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Sample records for neurostimulation forty years

  1. Forty years of TTG research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyen, Jean-François; Martin, Hervé

    2012-09-01

    TTGs (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) are one of the archetypical lithologies of Archaean cratons. Since their original description in the 1970s, they have been the subject of many studies and discussions relating to Archaean geology. In this paper, we review the ideas, concepts and arguments brought forward in these 40 years, and try to address some open questions — both old and new. The late 1960s and the 1970s mark the appearance of "grey gneisses" (TTG) in the scientific literature. During this period, most work was focused on the identification and description of this suite, and the recognition that it is a typical Archaean lithology. TTGs were already recognised as generated by melting of mafic rocks. This was corroborated during the next decade, when detailed geochemical TTG studies allowed us to constrain their petrogenesis (melting of garnet-bearing metamafic rocks), and to conclude that they must have been generated by Archaean geodynamic processes distinct from their modern counterparts. However, the geodynamic debate raged for the following 30 years, as many distinct tectonic scenarios can be imagined, all resulting in the melting of mafic rocks in the garnet stability field. The 1990s were dominated by experimental petrology work. A wealth of independent studies demonstrated that melting of amphibolites as well as of mafic eclogites can give rise to TTG liquids; whether amphibolitic or eclogitic conditions are more likely is still an ongoing debate. From 1990s onwards, one of the key questions became the comparison with modern adakites. As originally defined these arc lavas are reasonably close equivalents to Archaean TTGs. Pending issues largely revolve around definitions, as the name TTG has now been applied to most Archaean plutonic rocks, whether sodic or potassic, irrespective of their HREE contents. This leads to a large range of petrogenetic and tectonic scenarios; a fair number of which may well have operated concurrently, but are applicable only to some of the rocks lumped together in the ever-broadening TTG "bin".

  2. The first forty years, 1947-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Petersen, B.

    1987-01-01

    This report commemorates the fortieth anniversary of Brookhaven National Laboratory by representing a historical overview of research at the facility. The chapters of the report are entitled: The First Forty Years, Brookhaven: A National Resource, Fulfilling a Mission - Brookhaven's Mighty Machines, Marketing the Milestones in Basic Research, Meeting National Needs, Making a Difference in Everyday Life, and Looking Forward.

  3. Molecular motors: forty years of interdisciplinary research

    PubMed Central

    Spudich, James A.

    2011-01-01

    A mere forty years ago it was unclear what motor molecules exist in cells that could be responsible for the variety of nonmuscle cell movements, including the “saltatory cytoplasmic particle movements” apparent by light microscopy. One wondered whether nonmuscle cells might have a myosin-like molecule, well known to investigators of muscle. Now we know that there are more than a hundred different molecular motors in eukaryotic cells that drive numerous biological processes and organize the cell's dynamic city plan. Furthermore, in vitro motility assays, taken to the single-molecule level using techniques of physics, have allowed detailed characterization of the processes by which motor molecules transduce the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into mechanical movement. Molecular motor research is now at an exciting threshold of being able to enter into the realm of clinical applications. PMID:22039067

  4. Forty years of surface plasma source development

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-15

    The cesiation effect, a significant enhancement of negative ion emission from a gas discharge with decrease of co-extracted electron current below negative ion current, was observed for the first time on July 1, 1971 by placing into the discharge a compound with 1 mg of cesium. Subsequent developments of surface plasma sources (SPS) for highly efficient negative ion production caused by the interaction of plasma particles with electrodes on which the adsorbed cesium reduced the surface work function are described. In the last 40 years, the intensity of negative ion beams has increased by cesiation up to 10{sup 4} times from 3 mA to tens of amperes. Here, the main attention is concentrated on earlier SPS developments because recent results are well known and widely available.

  5. Reconstructing Forty Years of Landsat Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, D. J.; Dwyer, J. L.; Steinwand, D.

    2013-12-01

    In July 1972, NASA launched the Earth Resource Technology Satellite (ERTS), the first of what was to be the series of Earth-observing satellites we now know as the Landsat system. This system, originally conceived in the 1960's within the US Department of the Interior and US Geological Survey (USGS), has continued with little interruption for over 40 years, creating the longest record of satellite-based global land observations. The current USGS archive of Landsat images exceeds 4 million scenes, and the recently launched Landsat 8 platform will extend that archive to nearly 50 years of observations. Clearly, these observations are critical to the study of Earth system processes, and the interaction between these processes and human activities. However, the seven successful Landsat missions represent more of an ad hoc program than a long-term record of consistent observations, due largely to changing Federal policies and challenges finding an operational home for the program. Technologically, these systems evolved from the original Multispectral Scanning System (MSS) through the Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) systems, to the current Observational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) systems. Landsat data were collected globally by a network of international cooperators having diverse data management policies. Much of the oldest data were stored on archaic media that could not be retrieved using modern media readers. Collecting these data from various sensors and sources, and reconstructing them into coherent Earth observation records, posed numerous challenges. We present here a brief overview of work done to overcome these challenges and create a consistent, long-term Landsat observation record. Much of the current archive was 'repatriated' from international cooperators and often required the reconstruction of (sometimes absent) metadata for geo-location and radiometric calibration. The older MSS data, some of which had been successfully retrieved from outdated wide band video media, required similar metadata reconstruction. TM data from Landsats 4 and 5 relied on questionable on-board lamp data for calibration, thus the calibration history for these missions was reconstructed to account for sensor degradation over time. To improve continuity between platforms, Landsat 7 and 8 missions employed 'under-flight' maneuvers to reduce inter-calibration error. Data from the various sensors, platforms and sources were integrated into a common metadata standard, with quality assurance information, to ensure understandability of the data for long-term preservation. Because of these efforts, the current Landsat archive can now support the creation of the long-term climate data records and essential climate variables required to monitor changes on the Earth's surface quantitatively over decades of observations.

  6. Forty Years of Amdahl's Law Patrick H. Madden

    E-print Network

    Madden, Patrick H.

    Forty Years of Amdahl's Law Patrick H. Madden SUNY Binghamton Computer Science Department pmadden, and described what has come to be known as "Am- dahl's Law." This law can be viewed as casting a negative light of Parallelism is unwise; the track record for these leaders is remarkably poor. 1 #12;

  7. INDUSTRY-BASED CAPSTONE DESIGN PROJECTS: MEMORIAL'S FORTY YEARS EXPERIENCE

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Steve

    1 INDUSTRY-BASED CAPSTONE DESIGN PROJECTS: MEMORIAL'S FORTY YEARS EXPERIENCE Leonard M. Lye, PEng. This paper will highlight some of Memorial's experiences with industry-based capstone design projects over of industry-based capstone design projects. The engineering degree programs at Memorial University began

  8. Looking Backward, Looking Forward: Forty Years of US Human Spaceflight Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Launius, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This symposium reflects on forty years of U.S. Human Spaceflight, its role over the next four decades and beyond. The topics include: 1) Perspectives on the Past Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; 2) The Experience of Spaceflight; 3) Perspectives on the Next Forty Years of Human Spaceflight; and 4) The International Space Station and the Future of Human Spaceflight.

  9. Responsive neurostimulation in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Carrette, Sofie; Boon, Paul; Sprengers, Mathieu; Raedt, Robrecht; Vonck, Kristl

    2015-12-01

    Various neurostimulation modalities have emerged in the field of epilepsy. Despite the fact that delivery of an electrical current to the hyperexcitable epileptic brain might, at first, seem contradictory, neurostimulation has become an established therapeutic option with a promising efficacy and adverse effects profile. In "responsive" neurostimulation the strategy is to interfere as early as possible with the accumulation of seizure activity to prematurely abort or even prevent an upcoming seizure. The design of technology required for responsive stimulation is more challenging compared with devices for open-loop neurostimulation. The achievement of therapeutic success is dependent on adequate sensing and stimulation algorithms and a fast coupling between both. The benefits of delivering current only at the time of an approaching seizure merit further investigation. Current experience with responsive neurostimulation in epilepsy is still limited, but seems promising. PMID:26580843

  10. Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet)

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet) Alan Robock-mail: robock@envsci.rutgers.edu #12;- 1 - Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Desiccation (Yet) Abstract We present the longest data set of observed soil moisture available in the world

  11. Diablo Valley College: The First Forty Years, 1949-1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Don; And Others

    An overview is provided of the 40-year history of Diablo Valley College (DVC), examining the educational ideals of the founders of the college and the changes in the goals of community college education in Central Contra Costa County, California. Part 1 sets the historical scene for the establishment of public two-year colleges nationally, in…

  12. Reconsidering Sputnik: Forty Years Since the Soviet Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    This collection of essays explore several broad themes: the Soviet Union and Sputnik, space and the international Geophysical Year, the immediate ramifications of Sputnik in the United States, and the significance of Sputnik throughout the world.

  13. The Aged Samaritan: Heroes of the Holocaust Forty Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlarsky, Elizabeth; Oliner, Samuel P.

    Recent research indicates that helping others is associated with competence, personal control, and a sense of well-being and that the elderly often express altruistic attitudes and help others. The current period, 40 years after the termination of World War II, presents a final opportunity to study those individuals who had engaged in extreme…

  14. Forty Years of Library Automation: A Personal Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Line, Maurice B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To provide an overview of one person's involvement with computer systems in libraries over the last 40 years. Design/methodology/approach: Personal memories corroborated with published articles. Findings: There have been very many developments in libraries in a comparatively short period of time as a result of using computer systems, and…

  15. Hard Times in Women's Lives: Historical Influences Across Forty Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Glen H., Jr.; Liker, Jeffrey K.

    1982-01-01

    Investigates the consequences of the Great Depression experiences on middle- and working-class women by examining their well-being in old age 40 years later. Results showed consistently adverse effects of economic loss for working-class women and benign outcomes among women of higher status. (Author/RM)

  16. Forty Years of Psychological and Psychiatric Selection of NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to chronicle the history and development of the psychological selection process for NASA astronauts. For over 40 years, astronaut applicants have undergone rigorous medical testing to qualify for candidacy. Psychological selection has an equally long history, dating back to 1958, when psychological requirements were established for astronauts during the Mercury program. However, for many years, psychological selection consisted of psychiatric screening for psychopathology. As we approach the day in which the first ISS crew will live and work in space for months at a time, it becomes clear that both the psychological criteria and the selection system to detect said criteria have changed. This presentation discusses the events that led to the current, dual-phase selection system that is used to select individuals into the astronaut corps. Future directions for psychological selection will also be addressed.

  17. Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River Floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W.C.; Dixon, M.D.; Scott, M.L.; Rabbe, L.; Larson, G.; Volke, M.; Werner, B.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wetdry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 510 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting. ?? 2012 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  18. Forty years of vegetation change on the Missouri River floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, W. Carter; Dixon, Mark D.; Scott, Michael L.; Rabbe, Lisa; Larson, Gary; Volke, Malia; Werner, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Comparative inventories in 1969 and 1970 and in 2008 of vegetation from 30 forest stands downstream of Garrison Dam on the Missouri River in central North Dakota showed (a) a sharp decline in Cottonwood regeneration; (b) a strong compositional shift toward dominance by green ash; and (c) large increases in invasive understory species, such as smooth brome, reed canary grass, and Canada thistle. These changes, and others discovered during remeasurement, have been caused by a complex of factors, some related to damming (altered hydrologic and sediment regimes, delta formation, and associated wet-dry cycles) and some not (diseases and expansion of invasive plants). Dominance of green ash, however, may be short lived, given the likelihood that the emerald ash borer will arrive in the Dakotas in 5-10 years, with potentially devastating effects. The prospects for recovery of this valuable ecosystem, rich in ecosystem goods and services and in American history, are daunting.

  19. Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong

    E-print Network

    Gazzaniga, Michael

    | Forty-five years ago, Roger Sperry, Joseph Bogen and I embarked on what are now known as the modern was strenuously arguing the opposite2 . Roger Sperry's ongoing work on neural development3 , which represented effects7 . In the intervening years, however, studies of split-brain rats, cats and monkeys by Sperry

  20. Still "Unfinished Education": Latino Students Forty Years after the Mexican American Education Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrigal-Gonzalez, Lizely

    2012-01-01

    The onus of this dissertation was to evaluate the educational conditions of Mexican American students forty years after the "Mexican American Education Study" published a six-volume study detailing the findings of the "Mexican American Education Study" (1970-1974). The "MAES" study focused on five southwest states…

  1. Forty Years of Land Use and Land Ownership Change in Central Sierra Nevada

    E-print Network

    Forty Years of Land Use and Land Ownership Change in Central Sierra Nevada Oak Woodlands1 Matt owned, and, therefore, highly susceptible to changes in land use and ownership as well as land fragmentation. This is particularly true in the Central Sierra Nevada, where significant changes in land use

  2. Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet)

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    Forty-five years of observed soil moisture in the Ukraine: No summer desiccation (yet) Alan Robock present the longest data set of observed soil moisture available in the world, 45 yr of gravimetrically- observed plant available soil moisture for the top 1 m of soil, observed every 10 days for April

  3. Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No

    E-print Network

    Robock, Alan

    Supplemental Material for Forty Five Years of Observed Soil Moisture in the Ukraine: No Summer Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters November, 2004 #12;- 1 - Ukrainian Soil Moisture Stations The individual soil moisture stations in the Ukraine are shown in Figure 1. The data are averaged into the 25

  4. Nonpharmacological approaches: diet and neurostimulation.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H

    2013-01-01

    There are many children with intractable epilepsy who do not respond to anticonvulsant medications yet are not candidates for resective epilepsy surgery. For these children and more, nonpharmacologic therapies can be very helpful. The primary therapies include diet and neurostimulation. Dietary therapies available currently include the ketogenic diet, modified Atkins diet, medium chain triglyceride diet, and low glycemic index treatment. Neurostimulation, using electricity to abort seizures, includes vagus nerve stimulation only at this time. However, other treatments such as deep brain stimulation and cortical responsive stimulation (NeuroPace) are under active development. PMID:23622228

  5. Effect of neurostimulation on camptocormia in Parkinson's disease depends on symptom duration.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Margraf, Nils G; Munser, Sari; Wrede, Arne; Buhmann, Carsten; Deuschl, Günther; Oehlwein, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Although some reports on neurostimulation are positive, no effective treatment method for camptocormia in Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to date. We aim to identify prognostic factors for a beneficial DBS effect on camptocormia. In an observational cohort study, we investigated 25 idiopathic PD patients, who suffered additionally from camptocormia, and underwent bilateral neurostimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) to improve classical PD symptoms. Using an established questionnaire, we examined deep brain stimulation (DBS) effects on camptocormia in addition to general neurostimulation effects. A beneficial neurostimulation effect on camptocormia was defined as an improvement in the bending angle of a least 50%. In 13 patients, the bending angle of camptocormia improved, in 12 patients it did not. A multifactorial analysis revealed a short duration between onset of camptocormia and start of neurostimulation to be the relevant factor for outcome. All patients with duration of camptocormia up to 1.5 years showed a beneficial effect; patients between 1.5 and ?3 years showed mixed results, but none with a duration of more than 40 months improved except for 1 patient whose camptocormia was levodopa responsive. The bending angle was not a prognostic factor. Our data indicate that the main prognostic factor for a beneficial DBS effect on camptocormia is its short duration. As an explanation, we suggest that neurostimulation may improve camptocormia only as long as muscle pathology is limited. Our findings may help to elucidate the mode of action of neurostimulation. A prospective study is necessary. PMID:25678310

  6. Forty-five years of split-brain research and still going strong.

    PubMed

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2005-08-01

    Forty-five years ago, Roger Sperry, Joseph Bogen and I embarked on what are now known as the modern split-brain studies. These experiments opened up new frontiers in brain research and gave rise to much of what we know about hemispheric specialization and integration. The latest developments in split-brain research build on the groundwork laid by those early studies. Split-brain methodology, on its own and in conjunction with neuroimaging, has yielded insights into the remarkable regional specificity of the corpus callosum as well as into the integrative role of the callosum in the perception of causality and in our perception of an integrated sense of self. PMID:16062172

  7. Forty Years of E/PO: Can You Have it All? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiff, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    In forty years of education and public outreach (E/PO), 25 years of which have been funded by various NSF and NASA programs, several lessons (some tough) have been learned. We have done teacher workshops, teacher semester-long courses, student summer programs, outreach fairs and exhibits, and generally the response of the participants has been very high. Generally the longer programs reach fewer people but in greater depth and impact; the shorter programs reach more, but with lesser depth. This paper shows some of the statistics of learning in our various venues, include teacher courses, online material, and planetarium shows. We also performed an online survey of users of NASA materials and contrasted with a random group of 144 adults. We find that teachers and museum educators have nearly all been "significantly" or "changed my life" impacted by NASA educational materials, and even 24% of the general public have as well, with 14% of the general public reporting that NASA encouraged them to study STEM and go into STEM careers. Virtually all said that NASA should continue producing educational materials. Some of the stumbling blocks include: the difficulty of obtaining funds, the general lack of recognition for outreach in tenure decisions, the difficulty of trying to keep active in research while also active in outreach; and the general problem of "having a life" while juggling many responsibilities. Yet it is worth it!

  8. Neurostimulation for traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shin, Samuel S; Dixon, C Edward; Okonkwo, David O; Richardson, R Mark

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant public health problem and is a leading cause of death and disability in many countries. Durable treatments for neurological function deficits following TBI have been elusive, as there are currently no FDA-approved therapeutic modalities for mitigating the consequences of TBI. Neurostimulation strategies using various forms of electrical stimulation have recently been applied to treat functional deficits in animal models and clinical stroke trials. The results from these studies suggest that neurostimulation may augment improvements in both motor and cognitive deficits after brain injury. Several studies have taken this approach in animal models of TBI, showing both behavioral enhancement and biological evidence of recovery. There have been only a few studies using deep brain stimulation (DBS) in human TBI patients, and future studies are warranted to validate the feasibility of this technique in the clinical treatment of TBI. In this review, the authors summarize insights from studies employing neurostimulation techniques in the setting of brain injury. Moreover, they relate these findings to the future prospect of using DBS to ameliorate motor and cognitive deficits following TBI. PMID:25170668

  9. [One hundred and forty years of Turkish civilian and Turkish military hospital in Sarajevo].

    PubMed

    Masi?, Izet

    2006-01-01

    This year BIH health celebrates two anniversaries: One hundred and forty years of Turkish civilian and Turkish military hospital in Sarajevo. During Ottoman period in Bosnian pasha region, Oman authorities have founded several military (in each bigger center it has been established military hospital of the Turkish Army) and five civil hospitals, mostly financed from vakuf (Islamic charity) funds. However, first hospital institution in BIH was located in Hadzi Sinan tekija at Mihrivode in Sarajevo, where was located special room for treatment, of mostly physiological patients, using zikr (spiritual ritual). By second half of 19th century civil populations were cured in homes, and wealthy citizens had their own private physicians who used to come with purpose or temporary from Dalmatian or neighboring countries bringing with them appropriate medications. By establishment of mentioned hospitals, other populations were treated by barbers, ranar (specialist for wounds), travar (person who treats patients with grass), and attars who had attar shops with medications purchased from Osman imperia or neighboring western countries. Drugs were prescribed to patients from Ijekarusa (drug prescription book), who were copied from generations and religion books, religion authorities of all confessions or from originals and copies of Arabic medical books which were brought by individuals going to Arabic countries (Mecca, Istanbul, Cairo, etc.). Mentioned hospitals, founded during Osman period (Sarajevo, Tuzla, Mostar, Travnik, Bihac) had key role in the history of BIH health, and they were basis for latter established regional and municipality hospitals founded in the Austria-Hungarian period. In the paper are described Turkish military and Turkish civil hospital established in June 1866 and in October 1866. PMID:16528939

  10. A Reviewof Forty-Five YearsStudy of Hiroshimaand Nagasaki Atomic BombSurvivors II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    A Reviewof Forty-Five YearsStudy of Hiroshimaand Nagasaki Atomic BombSurvivors II. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS Atomic Bomb and Leukemia MICHITO ICHIMARU, MASAO TOMONAGA, TATSUHIKO AMENOMORI AND TATSUKI MATSUO,and the occurrenceof CML wasthought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia

  11. Characterization of Forty Seven Years of Particulate Chemical Composition in the Finnish Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laing, James

    Forty seven years of weekly total suspended particle filters collected at Kevo, Finland from October 1964 through 2010 by the Finnish Meteorological Institute were analyzed for near-total trace elements, soluble trace elements, black carbon (BC), and major ions and methane sulfonic acid (MSA). Kevo is located in Northern Finland, 350 km north of the Arctic Circle. The samples from 1964-1978 were collected with Whatman 42 cellulous filters and the samples from 1979-2010 collected on Whatman GF/A glass-fiber filters. A portion of the filters was microwave acid-digested (ad) and analyzed for near-total trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Another portion was water extracted (we) and analyzed for soluble trace elements by ICP-MS and ionic species by ion chromatography (IC). Black carbon (BC) was determined using optical and thermal optical techniques at SUNY Albany. A clear seasonal trend with winter/spring maxima and summer minima is observed for most species attributed to enhanced transport of pollutants from anthropogenic mid-latitude sources to the Arctic in the winter and early spring. Compared to more remote Arctic sampling sites, species of anthropogenic origin (V, Co, Cu, Ni, As, Cd, Pb, SO4) have significantly higher concentrations and a less pronounced seasonality. High concentrations of Cu (14.1 ng/m3), Ni (0.97 ng/m3), and Co (0.04 ng/m3) indicate the influence of non-ferrous metal smelters on the Kola Peninsula, although Cu unexpectedly did not correlate with Ni or Co. Ni and Co were highly correlated. Significant long-term decreasing trends were detected for most species. All constituents except Sn-ad, Re-ad, Sn-we, Mo-we, V-we, have significant (p < 0.001) decreasing trends from 1964-2010. The largest decreases were Sb (-3.90 %/yr), Pb (-3.87 %/yr), Mn (-3.45 %/yr), Cd (-3.42 %/yr), and Ca (-3.13 %/yr ). As, Pb, and Cd concentrations at Kevo were consistent with the reported time-trends of European emissions inventories. Pb concentrations at Kevo have dramatically decreased (92%) in the past 47 years due to the reduced use of leaded gasoline in automobiles. Non sea salt SO4 concentrations were found to have a very similar trend to European and Former Soviet Union SO2 emissions. SO4 concentrations declined dramatically in the early 1990s a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis was used to estimate source locations of the species. PSCF plots for anthropogenic species (V, Cd, Mn, Mo, Sb, Tl, W, and SO4) suggest source areas predominantly in Eastern Europe, European Russia, and the Baltics. Markers of stationary fuel combustion (V, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, Tl, and SO4) also pointed towards possible source regions in the Pechora Basin and Ural industrial areas in Russia, and near gas and oil fields in western Kazakhstan. Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is marker of marine planktonic algae. MSA concentrations at Kevo peak from May to July and have estimated source locations in the Barents, Norwegian, and Greenland Seas, coinciding with warmer waters and increased biogenic activity. Using monthly averages from June and Jul, MSA concentrations were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.200; p < 0.001) with sea surface temperature anomalies in the surrounding seas and negatively (r2 = 0.280; p = 0.0018) with sea ice extent. The chemical composition dataset was analyzed by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF5). The entire dataset (1964-2010) was modeled as well as three separate time periods, 1964-1978, 1979-1990, and 1991-2010. The dataset was split in 1979 due to a change from Whatman 42 cellulose filters to a glass fiber filters, and in 1990 due to drops in concentrations related to the economic collapse of the Soviet Union. Two factors representing non-ferrous metal smelters were found for all time periods. One factor was dominated by Cu and the other by Ni and Co. Each of the time periods contained a factor describing stationary fuel combustion with high percentages of V, BC, and nss-SO4; a ferrous metal f

  12. Forty years of national surveys: An overview of children's dental health from 1973-2013.

    PubMed

    Murray, J J; Vernazza, C R; Holmes, R D

    2015-09-25

    Introduction The first national survey of children's dental health in England and Wales was carried out in 1973. Subsequent surveys, in 1983, 1993 and 2003, included all United Kingdom health departments. The 2013 survey involved England, Wales and Northern Ireland.Aim To consider all five surveys, from 1973 to 2013, so as to summarise trends in the dental health of children in the UK over the last 40 years.Materials and method The 2013 survey was commissioned by the Health &Social Care Information Centre and all surveys used data collected during dental examinations conducted in schools on a random sample of children by NHS dentists, together with a questionnaire to parents of those children. In 2013, a pupil questionnaire for 12- and 15-year-olds was introduced, to complement information received from parents and carers.Results A total of 69,318 children, aged 5-15 years, were involved, from 1973-2013. Caries prevalence has reduced from 72% to 41% in 5-year-olds, and from 97% to 46% in 15-year-olds in 40 years. Changes in periodontal disease, orthodontic treatment, accidental damage to anterior teeth, tooth surface loss and enamel defects, are also summarised. Behavioural and attitudinal characteristics observed in the 2013 report are listed.Conclusions Caries is now concentrated in a minority of children. The prevalence of gingivitis has not changed a great deal in 40 years. About half of those children assessed 'in orthodontic need' receive treatment. PMID:26404992

  13. Changing patterns of traumatic bile duct injuries: a review of forty years experience

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhi-Qiang; Huang, Xiao-Qiang

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the experiences of treating bile duct injuries in 40 years of clinical practice. MATHODS: Based on the experience of more than 40 years of clinical work, 122 cases including a series of 61 bile duct injuries of the Southwest Hospital, Chongqing, and 42 cases (1989-1997) and 19 cases (1998-2001) of the General Hospital of PLA, Beijing, were reviewed with special reference to the pattern of injury. A series of cases of the liver and the biliary tract injuries following interventional therapy for hepatic tumors, most often hemangioma of the liver, were collected. Chinese medical literature from 1995 to 1999 dealing with 2742 traumatic bile duct strictures were reviewed. RESULTS: There was a changing pattern of the bile duct injury. Although most of the cases of bile duct injuries resulted from open cholecystectomy. Other types of trauma such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and hepatic surgery were increased in recent years. Moreover, serious hepato-biliary injuries following HAE using sclerotic agents such as sodium morrhuate and absolute ethanol for the treatment of hepatic hemangiomas were encountered in recent years. Experiences in how to avoid bile duct injury and to treat traumatic biliary strictures were presented. CONCLUSION: Traumatic bile duct stricture is one of the serious complications of hepato-biliary surgery, its prevalence seemed to be increased in recent years. The pattern of bile duct injury was also changed and has become more complicated. Interventional therapy with sclerosing agents may cause serious hepatobiliary complications and should be avoided. PMID:11833062

  14. Forty eight years of rice improvement in Texas since the release of cultivar Bluebonnet in 1944

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of Texas rice breeding to changes in cultivars released during the 50 years since its first cultivar release in 1942. Twenty-three cultivars were evaluated in three environments and two N levels. Days to heading, plant height, whole and t...

  15. Forty Years on: Presidential Address to the History of Education Society, London, 4 November 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This paper, based on the author's presidential address to the History of Education Society in November 2006, explores aspects of continuity and change over the past 40 years with particular reference to educational reform and the development of the History of Education Society itself. It assesses the significance of the work of the playwright Alan…

  16. Forty Years of Overlap: Electric Discharge Light Source R&D and the GEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waymouth, John F.

    1997-10-01

    For many years R&D targeting electric discharge light sources was reported at the GEC. These years will be reviewed from the perspective of the three major functions of a scientific conference for a researcher from industry. First, the opportunity to receive feedback from the world's leading experts on the presentation of one's work as formal papers. Second, the opportunity to obtain early warning of new developments in the field from hearing papers presented by others on their work, several years before final publication. Finally, the opportunity for education obtainable from attending sessions in related fields in the same gaseous electronics discipline. These three major functions are further subdivided and amplified through the opportunities for personal contacts: with one's competitors in the industry; with researchers from other industries and government laboratories in related fields; and with the large and vibrant university-research community. The success of the relationship between light source research and the GEC over the years is evaluated from a very personal perspective, using examples from my own recollection and files. I believe it has been mutually beneficial, although there are clearly missed opportunities on both sides. Unfortunately, in recent years participation in the GEC by light source researchers has been declining. Never more than 7% of the GEC, light source R&D papers have been increasingly diverted toward the triennial International Symposium on Science and Technology of Light Sources, and toward the International Conference on Plasma Science ("ICOPS") of the IEEE. Possible reasons for this migration, and its implications for the future of light source R&D at the GEC will be discussed.

  17. Forty-five years of e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation physics: 1956 to 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, B.

    1985-04-01

    The history of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics in the 1950's and 1960's is reviewed, followed by some highlights of the spectacular discoveries in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation made during the 1970's. The consolidation of knowledge during the last few years is summarized. Some predictions are made for the field of e/sup +/e/sup -/ physics for the next decade and beyond. (LEW)

  18. Past, Present and Future: Forty Years of Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Christine; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    We cast a retrospective view on 40 years of publishing the Revista Mexicana de Astronomía y Astrofísica, founded in 1974. The journal is peer-reviewed, has appeared regularly since its foundation, and continues to attract original research papers, mostly by Mexican and Latin American authors. We share some musings about the future of our journal, in view of recent developments in the scientific publishing field.

  19. Prospective evaluation of gastric neurostimulation for diabetic gastroparesis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Himanish; Mitchell, Philip; Curley, Michael; Buresi, Michelle; Wilsack, Lynn; Andrews, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of gastric neurostimulation therapy for diabetic gastroparesis (GP) in a ‘real-life’ Canadian setting has not been assessed. AIMS: To assess changes in health-related quality of life (QoL), weekly vomiting frequency (WVF), total symptom score (TSS) and health care utilization 12 months before and after gastric neurostimulator implantation in a diabetic GP cohort. METHODS: Medication-refractory diabetic GP patients (n=7, four female, mean age 42 years) were prospectively recruited from 2008 to 2012. QoL scores were self-administered and obtained at baseline, 24 and 48 weeks postimplantion. WVF and TSS were assessed similarly. Health care usage, measured as hospitalization frequency and medication cost, was obtained six and 12 months before and after implant. Changes from baseline to six and 12 months for all outcomes were compared. RESULTS: The mean (± SD) QoL according to EuroQol was significantly better at 24 weeks after the baseline measurement (baseline 29±5, 24 weeks 52±7; P=0.03). The mean improvement in TSS was significantly better at one year postintervention (baseline score 35±5 versus 12 months 27±3; P=0.03). Changes in Short-Form 36 Health Survey and WVF were not significant. Days of GP-related hospitalization were highly variable but decreased from a median of 71 days (range 0 to 227 days) to 29 days (range two to 334 days) one year before and after surgery, respectively (P=0.735). Outpatient medication costs did not decrease to a significant extent. CONCLUSION: Gastric neurostimulation for diabetic GP appeared to show some beneficial palliative effects overall in the present small open-label series, but the effect is highly variable among patients, and placebo effect cannot be ruled out. PMID:25965440

  20. Forty-year durability of a Smeloff-Cutter ball valve prosthesis in the mitral position.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masato; Tsuchiya, Koji; Ichihara, Yuki; Amenomori, Shunsuke; Koshiyama, Hiroshi; Kaku, Yuji

    2011-12-01

    A rare case requiring replacement of an intact Smeloff-Cutter ball prosthesis in the mitral position 40 years after implantation is presented. The Smeloff-Cutter ball valve prosthesis was designed to have two open cages. It has two potential advantages: a relatively large, effective orifice area and its self-washing effect that prevents thrombus formation. There have been only a few reports of survivors with ball valve prostheses in place for more than three decades especially in the mitral position. This is a valuable report describing the long-term durability of a Smeloff-Cutter ball valve prosthesis in the mitral position. PMID:22173679

  1. Forty-five years of open plan office experience: An unusual case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paoletti, Dennis A.

    2005-09-01

    The open plan office design concept has been around for at least 45 years. Through research, design, and practical experience, the basic concepts and parameters that impact acoustics and speech privacy have been fairly well developed and documented. The psychological aspects of human response and expectation to open plan environments, and the conceptual designs that emerge from the architect and interior designers are frontiers that still allow for ongoing study. A large open plan project completed during the dot-com bubble allowed an opportunity to design and experience an unusual open plan environment that utilized exposed sound masking system loudspeakers and minimal sound absorption.

  2. The ODAS Italia 1 buoy: More than forty years of activity in the Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canepa, Elisa; Pensieri, Sara; Bozzano, Roberto; Faimali, Marco; Traverso, Pierluigi; Cavaleri, Luigi

    2015-06-01

    The Ligurian Sea plays a relevant role in driving both the circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea and the weather and climate of the area. In order to better understand the peculiarities of this basin, the Oceanographic Data Acquisition System (ODAS) Italia 1 buoy was developed and deployed in the early '70s. Throughout the years, the buoy has been fitted with updated measuring and data acquiring systems. Since 2003 the buoy has been part of the Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array network of fixed open ocean observatories with the W1-M3A identifier and presently constitutes one of the Mediterranean sites of the European FixO3 network. Recently, a deep-ocean sub-surface mooring line was, and is, deployed close to it in relation to specific projects. This multidisciplinary observing system is able to perform both long-term operational and ad-hoc monitoring from the lower atmosphere to the deep ocean. It is used for analysis of air-sea interaction processes, study of the physical proprieties of the water column, bio-geo-chemical monitoring of the sea, meteorological and oceanographic model evaluation, calibration of remotely sensed measurements, and development of innovative marine monitoring technologies. After reporting some historical notes and the description of the observing system, this paper summarises and reviews the main oceanographic and atmospheric studies performed during the last 15 years using the data acquired on board.

  3. A career in culture and psychiatry research: reflections on forty-plus years.

    PubMed

    Beiser, Morton

    2011-04-01

    The report chronicles a 44-year career in cultural psychiatry spent at Duke, Cornell, Harvard, the University of British Columbia, the University of Toronto, and Ryerson Universities. It describes my studies in a rural community in Nova Scotia, in traditional villages in Senegal, West Africa, on Canadian First Nations reserves and American Indian reservations, in refugee camps in Southeast Asia, among immigrant and refugee communities in Canada, in Ethiopia, and in Israel. The report summarizes major findings resulting from these research efforts, and discusses contributions to theory as well as potential implications for practice as well as policy. The article concludes with reflections about the present state of cultural psychiatry, raises concerns about where the field seems to be in danger of going wrong, and offers suggestions about what needs to be done next. PMID:21511843

  4. Critical review of the responsive neurostimulator system for epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, George P; Jobst, Barbara C

    2015-01-01

    Patients with medically refractory epilepsy have historically had few effective treatment options. Electrical brain stimulation for seizures has been studied for decades and ongoing technological refinements have made possible the development of an implantable electrical brain stimulator. The NeuroPace responsive neurostimulator was recently approved by the FDA for clinical use and the initial reports are encouraging. This device continually monitors brain activity and delivers an electric stimulus when abnormal activity is detected. Early reports of efficacy suggest that the device is well tolerated and offers a reduction in seizure frequency by approximately half at 2 years. PMID:26491376

  5. Forty-Year Calibrated Record of Earth-Surface Reflected Radiance from Landsat: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Helder, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Sensors on Landsat satellites have been collecting images of the Earth's surface for nearly 40 years. These images have been invaluable for characterizing and detecting changes in the land cover and land use of the world. Although initially conceived as primarily picture generating sensors, even the early sensors were radiometrically calibrated and spectrally characterized prior to launch and incorporated some capabilities to monitor their radiometric calibration once on orbit. Recently, as the focus of studies has shifted to monitoring Earth surface parameters over significant periods of time, serious attention has been focused toward bringing the data from all these sensors onto a common radiometric scale over this 40-year period. This effort started with the most recent systems and then was extended back in time. Landsat-7 ETM+, the best-characterized sensor of the series prior to launch and once on orbit, and the most stable system to date, was chosen to serve as the reference. The Landsat-7 project was the first of the series to build an image assessment system into its ground system, allowing systematic characterization of its sensors and data. Second, the Landsat-5 TM (still operating at the time of the Landsat-7 launch and continues to operate) calibration history was reconstructed based on its internal calibrator, vicarious calibrations, pseudo-invariant sites and a tie to Landsat-7 ETM+ at the time of the commissioning of Landsat-7. This process was performed in two iterations: the earlier one relied primarily on the TM internal calibrator. When this was found to have some deficiencies, a revised calibration was based more on pseudo-invariant sites, though the internal calibrator was still used to establish the short-term variations in response due to icing build up on the cold focal plane. As time progressed, a capability to monitor the Landsat-5 TM was added to the image assessment system. The Landsat-4 TM, which operated from 1982-1992, was the third system to which the radiometric scale was extended. The limited and broken use of the Landsat-4 TM made this analysis more difficult. Eight-day separated image pairs from Landsat-5 combined with analysis of pseudo invariant sites established this history. The fourth and most challenging effort was making the Landsat-1 to -5 MSS sensors' data internally radiometrically consistent. This effort was particularly complicated by the age of the MSS data, varying formats and processing levels in the archive, limited datasets, and limited documentation available. Ultimately, pseudo-invariant sites were identified in North America and used for this effort. Note that most of the Landsat-MSS archived data had already been calibrated using the MSS internal calibrators, so this processing was imbedded in the result. The final effort was developing an absolute scale for Landsat MSS similar to what was already established for the "TM" sensors. This was accomplished by using simultaneous data from Landsat-5 MSS and Landsat-5 TM, accounting for spectral differences between the sensors using EO-1 Hyperion data. The recalibrated history of the Landsat data and implications to users are discussed. The key result from this work is a consistently calibrated Landsat data archive that spans nearly 40 years with total uncertainties on the order of 10% or less for most sensors and bands.

  6. [The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Willemjan

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens. PMID:22586775

  7. Homicide among Indigenous South Australians: a forty-year study (1969-2008).

    PubMed

    Temlett, Julia; Byard, Roger W

    2012-11-01

    A retrospective review of homicide cases among Aboriginal people in South Australia examined at Forensic Science SA was undertaken over a 40-year period from 1969 to 2008. A total of 90 Indigenous homicide victims were identified compared to 599 non-Indigenous victims over the same time period. Although homicide rates have fallen, the Indigenous homicide rate (ranging from 73.5 to 223.97 per 100,000) significantly exceeded the non-Indigenous rate (ranging from 8.16 to 12.6 per 100,000) for all decades (p<0.001). The most common methods of homicide in the Indigenous population involved blunt force and sharp force trauma, with gunshot, strangulation and other forms of homicides being encountered less often. While lack of access to firearms may explain the lower numbers of gunshot deaths it would not explain the low numbers of deaths due to strangulation. Considerable variability may, therefore, exist in the types of unnatural deaths that may be found in different cultural and ethnic groups, even within the same community. PMID:23084305

  8. Dreams, Hopes, Realities: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, the First Forty Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Lane E.

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the great achievements of civilizations and cultures have been recorded in lists of dates and events. But to look only at the machinery, discoveries, or milestones is to miss the value of these achievements. Each goal achieved or discovery or made represents a supreme effort on the part of individual people who came and worked together for a purpose greater than themselves. Driven by an innate curiosity of the spirit, we have built civilizations and discovered new worlds, always reaching out beyond what we knew or thought was possible. These efforts may have used ships or machinery, but the achievement was that of the humans who made those machines possible- remarkable people willing to endure discomfort, frustration, fatigue, and the risk of failure in the hope of finding out something new. This is the case with the history of the Goddard Space Flight Center. This publication traces the legacy of successes, risks, disappointments and internationally recognized triumphs of the Center's first 40 years. It is a story of technological achievement and scientific discovery; of reaching back to the dawn of time and opening up a new set of eyes on our own planet Earth. In the end, it is not a story about machinery or discoveries, but a story about ourselves. If we were able to step off our planet, and if we continue to discover new mysteries and better technology, it is because the people who work at Goddard always had a passion for exploration and the dedication to make it happen. The text that follows is a testimony to the challenges people at the Goddard Space Flight Center have faced and overcome over almost half a century. Today, we stand on the threshold of a new and equally challenging era. It will once again test our ingenuity, skills, and flexibility as we find new ways of working with our colleagues in industry, government, and academia. Doing more with less is every bit as ambitious as designing the first science instrument to study the heavens. But if we are to continue exploring our world and our universe, it is every bit as important. Robert H. Goddard once said, "The dream of yesterday is the hope of today and the reality of tomorrow." This is our heritage. Our challenge is to keep our spirit of dedication, vision, and innovative thinking alive, so we can turn today's dreams into a new century of possibility and progress. Our journeys into space are the greatest ongoing adventure the human race has ever undertaken, and everyone here has played an important role in that endeavor. This book is about everyone who has worked at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

  9. David Blackwell’s Forty Years in the Idaho Desert, The Foundation for 21st Century Geothermal Research

    SciTech Connect

    McLing, Travis; McCurry, Mike; Cannon, Cody; Neupane, Ghanashyam; Wood, Thomas; Podgorney, Robert; Welhan, John; Mines, Greg; Mattson, Earl; Wood, Rachel; Palmer, Carl

    2015-04-01

    Dr. David Blackwell has had a profound influence on geo-thermal exploration and R&D in Idaho. Forty years have elapsed since the first Southern Methodist University (SMU) temperature logging truck rolled onto the high desert in Southern Idaho, yet even after so much time has elapsed, most recent and ongoing geothermal R&D can trace its roots to the foundational temperature studies led by Dr. Blackwell. We believe that the best way to honor any scientist is to see their work carried forward by others. As this paper demonstrates, it has been an easy task to find a host of Idaho researchers and students eager to contribute to this tribute paper. We organize this paper by ongoing or recent projects that continue to benefit left to Idaho by Dr. David Blackwell.

