…

  3. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePlus

    ... you really mean “toes.” By providing a good language model, you’ll help him learn to talk with a minimum of confusion. Most toddlers master at least fifty spoken words by the end of the second year and can put two words together to ...

  4. Humanities Computing 25 Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raben, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    Provides an overview of the development of humanities computing during the past 25 years. Mentions the major applications of the computer to humanities disciplines including the generation of concordances, attempts at dating works of major authors, proving authorship, defining style, and compiling indexes. Discusses lexicographical uses and…

  5. Columbine High: Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    A few weeks before the fifth anniversary of the Columbine High School shootings on April 20, 1999, Principal Frank DeAngelis reflects on how his school has changed over the past five years. Much like the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, "Columbine" carries a chilling meaning that resonates across the country. That…

  6. 2007: A Year In Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The most high-profile story of the year touching the higher education community was undisputedly the killings at Virginia Tech in April when student Seung-Hui Cho opened fire, leaving 33 people dead, including himself. To date, it is the deadliest campus shooting in U.S. history. However, in September, the Delaware State University (DSU) community…

  7. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    As mandated by Congress, this annual report from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) describes its activities in the past fiscal year (FY). Secretary of Education, T. H. Bell, summarizes ED accomplishments in FY 1983 in such areas as excellence in education, citing the findings and impact of the report "A Nation at Risk"; the implementation of…

  8. Modular Arithmetic and Year 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerval-Pena, Eligio

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his experiences when he decided to teach university-level mathematics to Year 8. Handling a particularly able class who had investigated the isoperimetric problem, he was confident that the class was more than up to the challenge and adequately motivated. Using a Powerpoint, he delivered the lessons to the…

  9. 70 Years and Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    The survival and prosperity of the California Council on the Education of Teachers/California Council on Teacher Education (CCET/CCTE) over its 70 years of existence is remarkable, especially given the historic roller coaster of educational policy and practice in the United States--the ups and downs of school financing, in addition to the ins and…

  10. The Year of the Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Margaret Young

    1976-01-01

    Author used her childhood memories to help her kindergartners in Honolulu, Hawaii, many of whom are Chinese, to further understand and enjoy the Chinese New Year and its customs. Perhaps her experiences will become a springboard for individual or group investigations of other ethnic-centered festivals. (Editor/RK)

  11. FEMP Year in Review 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    In 2009, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)undertook an ambitious reorganization of its program structure to be more responsive to the needs of its Federal agency customers. In this Year in Review 2009, you will learn more about FEMP achievements under its new program areas.

  12. ARITHMETIC, SECOND YEAR. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARBER, CLAIRE N.

    IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE SECOND YEAR OF ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTION SHOULD BEGIN, IF NECESSARY, WITH REVIEW OF THE WORK OF THE PREVIOUS GRADE. THE NUMBER SYSTEM SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WITH BACKWARD AND FORWARD COUNTING AND THE INTRODUCTION OF 10 AND THE ZERO. THE WHOLE NUMBERS UNIT SHOULD DEVELOP MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION FACTS THROUGH GROUPS UP TO…

  13. Budget Response: Fiscal Year 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissonnette, Jocelyn, Ed.; Ellerson, Noelle, Ed.; Jones, Lindsay, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Committee for Education Funding (CEF), a coalition of over 85 national education associations and institutions from preschool to postgraduate education, applauds President Obama's Fiscal Year 2012 budget for recognizing the importance of investing in education to our nation's economic growth and competitiveness. Within a constrained fiscal…

  14. My year as a Fulbrighter.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Kate

    2016-07-01

    In August 2015 Kate Chandler left London to embark on a masters degree in global policymaking as a Fulbright Scholar, studying first at New York University and then at University College London. As her year as a scholar draws to a close, Kate took time out from working on her dissertation to write for Vet Record Careers. PMID:27389764

  15. "Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, John Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago, the author wrote--and then privately published--the two "Lake Woebegone" reports, named after Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota town where "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." The first "Lake Woebegone" report documented that all 50 states were testing above the…

  16. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  17. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  18. Prenatal Sex and Other Preferences for Reproductive Career of Final Year Graduation Girl Students

