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Sample records for neurotensin receptor type

  1. Activation of neurotensin receptor type 1 attenuates locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Vadnie, Chelsea A; Hinton, David J; Choi, Sun; Choi, YuBin; Ruby, Christina L; Oliveros, Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel L; Park, Jun Hyun; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-10-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of neurotensin (NT) suppresses locomotor activity. However, the brain regions that mediate the locomotor depressant effect of NT and receptor subtype-specific mechanisms involved are unclear. Using a brain-penetrating, selective NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) agonist PD149163, we investigated the effect of systemic and brain region-specific NTS1 activation on locomotor activity. Systemic administration of PD149163 attenuated the locomotor activity of C57BL/6J mice both in a novel environment and in their homecage. However, mice developed tolerance to the hypolocomotor effect of PD149163 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.). Since NTS1 is known to modulate dopaminergic signaling, we examined whether PD149163 blocks dopamine receptor-mediated hyperactivity. Pretreatment with PD149163 (0.1 or 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited D2R agonist bromocriptine (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-mediated hyperactivity. D1R agonist SKF-81297 (8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced hyperlocomotion was only inhibited by 0.1 mg/kg of PD149163. Since the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the behavioral effects of NT, we examined whether microinjection of PD149163 into these regions reduces locomotion. Microinjection of PD149163 (2 pmol) into the NAc, but not the mPFC suppressed locomotor activity. In summary, our results indicate that systemic and intra-NAc activation of NTS1 is sufficient to reduce locomotion and NTS1 activation inhibits D2R-mediated hyperactivity. Our study will be helpful to identify pharmacological factors and a possible therapeutic window for NTS1-targeted therapies for movement disorders. PMID:24929110

  2. The amide linker in nonpeptide neurotensin receptor ligands plays a key role in calcium signaling at the neurotensin receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James B; Giddings, Angela M; Olepu, Srinivas; Wiethe, Robert W; Warner, Keith R; Sarret, Philippe; Longpre, Jean-Michel; Runyon, Scott P; Gilmour, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    Compounds acting via the GPCR neurotensin receptor type 2 (NTS2) display analgesia in relevant preclinical models. The amide bond in nonpeptide NTS1 antagonists plays a central role in receptor recognition and molecular conformation. Using NTS2 FLIPR and binding assays, we found that it is also a key molecular structure for binding and calcium mobilization at NTS2. We found that reversed amides display a shift from agonist to antagonist activity and provided examples of the first competitive nonpeptide antagonists observed in the NTS2 FLIPR assay. These compounds will be valuable tools for determining the role of calcium signaling in vitro to NTS2 mediated analgesia. PMID:25881832

  3. Antipsychotic-like effects of a neurotensin receptor type 1 agonist.

    PubMed

    Vadnie, Chelsea A; Ayers-Ringler, Jennifer; Oliveros, Alfredo; Abulseoud, Osama A; Choi, Sun; Hitschfeld, Mario J; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2016-05-15

    Although neurotensin (NT) analogs are known to produce antipsychotic-like effects, the therapeutic possibility of a brain penetrant NTS1 agonist in treating psychiatric disorders has not been well studied. Here, we examined whether PD149163, a brain-penetrant NTS1-specific agonist, displays antipsychotic-like effects in C57BL/6J mice by investigating the effect of PD149163 on amphetamine-mediated hyperactivity and amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. In addition, we assessed the effect of PD149163 on glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity, a downstream molecular target of antipsychotics and mood stabilizers, using phospho-specific antibodies. PD149163 (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) inhibited amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in mice, indicating that NTS1 activation inhibits psychomotor agitation. PD149163 (0.5mg/kg) also increased prepulse inhibition, suggesting that NTS1 activation reduces prepulse inhibition deficits which often co-occur with psychosis in humans. Interestingly, PD149163 increased the inhibitory serine phosphorylation on both GSK-3α and GSK-3β in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex of the mice. Moreover, PD149163 inhibited GSK-3 activity in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex in the presence of amphetamine. Thus, like most current antipsychotics and mood stabilizers, PD149163 inhibited GSK-3 activity in cortico-striatal circuitry. Together, our findings indicate that PD149163 may be a novel antipsychotic. PMID:26909848

  4. Purification of the neurotensin receptor from bovine brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, A.; Demoliou-Mason, C.D.; Barnard, E.A.

    1988-01-05

    The neurotensin receptor protein, solubilized with digitonin/asolectin from bovine cerebral cortex membranes, was purified to apparent homogeneity by affinity chromatography using immobilized neurotensin. The product exhibits saturable and specific binding of (3,11-tyrosyl-3,5-/sup 3/H) neurotensin with an apparent affinity (K/sub d/ = 5.5 nM) comparable to that measured in intact membranes and crude soluble extracts. The affinity-purified material, after reduction with 100 mM dithiothreitol, in denaturing gel electrophoresis showed a single polypeptide of M/sub r/ 72,000. Under nonreducing conditions the apparent M/sub r/, however, was 50,000, suggesting the presence of intramolecular disulfide bonds. The purified neurotensin receptor was judged to be homogenous, in that (i) only a single polypeptide was detectable; and (ii) the overall purification was 30,000-50,000-fold, giving a specific neurotensin-binding activity close to the theoretical maximum.

  5. Suppression of Neurotensin Receptor Type 1 Expression and Function by Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Human Colorectal Cancers*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofu; Jackson, Lindsey N.; Johnson, Sara M.; Wang, Qingding; Evers, B. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT), a gut peptide, stimulates growth of colorectal cancers (CRCs) which possess the high affinity NT receptor (NTR1). Sodium butyrate (NaBT) is a potent histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) which induces growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis of CRCs. Previously, we showed that NaBT increases nuclear GSK-3β expression and kinase activity; GSK-3β functions as a negative regulator of ERK signaling. The purpose of our current study was to determine: (a) whether HDACi alters NTR1 expression and function, and (b) the role of GSK-3β/ERK in NTR1 regulation. Human CRCs with NTR1 were treated with various HDACi and NTR1 expression and function were assessed. Treatment with HDACi dramatically decreased endogenous NTR1 mRNA, protein and promoter activity. Overexpression of GSK-3β decreased NTR1 promoter activity (> 30%); inhibition of GSK-3β increased NTR1 expression in CRC cells, indicating that GSK-3β is a negative regulator of ERK and NTR1. Consistent with our previous findings, HDACi significantly decreased phosphorylated ERK while increasing GSK-3β. Selective MEK/ERK inhibitors suppressed NTR1 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, and reduced NTR1 promoter activity by ~70%. Finally, pretreatment with NaBT prevented NT-mediated COX-2 and c-myc expression and attenuated NT-induced IL-8 expression. HDACi suppresses endogenous NTR1 expression and function in CRC cell lines; this effect is mediated through, at least in part, the GSK-3β/ERK pathway. The down-regulation of NTR1 in CRCs may represent an important mechanism for the anti-cancer effects of HDACi. PMID:20663927

  6. Striatal dopamine receptor plasticity in neurotensin deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Chastain, Lucy G.; Qu, Hongyan; Bourke, Chase H.; Iuvone, P. Michael; Dobner, Paul R.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Kinkead, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is thought to be caused, at least in part, by dysfunction in striatal dopamine neurotransmission. Both clinical studies and animal research have implicated the dopamine neuromodulator neurotensin (NT) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Utilizing male mice lacking the NT gene (NT−/−), these studies examined the consequences of NT deficiency on dopaminergic tone and function, investigating (1) dopamine concentrations and dopamine receptor and transporter expression and binding in dopaminergic terminal regions, and (2) the behavioral effects of selective dopamine receptor agonists on locomotion and sensorimotor gating in adult NT−/− mice compared to wildtype (NT+/+) mice. NT−/− mice did not differ from NT+/+ mice in concentrations of dopamine or its metabolite DOPAC in any brain region examined. However, NT−/− mice showed significantly increased D1 receptor, D2 receptor, and dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA in the caudate putamen compared to NT+/+ controls. NT−/− mice also showed elevated D2 receptor binding densities in both the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens shell compared to NT+/+ mice. In addition, some of the behavioral effects of the D1-type receptor agonist SKF-82958 and the D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole on locomotion, startle amplitude, and prepulse inhibition were dose-dependently altered in NT−/− mice, showing altered D1-type and D2-type receptor sensitivity to stimulation by agonists in the absence of NT. The results indicate that NT deficiency alters striatal dopamine receptor expression, binding, and function. This suggests a critical role for the NT system in the maintenance of striatal DA system homeostasis and implicates NT deficiency in the etiology of dopamine-associated disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:25449842

  7. ML314: A Biased Neurotensin Receptor Ligand for Methamphetamine Abuse.

    PubMed

    Barak, Larry S; Bai, Yushi; Peterson, Sean; Evron, Tama; Urs, Nikhil M; Peddibhotla, Satyamaheshwar; Hedrick, Michael P; Hershberger, Paul; Maloney, Patrick R; Chung, Thomas D Y; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Wetsel, William C; Thomas, James B; Hanson, Glen R; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Caron, Marc G

    2016-07-15

    Pharmacological treatment for methamphetamine addiction will provide important societal benefits. Neurotensin receptor NTR1 and dopamine receptor distributions coincide in brain areas regulating methamphetamine-associated reward, and neurotensin peptides produce behaviors opposing psychostimulants. Therefore, undesirable methamphetamine-associated activities should be treatable with druggable NTR1 agonists, but no such FDA-approved therapeutics exist. We address this limitation with proof-of-concept data for ML314, a small-molecule, brain penetrant, β-arrestin biased, NTR1 agonist. ML314 attenuates amphetamine-like hyperlocomotion in dopamine transporter knockout mice, and in C57BL/6J mice it attenuates methamphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, potentiates the psychostimulant inhibitory effects of a ghrelin antagonist, and reduces methamphetamine-associated conditioned place preference. In rats, ML314 blocks methamphetamine self-administration. ML314 acts as an allosteric enhancer of endogenous neurotensin, unmasking stoichiometric numbers of hidden NTR1 binding sites in transfected-cell membranes or mouse striatal membranes, while additionally supporting NTR1 endocytosis in cells in the absence of NT peptide. These results indicate ML314 is a viable, preclinical lead for methamphetamine abuse treatment and support an allosteric model of G protein-coupled receptor signaling. PMID:27119457

  8. Purification of a rat neurotensin receptor expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, J; Grisshammer, R

    1996-01-01

    A truncated rat neurotensin receptor (NTR), expressed in Escherichia coli with the maltose-binding protein fused to its N-terminus and the 13 amino acid Bio tag fused to its C-terminus, was purified to apparent homogeneity in two steps by use of the monomeric avidin system followed by a novel neurotensin column. This purification protocol was developed by engineering a variety of affinity tags on to the C-terminus of NTR. Surprisingly, expression levels varied considerably depending on the C-terminal tag used. Functional expression of NTR was highest (800 receptors/cell) when thioredoxin was placed between the receptor C-terminus and the tag, indicating a stabilizing effect of the thioredoxin moiety. Several affinity chromatography methods were tested for purification. NTR with the in vivo-biotinylated Bio tag was purified with the highest efficiency compared with NTR with the Strep tag or a hexa-histidine tail. Co-expression of biotin ligase improved considerably the in vivo biotinylation of the Bio tag and, therefore, the overall purification yield. Proteolysis of the NTR fusion protein was prevented by removing a protease-sensitive site discovered at the N-terminus of NTR. The ligand binding properties of the purified receptor were similar to those of the membrane-bound protein and the native receptor. The scale-up of this purification scheme, to provide sufficient protein for biophysical studies, is in progress. PMID:8760379

  9. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.; Ulrich, J.; Probst, A. )

    1991-02-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ({sup 125}I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease.

  10. (18)F- and (68)Ga-Labeled Neurotensin Peptides for PET Imaging of Neurotensin Receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Maschauer, Simone; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Gmeiner, Peter; Prante, Olaf

    2016-07-14

    The neurotensin (NT) receptor-1 (NTS1) is overexpressed in a variety of carcinomas and is therefore an interesting target for imaging with positron emission tomography (PET). The aim of this study was the development of new NT derivatives based on the metabolically stable peptide sequence NLys-Lys-Pro-Tyr-Tle-Leu suitable for PET imaging. The NT peptides were synthesized by solid-phase supported peptide synthesis and elongated with respective chelators (NODA-GA, DOTA) for (68)Ga-labeling or propargylglycine for (18)F-labeling via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Receptor affinities of the peptides for NTS1 were in the range of 19-110 nM. Biodistribution studies using HT29 tumor-bearing mice showed highest tumor uptake for [(68)Ga]6 and [(68)Ga]8 and specific binding in small-animal PET studies. The tumor uptake of (68)Ga-labeled peptides in vivo significantly correlated with the in vitro Ki values for NTS1. [(68)Ga]8 displayed an excellent tumor-to-background ratio and could therefore be considered as an appropriate molecular probe for NTS1 imaging by PET. PMID:27336295

  11. Identification of 1-({[1-(4-Fluorophenyl)-5-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]carbonyl}amino)cyclohexane Carboxylic Acid as a Selective Nonpeptide Neurotensin Receptor Type 2 Compound

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Compounds active at neurotensin receptors (NTS1 and NTS2) exert analgesic effects on different types of nociceptive modalities, including thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli. The NTS2 preferring peptide JMV-431 (2) and the NTS2 selective nonpeptide compound levocabastine (6) have been shown to be effective in relieving the pain associated with peripheral neuropathies. With the aim of identifying novel nonpeptide compounds selective for NTS2, we examined analogues of SR48692 (5a) using a FLIPR calcium assay in CHO cells stably expressing rat NTS2. This led to the discovery of the NTS2 selective nonpeptide compound 1-({[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-5-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-yl]carbonyl}amino)cyclohexane carboxylic acid (NTRC-739, 7b) starting from the nonselective compound 5a. PMID:24856674

  12. Interaction of lipids with the neurotensin receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Bolivar, Juan H; Muñoz-García, Juan C; Castro-Dopico, Tomas; Dijkman, Patricia M; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Watts, Anthony

    2016-06-01

    Information about lipid-protein interactions for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is scarce. Here, we use electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin-labelled lipids to study lipid interactions with the rat neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1). A fusion protein containing rat NTS1 fully able to bind its ligand neurotensin was reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers at specific lipid:protein molar ratios. The fraction of motionally restricted lipids in the range of 40:1 to 80:1 lipids per receptor suggested an oligomeric state of the protein, and the result was unaffected by increasing the hydrophobic thickness of the lipid bilayer from C-18 to C-20 or C-22 chain length PC membranes. Comparison of the ESR spectra of different spin-labelled lipids allowed direct measurement of lipid binding constants relative to PC (Kr), with spin-labelled phosphatidylethanolamine (PESL), phosphatidylserine (PSSL), stearic acid (SASL), and a spin labelled cholesterol analogue (CSL) Kr values of 1.05±0.05, 1.92±0.08, 5.20±0.51 and 0.91±0.19, respectively. The results contrast with those from rhodopsin, the only other GPCR studied this way, which has no selectivity for the lipids analysed here. Molecular dynamics simulations of NTS1 in bilayers are in agreement with the ESR data, and point to sites in the receptor where PS could interact with higher affinity. Lipid selectivity could be necessary for regulation of ligand binding, oligomerisation and/or G protein activation processes. Our results provide insight into the potential modulatory mechanisms that lipids can exert on GPCRs. PMID:26926422