  10. The peripatetic cultural psychiatrist: reflections on a forty-five year longitudinal study of a South India village.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Helen E

    2011-04-01

    This article presents one woman's odyssey, which began with a career in linguistics and later incorporated cultural psychiatry. While engaged in fieldwork as a linguist, studying the syntactic structure of Havyaka Kannada and dialectal accommodation among the castes in a South India village, I developed language skills and rapport with the village residents. Then I transferred my community-wide rapport to research on depression as a cultural psychiatrist. The articles I wrote on depression and its relationship to socialized passivity and endorsed assertiveness in progressive generations of South Indian women, illustrate the impact of change on mental health. The cultural background from my community-based longitudinal study of more than forty-five years has contributed to my understanding disorders in Indian patients living in a globalized world. PMID:21511853

  11. SEMPRE: Forty Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gordon; Crickmore, Leon; Plummeridge, Charles; Sergeant, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    This historical account traces the beginnings of the Society for Education, Music and Psychology Research (SEMPRE) to the founding of the Society for Research in Psychology of Music and Music Education (SRPMME) in 1972, which in turn had evolved from Arnold Bentley's Research in Music Education conferences instituted in 1966. The paper charts the…

  12. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: Final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Christianne N; King-Stephens, David; Massey, Andrew D; Nair, Dileep R; Jobst, Barbara C; Barkley, Gregory L; Salanova, Vicenta; Cole, Andrew J; Smith, Michael C; Gwinn, Ryder P; Skidmore, Christopher; Van Ness, Paul C; Bergey, Gregory K; Park, Yong D; Miller, Ian; Geller, Eric; Rutecki, Paul A; Zimmerman, Richard; Spencer, David C; Goldman, Alica; Edwards, Jonathan C; Leiphart, James W; Wharen, Robert E; Fessler, James; Fountain, Nathan B; Worrell, Gregory A; Gross, Robert E; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Duckrow, Robert B; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Bazil, Carl; O'Donovan, Cormac A; Sun, Felice T; Courtney, Tracy A; Seale, Cairn G; Morrell, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of responsive stimulation at the seizure focus as an adjunctive therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with medically intractable partial onset seizures arising from one or two seizure foci. Methods Randomized multicenter double-blinded controlled trial of responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS System). Subjects with medically intractable partial onset seizures from one or two foci were implanted, and 1 month postimplant were randomized 1:1 to active or sham stimulation. After the fifth postimplant month, all subjects received responsive stimulation in an open label period (OLP) to complete 2 years of postimplant follow-up. Results All 191 subjects were randomized. The percent change in seizures at the end of the blinded period was ?37.9% in the active and ?17.3% in the sham stimulation group (p = 0.012, Generalized Estimating Equations). The median percent reduction in seizures in the OLP was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years, which represents a progressive and significant improvement with time (p < 0.0001). The serious adverse event rate was not different between subjects receiving active and sham stimulation. Adverse events were consistent with the known risks of an implanted medical device, seizures, and of other epilepsy treatments. There were no adverse effects on neuropsychological function or mood. Significance Responsive stimulation to the seizure focus reduced the frequency of partial-onset seizures acutely, showed improving seizure reduction over time, was well tolerated, and was acceptably safe. The RNS System provides an additional treatment option for patients with medically intractable partial-onset seizures. PMID:24621228

  13. Building on and Honoring Forty Years of PBL Scholarship from Howard Barrows: A Scientometric, Large-Scale Data, and Visualization-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xian, Hanjun; Madhavan, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Over the past forty years, Howard Barrows' contributions to PBL research have influenced and guided educational research and practice in a diversity of domains. It is necessary to make visible to all PBL scholars what has been accomplished, what is perceived as significant, and what is the scope of applicability for Barrows' groundbreaking…

  14. 1024-Channel-Scalable Wireless Neuromonitoring and Neurostimulation Rodent Headset with

    E-print Network

    Genov, Roman

    1024-Channel-Scalable Wireless Neuromonitoring and Neurostimulation Rodent Headset recording and neurostimulation in the rodent brain. The system comprises flexible-shaft microelec- trodes). Animal models of neurological disorders, particularly rodent models, are widely accepted as low

  15. Forty years continous monitoring for bluetongue virus at an Australian site of high arbovirus activity. What have we achieved?

    PubMed

    Melville, Lorna; Weir, Richard; Hunt, Neville; Davis, Steven; Walsh, Susan

    2015-12-31

    Beatrice Hill Farm (BHF) near Darwin, Australia was identified in the early 1970's as a site of high arbovirus activity. The first isolation of Bluetongue virus (BTV) in Australia was made on BHF in 1975. Since then, there has been continuous monitoring for BTV at BHF, the virus has been isolated on a yearly basis, with the only exception of 1990. All 10 serotypes known in Australia have been isolated at this site and an assessment of their biological behaviour made. Over the years, the methods and intensity of monitoring have been changed. In recent years molecular techniques have permitted more detailed examination of the origins of the viruses and their natural behaviour in field situations. Data collected at BHF have allowed modelling to detect likely origins of the BTVs that regularly enter Australia through wind borne infected Culicoides from South East Asia. Concurrent vector monitoring led to assess the Culicoides species more likely to be involved with transmission of these viruses. PMID:26741242

  16. Treating epilepsy via adaptive neurostimulation: a reinforcement learning approach.

    PubMed

    Pineau, Joelle; Guez, Arthur; Vincent, Robert; Panuccio, Gabriella; Avoli, Massimo

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for automatically learning an optimal neurostimulation strategy for the treatment of epilepsy. The technical challenge is to automatically modulate neurostimulation parameters, as a function of the observed EEG signal, so as to minimize the frequency and duration of seizures. The methodology leverages recent techniques from the machine learning literature, in particular the reinforcement learning paradigm, to formalize this optimization problem. We present an algorithm which is able to automatically learn an adaptive neurostimulation strategy directly from labeled training data acquired from animal brain tissues. Our results suggest that this methodology can be used to automatically find a stimulation strategy which effectively reduces the incidence of seizures, while also minimizing the amount of stimulation applied. This work highlights the crucial role that modern machine learning techniques can play in the optimization of treatment strategies for patients with chronic disorders such as epilepsy. PMID:19731397

  17. Fibre optics: Forty years later

    SciTech Connect

    Dianov, Evgenii M

    2010-01-31

    This paper presents a brief overview of the state of the art in fibre optics and its main applications: optical fibre communications, fibre lasers and fibre sensors for various physical property measurements. The future of fibre optics and the status of this important area of the modern technology in Russia are discussed. (fiber optics)

  18. Analysis of induced electrical currents from magnetic field coupling inside implantable neurostimulator leads

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Over the last decade, the number of neurostimulator systems implanted in patients has been rapidly growing. Nearly 50, 000 neurostimulators are implanted worldwide annually. The most common type of implantable neurostimulators is indicated for pain relief. At the same time, commercial use of other electromagnetic technologies is expanding, making electromagnetic interference (EMI) of neurostimulator function an issue of concern. Typically reported sources of neurostimulator EMI include security systems, metal detectors and wireless equipment. When near such sources, patients with implanted neurostimulators have reported adverse events such as shock, pain, and increased stimulation. In recent in vitro studies, radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to inhibit the stimulation pulse of an implantable neurostimulator system during low frequency exposure at close distances. This could potentially be due to induced electrical currents inside the implantable neurostimulator leads that are caused by magnetic field coupling from the low frequency identification system. Methods To systematically address the concerns posed by EMI, we developed a test platform to assess the interference from coupled magnetic fields on implantable neurostimulator systems. To measure interference, we recorded the output of one implantable neurostimulator, programmed for best therapy threshold settings, when in close proximity to an operating low frequency RFID emitter. The output contained electrical potentials from the neurostimulator system and those induced by EMI from the RFID emitter. We also recorded the output of the same neurostimulator system programmed for best therapy threshold settings without RFID interference. Using the Spatially Extended Nonlinear Node (SENN) model, we compared threshold factors of spinal cord fiber excitation for both recorded outputs. Results The electric current induced by low frequency RFID emitter was not significant to have a noticeable effect on electrical stimulation. Conclusions We demonstrated a method for analyzing effects of coupled magnetic field interference on implantable neurostimulator system and its electrodes which could be used by device manufacturers during the design and testing phases of the development process. PMID:22014169

  19. Design and validation of chronic research tools for an implantable closed-loop neurostimulator

    E-print Network

    Shafquat, Afsah

    2011-01-01

    Neurostimulators today provide high frequency Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) for therapeutic modulation of diseased neural circuits. These devices are approved for the treatment of Parkinson's Disease, Essential Tremor and ...

  20. Impact of brain tissue filtering on neurostimulation fields: A modeling study

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Tim

    Electrical neurostimulation techniques, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), are increasingly used in the neurosciences, e.g., for studying brain function, and for neurotherapeutics, ...

  1. Supraorbital transcutaneous neurostimulation has sedative effects in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous neurostimulation (TNS) at extracephalic sites is a well known treatment of pain. Thanks to recent technical progress, the Cefaly® device now also allows supraorbital TNS. During observational clinical studies, several patients reported decreased vigilance or even sleepiness during a session of supraorbital TNS. We decided therefore to explore in more detail the potential sedative effect of supraorbital TNS, using standardized psychophysical tests in healthy volunteers. Methods We performed a double-blind cross-over sham-controlled study on 30 healthy subjects. They underwent a series of 4 vigilance tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale, d2 test). Each subject was tested under 4 different experimental conditions: without the neurostimulation device, with sham supraorbital TNS, with low frequency supraorbital TNS and with high frequency supraorbital TNS. Results As judged by the results of three tests (Psychomotor Vigilance Task, Critical Flicker Fusion Frequency, Fatigue Visual Numeric Scale) there was a statistically significant (p < 0.001) decrease in vigilance and attention during high frequency TNS, while there were no changes during the other experimental conditions. Similarly, performance on the d2 test was impaired during high frequency TNS, but this change was not statistically significant. Conclusion Supraorbital high frequency TNS applied with the Cefaly® device decreases vigilance in healthy volunteers. Additional studies are needed to determine the duration of this effect, the underlying mechanisms and the possible relation with the stimulation parameters. Meanwhile, this effect opens interesting perspectives for the treatment of hyperarousal states and, possibly, insomnia. PMID:22035386

  2. Forty Years of "Pastoral Care": An Appraisal of Michael Marland's Seminal Book and Its Significance for Pastoral Care in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Michael Marland's seminal book: "Pastoral Care" was published 40 years ago this year. The thesis of the book--that pastoral care is the central task of the school, and must be planned and institutionalized through pastoral roles and structures--is explored against the background of the social, cultural and educational developments…

  3. Neurostimulation as an intervention for treatment resistant depression: From research on mechanisms towards targeted neurocognitive strategies.

    PubMed

    De Raedt, Rudi; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Baeken, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Despite the fact that several interventions for major depression have proven efficacy, a substantial number of patients are or become treatment resistant to various forms of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Biological interventions that directly target brain activity such as electroconvulsive therapy are used to treat these patients, but some of these interventions are unlikely to be easily accepted because of their more invasive nature or side-effects. The efficacy of non-invasive neurostimulation with a favorable side effect profile, such as repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, could not be sufficiently demonstrated for treatment resistant depressed patients (TRD). We argue that research on the working mechanisms of these neurostimulation techniques is necessary to develop more efficient treatment protocols. After an overview of current neurostimulation approaches to treatment resistance and the introduction of a neurobiological and a cognitive framework of depression, we provide an integrative review of research on both the neurobiological and cognitive working mechanisms of neurostimulation in TRD, with a specific emphasis on the work of our lab. Thereafter, we describe our own studies and studies from other labs on new neurocognitive interventions. Finally we discuss how all this knowledge can be used to further develop new strategies to deal with treatment resistance, in combining neurostimulation and cognitive interventions. PMID:25468571

  4. Forty Years On1: Teachers’ Assessments of Children’s Personality Traits Predict Self-Reported Health Behaviors and Outcomes at Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Vogt, Thomas M.; Dubanoski, Joan P.

    2005-01-01

    A life-span health-behavior model was investigated in this longitudinal study of personality influences on health. Teachers assessed 963 elementary school children on traits that formed scales assessing the dimensions of the five-factor (Big Five) model of personality. Smoking, alcohol use, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health were assessed 40 years later in midlife. Childhood personality traits were significantly associated with all four outcomes, and the effects were consistently larger for women than men. For men and women, childhood Conscientiousness was associated with less adult smoking and better adult self-rated health and, for women only, with lower adult BMI. Mediation analyses suggested that the effects of Conscientiousness on self-rated health were partially mediated by smoking and BMI. These findings add to the growing evidence that childhood personality traits predict adult health outcomes, and are discussed in terms of future testing of the life-span health-behavior model. PMID:16448298

  5. Longitudinal Neurostimulation in Older Adults Improves Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Kevin T.; Stephens, Jaclyn A.; Alam, Mahtab; Bikson, Marom; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    An increasing concern affecting a growing aging population is working memory (WM) decline. Consequently, there is great interest in improving or stabilizing WM, which drives expanded use of brain training exercises. Such regimens generally result in temporary WM benefits to the trained tasks but minimal transfer of benefit to untrained tasks. Pairing training with neurostimulation may stabilize or improve WM performance by enhancing plasticity and strengthening WM-related cortical networks. We tested this possibility in healthy older adults. Participants received 10 sessions of sham (control) or active (anodal, 1.5 mA) tDCS to the right prefrontal, parietal, or prefrontal/parietal (alternating) cortices. After ten minutes of sham or active tDCS, participants performed verbal and visual WM training tasks. On the first, tenth, and follow-up sessions, participants performed transfer WM tasks including the spatial 2-back, Stroop, and digit span tasks. The results demonstrated that all groups benefited from WM training, as expected. However, at follow-up 1-month after training ended, only the participants in the active tDCS groups maintained significant improvement. Importantly, this pattern was observed for both trained and transfer tasks. These results demonstrate that tDCS-linked WM training can provide long-term benefits in maintaining cognitive training benefits and extending them to untrained tasks. PMID:25849358

  6. Responsive neurostimulation for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Wen, Xiong-Wei; Ge, Yan; Chen, Ning; Hu, Wen-Han; Zhang, Tan; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Meng, Fan-Gang

    2013-08-01

    With an annual incidence of 50/100,000 people, nearly 1% of the population suffers from epilepsy. Treatment with antiepileptic medication fails to achieve seizure remission in 20-30% of patients. One treatment option for refractory epilepsy patients who would not otherwise be surgical candidates is electrical stimulation of the brain, which is a rapidly evolving and reversible adjunctive therapy. Therapeutic stimulation can involve direct stimulation of the brain nuclei or indirect stimulation of peripheral nerves. There are three stimulation modalities that have class I evidence supporting their uses: vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), stimulation of the anterior nuclei of the thalamus (ANT), and, the most recently developed, responsive neurostimulation (RNS). While the other treatment modalities outlined deliver stimulation regardless of neuronal activity, the RNS administers stimulation only if triggered by seizure activity. The lower doses of stimulation provided by such responsive devices can not only reduce power consumption, but also prevent adverse reactions caused by continuous stimulation, which include the possibility of habituation to long-term stimulation. RNS, as an investigational treatment for medically refractory epilepsy, is currently under review by the FDA. Eventually systems may be developed to enable activation by neurochemical triggers or to wirelessly transmit any information gathered. We review the mechanisms, the current status, the target options, and the prospects of RNS for the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy. PMID:23735806

  7. Forty years of carabid beetle research in Europe – from taxonomy, biology, ecology and population studies to bioindication, habitat assessment and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, D. Johan; Brandmayr, Pietro; Casale, Achille; Dauffy-Richard, Emmanuelle; Dekoninck, Wouter; Koivula, Matti J.; Lövei, Gábor L.; Mossakowski, Dietrich; Noordijk, Jinze; Paarmann, Wilfried; Pizzolotto, Roberto; Saska, Pavel; Schwerk, Axel; Serrano, José; Szyszko, Jan; Taboada, Angela; Turin, Hans; Venn, Stephen; Vermeulen, Rikjan; Zetto, Tullia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract ‘Carabidologists do it all’ (Niemelä 1996a) is a phrase with which most European carabidologists are familiar. Indeed, during the last half a century, professional and amateur entomologists have contributed enormously to our understanding of the basic biology of carabid beetles. The success of the field is in no small part due to regular European Carabidologists’ Meetings, which started in 1969 in Wijster, the Netherlands, with the 14th meeting again held in the Netherlands in 2009, celebrating the 40th anniversary of the first meeting and 50 years of long-term research in the Dwingelderveld. This paper offers a subjective summary of some of the major developments in carabidology since the 1960s. Taxonomy of the family Carabidae is now reasonably established, and the application of modern taxonomic tools has brought up several surprises like elsewhere in the animal kingdom. Progress has been made on the ultimate and proximate factors of seasonality and timing of reproduction, which only exceptionally show non-seasonality. Triggers can be linked to evolutionary events and plausibly explained by the “taxon cycle” theory. Fairly little is still known about certain feeding preferences, including granivory and ants, as well as unique life history strategies, such as ectoparasitism and predation on higher taxa. The study of carabids has been instrumental in developing metapopulation theory (even if it was termed differently). Dispersal is one of the areas intensively studied, and results show an intricate interaction between walking and flying as the major mechanisms. The ecological study of carabids is still hampered by some unresolved questions about sampling and data evaluation. It is recognised that knowledge is uneven, especially concerning larvae and species in tropical areas. By their abundance and wide distribution, carabid beetles can be useful in population studies, bioindication, conservation biology and landscape ecology. Indeed, 40 years of carabidological research have provided so much data and insights, that among insects - and arguably most other terrestrial organisms - carabid beetles are one of the most worthwhile model groups for biological studies. PMID:21738408

  8. Forty-Year Trends in Tooth Loss Among American Adults With and Without Diabetes Mellitus: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huabin; Pan, Wei; Sloan, Frank; Feinglos, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed to assess the trends in tooth loss among adults with and without diabetes mellitus in the United States and racial/ethnic disparities in tooth loss patterns, and to evaluate trends in tooth loss by age, birth cohorts, and survey periods. Methods Data came from 9 waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1971 through 2012. The trends in the estimated tooth loss in people with and without diabetes were assessed by age groups, survey periods, and birth cohorts. The analytical sample was 37,609 dentate (ie, with at least 1 permanent tooth) adults aged 25 years or older. We applied hierarchical age-period-cohort cross-classified random-effects models for the trend analysis. Results The estimated number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes increased more with age than that among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (z = 4.05, P < .001) or Mexican Americans with diabetes (z = 4.38, P < .001). During 1971–2012, there was a significant decreasing trend in the number of teeth lost among non-Hispanic whites with diabetes (slope = ?0.20, P < .001) and non-Hispanic blacks with diabetes (slope = ?0.37, P < .001). However, adults with diabetes had about twice the tooth loss as did those without diabetes. Conclusion Substantial differences in tooth loss between adults with and without diabetes and across racial/ethnic groups persisted over time. Appropriate dental care and tooth retention need to be further promoted among adults with diabetes. PMID:26632952

  9. Massively-parallel neuromonitoring and neurostimulation rodent headset with nanotextured flexible microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Arezu; Gabran, S R I; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis; Mansour, Raafat R; Salama, M M A; Genov, Roman

    2013-10-01

    We present a compact wireless headset for simultaneous multi-site neuromonitoring and neurostimulation in the rodent brain. The system comprises flexible-shaft microelectrodes, neural amplifiers, neurostimulators, a digital time-division multiplexer (TDM), a micro-controller and a ZigBee wireless transceiver. The system is built by parallelizing up to four 0.35 ?m CMOS integrated circuits (each having 256 neural amplifiers and 64 neurostimulators) to provide a total maximum of 1024 neural amplifiers and 256 neurostimulators. Each bipolar neural amplifier features 54 dB-72 dB adjustable gain, 1 Hz-5 kHz adjustable bandwidth with an input-referred noise of 7.99 ?Vrms and dissipates 12.9 ?W. Each current-mode bipolar neurostimulator generates programmable arbitrary-waveform biphasic current in the range of 20-250 ?A and dissipates 2.6 ?W in the stand-by mode. Reconfigurability is provided by stacking a set of dedicated mini-PCBs that share a common signaling bus within as small as 22 × 30 × 15 mm³ volume. The system features flexible polyimide-based microelectrode array design that is not brittle and increases pad packing density. Pad nanotexturing by electrodeposition reduces the electrode-tissue interface impedance from an average of 2 M? to 30 k? at 100 Hz. The rodent headset and the microelectrode array have been experimentally validated in vivo in freely moving rats for two months. We demonstrate 92.8 percent seizure rate reduction by responsive neurostimulation in an acute epilepsy rat model. PMID:24144667

  10. Forty Years of Research on Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulentic, J.

    2010-10-01

    Isolated galaxies have not been a hot topic over the past four decades. This is partly due to uncertainties about their existence. Are there galaxies isolated enough to be interesting? Do they exist in sufficient numbers to be statistically useful? Most attempts to compile isolated galaxy lists were marginally successful-too small number and not very isolated galaxies. If really isolated galaxies do exist then their value becomes obvious in a Universe where effects of interactions and environment (i.e. nurture) are important. They provide a means for better quantifying effects of nurture. The Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG) compiled by Valentina Karachentseva appeared near the beginning of the review period. It becomes the focus of this review because of its obvious strengths and because the AMIGA project has increased its utility through a refinement (a vetted CIG). It contains almost 1000 galaxies with nearest neighbor crossing times of 1--3 Gyr. It is large enough to serve as a zero-point or control sample. The galaxies in the CIG (and the distribution of galaxy types) may be significantly different than those in even slightly richer environments. The AMIGA-CIG, and future iterations, may be able to tell us something about galaxy formation. It may also allow us to better define intrinsic (natural) correlations like e.g. Fisher-Tully and FIR-OPTICAL. Correlations can be better defined when the dispersion added by external stimuli (nurture) is minimized or removed.

  11. Ethics and Education Forty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.

    2007-01-01

    R.S. Peters's 1966 book "Ethics and Education" is one of the most significant works in twentieth-century philosophy of education. At least in the United States, however, it is now rarely read or discussed. In this essay, Bryan Warnick looks at the virtues and vices of "Ethics and Education," examining some major criticisms of the book in light of…

  12. Interpersonal Expectancy Effects: A Forty Year Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Robert

    Interpersonal expectancy effects--the unintentional expectations that experimenters, teachers, and authority figures bring to experiments, classrooms, and other situations--can wield significant influence on individuals. Some of the issues surrounding expectancy effects are detailed in this paper. The effect itself has been recreated in…

  13. My First Forty Years (1974-2013)

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhi Jian "ZJ"

    problem Is the smallest number of good ideas required to resolve it. (It is the height at which the fruit it (Eddington} The ICASE equation says nothing about oblique waves, or about vorticity, or about preserving

  14. Forty Years Later: Updating the Fossilization Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, ZhaoHong

    2013-01-01

    A founding concept in second language acquisition (SLA) research, fossilization has been fundamental to understanding second language (L2) development. The Fossilization Hypothesis, introduced in Selinker's seminal text (1972), has thus been one of the most influential theories, guiding a significant bulk of SLA research for four decades; 2012…

  15. Pre-frontal control of closed-loop limbic neurostimulation by rodents using a brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widge, Alik S.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. There is great interest in closed-loop neurostimulators that sense and respond to a patient's brain state. Such systems may have value for neurological and psychiatric illnesses where symptoms have high intraday variability. Animal models of closed-loop stimulators would aid preclinical testing. We therefore sought to demonstrate that rodents can directly control a closed-loop limbic neurostimulator via a brain-computer interface (BCI). Approach. We trained rats to use an auditory BCI controlled by single units in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BCI controlled electrical stimulation in the medial forebrain bundle, a limbic structure involved in reward-seeking. Rigorous offline analyses were performed to confirm volitional control of the neurostimulator. Main results. All animals successfully learned to use the BCI and neurostimulator, with closed-loop control of this challenging task demonstrated at 80% of PFC recording locations. Analysis across sessions and animals confirmed statistically robust BCI control and specific, rapid modulation of PFC activity. Significance. Our results provide a preliminary demonstration of a method for emotion-regulating closed-loop neurostimulation. They further suggest that activity in PFC can be used to control a BCI without pre-training on a predicate task. This offers the potential for BCI-based treatments in refractory neurological and mental illness.

  16. Ipsi- and Contralateral Motor Response Using Ultrasound-induced Neurostimulation in Deeply Anesthetized Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Hermes; Wang, Shutao; Chen, Hong; Wang, Qi; Aurup, Christian; Fan, Kathtleen; Carneiro, Antonio; Konofagou, Elisa

    Ultrasound neurostimulation has been proven capable of eliciting motor responses. However, the studies in sedated rodents presented problems with target specificity due to the use of low ultrasound frequencies (<700 kHz). Here, we show that focused ultrasound (FUS) in mega-Hz range was able to evoke motor responses in mice under deep anesthesia. Contralateral movements of the hind limbs were observed when sonications were carried out at +2 mm of Lambda and ±2 mm lateral of midline in three mice. Moreover, stimulating other regions of the somatosensory and cerebellum induced trunk and ipsilateral limb movements in all six mice.

  17. ZigBee-based Wireless Neuro-Stimulator for Improving Stroke Recovery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gookhwa; Yun, Hyojeong; Ryu, Munho; Shin, Yongil; Kim, Hyoungihl; Yang, Yoonseok

    2010-12-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of adult disability and the second-leading cause of death in Korea. It is also the third-leading cause of death in the United States, leading to a serious demand for new interventions to improve the quality of life in stroke survivors. To this end, direct cortical stimulation using an epidural electrode has been reported with promising results in animal and human studies, showing the potential for enhancing the recovery in chronic stroke patients. For optimal results, doctors must be able to modify the stimulation pattern as frequently as needed over a period of time for a given patient. However, severe aftereffects caused by stroke limit patients' activities, making regular doctor visits for treatment difficult. This study aims to develop a prototype of a telemedicine system to enhance stroke recovery by using a ZigBeebased wireless neuro-stimulator. The ZigBee is a stable platform for many low-power wireless applications. To allow stroke patients to remotely obtain neuro-stimulation treatments from their doctors, we connected the ZigBee to the internet. The system also allows doctors to personalize treatment based on the history of the stimulation parameters. The system developed here can also be beneficial as a common platform for a wide range of brain diseases and clinical care for which electric stimulation is used. PMID:22110356

  18. Forty Years of Education: Will the Next Forty Be Any Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1981-01-01

    Ponders the transitory nature of some educational innovations, the resistence of the school system to outside forces, and two conditions without precedence: the reality of nuclear weapons and the women's movement. (MLF)

  19. RAMANUJAN'S FORTY IDENTITIES FOR THE ROGERSRAMANUJAN FUNCTIONS

    E-print Network

    Garvan, Frank

    RAMANUJAN'S FORTY IDENTITIES FOR THE ROGERS­RAMANUJAN FUNCTIONS BRUCE C. BERNDT1 , GEUMLAN CHOI on these planets." Holmes replies, "Watson, you idiot. Somebody stole our tent." When seeking proofs of Ramanujan's identities for the Rogers­Ramanujan functions, Watson, i.e., G. N. Watson, was not an "idiot." He, L. J

  20. Forty-five years of cell-cycle genetics.

    PubMed

    Reid, Brian J; Culotti, Joseph G; Nash, Robert S; Pringle, John R

    2015-12-01

    In the early 1970s, studies in Leland Hartwell's laboratory at the University of Washington launched the genetic analysis of the eukaryotic cell cycle and set the path that has led to our modern understanding of this centrally important process. This 45th-anniversary Retrospective reviews the steps by which the project took shape, the atmosphere in which this happened, and the possible morals for modern times. It also provides an up-to-date look at the 35 original CDC genes and their human homologues. PMID:26628751

  1. Forty Years of School Readiness Research: What Have We Learned?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Suzanne M.; Kelley, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    The issue of children's school readiness concerns parents and teachers worldwide. Kindergarten teachers have reported that approximately one-third of U.S. children entering school are ill-prepared to achieve success. Experts also warn that many children are entering school lacking the fundamental skills to achieve academic success. It is…

  2. Forty Years of Teacher Education in Australia: 1974-2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I analyse the history of teacher education in Australia from 1974 to the current policy moment in which questions are increasingly being asked about the quality of teaching and teacher education. Teacher education is, and has been, a highly scrutinised domain in Australia. Since the 1970s, we have seen more than 100 reviews of…

  3. Forty-Year-Old Foam Springs Back With New Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The most recognized and widely used NASA spinoff is at it again. Temper foam, whose origins date back to 1966 when it was developed to absorb shock and, thus, offer improved protection and comfort in NASA s airplane seats, has paid its dividends to Earth repeatedly, and in many different ways. It has padded the helmets of the Dallas Cowboys throughout the 1970s and 1980s, protected bedridden patients from bedsores, and comforted the feet of thousands wearing stylish shoes that incorporate the cushioning material in their insoles. Four decades later, the world has come to realize that there are no bounds to temper foam s benefits. Though the rights to the technology have been shared amongst various manufacturers, the original product maker is still going strong, pushing temper foam into new arenas, including automotives, amusement parks, prosthetics, and modern art.

  4. Changes in Patterns of Health Care: Plus Forty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofalvi, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an update of Herman's article ["Changes in Patterns of Health Care," "School Health Review," 1(9-14)1969] that focuses on the changes in patterns of health care. He discusses the poverty, insurance, and access to medical care as well as the quality of medical care for adults and minors. He stresses that…

  5. Forty-Five Years of Marburg Virus Research

    PubMed Central

    Brauburger, Kristina; Hume, Adam J.; Mühlberger, Elke; Olejnik, Judith

    2012-01-01

    In 1967, the first reported filovirus hemorrhagic fever outbreak took place in Germany and the former Yugoslavia. The causative agent that was identified during this outbreak, Marburg virus, is one of the most deadly human pathogens. This article provides a comprehensive overview of our current knowledge about Marburg virus disease ranging from ecology to pathogenesis and molecular biology. PMID:23202446

  6. Forty years of Galilean Electromagnetism (1973-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseaux, Germain

    2013-08-01

    We review Galilean Electromagnetism since the 1973 seminal paper of Jean-Marc Lévy-Leblond and Michel Le Bellac and we explain for the first time all the historical experiments of Rowland, Vasilescu Karpen, Roentgen, Eichenwald, Wilson, Wilson and Wilson, which were previously interpreted in a Special Relativistic framework by showing the uselessness of the latter for setups involving slow motions of a part of the apparatus. Galilean Electromagnetism is not an alternative to Special Relavity but is precisely its low-velocity limit in Classical Electromagnetism.

  7. Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

    2013-12-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

  8. Auditory verbal hallucinations as atypical inner speech monitoring, and the potential of neurostimulation as a treatment option?

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Peter; Fernyhough, Charles; Ellison, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) are the experience of hearing voices in the absence of any speaker, often associated with a schizophrenia diagnosis. Prominent cognitive models of AVHs suggest they may be the result of inner speech being misattributed to an external or non-self source, due to atypical self- or reality monitoring. These arguments are supported by studies showing that people experiencing AVHs often show an externalising bias during monitoring tasks, and neuroimaging evidence which implicates superior temporal brain regions, both during AVHs and during tasks that measure verbal self-monitoring performance. Recently, efficacy of noninvasive neurostimulation techniques as a treatment option for AVHs has been tested. Meta-analyses show a moderate effect size in reduction of AVH frequency, but there has been little attempt to explain the therapeutic effect of neurostimulation in relation to existing cognitive models. This article reviews inner speech models of AVHs, and argues that a possible explanation for reduction in frequency following treatment may be modulation of activity in the brain regions involving the monitoring of inner speech. PMID:24125858

  9. 66 FR 44672 - Medicare Program; Changes to the Hospital Outpatient Prospective Payment System and Calendar Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2001-08-24

    ...pacemakers, defibrillators, infusion pumps, and neurostimulators. The presenter...APC for electronic analysis of infusion pumps and neurostimulators. The APC created for electronic analysis of infusion pumps and neurostimulators would include...

  10. Natural Marine and Synthetic Xenobiotics Get on Nematode's Nerves: Neuro-Stimulating and Neurotoxic Findings in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lieke, Thora; Steinberg, Christian E W; Ju, Jingjuan; Saul, Nadine

    2015-05-01

    Marine algae release a plethora of organic halogenated compounds, many of them with unknown ecological impact if environmentally realistic concentrations are applied. One major compound is dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) which was tested for neurotoxicity in the invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This natural compound was compared with the widespread synthetic xenobiotic tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) found in marine sediments and mussels. We found a neuro-stimulating effect for DBAA; this is contradictory to existing toxicological reports of mammals that applied comparatively high dosages. For TBBP-A, we found a hormetic concentration-effect relationship. As chemicals rarely occur isolated in the environment, a combination of both organobromines was also examined. Surprisingly, the presence of DBAA increased the toxicity of TBBP-A. Our results demonstrated that organohalogens have the potential to affect single organisms especially by altering the neurological processes, even with promoting effects on exposed organisms. PMID:25955755

  11. Natural Marine and Synthetic Xenobiotics Get on Nematode’s Nerves: Neuro-Stimulating and Neurotoxic Findings in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lieke, Thora; Steinberg, Christian E. W.; Ju, Jingjuan; Saul, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Marine algae release a plethora of organic halogenated compounds, many of them with unknown ecological impact if environmentally realistic concentrations are applied. One major compound is dibromoacetic acid (DBAA) which was tested for neurotoxicity in the invertebrate model organism Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This natural compound was compared with the widespread synthetic xenobiotic tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A) found in marine sediments and mussels. We found a neuro-stimulating effect for DBAA; this is contradictory to existing toxicological reports of mammals that applied comparatively high dosages. For TBBP-A, we found a hormetic concentration-effect relationship. As chemicals rarely occur isolated in the environment, a combination of both organobromines was also examined. Surprisingly, the presence of DBAA increased the toxicity of TBBP-A. Our results demonstrated that organohalogens have the potential to affect single organisms especially by altering the neurological processes, even with promoting effects on exposed organisms. PMID:25955755

  12. [Infertility over forty: Pros and cons of IVF].

    PubMed

    Belaisch-Allart, J; Maget, V; Mayenga, J-M; Grefenstette, I; Chouraqui, A; Belaid, Y; Kulski, O

    2015-09-01

    The population attempting pregnancy and having babies is ageing. The declining fertility potential and the late age of motherhood are increasing significantly the number of patients over forty consulting infertility specialists. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) cannot compensate the natural decline in fertility with age. In France, in public hospital, ART is free of charge for women until 43 years, over 43, social insurance does not reimburse ART. Hence, 43 years is the usual limit, but between 40 and 42 is ART useful? The answer varies according to physicians, couples or society. On medical level, the etiology of the infertility must be taken into account. If there is an explanation to infertility (male or tubal infertility) ART is better than abstention. If the infertility is only due to age the question is raised. In France, the reimbursement by the society of a technique with very low results is discussed. However efficacy is not absolutely compulsory in Medicine. On the opposite to give false hopes may be discussed too. To obtain a reasonable consensus is rather difficult. PMID:26297163

  13. www.fortinet.com FortiGate-80C/110C/111C

    E-print Network

    www.fortinet.com FortiGate-80C/110C/111C FortiGate-80C/110C/111C FIPS 140-2 Security Policy Policy issues, compliancy and requirements for FIPS compliant operation. Hardware Models: FortiGate-80C (C4BC61) FortiGate-110C (C4HA15) FortiGate-111C (C4BQ31) Firmware Version: FortiOS 4.0, build6359

  14. Ramanujan's Forty Identities for the RogersRamanujan Functions

    E-print Network

    Yesilyurt, Hamza

    Ramanujan's Forty Identities for the Rogers­Ramanujan Functions Bruce C. Berndt Geumlan Choi Youn." Holmes replies, "Watson, you idiot. Somebody stole our tent." When seeking proofs of Ramanujan's identities for the Rogers­Ramanujan func- tions, Watson, i.e., G. N. Watson, was not an "idiot." He, L. J

  15. "Forty Acres and a Mule" as a Pedagogical Motif

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    This essay revisits an iconic yet now languishing phrase in United States political culture--"Forty Acres and a Mule"--to clarify the meaning of freedom and to assess the contemporary meaning of its betrayal by the U.S. government immediately after the Civil War. Among the few citizens for whom the phrase still retains a semblance of…

  16. Geological issues in Alberto Fortis' Viaggio in Dalmazia (1774)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri?, Maša; Lon?ari?, Robert; ?uka, Anica; Fari?i?, Josip

    2007-08-01

    The Italian abbot Alberto Fortis (1741-1803), educated in geology, petrology, mineralogy, and palaeontology by eminent 18th-century naturalists, performed several extensive explorations in Istria and Dalmatia - provinces of the former Venetian Republic, now the littoral part of Croatia. Notes from some of these journeys, collected in 1774 in the book Viaggio in Dalmazia, encompass observations of almost all aspects of social and physical features of Dalmatian people and land. From a geological point of view, Fortis' remarks generally correspond to recent studies, with some exceptions in palaeontological and petrological issues. His understanding of natural processes, mainly in karstology and hydrology, is mostly surprisingly good. Besides, he addressed critics to previous writers, whose theories, influenced by older authorities, had been taken for granted instead of being re-examined by field explorations. His unjustly neglected work was the first extensive and comprehensive study of this part of Europe, little known in the then scientific community.

  17. Non-invasive interactive neurostimulation (InterX ™) reduces acute pain in patients following total knee replacement surgery: a randomised, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Adequate post-operative pain relief following total knee replacement (TKR) is very important to optimal post-operative recovery. Faster mobilisation and rehabilitation ultimately results in optimum recovery outcomes, but pain is often the limiting factor. This study evaluates the potential clinical benefit of the InterX neurostimulation device on pain reduction and rehabilitative outcome. Methods A clinical trial under the Hywel Dda Clinical Audit Committee to validate the clinical benefit of Non-invasive Interactive Neurostimulation (NIN) therapy using the InterX device was performed in patients undergoing TKR. 61 patients were randomised to treatment groups in blocks of two from the Theatre Operation List. The control group received the standard hospital course of pain medication and rehabilitation twice daily for 3 post-op days. The experimental group received 8 sessions of NIN therapy over 3 post-op days in addition to the standard course received by the Control group. Pain and range of motion were collected as the primary study measures. Results Sixty one subjects were enrolled and randomised, but 2 subjects (one/group) were excluded due to missing data at Baseline/Final; one subject in the InterX group was excluded due to pre-existing rheumatoid pain conditions confounding the analysis. The experimental group pre- to post-session Verbal Rating Scale for pain (VRS) showed that NIN therapy consistently reduced the pain scores by a mean of 2.3 points (SE 0.11). The NIN pre-treatment score at Final was used for the primary ANCOVA comparison, demonstrating a significantly greater cumulative treatment effect of a mean 2.2 (SE 0.49) points pain reduction (p = 0.002). Control subjects only experienced a mean 0.34 (SE 0.49) point decrease in pain. Ninety degrees ROM was required to discharge the patient and this was attained as an average despite the greater Baseline deficit in the InterX group. Eight control patients and three experimental patients did not achieve this ROM. Conclusions The results clearly demonstrated the clinical benefit of NIN therapy as a supplement to the standard rehabilitation protocol. The subjects receiving InterX fared significantly better clinically. Within a relatively short 3-day period of time, patients in the experimental group obtained the necessary ROM for discharge and did it experiencing lower levels of pain than those in the control group. PMID:21864362

  18. 3-D flexible nano-textured high-density microelectrode arrays for high-performance neuro-monitoring and neuro-stimulation.