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Yugantara R.; Nirmale, Prachi; Gore, Alka D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Marriage of girls just after graduation is common in Western Maharashtra. This study was planned to know the views of final year graduation student towards reproductive carrier. Aim: To interact with final year girl students of various streams to know their preferences on various aspects of reproductive carrier and contraceptive awareness. Material and Methods: Study-design: Cross-sectional. Study-setting: Academic institutes of Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Corporation area. Study-subject: All willing final year Girl students. Exclusion Criteria: Married girls. Sample size: All final year girl students Sampling Technique: Cluster sample Study-Duration: 7 months. Study-tool: Pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test. Results: All girls who have responded prefer marrying and having first child at right age. All feel spacing is needed, at least of 2 years. Two children was the most common choice (52.3%). Forty-three percent girls feel male child is must and 52.3% of total girls will like to have sex determination done if required. Total 47.24% girls were unaware about any contraceptive methods but 88.2% girls knew the place of its availability. Most common source of information about contraceptive was school and friends. E-pill was known to 41.5% of girls. All girls felt the need for more information about reproductive health and according to 81.3% right age for it is 15-18 years. Conclusion: Girls have correct reproductive preferences except sex of child. Sex preference and Low contraceptive awareness needs strong intervention. PMID:26664838

  19. Results From a Transitional-Year Program Director Survey: Identifying Crucial Issues and Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Steven R.; Smith, Hayden L.; Short, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Transitional Year (TY) programs meet an important need by preparing residents for specialties that accept individuals after an initial preparatory year. To our knowledge, no surveys to date have been conducted to identify attributes of TY programs and concerns of TY program directors. Purpose The purpose of this study was to review TY program characteristics and identify critical issues and concerns of TY program directors (TYPDs). Methods A web-based, 22-question survey was sent to all 114 TYPDs of programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education between January and April 2011. The survey included open-formatted and closed-formatted questions addressing program and institution demographics, program director time, administrative support, satisfaction, and future plans. Results The survey response rate was 86%. The median age of TY programs was 28 years, with few new programs. More than 80% of TY programs were conducted at community hospitals and university-affiliated community hospitals. Of the responding TYPDs, 17% had served less than 2 years, and 32% had served 10 years or more. Common sponsoring TY programs included internal medicine (88%), general surgery (42%), family medicine (25%), emergency medicine (24%), and pediatrics (18%). Overall, TYPDs were satisfied with their positions. They expressed concerns about inadequate time to complete duties, salary support, and administrative duties assigned to program coordinators. Forty-nine percent of TYPDs reported they planned to leave the position within the next 5 years. Conclusions Our survey provides useful information to assist institutions and the graduate medical education community in meeting the needs of TYPDs and strengthening TY programs. PMID:23451303

  20. Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the first year of life reduces caries prevalence in the primary dentition at 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Stensson, M; Koch, G; Coric, S; Abrahamsson, T R; Jenmalm, M C; Birkhed, D; Wendt, L-K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on oral health, at age 9 years, of daily oral supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri, strain ATCC 55730, to mothers during the last month of gestation and to children through the first year of life. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial involving 113 children: 60 in the probiotic and 53 in the placebo group. The subjects underwent clinical and radiographic examination of the primary dentition and carious lesions, plaque and gingivitis were recorded. Saliva and plaque were sampled for determination of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli (LB) in saliva and plaque as well as salivary secretory IgA (SIgA). Forty-nine (82%) children in the probiotic group and 31 (58%) in the placebo group were caries-free (p < 0.01). The prevalence of approximal caries lesions was lower in the probiotic group (0.67 ± 1.61 vs. 1.53 ± 2.64; p < 0.05) and there were fewer sites with gingivitis compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to frequency of toothbrushing, plaque and dietary habits, but to intake of fluoride supplements (p < 0.05). There were no intergroup differences with respect to L. reuteri, MS, LB or SIgA in saliva. Within the limitation of this study it seems that daily supplementation with L. reuteri from birth and during the first year of life is associated with reduced caries prevalence and gingivitis score in the primary dentition at 9 years of age. PMID:24296746