  13. A marine analgesic peptide, Contulakin-G, and neurotensin are distinct agonists for neurotensin receptors: uncovering structural determinants of desensitization properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Kyoung; Zhang, Liuyin; Smith, Misty D; Walewska, Aleksandra; Vellore, Nadeem A; Baron, Riccardo; McIntosh, J Michael; White, H Steve; Olivera, Baldomero M; Bulaj, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Neurotensin receptors have been studied as molecular targets for the treatment of pain, schizophrenia, addiction, or cancer. Neurotensin (NT) and Contulakin-G, a glycopeptide isolated from a predatory cone snail Conus geographus, share a sequence similarity at the C-terminus, which is critical for activation of neurotensin receptors. Both peptides are potent analgesics, although affinity and agonist potency of Contulakin-G toward neurotensin receptors are significantly lower, as compared to those for NT. In this work, we show that the weaker agonist properties of Contulakin-G result in inducing significantly less desensitization of neurotensin receptors and preserving their cell-surface density. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies suggested that both glycosylation and charged amino acid residues in Contulakin-G or NT played important roles in desensitizing neurotensin receptors. Computational modeling studies of human neurotensin receptor NTS1 and Contulakin-G confirmed the role of glycosylation in weakening interactions with the receptors. Based on available SAR data, we designed, synthesized, and characterized an analog of Contulakin-G in which the glycosylated amino acid residue, Gal-GalNAc-Thr10, was replaced by memantine-Glu10 residue. This analog exhibited comparable agonist potency and weaker desensitization properties as compared to that of Contulakin-G, while producing analgesia in the animal model of acute pain following systemic administration. We discuss our study in the context of feasibility and safety of developing NT therapeutic agents with improved penetration across the blood-brain barrier. Our work supports engineering peptide-based agonists with diverse abilities to desensitize G-protein coupled receptors and further emphasizes opportunities for conotoxins as novel pharmacological tools and drug candidates. PMID:25713532

  14. A marine analgesic peptide, Contulakin-G, and neurotensin are distinct agonists for neurotensin receptors: uncovering structural determinants of desensitization properties

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee-Kyoung; Zhang, Liuyin; Smith, Misty D.; Walewska, Aleksandra; Vellore, Nadeem A.; Baron, Riccardo; McIntosh, J. Michael; White, H. Steve; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Bulaj, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Neurotensin receptors have been studied as molecular targets for the treatment of pain, schizophrenia, addiction, or cancer. Neurotensin (NT) and Contulakin-G, a glycopeptide isolated from a predatory cone snail Conus geographus, share a sequence similarity at the C-terminus, which is critical for activation of neurotensin receptors. Both peptides are potent analgesics, although affinity and agonist potency of Contulakin-G toward neurotensin receptors are significantly lower, as compared to those for NT. In this work, we show that the weaker agonist properties of Contulakin-G result in inducing significantly less desensitization of neurotensin receptors and preserving their cell-surface density. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies suggested that both glycosylation and charged amino acid residues in Contulakin-G or NT played important roles in desensitizing neurotensin receptors. Computational modeling studies of human neurotensin receptor NTS1 and Contulakin-G confirmed the role of glycosylation in weakening interactions with the receptors. Based on available SAR data, we designed, synthesized, and characterized an analog of Contulakin-G in which the glycosylated amino acid residue, Gal-GalNAc-Thr10, was replaced by memantine-Glu10 residue. This analog exhibited comparable agonist potency and weaker desensitization properties as compared to that of Contulakin-G, while producing analgesia in the animal model of acute pain following systemic administration. We discuss our study in the context of feasibility and safety of developing NT therapeutic agents with improved penetration across the blood-brain barrier. Our work supports engineering peptide-based agonists with diverse abilities to desensitize G-protein coupled receptors and further emphasizes opportunities for conotoxins as novel pharmacological tools and drug candidates. PMID:25713532

  15. Modulation of the interaction between neurotensin receptor NTS1 and Gq protein by lipid

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Sayaka; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; White, Jim F.; Gvozdenovic-Jeremic, Jelena; Northup, John K.; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Membrane lipids have been implicated to influence the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Almost all of our knowledge on the role of lipids on GPCR and G protein function comes from work on the visual pigment rhodopsin and its G protein transducin, which reside in a highly specialized membrane environment. Thus insight gained from rhodopsin signaling may not be simply translated to other non-visual GPCRs. Here, we investigated the effect of lipid head group charges on the signal transduction properties of the class A GPCR neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1) under defined experimental conditions, using self-assembled phospholipid nanodiscs prepared with the zwitter-ionic lipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), the negatively charged 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1′-rac-glycerol) (POPG), or a POPC/POPG mixture. A combination of dynamic light scattering and sedimentation velocity showed that NTS1 was monomeric in POPC-, POPC/POPG- and POPG-nanodiscs. Binding of the agonist neurotensin to NTS1 occurred with similar affinities and was essentially unaffected by the phospholipid composition. In contrast, Gq protein coupling to NTS1 in various lipid nanodiscs was significantly different and the apparent affinity of Gαq and Gβ1γ1 to activated NTS1 increased with increasing POPG content. NTS1-catalyzed GDP/GTPγS nucleotide exchange at Gαq in the presence of Gβ1γ1 and neurotensin was crucially affected by the lipid type, with exchange rates higher by one or two orders of magnitude in POPC/POPG- and POPG-nanodiscs, respectively, compared to POPC-nanodiscs. Our data demonstrate that negatively charged lipids in the immediate vicinity of a non-visual GPCR modulate the G protein-coupling step. PMID:22306739

  16. Construction of recombinant HEK293 cell lines for the expression of the neurotensin receptor NTSR1.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Su; Shiloach, Joseph; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are associated with a wide array of diseases and are targets of most of the medicines sold worldwide. Despite their clinical importance, only 25 unique GPCR structures have been determined as of April 2014. The first step for structural studies is to establish the expression of correctly folded, functional receptors in recombinant host cells at quantities to allow subsequent purification and crystallization trials. Here we describe the T-REx™-inducible expression system to construct and select a stable HEK293 cell line for high-level expression of functional neurotensin receptor type I (NTSR1). We also present the protocols used for the adaptation of the cells into suspension culture, as well as the optimization of the induction parameters for NTSR1 expression, which led to 1 mg of purified NTSR1 per liter suspension culture in bioreactors. PMID:25563176

  17. The Discovery of Indole Full Agonists of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 (NTSR1)

    PubMed Central

    Di Fruscia, Paolo; He, Yuanjun; Koenig, Marcel; Tabrizifard, Sahba; Nieto, Ainhoa; McDonald, Patricia H.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is an endogenous tridecapeptide found in the central nervous system (CNS) and in peripheral tissues. Neurotensin exerts a wide range of physiological effects and it has been found to play a critical role in a number of human diseases, such as schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and drug addiction. The discovery of small-molecule non-peptide neurotensin receptor (NTSR) modulators would represent an important breakthrough as such compounds could be used as pharmacological tools, to further decipher the cellular functions of neurotensin, and potentially as therapeutic agents to treat human disease. Herein, we report the identification of non-peptide low-micromolar neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) full agonists, discovered through structural optimization of the known NTSR1 partial agonist 1. In vitro cellular screenings, based on an intracellular Ca2+ mobilization assay, revealed our best hit molecule 8 (SR-12062) to have an EC50 of 2 μM at NTSR1 with full agonist behaviour (Emax = 100%), showing a higher efficacy and ~ 90-fold potency improvement compared to parent compound 1 (EC50 = 178 μM; Emax = 17%). PMID:24997685

  18. The Internalization of Neurotensin by the Low-Affinity Neurotensin Receptors (NTSR2 and vNTSR2) Activates ERK 1/2 in Glioma Cells and Allows Neurotensin-Polyplex Transfection of tGAS1.

    PubMed

    Ayala-Sarmiento, Alberto E; Martinez-Fong, Daniel; Segovia, José

    2015-08-01

    Glioblastoma is the most malignant primary brain tumor and is very resistant to treatment; hence, it has a poor prognosis. Neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1) plays a key role in cancer malignancy and has potential therapeutic applications. However, the presence and function of neurotensin (NTS) receptors in glioblastoma is not clearly established. RT-PCR assays showed that healthy (non-tumor) astroglial cells and C6 glioma cells express NTSR2 and its isoform (vNTSR2) rather than NTSR1. In glioma cells, NTS promotes the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2), an effect that was completely abolished by blocking the internalization of the NTS/NTSR complex. We demonstrated pharmacologically that the internalization is dependent on the activation of NTSR2 receptors and it was prevented by levocabastine, a NTSR2 receptor antagonist. The internalization of NTSR2 and vNTSR2 was further demonstrated by its ability to mediate gene transfer (transfection) via the NTS-polyplex system. Expression of reporter transgenes and of the pro-apoptotic soluble form of growth arrest specific 1 (tGAS1) was observed in glioma cells. A significant reduction on the viability of C6 cells was determined when tGAS1 was transfected into glioma cells. Conversely, astroglial cells could neither internalize NTS nor activate ERK 1/2 and could not be transfected by the NTS-polyplex. These results demonstrate that the internalization process of NTSR2 receptors is a key regulator necessary to trigger the activation of the ERK 1/2. Our data support a new internalization pathway in glioma C6 cells that involve NTSR2/vNTSR2, which can be used to selectively transfer therapeutic genes using the NTS-polyplex system. PMID:25772140

  19. Neurotensin-induced miR-133α expression regulates neurotensin receptor 1 recycling through its downstream target aftiphilin

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ivy Ka Man; Jensen, Dane; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2016-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) triggers signaling in human colonic epithelial cells by activating the G protein-coupled receptor, the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1). Activated NTR1 traffics from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, and then recycles. Although sustained NT/NTR1 signaling requires efficient NTR1 recycling, little is known about the regulation of NTR1 recycling. We recently showed that NT/NTR1 signaling increases expression of miR-133α. Herein, we studied the mechanism of NT-regulated miR-133α expression and examined the role of miR-133α in intracellular NTR1 trafficking in human NCM460 colonocytes. We found that NT-induced miR-133α upregulation involves the negative transcription regulator, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1. Silencing of miR-133α or overexpression of aftiphilin (AFTPH), a binding target of miR-133α, attenuated NTR1 trafficking to plasma membrane in human colonocytes, without affecting NTR1 internalization. We localized AFTPH to early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in unstimulated human colonic epithelial cells. AFTPH overexpression reduced NTR1 localization in early endosomes and increased expression of proteins related to endosomes and the TGN trafficking pathway. AFTPH overexpression and de-acidification of intracellular vesicles increased NTR1 expression. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of GPCR trafficking in human colonic epithelial cells by which a microRNA, miR-133α regulates NTR1 trafficking through its downstream target AFTPH. PMID:26902265

  20. Neurotensin-induced miR-133α expression regulates neurotensin receptor 1 recycling through its downstream target aftiphilin.

    PubMed

    Law, Ivy Ka Man; Jensen, Dane; Bunnett, Nigel W; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2016-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) triggers signaling in human colonic epithelial cells by activating the G protein-coupled receptor, the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1). Activated NTR1 traffics from the plasma membrane to early endosomes, and then recycles. Although sustained NT/NTR1 signaling requires efficient NTR1 recycling, little is known about the regulation of NTR1 recycling. We recently showed that NT/NTR1 signaling increases expression of miR-133α. Herein, we studied the mechanism of NT-regulated miR-133α expression and examined the role of miR-133α in intracellular NTR1 trafficking in human NCM460 colonocytes. We found that NT-induced miR-133α upregulation involves the negative transcription regulator, zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1. Silencing of miR-133α or overexpression of aftiphilin (AFTPH), a binding target of miR-133α, attenuated NTR1 trafficking to plasma membrane in human colonocytes, without affecting NTR1 internalization. We localized AFTPH to early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN) in unstimulated human colonic epithelial cells. AFTPH overexpression reduced NTR1 localization in early endosomes and increased expression of proteins related to endosomes and the TGN trafficking pathway. AFTPH overexpression and de-acidification of intracellular vesicles increased NTR1 expression. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of GPCR trafficking in human colonic epithelial cells by which a microRNA, miR-133α regulates NTR1 trafficking through its downstream target AFTPH. PMID:26902265

  1. Ventral Midbrain NTS1 Receptors Mediate Conditioned Reward Induced by the Neurotensin Analog, D-Tyr[11]neurotensin

    PubMed Central

    Rouibi, Khalil; Bose, Poulomee; Rompré, Pierre-Paul; Warren, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at characterizing the mechanisms by which neurotensin (NT) is acting within the ventral midbrain to induce a psychostimulant-like effect. In a first experiment, we determine which subtype(s) of NT receptors is/are involved in the reward-inducing effect of ventral midbrain microinjection of NT using the conditioned place-preference (CPP) paradigm. In a second study, we used in vitro patch clamp recording technique to characterize the NT receptor subtype(s) involved in the modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission (excitatory post-synaptic current, EPSC) in ventral tegmental neurons that expressed (Ih+), or do not express (Ih-), a hyperpolarization-activated cationic current. Behavioral studies were performed with adult male Long-Evans rats while electrophysiological recordings were obtained from brain slices of rat pups aged between 14 and 21 days. Results show that bilateral ventral midbrain microinjections of 1.5 and 3 nmol of D-Tyr[11]NT induced a CPP that was respectively attenuated or blocked by co-injection with 1.2 nmol of the NTS1/NTS2 antagonist, SR142948, and the preferred NTS1 antagonist, SR48692. In electrophysiological experiments, D-Tyr[11]NT (0.01-0.5 μM) attenuated glutamatergic EPSC in Ih+ but enhanced it in Ih- neurons. The attenuation effect (Ih+ neurons) was blocked by SR142948 (0.1 μM) while the enhancement effect (Ih- neurons) was blocked by both antagonists (0.1 μM). These findings suggest that (i) NT is acting on ventral midbrain NTS1 receptors to induce a rewarding effect and (ii) that this psychostimulant-like effect could be due to a direct action of NT on dopamine neurons and/or an enhancement of glutamatergic inputs to non-dopamine (Ih-) neurons. PMID:26733785

  2. MiRNA mimic screen for improved functional expression of neurotensin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Su; Chen, Yu-Chi; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Martin, Scott E.; Shiloach, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining adequate quantities of functional mammalian membrane proteins has been a bottleneck in their structural and functional studies because the expression of these proteins from mammalian cells is relatively low. To explore the possibility of enhancing expression of these proteins using miRNA, a stable T-REx-293 cell line expressing the neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), a hard-to-express G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), was constructed. The cell line was then subjected to human miRNA mimic library screening. In parallel, an HEK293 cell line expressing luciferase was also screened with the same human miRNA mimic library. Five microRNA mimics: hsa-miR-22-5p, hsa-miR-18a-5p, hsa-miR-22-3p, hsa-miR-429 and hsa-miR-2110 were identified from both screens. They led to 48% increase in the expression of functional NTSR1 and to 239% increase of luciferase expression. These miRNAs were also effective in enhancing the expression of secreted glypican-3 hFc-fusion protein from HEK293 cells. The results indicate that these molecules may have a wide role in enhancing the production of proteins with biomedical interest. PMID:25676429

  3. Structure-Based Evolution of Subtype-Selective Neurotensin Receptor Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Schaab, Carolin; Kling, Ralf Christian; Einsiedel, Jürgen; Hübner, Harald; Clark, Tim; Seebach, Dieter; Gmeiner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Subtype-selective agonists of the neurotensin receptor NTS2 represent a promising option for the treatment of neuropathic pain, as NTS2 is involved in the mediation of μ-opioid-independent anti-nociceptive effects. Based on the crystal structure of the subtype NTS1 and previous structure–activity relationships (SARs) indicating a potential role for the sub-pocket around Tyr11 of NT(8–13) in subtype-specific ligand recognition, we have developed new NTS2-selective ligands. Starting from NT(8–13), we replaced the tyrosine unit by β2-amino acids (type 1), by heterocyclic tyrosine bioisosteres (type 2) and peptoid analogues (type 3). We were able to evolve an asymmetric synthesis of a 5-substituted azaindolylalanine and its application as a bioisostere of tyrosine capable of enhancing NTS2 selectivity. The S-configured test compound 2 a, [(S)-3-(pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-5-yl)-propionyl11]NT(8–13), exhibits substantial NTS2 affinity (4.8 nm) and has a nearly 30-fold NTS2 selectivity over NTS1. The (R)-epimer 2 b showed lower NTS2 affinity but more than 600-fold selectivity over NTS1. PMID:25478316