    PubMed

    Gabran, S R I; Salam, Muhammad Tariqus; Dian, Joshua; El-Hayek, Youssef; Perez Velazquez, J L; Genov, Roman; Carlen, Peter L; Salama, M M A; Mansour, Raafat R

    2014-09-01

    We introduce a new 3-D flexible microelectrode array for high performance electrographic neural signal recording and stimulation. The microelectrode architecture maximizes the number of channels on each shank and minimizes its footprint. The electrode was implemented on flexible polyimide substrate using microfabrication and thin-film processing. The electrode has a planar layout and comprises multiple shanks. Each shank is three mm in length and carries six gold pads representing the neuro-interfacing channels. The channels are used in recording important precursors with potential clinical relevance and consequent electrical stimulation to perturb the clinical condition. The polyimide structure satisfied the mechanical characteristics required for the proper electrode implantation and operation. Pad postprocessing technique was developed to improve the electrode electrical performance. The planar electrodes were used for creating 3-D "Waterloo Array" microelectrode with controlled gaps using custom designed stackers. Electrode characterization and benchmarking against commercial equivalents demonstrated the superiority of the Flex electrodes. The Flex and commercial electrodes were associated with low-power implantable responsive neuro-stimulation system. The electrodes performance in recording and stimulation application was quantified through in vitro and in vivo acute and chronic experiments on human brain slices and freely-moving rodents. The Flex electrodes exhibited remarkable drop in the electric impedance (100 times at 100 Hz), improved electrode-electrolyte interface noise (dropped by four times) and higher signal-to-noise ratio (3.3 times). PMID:24876130

  19. Forty years on: Uta Frith's contribution to research on autism and dyslexia, 1966–2006

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2008-01-01

    Uta Frith has made a major contribution to our understanding of developmental disorders, especially autism and dyslexia. She has studied the cognitive and neurobiological bases of both disorders and demonstrated distinctive impairments in social cognition and central coherence in autism, and in phonological processing in dyslexia. In this enterprise she has encouraged psychologists to work in a theoretical framework that distinguishes between observed behaviour and the underlying cognitive and neurobiological processes that mediate that behaviour. PMID:18038335

  20. Forty years experience in developing and using rainfall simulators under tropical and Mediterranean conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Nacci, Silvana

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulation has been used as a practical tool for evaluating the interaction of falling water drops on the soil surface, to measure both stability of soil aggregates to drop impact and water infiltration rates. In both cases it is tried to simulate the effects of natural rainfall, which usually occurs at very different, variable and erratic rates and intensities. One of the main arguments against the use of rainfall simulators is the difficulty to reproduce the size, final velocity and kinetic energy of the drops in natural rainfall. Since the early 70´s we have been developing and using different kinds of rainfall simulators, both at laboratory and field levels, and under tropical and Mediterranean soil and climate conditions, in flat and sloping lands. They have been mainly used to evaluate the relative effects of different land use and management, including different cropping systems, tillage practices, surface soil conditioning, surface covers, etc. on soil water infiltration, on runoff and on erosion. Our experience is that in any case it is impossible to reproduce the variable size distribution and terminal velocity of raindrops, and the variable changes in intensity of natural storms, under a particular climate condition. In spite of this, with the use of rainfall simulators it is possible to obtain very good information, which if it is properly interpreted in relation to each particular condition (land and crop management, rainfall characteristics, measurement conditions, etc.) may be used as one of the parameters for deducing and modelling soil water balance and soil moisture regime under different land use and management and variable climate conditions. Due to the possibility for a better control of the intensity of simulated rainfall and of the size of water drops, and the possibility to make more repeated measurements under very variable soil and land conditions, both in the laboratory and specially in the field, the better results have been obtained with small size 500-1000 cm2, easily dismantled, drop former simulators, than with larger, nozzle, or more sophisticated equipments. In this contribution there are presented some of the rainfall simulators developed and used by the main author, and some of the results obtained in different studies of practical problems under tropical and Mediterranean conditions. References Pla, I.,G.Campero, y R.Useche.1974.Physical degradación of agricultural soils in the Western Plains of Venezuela. "Trans.10th Int.Cong.Soil.Sci.Soc". 1:231-240. .Moscú Pla, I. 1975.Effects of bitumen emulsion and polyacrilamide on some physical properties of Venezuelan soils. En "Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Special Publication"• 7. 35-46. Madison. Wisconsin . (USA). Pla, I. 1977.Aggregate size and erosion control on sloping land treated with hydrophobic bitumen emulsion."Soil Conservation and Management in the Humid Tropics".109-115. John Wiley & Sons. Pla, I.1981.Simuladores de lluvia para el estudio de relaciones suelo-agua bajo agricultura de secano en los trópicos. Rev. Fac. Agron. XII(1-2):81-93.Maracay (Venezuela) Pla, I. 1986.A routine laboratory index to predict the effects of soil sealing on soil and water conservation. En "Assesment of Soil Surface Sealing and Crusting". 154-162.State Univ. of Ghent.Gante (Bélgica Pla, I., M.C. Ramos, S. Nacci, F. Fonseca y X. Abreu. 2005. Soil moisture regime in dryland vineyards of Catalunya (Spain) as influenced by climate, soil and land management. "Integrated Soil and Water Management for Orchard Development". FAO Land and Water Bulletin 10. 41-49. Roma (Italia).

  1. Forty years of integration of health and social services in the province of Québec (Canada)

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Réjean

    2012-01-01

    Québec is the only province in Canada to have integrated health and social services since 1971. A single ministry is responsible for health and social services and this integration is also effective at regional and local agencies. The Local Community Services Centres (Centre locaux de services communautaires—CLSC) were created to provide preventive and primary care and services for a borough in large cities, a medium-size town or many villages in a rural area. In 2003, a major reform created the Health and Social Service Centres (Centre de santé et de services sociaux—CSSS) by merging hospitals, nursing homes and CLSC in 95 areas over the province. This structural integration has taken place at the same time that the PRISMA model of coordination-type integration for frail older people was being implemented. Integration improves efficiency of the system, but underfunding of long-term care still hampers the provision of adequate home care services. It is now time for moving the beveridge-type funding system to a long-term care public insurance covering the needs of community-dwelling older people with disabilities.

  2. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-PIFSC-40 Forty Years of Research: Recovery Records

    E-print Network

    Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U.S. Department of Commerce #12;About this document The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is to understand Science Center National Marine Fisheries Service National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration U

  3. A Forty Year Perspective on Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCord, Joan

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979, 98 percent of men identified as young children were retraced. Records for juvenile delinquency showed higher rates among abused, neglected, and rejected boys than those raised by loving parents. Alcoholism, divorce, and occupational success rates were similar among the four groups. Maternal self-confidence and education…

  4. [Forty years of progress in the therapeutic management of lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Van Houtte, P; Roelandts, M; Mornex, F

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews and describes the progress made in the therapeutic management of patients suffering from a lung cancer, outlining the major improvements made and suggesting some perspectives for the future. PMID:25195118

  5. Thinning of the ice sheet in northwest Greenland over the past forty years.

    PubMed

    Paterson, W S; Reeh, N

    2001-11-01

    Thermal expansion of the oceans, as well as melting of glaciers, ice sheets and ice caps have been the main contributors to global sea level rise over the past century. The greatest uncertainty in predicting future sea level changes lies with our estimates of the mass balance of the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica. Satellite measurements have been used to determine changes in these ice sheets on short timescales, demonstrating that surface-elevation changes on timescales of decades or less result mainly from variations in snow accumulation. Here we present direct measurements of the changes in surface elevation between 1954 and 1995 on a traverse across the north Greenland ice sheet. Measurements over a time interval of this length should reflect changes in ice flow-the important quantity for predicting changes in sea level-relatively unperturbed by short-term fluctuations in snow accumulation. We find only small changes in the eastern part of the transect, except for some thickening of the north ice stream. On the west side, however, the thinning rates of the ice sheet are significantly higher and thinning extends to higher elevations than had been anticipated from previous studies. PMID:11689941

  6. In Search of the Audience - Forty Years of German Public Television and Its Audience Driven Commercialization

    E-print Network

    Goebel, Baerbel

    2011-04-11

    and child murder was a main part of the narrative created an explosive cross-connection. Tatort has a responsibility to its viewers, as the constant use of national, regional and local markers supply a high amount of realism to its viewers, and result in a...), the 23 production processes, and government pressures on the one hand, and the narrative unfolding on the screens in a video/audio interplay on the other. Dallas W. Smythe’s work on commodity audiences focuses on commercial television and the idea...

  7. Forty-Five Years of Chemical Discovery Including a Golden Quarter-Century

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Hanan E.

    .* Department of Chemistry and the Laboratory for Molecular Structure and Bonding, Texas A&M UniVersity, College chemistry with Cotton. The structural discovery, using the rudimentary X-ray crystallography of the day Station, Texas 77843 Received May 20, 2002 Inorganic chemistry became a passion for me as a graduate

  8. Large Scale Structure -- the Seventies and Forty Years Later: from Clusters to Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chincarini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The following sections are included: * Prologue * Introduction * The readiness for spectroscopic surveys * The early spectroscopic work * Hunting the mass * Toward a new era * What Next? * Conclusions * Acknowledgments * APPENDIX I * APPENDIX II * APPENDIX III * References

  9. Forty Years of Progress: Where Have We Been? Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rhonda S.; Salas, Beverly A.

    This paper uses personal profiles to highlight major events across the past five decades that have affected the lives of individuals with mental retardation and their families. Each of the scenarios provided represents a creation of prototypical families, communities, school climates, issues, and social attitudes during a particular decade.…

  10. SPECIAL ISSUE: Forty years of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadyshevskii, Vladimir G.

    1996-09-01

    1996 marks the 40th anniversary of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research — an event which is widely celebrated. For four decades of its existence, the Joint Institute has made a distinguished contribution to the development of science and technology. Since its foundation on 26 March 1956, excellent researches have been performed at JINR in various fields of modern physics, accelerator and reactor techniques and numerous specialists for the Member States have been trained. JINR has at present 18 Member States. Also, the Joint Institute has bilateral agreements with BMBF (Germany) and the Hungarian Academy of Sciences signed at the governmental level. The Joint Institute takes active part in international collaborations at CERN (Geneva), IN2P3 (France), INFN (Italy), BNL, FNAL (USA), and at other scientific centres throughout the world. JINR today is an internationally recognised scientific centre which incorporates the fundamental research of the structure of matter, development and application of high technologies, and university education in the relevant fields of knowledge. The celebrations on the occasion of JINR's 40th anniversary were held at the Institute on 26-27 March 1996. At the 80th session of JINR's international Scientific Council held on 27 March, the Dubna scientists, their colleagues, and partners delivered reports on various activities of this international centre. Some of these reports are published in this issue.

  11. Forty Years after the Bay of Pigs: Resources for Social Studies Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Gloria

    2001-01-01

    Reflects on the experience of visiting Cuba through the People to People Ambassador Program, founded by President Dwight D. Eisenhower to promote international understanding and cooperation. Includes a list of suggested readings for social studies teachers and a list of organizations focusing on Cuba. (CMK)

  12. Enduring Documents and Public Doctrines: Martin Luther King's "Letter from Birmingham Jail" after Forty Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aeschliman, M. D.

    2005-01-01

    In the century just past, the immense ethical and political destructiveness of intellectuals was so frequent and protean in form that intellectual historians have a story as complex as it is tragic to tell, and one that many of them do not relish, perhaps out of occupational solidarity or shame. The "treason of the intellectuals," to use Julien…

  13. Forty-five years after Broadbent (1958): still no identification without attention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lachter, Joel; Forster, Kenneth I.; Ruthruff, Eric

    2004-01-01

    According to D. E. Broadbent's (1958) selective filter theory, people do not process unattended stimuli beyond the analysis of basic physical properties. This theory was later rejected on the basis of numerous findings that people identify irrelevant (and supposedly unattended) stimuli. A careful review of this evidence, however, reveals strong reasons to doubt that these irrelevant stimuli were in fact unattended. This review exposed a clear need for new experiments with tight control over the locus of attention. The authors present 5 such experiments using a priming paradigm. When steps were taken to ensure that irrelevant stimuli were not attended, these stimuli produced no priming effects. Hence, the authors found no evidence that unattended stimuli can be identified. The results support a modern version of Broadbent's selective theory, updated to reflect recent research advances. 2004 APA.

  14. The Poisoning in Hong Kong --An Episode of Life in China Forty Years Ago

    E-print Network

    Gray, Robert M.

    , a "circular" ­ a half sheet of paper ­, at the head of which was written in large characters, "The bread it means, more than 1 #12;it says, but one thing is certain, the bread is poisoned, and there are lots of people down with it." Whose bread is poisoned? What bread is poisoned?" "I don't know for sure; but there

  15. Forty years of landscape change in Attwater's Prairie Chicken habitat within the Coastal Prairie of Texas 

    E-print Network

    McKinney, Lloyd B.

    1996-01-01

    The Gulf Coastal Prairie is one of the most intensively utilized natural region,-in Texas. Agricultural development, urbanization, mining (oil and natural gas) and their infrastructure have served as agents of prairie destruction and fragmentation...

  16. Forty Years in the Union: Incubating, Supporting, and Catalyzing Socially Just Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottmann, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    North American teacher unions' positive contributions to educational change have historically flown under the radar of educational policy makers, a situation that has been reified by recent attacks on public sector unions. In this article, I draw on social movement theory and an institutional case study of a self described social justice union to…

  17. Forty Years of Struggle and Still No Right to Inuit Education in Nunavut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Derek

    2011-01-01

    In this article issues related to policy and education in the Canadian Arctic are critically put to question. The focus is on the struggle for Inuit education, language issues, and supporting minority rights, with pragmatic solutions proposed to the problems confronting Nunavut.

  18. Forty years of change: a northern Alaskan seabird's response to a warming Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divoky, G.; Suydam, R.

    2012-12-01

    While recent decadal-scale decreases in the snow and ice habitats of the Arctic are well documented, there are few concurrent long-term biological data sets, especially for species dependent on the cryopelagic ecosystem associated with arctic sea ice. The Black Guillemot (Cepphus grylle mandti), a marine apex predator specializing on prey associated with arctic pack ice has been studied annually since 1975 at a colony on Cooper Island, 35 km east of Point Barrow, Alaska. Over the last four decades critical components of the species' life history have been found to be sensitive to a number of physical and biological effects associated with the region's increasing atmospheric temperatures. Black Guillemots first colonized northern Alaska in the late 1960s and early 1970s as the annual snow-free period increased sufficiently to allow access to nesting cavities for the 80 days required to successfully raise young. At the Cooper Island colony abundance increased during the 1970s and 1980s as summer length continued to increase and wooden nest cavities were provided to increase sample size for monitoring. During this time breeding success was high as summer sea ice remained in the 30-km foraging range of guillemot parents, providing Arctic Cod (Boreogadus saida), the principal forage fish associated with sea ice and the preferred prey of Black Guillemots. Decreasing summer sea ice extent in the 1990s that accelerated in the last decade reduced the guillemots' access to cryopelagic prey during the critical period when parents are provisioning nestlings. Distance from the colony to the pack ice on 15 August averaged <25 km from 1975-2002 but increased to an average of >100 km from 2003-2011. This ice retreat had a major affect on Arctic Cod availability, causing parent guillemots to shift to lower quality benthic fish resulting in decreases in nestling quality and breeding success when sea ice had retreated and SST was > 4o C. Increasing loss of summer ice in the last decade also facilitated changes in the distribution of a guillemot nest competitor and nest predator resulting in major losses of eggs and young. Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) recently expanded their breeding range from the subarctic to northern Alaska and regularly disrupt guillemot nesting by displacing eggs and killing guillemot nestlings while prospecting for nest sites. Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus), rare on Cooper Island until 2002 are now seen regularly in August as they seek refuge on land and prey on guillemot young. While the loss of cryopelagic prey led to reductions in the guillemot population, the loss of eggs and nestlings to puffins and bears was severe enough to threaten the existence of the colony. In 2011 all nest sites at the colony were replaced with plastic nest cases that eliminate disturbance by bears and puffins. Upper trophic level predators are recognized as important indicators of variation in and perturbations to marine ecosystems and in the near future the waters of the western Arctic will be experiencing a range of alterations due to both atmospheric warming and industrial development. The ongoing research at the Cooper Island Black Guillemot colony, combined with its historic database. will allow assessment of those changes.

  19. The Changing Frontiers of Comparative Education: A Forty-Year Retrospective on "European Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silova, Iveta

    2009-01-01

    "European Education" (originally known as "Western European Education") may no longer be directly associated with the field of comparative and international education, yet its establishment in 1969 was an attempt to make a direct contribution to the academic debates about the future of comparative education. The journal emerged at a time when…

  20. Forty Years of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science": A Quantitative Analysis, Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furner, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the first part of a two-part quantitative analysis of volume 1-40 (1969-2008) of the "Journal of Librarianship and Information Science" (formerly the "Journal of Librarianship"). It provides an overview of the current state of LIS research journal publishing in the UK; a review of the publication and printing history of…

  1. Forty years of improvements in European air quality: the role of EU policy-industry interplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Dentener, F.; Guizzardi, D.; Sindelarova, K.; Muntean, M.; Van Dingenen, R.; Granier, C.

    2015-07-01

    The EDGAR (Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research) v4.3 global anthropogenic emissions inventory of several gaseous (SO2, NOx, CO, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and NH3) and particulate (PM10, PM2.5, black and organic carbon (BC and OC)) air pollutants for the period 1970-2010 is used to develop retrospective air pollution emission scenarios to quantify the roles and contributions of changes in fuels consumption, technology, end-of-pipe emission reduction measures and their resulting impact on health and crop yields. This database presents changes in activity data, fuels and air pollution abatement technology for the past 4 decades, using international statistics and following guidelines for bottom-up emission inventory at the Tier 1 and Tier 2 levels with region-specific default values. With two further retrospective scenarios we assess (1) the impact of the technology and end-of-pipe (EOP) reduction measures in the European Union (EU) by considering a stagnation of technology with constant emission factors from 1970 and with no further abatement measures and improvement in European emissions standards, but fuel consumption occurring at historical pace, and (2) the impact of increased fuel consumption by considering unchanged energy use with constant fuel consumption since 1970, but technological development and end-of-pipe reductions. Our scenario analysis focuses on the three most important and most regulated sectors (power generation, the manufacturing industry and road transport), which are subject of multi-pollutant EU Air Quality regulations. If technology and European EOP reduction measures had stagnated at 1970 levels, EU air quality in 2010 would have suffered from 129 % higher SO2, 71 % higher NOx and 69 % higher PM2.5 emissions, demonstrating the large role of technology in reducing emissions in 2010. However, if fuel consumption had remained constant starting in 1970, the EU would have benefited from current technology and emission control standards, with reductions in NOx by even 13 % more. Such further savings are not observed for SO2 and PM2.5. If the EU consumed the same amount of fuels as in 1970 but with the current technology and emission control standards, then the emissions of SO2 and PM2.5 would be 42 % respectively 10 % higher. This scenario shows the importance for air quality of abandoning heavy residual fuel oil and shifting fuel types (from, e.g., coal to gas) in the EU. A reduced-form TM5-FASST (Fast Screening Scenario Tool based on the global chemical Transport Model 5) is applied to calculate regional and global levels of aerosol and ozone concentrations and to assess the impact of air quality improvements on human health and crop yield loss, showing substantial impacts of export of EU technologies and standards to other world regions.

  2. Street Tree Evaluation Project Forty Years of Street Tree Evaluation in Five Communities

    E-print Network

    877 Davis Sydnor, Sakthi Subburayalu, Jim Chatfield, Erik Draper, Amy Stone, Kathy Smith, and John://treesmatter.osu.edu/ #12;Davis Sydnor, Sakthi Subburayalu, Jim Chatfield, Erik Draper, Amy Stone, Kathy Smith, and John

  3. Revising the forty-year old paradigm: from Giant Molecular Clouds to Molecular Gas Clusters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Dario; Rosolowsky, Erik William; Duarte Cabral, Ana; Ginsburg, Adam; Hughes, Annie; Kalinova Dimitrova, Veselina

    2015-08-01

    Since the first large surveys of early 80s, the statistical description of Giant Molecular Cloud properties has provided important insights into the physics that govern the star formation itself. However, those statistics heavily rely on the performance of automatic identification algorithms that are often seriously affected by the survey design — notably sensitivity and resolution.In this presentation, I will discuss how some of the limitations of commonly used algorithms can be overcome by considering the cloud segmentation problem in the broad framework of the graph theory. Additionally, the clustering analysis provides a natural and robust mathematical description of the molecular ISM discrete features that might be viewed as “Molecular Gas Clusters”.In particular, the algorithm we designed (SCIMES - Spectral Clustering for Molecular Emission Segmentation) applies the spectral clustering approach to look for relevant objects within topological graphs of emission (dendrograms) from star-forming clouds. SCIMES appears especially useful for the cloud identification within complex molecular emission data cubes since, in contrast to other algorithms, it does not over-divide structures, faithfully reproducing the work of the human eyes.To prove this, I will show the cloud decomposition obtained by SCIMES from the CO High Resolution Survey, where the clustering approach allows to automatically identify a variety of gas morphologies including coherent filamentary structures and holes within the molecular ISM. To calculate the cloud physical properties, distances to the clouds are attributed through the dendrograms using data from the BOLOCAM Survey, while the cloud size-line width relation is explored using a Principal Component Analysis approach as well as in the classical way.Finally, I will discuss how SCIMES introduces a new philosophy in the identification of the molecular clouds, where virtually every property of the molecular emission might be used for the ISM segmentation. This may be helpful for distinguishing between the dominant physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of those molecular clusters.

  4. Revising the forty-year old paradigm: from Giant Molecular Clouds to Molecular Gas Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Dario; Rosolowsky, Erik William; Duarte Cabral, Ana; Ginsburg, Adam; Hughes, Annie; Kalinova Dimitrova, Veselina

    2015-08-01

    Since the first large surveys of early 80s, the statistical description of Giant Molecular Cloud properties has provided important insights into the physics that govern the star formation itself. However, those statistics heavily rely on the performance of automatic identification algorithms that are often seriously affected by the survey design — notably sensitivity and resolution.In this presentation, I will discuss how some of the limitations of commonly used algorithms can be overcome by considering the cloud segmentation problem in the broad framework of the graph theory. Additionally, the clustering analysis provides a natural and robust mathematical description of the molecular ISM discrete features that might be viewed as “Molecular Gas Clusters”.In particular, the algorithm we designed (SCIMES - Spectral Clustering for Molecular Emission Segmentation) applies the spectral clustering approach to look for relevant objects within topological graphs of emission (dendrograms) from star-forming clouds. SCIMES appears especially useful for the cloud identification within complex molecular emission data cubes since, in contrast to other algorithms, it does not over-divide structures, faithfully reproducing the work of the human eyes.To prove this, I will show the cloud decomposition obtained by SCIMES from the CO High Resolution Survey, where the clustering approach allows to automatically identify a variety of gas morphologies including coherent filamentary structures and holes within the molecular ISM. To calculate the cloud physical properties, distances to the clouds are attributed through the dendrograms using data from the BOLOCAM Survey, while the cloud size-line width relation is explored using a Principal Component Analysis approach as well as in the classical way.Finally, I will discuss how SCIMES introduces a new philosophy in the identification of the molecular clouds, where virtually every property of the molecular emission might be used for the ISM segmentation. This may be helpful for distinguishing between the dominant physical mechanisms responsible for the formation of those molecular clusters.

  5. The combined effects of neurostimulation and priming on creative thinking. A preliminary tDCS study on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Barbara; Bartesaghi, Noemi; Simonelli, Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in influencing creative thinking has been investigated by many researchers who, while succeeding in proving an effective involvement of PFC, reported suggestive but sometimes conflicting results. In order to better understand the relationships between creative thinking and brain activation in a more specific area of the PFC, we explored the role of dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). We devised an experimental protocol using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). The study was based on a 3 (kind of stimulation: anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham) × 2 (priming: divergent vs. convergent) design. Forty-five healthy adults were randomly assigned to one stimulation condition. Participants' creativity skills were assessed using the Product Improvement subtest from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). After 20 min of tDCS stimulation, participants were presented with visual images of common objects. Half of the participants were instructed to visualize themselves using the object in an unusual way (divergent priming), whereas the other half were asked to visualize themselves while using the object in a common way (convergent priming). Priming was aimed at inducing participants to adopt different attitudes toward the creative task. Afterwards, participants were asked to describe all of the possible uses of the objects that were presented. Participants' physiological activation was recorded using a biofeedback equipment. Results showed a significant effect of anodal stimulation that enhanced creative performance, but only after divergent priming. Participants showed lower skin temperature values after cathodal stimulation, a finding which is coherent with studies reporting that, when a task is not creative or creative thinking is not prompted, people show lower levels of arousal. Differences in individual levels of creativity as assessed by the Product Improvement test were not influential. The involvement of DLPFC in creativity has been supported, presumably in association to shift of attention modulated by priming. PMID:26236219

  6. The combined effects of neurostimulation and priming on creative thinking. A preliminary tDCS study on dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Barbara; Bartesaghi, Noemi; Simonelli, Luisa; Antonietti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in influencing creative thinking has been investigated by many researchers who, while succeeding in proving an effective involvement of PFC, reported suggestive but sometimes conflicting results. In order to better understand the relationships between creative thinking and brain activation in a more specific area of the PFC, we explored the role of dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). We devised an experimental protocol using transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS). The study was based on a 3 (kind of stimulation: anodal vs. cathodal vs. sham) × 2 (priming: divergent vs. convergent) design. Forty-five healthy adults were randomly assigned to one stimulation condition. Participants’ creativity skills were assessed using the Product Improvement subtest from the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). After 20 min of tDCS stimulation, participants were presented with visual images of common objects. Half of the participants were instructed to visualize themselves using the object in an unusual way (divergent priming), whereas the other half were asked to visualize themselves while using the object in a common way (convergent priming). Priming was aimed at inducing participants to adopt different attitudes toward the creative task. Afterwards, participants were asked to describe all of the possible uses of the objects that were presented. Participants’ physiological activation was recorded using a biofeedback equipment. Results showed a significant effect of anodal stimulation that enhanced creative performance, but only after divergent priming. Participants showed lower skin temperature values after cathodal stimulation, a finding which is coherent with studies reporting that, when a task is not creative or creative thinking is not prompted, people show lower levels of arousal. Differences in individual levels of creativity as assessed by the Product Improvement test were not influential. The involvement of DLPFC in creativity has been supported, presumably in association to shift of attention modulated by priming. PMID:26236219

  7. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  8. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  9. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  10. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  11. 26 CFR 7.48-2 - Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... investment credit for movie and television films placed in service in a taxable year beginning before January... Election of forty-percent method of determining investment credit for movie and television films placed in... the Tax Reform Act of 1976 (90 Stat. 1595), taxpayers who placed movie or television films...

  12. Forty-Four Pass Fibre Optic Loop for Improving the Sensitivity of Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors

    E-print Network

    Chin B Su; Jun Kameoka

    2007-09-21

    A forty-four pass fibre optic surface plasmon resonance sensor that enhances detection sensitivity according to the number of passes is demonstrated for the first time. The technique employs a fibre optic recirculation loop that passes the detection spot forty- four times, thus enhancing sensitivity by a factor of forty-four. Presently, the total number of passes is limited by the onset of lasing action of the recirculation loop. This technique offers a significant sensitivity improvement for various types of plasmon resonance sensors that may be used in chemical and biomolecule detections.

  13. Indoor air quality study of forty east Tennessee homes

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Hingerty, B.E.; Schuresko, D.D.; Parzyck, D.C.; Womack, D.R.; Morris, S.A.; Westley, R.R.; White, D.A.

    1984-12-01

    Over a one-year period, measurements of indoor air pollutants (CO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, formaldehyde, volatile organics, particulates, and radon) were made in 40 homes in East Tennessee. The houses were of various ages with different types of insulation and heating. Over one-half of the houses exceeded the ASHRAE indoor ceiling guideline of 0.1 ppM for formaldehyde on at least one occasion. Over the duration of the study, older houses averaged 0.04 ppM of formaldehyde while houses less than 5 years old averaged 0.08 ppM (P < 0.01). The highest concentration of formaldehyde measured was 0.4 ppM in a new home. Diurnal and seasonal fluctuations in levels of formaldehyde in some homes were as much as twofold and tenfold, respectively. The highest levels of formaldehyde were usually recorded during summer months. The concentration in indoor air of various organics was at least tenfold higher than in outdoor air. Carbon monoxide and nitrgen oxides were usually <2 and <0.02 ppM, respectively, except when gas stoves or kerosene space heaters were operating, or when a car was running in the garage. In 30% of the houses, the annual indoor guideline for radon, 4 pCi/L, was exceeded. The mean radon level in houses built on the ridgelines was 4.4 pCi/L, while houses located in the valleys had a mean level of 1.7 pCi/L (P < 0.01). The factor having the most impact on infiltration was operation of the central duct fan of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system. The mean rate of air exchange increased from 0.39 to 0.74 h/sup -1/ when the duct fan was operated (measurements prior to December 1982). This report presents the study design and implementation, describes the monitoring protocols, and provides a complete set of the data collected during the project. 25 references, 29 figures, 42 tables.

  14. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-81,655] Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services...

  15. Measurement of the room temperture R(1) line width of forty-two rubies.

    PubMed

    Benedict, R A; Nester, J F; Kellington, C M

    1967-03-01

    Accurate measurement of the room temperature R(1) fluorescent line width of forty-two ruby laser crystals has been made using a pressure-scanned Fabry-Perot etalon. In forty-one of these rubies the chromium content was nearly the same, and the R(1) line width for all was 5.0 +/- 0.3 A, in agreement with present theories. PMID:20057772

  16. Effects of Microtus fortis lymphocytes on Schistosoma japonicum in a bone marrow transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuan; Xu, Yuxin; Lu, Weiyuan; Quan, Hong; Shen, Yujuan; Yuan, Zhongying; Zhang, Jing; Zang, Wei; He, Yongkang; Cao, Jianping

    2014-07-01

    Microtus fortis is a non-permissive host for Schistosoma japonicum. While M. fortis lymphocytes are known to provide natural resistance against S. japonicum, the specific mechanism remains unclear. A bone marrow transplantation (BMT) model was established using immunodeficient mice, either nude (experiment 1) or V(D)J recombination activation gene deficient mice (RAG-1(-/-)) (experiment 2) as recipients and M. fortis or C57BL/6 mice as donors. The growth and development of S. japonicum were evaluated in each group to assess the role of M. fortis lymphocytes in the response to infection. Lymphocyte ratios and S. japonicum-specific antibody production in transplanted groups increased significantly compared to those in non-transplanted group. Spleen indices and density of splenic lymphocytes in transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice were higher than those in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. No difference in the worm burden was observed among group A (transplants derived from M. fortis), B (transplants derived from C57BL/6 mouse) and C (non-transplanted mice), although worms in group A were shorter than those in other groups, except non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Reproductive systems of worms in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from M. fortis were not as mature as those in mice (nude or RAG-1(-/-)) transplanted from C57BL/6 mouse and non-transplanted nude mice, but they were more mature than worms in non-transplanted RAG-1(-/-) mice. Therefore, the transplantation model using nude and RAG-1(-/-) mice was successfully established. The M. fortis lymphocytes did not appear to affect the S. japonicum worm burden, but they led to schistosome shortening and a significant reduction in parasite spawning. Thus, M. fortis cellular and humoral immunity provides a defense against schistosomes by negatively impacting the parasite growth and reproductive development. PMID:24746640

  17. The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Bestmann, Sven; Feredoes, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Modern neurostimulation approaches in humans provide controlled inputs into the operations of cortical regions, with highly specific behavioral consequences. This enables causal structure–function inferences, and in combination with neuroimaging, has provided novel insights into the basic mechanisms of action of neurostimulation on distributed networks. For example, more recent work has established the capacity of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to probe causal interregional influences, and their interaction with cognitive state changes. Combinations of neurostimulation and neuroimaging now face the challenge of integrating the known physiological effects of neurostimulation with theoretical and biological models of cognition, for example, when theoretical stalemates between opposing cognitive theories need to be resolved. This will be driven by novel developments, including biologically informed computational network analyses for predicting the impact of neurostimulation on brain networks, as well as novel neuroimaging and neurostimulation techniques. Such future developments may offer an expanded set of tools with which to investigate structure–function relationships, and to formulate and reconceptualize testable hypotheses about complex neural network interactions and their causal roles in cognition. PMID:23631540

  18. Hydrogeological characterization of Back Forty area, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.Y.; Smith, W.H.

    1983-12-01

    Radiological surveys were conducted to determine the potential migration of radionuclides from the waste area to the area commonly referred to as the Back Forty, located in the southern portion of the ARC site. The survey results indicated that parts of the Back Forty contain soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and their associated decay products. A hydrogeologic characterization study was conducted at the Back Forty as part of an effort to more thoroughly assess radionuclide migration in the area. The objectives of the study were: (1) to define the soil characteristics and stratigraphy at the site, (2) to describe the general conditions of each geologic unit, and (3) to determine the direction and hydraulic gradient of areal groundwater flow. The site investigation activities included literature review of existing hydrogeological data for the Albany area, onsite borehold drilling, and measurement of groundwater levels. 7 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  19. CHLORINATION, WATER HARDNESS, AND SERUM CHOLESTEROL IN FORTY-SIX WISCONSIN COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wisconsin Heart Health Research Program measured serum lipids and other clinical parameters among residents of forty-six neighboring small communities in central Wisconsin. he purpose of the study was to determine whether distribution of serum lipids, blood pressure or thyroi...

  20. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... determination was published in the Federal Register on Monday, July 23, 2012 (77 FR 43123). ] At the request of... and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics Acquisitions Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services and...

  1. Fiber implantation for pattern baldness. Review of complications in forty-one patients.

    PubMed

    Hanke, C W; Bergfeld, W F

    1981-03-01

    Forty-one patients who underwent one technic of fiber implantation for pattern baldness were studied. Complications were frequent and included rejection of fibers, infection, facial swelling, pain, pruritus, and scarring. In addition, patients incurred risks of carcinogenesis from deeply embedded bits of fiber and also loss of their own natural hair. Fiber implantation is an unsuccessful method of hair restoration, and its use has been discouraged by state and federal agencies. PMID:7012203

  2. First report of genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in free-living Microtus fortis in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Xuan; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhang, Ying-Guang; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Liu, Quan

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite which imperils the health of almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans. The objective of this study was to determine genetic characterization of T. gondii in free-living Microtus fortis (reed vole) in Jilin province, northeastern China. A total of 104 DNA samples, 74 from Gongzhuling and 30 from Baicheng, were extracted from lung tissues of M. fortis , and 56 (53.8%) of them were positive for T. gondii by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction of the B1 gene. These positive DNA samples were typed at 10 genetic markers including SAG1, 5'- and 3'-SAG2, alternative SAG2, BUTB, GRA6, L358, PK1, c22-8, c29-2, and Apico. Four samples were successfully genotyped at all genetic loci and grouped to 2 distinct genotypes; 2 samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype no. 10 (Type I) and the other 2 presented ToxoDB Genotype no. 9 ( http://toxodb.org/toxo/ ); 4 samples were genotyped at 8 genetic loci, in which 2 samples belonged to ToxoDB Genotype no. 10 and 2 presented ToxoDB Genotype no. 9. To our knowledge, this is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii from free-living M. fortis in northeast China. The results suggest that the Type I and ToxoDB Genotype no. 9 could be a potential risk factor for transmission through the reed vole in this region. PMID:24684624

  3. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven's Medical Research Center program.

  4. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight...

  5. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight...

  6. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight...

  7. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight...

  8. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND PROCEDURES...Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight...

  9. Survey of Yucca Mountain, Forty-Mile Canyon, and Jackass Flats in Nye County, Nevada for desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii

    SciTech Connect

    Medica, P.A.; O`Farrell, T.P.; Collins, E.

    1981-10-01

    The objective of this brief survey was to determine if G. agassizii is present west of Forty-Mile Canyon in the Yucca Mountain.. area, or along the major access roads which lead through Jackass Flats to Forty-Mile Canyon and Yucca Mountain

  10. Ontogeny of the cranial skeleton in a Darwin's finch (Geospiza fortis)

    PubMed Central

    Genbrugge, Annelies; Heyde, Anne-Sophie; Adriaens, Dominique; Boone, Matthieu; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter; Podos, Jeffrey; Herrel, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Darwin's finches are a model system in ecological and evolutionary research, but surprisingly little is known about their skull morphology and development. Indeed, only the early beak development and external variation in adult beak shape has been studied. Understanding the development of the skull from embryo up to the adult is important to gain insights into how selection acts upon, and drives, variation in beak shape. Here, we provide a detailed description of the skeletal development of the skull in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis). Although the ossification sequence of the cranial elements is broadly similar to that observed for other birds, some differences can be observed. Unexpectedly, our data show that large changes in skull shape take place between the nestling and the juvenile phases. The reorientation of the beak, the orbit and the formation of well-developed processes and cristae suggest that these changes are likely related to the use of the beak after leaving the nest. This suggests that the active use of the jaw muscles during seed cracking plays an important role in shaping the adult skull morphology and may be driving some of the intra-specific variation observed in species such as G. fortis. Investigating the development of the jaw muscles and their interaction with the observed ossification and formation of the skull and lower jaw would allow further insights into the ecology and evolution of beak morphology in Darwin's finches. PMID:21599660

  11. "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties" on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2009-04-01

    "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, kochem.36@mail.ru Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities [4]. But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40?-50?) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50?-60?) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60?, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46? south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44? north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59? north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44? north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70? north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35? south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35? south; PIA10439 - dance of the clouds, 47? south; PIA10437 - dual vortices, 33? north. In the Earth's case the turbulence touches the atmosphere, oceans and lithosphere. Navigators for sailing use strong westerly winds in Roaring Forties. Europe is often hit by anomalous, sometimes disasters weather conditions (though winds in the northern hemisphere are somehow softened by landmasses). In the crust of Eurasia, North America and in the Southern ocean along latitudes 46?-48? there are two latitudinal geomorphologic planetary flexures marking transition of subsiding inward belts to uplifting outward (pole ward) belts [5]. These slow secular crust and lithosphere movements of opposite signs witness the tendency of rotating Earth to equilibrate angular momenta of its tropic and extra-tropic belts. Thus, both planets - the rocky sphere and the gaseous giant globe - obey the same fundamental law of nature and try to adjust uneven angular momenta of its tropic and extra-tropic belts marking transition between them by anomalous features. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. Concerted wave supergranulation of the solar system bodies // 16th Russian-American microsymposium on planetology, Abstracts, Moscow, Vernadsky Inst. (GEOKHI), 1992, 36-37. [2] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonic dichotomy, sectoring and granulation of Earth and other celestial bodies // Proceedings of the International Symposium on New Concepts in Global Tectonics, "NCGT-98 TSUKUBA", Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Nov 20-23, 1998, p. 144-147. [3] Kochemasov G.G. Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., 1999, V.1, ?3, 700. [4] Kochemasov G.G. Tectonics of rotating celestial globes // Vernadsky-Brown microsymposium 48, 20-22 Oct. 2008, Moscow, Abstr. m48_20. [5] Kotov F. S. A reflection of planetary flexures in limits of the continental lithosphere // Tectonics and geodynamics of the continental lithosphere. Proceedings of the XXXVI Tectonic conference. T. I, 4-6 Febr. 2003, Ed. Yu.V. Karyakin, Moscow, GEOS, 2003, 37

  12. A Forty-Year Retrospective 1950-1990: The Metropolitan Toronto and Region Conservation Authority's Conservation Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Allen Terry

    1996-01-01

    Recounts the growth of Conservation Authorities in Ontario from the first partnerships between schools and conservation in the 1950s, to the opening of a pioneer village, flood control dam, nature trails, and residential conservation education centers through the 1960s and 1970s. Increased public environmental concern sparked more growth in the…

  13. It's Not Over in the South: School Desegregation in Forty-Three Southern Cities Eighteen Years After Brown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Washington, DC.

    The focus of this study on school desegregation is on 43 cities in the following areas: Bibb and Chatham Counties (Ga.); Orange, Duval, Hillsborough, and Pinellas Counties (Fla.); Cado, Quachita, East Baton Rouge, and Orleans Parishes (La.); and, Richland County District Number 1, Florence County District Number 1, and Orangeburg County District…

  14. Signature of forty years of artificial selection in U.S. Holstein cattle identified by long-range frequency analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three groups of U.S. Holstein cattle were analyzed for selection signature of artificial selection since 1964 using long-range frequency measures. The three groups included Holsteins unselected since 1964, contemporary Holsteins, and an elite line of contemporary Holsteins. Long-range frequencies in...

  15. 90 PERVASIVE computing 1536-1268/02/$17.00 2002 IEEE Forty years ago, when batch pro-

    E-print Network

    Starner, Thad E.

    will be coupled together very tightly and the resulting partner- ship will think as no human brain has ever, Licklider wanted to augment the thought process such that "human brains and comput- ing machines a diary of his every- day actions: "About 85 percent of my `thinking' time was actually spent get- ting

  16. Differential Expression of microRNAs in the Non-Permissive Schistosome Host Microtus fortis under Schistosome Infection

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yanhui; Zhang, Min; Hong, Yang; Fu, Zhiqiang; Yang, Jianmei; Tao, Jianping; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2013-01-01

    The reed vole Microtus fortis is the only mammal known in China in which the growth, development and maturation of schistosomes (Schistosoma japonicum) is prevented. It might be that the anti-schistosomiasis mechanisms of M. fortis associate with microRNA-mediated gene expression, given that the latter has been found to be involved in gene regulation in eukaryotes. In the present study, the difference between pathological changes in tissues of M. fortis and of mice (Mus musculus) post-schistosome infection were observed by using hematoxylin-eosin staining. In addition, microarray technique was applied to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in the same tissues before and post-infection to analyze the potential roles of miRNAs in schistosome infection in these two different types of host. Histological analyses showed that S. japonicum infection in M. fortis resulted in a more intensive inflammatory response and pathological change than in mice. The microarray analysis revealed that 162 miRNAs were expressed in both species, with 12 in liver, 32 in spleen and 34 in lung being differentially expressed in M. fortis. The functions of the differentially expressed miRNAs were mainly revolved in nutrient metabolism, immune regulation, etc. Further analysis revealed that important signaling pathways were triggered after infection by S. japonicum in M. fortis but not in the mice. These results provide new insights into the general mechanisms of regulation in the non-permissive schistosome host M. fortis that exploits potential miRNA regulatory networks. Such information will help improve current understanding of schistosome development and host–parasite interactions. PMID:24391986

  17. Reproductive characteristics of the Yangtze vole (Microtus fortis calamorum) under laboratory feeding conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meiwen; Han, Qunhua; Shen, Guo; Wang, Yong; Li, Bo; Guo, Cong; Zhou, Xunjun

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive characteristics of a laboratory population of the vole Microtus fortis calamorum were examined. Voles were allowed to breed under laboratory feeding conditions. Over a period of 3 months, 61.82% of the 110 vole pairs examined produced 3 or 4 litters. There were 1-9 voles in each litter and the mean litter size was 4.67±0.28 (mean±SE). Most litters included 3-7 young voles, accounting for 83.62% of all litters. The mean farrowing interval was 25.9 days (range from 19 to 95 days), and the most farrowing intervals were 20-25 days, accounting for 79.9% of the total. When based on litter size, the reproductive index was 6.23, but was 3.42 when based on pup survival. The survival rate of offspring to weaning was 55.03%. The high rate of infanticide that occurred after removal of males from cages indicates that, in the laboratory, both parents need to be present prior to weaning. PMID:26617078

  18. Neutron capture therapy: Years of experimentation---Years of reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, L.E.