  4. Association of Neurotensin receptor 1 gene polymorphisms with processing speed in healthy Chinese-Han subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Ma, Hui; Huang, Ying-lin; Zhu, Gang; Zhao, Jing-ping

    2014-12-01

    Neurotensin modulates dopamine and serotonin transmission in the brain. The study investigated whether genetic polymorphisms in the Neurotensin receptor 1 gene were associated with performance on processing speed and executive function. A total of 129 healthy Chinese-Han volunteers were recruited. Genotyping for three SNPs, including rs6090453, rs6011914, and rs2427422, was analyzed by using a PCR and a restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Performances of processing speed and executive function were assessed by using Trail Making Test-A (TMT-A), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Stroop Color-Word Test. We found significant differences in the outcomes of TMT-A score among rs6090453C/G (F(2,126)=4.405, P=0.014) and rs2427422A/G (F(2,126)=7.498, P=0.001) genotypes. Neurotensin receptor 1 SNP polymorphisms were significantly associated with the variance in processing speed performance in a sample of Chinese college students. PMID:25159184

  5. Structural prerequisites for G-protein activation by the neurotensin receptor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Krumm, Brian E.; White, Jim F.; Shah, Priyanka; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2015-07-24

    We previously determined the structure of neurotensin receptor NTSR1 in an active-like conformation with six thermostabilizing mutations bound to the peptide agonist neurotensin. This receptor was unable to activate G proteins, indicating that the mutations restricted NTSR1 to relate agonist binding to G-protein activation. Here we analyse the effect of three of those mutations (E166A3.49, L310A6.37, F358A7.42) and present two structures of NTSR1 able to catalyse nucleotide exchange at Gα. The presence of F3587.42 causes the conserved W3216.48 to adopt a side chain orientation parallel to the lipid bilayer sealing the collapsed Na+ ion pocket and linking the agonist withmore » residues in the lower receptor part implicated in GPCR activation. In the intracellular receptor half, the bulkier L3106.37 side chain dictates the position of R1673.50 of the highly conserved D/ERY motif. These residues, together with the presence of E1663.49 provide determinants for G-protein activation by NTSR1.« less

  6. Structural prerequisites for G-protein activation by the neurotensin receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Krumm, Brian E.; White, Jim F.; Shah, Priyanka; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2015-07-24

    We previously determined the structure of neurotensin receptor NTSR1 in an active-like conformation with six thermostabilizing mutations bound to the peptide agonist neurotensin. This receptor was unable to activate G proteins, indicating that the mutations restricted NTSR1 to relate agonist binding to G-protein activation. Here we analyse the effect of three of those mutations (E166A3.49, L310A6.37, F358A7.42) and present two structures of NTSR1 able to catalyse nucleotide exchange at Gα. The presence of F3587.42 causes the conserved W3216.48 to adopt a side chain orientation parallel to the lipid bilayer sealing the collapsed Na+ ion pocket and linking the agonist with residues in the lower receptor part implicated in GPCR activation. In the intracellular receptor half, the bulkier L3106.37 side chain dictates the position of R1673.50 of the highly conserved D/ERY motif. These residues, together with the presence of E1663.49 provide determinants for G-protein activation by NTSR1.

  7. Structural prerequisites for G-protein activation by the neurotensin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Brian E.; White, Jim F.; Shah, Priyanka; Grisshammer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    We previously determined the structure of neurotensin receptor NTSR1 in an active-like conformation with six thermostabilizing mutations bound to the peptide agonist neurotensin. This receptor was unable to activate G proteins, indicating that the mutations restricted NTSR1 to relate agonist binding to G-protein activation. Here we analyse the effect of three of those mutations (E166A3.49, L310A6.37, F358A7.42) and present two structures of NTSR1 able to catalyse nucleotide exchange at Gα. The presence of F3587.42 causes the conserved W3216.48 to adopt a side chain orientation parallel to the lipid bilayer sealing the collapsed Na+ ion pocket and linking the agonist with residues in the lower receptor part implicated in GPCR activation. In the intracellular receptor half, the bulkier L3106.37 side chain dictates the position of R1673.50 of the highly conserved D/ERY motif. These residues, together with the presence of E1663.49 provide determinants for G-protein activation by NTSR1. PMID:26205105

  8. Effects of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 on visual signal detection in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hillhouse, Todd M.; Prus, Adam J.

    2013-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs provide limited efficacy for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Recent studies have found that the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist and putative atypical antipsychotic drug PD149163 reverses deficits in sensory-gating and novel object recognition, suggesting that this compound may have the potential to improve cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. The present study sought to extend these investigations by evaluating the effects of PD149163 on sustained attention using a visual signal detection operant task in rats. PD149163, the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine, and the dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonist raclopride all significantly decreased percent “hit” accuracy, while none of these compounds altered “correct rejections” (compared to vehicle control). Clozapine and raclopride significantly increased response latency, while high doses of PD149163 and raclopride significantly increased trial omissions. Nicotine, which was tested as a positive control, significantly improved overall performance in this task and did not affect response latency or trial omissions. The present findings suggest that neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonists, like antipsychotic drugs, may inhibit sustained attention in this task despite having different pharmacological mechanisms of action. PMID:24076181

  9. Chronic ethanol administration downregulates neurotensin receptors in long- and short-sleep mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A D; Erwin, V G

    1993-05-01

    Neurotensin (NT) has been shown to differentially alter many of the physiologic responses to ethanol administration in long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, which were selectively bred for differences in hypnotic sensitivity to ethanol. These mice have been shown to differ in NT receptor densities in cortical and mesolimbic brain regions and it has been suggested that ethanol actions may be mediated, in part, by neurotensinergic processes. The present study was conducted to further examine this hypothesis by determining the effects of acute and chronic ethanol administration on NT receptor systems in these mice. Scatchard analysis of [3H]NT binding in brain membranes from mice chronically treated with ethanol yielded a one-site model, whereas binding in membranes from control mice were best described by a two-site model. Values for binding capacity (Bmax) were significantly reduced in several brain regions, and binding site density for total, levocabastine-sensitive, and levocabastine-insensitive binding sites were also reduced. The maximum effect was seen after 2 weeks of chronic ethanol consumption. Three weeks after withdrawal from ethanol, Kd and Bmax had returned to control values. Similarly, binding density in all regions for total, levocabastine-sensitive, and levocabastine-insensitive sites had returned to control values within 2 weeks. NT receptor characteristics measured 2 h post-3.0 g/kg ethanol revealed that ethanol caused a rapid downregulation of both subtypes of NT receptors. The finding that both acute and chronic ethanol significantly downregulate the neurotensin receptor systems further supports the hypothesis that ethanol's actions may be mediated in part by neurotensinergic systems. PMID:8100076

  10. Effect of amphetamine on extracellular concentrations of amino acids in striatum in neurotensin subtype 1 and 2 receptor null mice: a possible interaction between neurotensin receptors and amino acid systems for study of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhimin; Liang, Yanqi; Boules, Mona; Gordillo, Andres; Richelson, Elliott

    2010-06-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide that acts as a neuromodulator in the central nervous system mainly through two NT receptors: NTS1 and NTS2. The present study was done to determine the roles of NTS1 and NTS2 on amino acid release in striatum with the use of NTS1 or NTS2 knockout ((-/-)) mice given d-amphetamine. Both NTS1(-/-) and NTS2(-/-) mice had lower extracellular concentrations of D-serine in striatum than did wild type (WT) mice. NTS2(-/-) but not NTS1(-/-) mice also had significantly lower basal concentrations of glutamate in striatum as compared to that for WT mice. Systemic administration of d-amphetamine (4 mg/kg, ip) increased glutamate release by 500% in WT mice, as compared to 300% in NTS2(-/-) mice, and 250% in NTS1(-/-) mice. Additionally, d-amphetamine injection caused a 4-fold increase in GABA release in both WT and NTS2(-/-) mice, but only a 2-fold increase in NTS1(-/-) mice. Therefore, NTS1 and NTS2 modulate basal release of D-serine and glutamate, and also d-amphetamine-induced GABA and glutamate release in striatum. These results provide further support for the involvement of NT receptors in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and provide a better understanding of the imbalance of amino acid systems through investigation of a DA-based animal model. PMID:20193696

  11. Differential expression and tumorigenic function of neurotensin receptor 1 in neuroendocrine tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Tae; Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Lee, Eun Y.; Weiss, Heidi L.; Townsend, Courtney M.; Evers, B. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Neurotensin (NTS), localized predominantly to the small bowel, stimulates the growth of a variety of cancers, including neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), mainly through its interaction with the high-affinity NTS receptor 1 (NTSR1). Here, we observed increased expression of NTSR1 in almost all tested clinical NET samples, but not in normal tissues. Through RT-PCR analysis, we found that the expression of NTSR1 and NTSR2 was either variable (NTSR1) or absent (NTSR2) in human NET cell lines. In contrast, NTSR3 and NTS were expressed in all NET cells. Treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, a demethylating agent, increased levels of NTSR1 and NTSR2 suggesting that DNA methylation contributes to NTSR1/2 expression patterns, which was confirmed by methylation analyses. In addition, we found that knockdown of NTSR1 decreased proliferation, expression levels of growth-related proteins, and anchorage-independent growth of BON human carcinoid cells. Moreover, stable silencing of NTSR1 suppressed BON cell growth, adhesion, migration and invasion. Our results show that high expression of NTSR1 is found in clinical NETs and that promoter methylation is an important mechanism controlling the differential expression of NTSR1 and silencing of NTSR2 in NET cells. Furthermore, knockdown of NTSR1 in BON cells suppressed oncogenic functions suggesting that NTSR1 contributes to NET tumorigenesis. PMID:26298774

  12. Impairement of HT29 Cancer Cells Cohesion by the Soluble Form of Neurotensin Receptor-3

    PubMed Central

    Lacas-Gervais, Sandra; Béraud-Dufour, Sophie; Coppola, Thierry; Mazella, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The neurotensin (NT) receptor-3 (NTSR3), also called sortilin is a multifunctional protein localized at the intracellular and plasma membrane level. The extracellular domain of NTSR3 (sNTSR3) is released by shedding from several cell lines including colonic cancer cells. This soluble protein acts as an active ligand through its ability to bind, to be internalized in the human adenocarcinoma epithelial HT29 cells and to stimulate the PI3 kinase pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate cellular responses induced by sNTSR3 in HT29 cells. The cellular functions of sNTSR3 were monitored by immunofluocytochemistry, electron microscopy and quantitative PCR in order to characterize the cell shape and the expression of adhesion proteins. We evidenced that sNTSR3 significantly regulates the cellular morphology as well as the cell-cell and the cell-matrix adherens properties by decreasing the expession of several integrins and by modifying the structure of desmosomes. Altogether, these properties lead to an increase of cell detachment upon sNTSR3 treatment on HT29, HCT116 and SW620 cancer cells. Our results indicate that sNTSR3 may induce the first phase of a process which weaken HT29 epithelial properties including desmosome architecture, cell spreading, and initiation of cell separation, all events which could be responsible for cancer metastasis. PMID:25221642

  13. Optimising the combination of thermostabilising mutations in the neurotensin receptor for structure determination.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yoko; Gvozdenovic-Jeremic, Jelena; Love, James; Kloss, Brian; White, Jim F; Grisshammer, Reinhard; Tate, Christopher G

    2013-04-01

    Conformational thermostabilisation of G protein-coupled receptors is a successful approach for their structure determination. We have recently determined the structure of a thermostabilised neurotensin receptor NTS1 in complex with its peptide agonist and here we describe the strategy for the identification and combination of the 6 thermostabilising mutations essential for crystallisation. First, thermostability assays were performed on a panel of 340 detergent-solubilised Ala/Leu NTS1 mutants and the best 16 thermostabilising mutations were identified. These mutations were combined pair-wise in nearly all combinations (119 out of a possible 120 combinations) and each mutant was expressed and its thermostability was experimentally determined. A theoretical stability score was calculated from the sum of the stabilities measured for each double mutant and applied to develop 24 triple mutants, which in turn led to the construction of 14 quadruple mutants. Use of the thermostability data for the double mutants to predict further mutant combinations resulted in a greater percentage of the triple and quadruple mutants showing improved thermostability than if only the thermostability data for the single mutations was considered. The best quadruple mutant (NTS1-Nag36k) was further improved by including an additional 2 mutations (resulting in NTS1-GW5) that were identified from a complete Ala/Leu scan of Nag36k by testing the thermostability of the mutants in situ in whole bacteria. NTS1-GW5 had excellent stability in short chain detergents and could be readily purified as a homogenous sample that ultimately allowed crystallisation and structure determination. PMID:23337476

  14. Neurotensin: A role in substance use disorder?

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Luca; Tiozzo Fasiolo, Laura; Beggiato, Sarah; Borelli, Andrea C; Pomierny-Chamiolo, Lucyna; Frankowska, Malgorzata; Antonelli, Tiziana; Tomasini, Maria C; Fuxe, Kjell; Filip, Malgorzata

    2016-02-01

    Neurotensin is a tridecapeptide originally identified in extracts of bovine hypothalamus. This peptide has a close anatomical and functional relationship with the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine system. Neural circuits containing neurotensin were originally proposed to play a role in the mechanism of action of antipsychotic agents. Additionally, neurotensin-containing pathways were demonstrated to mediate some of the rewarding and/or sensitizing properties of drugs of abuse.This review attempts to contribute to the understanding of the role of neurotensin and its receptors in drug abuse. In particular, we will summarize the potential relevance of neurotensin, its related compounds and neurotensin receptors in substance use disorders, with a focus on the preclinical research. PMID:26755548

  15. In Silico Investigation of the Neurotensin Receptor 1 Binding Site: Overlapping Binding Modes for Small Molecule Antagonists and the Endogenous Peptide Agonist.

    PubMed

    Lückmann, Michael; Holst, Birgitte; Schwartz, Thue W; Frimurer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    The neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) belongs to the family of 7TM, G protein-coupled receptors, and is activated by the 13-amino-acid peptide neurotensin (NTS) that has been shown to play important roles in neurological disorders and the promotion of cancer cells. Recently, a high-resolution x-ray crystal structure of NTSR1 in complex with NTS8-13 has been determined, providing novel insights into peptide ligand recognition by 7TM receptors. SR48692, a potent and selective small molecule antagonist has previously been used extensively as a tool compound to study NTSR1 receptor signaling properties. To investigate the binding mode of SR48692 and other small molecule compounds to NTSR1, we applied an Automated Ligand-guided Backbone Ensemble Receptor Optimization protocol (ALiBERO), taking receptor flexibility and ligand knowledge into account. Structurally overlapping binding poses for SR48692 and NTS8-13 were observed, despite their distinct chemical nature and inverse pharmacological profiles. The optimized models showed significantly improved ligand recognition in a large-scale virtual screening assessment compared to the crystal structure. Our models provide new insights into small molecule ligand binding to NTSR1 and could facilitate the structure-based design of non-peptide ligands for the evaluation of the pharmacological potential of NTSR1 in neurological disorders and cancer. PMID:27491650

  16. Repeated effects of the neurotensin receptor agonist PD149163 in three animal tests of antipsychotic activity: assessing for tolerance and cross-tolerance to clozapine

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shinnyi; Davis, Collin; Jones, Sean; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin is an endogenous neuropeptide closely associated with the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and shown to possess antipsychotic-like effects. In particular, acute neurotensin receptor activation can inhibit conditioned avoidance response (CAR), attenuate phencyclidine (PCP)-induced prepulse inhibition (PPI) disruptions, and reverse PCP-induced hyperlocomotion. However, few studies have examined the long term effects of repeated neurotensin receptor activation and results are inconsistent. Since clinical administration of antipsychotic therapy often requires a prolonged treatment schedule, here we assessed the effects of repeated activation of neurotensin receptors using an NTS1 receptor selective agonist, PD149163, in 3 behavioral tests of antipsychotic activity. We also investigated whether reactivity to the atypical antipsychotic clozapine was altered following prior PD149163 treatment. Using both normal and prenatally immune activated rats generated through maternal immune activation with polyinosinic:polycytidilic acid, we tested PD149163 in CAR, PCP (1.5 mg/kg)-induced PPI disruption, and PCP (3.2 mg/kg)-induced hyperlocomotion. For each paradigm, rats were first repeatedly tested with vehicle or PD149163 (1.0, 4.0, 8.0 mg/kg, sc) along with vehicle or PCP for PPI and hyperlocomotion tests, then challenged with PD149163 after 2 drug-free days. All rats were then challenged with clozapine (5.0 mg/kg, sc). During the repeated test period, PD149163 exhibited antipsychotic-like effects in all three models. On the PD149163 challenge day, prior drug treatment only caused a tolerance effect in CAR. This tolerance in CAR was transferrable to clozapine, as it enhanced clozapine tolerance in the same group of animals. Although no tolerance effect was seen in the PD149163 challenge for the PCP-induced hyperlocomotion test, the clozapine challenge showed increased sensitivity in groups previously exposed to repeated PD149163 treatment. Our findings suggest

  17. Similarities in the behavior and molecular deficits in the frontal cortex between the neurotensin receptor subtype 1 knockout mice and chronic phencyclidine-treated mice: relevance to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhimin; Boules, Mona; Williams, Katrina; Gordillo, Andres; Li, Shuhua; Richelson, Elliott

    2010-11-01

    Much evidence suggests that targeting the neurotensin (NT) system may provide a novel and promising treatment for schizophrenia. Our recent work shows that: NTS1 knockout (NTS1(-/-)) mice may provide a potential animal model for studying schizophrenia by investigating the effect of deletion NTS1 receptor on amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and neurochemical changes. The data indicate a hyper-dopaminergic state similar to the excessive striatal DA activity reported in schizophrenia. The present study was done to determine if NTS1(-/-) mice also have similar changes in behavior, in prefrontal neurotransmitters, and in protein expression, as observed in wild type (WT) mice treated with the psychotomimetic phencylclidine (PCP), an animal model for schizophrenia. Our results showed many similarities between untreated NTS1(-/-) mice and WT mice chronically treated with PCP (as compared with untreated WT mice): 1) lower PCP-induced locomotor activity; 2) similar avolition-like behavior in forced-swim test and tail suspension test; 3) lower prefrontal glutamate levels; 4) less PCP-induced dopamine release in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); and 5) down-regulation of mRNA and protein for DA D(1), DA D(2), and NMDAR2A in mPFC. Therefore, these data strengthen the hypothesis that the NTS1(-/-) mouse is an animal model of schizophrenia, particularly for the dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex. In addition, after chronic PCP administration, the DA D(1) receptor was up-regulated in NTS1(-/-) mice, results which suggest a possible interaction of NTS1/DA D(1) in mPFC contributing to chronic PCP-induced schizophrenia-like signs. PMID:20659557

  18. Transient and Stable Expression of the Neurotensin Receptor NTS1: A Comparison of the Baculovirus-Insect Cell and the T-REx-293 Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Su; White, Jim F.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Grisshammer, Reinhard; Shiloach, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, baculovirus-infected insect cells and tetracycline-inducible mammalian cell lines (T-REx-293) are intensively used for G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) production for crystallography purposes. Here we constructed a suspension T-REx-293 cell line to stably express an engineered neurotensin receptor 1 (NTS1) mutant and we quantitatively compared this cell line with the transient baculovirus-insect cell system throughout a milligram-scale NTS1 expression and purification process. The two systems were comparable with respect to functional NTS1 expression levels and receptor binding affinity for the agonist [3H] neurotensin. However, NTS1 surface display on T-REx-293 cells determined by radio-ligand binding assays was 2.8 fold higher than that on insect cells. This work demonstrates two approaches for preparing milligram quantities of purified NTS1 suitable for structural studies and provides useful input to users in choosing and optimizing an appropriate expression host for other GPCRs. PMID:23696845

  19. Acute, but not repeated, administration of the neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonist PD149163 decreases conditioned footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in rats

    PubMed Central

    Prus, Adam J.; Hillhouse, Todd M.; LaCrosse, Amber L.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin is an endogenous neuropeptide that has significant interactions with monoamine neurotransmitter systems. To date, neurotensin NTS1 receptor agonists, such as PD149163, have been primarily evaluated for the treatment for schizophrenia, drug addiction, and pain. Recently, PD149163 was found to attenuate fear-potentiated startle in rats, an experimental procedure used for screening anxiolytic drugs. The present study sought to extend these findings through testing PD149163 in a conditioned footshock-induced ultrasonic vocalization (USV) model. Conditioning was conducted in Male Wistar rats using chambers equipped with shock grid floors and an ultrasonic vocalization detector. PD149163 and the 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist buspirone produced a statistically significant reduction of 22 kHz USV counts. The typical antipsychotic haloperidol also reduced 22 kHz USV counts, but did so at cataleptic doses. Ten days of repeated administration of PD149163 abolished the inhibitory effects of PD149163 on 22 kHz USVs. These findings further support an anxiolytic profile for PD149163. However, tolerance to these effects may limit the utility of these drugs for the treatment of anxiety. PMID:24275076

  20. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2) and 5 (GRK5) Exhibit Selective Phosphorylation of the Neurotensin Receptor in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) play an important role in the desensitization of G protein-mediated signaling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The level of interest in mapping their phosphorylation sites has increased because recent studies suggest that the differential pattern of receptor phosphorylation has distinct biological consequences. In vitro phosphorylation experiments using well-controlled systems are useful for deciphering the complexity of these physiological reactions and understanding the targeted event. Here, we report on the phosphorylation of the class A GPCR neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1) by GRKs under defined experimental conditions afforded by nanodisc technology. Phosphorylation of NTSR1 by GRK2 was agonist-dependent, whereas phosphorylation by GRK5 occurred in an activation-independent manner. In addition, the negatively charged lipids in the immediate vicinity of NTSR1 directly affect phosphorylation by GRKs. Identification of phosphorylation sites in agonist-activated NTSR1 revealed that GRK2 and GRK5 target different residues located on the intracellular receptor elements. GRK2 phosphorylates only the C-terminal Ser residues, whereas GRK5 phosphorylates Ser and Thr residues located in intracellular loop 3 and the C-terminus. Interestingly, phosphorylation assays using a series of NTSR1 mutants show that GRK2 does not require acidic residues upstream of the phospho-acceptors for site-specific phosphorylation, in contrast to the β2-adrenergic and μ-opioid receptors. Differential phosphorylation of GPCRs by GRKs is thought to encode a particular signaling outcome, and our in vitro study revealed NTSR1 differential phosphorylation by GRK2 and GRK5. PMID:26120872

  1. Activation of neurotensin receptor 1 facilitates neuronal excitability and spatial learning and memory in the entorhinal cortex: beneficial actions in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I; Kurada, Lalitha; Hu, Binqi; Yang, Chuanxiu; Wada, Etsuko; Combs, Colin K; Porter, James E; Lesage, Florian; Lei, Saobo

    2014-05-14

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide distributed in the CNS, including the entorhinal cortex (EC), a structure that is crucial for learning and memory and undergoes the earliest pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas NT has been implicated in modulating cognition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NT modifies cognitive processes and the potential therapeutic roles of NT in AD have not been determined. Here we examined the effects of NT on neuronal excitability and spatial learning in the EC, which expresses high density of NT receptors. Brief application of NT induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency, which could last for at least 1 h. NT-induced facilitation of neuronal excitability was mediated by downregulation of TREK-2 K(+) channels and required the functions of NTS1, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C. Microinjection of NT or NTS1 agonist, PD149163, into the EC increased spatial learning as assessed by the Barnes Maze Test. Activation of NTS1 receptors also induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency and significantly improved the memory status in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD. Our study identifies a cellular substrate underlying learning and memory and suggests that NTS1 agonists may exert beneficial actions in an animal model of AD. PMID:24828655

  2. Activation of Neurotensin Receptor 1 Facilitates Neuronal Excitability and Spatial Learning and Memory in the Entorhinal Cortex: Beneficial Actions in an Alzheimer's Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhaoyang; Cilz, Nicholas I.; Kurada, Lalitha; Hu, Binqi; Yang, Chuanxiu; Wada, Etsuko; Combs, Colin K.; Porter, James E.; Lesage, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a tridecapeptide distributed in the CNS, including the entorhinal cortex (EC), a structure that is crucial for learning and memory and undergoes the earliest pathological alterations in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas NT has been implicated in modulating cognition, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which NT modifies cognitive processes and the potential therapeutic roles of NT in AD have not been determined. Here we examined the effects of NT on neuronal excitability and spatial learning in the EC, which expresses high density of NT receptors. Brief application of NT induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency, which could last for at least 1 h. NT-induced facilitation of neuronal excitability was mediated by downregulation of TREK-2 K+ channels and required the functions of NTS1, phospholipase C, and protein kinase C. Microinjection of NT or NTS1 agonist, PD149163, into the EC increased spatial learning as assessed by the Barnes Maze Test. Activation of NTS1 receptors also induced persistent increases in action potential firing frequency and significantly improved the memory status in APP/PS1 mice, an animal model of AD. Our study identifies a cellular substrate underlying learning and memory and suggests that NTS1 agonists may exert beneficial actions in an animal model of AD. PMID:24828655

  3. Potent antitumor effect of neurotensin receptor-targeted oncolytic adenovirus co-expressing decorin and Wnt antagonist in an orthotopic pancreatic tumor model.

    PubMed

    Na, Youjin; Choi, Joung-Woo; Kasala, Dayananda; Hong, JinWoo; Oh, Eonju; Li, Yan; Jung, Soo-Jung; Kim, Sung Wan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2015-12-28

    Pancreatic cancer is highly aggressive, malignant, and notoriously difficult to cure using conventional cancer therapies. These conventional therapies have significant limitations due to excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) of pancreatic cancer and poor cancer specificity. The excess ECM prevents infiltration of drugs into the inner layer of the solid tumor. Therefore, novel treatment modalities that can specifically target the tumor and degrade the ECM are required for effective therapy. In the present study, we used ECM-degrading and Wnt signal-disrupting oncolytic adenovirus (oAd/DCN/LRP) to achieve a desirable therapeutic outcome against pancreatic cancer. In addition, to overcome the limitations in systemic delivery of oncolytic Ad (oAd) and to specifically target pancreatic cancer, neurotensin peptide (NT)-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG) was chemically crosslinked to the surface of Ad, generating a systemically injectable hybrid system, oAd/DCN/LRP-PEG-NT. We tested the targeting and therapeutic efficacy of oAd/DCN/LRP-PEG-NT toward neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR)-overexpressing pancreatic cancer cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The oAd/DCN/LRP-PEG-NT elicited increased NTR-selective cancer cell killing and transduction efficiency when compared with a cognate control lacking NT (oAd/DCN/LRP-PEG). Furthermore, systemic administration of oAd/DCN/LRP-PEG-NT significantly decreased induction of innate and adaptive immune responses against Ad, and blood retention time was markedly prolonged by PEGylation. Moreover, NTR-targeting oAd elicited greater in vivo tumor growth suppression when compared with naked oAd and 9.5 × 10(6)-fold increased tumor-to-liver ratio. This significantly enhanced antitumor effect of oAd/DCN/LRP-PEG-NT was mediated by active viral replication and viral spreading, which was facilitated by ECM degradation and inhibition of Wnt signaling-related factors (Wnt, β-catenin, and/or vimentin) in the tumor tissues. Taken together, these

  4. Maternal separation enhances conditioned fear and decreases the mRNA levels of the neurotensin receptor 1 gene with hypermethylation of this gene in the rat amygdala.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Boku, Shuken; Nakagawa, Shin; Inoue, Takeshi; Kato, Akiko; Takamura, Naoki; Song, Ning; Nibuya, Masashi; Koyama, Tsukasa; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Stress during postnatal development is associated with an increased risk for depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse later in life, almost as if mental illness is able to be programed by early life stressors. Recent studies suggest that such "programmed" effects can be caused by epigenetic regulation. With respect to conditioned fear, previous studies have indicated that early life stress influences its development in adulthood, whereas no potential role of epigenetic regulation has been reported. Neurotensin (NTS) is an endogenous neuropeptide that has receptors densely located in the amygdala and hippocampus. Recently, NTS systems have constituted an emerging target for the treatment of anxiety. The aim of the present work is to clarify whether the NTS system is involved in the disturbance of conditioned fear in rats stressed by maternal separation (MS). The results showed that MS enhanced freezing behaviors in fear-conditioned stress and reduced the gene expression of NTS receptor (NTSR) 1 but not of NTS or NTSR2 in the amygdalas of adult rats. The microinjection of a NTSR1 antagonist into the amygdala increased the percentage of freezing in conditioned fear, whereas the microinjection of NTSR1 agonist decreased freezing. These results suggest that NTSR1 in the amygdala may play a role in the effects of MS on conditioned fear stress in adult rats. Moreover, MS increased DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala. Taken together, MS may leave epigenetic marks in the NTSR1 gene in the amygdala, which may enhance conditioned fear in adulthood. The MS-induced alternations of DNA methylation in the promoter region of NTSR1 in the amygdala may be associated with vulnerability to the development of anxiety disorders and depression in adulthood. PMID:24831231

  5. Neurotensin Changes Propulsive Activity into a Segmental Motor Pattern in the Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongfei; Chen, Ji-Hong; Yang, Zixian; Huang, Min; Yu, Yuanjie; Tan, Shiyun; Luo, Hesheng; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Neurotensin is a gut-brain peptide with both inhibitory and excitatory actions on the colonic musculature; our objective was to understand the implications of this for motor patterns occurring in the intact colon of the rat. Methods The effects of neurotensin with concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 nM were studied in the intact rat colon in vitro, by investigating spatio-temporal maps created from video recordings of colonic motility before and after neurotensin. Results Low concentration of neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibited propagating long distance contractions and rhythmic propagating motor complexes; in its place a slow propagating rhythmic segmental motor pattern developed. The neurotensin receptor 1 antagonist SR-48692 prevented the development of the segmental motor pattern. Higher concentrations of neurotensin (10 nM and 100 nM) were capable of restoring long distance contraction activity and inhibiting the segmental activity. The slow propagating segmental contraction showed a rhythmic contraction—relaxation cycle at the slow wave frequency originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus pacemaker. High concentrations given without prior additions of low concentrations did not evoke the segmental motor pattern. These actions occurred when neurotensin was given in the bath solution or intraluminally. The segmental motor pattern evoked by neurotensin was inhibited by the neural conduction blocker lidocaine. Conclusions Neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibits the dominant propulsive motor patterns of the colon and a distinct motor pattern of rhythmic slow propagating segmental contractions develops. This motor pattern has the hallmarks of haustral boundary contractions. PMID:26882114