    1991-12-16

    This report describes early research on neutron capture therapy over a number of years, beginning in 1950, speaking briefly of patient treatments but dwelling mostly on interpretations of our animal experiments. This work carried out over eighteen years, beginning over forty years ago. Yet, it is only fitting to start by relating how neutron capture therapy became part of Brookhaven`s Medical Research Center program.

  19. "Fortis/Lenis" Revisited One More Time: The Aerodynamics of Some Oral Stop Contrasts in Three Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The terms "fortis" and "lenis" are variously regarded as having one single underlying phonetic correlate or many. An exploratory analysis of acoustic and aerodynamic data on contrasting stop series in a number of European and non-European languages confirms that a significant variation in peak intra-oral pressure and in articulatory stricture…

  20. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND...

  1. 37 CFR 201.12 - Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recordation of certain contracts by cable systems located outside of the forty-eight contiguous States. 201.12 Section 201.12 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE AND...

  2. Far-UV observations of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with FORTIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Feldman, Paul D.; Weaver, Harold A.; Fleming, Brian; Redwine, Keith; Li, Mary J.; Kutyrev, Alexander; Moseley, Samuel H.

    2015-01-01

    Far-UV imagery and objective grating spectroscopy of comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) were acquired from NASA sounding rocket 36.296 UG, launched on 20 November 2013 at 04:40 MST (20.48 Nov 2013 UT), 8.32 days pre-perihelion, from the White Sands Missile Range, NM. The comet was 0.1° below ground horizon, 0.44 AU from the Sun, 0.86 AU from the Earth, and at a solar elongation of 26.3°. The payload reached an apogee of 279 km and the total time pointed at the comet was 353 s. At the time of launch ISON was undergoing a factor of 5 increase in water production rate, going from 3.5e29 to 19.6e29 molecules s-1between 19.6 and 21.6 Nov (Combi et al. 2014), marking what is thought to be a final fragmentation event (Sekanina & Kracht 2014). Our instrument, a wide-field multi-object spectro-telescope called FORTIS (Far-UV Off Rowland-circle Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy), observed Ly? emissions in an objective grating mode through an open microshutter array, developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center, over a (1/2°)2 field-of-view. After accounting for slit losses and deadtime corrections we find a preliminary lower limit to the Ly? surface brightness of ~ 400 kilorayleighs, yielding a hydrogen production rate of QH ~ 5e29 atoms s-1, in reasonable agreement with the Combi result. We also acquired a broadband image of the comet in the 1280 to 1900 Å bandpass. This image shows a drop in count rate proportional to altitude caused by increased absorption of cometary emissions by terrestrial O2 located in the lower thermosphere. O2 absorption acts as a selective time dependent filter that attenuates cometary emissions from different atomic and molecular species at different rates during descent. Preliminary analysis suggests that the dominant species in a (1e5 km)2 nuclear region is neutral carbon. The radial profile in comparison to a Haser model suggests that the C parent molecule had a lifetime (at 1 AU) ~ 105 s; much shorter than the expected lifetime of CO. We conclude there was little CO produced from the interior volume that was exposed during the final fragmentation of this dynamically new comet, in accord with the low CO production rate derived from HST/COS spectra obtained on 1 November 2013 (Weaver et al. 2014).

  3. The Forty-Eight-Hour Rule: Emotional Engagement and the Student Athlete

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Alan C. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several years ago, the author taught a course called First-Year experience. A student named Sean mentioned that he played "water pong." Sean, a high-achieving student who was also a member of the lacrosse team, explained that water pong was a game with the rules of beer pong, using water rather than beer. Sean volunteered an explanation of his…

  4. The International Student Question: 45 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aw, Fanta

    2012-01-01

    Since the publication of Dremuk's article 45 years ago, the landscape of international educational exchange has changed significantly. Some of the most notable trends distinguishing the past from the present are highlighted. Forty-five years ago, Dremuk's article emphasized the importance of institutional commitment to international educational…

  5. Canadian Cardiovascular Society/Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society/Canadian Heart Rhythm Society joint position statement on the perioperative management of patients with implanted pacemakers, defibrillators, and neurostimulating devices.

    PubMed

    Healey, Jeff S; Merchant, Richard; Simpson, Chris; Tang, Timothy; Beardsall, Marianne; Tung, Stanley; Fraser, Jennifer A; Long, Laurene; van Vlymen, Janet M; Manninen, Pirjo; Ralley, Fiona; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi; Yee, Raymond; Prasloski, Bruce; Sanatani, Shubhayan; Philippon, François

    2012-01-01

    There are more than 200,000 Canadians living with permanent pacemakers or implantable defibrillators, many of whom will require surgery or invasive procedures each year. They face potential hazards when undergoing surgery; however, with appropriate planning and education of operating room personnel, adverse device-related outcomes should be rare. This joint position statement from the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) and the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society (CAS) has been developed as an accessible reference for physicians and surgeons, providing an overview of the key issues for the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care of these patients. The document summarizes the limited published literature in this field, but for most issues, relies heavily on the experience of the cardiologists and anesthesiologists who contributed to this work. This position statement outlines how to obtain information about an individual's type of pacemaker or implantable defibrillator and its programming. It also stresses the importance of determining if a patient is highly pacemaker-dependent and proposes a simple approach for nonelective evaluation of dependency. Although the document provides a comprehensive list of the intraoperative issues facing these patients, there is a focus on electromagnetic interference resulting from electrocautery and practical guidance is given regarding the characteristics of surgery, electrocautery, pacemakers, and defibrillators which are most likely to lead to interference. The document stresses the importance of preoperative consultation and planning to minimize complications. It reviews the relative merits of intraoperative magnet use vs reprogramming of devices and gives examples of situations where one or the other approach is preferable. PMID:22433577

  6. Foreign bodies in the respiratory tract. A review of forty-one cases.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, P.; El Mikatti, N.

    1981-01-01

    The nature of inhaled foreign bodies in the respiratory tract and problems in their removal are reviewed with reference to experience in a series of 41 cases, 36 of them in children under 4 years old. Bronchoscopic removal under general anaesthesia is preferred to inhalational therapy and postural drainage. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7247270

  7. Future History of the Universe "In the space of one hundred and seventy-six years the Lower

    E-print Network

    Walter, Frederick M.

    Silurian Period, just a million years ago next November, the Lower Mississippi River was upwards of one Mississippi has shortened itself two hundred and forty-two miles. That is an average of a trifle over one mile. And by the same token any person can see that seven hundred and forty-two years from now the Lower Mississippi

  8. 40 years of neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Frederick

    Wolfgang Pauli and Enrico Fermi pioneered the hypothesis and characteristics of the weak interaction and the elementary particle called the neutrino. Since its discovery some forty years ago the neutrino has been shown to be a fundamental constituent of matter with a surprisingly rich, and in very many ways unexpected, set of characteristics ranging from basic roles in the generation of energy in the sun to supernovæ.

  9. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  10. Forty-Fourth Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Administrative Report Including Technical Reports Nos. 1342 to 1392

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    In accordance with act of Congress, approved March 3, 1915, as amended (U.S.C., title 50, .sw 151), which established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the Committee submits its Forty-fourth Annual Report for the fiscal year 1958. This is the Committee's final report to the Congress. The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (Public Law 85-568) provides in section 301 that the NACA "shall cease to exist" and "all functions, powers, duties, and obligations, and all real and personal property, personnel (other than members of the Committee), funds, and records of the NACA shall be transferred to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The aforesaid act provides that "this section shall take effect 90 days after the date of the enactment of this act, or on any earlier date on which the Administrator shall determining and announce by proclamation published in the Federal Register, that the Administration has been organized and is prepared to discharge the duties and exercise the power conferred upon it by this act." The Administrator, Hon. T. Keith Glennan has advised the Committee of his intention to issue such proclamation, effective October 1,1958.

  11. Forty Years of Excellence and Beyond. Proceedings of the Annual North East Association for Institutional Research (NEAIR) Conference (40th, Newport, Rhode Island, November 9-12, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Tiffany, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    The NEAIR 2013 Conference Proceedings is a compilation of papers presented at the Newport, Rhode Island, conference. Papers in this document include: (1) Aspiring to the Role of "Data Badass:" Some Thoughts on the Political Context of IR (Mark Freeman); (2) Data-Driven Internal Benchmarks and Successful Learning Outcomes (Mamta Saxena…

  12. Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome in a Forty-Three-Year-Old Man With High-Dose Oxycodone/Naloxone

    PubMed Central

    Bujedo, Borja Mugabure

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is an increasing cause of chronic pain in most countries. This poses high costs to both patients and National Health Organizations. Case Presentation: In this report, multimodal pain management based on daily high-dose oxycodone/naloxone (OXN 180/90 mg) led to reduced patient's pain score and improved quality of life. Conclusions: Oxycodone/naloxone can be a good alternative for the management of FBSS when other interventional or pharmacologic strategies have failed. In this case report, higher doses than those recommended as a maximum daily ceiling (80/40 mg) were safely used in one selected patient with noncancer severe pain. PMID:25893186

  13. Puzzlemaking and Part-Whole Perception of Two-Year-Old and Four-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montford, Emily I. Purvis; Readdick, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between preschoolers' puzzlemaking strategies and part-whole perception was investigated in the present study. Forty-eight two year olds and 48 four year olds were randomly selected from eight licensed childcare centers. Puzzlemaking strategies (image, form, color, and trial and error) were measured by performance in the…

  14. FNL: Marking the First 40 Years | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Carolynne Keenan, Guest Writer Forty years ago, a single act by former President Richard Nixon created what we now know as the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) at Fort Detrick. What began as a small facility with a staff of about 20 people in the early 1970s grew into the multi-facility, nationally distinguished laboratory for cancer research that it is today.

  15. Frederick National Laboratory Celebrates 40 Years | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Forty years ago, what we now call the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research was born. Here are some highlights in the facility’s history. October 19, 1971 – President Richard Nixon announced that Fort Detrick would be converted from a biological warfare facility to a cancer research center (Covert, Norman M., Cutting Edge: A History of Fort Detrick, Maryland, 1943–1993, pp. 85–87).

  16. Global Catastrophes and Trends: The Next Fifty Years

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Joel E.

    ), the American Civil War, World War I, and World War II. These wars added up to some forty-two years of conflict estimates for each of these. As the recent outbreak of swine flu ominously reminds us, biology adds on what he calls transfor- mational wars: the Napoleonic Wars (1796-1815), the Taiping War (1851- 1864

  17. Revisiting First-Year Teacher Burnout: New South Carolina Educators in the Era of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilagan, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Forty-six percent of the nation's teachers are expected to leave the profession by their fifth year in the classroom. This alarming statistic has grabbed the attention of federal, state, and local leaders. In South Carolina alone, 28,500 teachers left the profession in the last five years, or an average of 5,700 per year. This translates to a…

  18. Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

  19. Animism Begins at Forty: Evidence that Animism and Other Naive Beliefs Are Established before the Onset of Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Robert; Stuart-Hamilton, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Animism (erroneously believing inanimate objects are alive) is present in older adults (McDonald & Stuart-Hamilton, 2000). However, it is unclear if animism arises in later life or middle age. The current study tested 34 middle-aged adults (mean age 48 years) on Piaget's animism task and found a significant level of animism. Strength of animism…

  20. Economic correlates of violent death rates in forty countries, 1962–2008: A cross-typological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bandy X.; Marotta, Phillip L.; Blay-Tofey, Morkeh; Wang, Winnie; de Bourmont, Shalila

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our goal was to identify if there might be advantages to combining two major public health concerns, i.e., homicides and suicides, in an analysis with well-established macro-level economic determinants, i.e., unemployment and inequality. Methods Mortality data, unemployment statistics, and inequality measures were obtained for 40 countries for the years 1962–2008. Rates of combined homicide and suicide, ratio of suicide to combined violent death, and ratio between homicide and suicide were graphed and analyzed. A fixed effects regression model was then performed for unemployment rates and Gini coefficients on homicide, suicide, and combined death rates. Results For a majority of nation states, suicide comprised a substantial proportion (mean 75.51%; range 0–99%) of the combined rate of homicide and suicide. When combined, a small but significant relationship emerged between logged Gini coefficient and combined death rates (0.0066, p < 0.05), suggesting that the combined rate improves the ability to detect a significant relationship when compared to either rate measurement alone. Results were duplicated by age group, whereby combining death rates into a single measure improved statistical power, provided that the association was strong. Conclusions Violent deaths, when combined, were associated with an increase in unemployment and an increase in Gini coefficient, creating a more robust variable. As the effects of macro-level factors (e.g., social and economic policies) on violent death rates in a population are shown to be more significant than those of micro-level influences (e.g., individual characteristics), these associations may be useful to discover. An expansion of socioeconomic variables and the inclusion of other forms of violence in future research could help elucidate long-term trends. PMID:26028985

  1. Dragon Year

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2012-01-11

    in the dragon year are said to be honest and soft hearted though also short-tempered and stubborn. Famous dragons include Joan of Arc and Maya Angelou. Anybody who turns any multiple of 12 during this year, is a dragon. Xin nian kuai le! Happy New Year! #ceas...

  2. FORTY-EIGHTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    light on income inequality in the United States. And that light has catalyzed an intense national conversation, one that has pushed into relief at least one uncontested fact: Income inequality in the U, among these countries, the U.S. has the highest level of income inequality. The Graduate Center The City

  3. FORTY-FIFTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    chapters. His early work focused on the South, examining slavery as an economic and social system; Slavery and Freedom: An Interpretation of the Old South; and The Radical and the Republican: Frederick. Uh-oh, I thought. I write about slavery and antislavery and the comin

  4. FORTY-SEVENTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT

    E-print Network

    Johnson Jr.,, Ray

    enjoy tax breaks. Across the country, public officials have chosen to transfer the economic pain onto human security in terms of health, infant mortality, crime, fear, violence, civic participation, voting

  5. FORTY-SEVENTH PROGRESS REPORT

    E-print Network

    ............................................................................................................................................. 13 Genetic Mechanisms for Disease Resistance ....................................................................................... 17 Seed Orchard Pest Management Subcommittee

  6. FORTY-FOURTH DOCTORAL COMMENCEMENT

    E-print Network

    Artemov, Sergei N.

    Culture and The American Museum of Natural History. His numerous articles and reviews have appeared, The American Scholar, and the Journal of Western History, and he is the editor of the Random House edition President Emeritus, The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Ornette Coleman, Doctor of Musical Arts American

  7. FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF CHILDREN WITH LOW-TO-MODERATE LEAD ABSORPTION: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forty-nine children aged 6 to 12 years were evaluated for residual effects of lead exposure using psychometric, electrophysiological, and medical tests five years after initial assessment. The original range of blood lead (PbB) levels was 6-59 micrograms/dl; the current range was...

  8. A Century of Change: The History of Two-Year Education in the State of Alabama, 1866-1963

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Dustin P.

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about two-year education in Alabama during the governorships of George C. Wallace, but little about two-year education prior to his first inauguration in 1963. Yet nearly a third of the forty-three junior, technical, and community college institutions that eventually formed the Alabama Community College System had been…

  9. A Study of First-Year Chemistry Students' Understanding of Solution Concentration at the Tertiary Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Berg, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on students' understanding of sugar concentration in aqueous solutions presented in two different modes: a visual submicroscopic mode for particles and a verbal mode referring to macroscopic amounts of sugar. One hundred and forty-five tertiary college students studying some form of first-year chemistry participated in the…

  10. Integrating Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Technical Workforce Training at Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council for Geographic Education (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the outcomes of a workshop held at the National Science Foundation on August 15-16, 2005. Forty-six participants, representing academia, industry, government agencies, professional associations, and special projects met to: (1) discuss how geospatial technology training at two-year colleges can address workforce needs; and…

  11. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  12. Dropped into the Deep End: A Study of Personal Journals in First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Jason Michael

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the lived experiences of first-year college students who kept personal and private journals in an English composition course. The purpose of this study was to provide a description of the lived experiences of keeping those journals from the point-of-view of the journal writers themselves. Forty-eight students were involved…

  13. Alienation and First-Year Student Retention. Professional File. Number 116, Spring 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Since Summerskill's study on college attrition forty years ago, the interest in this topic has never waned. This study was particularly interested in the relationship of race to retention. Various theoretical frames of references have been proposed: Price's organization theory, Durkheim's Suicide, and Marx's Alienation have been used to guide…

  14. Horticultural therapy as a measure for recovery support of regional community in the disaster area: a preliminary experiment for forty five women who living certain region in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kotozaki, Yuka

    2014-01-01

    Three years have passed since the earthquake, in the coastal areas in the disaster area, by population transfer or the like from the temporary housing, the importance of the regeneration and revitalization of the local community has been pointed out. This study performed a preliminary study to aim at the psychological inspection about an effect of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction support of the disaster area. Forty five women who are living in the coastal area of Miyagi Prefecture participated in this study. They experienced the Great East Japan earthquake in 2011 and suffered some kind of damage caused by the earthquake. The participants were assigned to two groups, the intervention group and the control group, via a random draw using a computer. The HI group attended the horticultural therapy intervention (HT intervention) sessions for 16 weeks. The HT intervention was designed in collaboration with a horticultural therapist and clinical psychologists. This intervention comprised a total of 16 weekly sessions (120 min each) at the community center and 15 minutes per day at participants' homes. We used five psychological measures for an intervention evaluation. The HI group showed a significant increase in post- intervention SCI-2 total scores, post- intervention SCI-2 membership scores, post-intervention SCI-2 influence scores, post- intervention SCI-2 meeting needs scores, post- intervention SCI-2 shared emotional connection scores, and post- intervention RSES score. We believe that these results suggest the effectiveness of the horticultural therapy as the means of the local community reproduction. PMID:25585479

  15. DPPH free-radical scavenging ability, total phenolic content, and chemical composition analysis of forty-five kinds of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Fen; Wang, Yu-Kang; Yih, Kuang-Hway

    2008-01-01

    Forty-five kinds of commonly used essential oils were employed to investigate the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging ability and total phenolic content of major chemical compositions. The free-radical scavenging ability and total phenolic content of cinnamon leaf and clove bud essential oils are the best among these essential oils. One-half milliliter of cinnamon leaf and clove bud essential oils (10 mg/ml EtOH) are shown to be 96.74% and 96.12% of the DPPH (2.5 ml, 1.52x10(-4) M) free-radical scavenging ability, respectively. Their EC50 (effective concentrations) are 53 and 36 (microg/ml). One milligram per milliliter of cinnamon leaf, clove bud, and thyme red essential oils were shown to be 420, 480, and 270 (mg/g of GAE) of total phenolic content, respectively. Eugenol in cinnamon leaf and clove bud essential oils (82.87% and 82.32%, respectively) were analyzed by GC-MS. It is clear that the amounts of the phenol compounds in essential oils and the DPPH free-radical scavenging ability are in direct proportion. PMID:19156333

  16. [Transcranial direct current stimulation: a new tool for neurostimulation].

    PubMed

    Thibaut, A; Chatelle, C; Gosseries, O; Laureys, S; Bruno, M-A

    2013-02-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a safe method to modulate cortical excitability. Anodal stimulation can improve the stimulated area's functions whereas cathodal stimulation reduces them. Currently, a lot of clinical trials have been conducted to study the effect of tDCS on post-stroke motor and language deficits, in depression, chronic pain, memory impairment and tinnitus in order to decrease symptoms. Results showed that, if an effect is observed with tDCS, it does not persist over time. Current studies suggest that direct current stimulation is a promising technique that helps to improve rehabilitation after stroke, to enhance cognitive deficiencies, to reduce depression and to relieve chronic pain. Moreover, it is a safe, simple and cheap device that could be easily integrated in a rehabilitation program. PMID:22959705

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY AND RENEWABLE POWER FOR IMPLANTABLE NEUROSTIMULATORS

    E-print Network

    Pantchenko, Oxana S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) [http://www.fda.gov/radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has becomeRFID handbook: fundamentals and applications in contactless smart cards and identification.

  18. Creating the feedback loop: closed-loop neurostimulation.

    PubMed

    Hebb, Adam O; Zhang, Jun Jason; Mahoor, Mohammad H; Tsiokos, Christos; Matlack, Charles; Chizeck, Howard Jay; Pouratian, Nader

    2014-01-01

    Current DBS therapy delivers a train of electrical pulses at set stimulation parameters. This open-loop design is effective for movement disorders, but therapy may be further optimized by a closed loop design. The technology to record biosignals has outpaced our understanding of their relationship to the clinical state of the whole person. Neuronal oscillations may represent or facilitate the cooperative functioning of brain ensembles, and may provide critical information to customize neuromodulation therapy. This review addresses advances to date, not of the technology per se, but of the strategies to apply neuronal signals to trigger or modulate stimulation systems. PMID:24262909

  19. Development and Implantation of a Minimally Invasive Wireless Subretinal Neurostimulator

    E-print Network

    Theogarajan, Luke

    A wirelessly operated, minimally invasive retinal prosthesis was developed for preclinical chronic implantation studies in Yucatan minipig models. The implant conforms to the outer wall of the eye and drives a microfabricated ...

  20. Laser patterning of platinum electrodes for safe neurostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, R. A.; Matteucci, P. B.; Dodds, C. W. D.; Palmer, J.; Dueck, W. F.; Hassarati, R. T.; Byrnes-Preston, P. J.; Lovell, N. H.; Suaning, G. J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Laser surface modification of platinum (Pt) electrodes was investigated for use in neuroprosthetics. Surface modification was applied to increase the surface area of the electrode and improve its ability to transfer charge within safe electrochemical stimulation limits. Approach. Electrode arrays were laser micromachined to produce Pt electrodes with smooth surfaces, which were then modified with four laser patterning techniques to produce surface structures which were nanosecond patterned, square profile, triangular profile and roughened on the micron scale through structured laser interference patterning (SLIP). Improvements in charge transfer were shown through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and biphasic stimulation at clinically relevant levels. A new method was investigated and validated which enabled the assessment of in vivo electrochemically safe charge injection limits. Main results. All of the modified surfaces provided electrical advantage over the smooth Pt. The SLIP surface provided the greatest benefit both in vitro and in vivo, and this surface was the only type which had injection limits above the threshold for neural stimulation, at a level shown to produce a response in the feline visual cortex when using an electrode array implanted in the suprachoroidal space of the eye. This surface was found to be stable when stimulated with more than 150 million clinically relevant pulses in physiological saline. Significance. Critical to the assessment of implant devices is accurate determination of safe usage limits in an in vivo environment. Laser patterning, in particular SLIP, is a superior technique for improving the performance of implant electrodes without altering the interfacial electrode chemistry through coating. Future work will require chronic in vivo assessment of these electrode patterns.

  1. The Proper Use of Neurostimulation for Hand Pain.

    PubMed

    Pope, Jason E; Provenzano, David; McRoberts, Porter; Deer, Timothy

    2016-02-01

    Upper extremity neuropathic pain states greatly impact patient functionality and quality of life, despite appropriate surgical intervention. This article focuses on the advanced therapies that may improve pain care, including advanced treatment strategies that are available. The article also surveys therapies on the immediate horizon, such as spinal cord stimulation, peripheral nerve stimulation, and dorsal root ganglion spinal cord stimulation. As these therapies evolve, so too will their placement within the pain care algorithm grounded by a foundation of evidence to improve patient safety and management of patients with difficult neuropathic pain. PMID:26611392

  2. Ferrite core non-linearity in coils for magnetic neurostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Lazzi, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    The need to correctly predict the voltage across terminals of mm-sized coils, with ferrite core, to be employed for magnetic stimulation of the peripheral neural system is the motivation for this work. In such applications, which rely on a capacitive discharge on the coil to realise a transient voltage curve of duration and strength suitable for neural stimulation, the correct modelling of the non-linearity of the ferrite core is critical. A demonstration of how a finite-difference model of the considered coils, which include a model of the current-controlled inductance in the coil, can be used to correctly predict the time-domain voltage waveforms across the terminals of a test coil is presented. Five coils of different dimensions, loaded with ferrite cores, have been fabricated and tested: the measured magnitude and width of the induced pulse are within 10% of simulated values. PMID:26609390

  3. Ferrite core non-linearity in coils for magnetic neurostimulation.

    PubMed

    RamRakhyani, Anil Kumar; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2014-10-01

    The need to correctly predict the voltage across terminals of mm-sized coils, with ferrite core, to be employed for magnetic stimulation of the peripheral neural system is the motivation for this work. In such applications, which rely on a capacitive discharge on the coil to realise a transient voltage curve of duration and strength suitable for neural stimulation, the correct modelling of the non-linearity of the ferrite core is critical. A demonstration of how a finite-difference model of the considered coils, which include a model of the current-controlled inductance in the coil, can be used to correctly predict the time-domain voltage waveforms across the terminals of a test coil is presented. Five coils of different dimensions, loaded with ferrite cores, have been fabricated and tested: the measured magnitude and width of the induced pulse are within 10% of simulated values. PMID:26609390

  4. Binding of Yeast Cytochrome c to Forty-Four Charge-Reversal Mutants of Yeast Cytochrome c Peroxidase: Isothermal Titration Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Erman, James E; Vitello, Lidia B; Pearl, Naw May; Jacobson, Timothy; Francis, Meka; Alberts, Erik; Kou, Allen; Bujarska, Kathy

    2015-08-11

    Previously, we constructed, expressed, and purified 46 charge-reversal mutants of yeast cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) and determined their electronic absorption spectra, their reaction with H2O2, and their steady-state catalytic properties [ Pearl , N. M. et al. (2008) Biochemistry 47 , 2766 - 2775 ]. Forty-four of the mutants involve the conversion of either an aspartate or glutamate residue to a lysine residue, while two are positive-to-negative mutations, R31E and K149D. In this paper, we report on a calorimetric study of the interaction of each charge-reversal mutant (excluding the internal mutants D76K and D235K) with recombinant yeast iso-1 ferricytochrome c(C102T) (yCc) under conditions where only one-to-one yCc/CcP complex formation is observed. Thirteen of the 44 surface-site charge-reversal mutants decrease the binding affinity for yCc by a factor of 2 or more. Eight of the 13 mutations (E32K, D33K, D34K, E35K, E118K, E201K, E290K, E291K) occur within, or on the immediate periphery, of the crystallographically defined yCc binding site [ Pelletier , H. and Kraut , J. (1992) Science 258 , 1748 - 1755 ], three of the mutations (D37K, E98K, E209K) are slightly removed from the crystallographic site, and two of the mutations (D165K, D241K) occur on the "back-side" of CcP. The current study is consistent with a model for yCc binding to CcP in which yCc binds predominantly near the region defined by crystallographic structure of the 1:1 yCc-CcP complex, whether as a stable electron-transfer active complex or as part of a dynamic encounter complex. PMID:26212209

  5. Padian, K. and Olsen, P.E., 1989, Baird's two axioms of vertebrate paleoichnology. Abstract of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Vol. 9, No. 3, Supplement., p. 34A-35A.

    E-print Network

    Olsen, Paul E.

    of Papers, Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology OF VERTEBRATE SCALES AND TEETII: CONODONTS AS THE FIRST CRANlATES NELMS, L Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ NELMS, L. Gayle, Dept. of Paleontology, Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Vertebrate fossils from

  6. Past Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodge, Oliver

    2012-07-01

    Preface; 1. Ancestry and early days; 2. Schooldays; 3. Relation with other boys at school; 4. Education; 5. Influence of the Royal Institution; 6. Later education in London; 7. Reminiscences of Bedford College; 8. Scientific work and friends in London; 9. Personal retrospect; 10. Romance; 11. Influence of the British Association; 12. Reminiscences of Coopers Hill and assistants and popular lectures; 13. Liverpool; 14. Scientific work at Liverpool; 15. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 16. Scientific work at Liverpool (cont.); 17. Electric waves and the beginnings of wireless; 18. Other friends; 19. Family life; 20. Holidays; 21. Side issues; 22. Early experiences in psychical research; 23. Psychical research; 24. Further psychic adventures, and psycho-physical phenomena; 25. Reminiscences of my years at the university of Birmingham; 26. Birmingham friendships and recollections; 27. Scientific retrospect; 28. Apologia pro vita mea; Index.

  7. Learning, Engagement, and Technology: Middle School Students' Three-Year Experience in Pervasive Technology Environments in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hur, Jung Won; Oh, Jaekyeon

    2012-01-01

    This study explored an initiative that created a pervasive learning environment in a middle school in South Korea and examined its impact on student academic achievement and learning engagement. Forty students received a laptop to use for class projects, online collaboration, and lesson reviews over a 3-year period. To measure the effect of laptop…

  8. A Meta-Analysis Examining the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Postsecondary Statistics Education: 40 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larwin, Karen; Larwin, David

    2011-01-01

    The present meta-analysis is a comprehensive investigation of the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student achievement in postsecondary statistics education across a forty year period of time. The researchers calculated an overall effect size of 0.566 from 70 studies, for a total of 219 effect-size measures from a sample of…

  9. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  10. Student ID Advisor 1st Year Fall __________ (year) 1st Year Spr. __________ (year) 1st Year Sum. __________ (year)

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Name Major Student ID Advisor 1st Year Fall __________ (year) 1st Year Spr. __________ (year) 1st) Projected Graduation Date SUBJECT SUBJECT CR. HRS. SUBJECT COURSE # CR. HRS. Advisor Signature Date Student

  11. The Economic Benefits of Reducing the Dropout Rate for Students of Color in the Nation's Forty-Five Largest Metropolitan Areas. Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Years of data have consistently underscored the persistent graduation gap between America's students of color and their peers. The most recent estimate shows that high school graduation rates for African American, Latino, and American Indian students hover only slightly higher than 50 percent. This is more than 20 percentage points lower than that…

  12. 15 Years of Terra, 14 Years of Application Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaltz, J. E.; Alarcon, C.; Boller, R. A.; Cechini, M. F.; Davies, D.; Fu, G.; Gunnoe, T.; Hall, J. R.; Huang, T.; Ilavajhala, S.; Jackson, M.; King, J.; McGann, M.; Murphy, K. J.; Roberts, J. T.; Thompson, C. K.; Ye, G.

    2014-12-01

    The instruments onboard the Terra spacecraft were designed for long-term Earth science research but not long after launch it became apparent that this data and imagery could be made available in near real-time for applications users. During the year 2000 fire season in the western United States, the US Forest Service approached NASA with a request to expedite MODIS fire detections. The Rapid Response system was created to generate fire detections as well as true color imagery in both swath and geo-referenced formats. This imagery was used by a wide variety of applications, such as NASA's AERONET program, the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service, Antarctic resupply shipping, flood mapping for relief agencies, Deepwater Horizon monitoring, volcanic ash monitoring, as well as print, televised, and Internet media. From 2004, the University of Maryland's Web Fire Mapper helped distribute fire detection information in a variety of formats. However, the applications community expressed the need for near-real time access to the underlying data. This requirement led to the development of the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (Earth Observing System) (LANCE) in 2009. To achieve the latency requirements, many components of the EOS satellite operations, ground and science processing systems had to be made more efficient. In addition, products that require ancillary data were modified to use alternate inputs. Forty Terra MODIS data products are currently available from LANCE. LANCE also includes data from other instruments including AIRS, AMSR-E, MLS, and OMI. To help near-real time users navigate this large data offering, a new imagery service was begun in 2011 - Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This service provides very responsive viewing using the Web Map Tile Service protocol. These programs will continue to support and expand the use of Terra data for near-real time applications well into the future.

  13. Synthesis results from eight years of field testing insecticides against Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri vector of huanglongbing: Considerations and Implications

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    6.5 Synthesis results from eight years of field testing insecticides against Asian citrus psyllid also known as Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) vectors Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, causal organism of the Asian "huanglongbing" or citrus greening disease and therefore needs to be managed effectively. Forty

  14. Looking Forward to the Year 2000: Public Policy and Philanthropy. Working Papers, Spring Research Forum (San Francisco, California, March 17-18, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Independent Sector, Washington, DC.

    Forty-six working papers for presentation at a research forum on public policy and philanthropy are presented. Thirteen sections include the following topics: (1) looking forward to the year 2000: public policy and philanthropy (e.g. "Rationales for Tax Exemption," by Harvey P. Dale); (2) shifting boundaries among the sectors (e.g. "The Shifting…

  15. [Acute myocardial infarction in octogenarians treated by primary coronary angioplasty: in hospital outcome, social evolution and long-term mortality. About a forty-seven consecutive patients study].

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, L; Dezfouli, M-H; El Belghiti, R; Roth, O; Calatan, A; Levy, J; Monassier, J-P

    2007-11-01

    This study evaluated the hospital outcome of octogenarian patients treated by primary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction less than 12 hours. The long-term mortality and social outcome were evaluated, social outcome was based on IADL and IADL-E scales corresponding to physical autonomy and level of dependence. We included from 1999 to 2005 47 old patients of 83.5+/-3.2 years. The reperfusion of the obstructed coronary artery was obtained in 45 patients (95.7%) with TIMI 3 flow. Hospital mortality was 25.5% and 4.2% without hemodynamic complication. A multivariate analysis identified a Killip score>1 as predictive factor of hospital mortality (OR=8.9 and p=0.05). The long-term survival without death with a follow-up of 26.3+/-18.3 months was 82.2% at 24 months and 70.6% at 48 months according to the Kaplan-Meier method. In an multivariate analysis, hospitalization exit without aspirine was associated with a higher long term mortality (OR=34.8 and p=0.04). According to the evolution of scores of IADL and IADL-E scales, patients had an excellent autonomy and good capacities before the infarction and they kept them on the long term. Thus octogenarians with acute myocardial infarction treated by primary angioplasty have a high in hospital and long term mortality but the survivors preserve an excellent daily autonomy. PMID:17920560

  16. Fiscal Year 2006 | 1 FISCAL YEAR

    E-print Network

    Napp, Nils

    American Cancer Society American Institute of Architects Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals BantamFiscal Year 2006 | 1 SPONSORS 06 FISCAL YEAR $1 million+ Allstate Insurance Company American Honda's Association American Psychological Association American Public Transportation Association Archer Daniels

  17. The Socio-Cultural and Leadership Experiences of Latina Four-Year College and University Presidents: A Traves de sus Voces (Through Their Voices)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Johanna B.

    2012-01-01

    The Latina population in the United States is one of the largest of all racial and ethnic groups, and it is expected to grow exponentially within the next forty years. Despite these large numbers of Latinas in the U.S., there is a disparity with this population who are leading our nation's four-year colleges and universities. A reason for…

  18. Einstein's Miraculous Year

    E-print Network

    Vasant Natarajan; V Balakrishnan; N Mukunda

    2013-07-12

    With each passing year, the young Albert Einstein's achievements in physics in the year 1905 seem to be ever more miraculous. We describe why the centenary of this remarkable year is worthy of celebration.

  19. Georgio Forti Photosynthesis Research 60: 99110, 1999.

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    discussed glycolysis and the Krebs cycle; he told me his ideas about the biochemical events possibly additional ATP to run the Calvin cycle. The situation seems to be different in unicellular green algae, where

  20. FORTY-NINER SHOPS, INC. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    those risk assessments, the auditor considers internal control relevant to the entity's preparation; this includes the design, implementation, and maintenance of internal control relevant to the preparation of Enterprise Activities 29 - 30 Schedule of Allocated General Schedule of Revenues, Expenses Statements

  1. Year of the Tiger

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi

    2010-02-03

    Broadcast Transcript: Xin nian kuai le! That's happy New Year in Chinese. It's a Tiger year. The Chinese zodiac runs on a 12 year cycle and each year is governed by an animal: rat, ox , tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horse, goat, monkey, rooster, dog...

  2. Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Children's Hospital of

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 July General Pediatric Children's Hospital of Michigan High Risk Obstetrics Hutzel Women's Hospital Biochemical Genetics Lab/Metabolic Clinic Harper Hospital/ Children's Hospital of Michigan Reproductive Genetics Hutzel Women's Hospital August General Pediatric Children

  3. Pediatric-Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Pediatric- Medical Genetics 4-Year Block Schedule Block Year One Year Two Year Three Year Four 1/10 PEM/AI-1 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Metabolic Genetics 10/90 8 General Pediatrics Ambulatory Clinic 0/100 AMBU-2 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric Genetics 10/90 Pediatric

  4. Bachelor of Civil Engineering/Bachelor of Arts 3703 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Bachelor of Civil Engineering/Bachelor of Arts 3703 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Semester 1 Course 9 Professional Elective 2 Semester 2 Engineering Mechanics for Civil Engineers CVEN1300 Required elective CVEN2002 Engineering Computations for Civil Engineers CVEN2201 Soil Mechanics CVEN3031 Civil

  5. FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 CORE W Flowchart Catalog: 2008-2010 updated Mar. 2009 CHBE Lab 1 à CHBE 442 or CHBE 461 CHBE 226 3 cr Note: A dual

  6. EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

    2009-02-01

    Irving Langmuir proposed the term 'plasma' in a paper in 1928 (Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 14 627-637) to describe a 'region containing balanced charges of ions and electrons'. There does not appear to be any record of the thinking behind this proposal, so it is difficult to be definitive. One idea is that since the Greek word 'plasma' was used to describe a mouldable fluid, 'neon' lighting, with its almost limitless ability to provide colourful shapes, provided the inspiration. Another relates to the prior medical use in relation to blood with its variety of different 'corpuscles' and that the essential description of the positive column required one to recognize at least the role of the separate species of electrons, ions and gas atoms. Tonks, when questioned thirty years later, was inclined to the latter idea, but it is unlikely that we shall ever know for certain. (See postscript added December 2008.) Forty years ago most of the interest in terrestrial plasmas was centred on fusion and the prospect of thus solving the world's energy problems; the quest continues. However, since then a whole new industry has developed. It emerged in the 1970s as an imaginative way to remove the photoresist layers used in patterning semiconductor wafers. Slowly but steadily, plasma-based 'dry' processes began to displace the traditional wet chemistry processes of cleaning, etching and depositing by which the first generation of integrated circuits had been made. Plasma technology offered higher yields while accommodating the complexity of ever-shrinking feature size, driving the microelectronic revolution for almost four decades. Langmuir certainly ushered in an exciting branch of physics when he introduced the term plasma. We have included as Appendix I a condensed CV for Irving Langmuir to show, amongst other things, the early influences on his subsequent life. An interlude in Paris gave him a taste of the wider world of Europe. His subsequent schooling in the United States led to admission to Columbia University where he studied metallurgical engineering. After graduation, as was common at that time for able students, he was encouraged to go abroad for his doctoral work. He went to Göttingen, which was then one of the leading European universities in science, and studied under Nernst. Returning to the United States he obtained a post as a teaching assistant at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, but the atmosphere proved too hierarchical and uncongenial for a scientist who was wanting to spread his wings. Fortunately the General Electric Company (GEC) recognized his potential; he was recruited in 1909, and remained associated with the GEC for the next 48 years. He quickly established his credentials as a research scientist and was soon given the freedom to pursue his interests wherever they took him, consistent with the overall strategy of the company. His appointment as an Associate Director at the GEC came in the same year that he introduced the term 'plasma'. Interestingly, while the term gained rapid acceptance in Europe, the associated word 'sheath', which Langmuir had already been using for several years, was translated into French, German and Russian and suffered from confusion. That confusion was there in Langmuir's writings because this ion-rich region sometimes was a region with barely any electrons and sometimes it contained a significant quantity of negative charge. The structure of the plasma-sheath and its elucidation had to await new mathematical techniques and the impact of computers as evidenced by papers in this volume and those quoted therein. It is clear that Langmuir inspired and benefited from collaboration with co-workers at the GEC, notably Kingdon, Taylor, Mott-Smith, Compton, Jones, Found, Tonks and Blodgett. In several ways he was ahead of his time in his understanding of gas discharges, and a particular example is what has since come to be known as the Bohm criterion. More than once in his plasma papers published in the early 1930s Langmuir stated in words what was needed for a sheath to develop

  7. Replicability and 40-Year Predictive Power of Childhood ARC Types

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Goldberg, Lewis R.