  6. Dopaminergic control of 125I-labeled neurotensin binding site density in corticolimbic structures of the rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Herve, D; Tassin, J P; Studler, J M; Dana, C; Kitabgi, P; Vincent, J P; Glowinski, J; Rostene, W

    1986-01-01

    In the rat brain, destruction of dopaminergic cell groups by injections of 6-hydroxydopamine into the ventral mesencephalic tegmentum results in large decreases in the number of neurotensin binding sites in the mesencephalon and the striatum. In contrast, these lesions produce an increase in the number of 125I-labeled neurotensin binding sites in the lateral part of the prefrontal cortex despite a large decrease in cortical dopamine levels. Increases in the number of 125I-labeled neurotensin binding sites in this cortical area as well as in the entorhinal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, and the central part of the striatum were also obtained after chronic blockade of dopamine neurotransmission by a long-acting neuroleptic pipotiazine palmitic ester. We propose that dopamine inputs regulate the density of postsynaptic neurotensin binding sites through cortical and subcortical dopamine receptors. Therefore, some of the clinical effects of neuroleptics in schizophrenic patients could be partly related to changes in neurotensin neurotransmission. Images PMID:3016745

  7. Neurotensin inversely modulates maternal aggression.

    PubMed

    Gammie, S C; D'Anna, K L; Gerstein, H; Stevenson, S A

    2009-02-18

    Neurotensin (NT) is a versatile neuropeptide involved in analgesia, hypothermia, and schizophrenia. Although NT is released from and acts upon brain regions involved in social behaviors, it has not been linked to a social behavior. We previously selected mice for high maternal aggression (maternal defense), an important social behavior that protects offspring, and found significantly lower NT expression in the CNS of highly protective females. Our current study directly tested NT's role in maternal defense. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of NT significantly impaired defense in terms of time aggressive and number of attacks at all doses tested (0.05, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 microg). Other maternal behaviors, including pup retrieval, were unaltered following NT injections (0.05 microg) relative to vehicle, suggesting specificity of NT action on defense. Further, i.c.v. injections of the NT receptor 1 (NT1) antagonist, SR 48692 (30 microg), significantly elevated maternal aggression in terms of time aggressive and attack number. To understand where NT may regulate aggression, we examined Fos following injection of either 0.1 microg NT or vehicle. Thirteen of 26 brain regions examined exhibited significant Fos increases with NT, including regions expressing NT1 and previously implicated in maternal aggression, such as lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus, and central amygdala. Together, our results indicate that NT inversely regulates maternal aggression and provide the first direct evidence that lowering of NT signaling can be a mechanism for maternal aggression. To our knowledge, this is the first study to directly link NT to a social behavior. PMID:19118604

  8. Neurotensin Decreases the Proinflammatory Status of Human Skin Fibroblasts and Increases Epidermal Growth Factor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Miguel Neves, Bruno; Cruz, Maria Teresa; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblasts colonization into injured areas during wound healing (WH) is responsible for skin remodelling and is also involved in the modulation of inflammation, as fibroblasts are immunologically active. Herein, we aimed to determine neurotensin effect on the immunomodulatory profile of fibroblasts, both in homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. Neurotensin mediated responses occurred through NTR1 or NTR3 receptors, while under inflammatory conditions NTR1 expression increase seemed to modulate neurotensin responses. Among different immunomodulatory genes, CCL11, IL-8, and IL-6 were the most expressed genes, while CCL4 and EGF were the less expressed genes. After neurotensin exposure, IL-8 mRNA expression was increased while CCL11 was decreased, suggesting a proinflammatory upregulation and chemoattractant ability downregulation of fibroblasts. Under inflammatory conditions, gene expression was significantly increased. After neurotensin exposure, CCL4 and IL-6 mRNA expression were decreased while CCL11 was increased, suggesting again a decrease in the chemoattractant capacity of fibroblasts and in their proinflammatory status. Furthermore, the expression of EGF, a crucial growth factor for skin cells proliferation and WH, was increased in all conditions. Overall, neurotensin, released by nerve fibers or skin cells, may be involved in the decrease of the chemotaxis and the proinflammatory status in the proliferation and remodelling phases of WH. PMID:25180119

  9. The effects of acute exposure to ethanol on neurotensin and guanine nucleotide-stimulation of phospholipase C activity in intact NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Both ethanol and neurotensin produce sedation and hypothermia. When administered in combination the behavioral effects of these two substances are potentiated. In order to better understand the biochemical nature of this interaction, the direct effects of ethanol on neurotensin receptors and an associated signal transduction process were determined in NIE-115 neuroblastoma cells. Ethanol in physiologically relevant concentrations significantly reduced neurotensin stimulated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production while having no effect on the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)neurotensin. In addition, ethanol up to 200 mM had no effect on GTPYS mediated ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphate production. The results indicate that acute exposure ethanol partially disrupts the normal coupling of activated neurotensin receptors to the guanine nucleotide binding protein associated with phospholipase C.

  10. Neurotensin Induces Presynaptic Depression of D2 Dopamine Autoreceptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Piccart, Elisabeth; Courtney, Nicholas A.; Branch, Sarah Y.; Ford, Christopher P.

    2015-01-01

    Increased dopaminergic signaling is a hallmark of severe mesencephalic pathologies such as schizophrenia and psychostimulant abuse. Activity of midbrain dopaminergic neurons is under strict control of inhibitory D2 autoreceptors. Application of the modulatory peptide neurotensin (NT) to midbrain dopaminergic neurons transiently increases activity by decreasing D2 dopamine autoreceptor function, yet little is known about the mechanisms that underlie long-lasting effects. Here, we performed patch-clamp electrophysiology and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in mouse brain slices to determine the effects of NT on dopamine autoreceptor-mediated neurotransmission. Application of the active peptide fragment NT8–13 produced synaptic depression that exhibited short- and long-term components. Sustained depression of D2 autoreceptor signaling required activation of the type 2 NT receptor and the protein phosphatase calcineurin. NT application increased paired-pulse ratios and decreased extracellular levels of somatodendritic dopamine, consistent with a decrease in presynaptic dopamine release. Surprisingly, we observed that electrically induced long-term depression of dopaminergic neurotransmission that we reported previously was also dependent on type 2 NT receptors and calcineurin. Because electrically induced depression, but not NT-induced depression, was blocked by postsynaptic calcium chelation, our findings suggest that endogenous NT may act through a local circuit to decrease presynaptic dopamine release. The current research provides a mechanism through which augmented NT release can produce a long-lasting increase in membrane excitability of midbrain dopamine neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Whereas plasticity of glutamate synapses in the brain has been studied extensively, demonstrations of plasticity at dopaminergic synapses have been more elusive. By quantifying inhibitory neurotransmission between midbrain dopaminergic neurons in brain slices from mice we have

  11. Revisiting the structure of the Vps10 domain of human sortilin and its interaction with neurotensin

    PubMed Central

    Quistgaard, Esben M; Grøftehauge, Morten K; Madsen, Peder; Pallesen, Lone T; Christensen, Brian; Sørensen, Esben S; Nissen, Poul; Petersen, Claus M; Thirup, Søren S

    2014-01-01

    Sortilin is a multifunctional receptor involved in sorting and apoptosis. We have previously reported a 2.0-Å structure of the Vps10 ectodomain in complex with one of its ligands, the tridecapeptide neurotensin. Here we set out to further characterize the structural properties of sortilin and its interaction with neurotensin. To this end, we have determined a new 2.7 Å structure using a crystal grown with a 10-fold increased concentration of neurotensin. Here a second peptide fragment was observed within the Vps10 β-propeller, which may in principle either represent a second molecule of neurotensin or the N-terminal part of the molecule bound at the previously identified binding site. However, in vitro binding experiments strongly favor the latter hypothesis. Neurotensin thus appears to bind with a 1:1 stoichiometry, and whereas the N-terminus does not bind on its own, it enhances the affinity in context of full-length neurotensin. We conclude that the N-terminus of neurotensin probably functions as an affinity enhancer for binding to sortilin by engaging the second binding site. Crystal packing differs partly from the previous structure, which may be due to variations in the degree and pattern of glycosylations. Consequently, a notable hydrophobic loop, not modeled previously, could now be traced. A computational analysis suggests that this and a neighboring loop may insert into the membrane and thus restrain movement of the Vps10 domain. We have, furthermore, mapped all N-linked glycosylations of CHO-expressed human sortilin by mass spectrometry and find that their locations are compatible with membrane insertion of the hydrophobic loops. PMID:24985322

  12. Multiple toxic doses of methamphetamine alter neurotensin concentrations in various region of the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.R.; Merchant, K.; Gibb, J.W.; Letter, A.A.

    1986-03-05

    The authors have previously reported that multiple high doses of methamphetamine (METH) alter neuronal monoamine metabolism and release. Recently, Hokfelt et al. showed that neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, has neurotransmitter properties which may be involved with DA neuronal activity. In the present study they investigated the possible effects of METH on the CNS neurotensin system. Five doses of METH (15 mg/kg) were administered every 6 h; control and treated rats were sacrificed 18 h after the last dose and concentrations of neurotensin-like immuno-reactivity (NTLI) were measured by radioimmunoassay. NTLI was elevated 200-300% in the nucleus accumbens, neostriatum, and substantia nigra; 30-40% increases in NTLI were measured in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. No change was observed in amygdala, A-10 or periaqueductal gray. In contrast to the above measured areas, the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb showed decreases of 25-35%. These findings demonstrate that METH treatment alters the activities of several CNS neurotensin systems, possibly due to the influence of this drug on DA pathways. The variability in the type and magnitude of these responses suggests that DA and neurotensin systems interact by more than one mechanism.

  13. The actions of neurotensin in rat bladder detrusor contractility

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xingyou; Bai, Xinyu; Zhao, Jiang; Wang, Liang; Wang, Qingqing; Li, Longkun

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the expression, distribution and function of neurotensin (NTs) and two main neurotensin receptors (NTSR), NTSR1 and NTSR2 in normal rat urinary bladders. NTs is primarily located in the suburothelium and the interstitium of smooth muscle bundles. The NTSR1 and NTSR2 receptor subtypes are found to co-localize with smooth muscle cells (SMCs). NTs not only can directly act on bladder SMCs to induce intracellular calcium mobilization by activating the phospholipase C/inositol triphosphate (PLC/IP3) pathway, promoting extracellular calcium influx through a non-selective cation channels, but may be also involved in the modulation of the cholinergic system. Nowadays, the selective antimuscarinic drugs (solifenacin) and the selective beta 3-adrenergic agonist (mirabegron) are used as the first-line pharmacotherapy for overactive bladder (OAB), but without satisfactory treatment benefits in some patients. This study provided evidence suggesting that bladder NTs may play an important role in the regulation of micturition. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of NTs on bladder contractility and the underlying mechanism, which might reveal that the administration of NTSR antagonists can potentially relieve the symptoms of OAB by coordination with antimuscarinic pharmacotherapy. PMID:26053252

  14. Telmisartan attenuates the inflamed mesenteric adipose tissue in spontaneous colitis by mechanisms involving regulation of neurotensin/microRNA-155 pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Zuo, Lugen; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Zhen; Gu, Lili; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-02-15

    Mesenteric adipose tissue hypertrophy is unique to Crohn's disease while the molecular basis of the crosstalk between MAT and the intestinal inflammation is largely unknown. Telmisartan is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-receptor-γ agonist which has beneficial effects on fat distribution and pro-inflammatory adipokine expression. We evaluated the effect of telmisartan upon mesenteric adipose tissue alterations and inflammatory features in IL-10(-)/(-) mice. We found that treatment with telmisartan significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis in IL-10(-)/(-) mice. Additionally, administration of telmisartan was associated with restoration of mesenteric adipose tissue adipocyte morphology and the expression of adipokines. Furthermore, telmisartan treatment suppressed the neurotensin/microRNA-155 pathway in mesenteric adipose tissue from spontaneous colitis which was confirmed by an in vitro study using cultured mesenteric adipose tissue from Crohn's disease patients. Administration of telmisartan showed promising results in spontaneous colitis which was associated with the attenuated mesenteric adipose tissue alteration which at least in part, was associated with its activity in the regulation of the neurotensin/microRNA-155 pathway. These results support the hypothesis that regulating the abnormal immune response in adipose tissue is an important target for the treatment of Crohn's disease. PMID:25576685

  15. Neurotensin Is Coexpressed, Coreleased, and Acts Together With GLP-1 and PYY in Enteroendocrine Control of Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grunddal, Kaare V; Ratner, Cecilia F; Svendsen, Berit; Sommer, Felix; Engelstoft, Maja S; Madsen, Andreas N; Pedersen, Jens; Nøhr, Mark K; Egerod, Kristoffer L; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Kowalski, Timothy; Howard, Andrew D; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Offermanns, Stefan; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Holst, Jens J; Holst, Birgitte; Schwartz, Thue W

    2016-01-01

    The 2 gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are well known to be coexpressed, costored, and released together to coact in the control of key metabolic target organs. However, recently, it became clear that several other gut hormones can be coexpressed in the intestinal-specific lineage of enteroendocrine cells. Here, we focus on the anatomical and functional consequences of the coexpression of neurotensin with GLP-1 and PYY in the distal small intestine. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, laser capture, and triple staining demonstrated that GLP-1 cells in the crypts become increasingly multihormonal, ie, coexpressing PYY and neurotensin as they move up the villus. Proglucagon promoter and pertussis toxin receptor-driven cell ablation and reappearance studies indicated that although all the cells die, the GLP-1 cells reappear more quickly than PYY- and neurotensin-positive cells. High-resolution confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that neurotensin is stored in secretory granules distinct from GLP-1 and PYY storing granules. Nevertheless, the 3 peptides were cosecreted from both perfused small intestines and colonic crypt cultures in response to a series of metabolite, neuropeptide, and hormonal stimuli. Importantly, neurotensin acts synergistically, ie, more than additively together with GLP-1 and PYY to decrease palatable food intake and inhibit gastric emptying, but affects glucose homeostasis in a more complex manner. Thus, neurotensin is a major gut hormone deeply integrated with GLP-1 and PYY, which should be taken into account when exploiting the enteroendocrine regulation of metabolism pharmacologically. PMID:26469136

  16. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems

    PubMed Central

    German, Christopher L.; Hoonakker, Amanda H.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.; Hanson, Glen R.