    2011-01-01

    We examined three questions surrounding the Undercontrolled, Overcontrolled, and Resilient--or Asendorpf-Robins-Caspi (ARC)--personality types originally identified by Block (1971). In analyses of the teacher personality assessments of over 2,000 children in 1st through 6th grade in 1959-1967, and follow-up data on general and cardiovascular health outcomes in over 1,100 adults recontacted 40 years later, we found: (1) Bootstrapped internal replication clustering suggested that Big Five scores were best characterized by a tripartite cluster structure corresponding to the ARC types; (2) this cluster structure was fuzzy, rather than discrete, indicating that ARC constructs are best represented as gradients of similarity to three prototype Big Five profiles; and (3) ARC types and degrees of ARC prototypicality showed associations with multiple health outcomes 40 years later. ARC constructs were more parsimonious, but neither better nor more consistent predictors than the dimensional Big Five traits. Forty-year incident cases of heart disease could be correctly identified with 68% accuracy by personality information alone, a figure approaching the 12-year accuracy of a leading medical cardiovascular risk model. Findings support the theoretical validity of ARC constructs, their treatment as continua of prototypicality rather than discrete categories, and the need for further understanding the robust predictive power of childhood personality traits for mid-life health. PMID:21744975

  8. Pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer: 25 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Irshad, Kashif; Ahmad, Faiz; Morin, Jean E.; Mulder, David S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the experience of pulmonary resections for colorectal metastases at the McGill University Health Centre. Design A chart review. Patients Forty-nine patients treated surgically between 1975 and 1998 for pulmonary metastases from colorectal cancer. Intervention Thoracotomy with pulmonary resection. Outcome measures Survival of patients with various preoperative and postoperative clinical variables. Results The perioperative death rate was 4%. Overall 5- and 10-year survival rates were 55% and 40% respectively. The mean interval between the initial colonic resection and resection of pulmonary metastases (disease-free interval) was 36 months. The 7 patients who also underwent resection of extrapulmonary metastases had a 5-year survival rate of 52%. Significant preoperative variables that carried a poor prognosis included the following: more than one pulmonary lesion, a disease-free interval of less than 2 years, and moderately or poorly differentiated colorectal cancer. The 16 patients who received chemotherapy after their thoracotomy had a 5-year survival rate of 51% compared with 54% for the 33 patients who did not receive chemotherapy. Recurrent resections of pulmonary lesions did not reduce survival. Conclusions Pulmonary resection for metastatic colorectal cancer is both effective and safe. Resectable extrapulmonary metastases and pulmonary recurrence should not preclude lung resection. Postoperative chemotherapy has no survival benefit. Preoperative variables should guide the clinician when considering surgical intervention. PMID:11407833

  9. Ten year neurocognitive trajectories in first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Barder, Helene E.; Sundet, Kjetil; Rund, Bjørn R.; Evensen, Julie; Haahr, Ulrik; Ten Velden Hegelstad, Wenche; Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan O.; Langeveld, Johannes; Larsen, Tor K.; Melle, Ingrid; Opjordsmoen, Stein; Røssberg, Jan I.; Simonsen, Erik; Vaglum, Per; McGlashan, Thomas; Friis, Svein

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neurocognitive impairment is commonly reported at onset of psychotic disorders. However, the long-term neurocognitive course remains largely uninvestigated in first episode psychosis (FEP) and the relationship to clinically significant subgroups even more so. We report 10 year longitudinal neurocognitive development in a sample of FEP patients, and explore whether the trajectories of cognitive course are related to presence of relapse to psychosis, especially within the first year, with a focus on the course of verbal memory. Method: Forty-three FEP subjects (51% male, 28 ± 9 years) were followed-up neurocognitively over five assessments spanning 10 years. The test battery was divided into four neurocognitive indices; Executive Function, Verbal Learning, Motor Speed, and Verbal Fluency. The sample was grouped into those relapsing or not within the first, second and fifth year. Results: The four neurocognitive indices showed overall stability over the 10 year period. Significant relapse by index interactions were found for all indices except Executive Function. Follow-up analyses identified a larger significant decrease over time for the encoding measure within Verbal Memory for patients with psychotic relapse in the first year [F(4, 38) = 5.8, p = 0.001, ?2 = 0.40]. Conclusions: Main findings are long-term stability in neurocognitive functioning in FEP patients, with the exception of verbal memory in patients with psychotic relapse or non-remission early in the course of illness. We conclude that worsening of specific parts of cognitive function may be expected for patients with on-going psychosis, but that the majority of patients do not show significant change in cognitive performance during the first 10 years after being diagnosed. PMID:24109449

  10. Comparison of patients who were violent, victimized and violent-victimized during the first year after discharge from emergency psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Roaldset, John Olav; Bjørkly, Stål

    2015-12-30

    This prospective observational study included 345 (70%) of 489 patients discharged from an emergency psychiatric hospital during one year. Episodes of offending and victimization were recorded during first year after discharge. Forty-eight persons (14%) committed violent offenses only, 27 persons (8%) were violence victims only, and 42 persons (12%) were both offenders and victims. Significant differences in demographic and clinical variables were found between the three groups. The results pointed to two distinct groups of victims: one group with a robust offender-victim overlap and another group without offender-victim overlap. The latter group was difficult to distinguish from other discharged patients. PMID:26616305

  11. Final Year Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hubsch, Tristan

    2013-06-20

    In the last years of this eighteen-year grant project, the research efforts have focused mostly on the study of off-shell representations of supersymmetry, both on the worldline and on the world- sheet, i.e., both in supersymmetric quantum mechanics and in supersymmetric field theory in 1+1-dimensional spacetime.

  12. Celebrating 50 Years!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansdottir, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The author congratulates members of the Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) on celebrating the 50th anniversary of their annual conference. These conferences have kept the spirit alive from the early years, especially the engagement in investigative, collaborative, and reasoning activities. In the 50th year as an association, the author…

  13. Double Spring Year

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William; von Holten, Leslie

    2006-12-13

    --and such an anomaly is practically an astrological guarantee of marital bliss. To fuel the frenzy even further, this double spring year will be followed by the ominous Year of the Widow which pretty much everyone would argue sounds like a bad time to get married...

  14. Probing the Preretirement Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Laura

    1975-01-01

    To find out what happens to a major segment of the working population over several years, the Manpower Administration is sponsoring a 10-year study on the work lives of middle-aged men. The article discusses data from a monograph reporting the completion of the first half of the study. (Author/AJ)

  15. THREE YEARS CLINICAL EXPERIENCE WITH INTESTINAL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Todo, Satoru; Tzakis, Andreas; Reyes, Jorge; Nour, Bakr; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Fung, John J.; Demetris, Anthony; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND After the successful evolution of hepatic transplantation during the last decade, small bowel and multivisceral transplantation remains the sole elusive achievement for the next era of transplant surgeons. Until recently, and for the last thirty years, the results of the sporadic attempts of intestinal transplantation worldwide were discouraging because of unsatisfactory graft and patient survival. The experimental and clinical demonstration of the superior therapeutic efficacy of FK 506, a new immunosuppressive drug, ushered in the current era of small bowel and multivisceral transplantation with initial promising results. STUDY DESIGN Forty-three consecutive patients with short bowel syndrome, intestinal insufficiency, or malignant tumors with or without associated liver disease, were given intestinal (n=15), hepatic and intestinal (n=21), or multivisceral allografts that contained four or more organs (n=7). Treatment was with FK 506 based immunosuppression. The ascending and right transverse colon were included with the small intestine in 13 of the 43 grafts, almost evenly distributed between the three groups. RESULTS After six to 39 months, 30 of the 43 patients are alive, 29 bearing grafts. The most rapid convalescence and resumption of diet, as well as the highest three month patient survival (100 percent) and graft survival (88 percent) were with the isolated intestinal procedure. However, this advantage was slowly eroded during the first two postoperative years, in part because the isolated intestine was more prone to rejection. By the end of this time, the best survival rate (86 percent) was with the multivisceral procedure. With all three operations, most of the patients were able to resume diet and discontinue parenteral alimentation, and in the best instances, the quality of life approached normal. However, the surveillance and intensity of care required for these patients for the first year, and in most instances thereafter, was very high, being far more than required for patients having transplants of the liver, kidney or heart. CONCLUSIONS Although intestinal transplantation has gone through the feasibility phase, strategies will be required to increase its practicality. One possibility is to combine intestinal transplantation with contemporaneous autologous bone marrow transplantation. PMID:7522850

  16. [40 years of toxicomania at the psychiatric hospital in Liège].

    PubMed

    Husquinet, H

    1981-12-01

    Drug abuse was observed during 40 years (1939-1979) in a psychiatric hospital for women (sanatorium Sainte-Agathe, Liège, Belgium). Seventy patients were labelled with that diagnosis, -i.e. 2,9% of 2386 admissions. The frequency of drug addiction grew with years and between 1975 and 1979, outnumbered 10% of all admissions. 3/4 of those patients were previously inmates of other psychiatric clinics and well known in medical urgency services. Morphinomaniacs were the only patients between 1939 and 1949 (11 women). As a rule, they survived and did not come back. No haschich, L.S.D. or heroin addicts were seen: their psychiatric confinement was never required. Beginning in december 1959, barbituromaniacs (58 patients) invaded the wards. Other hypnotics were used as well (e.g. metaqualone). Forty-five per cent of the patients died and the survivors came back and back again, -en masse. The illness is very serious if it starts before 30 years: the risk of death goes to 75%. Barmaids and prostitutes were definitely doing hazardous jobs (5 deaths among 6 cases). Other psychiatric illnesses interfere with toxicomania, especially depression. Four patients committed suicide without hypnotics. To conclude: barbiturates are dangerous drugs and they ought not to be used for insomnia. Benzodiazepine abuse did not occur in the hospital and did not induce fatal issues. Combined with phenothiazines, benzodiazepines can solve nearly all sleep disturbances. PMID:6127976

  17. 1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years 5 Years 6 Years 6 Years + 2005 118 10% 16% 25% 26% 27% 27% 29%

    E-print Network

    % As of 6/15/2014 Social and Behavioral Sciences Program Profile PhD Attrition Cohort Entry Year of Social and Behavioral Sciences and complete their PhD in a different broad field category are included and Behavioral Sciences Program Profile PhD Completion Cohort Entry Year # of entering PhD students* Cumulative

  18. [Pacemakers 16 years later].

    PubMed

    Dodinot, B

    1976-01-01

    In 1976, 10 years after the first successful implantations, the pacemaker technique is perfectly well accepted. Transvenous placement of the electrode is preferred in 95 % of the cases. Besides the 15 years nuclear power pacers (1970), conventional mercury pacemakers may reach a longevity of 4 to 5 years because of the reduction of the current drain. Lithium iodine seems a very promising source of energy. The mini-pacemakers with various iodine anodes are particularly attractive. The future is probably a well designed medium sized lithium pacemaker lasting more than 7 years. Patient follow-up is very much improved. All pacemakers exhibit an obvious rate reduction when their source of energy runs down. Therefore general practitioner and even the patients may detect this symptom. The main problem remains the lead resistance. The reduction of the frequency of pacemaker replacements and of the medical check-up makes life more simple for the pacemaker patient. PMID:1087802

  19. FALL SPRING FALL SPRING FALL SPRINGFALL SPRING YEAR 1 YEAR 2 YEAR 3 YEAR 4

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    -273Q (MATH 224). CHMY-373 (CHEM 324) could be taken Spring of year 3. Take the FE Exam your last semester before graduation E Math Placement ExamB M-172-Q (MATH 182) 4 cr Chemical Engineering Prerequisite

  20. 5 Year Rate Changes

    Cancer.gov

    Close Window State Cancer Profiles Quick Reference Guides ? Quick Reference Guides Index 5 Year Rate Changes Send to Printer Text description of this image. Site Home Policies Accessibility Viewing Files FOIA Contact Us U.S. Department of Health and

  1. Fiscal Year 2003

    Cancer.gov

    The Nation’s Investment in Cancer Research A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 P re p a r ed by the Dir e c t o r National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health A Plan and Budget Proposal for Fiscal Year 2003 . . . bringing together the resources to stimulate and support scientific discovery and its application to achieve a future when all cancers are uncommon and easily treated.

  2. Natural history of herpes zoster: late follow-up of 3.9 years (n=43) and 7.7 years (n=10).

    PubMed

    Reda, Haatem; Greene, Kaitlin; Rice, Frank L; Rowbotham, Michael C; Petersen, Karin L

    2013-10-01

    Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a common complication after herpes zoster (HZ). Subjects who completed a longitudinal observational 6-month study (4 visits) of the natural history of HZ were recontacted for 2 additional follow-up visits that included pain and sensory symptom assessment, quantitative sensory testing, capsaicin response test, and 3-mm punch skin biopsies in HZ-affected, mirror-image, and control skin sites. Forty-three subjects (14 with PHN at 6 months) of the original 94 subjects in the cohort were comprehensively assessed at a median 3.9 years after HZ onset (visit 5), and 10 subjects underwent a final assessment at a median 7.7 years after HZ onset (visit 6). At 3.9 years, none of the 29 subjects who had been pain free at 6 months had a recurrence of pain. Only 2 of the 14 subjects with PHN at 6 months still had pain at 3.9 years. One subject with PHN at 6 months was free of symptoms at 3.9 years but had very mild pain at 7.7 years. Sensory function continued on a path toward normalization, but was still abnormal in many subjects, especially those who met criteria for PHN at 6 months. Even at 7.7 years, reinnervation of HZ-affected skin was not apparent. PMID:23719573

  3. Congress passes space year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The year 1992 will mark the 500th anniversary of Christopher Columbus' arrival in America and the 35th anniversary of both the International Geophysical Year and the launch of Sputnik. The U.S. Senate passed a joint resolution (S.J.Res. 177) on November 21 recommending that the President endorse an International Space Year (ISY) in 1992. A similar resolution introduced in the House of Representatives was incorporated into the conference report (House Report 99-379) accompanying the authorization bill for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and approved by both houses, also on November 21. As Eos went to press, the NASA authorization bill (H.R. 1714) awaited President Ronald Reagan's signature.

  4. Emergent technologies: 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, Hawley K.

    2013-03-01

    This paper will talk about the technologies that have been emerging over the 25 years since the Human Vision and Electronic Imaging conference began that the conference has been a part of, and that have been a part of the conference, and will look at those technologies that are emerging today, such as social networks, haptic technologies, and still emerging imaging technologies, and what we might look at for the future.Twenty-five years is a long time, and it is not without difficulty that we remember what was emerging in the late 1980s. Yet to be developed: The first commercial digital still camera was not yet on the market, although there were hand held electronic cameras. Personal computers were not displaying standardized images, and image quality was not something that could be talked about in a standardized fashion, if only because image compression algorithms were not standardized yet for several years hence. Even further away were any standards for movie compression standards, there was no personal computer even on the horizon which could display them. What became an emergent technology and filled many sessions later, image comparison and search, was not possible, nor the current emerging technology of social networks- the world wide web was still several years away. Printer technology was still devising dithers and image size manipulations which would consume many years, as would scanning technology, and image quality for both was a major issue for dithers and Fourier noise.From these humble beginnings to the current moves that are changing computing and the meaning of both electronic devices and human interaction with them, we will see a course through the changing technology that holds some features constant for many years, while others come and go.

  5. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL's cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

  6. Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory annual report for Fiscal Year 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Chatters, J.C.; Gard, H.A.

    1992-08-01

    The Hanford Cultural Resources Laboratory (HCRL) was established by the US Department of Energy, Richland Field Office (RL) in 1987 as part of Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The HCRL provides support for managing the archaeological, historical, and cultural resources of the Hanford Site, Washington, in a manner consistent with the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (NHPA), the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979 and the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978. HCRL responsibilities have been set forth in the Hanford Cultural Resources Management Plan (HCRMP) as a prioritized list of tasks to be undertaken to keep the RL in compliance with federal statutes, regulations and guidelines. For fiscal year 1991 these tasks were to (1) ensure compliance with NHPA Section 106, (2) monitor the condition of known archaeological sites, (3) evaluate cultural resources for potential nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, (4) educate the public about cultural resources, (5) conduct a sample archaeological survey of Hanford lands, and (6) gather ethnohistorical data from Indian elders. Research conducted as a spinoff from these tasks is also reported. The archaeological site monitoring program is designed to determine whether the RL`s cultural resource management and protection policies are effective; results are used in planning for cultural resource site management and protection. Forty-one sites were monitored during this fiscal year.

  7. Developmental milestones record - 2 years

    MedlinePLUS

    Growth milestones for children - 2 years; Normal childhood growth milestones - 2 years; Childhood growth milestones - 2 years ... a cause for concern if not seen by 2 years.) Can run with better coordination. (May still ...

  8. Project Year Project Team

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    be impossible to access in their original forms. Technologies Used Courseware (WebCT), Graphic Design, PhotoshopProject Year 2003 Project Team Faculty: Mary Ryan, History Department, Krieger School of Arts & Sciences Fellows: Andre Young, History Department, Krieger School of Arts & Sciences; Zhao Ma, History

  9. ISME Celebrates 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teaching Music, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When members of the International Society for Music Education (ISME) met in Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain in July for the 26th ISME World Conference, the gathering was an opportunity to share music from around the world, and to attend music education workshops. It was also an opportunity for its members to look back on the rich 50-year history…

  10. The Lost Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann; Mousa, Yasmine

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of children were deprived of schooling in the difficult aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq five years ago. During those times, more than 2 million Iraqis have fled their homeland, mainly to Jordan and Syria. Even though the schoolchildren who came to these neighboring Arab lands with their families are now given seats in…

  11. Understanding Early Years Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldock, Peter; Fitzgerald, Damien; Kay, Janet

    2005-01-01

    The book is about policy in the area of early years services and that phrase may need some clarification. For the most part, therefore, this book deals with nursery schools and classes and with services provided by full day care nurseries, pre-schools, creches, childminders, after-school clubs and holiday play schemes. This book begins with…

  12. Year In Review Information

    E-print Network

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    of a campus-wide IT management plan. a. We are now developing the budgeting metrics. b. A next step and Enterprise Project Management we will better approximate at a true cost of IT at ECU. c. The new Systems The management team at ITCS is pleased to offer the 2007-08 Year In Review. One theme that is evident throughout

  13. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  14. Books of the Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adults Learning, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It's that time of year again and "Adults Learning" has once more asked some of the outstanding authors who have contributed to the journal over the past 12 months to nominate their best and most valuable reads of 2004. The authors are: (1) Judith Summers; (2) Thomas Sticht; (3) Alison Wolf; (4) Tom Schuller; (5) Linden West; (6) Brian Groombridge;…

  15. Graduate Fellowship Academic Year

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    Graduate Fellowship Appointees Handbook Academic Year 2014-2015 Graduate Awards Office Suite 212 York 13244-1200 January 2014 #12;Table of Contents Page Acceptance of a Graduate Fellowship Appointment 2 Information About Your Fellowship Award Fellowships Funded by Externally Sponsored Grants

  16. Project Year Summer 2010

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    .306.01), and Separation (540.304.01), with an additional venue for the demonstration at the USA Science Fair in WashingtonProject Year Summer 2010 Project Title Lab-on-a-Chip Simulation Project Team German Drazer, Whiting and popular science websites. Our model will mimic the fluid behavior inside a "Lab-on-a-Chip," a relatively

  17. Project Year Project Team

    E-print Network

    Gray, Jeffrey J.

    : Stephen Stone, Music Theory, Peabody Institute Project Title Testing the Ability to Read Music: UsingProject Year 2001 Project Team Faculty: Paul Mathews, Music Theory, Peabody Institute Fellow Javascript Objects to Enter Musical Notes Audience This tool will be used by over 600 students applying

  18. Smog - the learning years

    SciTech Connect

    Heinen, C.M.; Fagley, W.S. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    35 years of continuous work by government and industry and the public have led to a very sophisticated system of emission controls. This paper is intended to recall and perhaps to honor those who participated in the hectic early period, when instrumentation, basic knowledge, and primitive devices competed for the attention of these pioneers with strident demands from policitians.

  19. European Music Year 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  20. Year-Round Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McChesney, Jim

    1996-01-01

    One avenue being explored as a way to cut costs while maintaining the quality of programs and services is year-round education (YRE). In most cases, the known benefits and drawbacks of an existing component of traditional scheduling must be weighed against the theoretical advantages and disadvantages of YRE. The five articles reviewed in this…

  1. Important factors for physical activity among elderly patients one year after an acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ståhle, A; Lindquist, I; Mattsson, E

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the factors of importance for elderly (> or =65 years) patients in being physically active one year after acute myocardial infarction. Forty-three consecutive elderly patients with a recent myocardial infarction were randomized either to a supervised outpatient-group training programme, 50 min three times a week for 3 months, or to a control group. An independent observer interviewed the patients 12 months after randomization in order to elucidate the factors that motivated the patients into being physically active. Both groups were identical at the start. The patients in the training group stated that the programme had made them more self-confident regarding physical activities and this seems to be an important factor for continuing to be physically active. Body mass index, age, gender and support from a physically active partner were of minor importance compared to the training programme or earlier experience of regular physical activity. PMID:11028795

  2. A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Puiu F.; Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth in publications represents a major challenge for researchers. Many scientific domains, including neuroscience, are not yet fully engaged in exploiting large bodies of publications. In this paper, we promote the idea to partially automate the processing of scientific documents, specifically using text mining (TM), to efficiently review big corpora of publications. The “cognitive advantage” given by TM is mainly related to the automatic extraction of relevant trends from corpora of literature, otherwise impossible to analyze in short periods of time. Specifically, the benefits of TM are increased speed, quality and reproducibility of text processing, boosted by rapid updates of the results. First, we selected a set of TM-tools that allow user-friendly approaches of the scientific literature, and which could serve as a guide for researchers willing to incorporate TM in their work. Second, we used these TM-tools to obtain basic insights into the relevant literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) and cognitive enhancement (CE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TM readily extracted the diversity of TMS applications in CR and CE from vast corpora of publications, automatically retrieving trends already described in published reviews. TMS emerged as one of the important non-invasive tools that can both improve cognitive and motor functions in numerous neurological diseases and induce modulations/enhancements of many fundamental brain functions. TM also revealed trends in big corpora of publications by extracting occurrence frequency and relationships of particular subtopics. Moreover, we showed that CR and CE share research topics, both aiming to increase the brain's capacity to process information, thus supporting their integration in a larger perspective. Methodologically, despite limitations of a simple user-friendly approach, TM served well the reviewing process. PMID:25309356

  3. A practical application of text mining to literature on cognitive rehabilitation and enhancement through neurostimulation.

    PubMed

    Balan, Puiu F; Gerits, Annelies; Vanduffel, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The exponential growth in publications represents a major challenge for researchers. Many scientific domains, including neuroscience, are not yet fully engaged in exploiting large bodies of publications. In this paper, we promote the idea to partially automate the processing of scientific documents, specifically using text mining (TM), to efficiently review big corpora of publications. The "cognitive advantage" given by TM is mainly related to the automatic extraction of relevant trends from corpora of literature, otherwise impossible to analyze in short periods of time. Specifically, the benefits of TM are increased speed, quality and reproducibility of text processing, boosted by rapid updates of the results. First, we selected a set of TM-tools that allow user-friendly approaches of the scientific literature, and which could serve as a guide for researchers willing to incorporate TM in their work. Second, we used these TM-tools to obtain basic insights into the relevant literature on cognitive rehabilitation (CR) and cognitive enhancement (CE) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TM readily extracted the diversity of TMS applications in CR and CE from vast corpora of publications, automatically retrieving trends already described in published reviews. TMS emerged as one of the important non-invasive tools that can both improve cognitive and motor functions in numerous neurological diseases and induce modulations/enhancements of many fundamental brain functions. TM also revealed trends in big corpora of publications by extracting occurrence frequency and relationships of particular subtopics. Moreover, we showed that CR and CE share research topics, both aiming to increase the brain's capacity to process information, thus supporting their integration in a larger perspective. Methodologically, despite limitations of a simple user-friendly approach, TM served well the reviewing process. PMID:25309356

  4. Laser-micromachined, chip-scaled ceramic carriers for implantable neurostimulators.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Thomas; Mintri, Apoorv; Lim, William W; Jung, Louis H; Lehmann, Torsten; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2011-01-01

    Hermetic encapsulation of long-term implantable devices using ceramics has been investigated over several decades. Our studies focus on the miniaturization of ceramic encapsulations for large numbers of stimulation channels. Laser-patterning of screen printed platinum (Pt) paste on cofired ceramics has been shown to enable the construction of features comparable in size to classical screen printing. A novel technique for embedding Pt structures into the surface of Al(2)O(3) substrates is shown to produce features with a line width minimum of 20 ?m and a pitch of 40 ?m. Polishing the ceramic substrates enables flip-chip bonding of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC) using gold stud bumps. A new technique for fine tuning of an ASIC stimulator with stud bump bridges is described. The technique eliminates the need for wire bond loops and increases reliability and integration density of the system, which are major requirements used to construct a visual prosthesis or other implantable devices requiring miniaturization. The methods for laser-patterned Pt tracks in alumina for fine pitch structures are described. Feasibility studies for flip-chip bonding and stud bump bridges were undertaken and the results were found to be promising. PMID:22254502

  5. 1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years 5 Years 6 Years 6 Years + 2005 5 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0 -

    E-print Network

    /26/2015 Clinical Psychology Program Profile PhD Attrition Cohort Entry Year # of entering PhD students* Cummulative - 2009 4 0% 0% 0 - 2010 8 0% 0 - As of 3/26/2015 Clinical Psychology Program Profile PhD Completion

  6. 1 Year 2 Years 3 Years 4 Years 5 Years 6 Years 6 Years + 2005 12 8% 8% 25% 25% 25% 25% 25% 0 -

    E-print Network

    - 2013 9 22% 0 - As of 3/26/2015 Psychology Program Profile PhD Attrition Cohort Entry Year # of entering 10 0% 40% 60% 0 - 2009 15 0% 40% 0 - 2010 16 6% 0 - As of 3/26/2015 Psychology Program Profile Ph

  7. Eight Years of SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleck, Bernhard

    Since its launch on 2 December 1995, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO mission has provided a wealth of information about the Sun, from its interior, through the hot and dynamic atmosphere, to the solar wind and its interaction with the interstellar medium. At the same time, SOHO's easily accessible images and movies have captured the imagination of the science community and the general public alike. This article summarizes some of the key findings from 8 years of SOHO.

  8. 75 Years of the Junior Year in Munich

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Not only has the US Senate designated 2006 the Year of Study Abroad; the year also marks the anniversary of a distinguished tradition of study abroad in Germany that reaches back 75 years. Founded in 1931, suspended during the war years, and re-opened in 1953 by Wayne State University, the Junior Year in Munich is America's oldest study abroad…

  9. Twenty years of marriages.

    PubMed

    Nault, F

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, a total of 159,959 marriages were performed in Canada, up only slightly from 159,316 the year before. This small increase had no effect on the crude marriage rate, which remained at 5.5 marriages per 1,000 population. Aside from a brief uptum in the late 1980s, Canada's marriage rate has fallen quite steadily since the early 1970s. The overall decline is also evident when rates are disaggregated by the prior marital status of the bride and groom (single, divorced or widowed). Since 1974, the average ages of brides and grooms have risen about five years to 30.1 and 32.6, respectively. Nonetheless, the peak ages for marriage are the twenties. In this age range, women's marriage rates exceed those of men, but at older ages, men's rates are higher. And at progressively older ages, a growing proportion of grooms have brides at least 10 years their junior. The marriage patterns of Quebec residents differ from those of other Canadians. Quebec residents are much more likely to remain single or live common-law, and if they do marry, they are slightly more likely to divorce. Once divorced or widowed, people in Quebec are less likely than those in the rest of Canada to remarry. This article is based on data compiled by Statistics Canada from marriage registration forms provided by the central Vital Statistics Registry in each province and territory. PMID:9110964

  10. Five Year Flashlight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An ultra-reliable flashlight, initially developed for rescue signaling and utility use by NASA astronauts and military aircrews, has attracted a broad commercial market. Called the Five Year Light, it has a shelf life at least that long because there is no power drain on the batteries when the flashlight is not in use. The NASA version of the light was developed under contract with Langley Research Center by ACR Electronics, Inc., now known as the Chromalloy Electronics Division of Chromalloy American Corporation, Hollywood, Florida. NASA wanted a light that had long shelf life and assured reliability in case it was needed in an emergency. Reliability was designed into the flashlight by means of a unique switch. Instead of the customary thumb-button, the Five Year Light is turned on by rotating its collar to make contact with the battery terminal; the turning motion wipes away any corrosion that might be present and makes contact virtually certain. The Five Year Light available commercially is a repackaged version of the NASA light. It is sold for car, home, industrial, police, firefighting, recreational and a variety of other uses, and sales have topped two million units.

  11. 40 Years of Discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, B; Heller, A

    2003-07-08

    History is most interesting when seen through the eyes of those who lived it. In this 40th anniversary retrospective of bioscience research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we've asked 19 scientists to share their personal recollections about a major accomplishment in the program's history. We have not tried to create a comprehensive or seamless story. Rather, we've attempted to capture the perspectives of key individuals, each of whom worked on a research program that met significant milestones. We have focused particularly on programs and accomplishments that have shaped the current Biology and Biotechnology Research Program (BBRP). In addition, we have included a timeline of biosciences at LLNL, a history of the directorate that appeared in the Laboratory's magazine, ''Science & Technology Review'', in 2002, and a list of bioscience-related articles that have appeared over the years in ''Science & Technology Review and its predecessor, Energy & Technology Review''. The landscape of biological science today is stunningly different from 40 years ago. When LLNL bioscience began in 1963, we knew about the structure of DNA and that it was the carrier of genetic information. However, it would be another year before scientists would understand how DNA codes for the production of proteins and more than a decade before the earliest DNA sequence would be known. It is sometimes difficult to remember that it was only 15 years ago that the polymerase chain reaction, a synthetic method to amplify pieces of DNA was developed, and that only within the last half-dozen years has sequence data for entire organisms begun to be available. In this publication, we have tried to capture some of the landmark and seminal research history: radiation effects studies, which were a major reason for founding the biological research program, and flow sorting and chromosome painting, which dramatically changed our ability to study DNA damage and enabled the creation of chromosome-specific clone libraries, a key step toward sequencing the human genome. Several histories relate to the Human Genome Project itself and surrounding technologies, and several to long-standing research themes such as DNA repair, food mutagens, and reproductive biology. Others describe more recent developments such as computational biology, health-care technologies, and biodefense research.

  12. Two-year follow-up of the Collision Auto Repair Safety Study (CARSS).

    PubMed

    Bejan, Anca; Parker, David L; Brosseau, Lisa M; Xi, Min; Skan, Maryellen

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the sustainability of health and safety improvements in small auto collision shops 1 year after the implementation of a year-long targeted intervention. During the first year (active phase), owners received quarterly phone calls, written reminders, safety newsletters, and access to online services and in-person assistance with creating safety programs and respirator fit testing. During the second year (passive phase), owners received up to three postcard reminders regarding the availability of free health and safety resources. Forty-five shops received an evaluation at baseline and at the end of the first year (Y1). Of these, 33 were evaluated at the end of the second year (Y2), using the same 92-item assessment tool. At Y1, investigators found that between 70 and 81% of the evaluated items were adequate in each business (mean = 73% items, SD = 11%). At Y2, between 63 and 89% of items were deemed adequate (mean = 73% items, SD = 9.5%). Three safety areas demonstrated statistically significant (P < 0.05) changes: compressed gasses (8% improvement), personal protective equipment (7% improvement), and respiratory protection (6% decline). The number of postcard reminders sent to each business did not affect the degree to which shops maintained safety improvements made during the first year of the intervention. However, businesses that received more postcards were more likely to request assistance services than those receiving fewer. PMID:25539646

  13. The Year In Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskill, Jack D.

    1986-12-01

    This past year brought a number of changes to Optical Engineering, the most significant of which was the increase in publication frequency from bimonthly to monthly. A few changes were merely cosmetic in nature (e.g., an increase in type size), where-as others were adopted to make the journal more informative' and interesting to the reader (inclusion of reference titles, biographical sketches and photos of authors, etc.). Based on the many positive comments I have received, I am convinced that the majority of readers appreciate these changes and regard them as improvements to the journal.

  14. The 34 Year Starship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosanov, J.; Shapiro, A.; Garrett, H.

    2012-09-01

    In 1974, the designers and leadership of a mission then known as ``Mariner Jupiter Saturn 1977'' decided that the name was a mouthful. They briefly deliberated and decided to rename it ``Voyager'' [1]. Similarly, we believe that ``DARPA 100 Year Starship'' is unnecessarily verbose. We propose to call it ``Enterprise.'' Among the many challenges facing such a mission is that of earning public support - we should let half a century of Hollywood storytelling do that for us. This paper is composed of four parts. Part 1 will discuss the parallels between the Voyager program and a future Enterprise program. Part 2 will go into greater detail regarding the Voyager program and the challenges and opportunities that defined it. Part 3 will discuss some of the major technical challenges for Voyager and Enterprise in greater detail. Part 4 will discuss next steps and various strategies to meet DARPA's challenge of sustainable industry-funded research into interstellar flight.

  15. Electroencephalography 60 years later.

    PubMed

    Kugler, J

    1991-03-01

    The birthday of Electroencephalography (EEG) is dated back to the 22nd of April 1929. On this date Hans Berger submitted the first of his 14 contributions "Uber das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen" to the "Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten" for publication. Therefore in 1989 Electroencephalography was 60 years of age. In spite of controversy over its usefulness during this period, Electroencephalography substantially contributed to progress in medicine. Today is the beginning of its Renaissance due to a dramatic diversification of Clinical Electroencephalography into applied neurophysiological specialties. Progress became possible by the introduction of new techniques. However it will become obvious that new instrumentations cannot replace intelligence and human understanding. The dispute of importance and nonsense, use and misuse of Electroencephalography is without doubt useful and stimulates new orientations. PMID:2047558

  16. Twenty Years of KSHV

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yuan; Moore, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) was the oncologic counterpart to Winston Churchill’s Russia: a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma. First described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872, who reported it to be an aggressive skin tumor, KS became known over the next century as a slow-growing tumor of elderly men—in fact, most KS patients were expected to die with the tumor rather than from it. Nevertheless, the course and manifestations of the disease varied widely in different clinical contexts. The puzzle of KS came to the forefront as a harbinger of the AIDS epidemic. The articles in this issue of Viruses recount progress made in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) since its initial description in 1994. PMID:25386844

  17. EDITORIAL: Happy New Year!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue-ming

    2006-02-01

    As many of you are aware that Chinese science is at the crucial stage of development. We are now seeing more and more high quality works being produced by Chinese scientists working in China. However, high quality scientific works are rarely published in Chinese scientific journals so far. Therefore, the development of scientific journals publishing in China now becomes a more and more important indication of the science development in China. In the development of the chemical physics research field in China, the Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics (CJCP) has made significant contributions in the past 18 years. Since CJCP is primarily a Journal published in Chinese previously, its impact in the international scientific community has been quite limited. At this moment, we believe CJCP should increase its impact in the international community. We believe that making CJCP an English journal is a crucial step to increase its influence internationally. Therefore, upon the recommendation of senior editorial members, we now change CJCP into an full English journal from this issue on. We have also formed a high quality editorial board to help the editorial matters in CJCP, and a prestigious advisory board to advise us of the future development. I am very honored to be selected as the new Editor-in-Chief for the next four years. I hope by the end of my term, the impact of this journal is significantly improved through the efforts of our editorial team. Building a high quality scientific journal is not an easy task. I hope that every member of our chemical physics community can provide strong support to this journal by sending your high quality research papers in the future. We are also thinking about adding new sections of this journal to attract more readers. With the support of our community, I am confident that we can make this journal a more successful one. Here, I want to take this opportunity to thank the great leadership provided by the Editor-in-Chief since the foundation of this journal, Professor Nan-quan Lou, who has just become a senior advisory board member of this journal. I also want to thank the senior associate editor, Prof. Shu-qin Yu, who has made great contributions to the development of CJCP. Many thanks also go to the other senior associate editors, Profs. Die-yan Chen, Hai-lung Dai, Xing-xiao Ma, Han-qing Wang, Hou-wen Xin, Cun-hao Zhang and Qi-he Zhu, who have made important contributions to CJCP in the past 18 years. We plan that CJCP will soon become available online so that members of our community can access this journal easily through internet. This will also help us to provide greater visibility of this journal in the international research community.

  18. Projects of the year

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2007-01-15

    The Peabody Hotel, Orlando, Florida was the site of Power Engineering magazine's 2006 Projects of the Year Awards Banquet, which kicked-off the Power-Gen International conference and exhibition. The Best Coal-fired Project was awarded to Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association Inc., owner of Springenville Unit 3. This is a 400 MW pulverized coal plant in Springeville, AZ, sited with two existing coal-fired units. Designed to fire Powder River Basin coal, it has low NOx burners and selective catalytic reduction for NOx control, dry flue gas desulfurization for SO{sub 2} control and a pulse jet baghouse for particulate control. It has a seven-stage feedwater heater and condensers to ensure maximum performance. Progress Energy-Carolinas' Asheville Power Station FGD and SCR Project was awarded the 2006 coal-fired Project Honorable Mention. This plant in Skyland, NC was required to significantly reduce NOx emissions. When completed, the improvements will reduce NOx by 93% compared to 1996 levels and SO{sub 2} by 93% compared to 2001 levels. Awards for best gas-fired, nuclear, and renewable/sustainable energy projects are recorded. The Sasyadko Coal-Mine Methane Cogeneration Plant near Donezk, Ukraine, was given the 2006 Honorable Mention for Best Renewable/Sustainable Energy Project. In November 2004, Ukraine was among 14 nations to launch the Methane to Markets partnership. The award-winning plant is fuelled by methane released during coal extraction. It generates 42 MW of power. 4 photos.

  19. Vertical ridge augmentation using a flexible heterologous cortical bone sheet: three-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ludovichetti, Maurizio; Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Pagnutti, Stefano; Vaccari, Enrico; Ludovichetti, Francesco Saverio; Celletti, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Rehabilitation of the atrophic alveolar ridge is often problematic. Bone augmentation surgery may be hindered by a lack of surfaces from which blood vessels can spread during the initial stages of bone regeneration. If heterologous biomaterials are used as an alternative to autologous bone grafts, the standard delivery formats-blocks or granules-both have significant limitations. The present study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an alternative material, a flexible equine bone sheet, for vertical ridge augmentation. Forty-nine implants were placed in 18 patients whose vertically atrophic maxillary or mandibular ridges were simultaneously augmented with flexible cortical bone sheets derived from equine femurs. After 4 months, the ridge volume for all patients was completely restored, all implants had successfully osseointegrated, and definitive prostheses were placed. These parameters remained unchanged throughout 3 years of follow-up. PMID:21837306

  20. Plasma-mediated disc decompression for contained cervical disc herniation: results through 5 years.

    PubMed

    Cesaroni, Alessandro; Nardi, Pier Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    Conventional treatment for cervical disc herniations often defaults to open cervical discectomy, potentially supplemented by intervertebral fusion. Newer treatment strategies focus on percutaneous, minimally invasive procedures which are capable of resolving herniation pathology while offering decreased morbidity and convalescence time when compared to fusion. In cases where patients complain of radicular and neck pain symptoms related to a contained herniated disc, plasma disc decompression may be used as a minimally invasive treatment option on the cervical intervertebral discs.Three hundred and forty-nine patients who presented with a contained herniated cervical disc or focal protrusion causing pain associated with cervical nerve root compression were treated between January 2003 and May 2007. This case series study was conducted to evaluate clinical results through 1 year postoperatively. PMID:21107946

  1. A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:24034806

  2. A statement on abortion by 100 professors of obstetrics: 40 years later.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    In this Journal in 1972, 100 leaders in obstetrics and gynecology published a compelling statement that recognized the legalization of abortion in several states and anticipated the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v Wade. They projected the numbers of legal abortions that likely would be required by women in the United States and described the role of the teaching hospital in meeting that responsibility. They wrote to express their concern for women's health in a new legal and medical era of reproductive control and to define the responsibilities of academic obstetrician-gynecologists. Forty years later, 100 professors examine the statement of their predecessors in light of medical advances and legal changes and suggest a further course of action for obstetrician gynecologists. PMID:23500455

  3. Second-generation proximally coated titanium femoral component: minimum 7-year results.

    PubMed

    Lachiewicz, Paul F; Soileau, Elizabeth S; Bryant, Paul

    2007-12-01

    It is unclear whether resurfacing or fully porous-coated or proximally coated stems are the best femoral components for young patients. First-generation proximally coated titanium fiber-metal femoral components had a high rate of failure. We prospectively followed 56 patients (70 hips) whom we believed were at high risk for loosening of a cemented femoral component; all patients were implanted with one second-generation proximally coated titanium femoral component. Ten patients (11 hips) died and three patients (four hips) were lost to minimum followup. Three models of titanium fiber-metal acetabular component were implanted with screws. Patients were clinically evaluated using the Harris hip score. We used standardized radiographs to assess fixation status and osteolysis. Forty-four patients (55 hips) with a mean age of 45 years were followed for a minimum of 7 years (mean, 10.5 years; range, 7-15 years). No femoral component had been revised for any reason. Bone ingrowth (spot welding) was seen in 41 hips (75%) and proximal femoral osteolysis in only four hips. Reoperations for polyethylene wear were performed in seven patients (12.7%) and two patients had liner exchange for recurrent dislocation. Even with an articulating surface with considerable polyethylene wear debris, these second-generation proximally coated titanium fiber-metal femoral components had a survival rate of 100% at a mean 10.5-year followup. PMID:17621229

  4. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  5. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  6. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  7. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  8. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.19 Crop year and fiscal year. (a) Crop...

  9. 2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS!