    2014-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters presynaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the postsynaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and postsynaptic D1-like and D2-like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1-like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1-like and D2-like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption. PMID:24678634

  17. Cannabinoid receptor type-1: breaking the dogmas

    PubMed Central

    Busquets Garcia, Arnau; Soria-Gomez, Edgar; Bellocchio, Luigi; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is abundantly expressed in the brain. This system regulates a plethora of physiological functions and is composed of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands (endocannabinoids), and the enzymes involved in the metabolism of endocannabinoids. In this review, we highlight the new advances in cannabinoid signaling, focusing on a key component of the ECS, the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB 1). In recent years, the development of new imaging and molecular tools has demonstrated that this receptor can be distributed in many cell types (e.g., neuronal or glial cells) and intracellular compartments (e.g., mitochondria). Interestingly, cellular and molecular effects are differentially mediated by CB 1 receptors according to their specific localization (e.g., glutamatergic or GABAergic neurons). Moreover, this receptor is expressed in the periphery, where it can modulate periphery-brain connections. Finally, the better understanding of the CB 1 receptor structure led researchers to propose interesting and new allosteric modulators. Thus, the advances and the new directions of the CB 1 receptor field will provide new insights and better approaches to profit from its interesting therapeutic profile. PMID:27239293

  18. Pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on intestinal mucosa: not just trefoil peptides.

    PubMed

    Assimakopoulos, Stelios-F; Scopa, Chrisoula-D; Nikolopoulou, Vassiliki-N; Vagianos, Constantine-E

    2008-06-14

    Bombesin and neurotensin are neuropeptides which exert a wide spectrum of biological actions on gastrointestinal tissues influencing intestinal growth and adaptation, intestinal motility, blood flow, secretion, nutrient absorption and immune response. Based mainly on their well-established potent enterotrophic effect, numerous experimental studies investigated their potential positive effect on the atrophic or injured intestinal mucosa. These peptides proved to be effective mucosa-healing factors, but the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms for this action remained unresolved. In a recently published study (World J Gastroenterol 2008; 14(8): 1222-1230), it was shown that their protective effect on the intestine in experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease was related to anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiapoptotic actions. These results are in close agreement with our previous studies on jaundiced and hepatectomized rats that showed a regulatory effect of bombesin and neurotensin on critical cellular processes such as enterocyte' proliferation and death, oxidative stress and redox equilibrium, tight junctions' formation and function, and inflammatory response. The pleiotropic effects of bombesin and neurotensin on diverse types of intestinal injury may justify their consideration for clinical trials. PMID:18567096

  19. CLAVATA 1-type receptors in plant development.

    PubMed

    Hazak, Ora; Hardtke, Christian S

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental aspect of plant development is the coordination of growth through endogenous signals and its integration with environmental inputs. Similar to animals, plants frequently use cell surface-localized receptors to monitor such stimuli, for instance through plasma membrane-integral receptor-like kinases (RLKs). Compared to other organisms, plants possess a large number of RLKs (more than 600 in Arabidopsis thaliana), which implies that ligand-receptor-mediated molecular mechanisms regulate a wide range of processes during plant development. Here, we focus on A. thaliana RLKs of the CLAVATA 1 (CLV1) type, which orchestrate key steps during plant development, including the regulation of meristem maintenance, anther development, vascular tissue formation, and root system architecture. These receptors are regulated by small signalling peptides that belong to the family of CLE (CLV3 / EMBRYO SURROUNDING REGION) ligands. We discuss different aspects of plant development that are regulated by these receptors in light of their molecular mechanism of action. As so often, the intensive research on this group of plant RLKs has raised many intriguing questions, which remain to be answered. PMID:27340234

  20. Neurotensin-produced antinociception in the rostral ventromedial medulla is partially mediated by spinal cord norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Buhler, A. V.; Proudfit, H. K.; Gebhart, G. F.

    2008-01-01

    Microinjection of neurotensin (NT) into the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) produces dose-dependent antinociception. Here we show that antinociception produced by intra RVM microinjection of neurotensin (NT) or the selective NT receptor subtype 1 (NTR1) agonist PD149163 can be partially blocked by intrathecal (i.t.) yohimbine, an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist and by methysergide, a serotonin receptor antagonist. Antinociception produced by the NTR2 agonist beta-lactotensin (β-LT) is blocked by intrathecal (i.t.) yohimbine, but not by methysergide i.t.. It is not known which noradrenergic cell group is involved in this newly identified noradrenergic component of NTR-mediated antinociception. These experiments provide the first evidence that selective activation of NTR2 in the RVM produces antinociception. These results also provide evidence that activation of NTR1 in the RVM produces antinociception through spinal release of norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin, and that activation of NTR2 in the RVM produces antinociception mediated by spinal release of NE. PMID:17664042

  1. AB007. Neurotensin derived from cancer stroma contributes to castration resistance via promoting neuroendocrine transdifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shimiao; Shang, Zhiqun; Tian, Hao; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Niu, Yuanjie

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NED) during the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains undefined. Although androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) can impair tumor cell growth, ADT can also triggers a parallel reaction, leading to increased neurotensin (NTS) production in cancer associated stromal cells which drives NED. Here, we systematically explore the NTS network in tumor microenvironment that drives NED following ADT. The CK8+/CK14+ intermediate cells, as opposed to other epithelial cells, can be transdifferentiated to neuroendocrine (NE) status by excessive NTS through simultaneous activation of neurotensin receptor 1 (NTSR1)-PRKACB and 3 (NTSR3)-AHNAK axes. The importance of PRKACB and AHNAK in NED development was then confirmed in human prostate tumor tissues. More importantly, we demonstrated SR48692 (an inhibitor of NTSR1) could inhibit NED and prevent castration resistance in prostate tumor from xenografts and TRAMP models. We propose that targeting this pathway could provide benefit for patients with tumors expressing high levels of NTS following ADT.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization in Vitro and in Vivo of (l)-(Trimethylsilyl)alanine Containing Neurotensin Analogues.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Roberto; Besserer-Offroy, Élie; René, Adeline; Côté, Jérôme; Tétreault, Pascal; Collerette-Tremblay, Jasmin; Longpré, Jean-Michel; Leduc, Richard; Martinez, Jean; Sarret, Philippe; Cavelier, Florine

    2015-10-01

    The silylated amino acid (l)-(trimethylsilyl)alanine (TMSAla) was incorporated at the C-terminal end of the minimal biologically active neurotensin (NT) fragment, leading to the synthesis of new hexapeptide NT[8-13] analogues. Here, we assessed the ability of these new silylated NT compounds to bind to NTS1 and NTS2 receptors, promote regulation of multiple signaling pathways, induce inhibition of the ileal smooth muscle contractions, and affect distinct physiological variables, including blood pressure and pain sensation. Among the C-terminal modified analogues, compound 6 (JMV2007) carrying a TMSAla residue in position 13 exhibits a higher affinity toward NT receptors than the NT native peptide. We also found that compound 6 is effective in reversing carbachol-induced contraction in the isolated strip preparation assay and at inducing a drop in blood pressure. Finally, compound 6 produces potent analgesia in experimental models of acute and persistent pain. PMID:26348111

  3. Exogenous neurotensin modulates sperm function in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Umezu, Kohei; Hiradate, Yuuki; Oikawa, Toshinori; Ishiguro, Hirotoshi; Numabe, Takashi; Hara, Kenshiro; Tanemura, Kentaro

    2016-08-25

    Recently, the conception rates after artificial insemination have been pointed out to decline continuously. To overcome this problem, the control of frozen and thawed sperm quality is required. However, the mechanism of bovine sperm functional regulation is still largely unknown. In mammals, the ejaculated sperm are capable of showing fertilizing ability during migration in the female reproductive organs. It is well known that these female organs secrete several factors contributing to sperm capacitation. We previously reported that neurotensin (NT) secreted from the oviduct and cumulus cells enhanced sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in mice. In this study, we confirmed the expression of the NT receptor (NTR1) in the bovine sperm neck region and the secretion of NT in the bovine uterus and oviduct. The similar expression patterns of NT and NTR1 suggests a conserved mechanism of sperm functional regulation between mouse and cattle. Thus, we examined the effects of exogenous NT on the bovine sperm functions. First, we showed that NT induced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT enhances sperm capacitation. Second, we showed that NT induced acrosome reactions of capacitated sperm in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT facilitates acrosome reaction. Finally, we used a computer-aided sperm analysis system to show that NT did not have a great effect on sperm motility. These results suggest that NT acts as a facilitator of sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in the female reproductive tracts in cattle, highlighting the importance of NT-mediated signaling to regulate sperm functions. PMID:27210588

  4. Exogenous neurotensin modulates sperm function in Japanese Black cattle

    PubMed Central

    UMEZU, Kohei; HIRADATE, Yuuki; OIKAWA, Toshinori; ISHIGURO, Hirotoshi; NUMABE, Takashi; HARA, Kenshiro; TANEMURA, Kentaro

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the conception rates after artificial insemination have been pointed out to decline continuously. To overcome this problem, the control of frozen and thawed sperm quality is required. However, the mechanism of bovine sperm functional regulation is still largely unknown. In mammals, the ejaculated sperm are capable of showing fertilizing ability during migration in the female reproductive organs. It is well known that these female organs secrete several factors contributing to sperm capacitation. We previously reported that neurotensin (NT) secreted from the oviduct and cumulus cells enhanced sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in mice. In this study, we confirmed the expression of the NT receptor (NTR1) in the bovine sperm neck region and the secretion of NT in the bovine uterus and oviduct. The similar expression patterns of NT and NTR1 suggests a conserved mechanism of sperm functional regulation between mouse and cattle. Thus, we examined the effects of exogenous NT on the bovine sperm functions. First, we showed that NT induced sperm protein tyrosine phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT enhances sperm capacitation. Second, we showed that NT induced acrosome reactions of capacitated sperm in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that NT facilitates acrosome reaction. Finally, we used a computer-aided sperm analysis system to show that NT did not have a great effect on sperm motility. These results suggest that NT acts as a facilitator of sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction in the female reproductive tracts in cattle, highlighting the importance of NT-mediated signaling to regulate sperm functions. PMID:27210588

  5. NHERF-1 regulation of EGF and neurotensin signalling in HT-29 epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, Wade A.; Monteith, Gregory R.; Poronnik, Philip

    2013-03-22

    Highlights: ► NHERF-1 expression was abundant throughout HT-29 cells consistent with a cancerous phenotype. ► Knockdown of NHERF-1 lead to a significant reduction in cell proliferation. ► EGF and neurotensin-mediated proliferation was inhibited by knockdown of NHERF-1. ► Neurotensin-mediated Ca{sup 2+} response was abolished by knockdown of NHERF-1. -- Abstract: Neurotensin receptors (NT-R) and the epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) are commonly overexpressed in many epithelial origin tumours. In addition to their role as mitogenic mediators through specific cell signalling, recent studies indicate that the activity/expression of scaffold proteins responsible for the assembly and coordination of the signalling complexes may also have central roles in epithelial transformation. In particular, the “epithelial” PSD-95/Dlg/Zo-1 (PDZ) scaffold/adapter protein, Na{sup +}/H{sup +} exchanger regulatory factor isoform one (NHERF-1), has been identified as a potential regulator of cellular transformation. NHERF-1 is a known regulator of EGF-R function and plays numerous roles in G-protein-coupled receptor signalling. Because of the synergistic signalling between these two potent mitogens, we investigated a potential role for NHERF-1 in the molecular mechanism linking the aberrant proliferative phenotype initiated by some G-Protein-coupled receptor activators in the colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell line. Knockdown (80%) of endogenous NHERF-1 leads to significant reduction in proliferation rate; an effect that could not be recovered by exogenous application of either NT or EGF. Inhibition of the EGF-R with AG1487 also inhibited proliferation and this effect could not be recovered with NT. Knockdown of NHERF-1 significantly altered the expression of the EGF-R, and almost completely abolished the NT-mediated increases in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+}. Knockdown of NHERF-1 also attenuated UTP-mediated purinergic Ca{sup 2+} signalling. Taken together, these data

  6. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.

    1985-05-27

    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  7. Type 3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor exerts anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells, the role of muscarinic receptors in mucosal homeostasis, response to enteric pathogens, and modulation of immune cell function is undefined. The contribution of type 3 muscarinic receptor (M3R) to mucosal homeo...

  8. Murine gammaherpesvirus targets type I IFN receptor but not type III IFN receptor early in infection.

    PubMed

    Lopušná, Katarína; Benkóczka, Tímea; Lupták, Jakub; Matúšková, Radka; Lukáčiková, Ľubomíra; Ovečková, Ingrid; Režuchová, Ingeborg

    2016-07-01

    The innate immune response represents a primary line of defense against invading viral pathogens. Since epithelial cells are the primary site of gammaherpesvirus replication during infection in vivo and there are no information on activity of IFN-III signaling against gammaherpesviruses in this cell type, in present study, we evaluated the expression profile and virus-host interactions in mouse mammary epithelial cell (NMuMG) infected with three strains of murine gammaherpesvirus, MHV-68, MHV-72 and MHV-4556. Studying three strains of murine gammaherpesvirus, which differ in nucleotide sequence of some structural and non-structural genes, allowed us to compare the strain-dependent interactions with host organism. Our results clearly demonstrate that: (i) MHV-68, MHV-72 and MHV-4556 differentially interact with intracellular signaling and dysregulate IFN signal transduction; (ii) MHV-68, MHV-72 and MHV-4556 degrade type I IFN receptor in very early stages of infection (2-4hpi), but not type III IFN receptor; (iii) type III IFN signaling might play a key role in antiviral defense of epithelial cells in early stages of murine gammaherpesvirus replication; (iv) NMuMG cells are an appropriate model for study of not only type I IFN signaling, but also type III IFN signaling pathway. These findings are important for better understanding of individual virus-host interactions in lytic as well as in persistent gammaherpesvirus replication and help us to elucidate IFN-III function in early events of virus infection. PMID:27152708

  9. Identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Jacob Lauwring; Schrøder, Tenna Juul; Christensen, Søren; Strandbygård, Dorthe; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; García-Alai, Maria Marta; Lindberg, Samsa; Langgård, Morten; Eskildsen, Jørgen Calí; David, Laurent; Tagmose, Lena; Simonsen, Klaus Baek; Maltas, Philip James; Rønn, Lars Christian Biilmann; de Jong, Inge E. M.; Malik, Ibrahim John; Egebjerg, Jan; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Uppalanchi, Srinivas; Sakumudi, Durga Rao; Eradi, Pradheep; Watson, Steven P.; Thirup, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Sortilin is a type I membrane glycoprotein belonging to the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family of sorting receptors and is most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. Sortilin has emerged as a key player in the regulation of neuronal viability and has been implicated as a possible therapeutic target in a range of disorders. Here, the identification of AF40431, the first reported small-molecule ligand of sortilin, is reported. Crystals of the sortilin–AF40431 complex were obtained by co-crystallization and the structure of the complex was solved to 2.7 Å resolution. AF40431 is bound in the neurotensin-binding site of sortilin, with the leucine moiety of AF40431 mimicking the binding mode of the C-terminal leucine of neurotensin and the 4-methyl­umbelliferone moiety of AF40431 forming π-stacking with a phenylalanine. PMID:24531479

  10. Suicide HSVtk gene delivery by neurotensin-polyplex nanoparticles via the bloodstream and GCV Treatment specifically inhibit the growth of human MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer tumors xenografted in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne; Forgez, Patricia; Martínez-Fong, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis, as shown by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and Apostain immunoreactivity, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (55-60%) (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, the weight of tumors transfected with the HSVtk gene was 55% less than that of control tumors (P<0.05). The intravenous transfection did not induce apoptosis in peripheral organs. Our results offer a promising gene therapy for TNBC using the NTS-polyplex nanocarrier. PMID:24824754

  11. Suicide HSVtk Gene Delivery by Neurotensin-Polyplex Nanoparticles via the Bloodstream and GCV Treatment Specifically Inhibit the Growth of Human MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer Tumors Xenografted in Athymic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa A.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.; Escobedo, Lourdes; Hernandez-Baltazar, Daniel; Gompel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The human breast adenocarcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 has the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, which is an aggressive subtype with no specific treatment. MDA-MB-231 cells express neurotensin receptor type 1 (NTSR1), which makes these cells an attractive target of therapeutic genes that are delivered by the neurotensin (NTS)-polyplex nanocarrier via the bloodstream. We addressed the relevance of this strategy for TNBC treatment using NTS-polyplex nanoparticles harboring the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) suicide gene and its complementary prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). The reporter gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used as a control. NTS-polyplex successfully transfected both genes in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells. The transfection was demonstrated pharmacologically to be dependent on activation of NTSR1. The expression of HSVtk gene decreased cell viability by 49% (P<0.0001) and induced apoptosis in cultured MDA-MB-231 cells after complementary GCV treatment. In the MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, NTS-polyplex nanoparticles carrying either the HSVtk gene or GFP gene were injected into the tumors or via the bloodstream. Both routes of administration allowed the NTS-polyplex nanoparticles to reach and transfect tumorous cells. HSVtk expression and GCV led to apoptosis, as shown by the presence of cleaved caspase-3 and Apostain immunoreactivity, and significantly inhibited the tumor growth (55–60%) (P<0.001). At the end of the experiment, the weight of tumors transfected with the HSVtk gene was 55% less than that of control tumors (P<0.05). The intravenous transfection did not induce apoptosis in peripheral organs. Our results offer a promising gene therapy for TNBC using the NTS-polyplex nanocarrier. PMID:24824754