    E-print Network

    2004 YEAR IN TORNADOES: WHAT A YEAR IT WAS! Daniel McCarthy and Joseph Schaefer NOAA/NWS Storm Prediction Center, Norman, OK 1. INTRODUCTION 2004 will be known as the biggest tornado year since recordkeeping began in 1950. The sheer numbers of tornadoes were unprecedented: 1,819. This number eclipsed

  10. YEAR 2 BIOMASS UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2004-11-01

    This Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) Year 2 Biomass Utilization Final Technical Report summarizes multiple projects in biopower or bioenergy, transportation biofuels, and bioproducts. A prototype of a novel advanced power system, termed the high-temperature air furnace (HITAF), was tested for performance while converting biomass and coal blends to energy. Three biomass fuels--wood residue or hog fuel, corn stover, and switchgrass--and Wyoming subbituminous coal were acquired for combustion tests in the 3-million-Btu/hr system. Blend levels were 20% biomass--80% coal on a heat basis. Hog fuel was prepared for the upcoming combustion test by air-drying and processing through a hammer mill and screen. A K-Tron biomass feeder capable of operating in both gravimetric and volumetric modes was selected as the HITAF feed system. Two oxide dispersion-strengthened (ODS) alloys that would be used in the HITAF high-temperature heat exchanger were tested for slag corrosion rates. An alumina layer formed on one particular alloy, which was more corrosion-resistant than a chromia layer that formed on the other alloy. Research activities were completed in the development of an atmospheric pressure, fluidized-bed pyrolysis-type system called the controlled spontaneous reactor (CSR), which is used to process and condition biomass. Tree trimmings were physically and chemically altered by the CSR process, resulting in a fuel that was very suitable for feeding into a coal combustion or gasification system with little or no feed system modifications required. Experimental procedures were successful for producing hydrogen from biomass using the bacteria Thermotoga, a deep-ocean thermal vent organism. Analytical procedures for hydrogen were evaluated, a gas chromatography (GC) method was derived for measuring hydrogen yields, and adaptation culturing and protocols for mutagenesis were initiated to better develop strains that can use biomass cellulose. Fly ash derived from cofiring coal with waste paper, sunflower hulls, and wood waste showed a broad spectrum of chemical and physical characteristics, according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C618 procedures. Higher-than-normal levels of magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxide were observed for the biomass-coal fly ash, which may impact utilization in cement replacement in concrete under ASTM requirements. Other niche markets for biomass-derived fly ash were explored. Research was conducted to develop/optimize a catalytic partial oxidation-based concept for a simple, low-cost fuel processor (reformer). Work progressed to evaluate the effects of temperature and denaturant on ethanol catalytic partial oxidation. A catalyst was isolated that had a yield of 24 mole percent, with catalyst coking limited to less than 15% over a period of 2 hours. In biodiesel research, conversion of vegetable oils to biodiesel using an alternative alkaline catalyst was demonstrated without the need for subsequent water washing. In work related to biorefinery technologies, a continuous-flow reactor was used to react ethanol with lactic acid prepared from an ammonium lactate concentrate produced in fermentations conducted at the EERC. Good yields of ester were obtained even though the concentration of lactic acid in the feed was low with respect to the amount of water present. Esterification gave lower yields of ester, owing to the lowered lactic acid content of the feed. All lactic acid fermentation from amylose hydrolysate test trials was completed. Management activities included a decision to extend several projects to December 31, 2003, because of delays in receiving biomass feedstocks for testing and acquisition of commercial matching funds. In strategic studies, methods for producing acetate esters for high-value fibers, fuel additives, solvents, and chemical intermediates were discussed with several commercial entities. Commercial industries have an interest in efficient biomass gasification designs but are waiting for economic incentives. Utility, biorefinery, pulp and paper, or o

  11. Language Development: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body Your two-year- ... At this time, there’s more variation in language development than in any other area. While some preschoolers ...

  12. Year 1 Fall Year 1 Spring Year 2 Fall Year 2 Spring Year 3 Fall Year 3 Spring Total Semester Credit Hours 19 18 20 19 10 14 100

    E-print Network

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    Year 1 Fall Year 1 Spring Year 2 Fall Year 2 Spring Year 3 Fall Year 3 Spring Total Semester Credit Hours 19 18 20 19 10 14 100 TOTAL IN-STATE PROGRAM COSTS Year 1 Fall Year 1 Spring Year 2 Fall Year 2 Spring Year 3 Fall Year 3 Spring Total Tuition 3,810$ 3,610$ 4,011$ 3,810$ 2,005$ 2,808$ 20,054$ Fees 2

  13. An International Year of Light

    E-print Network

    Faure, Claudie

    PROSPECTUS An International Year of Light Science ­ Technology ­ Nature ­ Culture ­ Development ­ Sustainability ­ Education ­ History International Year of Light Partnership April 2013 #12;A resolution welcoming and endorsing an International Year of Light in 2015 was adopted by the UNESCO Executive Board

  14. The Year 1999 in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speights, Dave

    2001-01-01

    From the perspective of the field of adult literacy, the year 1999 is best seen not as the penultimate year of the millennium but as the year bookended by the reauthorization of the National Literacy Act in late 1998 and the National Literacy Summit of early 2000. Both of those events represent a huge milestone, and 1999 may be regarded as the…

  15. Changes in Exercise Capacity of Cardiac Asymptomatic Hereditary Hemochromatosis Subjects over 5-Year Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Shizukuda, Yukitaka; Smith, Kevin P.; Tripodi, Dorothy J.; Arena, Ross; Yau, Yu-Ying; Bolan, Charles D.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Leitman, Susan F.; Rosing, Douglas R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A long-term effect of hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) on aerobic exercise capacity (AEC) has not been well described. Design Forty-three HH and 21 volunteer control (VC) subjects who were asymptomatic underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing using the Bruce protocol. AEC was assessed with minute ventilation (VE), oxygen uptake (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) at baseline (BL) at a 5-year follow up (5Y) assessment. A paired t-test was used for analyses of normality data; otherwise, a Wilcoxon singed rank sum test was used. Results Thirty-three HH subjects and 18 VC subjects returned for a repeat CPX at 5Y (80% overall return rate). At 5Y, AEC was not different between the two groups. As compared with BL measurements, exercise time, peak VO2, and the VE/VCO2 slope did not differ statistically at 5Y between both groups. Iron depletion by phlebotomy for 5 years did not significantly affect AEC in newly diagnosed HH subjects at baseline (n=14) and cardiac arrhythmias during exercise tended to decrease after 5 years of therapy in this group. Conclusions The AEC of asymptomatic HH subjects treated with conventional therapy is not statistically affected by the disease over a 5-year period. PMID:22311055

  16. Health information science at the University of Victoria: the first ten years.

    PubMed

    Protti, D J

    1994-06-01

    The University of Victoria has the only program in Canada offering a Bachelor of Science degree in Health Information Science. To meet the requirements of the degree, students must complete 40 courses and 4 CO-OP work terms over 4.3 years. The School admits 30 students each September of which 60% are normally female. Seventy-five percent of the students come from British Columbia, ranging in age from 18 to 42 with the average age being 26 years. In addition to recent high school graduates, over 40% have previous degrees or diplomas, and 65% have over 5 years of work experience. The School's teaching team consists of 5 full-time faculty, 3 professional staff and 4 part-time faculty. The majority of the faculty have health backgrounds, totalling 135 person-years of practising health care experience. As of November 1992, the School had 113 graduates; 75% are employed in British Columbia, 18% are in other parts of Canada and 7% outside the country. Forty-five percent of the graduates work in government departments including community health agencies; 29% work in hospitals; 26% work in management consulting firms, software houses, or computer hardware firms. They work as systems/project analysts, systems consultants, research assistants, planning analysts, system-support staff, trainers/developers and client account representatives. Some are already in senior management positions. PMID:8072413

  17. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  18. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  19. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  20. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  1. 7 CFR 932.19 - Crop year and fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crop year and fiscal year. 932.19 Section 932.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  2. Five-Year Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2011-2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the U.S. Department of Education (Department) Office of Inspector General (OIG) Strategic Plan for fiscal years 2011 through 2015. This plan describes the focus and direction of OIG's operations over the next five years, establishes its organizational goals, and outlines the strategies it will employ to reach those goals and…

  3. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorn, Donald C.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Rohay, Alan C.; Valenta, Michelle M.

    2001-02-27

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. For the HSN, there were 477 triggers during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2001 on the data acquisition system. Of these triggers, 176 were earthquakes. Forty-five earthquakes were located in the HSN area; 1 earthquake occurred in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 43 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, and 1 was earthquakes in the crystalline basement. Geographically, 44 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, 1 earthquake was on a major structure, and no earthquakes were classified as random occurrences. The Horse Heaven Hills earthquake swarm area recorded all but one event during the first quarter of FY 2001. The peak of the activity occurred over December 12th, 13th, and 14th when 35 events occurred. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion Accelerometers during the first quarter of FY 2001.

  4. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2008-03-21

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, forty-four local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2008. A total of thirty-one micro earthquakes were recorded within the Rattlesnake Mountain swarm area at depths in the 5-8 km range, most likely within the pre-basalt sediments. The largest event recorded by the network during the first quarter (November 25, 2007 - magnitude 1.5 Mc) was located within this swarm area at a depth of 4.3 km. With regard to the depth distribution, three earthquakes occurred at shallow depths (less than 4 km, most likely in the Columbia River basalts), thirty-six earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km, most likely in the pre-basalt sediments), and five earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the crystalline basement. Geographically, thirty-eight earthquakes occurred in swarm areas and six earth¬quakes were classified as random events.

  5. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program Fiscal Year 2000 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, C.A.

    2000-12-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, monitors the ecosystem of he Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada during fiscal year 2000. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance,(3) ecosystem mapping, (4) sensitive species and unique habitat monitoring, and (5) biological monitoring at the HAZMAT Spill Center. Biological surveys for the presence of sensitive species were conducted for 24 NTS projects. Seventeen sites were in desert tortoise habitat, and six acres of tortoise habitat were documented as being disturbed this year. No tortoises were found in or displaced from project areas, and no tortoises were accidentally injured or killed. A topical report describing the classification of habitat types o n the NTS was completed. The report is the culmination of three years of field vegetation mapping and the analysis of vegetation data from over 1,500 ecological landform units. A long-term monitoring plan for important plant species that occur on the NTS was completed. Sitewide inventories were conducted for the western burrowing owl, bat species of concern, wild horses, raptor nests, and mule deer. Fifty-nine of 69 known owl burrows were monitored. Forty-four of the known burrows are in disturbed habitat. As in previous years, some owls were present year round on the NTS. An overall decrease in active owl burrows was observed within all three ecoregions (Mojave Desert, Transition, Great Basin Desert) from October through January. An increase in active owl burrows was observed from mid-March to early April. A total of 45 juvenile owls was detected from eight breeding pairs. One nest burrow was detected in the Mojave Desert,one in the Great Basin Desert, and six in the Transition ecoregion. Seventy bats, representing four bat species of concern, were captured in mist-nets at water sources in the Great Basin Desert ecoregion. Bats were detected with the Anabat II call-recording system at selected tunnel and mine entrances verifying that some NTS mines and tunnels are used as bat roosts. Thirty-seven adult horses and 11 foals were counted this year. Four of the five foals observed last year have survived to yearlings. A monitoring plan for NTS horses was completed. Six active red-tailed hawk nests and 10 nestling red-tailed hawks were detected this year. Two spotlighting surveys for mule deer were conducted, each over three consecutive nights in October 1999 and August 2000. The mean sighting rate in October was 1.2 deer/10 kilometers (km) and 1.6 deer/10 km in August. Selected wetlands and man-made water sources were monitored for physical parameters and wildlife use. No dead animals were observed this year in any plastic-lined sump. Pahute Mesa Pond was confirmed to have vegetation,hydrology, and soil indicators that qualify the site as a jurisdictional wetland. The chemical spill test plan for one experiment at the HAZMAT Spill Center was reviewed for its potential to impact biota downwind of spills on Frenchman Lake playa.

  6. Project LIFT: Year 1 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Michael; Piccinino, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Research for Action (RFA) is currently in the second year of a five-year external evaluation of the Project Leadership and Investment for Transformation (LIFT) Initiative in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg School District (CMS). Project LIFT is a public-private partnership between CMS and the local philanthropic and business communities in Charlotte,…

  7. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    SciTech Connect

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the bigquestions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  8. NETL: The First 100 Years

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-21

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory celebrates 100 years of innovative energy technology development. NETL has been a leader in energy technology development. This video takes a look back at the many accomplishments over the past 100 years. These advances benefit the American people, enhance our nation's energy security and protect our natural resources.

  9. Social Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body During his second year, your toddler will develop a very specific image of his social world, friends, and acquaintances. He is at its center, and while you may be close at hand, ...

  10. Ten Years in the Limelight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Priscilla

    1997-01-01

    Now in its 10th year, the National Superintendent of the Year Award recognizes outstanding executive leadership, based on candidates' prowess at meeting students' needs, communication skills, administrative knowledge, and community involvement. The nine previous winners are still working in education, regard the award as a career highlight, and…

  11. Outlook: The Next Twenty Years

    E-print Network

    Hitoshi Murayama

    2003-12-07

    I present an outlook for the next twenty years in particle physics. I start with the big questions in our field, broken down into four categories: horizontal, vertical, heaven, and hell. Then I discuss how we attack the big questions in each category during the next twenty years. I argue for a synergy between many different approaches taken in our field.

  12. Review 08--A Year in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Barack Obama's monumental presidential campaign took the nation by storm, a history-making and future-defining feat sure to keep academicians busy for many years to come. How America addresses race as a result of Obama's sweeping victory remains to be seen, but his election came in the same year New York state installed its first Black governor,…

  13. High-Dose-Rate Rotte 'Y' Applicator Brachytherapy for Definitive Treatment of Medically Inoperable Endometrial Cancer: 10-Year Results

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, Devin; Beriwal, Sushil Heron, Dwight E.; Kelley, Joseph L.; Edwards, Robert P.; Sukumvanich, Paniti; Zorn, Kristin K.; Krivak, Thomas C.

    2008-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the intermediate clinical outcomes of medically inoperable patients with endometrial cancer treated with definitive Rotte 'Y' applicator high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) over a 10-year period. Methods and Materials: Forty-nine inoperable patients were treated with HDRB from 1997 to 2007. Forty three (84%) were markedly obese (body mass index >35 kg/m{sup 2}). Thirty-one patients (63.3%) underwent two-dimensional treatment planning, whereas 18 patients (36.7%) underwent three-dimensional treatment planning. Thirty five of the patients (71.4%) were first treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). For patients receiving EBRT in addition to HDRB, the median Y-applicator dose was 20 Gy in 5 fractions; for patients receiving HDRB alone it was 35 Gy in 5 fractions. All patients received two Y-applicator treatments per day. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 33 months. Acute HDRB toxicities were limited to Grade 1 and 2 occurring in 5 patients. One patient had a myocardial infarction. Four patients had late Grade 2 or 3 toxicity. Three patients had local recurrence (median time to recurrence, 16 months). The 3- and 5-year actuarial cause-specific survival rates were 93% and 87%, respectively; the overall survival rate was 83% and 42%, respectively, at 3 and 5 years. Conclusions: Twice-daily HDRB using a Y-applicator is a well-tolerated and efficacious regimen for the definitive treatment of medically inoperable patients with early-stage endometrial cancer. The recent incorporation of three-dimensional treatment planning has the potential to further decrease treatment morbidities.

  14. Stress among First and Third Year Medical Students at University Kebangsaan Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Abdus; Mahadevan, Raynuha; Abdul Rahman, Amir; Abdullah, Norsyafiqah; Abd Harith, Aimi Aqilah; Shan, Chu Pei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the stress-prevalence and coping-strategies among University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) medical students. Methods: This was an observational study conducted among 234 UKM first and third year medical students. Standardized questionnaire on stress and coping strategies was used. Stress data was related to subjective experiences on some positive and negative adjectives such as tense, relaxed etc. Positive adjectives were measured by sign “++” and “+” scoring “1” while stress-negative adjectives were measured by sign “?” and “–“ scoring “0”. Forty-eight coping items under task, emotion and avoidance strategies were measured using 5-point Likert-scale. Results: Overall stress-prevalence was 49%. Female and Malay respondents were more stressed. Significant differences of stress-level was observed between Malays and non Malays in first year (p=0.04) and in third year (p=0.01). Most common strategies used to cope stress was task-oriented while emotion oriented was least. Conclusion: Stress-prevalence and stress-level in UKM medical students was high. Most of the respondents coped stress using task-oriented strategies. Stressor and its effective management must be ensured. Educational institutions should act as a creative designer of learning environment to get relieve from educational stressor. PMID:25878637

  15. Pilot study on the prevalence of abuse and mistreatment during clinical internship: a cross-sectional study among first year residents in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shafaee, Mohammed; Al-Kaabi, Yousuf; Al-Farsi, Yousuf; White, Gillian; Al-Maniri, Abdullah; Al-Sinawi, Hamed; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate perceptions of being mistreated during internship among first year Oman Medical Specialty Board residents. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting Training centres for Oman Medical Specialty Board. Participants First year medical residents following completion of internship during the study period 2009–2010. Method A cross-sectional survey of first year medical residents. Results Of 58 residents (response rate 84%), 96.6% perceived that mistreatment exists. Among different types of mistreatment reported, verbal and academic abuses were the most common (87.9%), followed by sexual harassment (24.1%), then physical abuse (22.4%). Forty-four (75.9%) residents had advised at least one of their relatives not to join medical school. Conclusions Mistreatment of medical interns is an ethical issue challenging the quality of clinical training. Further research is needed to understand factors influencing mistreatment and to draw guidelines to limit such problems. PMID:23396558

  16. Visualizing Twenty Years of Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Potel, Mike; Wong, Pak C.

    2014-11-01

    This issue of IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications marks the 20th anniversary of the Applications department as a regular feature of the magazine. We thought it might be interesting to look back at the 20 years of Applications department articles to assess its evolution over that time. By aggregating all twenty years of articles and applying a little statistical and visual analytics, we’ve uncovered some interesting characteristics and trends we thought we’d share to mark this 20 year milestone.

  17. Prenatal Sex and Other Preferences for Reproductive Career of Final Year Graduation Girl Students

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Yugantara R.; Nirmale, Prachi; Gore, Alka D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Marriage of girls just after graduation is common in Western Maharashtra. This study was planned to know the views of final year graduation student towards reproductive carrier. Aim: To interact with final year girl students of various streams to know their preferences on various aspects of reproductive carrier and contraceptive awareness. Material and Methods: Study-design: Cross-sectional. Study-setting: Academic institutes of Sangli-Miraj-Kupwad Corporation area. Study-subject: All willing final year Girl students. Exclusion Criteria: Married girls. Sample size: All final year girl students Sampling Technique: Cluster sample Study-Duration: 7 months. Study-tool: Pretested questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: Percentages, Chi-square test. Results: All girls who have responded prefer marrying and having first child at right age. All feel spacing is needed, at least of 2 years. Two children was the most common choice (52.3%). Forty-three percent girls feel male child is must and 52.3% of total girls will like to have sex determination done if required. Total 47.24% girls were unaware about any contraceptive methods but 88.2% girls knew the place of its availability. Most common source of information about contraceptive was school and friends. E-pill was known to 41.5% of girls. All girls felt the need for more information about reproductive health and according to 81.3% right age for it is 15-18 years. Conclusion: Girls have correct reproductive preferences except sex of child. Sex preference and Low contraceptive awareness needs strong intervention.

  18. Sibling Incest: Reports from Forty-One Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Maciol, Katherine; Schneider, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with a convenience sample of 41 adult survivors of sibling incest using a retrospective survey design. Participants were interviewed about their childhood sexual experiences with a sibling. Most participants reported vaginal or oral intercourse and coercive experiences. Half of the sample reported sexual…

  19. Mental Health and Teacher Education. Forty-Sixth Yearbook, 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Student Teaching, Washington, DC.

    Ten papers constitute the major portion of this book: "The Classroom Teacher, Mental Health, and Learning," Robert E. Bills; "The Development of Selected Aspects of the Mental Health Movement in Teacher Education," Ralph H. Ojemann; "What Psychology Has To Offer to Teacher Education," Carl R. Rogers; "Conceptual Framework for Teacher Education,"…

  20. Forty-Niner Shops, Inc. California State University, Long Beach

    E-print Network

    Sorin, Eric J.

    Starbucks, Taco Bell, Panda Express, Quiznos, Surf City Squeeze, Beach Walk Café, Chartroom, and the Nugget labs and retail locations. The Beach Card is also accepted by certain retailers off-campus. #12;

  1. Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia is in its forties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Angela

    2015-03-01

    Physics in Colombia started to develop in the 70's as a research part of basic sciences with the acquisition, at that time, of large research equipments such as x-rays and EPR. Experimental work was soon supplemented by theoretical investigations, which led to the formation of research groups in condensed matter. In the early 80's existed such groups in five universities. In this report we present, after a short history of the main steps that guided the initial research subjects, the major areas already developed and the minor research groups that are in the stage of consolidation. Currently this type of work is done at least in 20 universities. We also show the actual numbers of researchers, publications, PhD students and laboratories discriminated in gender to complete an overview of Condensed Matter Physics in Colombia. Finally, we present a short review of the main theoretical issues that have been worked in the last decade focusing on low dimensional systems, their structural and optical properties

  2. Forty project management strategies for the medical practice staff.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2010-01-01

    Most every medical practice will embark at one time or another on a large and complex new project. The practice may, for instance, undertake a project in office construction or renovation, practice expansion, new technology, or a new large-scale event. The medical practice staff may find itself creating the project plan, overseeing its execution, and working through the plan day to day until its completion. In short, the staff may find itself responsible for project management. This article contains 40 specific, easy-to-implement project management strategies medical practice employees can use to manage both the large and small projects they undertake on behalf of the practice. It suggests effective project management strategies the staff can use before the onset of a new project as well as strategies to help define the project, to deliver the project, and to close and review the project. This article also describes five reasons medical practices often fail at project management and suggests more effective approaches that will ensure that the projects the medical practice undertakes are completed well, on time, and within budget. PMID:20480774

  3. The Use of Carpeting in Forty Colleges and Universities - 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dober and Flansburgh, Cambridge, MA.

    A carpeting survey discusses the following areas--(1) survey methodology, (2) location of carpeting usage, (3) carpeting cost comparisons to other floor coverings, (4) kinds of carpeting used, and (5) conclusions. The conclusions are as follows--(1) use of carpeting as a floor covering is increasing, (2) carpeting is the favored floor covering in…

  4. Warner-Bratzler Shear evaluations of forty bovine muscles 

    E-print Network

    Belew, Jason Burl

    2000-01-01

    for WBS values between steaks to determine location effects within muscles. The deep pectoral, infraspinatus, triceps brachii (long head), psoas major, and semimembranosus all had significant location effects. Muscles were allocated into "very tender...

  5. Forty Meters from Entry to Victoria Crater (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA09972

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera during the rover's 1,278th Martian day, or sol, (Aug. 28, 2007) to take the images combined into this stereo view. The rover was perched at the lip of Victoria Crater, which is about 800 meters (one-half mile) in diameter.

    After assessment of possible routes for Opportunity to descend into the crater, the rover team selected a site farther to the right along the rim. That selected entry point lies near the ripple of bright soil visible just outside the crater near the top center of this scene. The driving distance for Opportunity from the Sol 1,278 viewpoint to the selected entry point is about 40 meters (about 130 feet).

    This view combines a stereo pair and appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses. It is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  6. Language Development: 1 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Language Development: 1 Year Olds Article Body Early in ... assured, it’s not your imagination. He’s developing his language and comprehension skills right on schedule. This giant ...

  7. Five Year Plan for Admissions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, M. O.; Swann, Claire C.

    1981-01-01

    A five-year plan for admissions in a large state university is presented that considers current and projected enrollment, budget, space, equipment, computer liaison, recruitment, research personnel, publications, orientation, and public relations. (MSE)

  8. Accountability report - fiscal year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This document contains the US NRC`s accountability report for fiscal year 1997. Topics include uses of funds, financial condition, program performance, management accountability, and the audited financial statement.

  9. Chapeau! First-Year French

    E-print Network

    Dinneen, David A.; Kernen, Madeleine

    1989-01-01

    Chapeau! is a first-year college text. Although it may appear, at first glance, o move very fast and introduce a large amount of material early, the vocabulary and grammatical structures that we expect students to control ...

  10. Communications satellites - The experimental years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, B. I.

    1983-01-01

    Only eight years after the launc of Sputnik-1 by the Soviet Union, the first commercial satellite, 'Early Bird', entered service. In just twelve years commercial satellite service extended around the earth and became profitable. The reasons for the successful development of the communications satellite services in a comparatively short time are considered. These reasons are related to the presence of three ingredients, taking into account technology to create the system, communications requirements to form a market, and a management structure to implement the system. The formation of the concept of using earth orbiting satellites for telecommunications is discussed. It is pointed out that the years from 1958 to 1964 were the true 'experimental years' for satellite communications. The rapid development of technology during this crucial period is described, giving attention to passive satellites, active systems, and development satellites.

  11. Sixty years of genome biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sixty years after Watson and Crick published the double helix model of DNA's structure, thirteen members of Genome Biology's Editorial Board select key advances in the field of genome biology subsequent to that discovery. PMID:23651518

  12. Social Development:: 2 Year Olds

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Social Development: 2 Year Olds Article Body By nature, ... and they serve as valuable rehearsals for future social encounters. They’ll also help you appreciate the ...

  13. Switching To Less-Expensive Blindness Drug Could Save Medicare Part B $18 Billion Over A Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, DW; Newman-Casey, PA; Tavag, M; Zacks, DN; Stein, JD

    2014-01-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased, now accounting for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse event rates, but at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010–2020) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less-expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, Medicare Part B, patients, and the health care system would save $18 billion, $4.6 billion, and $29 billion, respectively. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

  14. A 3.5 year diary study: Remembering and life story importance are predicted by different event characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Jensen, Thomas; Holm, Tine; Olesen, Martin Hammershøj; Schnieber, Anette; Tønnesvang, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Forty-five participants described and rated two events each week during their first term at university. After 3.5 years, we examined whether event characteristics rated in the diary predicted remembering, reliving, and life story importance at the follow-up. In addition, we examined whether ratings of life story importance were consistent across a three year interval. Approximately 60% of events were remembered, but only 20% of these were considered above medium importance to life stories. Higher unusualness, rehearsal, and planning predicted whether an event was remembered 3.5 years later. Higher goal-relevance, importance, emotional intensity, and planning predicted life story importance 3.5 years later. There was a moderate correlation between life story importance rated three months after the diary and rated at the 3.5 year follow-up. The results suggest that autobiographical memory and life stories are governed by different mechanisms and that life story memories are characterized by some degree of stability. PMID:26164104

  15. Mining beyond the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Wyllie, R.J.M.

    1980-07-01

    NCB engineers crystal gaze possible developments in machine mining, gasification technology and what's in store for coal in the next century. By the year 2000 those current mines which survive, plus new producers, are likely to offer reserves for as much as 300 years of output at 150,000,000 annual tons by present methods of mining, coupled with reasonable projections in terms of efficiency. Several hundred further years of reserves exist in as yet unexploited areas and several hundred years more in coal which is too deep for present mining methods. The reserves in all categories can only have been increased by the successful exploration work conducted in recent years delineating coalfields at Selby, North East Leicestershire (Belvoir), Warwickshire, and elsewhere. The report's estimates did not include coal which is under the North Sea at distances which prevent it being accessed from land at present. Mechanical breakage, at its best, sets standards of efficiency which are superior to those of other, more indirect, methods, e.g. in hydraulic mining. The idea of a tele-operated miner is regarded as something that might just lead somewhere. It is perhaps in the methods of in-situ energy extraction that we may expect revolutionary advances in the future.

  16. Long-term Changes in Pulmonary Function After Incidental Lung Irradiation for Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study With 7-Year Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Jaen, Javier; Vazquez, Gonzalo; Alonso, Enrique; De Las Penas, Maria D.; Diaz, Laura; De Las Heras, Manuel; Perez-Regadera, Jose F.

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate late pulmonary function changes after incidental pulmonary irradiation for breast cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty-three consecutive female patients diagnosed with breast carcinoma and treated with postoperative radiation therapy (RT) at the same dose (50 Gy) and fractionation (2 Gy/fraction, 5 days/week) were enrolled. Pulmonary function tests (PFT) and ventilation/perfusion scans were performed before RT and 6, 12, 24, and 84 months afterward. Results: Forty-one patients, mean age 55 years, were eligible for the analysis. No differences were found in the baseline PFT values for age, smoking status and previous chemotherapy; women undergoing mastectomy showed baseline spirometric PFT values lower than did women treated with conservative surgery. The mean pulmonary dose was 10.9 Gy, being higher in women who also received lymph node RT (15.8 vs 8.6, P<.01). Only 1 patient experienced symptomatic pneumonitis. All PFT values showed a reduction at 6 months. From then on, the forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second began their recovery until reaching, and even exceeding, their baseline values at 7 years. Diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide and ventilation/perfusion scans continued to reduce for 24 months and then partially recovered their baseline values (-3.5%, -3.8%, and -5.5%, respectively). Only the percentage difference at 7 years in the ventilation scan correlated with the dosimetric parameters studied. Other variables, such as age, smoking status, previous chemotherapy, and concomitant tamoxifen showed no significant relation with changes in PFT ({Delta}PFT) values at 7 years. Conclusions: The study of reproducible subclinical parameters, such as PFT values, shows how their figures decrease in the first 2 years but practically recover their baseline values in the long term. The extent of the reduction in PFT values was small, and there was no clear association with several dosimetric and clinical parameters.

  17. Why Is the Year 2000 a Leap Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.

    2000-01-01

    The study of leap year and its development offers an interesting real-world situation for students to exercise qualitative reasoning about operations on decimals. Presents an activity in which students investigate time measurement by studying a variety of calendars, past and present. (ASK)

  18. Surgical treatment of late aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis: 19 years’ experience

    PubMed Central

    Yayla, Tuncer Eylem; Serpil, Tas; Bal, Polat Ebru; Antal, Dönmez Arzu; Adnan, Ak; Mustafa, Akbulut; Bulbul, Serhat; Aksut, Mehmet; Altug, Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study We retrospectively analyzed the results of operations conducted for aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis in a single center over 19 years. Material and methods From February 1992 to January 2011, we performed operations on 27 patients with aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. Seventeen patients (63.0%) were male, and the mean age was 39.1 ± 14.2 (16-67) years. Blood cultures were positive in 11 patients (40.7%), and the most commonly identified microorganism was Streptococcus (7 patients, 25.9%). The mean duration of follow-up was 8.6 ± 4.7 years (0.5-18.2), adding up to a total of 136.9 patient/years. Results Forty procedures were performed on these 27 patients. The most commonly performed procedure was aortic valve replacement with a prosthetic valve – 16 patients (59.3%). Fifteen patients were operated on during the active phase of infection. In-hospital mortality was observed in 11 patients (40.7%). Postoperatively, 12 patients (44.4%) had low cardiac output, 3 (11.1%) suffered from a heart block; none of them required permanent pacemaker implantation. The actuarial survival for 1 and 5 years was 55.6 ± 9.6% and 47.6 ± 9.7%, respectively. Conclusions Prosthetic valve endocarditis of the aortic valve is a challenging situation for the surgeon. The surgical treatment carries a high mortality rate and long-term survival is low. Among the survivors, however, recurrence and the need for reoperation are unlikely. PMID:26336408

  19. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  20. Nature of the clinical difficulties of first-year family medicine residents under direct observation.

    PubMed Central

    Beaumier, A; Bordage, G; Saucier, D; Turgeon, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine and classify the difficulties of first-year family medicine residents observed during clinical interviews. DESIGN: Retrospective, descriptive study. SETTING: Family practice unit at a teaching hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven of the 56 first-year family medicine residents during their 2-month compulsory rotation in ambulatory family medicine, between July 1983 and December 1988, and 4 physicians who supervised the residents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The residents' difficulties noted on the observation forms. MAIN RESULTS: A total of 1500 difficulties were observed during 194 interviews, an average of 7.7 (standard deviation 5.2) per interview. There were 167 different difficulties, which were classified into seven categories (introduction, initial contract, body of the interview, techniques and organization, interpersonal aspects, final contract and miscellaneous) and 20 subcategories. The 17 most frequently noted difficulties accounted for 40% of the total. CONCLUSIONS: The results constitute a useful starting point for developing a classification of residents' difficulties during clinical interviews. We believe that the list of difficulties is applicable to residents at all levels and in other specialties, especially in ambulatory settings. The list can be used to develop learning materials for supervisors and residents. PMID:1737313

  1. Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pössel, Patrick; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Sawyer, Michael G; Spence, Susan H; Bjerg, Annie C

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 1/5 of adolescents develop depressive symptoms. Given that youths spend a good deal of their lives at school, it seems plausible that supportive relationships with teachers could benefit their emotional well-being. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the association between emotionally supportive teacher relationships and depression in adolescence. The so-called principle-effect and stress-buffer models could explain relationships between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms, yet no study has used both models to test bidirectional relationships between teacher support and depressive symptoms in students separately by sex. Four-thousand three-hundred forty-one students (boys: n = 2,063; girls: n = 2,278) from Grades 8 to 12 completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire (LTEQ), and an instrument developed for the study to measure teacher support annually for 5 years. Results support neither of the 2 proposed models. Instead, they indicate that in the 1st years of high school, students of both sexes with average and high numbers of stressful events benefit from teacher support, while teacher support might have iatrogenic effects on students experiencing low numbers of stressful events. Possible explanations for the findings and future research are discussed. PMID:23379297

  2. The virtual brain: 30 years of video-game play and cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Andrew J.; Patston, Lucy L. M.; Tippett, Lynette J.

    2013-01-01

    Forty years have passed since video-games were first made widely available to the public and subsequently playing games has become a favorite past-time for many. Players continuously engage with dynamic visual displays with success contingent on the time-pressured deployment, and flexible allocation, of attention as well as precise bimanual movements. Evidence to date suggests that both brief and extensive exposure to video-game play can result in a broad range of enhancements to various cognitive faculties that generalize beyond the original context. Despite promise, video-game research is host to a number of methodological issues that require addressing before progress can be made in this area. Here an effort is made to consolidate the past 30 years of literature examining the effects of video-game play on cognitive faculties and, more recently, neural systems. Future work is required to identify the mechanism that allows the act of video-game play to generate such a broad range of generalized enhancements. PMID:24062712

  3. Risk Factors for Dementia in a Senegalese Elderly Population Aged 65 Years and Over

    PubMed Central

    Toure, K.; Coume, M.; Ndiaye, M.; Zunzunegui, M. V.; Bacher, Y.; Diop, A. G.; Ndiaye, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background With the aging of the population, dementia is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dementia in an elderly population utilizing a primary health care service in Dakar, Senegal. Methods Through a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2004 to December 31, 2005, 507 elderly patients aged ?65 years who came to the Social and Medical Center of IPRES, Dakar, Senegal, were first screened with the screening interview questionnaire ‘Aging in Senegal’. Those who were cognitively impaired underwent a clinical examination to detect dementia. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results The whole population had a mean age of 72.4 years (±5.2) and was mostly male, married, and non-educated. Hypertension, arthritis, and gastrointestinal diseases were the main health conditions reported in the past medical history. Smoking was important while alcohol consumption was rare. Social network was high. Forty-five patients (8.87%) had dementia. In the multivariate model, only advanced age, education, epilepsy, and family history of dementia were independently associated with dementia. Conclusion The risk factors identified are also found in developed countries confirming their role in dementia. It is important to take dementia into consideration in Senegal and to sensitize the community for prevention. PMID:22590476

  4. Risk Prediction of One-Year Mortality in Patients with Cardiac Arrhythmias Using Random Survival Forest

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Fen; Cai, Yun-Peng; Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Li, Ye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Existing models for predicting mortality based on traditional Cox proportional hazard approach (CPH) often have low prediction accuracy. This paper aims to develop a clinical risk model with good accuracy for predicting 1-year mortality in cardiac arrhythmias patients using random survival forest (RSF), a robust approach for survival analysis. 10,488 cardiac arrhythmias patients available in the public MIMIC II clinical database were investigated, with 3,452 deaths occurring within 1-year followups. Forty risk factors including demographics and clinical and laboratory information and antiarrhythmic agents were analyzed as potential predictors of all-cause mortality. RSF was adopted to build a comprehensive survival model and a simplified risk model composed of 14 top risk factors. The built comprehensive model achieved a prediction accuracy of 0.81 measured by c-statistic with 10-fold cross validation. The simplified risk model also achieved a good accuracy of 0.799. Both results outperformed traditional CPH (which achieved a c-statistic of 0.733 for the comprehensive model and 0.718 for the simplified model). Moreover, various factors are observed to have nonlinear impact on cardiac arrhythmias prognosis. As a result, RSF based model which took nonlinearity into account significantly outperformed traditional Cox proportional hazard model and has great potential to be a more effective approach for survival analysis. PMID:26379761

  5. 35 years of DEB research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, Jaap; Klok, Chris; Kearney, Michael R.; Wijsman, Jeroen W. M.; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    Research on the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory started 35 years ago. Initially much emphasis was put on the development of a consistent theory. During recent years attention was paid on parameterizing DEB models for a huge collection of species. This enables the search for patterns in parameter values in an ecological and evolutionary context. This special issue presents some of the results of this quest, among other things focusing on the development of metabolic acceleration, combined with various applications of DEB theory in fisheries, aquaculture, climate science and ecotoxicology.

  6. [Senior years, subjectivation, and biopolitics].

    PubMed

    Birman, Joel

    2015-12-01

    The article explores the historical emergence of "senior years" as a contemporary signifier and concept that has left behind the previous interpretation of the aging process in modernity. It addresses this vital shift that occurred in the history of the West from an interdisciplinary perspective that encompasses social, economic, political, and familial interpretations. Emphasizing forms of subjectivation found during the senior years, it offers a critical interpretation of theoretical writings in psychopathology and neurology and highlights the process of social exclusion suffered by the elderly in the historical context of modernity. PMID:26625918

  7. Ten Thousand Years of Solitude

    SciTech Connect

    Benford, G. California Univ., Irvine, CA . Dept. of Physics); Kirkwood, C.W. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ . Coll. of Business Administration); Harry, O. ); Pasqualetti, M.J. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ )

    1991-03-01

    This report documents the authors work as an expert team advising the US Department of Energy on modes of inadvertent intrusion over the next 10,000 years into the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) nuclear waste repository. Credible types of potential future accidental intrusion into the WIPP are estimated as a basis for creating warning markers to prevent inadvertent intrusion. A six-step process is used to structure possible scenarios for such intrusion, and it is concluded that the probability of inadvertent intrusion into the WIPP repository over the next ten thousand years lies between one and twenty-five percent. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. 2012: A Year in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2012-01-01

    When historians review 2012 for its noteworthy moments, events and milestones, they will find the year was a trying one for the American higher education system, despite its being able to educate and enlighten thousands in search of more choices and preparation for adult self-sufficiency. Many academicians and students worked for and celebrated…

  9. 2007: A Year In Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diverse: Issues in Higher Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The most high-profile story of the year touching the higher education community was undisputedly the killings at Virginia Tech in April when student Seung-Hui Cho opened fire, leaving 33 people dead, including himself. To date, it is the deadliest campus shooting in U.S. history. However, in September, the Delaware State University (DSU) community…

  10. Annual Review of the Year

    E-print Network

    's objectives in the year to come. Public awareness of the challenge of climate change grew significantly over - a contribution equivalent to the whole of the transport sector. Thanks to a sustained commitment by successive done so in the central areas of urban population as well as in the more traditional rural areas. We

  11. NCGIA Annual Report, Year 5

    E-print Network

    National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (UC Santa Barbara, SUNY at Buffalo, University of Maine)

    1994-01-01

    and water quality models. UC Santa Barbara SUNY at BuffaloWater Authority, NY William R. Greiner, President, SUNY at BuffaloBuffalo University of Maine NCGIA Annual Report, Year 5 December 1, 1992 - November 30, 1993 Peter Haynes, President, Consumers Water

  12. Fifty Years of Aeronautical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This booklet contains a detailed review of the aeronautical research conducted at Langley Research Center during the 50 years after its construction in 1917 as the first research laboratory for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The research is discussed in five parts, by decades: 1917-27, 1928-37, 1938-47, 1948-57, 1958-67.…

  13. 70 Years and Going Strong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alan H.

    2015-01-01

    The survival and prosperity of the California Council on the Education of Teachers/California Council on Teacher Education (CCET/CCTE) over its 70 years of existence is remarkable, especially given the historic roller coaster of educational policy and practice in the United States--the ups and downs of school financing, in addition to the ins and…

  14. The Year of Secret Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Jaclyn

    2004-01-01

    The path to "novelist" was a convoluted one for Moriarty, who began writing fiction as doctoral student at Cambridge University. Her interest in young adults stems from an appreciation for the "troubles, strengths, and surprises of that age group." Now, in a uniquely formatted book titled "The Year of Secret Assignments," we peek inside the mind…

  15. Budget Response: Fiscal Year 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissonnette, Jocelyn, Ed.; Ellerson, Noelle, Ed.; Jones, Lindsay, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Committee for Education Funding (CEF), a coalition of over 85 national education associations and institutions from preschool to postgraduate education, applauds President Obama's Fiscal Year 2012 budget for recognizing the importance of investing in education to our nation's economic growth and competitiveness. Within a constrained fiscal…

  16. Academic Year THE ECONOMIC IMPACT

    E-print Network

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    Academic Year 2013­2014 THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TENNESSEE, KNOXVILLE, ON THE STATE OF TENNESSEE #12;The Economic Impact of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, on the State of Tennessee: (865) 974-5441 Fax: (865) 974-3100 http://cber.bus.utk.edu #12;THE ECONOMIC IMPACT

  17. HAPPY NEW YEAR! Semiconductor Spintronics

    E-print Network

    Nikolic, Branislav K.

    HAPPY NEW YEAR! #12;Semiconductor Spintronics Niu Burkov Culcer Nunez Nomura Yao Sinova Sinitsyn Dietl Koenig Lin Timm Jungwirth Lee Fernandez-Rossier U. Texas at Austin 2005 Taiwan Spintronics Workshop #12;Spintronics Toolbag Ferromagnetic Semiconductors (Ga,Mn)As .... others Coupled Spin Charge

  18. Projects in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Jeanette A.; Eckerty, Carolyn

    1995-01-01

    Suggests that the growing interest in project work in early childhood education is in response to the call for developmentally appropriate practices. Defines projects and discusses the beginning of a project. Discusses the three phases of the "construction site/house project" by four- and five-year olds and provides responses to frequently asked…

  19. ARITHMETIC, SECOND YEAR. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARBER, CLAIRE N.

    IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE SECOND YEAR OF ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTION SHOULD BEGIN, IF NECESSARY, WITH REVIEW OF THE WORK OF THE PREVIOUS GRADE. THE NUMBER SYSTEM SHOULD BE DEVELOPED WITH BACKWARD AND FORWARD COUNTING AND THE INTRODUCTION OF 10 AND THE ZERO. THE WHOLE NUMBERS UNIT SHOULD DEVELOP MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION FACTS THROUGH GROUPS UP TO…

  20. METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, James

    METEORITE CENTER MARKS 50 YEARS Center commemorates golden anniversary with symposium, lecture's largest mass extinction event MEET THE METEORITE MEN Science Channel's meteorite hunters Geoff Notkin and Steve Arnold talk space rocks TALES FROM THE VAULT Explore what's in the meteorite vault S O U R C ES O

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM FRESHMAN YEAR

    E-print Network

    Chandy, John A.

    ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING CURRICULUM FRESHMAN YEAR First Semester Second Semester MATH 1131Q Elective (3) (Take as an on-line course) CE 2110 ­ Applied Mechanics I (3) ENVE 2310 ­ Environmental Engineering (3) ENVE 2330 ­ Decision Analysis in Civil & Environmental Engineering (3) ENVE 3200

  2. Teen Parenting: The First Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCamey, Jody

    This guide for teenage mothers discusses the needs of the mother and her child during the first year of the child's life. Information on the child's and the mother's behavior and emotions just after the child's birth is presented. Also presented is information on the following: procuring items needed for tending the baby; playing; crying; breast…

  3. "Lake Woebegone," Twenty Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, John Jacob

    2006-01-01

    Almost 20 years ago, the author wrote--and then privately published--the two "Lake Woebegone" reports, named after Garrison Keillor's mythical Minnesota town where "all the women are strong, all the men are good-looking, and all the children are above average." The first "Lake Woebegone" report documented that all 50 states were testing above the…

  4. Model Curriculum Outline FRESHMAN YEAR

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    PSY 133 3 CSC 101 or CSC 121 3 SOC 139/ANT 231 3 Prescribed Elective I 3 COM 111 or COM 170 3 TOTALS 16 16 SOPHOMORE YEAR HMS 236/236L or 4 MTH 220 3 PSY 376/HMS 336 3 BIO 308 4 HMS 239 or HMS 355 3 NUR

  5. Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

  6. MA in Psychology Typical Course Sequences Concentration Fall Year 1 Spring Year 1 Fall Year 2 Spring Year 2

    E-print Network

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    Spring Year 2 General PSY 555 Res Meth 1/Stat (4) PSY 589 Meth 2/Exp (3) PSY 595 Semin. or elective (3 Meth 1/Stat (4) PSY 596 Practicum in ABA (2) Analysis/Clinical PSY 517 Learning (3) PSY 580 Res Pract 2

  7. Digital Smithsonian Fiscal Years 20102015

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    Creating a Digital Smithsonian Fiscal Years 2010­2015 DIgItIzatIOn StRatEgIC Plan #12;IntroductIon 2 Extending Reach/Enhancing Meaning 3 What, Exactly, Is Digitization? 3 What Are We Digitizing? 4GIc Goals 11 Goal 1: Digital Assets 11 Goal 2: Digitization Program 12 Goal 3: Organizational Capacity 13

  8. FEMP Year in Review 2009

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    In 2009, the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)undertook an ambitious reorganization of its program structure to be more responsive to the needs of its Federal agency customers. In this Year in Review 2009, you will learn more about FEMP achievements under its new program areas.

  9. The Year of the Pond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Water gardens became popular in China during the Tang Dynasty and goldfish were domesticated more than 1000 years ago. Beyond being beautiful and tranquil, water gardens have the potential for much learning in an educational setting, especially for learning through art. In this article, the author shares how he collaborated with another teacher in…

  10. ESD Publications Calendar Year 2003

    E-print Network

    Temperate Deciduous Forest Responses to Changing Precipitation Regimes. Ecological Studies. Vol. 166. 2003 Temperate Deciduous Forest Responses to Changing Precipitation Regimes, P.J. Hanson and S.D. Wullschleger of a southeastern upland Quercus forest from an 8-year biometric record, in North American Temperate Deciduous

  11. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, Elizabeth Chilcote

    2002-05-01

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  12. Nuclear Materials Focus Area Fiscal Year 2002 Mid Year Review

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, E.C.; Fuhrman, P.W.

    2002-05-30

    The Nuclear Materials Focus Area (NMFA) held its annual mid-year review on February 12 and 14, 2002, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The purpose of this review was to examine both the technical aspects and the programmatic aspects of its technology development program. The focus area activities were reviewed by a panel consisting of personnel representing the end users of the technologies, and technical experts in nuclear materials. This year's review was somewhat different than in the past, as the stress was on how well the various projects being managed through the NMFA aligned with the two thrust areas and nine key goals and priorities recently issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for DOE's Office of Environmental Management (EM).

  13. Modelfest: year one results and plans for future years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carney, Thom; Tyler, Christopher W.; Watson, Andrew B.; Makous, Walter; Beutter, Brent; Chen, Chien-Chung; Norcia, Anthony M.; Klein, Stanley A.

    2000-06-01

    A robust model of the human visual system (HVS) would have a major practical impact on the difficult technological problems of transmitting and storing digital images. Although most HVS models exhibit similarities, they may have significant differences in predicting performance. Different HVS models are rarely compared using the same set of psychophysical measurements, so their relative efficacy is unclear. The Modelfest organization was formed to solve this problem and accelerate the development of robust new models of human vision. Members of Modelfest have gathered psychophysical threshold data on the year one stimuli described at last year's SPIE meeting. Modelfest is an exciting new approach to modeling involving the sharing of resources, learning from each other's modeling successes and providing a method to cross-validate proposed HVS models. The purpose of this presentation is to invite the Electronic Imaging community to participate in this effort and inform them of the developing database, which is available to all researchers interested in modeling human vision. In future years, the database will be extended to other domains such as visual masking, and temporal processing. This Modelfest progress report summarizes the stimulus definitions and data collection methods used, but focuses on the results of the phase one data collection effort. Each of the authors has provided at least one dataset from their respective laboratories. These data and data collected subsequent to the submission of this paper are posted on the WWW for further analysis and future modeling efforts.

  14. The International Polar Year, 2007-2008, an opportunity to focus on infectious diseases in Arctic regions.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Alan J

    2008-01-01

    On 3 occasions over the past 125 years, scientists from around the world have worked together to organize scientific and exploration activities in polar regions (www.ipy.org). The first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1881-1884 marked the first major coordinated international scientific initiative to collect standardized meteorological and geophysical data in polar regions. Fifteen expeditions led by 12 nations amassed a large amount of data, but the scientific value was diminished by disjointed publication efforts and lack of long-term institutional commitment; lessons were learned and corrected in subsequent polar years. The second IPY began in 1932. Forty-four nations led expeditions in the Arctic and Antarctic, resulting in greater understanding of the aurora, magnetism, and meteorology. Air and marine navigation, radio operations, and weather forecasting were greatly improved as a result. The third IPY, in 1957-58, was renamed the International Geophysical Year and capitalized on technologic advances developed during World War II. Technologic and scientific momentum was redirected toward research, particularly to studies of the upper atmosphere, a legacy that continues to the present day. Notable achievements included launching the first satellite, measurement of atmospheric greenhouse gases, delineating the system of mid-ocean ridges, and confirming the theory of plate tectonics. PMID:18258069

  15. Accidental ingestion or aspiration of foreign objects at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital over last 4 years.

    PubMed

    Hisanaga, Ryuichi; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Sato, Toru; Yajima, Yasutomo; Morinaga, Kazuki; Ohata, Hitoshi; Hirata, SoIchiro; Mamiya, Hideki; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Yakushiji, Takashi; Hagita, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cases of accidental ingestion or aspiration occurring at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital over the last 4 years in order to determine how the incidence of such events could be reduced. Forty cases of accidents occurring at our hospital over a 4-year period commencing in 2008 (representing 27% of the total number of accidents) included accidental ingestion in 39 patients and aspiration in one. Most of these accidents occurred during the removal or placement of restorations or prosthetics, and the ingested objects were mostly crowns and inlays. Accidental ingestion or aspiration occurred more frequently in the right molar region and when procedures were conducted by practitioners with less than 1 to 7 years of experience, and especially 1 to 3 years only. A higher rate of such accidents was observed in male patients in their 50s to 70s. The conventional safety procedures developed by the Medical Risk Management Team should be adhered to wherever possible. Furthermore, we propose the following measures based on the present results: accident prevention training for students and clinical trainees; improvement of the in-hospital manual; personal coaching for those breaching the guidelines of the safety manual; and raising awareness of the need for greater care in preventing incidents of accidental ingestion or aspiration at the Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. PMID:24717931

  16. An examination of yearly and daily temperature change and its significance to the evaluation of sealant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lacasse, M.A.; Margeson, J.C.; Giffin, G.B.

    1998-12-31

    Standard test methods to assess the degree of movement capability of sealants are currently based on extreme values of amplitude, rate of movement and temperature change. The selection and derivation of these test parameters on the basis of field observations has yet to be fully explained. It appears that these parameters are not based on an understanding of the degree to which sealants undergo cyclic movement on buildings nor the likelihood of occurrence of extreme events. Although joint failure due to cyclic movement has been investigated, there is a need to consider how such models of deterioration can be used to establish test criteria for assessing the long-term performance of sealant products. To address some of these issues, a study was conducted to determine the nature of temperature fluctuations in a northerly climate. Hourly temperature data from the Ottawa international airport for a period of forty years was subjected to probability analysis. The analysis considered the likelihood of occurrence of periods of increasing or decreasing temperature. The occurrence of particular amplitudes ranges and rates of temperature change were also determined on both a seasonal and a yearly basis. Moreover, the annual and multi-year probability of temperature fluctuations at or above extreme values of either rate or amplitude were also assessed. In addition, the maximum and minimum temperatures of the 40 yearly periods were subjected to extremal analysis to determine the likelihood of annual periods covering larger than average temperature ranges. This analysis provides a basis from which to select test parameters.

  17. Epidemiological Follow-up 15 Years after the Breast Cancer Scandal in Essen

    PubMed Central

    Hauth, E. A. M.; Berkemeyer, S.; Jaeger, H.; Forsting, M.; Hoffmann, B.; Jöckel, K.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the years 1993–1996 a number of presumably false-positive breast cancer diagnoses were made by a pathologist in Essen. A follow-up, undertaken 15 years later, investigated how many women had tumour recurrence and/or metastasis or had died from breast cancer. Material and Methods: A total of 151 (68?%) out of 222 women could be traced. One hundred and forty-seven (66.2?%) of the 222 women were alive. The observed survival rate, number of recurrences and/or metastases, and number of deaths from breast cancer were compared with data from the Munich Tumour Registry. The number of breast cancer cases among daughters of the affected women was ascertained. Results: The total observed survival rate at follow-up after 15 years was 93?%, a much higher figure than the survival rate of 45?% given by the Munich Tumour Registry. Recurrence and/or metastasis or death from breast cancer occurred in 9/222 cases (4.1?%). The incidence for these events calculated according to data from the Munich Tumour Registry is 13?%. Two daughters (2.2?%) out of a total of 90 were diagnosed with breast cancer whereas, according to the German Cancer Research Centre, the expected rate would have been between 5 and 10?%. Conclusions: The results of our follow-up after 15 years show that more women survived than expected and that the number of recurrences and/or metastases and deaths due to breast cancer was lower than expected. Fewer daughters of affected women were diagnosed with breast cancer than expected. These results support our suspicion that not all women diagnosed with breast cancer by a pathologist in Essen actually had breast cancer. PMID:25284840

  18. The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Contact Lens Experience: One-Year Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Buddy; Ward, Michael A.; Lynn, Michael; DuBois, Lindreth; Lambert, Scott R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We describe our experience correcting a cohort of infants with contact lenses in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). Materials and Methods Fifty-seven infants 1 to 6 months of age were randomized to contact lens wear. An examination under anesthesia was performed at the time of enrollment and at approximately 1 year of age. A traveling examiner assessed visual acuity at approximately 1 year of age. Results Forty-two treated eyes (74 %) were fitted with silicone elastomer (SE) contact lenses; twelve eyes (21 %) with rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses and three eyes (5%) wore both lens types. Median visual acuity was +0.80 logMAR in both lens type-wearing groups. The mean (± SD) keratometric power of the treated eyes was 46.3 ± 2.8 D at baseline and 44.6 ± 2.3 D at one year of age for a mean decrease of 0.2 ± 0.2 D/mo. Keratometric astigmatism of treated eyes was 1.98 ± 1.37 D at baseline and 1.62 ± 0.98 D at one year of age for a mean decrease of 0.05 ± 0.2 D/mo. The mean RGP lens base curve at baseline was 47.62 D ±2.62 D vs 47.00 D ± 3.50 D at 12 months after surgery. Children wearing SE lenses required a mean of 10.9 replacements (range 2–24) compared to 16.8 replacements (range 8–32) for children wearing RGP lenses. Three adverse events occurred. Conclusions Contact lenses were worn successfully with relatively few adverse events by a cohort of infants with unilateral aphakia. The visual acuity results were identical independent of the contact lens material or modality. RGP lenses needed replacement more often than SE lenses. PMID:22669008

  19. A YEAR IN REVIEWFOUNDATION 2014 2 2014 A YEAR IN REVIEW 32014 A YEAR IN REVIEW

    E-print Network

    Wapstra, Erik

    the Tasmanian devil while at the same time supporting conservation research that ensures the long-term viability Securing the future Save the Tasmanian Devil Appeal 28 A torch lights the way Access Scholarships of this iconic Tasmanian animal. In this, our 125th year, we have much to celebrate. We are delighted our alumna

  20. Bachelor of Science in Geology Year 1 Year 3Year 2

    E-print Network

    , Su GE 2000 UNDERSTANDING THE EARTH (3 CREDITS) F, S, Su MA 2160 CALCULUS W/ TECH II (4 CREDITS) F, S 1151 15 CREDITS HASS ELECTIVE (3 CREDITS) F, S, Su Year 4 Fall Spring CH 1150 CH 1151 GE 3320 EARTH Requirements (12 Credits) (http://www.mtu.edu/registrar/pdfs/HASS-Distribution-List.pdf) - 6 credits 3000

  1. Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2012 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Ten disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Six have achieved final stabilization. The remaining four sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  2. Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2013 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: Summary of each site Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location Actions and Resolutions for each site. Six disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. One has achieved final stabilization. The remaining five sites not meeting the criteria for final stabilization will be evaluated again in the next fiscal year.

  3. 100 Years of Brownian motion

    E-print Network

    Peter Hänggi; Fabio Marchesoni

    2005-02-02

    In the year 1905 Albert Einstein published four papers that raised him to a giant in the history of science of all times. These works encompass the photon hypothesis (for which he obtained the Nobel prize in 1921), his first two papers on (special) relativity theory and, of course, his first paper on Brownian motion, entitled "\\"Uber die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der W\\"arme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Fl\\"ussigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen'' (submitted on May 11, 1905). Thanks to Einstein intuition, the phenomenon observed by the Scottish botanist Rober Brown in 1827 - a little more than a naturalist's curiosity - becomes the keystone of a fully probabilistic formulation of statistical mechanics and a well-established subject of physical investigation which we celebrate in this Focus issue entitled - for this reason - : ``100 Years of Brownian Motion''.

  4. International Year of Astronomy 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesarsky, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    Following an unanimous resolution at the 2003 General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) has launched 2009 as the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) under the theme "The Universe, yours to discover." IAU is associated with UNESCO for this endeavor. On 20 December 2007 the International Year of Astronomy 2009 was proclaimed by the United Nations 62nd General Assembly. IYA2009 marks the four hundredth anniversary of the first astronomical observation through a telescope by Galileo Galilei. It will be a global celebration of astronomy and its contributions to society and culture, with a strong emphasis on education, public engagement and involvement of young people. There will be events at national, regional, and global levels throughout the whole of 2009. IYA 2009 will also highlight for the general public the on going explosion of knowledge on the universe. I will describe the main activities foreseen and emphasize the importance of this celebration for international astronomy .

  5. Sixty Years of Casting Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2015-11-01

    The 60 years of solidification research since the publication of Chalmer's constitutional undercooling in 1953 has been a dramatic advance of understanding which has and continues to be an inspiration. In contrast, 60 years of casting research has seen mixed fortunes. One of its success stories relates to improvements in inoculation of gray irons, and another to the discovery of spheroidal graphite iron, although both of these can be classified as metallurgical rather than casting advances. It is suggested that true casting advances have dated from the author's lab in 1992 when a critical surface turbulence condition was defined for the first time. These last 20 years have seen the surface entrainment issues of castings developed to a sufficient sophistication to revolutionize the performance of light alloy and steel foundries. However, there is still a long way to go, with large sections of the steel and Ni-base casting industries still in denial that casting defects are important or even exist. The result has been that special ingots are still cast poorly, and shaped casting operations have suffered massive losses. For secondary melted and cast materials, electro-slag remelting has the potential to be much superior to expensive vacuum arc remelting, which has cost our aerospace and defense industries dearly over the years. This failure to address and upgrade our processing of liquid metals is a serious concern, since the principle entrainment defect, the bifilm, is seen as the principle initiator of cracks in metals; in general, bifilms are the Griffith cracks that initiate failures by cracking. A new generation of crack resistant metals and engineering structures can now be envisaged.

  6. Spirit Begins Third Martian Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As it finished its second Martian year on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was beginning to examine a group of angular rocks given informal names corresponding to peaks in the Colorado Rockies. A Martian year the amount of time it takes Mars to complete one orbit around the sun lasts for 687 Earth days. Spirit completed its second Martian year on the rover's 1,338th Martian day, or sol, corresponding to Oct. 8, 2007.

    Two days later, on sol 1,340 (Oct. 10, 2007), Spirit used its front hazard-identification camera to capture this wide-angle view of its robotic arm extended to a rock informally named 'Humboldt Peak.' For the rocks at this site on the southern edge of the 'Home Plate' platform in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills inside Gusev Crater, the rover team decided to use names of Colorado peaks higher than 14,000 feet. The Colorado Rockies team of the National League is the connection to the baseball-theme nomenclature being used for features around Home Plate.

    The tool facing Spirit on the turret at the end of the robotic arm is the Moessbauer spectrometer.

  7. Earth: 15 Million Years Ago

    E-print Network

    Masataka Mizushima

    2008-10-13

    In Einstein's general relativity theory the metric component gxx in the direction of motion (x-direction) of the sun deviates from unity due to a tensor potential caused by the black hole existing around the center of the galaxy. Because the solar system is orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s, the theory shows that the Newtonian gravitational potential due to the sun is not quite radial. At the present time, the ecliptic plane is almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, consistent with this modification of the Newtonian gravitational force. The ecliptic plane is assumed to maintain this orientation in the galactic space as it orbits around the galactic center, but the rotational angular momentum of the earth around its own axis can be assumed to be conserved. The earth is between the sun and the galactic center at the summer solstice all the time. As a consequence, the rotational axis of the earth would be parallel to the axis of the orbital rotation of the earth 15 million years ago, if the solar system has been orbiting around the galactic center at 200 km/s. The present theory concludes that the earth did not have seasons 15 million years ago. Therefore, the water on the earth was accumulated near the poles as ice and the sea level was very low. Geological evidence exists that confirms this effect. The resulting global ice-melting started 15 million years ago and is ending now.

  8. Thirty years through vanadium chemistry.

    PubMed

    Costa Pessoa, J

    2015-06-01

    The relevance of vanadium in biological systems is known for many years and vanadium-based catalysts have important industrial applications, however, till the beginning of the 80s research on vanadium chemistry and biochemistry did not receive much attention from the scientific community. The understanding of the broad bioinorganic implications resulting from the similarities between phosphate and vanadate(V) and the discovery of vanadium dependent enzymes gave rise to an enormous increase in interest in the chemistry and biological relevance of vanadium. Thereupon the last 30years corresponded to a period of enormous research effort in these fields, as well as in medicinal applications of vanadium and in the development of catalysts for use in fine-chemical synthesis, some of these inspired by enzymatic active sites. Since the 80s my group in collaboration with others made contributions, described throughout this text, namely in the understanding of the speciation of vanadium compounds in aqueous solution and in biological fluids, and to the transport of vanadium compounds in blood plasma and their uptake by cells. Several new types of vanadium compounds were also synthesized and characterized, with applications either as prospective therapeutic drugs or as homogeneous or heterogenized catalysts for the production of fine chemicals. The developments made are described also considering the international context of the evolution of the knowledge in the chemistry and bioinorganic chemistry of vanadium compounds during the last 30years. This article was compiled based on the Vanadis Award presentation at the 9th International Vanadium Symposium. PMID:25843361

  9. CT Angiography after 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Geoffrey D.; Leipsic, Jonathon; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5–15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

  10. CTIO: The Next 50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. C.

    2015-05-01

    After 50 years of solid scientific productivity, CTIO has established a strong reputation as a world-leading international observatory. The next 50 years are filled with opportunities to build on this foundation, continuing to put CTIO at the forefront of astronomy. In the near term (the next 10 years) we will be taking advantage of the power of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to map the southern skies, both as part of Dark Energy Survey (DES) and as part of a wide variety of community projects spanning scientific areas from near-earth asteroids to the most distant gravitationally-lensed galaxies. In addition, we will add new spectroscopic capabilities, both in the optical, with COSMOS, and the near-infrared, with TripleSpec. With the combination of these new facilities with those coming to SOAR, including SAM, SIFS, and STELES, CTIO will provide a highly-efficient suite of capabilities to support astronomers for this decade. And of course we will be preparing for the next decade, which will be the decade of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). CTIO continues to play a central role in supporting the development of LSST during its construction on Cerro Pachón over the next 5 years. However, even more important will be the role CTIO facilities will play in the science of the LSST era. While astronomers will certainly be able to do many new and innovative projects with only the LSST database, a significant fraction of the scientific potential of LSST relies upon optical and infrared followup. The telescopes and instruments of CTIO, from the tenant 1m telescopes to the instruments on the Blanco and SOAR, will be a critical part of the newly rebalanced observing "system". Given that cutting-edge instrumentation can take 5-10 years to move from conception to first light, today is not too early to decide which new instruments we must start developing now in order to fulfill the needs of the community in the next decade.

  11. Local field potential recordings in a non-human primate model of Parkinsons disease using the Activa PC + S neurostimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, Allison T.; Muralidharan, Abirami; Hendrix, Claudia; Johnson, Luke; Gupta, Rahul; Stanslaski, Scott; Denison, Tim; Baker, Kenneth B.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Using the Medtronic Activa® PC + S system, this study investigated how passive joint manipulation, reaching behavior, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) modulate local field potential (LFP) activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus (GP). Approach. Five non-human primates were implanted unilaterally with one or more DBS leads. LFPs were collected in montage recordings during resting state conditions and during motor tasks that facilitate the expression of parkinsonian motor signs. These recordings were made in the naïve state in one subject, in the parkinsonian state in two subjects, and in both naïve and parkinsonian states in two subjects. Main results. LFPs measured at rest were consistent over time for a given recording location and parkinsonian state in a given subject; however, LFPs were highly variable between subjects, between and within recording locations, and across parkinsonian states. LFPs in both naïve and parkinsonian states across all recorded nuclei contained a spectral peak in the beta band (10-30 Hz). Moreover, the spectral content of recorded LFPs was modulated by passive and active movement of the subjects’ limbs. LFPs recorded during a cued-reaching task displayed task-related beta desynchronization in STN and GP. The bidirectional capabilities of the Activa® PC + S also allowed for recording LFPs while delivering DBS. The therapeutic effect of STN DBS on parkinsonian rigidity outlasted stimulation for 30-60 s, but there was no correlation with beta band power. Significance. This study emphasizes (1) the variability in spontaneous LFPs amongst subjects and (2) the value of using the Activa® PC + S system to record neural data in the context of behavioral tasks that allow one to evaluate a subject’s symptomatology.

  12. Fall Semester Year 1 required coursework for

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Year One Year Two Year Three Fall Semester Year 1 required coursework for PharmD, 18 credits PMBA 2100, 2 credits PMBA 2200, 2 credits Total semester credits = 16 Fall Semester Year 2 required coursework for PharmD, 18.5 credits MBA 8211, 2 credits PMBA 2400, 2 credits Total semester credits = 22

  13. Investigating First Year Education Students' Stress Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geng, Gretchen; Midford, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the stress levels of first-year education students who undertake teaching practicum and theory units during their first year of teacher education program. First, 139 first-year and 143 other years' education students completed the PSS-10 scale, which measures perceived level of stress. Then, 147 first-year education…

  14. Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moncrieff, M. W.; Waliser, D. E.

    2009-05-01

    Tropical convection and the multi-scale organization of precipitating convection are associated with scale interactions that are fundamental to the atmospheric circulation and its interaction with the ocean. The realistic representation of tropical convection and its multi-scale organization is a long-standing challenge for numerical weather prediction and climate models. Incomplete knowledge and practical issues disadvantage the representation of important phenomena and processes in global models, such as the ITCZ, monsoons, MJO, and easterly waves and tropical cyclones. The tropical-extratropical interactions of tropical convection are key aspects of the Predictability and Dynamical Processes of THORPEX. The WCRP and WWRP/THORPEX are jointly coordinating a year of observing, modeling, and forecasting with a focus on the multi-scale organization of tropical convection, prediction, and predictability: Year of Tropical Convection (YOTC). Satellite, in-situ, and field-campaign measurements (e.g., TPARC), operational prediction, and cloud-system resolving models will be utilized. The temporal scales addressed, up to seasonal, enables the above phenomena to be modeled at high resolution, and seamless prediction issues at the intersection of weather and climate addressed. The 'Year', the period 1 May 2008 - 31 October 2009, began with the archiving of ECMWF T799 (i.e., 25 km) products: i) complete global analysis; ii) deterministic forecasts; and iii) special diagnostics. Plans are underway to obtain similar NCEP and NASA GEOS-5 data, and to integrate various multi-sensor satellite products. The YOTC Science Plan, which is available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/arep/wwrp/new/documents/ YOTC_Science_Plan.pdf, has been published as a WMO Technical Document. The YOTC Implementation Plan, presently being drafted, will be discussed and finalized at an international workshop in July 2009. This talk summarizes programmatic aspects; science issues involving the multiscale organization of precipitating convection; progress with MJO studies; steps towards implementation; and future directions of the YOTC project.

  15. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  16. [100 years' of clinical electrocardiography].

    PubMed

    Bergovec, Mijo

    2003-01-01

    In 1903 Willem Einthoven published in Pflügers Arch his classic article on the investigation of human electrocardiogram by his string galvanometer. Many historians of medicine, Einthoven also marked that publication as the beginning of clinical electrocardiography. Many investigators like Galvani, Manteucci, Kölliker, Müller, Lipmann, Waller, Ader, Einthoven, Lewis, Wilson and others participated in creation and development of electrocardiogram. From that time electrocardiogram quickly became, and has remained the most essential diagnostic laboratory tool in investigation of heart diseases. The aim of this article is to remind us of the beginning of this part of cardiology 100 years ago. PMID:15209030

  17. Exercise During the Childbearing Year

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Roger L.; Perkins, Jan; Parr, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Many women wish to continue to pursue an active lifestyle during pregnancy, while the pregnancy itself may provide the motivation for other more sedentary women to begin an exercise program for the sake of improved health/fitness. Also, female competitive athletes, upon becoming pregnant, may wish to continue sports performance and require careful monitoring to assure maternal-fetal safety. This review is designed to assist the perinatal educator who is in the position to advise the pregnant patient on the risks and benefits of physical activity during the childbearing year and provide suggestions for developing individualized exercise programs. PMID:17273187

  18. Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jenifer Nordstrom; Mike Lewis

    2010-11-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2010 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  19. A hundred years of gemellology.

    PubMed

    Gedda, L; Brenci, G

    1978-09-01

    Over the past hundred years, since Sir Francis Galton first pointed out its scientific value, the study of twins has considerably widened its scope and significance. Gemellology has come to represent an important branch of human genetics and to be applied to the most diverse fields of biomedical and behavioral research, besides obviously contributing to the study of the specific biological, medical, and psychological aspects of the twin condition. More recently, then, it has in turn originated a new branch of modern genetic research, chronogenetics. Finally, sponsored and coordinated by the Mendel Institute in Rome, an International Society for Twins Studies has developed. PMID:570213

  20. Thirty years of lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Chris A.

    2005-05-01

    Thirty years ago Rick Dill and his team at IBM published the first account of lithography simulation - the accurate description of semiconductor optical lithography by mathematical equations. Since then, lithography simulation has grown dramatically in importance in four important areas: as a research tool, as a development tool, as a manufacturing tool, and as a learning tool. In this paper, the history of lithography simulations is traced from its roots to today"s indispensable tools for lithographic technology development. Along the way, an attempt will be made to define the true value of lithography simulation to the semiconductor industry.

  1. Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lewis

    2009-10-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2009 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to supplement documentation related to the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan for Construction Activities and to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Recommendation(s) for each site.

  2. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D. )

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. 50 CFR 622.30 - Fishing years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fishing years. 622.30 Section 622.30 Wildlife...SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.30 Fishing years. The fishing year for species or species groups governed...

  4. Adverse Events during 2 Years of Daily Wear of Silicone Hydrogels in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Chen, Xiang; Naduvilath, Thomas; de la Jara, Percy Lazon; Lin, Zhi; Li, Li; Smith, Earl L.; Ge, Jian; Holden, Brien A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Type and incidence of adverse events and rate of discontinuations for 2 years of daily wear with silicone hydrogel contact lenses in Chinese children with myopia. Methods Two hundred forty children aged 7 to 14 years were enrolled in a prospective randomized clinical trial from November 2008 to April 2009. Children with myopia of up to ?3.50 diopters (D) spherical equivalent with astigmatism less than or equal to ?0.75 D were randomized to one commercial and three experimental lens designs of Lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel lenses (four groups) used bilaterally on a daily wear, monthly replacement schedule. The main outcome measures were incidence per 100 patient-years (incidence, in percentage) of adverse events and rate of discontinuations. Results There were no events of microbial keratitis. Fifty-five adverse events (incidence, 14.2%) were seen. There were also 12 recurrent events. The type and incidence percentage were contact lens papillary conjunctivitis (16 events, 4.1%), superior epithelial arcuate lesions (SEALs, six events, 1.5%), corneal erosions (eight events, 2.1%), infiltrative keratitis (five events, 1.3%), asymptomatic infiltrative keratitis (seven events, 1.8%), and asymptomatic infiltrates (13 events, 3.42%). There were differences in the incidence of SEALs between groups (p = 0.023), with the incidence of SEALs being greater with one of the experimental designs. No event resulted in any vision loss. Seventy participants (29.2%) discontinued, with one-third (26 participants, 10.8%) occurring in the first month of lens wear. Discomfort and non–lens-related reasons such as safety concern and disinterest were frequently cited reasons for discontinuations. Conclusions Adverse events with daily wear of silicone hydrogels in children were mainly mechanical in nature, and significant infiltrative events were few. The large number of dropouts in the early days of lens wear and their reasons for discontinuation suggest that adaptation and patient motivation are critical for survival in lens wear. PMID:23939292

  5. Predictors of Institutionalization of Dementia Patients in Mild and Moderate Stages: A 4-Year Prospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eska, Kathrin; Graessel, Elmar; Donath, Carolin; Schwarzkopf, Larissa; Lauterberg, Joerg; Holle, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Background Institutionalization is the most important milestone in the care of dementia patients. This study was aimed at identifying relevant predictors of institutionalization in a broad empirical context and interpreting them on the basis of the predictor model proposed by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Methods At the start of this study, 357 patients with mild to moderate dementia were examined by their general practitioners, and a telephone interview was conducted with their caregivers. Four years later, the outcomes ‘institutionalization’ and ‘death’ were determined from health insurance data. Forty-one variables were examined for their predictive influence by univariate and multivariate Cox regression. Results The risk of institutionalization increased significantly (p ? 0.05) with older ages of patients [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05] and caregivers (HR = 1.03), a higher educational level of the caregiver (HR = 1.83), greater use of community health services (HR = 1.59), greater caregiver burden (HR = 1.02), and when the caregiver and patient lived apart (HR = 1.97). Conclusion The results show that there is a multifactorial influence on institutionalization of dementia patients by sociodemographic, health-related, and psychological aspects as well as the care situation, thus validating the predictor model by Luppa et al. [Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2008;26:65-78]. Caregiver burden was found to be the strongest predictor accessible to interventions. PMID:24348504

  6. Circumscribed palmar or plantar hypokeratosis 10 years after the first description: what is known and the issues under discussion.

    PubMed

    Urbina, F; Pérez, A; Requena, L; Rütten, A

    2014-01-01

    This review of the literature on palmoplantar hypokeratosis, a process that was first indentified only 10 years ago, discusses the current state of our understanding, the therapeutic options available, and the debate about etiology. Forty-four publications reporting 69 cases were found. Palmar or plantar hypokeratosis occurs mainly in women (76.8%) and age at the time of a first visit to a physician ranges from 42 to 84 years. Most cases present between the ages of 51 and 70 years. The majority of patients have had solitary lesions usually located on the right palm, particularly in the regions of the thenar (in 44/79 lesions [55.7%]) or hypothenar eminences (in 11/79 lesions [13.9%]). In only 8 cases was there a history of prior trauma at the site. Studies using polymerase chain reaction techniques to identify human papillomavirus involvement were negative in most cases. These hypokeratotic lesions are localized epidermal depressions formed by an abrupt thinning of the stratum corneum, providing a singular histopathologic feature. This condition can currently be considered a localized keratinization disorder affecting zones where there is a thick stratum corneum. The precipitating cause is unknown and a definitive treatment remains to be found. The mechanism would be the localized failure of a clone of keratinocytes during differentiation toward normal palmoplantar hyperkeratinization. PMID:24011977

  7. 7 CFR 984.7 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.7 Marketing year. Marketing year...

  8. Stroop-like interference in the real animal size test and the pictorial animal size test in 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study examined prepotent response inhibition among 653 5- to 12-year-old children and young adults divided into five age groups: forty-six 5- to 6-year-olds, one hundred fifty-eight 7- to 8-year-olds, one hundred ninety-six 9- to 10-year-olds, one hundred eighty-three 11- to 12-year-olds, and 70 young adults (19- to 22-year-olds). Two paper-and-pencil versions of Stroop-like tasks were administered: the Real Animal Size Test and the Pictorial Animal Size Test. In these tests, participants are presented with pictures of animals (large animals such as an elephant, a giraffe, and a whale vs. small animals such as a frog, a bird, and a squirrel) printed as either big or small images that are mismatched with the animal's real size. Participants are required to decide the size of the animals (big vs. small) based on either the size in real life or the size of the picture. The results indicated the following: (a) The Pictorial Animal Size Test elicited robust interference, whereas the Real Animal Size Test elicited no interference; (b) prepotent response inhibition develops markedly in childhood and between children and young adults; and (c) error correction increased rapidly after age 8. The mechanism of interference and the influence of metacognition on prepotent response inhibition are discussed. PMID:24716870

  9. Yearly Energy Costs for Buildings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1991-03-20

    COSTSAFR3.0 generates a set of compliance forms which will be attached to housing Requests for Proposals (RFPs) issued by Departments or Agencies of the Federal Government. The compliance forms provide a uniform method for estimating the total yearly energy cost for each proposal. COSTSAFR3.0 analyzes specific housing projects at a given site, using alternative fuel types, and considering alternative housing types. The program is designed around the concept of minimizing overall costs through energy conservationmore »design, including first cost and future utility costs, and estabilishes a standard design to which proposed housing designs are compared. It provides a point table for each housing type that can be used to determine whether a proposed design meets the standard and how a design can be modified to meet the standard.« less

  10. FAO: the first 40 years

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations celebrated 40 years of service in October of 1985. This volume reviews FAO's history, some of the main themes of its work, and looks at its current status and plans for the future. The 14 highlights include the search for a world food policy and techniques for coping with food shortages and increasing food production. The FAO's work has focused on the rational use and protection of world resources, programs of self-help and international cooperation, and the development of human awareness and potential. The final chapter outlines six challenges for the future based on reducing hunger and improving the supply and distribution of food.

  11. Fiscal Year 2014 Revegetation Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nordstrom, Jenifer

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes the Fiscal Year 2014 Revegetation Assessment by Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC. This assessment was conducted to document revegetation efforts at Idaho National Laboratory to ensure that disturbed vegetation and soil at various locations are being restored. This report provides the following information for each site being monitored by the Idaho National Laboratory Environmental Support and Services: • Summary of each site • Assessment of vegetation status and site stabilization at each location • Actions and Resolutions for each site. Five disturbed sites were evaluated for this assessment. Four sites are recommended to be removed from the annual assessment, and one is recommended for continued evaluation. New sites are also identified for future monitoring as part of the annual assessment.

  12. Twenty Years of Tevatron Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Jay C. Theilacker

    2004-07-15

    The superconducting Tevatron accelerator at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) has surpassed twenty years of operation. The Tevatron is still the highest energy particle accelerator in the world and will remain so until the commissioning of the LHC in Europe later this decade. The Tevatron has operated in a Fixed Target mode, accelerating a proton beam into stationary targets/detectors, as well as a Colliding Beam mode, continuously colliding counter rotating beams of protons and antiprotons. Upon completion, the Tevatron cryogenic system became the world's largest helium refrigeration system. In 1993, the Tevatron cryogenic system was given the designation of International Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The operational history, experiences and statistics of the Tevatron, with an emphasis on the cryogenic system, is presented. Improvements, upgrades and current challenges of the cryogenic system are discussed.

  13. Aqua 10 Years After Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2013-01-01

    A little over ten years ago, in the early morning hours of May 4, 2002, crowds of spectators stood anxiously watching as the Delta II rocket carrying NASA's Aqua spacecraft lifted off from its launch pad at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California at 2:55 a.m. The rocket quickly went through a low-lying cloud cover, after which the main portion of the rocket fell to the waters below and the rockets second stage proceeded to carry Aqua south across the Pacific, onward over Antarctica, and north to Africa, where the spacecraft separated from the rocket 59.5 minutes after launch. Then, 12.5 minutes later, the solar array unfurled over Europe, and Aqua was on its way in the first of what by now have become over 50,000 successful orbits of the Earth.

  14. 50 years of fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Fusion energy research began in the early 1950s as scientists worked to harness the awesome power of the atom for peaceful purposes. There was early optimism for a quick solution for fusion energy as there had been for fission. However, this was soon tempered by reality as the difficulty of producing and confining fusion fuel at temperatures of 100 million °C in the laboratory was appreciated. Fusion research has followed two main paths—inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion. Over the past 50 years, there has been remarkable progress with both approaches, and now each has a solid technical foundation that has led to the construction of major facilities that are aimed at demonstrating fusion energy producing plasmas.