  12. TSH receptor antibodies in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, Ambika G; Kumaravel, Velayutham; Nair, Vasantha; Rao, Ananth; Jayakumar, Rohini V; Kumar, Harish; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2006-10-01

    The research was undertaken to study the prevalence of TSH receptor antibody positivity in patients with type 1 diabetes. A total of 74 subjects with type 1 diabetes were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Thyroid function test and assessment of thyroid autoimmunity with anti-TPO and TSH receptor antibody were done in all patients. A total of 33 males and 41 females with type 1 diabetes were studied. The prevalence of TSH receptor antibody positivity alone was 18%. The prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity with anti-TPO as a marker was 28%; the prevalence increased to 43% when TSH receptor antibody was also measured. Majority of the subjects with antithyroid antibody positivity were also positive for GAD65 antibodies. As a significant proportion of type 1 diabetic subjects have positivity to TSH receptor antibody, we suggest that larger studies should be conducted to study the benefits of TSH receptor antibody-based screening for thyroid dysfunction in type 1 diabetic subjects. As the TSH receptor antibodies could be of the stimulating or of the blocking type, subjects with antibody positivity could be at risk of developing hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. PMID:17130558

  13. [Interactions between dopamine receptor and NMDA/type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Ying; Wei, Ting-Jia; Weng, Jing-Jin; Qin, Jiang-Yuan; Huang, Xi; Su, Ji-Ping

    2016-04-25

    Type A γ-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAAR) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are the major inhibitory and excitatory receptors in the central nervous system, respectively. Co-expression of the receptors in the synapse may lead to functional influence between receptors, namely receptor interaction. The interactions between GABAAR and NMDAR can be either positive or negative. However, the mechanisms of interaction between the two receptors remain poorly understood, and potential mechanisms include (1) through a second messenger; (2) by receptors trafficking; (3) by direct interaction; (4) by a third receptor-mediation. Dopamine is the most abundant catecholamine neurotransmitter in the brain, and its receptors, dopamine receptors (DR) can activate multiple signaling pathways. Earlier studies on the interaction between DR and GABAAR/NMDAR have shown some underlying mechanisms, suggesting that DR could mediate the interaction between GABAAR and NMDAR. This paper summarized some recent progresses in the studies of the interaction between DR and NMDAR/GABAAR, providing a further understanding on the interaction between NMDAR and GABAAR mediated by DR. PMID:27108906

  14. The bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: A receptor with low affinity for benzodiazepines

    SciTech Connect

    Parola, A.L.; Laird, H.E. II )

    1991-01-01

    The density of bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) in four tissues was highest in adrenal cortex. The adrenal cortex PBR cofractionated with a mitochondrial membrane marker enzyme and could be solubilized with intact ligand binding properties using digitonin. The membrane bound and soluble mitochondrial receptors were pharmacologically characterized and showed the rank order of potency to inhibit ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding was PK 11195 > protoporphyrin IX > benzodiazepines. ({sup 3}H)PK 11195 binding to bovine adrenal mitochondria was unaffected by diethylpyrocarbonate, a histidine residue modifying reagent that decreased binding to rat liver mitochondria by 70%. ({sup 3}H)PK 14105 photolabeled the bovine PBR and the Mr was estimated under nondenaturing and denaturing conditions. These results demonstrate the bovine peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is pharmacologically and biochemically distinct from the rat receptor, but the receptor component photolabeled by an isoquinoline ligand has a similar molecular weight.

  15. Type 2 Diabetes and ADP Receptor Blocker Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Samoš, Matej; Fedor, Marián; Kovář, František; Mokáň, Michal; Bolek, Tomáš; Galajda, Peter; Kubisz, Peter; Mokáň, Marián

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is associated with several abnormalities in haemostasis predisposing to thrombosis. Moreover, T2D was recently connected with a failure in antiplatelet response to clopidogrel, the most commonly used ADP receptor blocker in clinical practice. Clopidogrel high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) was repeatedly associated with the risk of ischemic adverse events. Patients with T2D show significantly higher residual platelet reactivity on ADP receptor blocker therapy and are more frequently represented in the group of patients with HTPR. This paper reviews the current knowledge about possible interactions between T2D and ADP receptor blocker therapy. PMID:26824047

  16. Neurotensin effect on dopamine release and calcium transport in rat striatum: interactions with diphenylalkylamine calcium antagonists.

    PubMed

    Battaini, F; Govoni, S; Di Giovine, S; Trabucchi, M

    1986-03-01

    The release of dopamine was investigated in rat striatal slices exposed in vitro to neurotensin. This peptide increased basal and K+-evoked dopamine release. Moreover neurotensin antagonized the flunarizine-induced inhibition of K+-stimulated dopamine release. The K+-evoked 45Ca2+ accumulation was also inhibited by flunarizine. This effect was antagonized by neurotensin. The results suggest that dopamine release in rat striatum is regulated by different molecular events also of peptidergic nature having as possible mechanism of action an influence on calcium ion movements. PMID:3713871

  17. A neurotensin analog blocks cocaine-conditioned place preference and reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Boules, Mona; Netz, Rebecca; Fredrickson, Paul A; Richelson, Elliott

    2016-04-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Several studies suggest a therapeutic role for NT analogs in nicotine and other psychostimulant addictions. We studied the effects of the nonselective NT receptor agonist NT69L, which has equal affinity for the two major NT receptors, NTS1 and NTS2, on the expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (cocaine-CPP) and reinstatement after extinction. Robust cocaine-CPP was obtained after 5 days of conditioning. Extinction was induced using eight repeated daily injections of saline. Reinstatement was prompted by priming with one injection of cocaine (12 mg/kg intraperitoneally). On the test day, NT69L (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min before assessing cocaine-CPP. Extinction led to the loss of cocaine-CPP. One injection of cocaine (12 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for cocaine priming reinstated cocaine-CPP. NT69L blocked cocaine-CPP reinstatement in cocaine-primed animals. In addition, NT69L blocked cocaine-CPP reinstatement when administered before priming with cocaine. Thus, the NT agonist NT69L blocked both cocaine-CPP and reinstatement to cocaine preference. NT69L may exert this action by modulating the mesocorticolimbic dopamine and glutamatergic pathways involved in addiction and relapse processes. Therefore, NT agonists may represent a novel therapy for the treatment of addiction to cocaine and possibly to other psychostimulants. PMID:26901162

  18. Conjugation of a brain-penetrant peptide with neurotensin provides antinociceptive properties

    PubMed Central

    Demeule, Michel; Beaudet, Nicolas; Régina, Anthony; Besserer-Offroy, Élie; Murza, Alexandre; Tétreault, Pascal; Belleville, Karine; Ché, Christian; Larocque, Alain; Thiot, Carine; Béliveau, Richard; Longpré, Jean-Michel; Marsault, Éric; Leduc, Richard; Lachowicz, Jean E.; Gonias, Steven L.; Castaigne, Jean-Paul; Sarret, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT) has emerged as an important modulator of nociceptive transmission and exerts its biological effects through interactions with 2 distinct GPCRs, NTS1 and NTS2. NT provides strong analgesia when administered directly into the brain; however, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a major obstacle for effective delivery of potential analgesics to the brain. To overcome this challenge, we synthesized chemical conjugates that are transported across the BBB via receptor-mediated transcytosis using the brain-penetrant peptide Angiopep-2 (An2), which targets LDL receptor–related protein-1 (LRP1). Using in situ brain perfusion in mice, we found that the compound ANG2002, a conjugate of An2 and NT, was transported at least 10 times more efficiently across the BBB than native NT. In vitro, ANG2002 bound NTS1 and NTS2 receptors and maintained NT-associated biological activity. In rats, i.v. ANG2002 induced a dose-dependent analgesia in the formalin model of persistent pain. At a dose of 0.05 mg/kg, ANG2002 effectively reversed pain behaviors induced by the development of neuropathic and bone cancer pain in animal models. The analgesic properties of ANG2002 demonstrated in this study suggest that this compound is effective for clinical management of persistent and chronic pain and establish the benefits of this technology for the development of neurotherapeutics. PMID:24531547

  19. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Amino Acid Substitutions in Radiolabeled Neurotensin Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Alba; Valverde, Ibai E; Mindt, Thomas L

    2016-01-01

    Radiolabeled derivatives of the peptide neurotensin (NT) and its binding sequence NT(8-13) have been studied as potential imaging probes and therapeutics for NT-1-receptor-positive cancer. However, a direct comparison of reported NT analogues, even if radiolabeled with the same radionuclide, is difficult because different techniques and models have been used for preclinical evaluations. In an effort to identify a suitable derivative of NT(8-13) for radiotracer development, we herein report a side-by-side in vitro comparison of radiometallated NT derivatives bearing some of the most commonly reported amino acid substitutions in their sequence. Performed investigations include cell internalization experiments, determinations of receptor affinity, measurements of the distribution coefficient, and blood serum stability studies. Of the [(177)Lu]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-labeled examples studied, analogues of NT(8-13) containing a short hydrophilic tetraethylene glycol (PEG4 ) spacer between the peptide and the radiometal complex, and a minimum number of substitutions of amino acid residues, exhibited the most promising properties in vitro. PMID:26593062

  20. Autoradiographic localization of mu and delta opioid receptors in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system

    SciTech Connect

    Dilts, R.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In vitro autoradiographic techniques were coupled with selective chemical lesions of the A10 dopamine cells and intrinsic perikarya of the region to delineate the anatomical localization of mu and delta opioid receptors, as well as, neurotensin receptors. Mu opioid receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DAGO. Delta receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-DPDPE. Neurotensin receptors were labeled with {sup 125}I-NT3. Unilateral lesions of the dopamine perikarya were produced by injections of 6-OHDA administered in the ventral mesencephalon. Unilateral lesions of intrinsic perikarya were induced by injections of quinolinic acid in to the A10 dopamine cell region. Unilateral lesions produced with 6-OHDA resulted in the loss of neurotensin receptors in the A10 region and within the terminal fields. Mu opioid receptors were unaffected by this treatment, but delta opioid receptors increased in the contralateral striatum and nucleus accumbens following 6-OHDA administration. Quinolinic acid produced a reduction of mu opioid receptors within the A10 region with a concomitant reduction in neurotensin receptors in both the cell body region and terminal fields. These results are consistent with a variety of biochemical and behavioral data which suggest the indirect modulation of dopamine transmission by the opioids. In contrast these results strongly indicate a direct modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine system by neurotensin.

  1. Tuning properties and dynamic range of type 1 vomeronasal receptors

    PubMed Central

    Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Ma, Limei; Yu, C. Ron

    2015-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) expresses chemosensory receptors that detect intra-species as well as inter-species cues. The vomeronasal neurons are thought to be highly selective in their responses. The tuning properties of individual receptors remain difficult to characterize due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here, we take a transgenic approach to ectopically express two type 1 vomeronasal receptors in the mouse VNO and characterize their responses to steroid compounds. We find that V1rj2 and V1rj3 are sensitive to two sulfated estrogens (SEs) and can be activated by a broad variety of sulfated and glucuronidated steroids at high concentrations. Individual neurons exhibit narrow range of concentration-dependent activation. Collectively, a neuronal population expressing the same receptor covers a wide dynamic range in their responses to SEs. These properties recapitulate the response profiles of endogenous neurons to SEs. PMID:26236183

  2. Tuning properties and dynamic range of type 1 vomeronasal receptors.

    PubMed

    Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Ma, Limei; Yu, C Ron

    2015-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) expresses chemosensory receptors that detect intra-species as well as inter-species cues. The vomeronasal neurons are thought to be highly selective in their responses. The tuning properties of individual receptors remain difficult to characterize due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here, we take a transgenic approach to ectopically express two type 1 vomeronasal receptors in the mouse VNO and characterize their responses to steroid compounds. We find that V1rj2 and V1rj3 are sensitive to two sulfated estrogens (SEs) and can be activated by a broad variety of sulfated and glucuronidated steroids at high concentrations. Individual neurons exhibit narrow range of concentration-dependent activation. Collectively, a neuronal population expressing the same receptor covers a wide dynamic range in their responses to SEs. These properties recapitulate the response profiles of endogenous neurons to SEs. PMID:26236183

  3. Human type II receptor for bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs): extension of the two-kinase receptor model to the BMPs.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, F; Ventura, F; Doody, J; Massagué, J

    1995-01-01

    Bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) are universal regulators of animal development. We report the identification and cloning of the BMP type II receptor (BMPR-II), a missing component of this receptor system in vertebrates. BMPR-II is a transmembrane serine/threonine kinase that binds BMP-2 and BMP-7 in association with multiple type I receptors, including BMPR-IA/Brk1, BMPR-IB, and ActR-I, which is also an activin type I receptor. Cloning of BMPR-II resulted from a strong interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with diverse transforming growth factor beta family type I receptor cytoplasmic domains in a yeast two-hybrid system. In mammalian cells, however, the interaction of BMPR-II is restricted to BMP type I receptors and is ligand dependent. BMPR-II binds BMP-2 and -7 on its own, but binding is enhanced by coexpression of type I BMP receptors. BMP-2 and BMP-7 can induce a transcriptional response when added to cells coexpressing ActR-I and BMPR-II but not to cells expressing either receptor alone. The kinase activity of both receptors is essential for signaling. Thus, despite their ability to bind to type I and II receptors receptors separately, BMPs appear to require the cooperation of these two receptors for optimal binding and for signal transduction. The combinatorial nature of these receptors and their capacity to crosstalk with the activin receptor system may underlie the multifunctional nature of their ligands. PMID:7791754

  4. Neurotensin Promotes the Development of Colitis and Intestinal Angiogenesis via Hif-1α-miR-210 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Law, Ivy Ka Man; Xue, Xiang; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios; Shah, Yatrik M; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2016-05-15

    Neurotensin (NT) via its receptor 1 (NTR1) modulates the development of colitis, decreases HIF-1α/PHD2 interaction, stabilizes and increases HIF-1α transcriptional activity, and promotes intestinal angiogenesis. HIF-1α induces miR-210 expression, whereas miR-210 is strongly upregulated in response to NT in NCM460 human colonic epithelial cells overexpressing NTR1 (NCM460-NTR1). In this study, we examined whether NT activates a NTR1-HIF-1α-miR-210 cascade using in vitro (NCM460-NTR1 cells) and in vivo (transgenic mice overexpressing [HIF-1α-OE] or lacking HIF-1α [HIF-1α-knockout (KO)] in intestinal epithelial cells and mice lacking NTR1 [NTR1-KO]) models. Pretreatment of NCM460-NTR1 cells with the HIF-1α inhibitor PX-478 or silencing of HIF-1α (small interfering HIF-1α) attenuated miR-210 expression in response to NT. Intracolonic 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) administration (2-d model) increased colonic miR-210 expression that was significantly reduced in NTR1-KO, HIF-1α-KO mice, and wild-type mice pretreated intracolonically with locked nucleic acid anti-miR-210. In contrast, HIF-1α-OE mice showed increased miR-210 expression at baseline that was further increased following TNBS administration. HIF-1α-OE mice had also exacerbated TNBS-induced neovascularization compared with TNBS-exposed wild-type mice. TNBS-induced neovascularization was attenuated in HIF-1α-KO mice, or mice pretreated intracolonically with anti-miR-210. Intracolonic anti-miR-210 also reduced colitis in response to TNBS (2 d). Importantly, miR-210 expression was increased in tissue samples from ulcerative colitis patients. We conclude that NT exerts its proinflammatory and proangiogenic effects during acute colitis via a NTR1-prolyl hydroxylase 2/HIF-1α-miR-210 signaling pathway. Our results also demonstrate that miR-210 plays a proinflammatory role in the development of colitis. PMID:27076683