  15. Long-term treatment with responsive brain stimulation in adults with refractory partial seizures

    PubMed Central

    Bergey, Gregory K.; Mizrahi, Eli M.; Goldman, Alica; King-Stephens, David; Nair, Dileep; Srinivasan, Shraddha; Jobst, Barbara; Gross, Robert E.; Shields, Donald C.; Barkley, Gregory; Salanova, Vicenta; Olejniczak, Piotr; Cole, Andrew; Cash, Sydney S.; Noe, Katherine; Wharen, Robert; Worrell, Gregory; Murro, Anthony M.; Edwards, Jonathan; Duchowny, Michael; Spencer, David; Smith, Michael; Geller, Eric; Gwinn, Ryder; Skidmore, Christopher; Eisenschenk, Stephan; Berg, Michel; Heck, Christianne; Van Ness, Paul; Fountain, Nathan; Rutecki, Paul; Massey, Andrew; O'Donovan, Cormac; Labar, Douglas; Duckrow, Robert B.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.; Courtney, Tracy; Sun, Felice T.; Seale, Cairn G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The long-term efficacy and safety of responsive direct neurostimulation was assessed in adults with medically refractory partial onset seizures. Methods: All participants were treated with a cranially implanted responsive neurostimulator that delivers stimulation to 1 or 2 seizure foci via chronically implanted electrodes when specific electrocorticographic patterns are detected (RNS System). Participants had completed a 2-year primarily open-label safety study (n = 65) or a 2-year randomized blinded controlled safety and efficacy study (n = 191); 230 participants transitioned into an ongoing 7-year study to assess safety and efficacy. Results: The average participant was 34 (±11.4) years old with epilepsy for 19.6 (±11.4) years. The median preimplant frequency of disabling partial or generalized tonic-clonic seizures was 10.2 seizures a month. The median percent seizure reduction in the randomized blinded controlled trial was 44% at 1 year and 53% at 2 years (p < 0.0001, generalized estimating equation) and ranged from 48% to 66% over postimplant years 3 through 6 in the long-term study. Improvements in quality of life were maintained (p < 0.05). The most common serious device-related adverse events over the mean 5.4 years of follow-up were implant site infection (9.0%) involving soft tissue and neurostimulator explantation (4.7%). Conclusions: The RNS System is the first direct brain responsive neurostimulator. Acute and sustained efficacy and safety were demonstrated in adults with medically refractory partial onset seizures arising from 1 or 2 foci over a mean follow-up of 5.4 years. This experience supports the RNS System as a treatment option for refractory partial seizures. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically refractory partial onset seizures, responsive direct cortical stimulation reduces seizures and improves quality of life over a mean follow-up of 5.4 years. PMID:25616485

  16. Swift: 10 Years of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The conference Swift: 10 years of discovery was held in Roma at La Sapienza University on Dec. 2-5 2014 to celebrate 10 years of Swift successes. Thanks to a large attendance and a lively program, it provided the opportunity to review recent advances of our knowledge of the high-energy transient Universe both from the observational and theoretical sides. When Swift was launched on November 20, 2004, its prime objective was to chase Gamma-Ray Bursts and deepen our knowledge of these cosmic explosions. And so it did, unveiling the secrets of long and short GRBs. However, its multi-wavelength instrumentation and fast scheduling capabilities made it the most versatile mission ever flown. Besides GRBs, Swift has observed, and contributed to our understanding of, an impressive variety of targets including AGNs, supernovae, pulsars, microquasars, novae, variable stars, comets, and much more. Swift is continuously discovering rare and surprising events distributed over a wide range of redshifts, out to the most distant transient objects in the Universe. Such a trove of discoveries has been addressed during the conference with sessions dedicated to each class of events. Indeed, the conference in Rome was a spectacular celebration of the Swift 10th anniversary. It included sessions on all types of transient and steady sources. Top scientists from around the world gave invited and contributed talks. There was a large poster session, sumptuous lunches, news interviews and a glorious banquet with officials attending from INAF and ASI. All the presentations, as well as several conference pictures, can be found in the conference website (http://www.brera.inaf.it/Swift10/Welcome.html). These proceedings have been collected owing to the efforts of Paolo D’Avanzo who has followed each paper from submission to final acceptance. Our warmest thanks to Paolo for all his work. The Conference has been made possible by the support from La Sapienza University as well as from the ARAP association. We acknowledge valuable inputs from the conference SOC and from the Swift User Committee Chair Dieter Hartmann. We also thank the LOC for their unrelenting efforts to solve all practical details. We would like to acknowledge financial support from INAF, ASI and NASA/GSFC. Patrizia Caraveo Neil Gehrels Gianpiero Tagliaferri

  17. 29 CFR 4010.5 - Information year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information year. 4010.5 Section 4010.5 Labor Regulations... REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.5 Information year. (a) Determinations based on information year. An information year is used under this part to determine which persons...

  18. 29 CFR 4010.5 - Information year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information year. 4010.5 Section 4010.5 Labor Regulations... REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.5 Information year. (a) Determinations based on information year. An information year is used under this part to determine which persons...

  19. Name ___________________________________ Age_____ Years in cat project_______

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    . Cost #12;Feline Vaccines Explain how a vaccine works to protect your cat. How are they given to cats) Boarding, in-house care My Cats Health Record Include multi-year vaccinations that have been given last year or the year before which are still effective for this year. Date Vaccines, medicine, surgery, etc

  20. The Year in Cognitive Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Martins, Mauricio D

    2014-01-01

    Sixty years ago, Karl Lashley suggested that complex action sequences, from simple motor acts to language and music, are a fundamental but neglected aspect of neural function. Lashley demonstrated the inadequacy of then-standard models of associative chaining, positing a more flexible and generalized “syntax of action” necessary to encompass key aspects of language and music. He suggested that hierarchy in language and music builds upon a more basic sequential action system, and provided several concrete hypotheses about the nature of this system. Here, we review a diverse set of modern data concerning musical, linguistic, and other action processing, finding them largely consistent with an updated neuroanatomical version of Lashley's hypotheses. In particular, the lateral premotor cortex, including Broca's area, plays important roles in hierarchical processing in language, music, and at least some action sequences. Although the precise computational function of the lateral prefrontal regions in action syntax remains debated, Lashley's notion—that this cortical region implements a working-memory buffer or stack scannable by posterior and subcortical brain regions—is consistent with considerable experimental data. PMID:24697242

  1. Sixty years of clinical electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Karbowski, K

    1990-01-01

    As a result of painstaking studies carried out over a period of almost 30 years, the German neurologist and psychiatrist Hans Berger, of Jena, published the first paper on the human electroencephalogram (Uber das Elektrenkephalogramm des Menschen') in 1929. Clinical electroencephalography, which reached a zenith in the 1950s and 1960s, increased the range of diagnostic techniques available for a series of brain diseases and revolutionized the study of epilepsy. Today, conventional electroencephalography no longer yields startling scientific discoveries. Nor can it complete with computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, in the diagnosis of structural disorders of the brain. In spite of this, the scope of its uses continues to increase and it remains an indispensable instrument of neurophysiological diagnosis, especially in its capacity as a 'seismograph' of the brain. The trend that is apparent throughout the world to cut back clinical electroencephalographic units in favor of other neurophysiological investigative techniques is both unjustified and dangerous. If it continues, it will inevitably lead to a decline in epileptology, which is an essential part of the work of many different medical specialists both in practice and in hospitals. PMID:2192889

  2. Earth Day 25 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.

    1995-08-01

    The idea of Earth Day 1970 was to have a national demonstration of environmental concern big enough to shake up the political establishment--get its attention, get some action, force environmental issues onto the political agenda of national priorities. The idea worked, thanks to the spontaneous response of millions of concerned Americans, and the event served as a wake-up call to the political establishment. Suddenly, the environment became a national political priority. Since Earth Day 1970, Congress has enacted nearly 40 major federal environmental laws addressing a wide range of issues, including clean air, clean water, energy conservation, hazardous wastes, and herbicides and other pesticides. Dozens of individual public land bills have been enacted since 1970 to designate or expand wilderness areas, wild and scenic rivers, national parks, and wildlife refuges. Perhaps most important, more than 80 percent of Americans now regard themselves as environmentalists. Since 1970 man has come a long way. After 25 years of researching, debating, and learning, increasing numbers of people recognize that the state of the environment is the key factor in determining this way of life and the quality of it.

  3. Cloning: eight years after Dolly.

    PubMed

    Campbell, K H S; Alberio, R; Choi, I; Fisher, P; Kelly, R D W; Lee, J-H; Maalouf, W

    2005-08-01

    It is now 8 years since the birth of Dolly, the first animal produced by nuclear transfer using a donor cell population established from an adult animal. During this time, the technique of nuclear transfer has been successfully applied to a range of mammalian species for the production of offspring using a plethora of donor cell types derived from both foetal and adult tissues. In addition, when coupled with genetic manipulation of the donor cells, transgenic offspring have been produced with a range of genetic modifications including gene knockouts and gene knockings. Despite the apparent successes of the technology, the efficiency of development to live offspring has remained low and developmental abnormalities still occur. The objectives of this paper are to review some of the successes and failures of the nuclear transfer procedure since the production of Dolly. In particular, we will review the major steps in the procedure and discuss studies from our laboratory and others which have modified the procedure in ways which may impact on development. PMID:16008756

  4. 100 years of Lewy pathology.

    PubMed

    Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Del Tredici, Kelly; Braak, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    In 1817, James Parkinson described the symptoms of the shaking palsy, a disease that was subsequently defined in greater detail, and named after Parkinson, by Jean-Martin Charcot. Parkinson expected that the publication of his monograph would lead to a rapid elucidation of the anatomical substrate of the shaking palsy; in the event, this process took almost a century. In 1912, Fritz Heinrich Lewy identified the protein aggregates that define Parkinson disease (PD) in some brain regions outside the substantia nigra. In 1919, Konstantin Nikolaevich Tretiakoff found similar aggregates in the substantia nigra and named them after Lewy. In the 1990s, ?-synuclein was identified as the main constituent of the Lewy pathology, and its aggregation was shown to be central to PD, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. In 2003, a staging scheme for idiopathic PD was introduced, according to which ?-synuclein pathology originates in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagal nerve and progresses from there to other brain regions, including the substantia nigra. In this article, we review the relevance of Lewy's discovery 100 years ago for the current understanding of PD and related disorders. PMID:23183883

  5. Long-Term Results after Placement of Aortic Bifurcation Self-Expanding Stents: 10 Year Mortality, Stent Restenosis, and Distal Disease Progression

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J. Graeme Bhat, Raj; Ross, Rose; Stonebridge, Peter A.

    2007-02-15

    Purpose. To retrospectively evaluate the 10 year follow-up results in patients who had 'kissing' self-expanding stent aortic bifurcation reconstruction. Methods. Forty-three patients were treated with 'kissing' self-expanding stents for aortoiliac occlusive disease. Early follow-up with clinical and ankle brachial pressure indices (ABPI) was performed at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months and with intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography at 12-24 months; clinical and angiographic follow-up was performed for symptom recurrence up to 10 years after treatment. Retrospective record review was performed to assess mortality, clinical patency, angiographic patency, and secondary assisted patency of both stents and downstream peripheral vessels at 5 and 10 years follow-up. Results. The 2 year primary angiographic and secondary assisted stent patencies were 89% and 93%, respectively. At 10 years follow-up in 40 patients the mortality was 38% (due to myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic renal failure, malignancy, and liver failure). At 5 and 10 years follow-up the primary clinical stent patency was 82% and 68%, and the secondary assisted stent patency 93% and 86%, respectively. At 5 and 10 years, the distal vessel patency was 86% and 72%, and the secondary assisted distal vessel patency treated by surgical or endovascular techniques was 94% and 88%, respectively. At 10 years there was no limb loss. Conclusion. The long-term (10 year) results of aortic bifurcation arterial self-expanding stent placement in patients with arterial occlusive disease show a 10 year primary stent patency rate of 68% but a secondary assisted patency rate of 86%. In addition there is a high overall mortality due to other cardiovascular causes and the rate of distal disease progression and loss of patency is similar to the loss of stent patency rate.

  6. Bachelor of Civil Engineering/Bachelor of Commerce 3715 Year 1 2nd year in 2014 3rd year in 2015 4th year in 2016 5th year in 2017 6th year in 2018

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    May 2014 Bachelor of Civil Engineering/Bachelor of Commerce 3715 Year 1 2nd year in 2014 3rd year Semester 2 Semester 2 Semester 2 Semester 2 Semester 2 Semester 2 CVEN1300 Engineering Mechanics for Civil Engineers Commerce Course 1 CVEN2002 Engineering Computations for Civil Engineers CVEN3031 Civil Engineering

  7. Fifty years of structural glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Labat-Robert, J; Robert, L

    2012-02-01

    During decades preceding and following the last war, a favourite subject of biochemists was to study glycoproteins. One class of these substances, found in connective tissues were characterised as polysaccharides, most of them found to be linked to proteins, designated later as glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Another family of glycoconjugates represented epithelial mucins as found in the gastro-intestinal and respiratory tracts and conduits. A third family of glycoconjugates is represented by circulating glycoproteins isolated from the blood plasma, mostly studied by medical biochemists in relation to pathological conditions comprising those increasing during the inflammatory reaction: acute phase glycoproteins. Their study suggested that they might be derived from connective tissues. Although inflammatory glycoproteins derive mostly from the liver, the possibility of connective tissue origin of glycoproteins remained open. Using cornea, an avascular tissue, we could show that connective tissues also synthesize glycoproteins. We proposed to designate them "structural glycoproteins" (SGP-s) to distinguish them from circulating, blood-born glycoproteins coming from the liver. They play locally "structural" roles in connective tissues where they are synthesized. Soon after fibronectin was identified and shown to mediate cell-matrix interactions. A large family of glycoproteins were then isolated from a variety of sources, cells, tissues others than liver, confirming our original hypothesis. The first experiments on these glycoproteins were published from 1961/1962 giving the opportunity to recapitulate this biochemical adventure 50 years later, together with the celebration of the foundation of the first connective tissue society in Europe, as described in the first article in this issue. PMID:22227294

  8. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound the problem, the 1990 Immigration Reform Act resulted in a tripling of job-based visas, with scientists representing nearly one-third of the total. In 1979, two of every three postdoctoral scientists were U.S.-born; in 1992, the ratio was about one to one. Over that period, the cohort of postdoctoral scientists grew from 18,000 to 33,000. Adding to the coincidence of events that have compounded one another is the admission of 20,000 Chinese scientists in a ten-year period, the sudden and unexpected availability of Russian scientists, the elimination of many industrial laboratories as a result of downsizing, changes in the mandatory retirement age for faculty, and the disappearance of the Cold War, which all but eliminated the need for scientists for national security purposes. Is it any wonder that postdoctoral scientists have been called the migrant workers of today's high-tech society? What once was a reservoir of enthusiastic talent is becoming a dumping ground for credentialed and capable scientists exiled from the main stream of their disciplines. From a broader point of view, the problems facing U.S. science are those of our society: an imposing deficit that is shrinking discretionary funding; the end of the Cold War, which has refocused spending for national security; and a robust science work force that can no longer expand. The business world's response to these societal problems is, basically, downsizing, which often means the elimination of large segments of the work force, usually at the middle-management level. The initial academic response to these same problems is either to insist on more resources being made available, usually through federal agencies, in an attempt to maintain the status quo, or to engage in some form of "academic birth control." The former strategy is unrealistic because it just perpetuates the problem; there will never be enough research professorships in the academic world for every aspiring PhD produced in a discipline. The latter strategy will invariably decrease the flow of truly n

  9. The immediate rehabilitation by means of a ready-made final fixed prosthesis in the edentulous mandible: a 1-year follow-up study on 50 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    van Steenberghe, D; Molly, L; Jacobs, R; Vandekerckhove, B; Quirynen, M; Naert, I

    2004-06-01

    Although a two-stage procedure with symphyseal oral implants can lead to a long-term (15 years) 99% cumulative survival rate, a one-stage approach with immediate loading via prefabricated elements seems to offer a short-term acceptable outcome with significantly lower costs. A series of 50 consecutive patients, not eliminated for any systemic or smoking condition, received at the department of periodontology three implants in the symphyseal area, connected by a very rigid horse shoe-shaped titanium bar. A final screw retained prosthetic framework was placed on top of it at the department of prosthetic dentistry within 2 days after surgery (44) or after a delay, due to purely external factors, of up to 10 days (6). Forty-five patients were followed for 1 year. In one patient, all three implants failed and another four patients were lost to follow-up. The cumulative failure rates for implants and prostheses at 1 year were, respectively, 7.3% and 5%. The mean marginal bone loss at 1 year was 1.08 mm (SD: 1.62; range -5.68 to +2.55). This study shows that stable marginal bone levels can be maintained around immediately loaded implants in the lower jaw in an average patient population for at least 1 year. The survival rate is, however, lower than for a staged approach. PMID:15142100

  10. Reduced Cardiovascular Mortality 10 Years after Supplementation with Selenium and Coenzyme Q10 for Four Years: Follow-Up Results of a Prospective Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial in Elderly Citizens

    PubMed Central

    Alehagen, Urban; Aaseth, Jan; Johansson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Selenium and coenzyme Q10 are important antioxidants in the body. As the intake of selenium is low in Europe, and the endogenous production of coenzyme Q10 decreases as age increases, an intervention trial using selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years was performed. As previously reported, the intervention was accompanied by reduced cardiovascular mortality. The objective of the present study was to analyze cardiovascular mortality for up to 10 years after intervention, to evaluate if mortality differed in subgroups differentiated by gender, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and functional class. Methods Four-hundred forty-three healthy elderly individuals were included from a rural municipality in Sweden. All cardiovascular mortality was registered, and no participant was lost to the follow-up. Based on death certificates and autopsy results mortality was registered. Findings Significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality could be seen in those on selenium and coenzyme Q10 intervention. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated a reduced cardiovascular mortality risk in the active treatment group (HR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.36–0.74; P = 0.0003). The reduced mortality could be seen to persist during the 10-year period. Subgroup analysis showed positive effects in both genders. An equally positive risk reduction could be seen in those with ischemic heart disease (HR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.27–0.97; P = 0.04), but also in the different functional classes. Conclusions In a 10-year follow-up of a group of healthy elderly participants given four years of intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10, significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality was observed. The protective action was not confined to the intervention period, but persisted during the follow-up period. The mechanism explaining the persistency remains to be elucidated. Since this was a small study, the observations should be regarded as hypothesis-generating. PMID:26624886

  11. A Survey of Interventional Radiology Awareness Among Final-Year Medical Students in a European Country

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, Sum; Keeling, Aoife N.; Lee, Michael J.

    2009-07-15

    Interventional radiology (IR) is a rapidly expanding specialty that is facing the challenges of turf wars and personnel shortages. Appropriate exposure of medical students to this field can be vital to recruitment of potential future trainees or referring physicians. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and views of final-year medical students in a single EU country regarding various aspects of IR. An electronic survey was sent via e-mail to all final-year medical students in a European country. The students were given a month to respond to the questionnaire. A total of 234 students of 675 (34.5%) replied to the survey. Of the respondents, 35% had previously completed an attachment to the radiology department. The majority of students (63%) thought their knowledge in radiology in general was poor. The percentage of students who correctly identified procedures performed by interventional radiologists was 69% for Hickman line insertion, 79% for fibroid embolization, and 67.5% for lower limb angioplasty. Sixty percent, 30%, and 47% thought that interventional radiologists perform cardiac angioplasties, perform arterial bypasses, and create AV fistulas, respectively. Forty-nine percent felt that interventional radiologists are surgically trained. Eighty-three percent of students were first made aware of angioplasty by a cardiologist. Thirty-one percent thought that interventional radiologists do ward rounds, 24% thought that interventional radiologists have admitting rights, and 26% felt that interventional radiologists run an outpatient practice. A significant number of students (76%) thought that the job prospects in IR are good or excellent but only 40.5% were willing to consider a career in IR. In conclusion, this study indicates that IR remains a nascent but attractive specialty to the majority of medical students. Further development of the existing informal undergraduate curriculum to address shortcomings will ensure that IR continues to attract the brightest talents to the field.

  12. Ocular manifestations of graft-versus-host disease: 10 years’ experience

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xihui; Cavanagh, Harrison Dwight

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ocular presentation, treatment, and clinical course of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Design Retrospective case series. Participants Two hundred and forty-nine patients with systemic GVHD were included in the study. Methods Ocular and systemic data were collected from 2003 to 2013. Main outcome measures Mortality, visual acuity, and response of ocular symptoms. Results Sixty-four patients had ocular manifestations (25.7%). At presentation, the mean age was 44.5 years and mean latency was 16.4 months. The most common presentations were keratoconjunctivitis sicca, cataract, blepharitis, ocular hypertension, and filamentary keratitis. Visual acuity at presentation was 20/49; at the worst point in the disease was 20/115; and at most recent visit was 20/63. When topical anti-inflammatory drops were used in addition to tears, 54.3% of patients’ ocular symptoms stabilized. When autologous serum was used in addition, 80% stabilized. The overall 10-year mortality of GVHD was 29.7%. For those with ocular involvement, it was 21.9%. Conclusion Systemic GVHD has a high mortality rate, but ocular involvement does not suggest a worse prognosis. The main ocular presentations were keratoconjunctivitis sicca, cataracts, and ocular hypertension. Dry eyes in this population were very severe with overall worsening in visual acuity. However, with a step-wise approach involving topical anti-inflammatory medications and autologous serum tears, ocular symptoms do improve. It is important to monitor these patients closely, as they are prone to serious ocular complications such as corneal perforation and endophthalmitis. PMID:26170614

  13. Wilms' tumor: a 24-year retrospective study from a single center.

    PubMed

    Erginel, Ba?ak; Vural, Sema; Ak?n, Melih; Karada?, Cetin Ali; Sever, Nihat; Y?ld?z, Abdullah; Tan?k, Canan; Demir, Arzu Ataman; Yanar, Ozlem; Dokucu, Ali ?hsan

    2014-08-01

    Medical records of 71 children with Wilms' tumor at Sisli Etfal Education and Research Hospital between 1990 and 2014 were reviewed. Mean age at diagnosis was 3.11 years (2 days-7 years). Male to female ratio was M/F = 6/10. The incidence of associated anomaly was 16.9%. Clinical manifestations included abdominal mass (89%), hematuria (30%), hypertansion (25%), abdominal pain (15%), fever (5%), restlessness (2%), weight loss (2%), varicocele (1%). Ultrasound (USG) was the most often initial study in a child presenting with abdominal mass. Doppler USG was also made to evaluate the inferior vena cava (IVC) for the presence of tumor extension in children with renal mass. The left kidney was affected in 33 patients (46.5%), the right was affected in 31 patients (43.7%). Two patients was extrarenal (2.8%). And 5 patients (7.04%) were bilateral on the presentation. Preoperative chemotheraphy was done in 14 cases. In 63 patients with unilateral Wilm tm, unilateral radical nefrectomy is performed. In one patient with solitary kidney, nephron sparing surgery (NSS) is performed. In 3 patients with bilateral tm NSS is performed and in 2 patients with bilateral Wilms' tm NSS is performed in one side and nefrectomy on the other side. Out of 71 Wilms tumor (WT) patients, 17 of them has been out of our follow. And 4 of them are died. Ten of them has metastases. Forty children are under follow with no metastases. Patients with WT needs a multimodal, multidisiplinary treatment with the cooperation of pediatric oncologist and pediatric surgeon and needs close follow-up. PMID:25007381

  14. Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events.

    PubMed

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2009-01-01

    The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12. PMID:18985518

  15. One-year outcomes of a bilateral randomised prospective clinical trial comparing PRK with mitomycin C and LASIK

    PubMed Central

    Wallau, A D; Campos, M

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To compare 1-year follow-up results of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) with mitomycin C (MMC) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for custom correction of myopia. Methods: Eighty-eight eyes of 44 patients with moderate myopia were randomised to PRK with 0.002% MMC for 1 min in one eye and LASIK in the fellow eye. The 1-year follow-up was evaluated. Results: There were no differences between LASIK and MMC-PRK eyes preoperatively. Forty-two patients completed the 1-year follow-up. MMC-PRK eyes achieved better uncorrected visual acuity (p?=?0.03) and better best-spectacle-corrected visual acuity (p<0.001) 1 year after surgery. SE did not differ in the two groups during follow-up (p?=?0.12). Clinically significant haze was not found in surface ablation eyes. LASIK eyes showed a greater higher-order aberration (p?=?0.01) and lower contrast sensitivity (p<0.05) than MMC-PRK eyes postoperatively. Excellent vision was reported in 64% of LASIK and 74% of MMC-PRK eyes 1 year after surgery. The corneal resistance factor and corneal hysteresis (ORA, Reichert) were higher in LASIK than in MMC-PRK eyes (p<0.01) at the last follow-up. Conclusions: Wavefront-guided PRK with 0.002% MMC was more effective than wavefront-guided LASIK for correction of moderate myopia. Further research is necessary to determine the optimal concentration, exposure time and long-term corneal side effect of MMC. PMID:19889831

  16. Sharp Force Injuries at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica: A Seventeen-year Autopsy Review

    PubMed Central

    Neblett, A; Williams, NP

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence and patterns of fatal sharp force injuries, victims' demographics, cause of death and average survival time at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Kingston, Jamaica. Methods: The autopsy records for 1990-2010 were searched for fatal cases of sharp force injuries. The records for 1998-2001were not located. A 17-year retrospective analysis was therefore performed and findings for the two periods, 1990-1997 and 2002-2010 were compared. All data were obtained from the provisional anatomical diagnoses (PAD) autopsy reports. Results: During the 17-year period, 57/4264 autopsies were performed for sharp force injuries, yielding an overall autopsy prevalence rate of 1.34%; 1.25%, 26/2086 (95% CI 0.77, 1.73) in Period 1 and 1.42%, 31/2178 (95% CI 0.92, 1.92) in Period 2. The majority were males (91.1%), in the age group 15-39 years (77%), mean age of 30.9 years (range = 17-65 years). Stab wounds predominated (91.3%) and the chest was the area most frequently stabbed (42.1%). In the 24 fatalities due to chest injuries only, eight (33.3%) had injuries to the heart alone. Forty-five patients (79.0%) died within 24 hours from exsanguination. Injury documentation at autopsy was deficient. Conclusion: Stabbing was the most common sharp force injury, mainly involving the chest, and young men were at greatest risk. Most patients died from exsanguination within 24 hours of admission. Introduction of synoptic-type reports for both clinical and autopsy examination may improve documentation. PMID:25781278

  17. First-Year Engineering Students' Portrayal of Engineering in a Proposed Museum Exhibit for Middle School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mena, Irene B.; Diefes-Dux, Heidi A.

    2011-06-01

    Students' perceptions of engineering have been documented through studies involving interviews, surveys, and word associations that take a direct approach to asking students about various aspects of their understanding of engineering. Research on perceptions of engineering rarely focuses on how students would portray engineering to others. First-year engineering student teams proposed a museum exhibit, targeted to middle school students, to explore the question "What is engineering?" The proposals took the form of a poster. The overarching research question focuses on how these students would portray engineering to middle school students as seen through their museum exhibit proposals. A preliminary analysis was done on 357 posters to determine the overall engineering themes for the proposed museum exhibits. Forty of these posters were selected and, using open coding, more thoroughly analyzed to learn what artifacts/objects, concepts, and skills student teams associate with engineering. These posters were also analyzed to determine if there were any differences by gender composition of the student teams. Building, designing, and teamwork are skills the first-year engineering students link to engineering. Regarding artifacts, students mentioned those related to transportation and structures most often. All-male teams were more likely to focus on the idea of space and to mention teamwork and designing as engineering skills; equal-gender teams were more likely to focus on the multidisciplinary aspect of engineering. This analysis of student teams' proposals provides baseline data, positioning instructors to develop and assess instructional interventions that stretch students' self-exploration of engineering.

  18. Urinary tract re-functionalization after long-term diversion. A 20-year experience with 177 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, W H

    1990-01-01

    From 1969 to 1990, previously diverted urinary tracts were 'undiverted' in 177 patients whose ages ranged from 1 to 31 years. Fifty-six of the patients (32%) had been diverted for 10 years or longer. There were 67 female and 110 male patients. Forty-four patients had only one kidney and in two of those patients it was a previous renal transplant. One patient was anephric at the time of reconstruction, having had two unsuccessful transplants. Most of the diversions had been considered permanent. Types of diversions that were reversed include ileal loop, colon conduit, loop ureterostomy or pyelostomy, end ureterostomy, cystostomy or vesicostomy, long-term nephrostomy, and ureterosigmoidostomy. Images Fig. 6. Figs. 8A and B. Figs 10A and B. Figs. 12A and B. Figs. 14A and B. Figs. 16A-D. Figs 20A and B. Figs.22A and B. Figs. 24A and B. Figs. 25A and B. Figs. 28A-D. PMID:2222014

  19. Prospective Study Evaluating Postoperative Radiotherapy Plus 2-Year Androgen Suppression for Post-Radical Prostatectomy Patients With Pathologic T3 Disease and/or Positive Surgical Margins

    SciTech Connect

    Choo, Richard Danjoux, Cyril; Gardner, Sandra; Morton, Gerard; Szumacher, Ewa; Loblaw, D. Andrew; Cheung, Patrick; Pearse, Maria

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a combined approach of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) plus 2-year androgen suppression (AS) for patients with pathologic T3 disease (pT3) and/or positive surgical margins (PSM) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: A total of 78 patients with pT3 and/or PSM after RP were treated with RT plus 2-year AS, as per a pilot, prospective study. Androgen suppression started within 1 month after the completion of RT and consisted of nilutamide for 4 weeks and buserelin acetate depot subcutaneously every 2 months for 2 years. Relapse-free rate, including freedom from prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse, was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse. Prostate-specific antigen relapse was defined as a PSA rise above 0.2 ng/mL, with two consecutive increases over a minimum of 3 months. Results: The median age was 61 years at the time of RP. The median interval between RP and postoperative RT was 4.2 months. Forty-nine patients had undetectable PSA (<0.2 ng/mL), and 29 had persistently detectable postoperative PSA at the time of the protocol treatment. Median follow-up from RT was 6.4 years. Relapse-free rates at 5 and 7 years were 94.4% and 86.3%, respectively. Survival rates were 96% at 5 years and 93.1% at 7 years. On Cox regression analysis, persistently detectable postoperative PSA and pT3b-T4 were significant predictors for relapse. Conclusion: The combined treatment of postoperative RT plus 2-year AS yielded encouraging results for patients with pT3 and/or PSM and warrants a confirmatory study.

  20. Fun Ideas for Being Active All Year

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Be a Partner Fun Ideas for Being Active All Year January : Start the new year by trying ... in your garden. Bending, lifting, and stretching are all great exercises. May : Build your endurance and strength ...

  1. 29 CFR 4010.5 - Information year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Information year. 4010.5 Section 4010.5 Labor...REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.5 Information year. (a) Determinations based on...

  2. 29 CFR 4010.5 - Information year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Information year. 4010.5 Section 4010.5 Labor...REQUIREMENTS ANNUAL FINANCIAL AND ACTUARIAL INFORMATION REPORTING § 4010.5 Information year. (a) Determinations based on...

  3. Animal Science Curriculum (BS) Freshman Year

    E-print Network

    Selmic, Sandra

    ......................................................3 Social/Behavioral Sciences (GER)............................3 32 Sophomore Year Agricultural Business 220.................3 Animal Science 318, 401, 409.................................. 7 Social/Behavioral Sciences (GERAnimal Science Curriculum (BS) Freshman Year Animal Science 111

  4. 7 CFR 63.6 - Fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.6 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means a...

  5. 7 CFR 63.6 - Fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.6 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means a...

  6. 7 CFR 63.6 - Fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.6 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means a...

  7. 7 CFR 63.6 - Fiscal year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) NATIONAL SHEEP INDUSTRY IMPROVEMENT CENTER General Provisions Definitions § 63.6 Fiscal year. Fiscal year means a...

  8. 7 CFR 985.9 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.9 Marketing year. Marketing year...

  9. 7 CFR 985.9 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.9 Marketing year. Marketing year...

  10. 7 CFR 985.9 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.9 Marketing year. Marketing year...

  11. 7 CFR 985.9 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.9 Marketing year. Marketing year...

  12. 50 CFR 622.7 - Fishing years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...September 30. (b) King and Spanish mackerel. The fishing year for the king and Spanish mackerel bag limits specified in § 622.382 is...years apply only for the king and Spanish mackerel quotas specified in § 622.384:...

  13. 50 CFR 622.30 - Fishing years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...September 30. (b) King and Spanish mackerel. The fishing year for the king and Spanish mackerel bag limits specified in § 622.39...years apply only for the king and Spanish mackerel quotas specified in §...

  14. 50 CFR 622.7 - Fishing years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...September 30. (b) King and Spanish mackerel. The fishing year for the king and Spanish mackerel bag limits specified in § 622.382 is...years apply only for the king and Spanish mackerel quotas specified in § 622.384:...

  15. 50 CFR 622.30 - Fishing years.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...September 30. (b) King and Spanish mackerel. The fishing year for the king and Spanish mackerel bag limits specified in § 622.39...years apply only for the king and Spanish mackerel quotas specified in §...

  16. Undergraduate Academic Year 2014-2015

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    Undergraduate Handbook Academic Year 2014-2015 #12;Contents Introduction............................................................................................................................................ 9 Internships and Careers-6087. This will ensure that you are properly registered for services. Undergraduate Handbook Academic Year 2014-2015 #12

  17. Fun Ideas for Being Active All Year

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nih.gov/Go4Life Fun Ideas for Being Active All Year January: Start the new year by trying ... in your garden. Bending, lifting, and stretching are all great exercises. May: Build your endurance and strength ...

  18. Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

  19. Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic…

  20. Kepler: 400 years later Jonas Karlsson

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Kepler: 400 years later Jonas Karlsson University of Minnesota January 31, 2011 Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Outline Kepler's laws Proof that closed orbits are ellipses The hydrogen atom Geodesic ow and the Kepler manifold Jonas Karlsson Kepler: 400 years later #12;Kepler's laws Johannes

  1. 34 CFR 668.3 - Academic year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Academic year. 668.3 Section 668.3 ...GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.3 Academic year. (a) General. Except as...in paragraph (c) of this section, an academic year for a program of study must...

  2. 34 CFR 668.3 - Academic year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic year. 668.3 Section 668.3 ...GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.3 Academic year. (a) General. Except as...in paragraph (c) of this section, an academic year for a program of study must...

  3. 34 CFR 668.3 - Academic year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Academic year. 668.3 Section 668.3 ...GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.3 Academic year. (a) General. Except as...in paragraph (c) of this section, an academic year for a program of study must...

  4. 34 CFR 668.3 - Academic year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Academic year. 668.3 Section 668.3 ...GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.3 Academic year. (a) General. Except as...in paragraph (c) of this section, an academic year for a program of study must...

  5. 34 CFR 668.3 - Academic year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Academic year. 668.3 Section 668.3 ...GENERAL PROVISIONS General § 668.3 Academic year. (a) General. Except as...in paragraph (c) of this section, an academic year for a program of study must...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing year. 1205.320 Section 1205.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 1205.320 Section 1205.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive...

  8. 7 CFR 984.7 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 984.7 Section 984.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.7 Marketing year. Marketing year means the twelve months from...

  9. 7 CFR 982.17 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing year. 982.17 Section 982.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.17 Marketing year. Marketing year means the 12...

  10. 7 CFR 984.7 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing year. 984.7 Section 984.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.7 Marketing year. Marketing year means the twelve months from...

  11. 7 CFR 982.17 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marketing year. 982.17 Section 982.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.17 Marketing year. Marketing year means the 12...

  12. 11 Years Engineering Geology Fieldwork in

    E-print Network

    Hack, Robert

    ;14 dec 2001 11 years engineering geology in Falset - science from fieldwork - hack 2 What did we Produce ? Why did we ? #12;14 dec 2001 11 years engineering geology in Falset - science from fieldwork - hack 3 happy #12;14 dec 2001 11 years engineering geology in Falset - science from fieldwork - hack 4 Why keep

  13. Gender Equity in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Naima

    2004-01-01

    This book critically evaluates the extent to which current early years policies, provision and practice promote and foster gender equity. It explores the rationale for the drive to employ more men in the early years field and examines the link made between "underachievement" in boys and the "feminine: nature of early years provision. It also looks…

  14. Fiscal Year 2005 Performance and Accountability Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    As the Department looks back on FY 2005, it reflects on successes like the national sample of 9-year-olds whose reading scores are higher this year than in any previous assessment year and challenges like those with collecting reliable, valid, and timely data. This report presents complete, reliable information that demonstrates the Department's…

  15. BA: Art History Fall--First Year

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    BA: Art History Fall--First Year · ART 127 New Major Seminar · ART 222 Caves to Cathedrals · Liberal Studies Program (LSP) coursework Fall--Second Year · ART 101 Art Studio Foundations I · ART 324 Renaissance Art · Liberal Studies Program (LSP) coursework Fall--Third Year · ART 328 Art of Greece & Rome

  16. A New Take on New Year Celebrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Sarah E.; Christie, Erica M.

    2011-01-01

    People all over the world relish the opportunity to count down the final moments of the year and welcome an exciting New Year full of opportunities and fresh beginnings. Different cultures have historical traditions of welcoming in the New Year, from eating black-eyed peas in the American South to creating geometric "Rangoli" (a form of…

  17. 7 CFR 983.26 - Production year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Production year. 983.26 Section 983.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.26 Production year. Production year is synonymous with...

  18. 7 CFR 983.26 - Production year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production year. 983.26 Section 983.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.26 Production year. Production year is synonymous with...

  19. 7 CFR 983.26 - Production year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Production year. 983.26 Section 983.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.26 Production year. Production year is synonymous with...

  20. 7 CFR 983.26 - Production year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Production year. 983.26 Section 983.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.26 Production year. Production year is synonymous with...

  1. 7 CFR 983.26 - Production year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Production year. 983.26 Section 983.26 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.26 Production year. Production year is synonymous with...

  2. Kingston University Early Years Professional Status Audit

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Kingston University Early Years Professional Status Audit by the Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education November 2012 #12;Early Years Professional Status Audit: Kingston University 1 Contents .............................................................................................................34 #12;Early Years Professional Status Audit: Kingston University 1 Key findings about Kingston

  3. 7 CFR 984.7 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing year. 984.7 Section 984.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.7 Marketing year. Marketing year means the twelve months from...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing year. 1205.320 Section 1205.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive...

  5. 7 CFR 984.7 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marketing year. 984.7 Section 984.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.7 Marketing year. Marketing year means the twelve months from...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marketing year. 1205.320 Section 1205.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.320 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marketing year. 1205.320 Section 1205.320 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.320 Marketing year. Marketing year means a consecutive...

  8. 7 CFR 982.17 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marketing year. 982.17 Section 982.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.17 Marketing year. Marketing year means the 12...

  9. 7 CFR 982.17 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marketing year. 982.17 Section 982.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.17 Marketing year. Marketing year means the 12...

  10. 7 CFR 984.7 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marketing year. 984.7 Section 984.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 984.7 Marketing year. Marketing year means the twelve months from...

  11. 7 CFR 982.17 - Marketing year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marketing year. 982.17 Section 982.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.17 Marketing year. Marketing year means the 12...

  12. Early Years: Where Does Science Fit In?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Science provides foundations for people to understand what is happening around them, supplies information for developments to be made and explains why things happen. As a science and early years specialist, the author often wondered how early years and science can be combined. Where is the place of science within the Early Years Foundation Stage…

  13. Vegetation management 1994 fiscal year end report

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    This year-end report evaluates vegetation management operations on the Hanford reservation conducted during fiscal year (FY) 1994 and proposed control methods to be used in FY 1995 and following years. The 1995 control methods proposed are based on an evaluation of past and current ALARA principles, employee safety, environmental impacts, applicable regulations, site esthetics, and other site-specific factors.

  14. Year in Industry Scheme The Year in Industry Scheme allows you to spend

    E-print Network

    Haase, Markus

    Year in Industry Scheme The Year in Industry Scheme allows you to spend your third year in full not (and often will not) involve university-level mathematics. The Industrial year is assessed on a pass indicates that, when recruiting, most employers look favourably upon a year spent in industry. Highlights

  15. Summer moisture balance from peatland water table reconstructions for the last 1100 years from North America and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Brewer, S.; Charman, D.; Blundell, A.; Booth, R. K.; Clifford, M. J.; Friedlingstein, P.; Garneau, M.; Hohl, V.; Lamarre, A.; Lamentowicz, M.; Magnan, G.; Mauquoy, D.; Swindles, G. T.; van Bellen, S.

    2013-12-01

    The last millennium may have been characterized by strong regional variations in precipitation, as evidenced by the megadrought of south west North America during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), for example. Here we present the first large regional scale peatland hydrology reconstruction for eastern North America and western Europe reflecting warm-season moisture balance for the last 1100 years. We use testate amoebae analysis of forty-three mires distributed over Europe and central and eastern North America to reconstruct changes in water table during the last 1100 years. The chronology of each peat profile was determined individually by radiocarbon and other dating techniques and then reconstructions were combined with all other cores. The regional palaeohydrology reconstructions were assembled using a novel method to include both chronological uncertainties derived from the radiocarbon age-depth model and uncertainties linked to the quantification of the proxies. We present hydrological trends for each region separately and overall with associated uncertainties. We compare these with climate model outputs in the form of soil moisture, warm-season precipitation and reconstructed PDSI from tree rings for Northern America. The hydrological reconstructions suggests that it was relatively dry during the MCA and became wetter during the Little Ice Age (LIA) in both Europe and central-eastern North America. The MCA drying in North America was more extreme and shows greater centennial scale variability than in Europe. LIA wetness was probably more extreme and more hydrologically unstable in Europe. Recent (last 100 years) trends are to drier conditions in both regions and peatlands in Europe are drier than they have been at any time during the last 1100 years.

  16. 50 years of membership in AGU recognized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recently seven members who joined the Union in 1941 received their gold pins in recognition of 50 years of membership in the Union. They join the distinguished ranks of the other 50-year members, all of whom are listed below by the year they joined. 1941 Max Bookman, Desmond F. Glynn, William F. Guyton, Kenneth E. Lohman, Charles Miron, Russell W. Revell, and Wilbur T. Stuart

  17. Design for All: Consumer Needs Assessment Project Year 2. Results of the Second Year of a Five Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Carolyn

    This paper describes the second year of a 5-year study of the needs of individuals with disabilities as they relate to consumer products. The study employed focus group research techniques in which group members responded to issues and raised their own concerns regarding general products and equipment specially designed for persons with…

  18. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year....

  19. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year....

  20. 7 CFR 1218.4 - Crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.4 Crop year....