  5. High Cell Surface Death Receptor Expression Determines Type I Versus Type II Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xue Wei; Peterson, Kevin L.; Dai, Haiming; Schneider, Paula; Lee, Sun-Hee; Zhang, Jin-San; Koenig, Alexander; Bronk, Steve; Billadeau, Daniel D.; Gores, Gregory J.; Kaufmann, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that there are two signaling pathways leading from ligation of the Fas receptor to induction of apoptosis. Type I signaling involves Fas ligand-induced recruitment of large amounts of FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and procaspase 8, leading to direct activation of caspase 3, whereas type II signaling involves Bid-mediated mitochondrial perturbation to amplify a more modest death receptor-initiated signal. The biochemical basis for this dichotomy has previously been unclear. Here we show that type I cells have a longer half-life for Fas message and express higher amounts of cell surface Fas, explaining the increased recruitment of FADD and subsequent signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that cells with type II Fas signaling (Jurkat or HCT-15) can signal through a type I pathway upon forced receptor overexpression and that shRNA-mediated Fas down-regulation converts cells with type I signaling (A498) to type II signaling. Importantly, the same cells can exhibit type I signaling for Fas and type II signaling for TRAIL (TNF-α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand), indicating that the choice of signaling pathway is related to the specific receptor, not some other cellular feature. Additional experiments revealed that up-regulation of cell surface death receptor 5 levels by treatment with 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin converted TRAIL signaling in HCT116 cells from type II to type I. Collectively, these results suggest that the type I/type II dichotomy reflects differences in cell surface death receptor expression. PMID:21865165

  6. The transforming growth factor beta type II receptor can replace the activin type II receptor in inducing mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, A; Lin, H Y; Lodish, H F; Kintner, C R

    1994-01-01

    The type II receptors for the polypeptide growth factors transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin belong to a new family of predicted serine/threonine protein kinases. In Xenopus embryos, the biological effects of activin and TGF-beta 1 are strikingly different; activin induces a full range of mesodermal cell types in the animal cap assay, while TGF-beta 1 has no effects, presumably because of the lack of functional TGF-beta receptors. In order to assess the biological activities of exogenously added TGF-beta 1, RNA encoding the TGF-beta type II receptor was introduced into Xenopus embryos. In animal caps from these embryos, TGF-beta 1 and activin show similar potencies for induction of mesoderm-specific mRNAs, and both elicit the same types of mesodermal tissues. In addition, the response of animal caps to TGF-beta 1, as well as to activin, is blocked by a dominant inhibitory ras mutant, p21(Asn-17)Ha-ras. These results indicate that the activin and TGF-beta type II receptors can couple to similar signalling pathways and that the biological specificities of these growth factors lie in their different ligand-binding domains and in different competences of the responding cells. Images PMID:8196664

  7. Striatal dopamine type 2 receptor availability in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Broft, Allegra; Slifstein, Mark; Osborne, Joseph; Kothari, Paresh; Morim, Simon; Shingleton, Rebecca; Kenney, Lindsay; Vallabhajosula, Shankar; Attia, Evelyn; Martinez, Diana; Timothy Walsh, B

    2015-09-30

    The neurobiology of anorexia nervosa remains incompletely understood. Here we utilized PET imaging with the radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride to measure striatal dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor availability in patients with anorexia nervosa. 25 women with anorexia nervosa who were receiving treatment in an inpatient program participated, as well as 25 control subjects. Patients were scanned up to two times with the PET tracer [(11)C]raclopride: once while underweight, and once upon weight restoration. Control subjects underwent one PET scan. In the primary analyses, there were no significant differences between underweight patients (n=21) and control subjects (n=25) in striatal D2 receptor binding potential. Analysis of subregions (sensorimotor striatum, associative striatum, limbic striatum) did not reveal differences between groups. In patients completing both scans (n=15), there were no detectable changes in striatal D2 receptor binding potential after weight restoration. In this sample, there were no differences in striatal D2 receptor binding potential between patients with anorexia nervosa and control subjects. Weight restoration was not associated with a change in striatal D2 receptor binding. These findings suggest that disturbances in reward processing in this disorder are not attributable to abnormal D2 receptor characteristics, and that other reward-related neural targets may be of greater relevance. PMID:26272038

  8. Inhibitory C-type lectin receptors in myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Redelinghuys, Pierre; Brown, Gordon D.

    2011-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors encoded by the natural killer gene complex play critical roles in enabling NK cell discrimination between self and non-self. In recent years, additional genes at this locus have been identified with patterns of expression that extend to cells of the myeloid lineage where many of the encoded inhibitory receptors have equally important functions as regulators of immune homeostasis. In the present review we highlight the roles of some of these receptors including recent insights gained with regard to the identification of exogenous and endogenous ligands, mechanisms of cellular inhibition and activation, regulated expression within different cellular and immune contexts, as well as functions that include the regulation of bone homeostasis and involvement in autoimmunity. PMID:20934454

  9. Expression of neurotensin messenger RNA in a human carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, B M; Ishizuka, J; Townsend, C M; Rajaraman, S; Thompson, J C

    1991-01-01

    Neurotensin (NT), a distal gut peptide, has important regulatory and trophic effects throughout the gut; however the intracellular mechanisms that regulate the gene expression and release of human NT are not known. The purpose of this endeavor was to study a functioning human pancreatic carcinoid cell line (called BON) in vitro that expresses the NT gene, and to study the effect of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal-transduction pathway on the expression and release of human NT. RNA was prepared from BON cell line (which has been established in this laboratory); the RNA was analyzed for NT mRNA expression by Northern hybridization with a complementary DNA probe. RNA blot analysis demonstrated that the NT gene is expressed in BON and is transcribed to two mRNAs of 1.0- and 1.5-kb sizes. In the second part of this study, BON cells were treated with either forskolin (FSK), which increases intracellular levels of cAMP, or with serotonin (5-HT), which reduces cAMP in BON cells. Forskolin produced a dose-dependent increase in NT peptide release and, furthermore, FSK (10(-6) mol/L) rapidly increased NT mRNA abundance 1 hour after addition; conversely, 5-HT (10(-5) mol/L) decreased NT mRNA at 1 hour. Neurotensin mRNA levels returned to control values by 3 hours after either FSK or 5-HT, which suggests that the transcript half-life for NT is relatively short. These findings show that the expression and peptide release of human NT is mediated, in part, by the cAMP signal-transduction pathway. Our human carcinoid cell line will provide a useful model to study the in vitro regulation of NT gene expression and peptide release. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1659338

  10. Identification of type II and type III pyoverdine receptors from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    de Chial, Magaly; Ghysels, Bart; Beatson, Scott A; Geoffroy, Valérie; Meyer, Jean Marie; Pattery, Theresa; Baysse, Christine; Chablain, Patrice; Parsons, Yasmin N; Winstanley, Craig; Cordwell, Stuart J; Cornelis, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces, under conditions of iron limitation, a high-affinity siderophore, pyoverdine (PVD), which is recognized at the level of the outer membrane by a specific TonB-dependent receptor, FpvA. So far, for P. aeruginosa, three different PVDs, differing in their peptide chain, have been described (types I-III), but only the FpvA receptor for type I is known. Two PVD-producing P. aeruginosa strains, one type II and one type III, were mutagenized by a mini-TnphoA3 transposon. In each case, one mutant unable to grow in the presence of the strong iron chelator ethylenediaminedihydroxyphenylacetic acid (EDDHA) and the cognate PVD was selected. The first mutant, which had an insertion in the pvdE gene, upstream of fpvA, was unable to take up type II PVD and showed resistance to pyocin S3, which is known to use type II FpvA as receptor. The second mutant was unable to take up type III PVD and had the transposon insertion in fpvA. Cosmid libraries of the respective type II and type III PVD wild-type strains were constructed and screened for clones restoring the capacity to grow in the presence of PVD. From the respective complementing genomic fragments, type II and type III fpvA sequences were determined. When in trans, type II and type III fpvA restored PVD production, uptake, growth in the presence of EDDHA and, in the case of type II fpvA, pyocin S3 sensitivity. Complementation of fpvA mutants obtained by allelic exchange was achieved by the presence of cognate fpvA in trans. All three receptors posses an N-terminal extension of about 70 amino acids, similar to FecA of Escherichia coli, but only FpvAI has a TAT export sequence at its N-terminal end. PMID:12686625

  11. Cloning of a type I cytokine receptor most related to the IL-2 receptor β chain

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Katsutoshi; Kikly, Kristine; Michalovich, David; Young, Peter R.; Leonard, Warren J.

    2000-01-01

    We have identified a type I cytokine receptor, which we have termed novel interleukin receptor (NILR), that is most related to the IL-2 receptor β chain (IL-2Rβ) and physically adjacent to the IL-4 receptor α chain gene on chromosome 16. NILR mRNA is most highly expressed in thymus and spleen, and is induced by phytohemagglutinin in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. NILR protein was detected on human T cell lymphotropic virus type I-transformed T cell lines, Raji B cells, and YT natural killer-like cells. Artificial homodimerization of the NILR cytoplasmic domain confers proliferation to Ba/F3 murine pro-B cells but not to 32D myeloid progenitor cells or CTLL-2 murine helper T cells. In these latter cells, heterodimerization of IL-2Rβ and the common cytokine receptor γ chain (γc) cytoplasmic domains allows potent proliferation, whereas such heterodimerization of NILR with γc does not. This finding suggests that NILR has signaling potential but that a full understanding of its signaling partner(s) is not yet clear. Like IL-2Rβ, NILR associates with Jak1 and mediates Stat5 activation. PMID:11016959

  12. New Targets for Renal Interstitial Fibrosis: Relaxin Family Peptide Receptor 1 - Angiotensin Type 2 Receptor Heterodimers

    PubMed Central

    Sasser, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings have shown that relaxin has potent anti-fibrotic effects within the kidney; however, the signal transduction mechanisms involved in the renoprotective effects of relaxin are not well understood. Chow et al demonstrate that the relaxin receptor, RXFP1, forms heterodimer complexes with the angiotensin type 2 receptor, AT2, even in the absence of ligand and that these heterodimer complexes are required for relaxin’s antifibrotic effects. These findings identify a previously unknown link between relaxin and angiotensin II signaling that could be a potential new target for slowing the progression of fibrotic renal diseases. PMID:24978374

  13. New targets for renal interstitial fibrosis: relaxin family peptide receptor 1-angiotensin type 2 receptor heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Sasser, Jennifer M

    2014-07-01

    The signal transduction mechanisms involved in the renoprotective effects of relaxin are not well understood. Chow et al. demonstrate that relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1) forms heterodimer complexes with the angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2), even in the absence of ligand, and that these heterodimers are required for relaxin's antifibrotic effects. These findings identify a previously unknown link between relaxin and angiotensin II signaling that could be a potential new target for slowing the progression of fibrotic renal diseases. PMID:24978374

  14. Structure and organization of heteromeric AMPA-type glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Herguedas, Beatriz; García-Nafría, Javier; Cais, Ondrej; Fernández-Leiro, Rafael; Krieger, James; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2016-04-29

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), which are central mediators of rapid neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, predominantly exist as heteromers of the subunits GluA1 to GluA4. Here we report the first AMPAR heteromer structures, which deviate substantially from existing GluA2 homomer structures. Crystal structures of the GluA2/3 and GluA2/4 N-terminal domains reveal a novel compact conformation with an alternating arrangement of the four subunits around a central axis. This organization is confirmed by cysteine cross-linking in full-length receptors, and it permitted us to determine the structure of an intact GluA2/3 receptor by cryogenic electron microscopy. Two models in the ligand-free state, at resolutions of 8.25 and 10.3 angstroms, exhibit substantial vertical compression and close associations between domain layers, reminiscent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Model 1 resembles a resting state and model 2 a desensitized state, thus providing snapshots of gating transitions in the nominal absence of ligand. Our data reveal organizational features of heteromeric AMPARs and provide a framework to decipher AMPAR architecture and signaling. PMID:26966189

  15. Selective modulation of wild type receptor functions by mutants of G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Le Gouill, C; Parent, J L; Caron, C A; Gaudreau, R; Volkov, L; Rola-Pleszczynski, M; Stanková, J

    1999-04-30

    Members of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family are involved in most aspects of higher eukaryote biology, and mutations in their coding sequence have been linked to several diseases. In the present study, we report that mutant GPCR can affect the functional properties of the co-expressed wild type (WT) receptor. Mutants of the human platelet-activating factor receptor that fail to show any detectable ligand binding (N285I and K298stop) or coupling to a G-protein (D63N, D289A, and Y293A) were co-expressed with the WT receptor in Chinese hamster ovary and COS-7 cells. In this context, N285I and K298stop mutant receptors inhibited 3H-WEB2086 binding and surface expression. Co-transfection with D63N resulted in a constitutively active receptor phenotype. Platelet-activating factor-induced inositol phosphate production in cells transfected with a 1:1 ratio of WT:D63N was higher than with the WT cDNA alone but was abolished with a 1:3 ratio. We confirmed that these findings could be extended to other GPCRs by showing that co-expression of the WT C-C chemokine receptor 2b with a carboxyl-terminal deletion mutant (K311stop), resulted in a decreased affinity and responsiveness to MCP-1. A better understanding of this phenomenon could lead to important tools for the prevention or treatment of certain diseases. PMID:10212233

  16. Distribution of Neurotensin and Somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the Minipig Brainstem.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M L; Vecino, E; Coveñas, R

    2016-08-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, an in depth study has been carried out for the first time on the distribution of fibres and cell bodies containing neurotensin and somatostatin-28 (1-12) (SOM) in the minipig brainstem. The animals used were not treated with colchicine. The distribution of neurotensin- and SOM-immunoreactive fibres was seen to be quite similar and was moderate in the minipig brainstem: a close anatomical relationship between both neuropeptides was observed. The distribution of cell bodies containing neurotensin or SOM was quite different and restricted. Cell bodies containing neurotensin were found in four brainstem nuclei: nucleus centralis raphae, nucleus dorsalis raphae, in the pars centralis of the nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini and in the nucleus ventralis raphae. Cell bodies containing SOM were found in six nuclei/regions of the brainstem: nucleus ambiguus, nucleus dorsalis motorius nervi vagus, formatio reticularis, nucleus parabrachialis medialis, nucleus reticularis lateralis and nucleus ventralis raphae. According to the observed anatomical distribution of the immunoreactive structures containing neurotensin or SOM, the peptides could be involved in sleep-waking, nociceptive, gustatory, motor, respiratory and autonomic mechanisms. PMID:26250798

  17. Targeting C-Type Lectin Receptors for Cancer Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huimin; Kamiya, Tomomori; Suabjakyong, Papawee; Tsuji, Noriko M.

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a large family of soluble and trans-membrane pattern recognition receptors that are widely and primarily expressed on myeloid cells. CLRs are important for cell–cell communication and host defense against pathogens through the recognition of specific carbohydrate structures. Similar to a family of Toll-like receptors, CLRs signaling are involved in the various steps for initiation of innate immune responses and promote secretion of soluble factors such as cytokines and interferons. Moreover, CLRs contribute to endocytosis and antigen presentation, thereby fine-tune adaptive immune responses. In addition, there may also be a direct activation of acquired immunity. On the other hand, glycans, such as mannose structures, Lewis-type antigens, or GalNAc are components of tumor antigens and ligate CLRs, leading to immunoregulation. Therefore, agonists or antagonists of CLRs signaling are potential therapeutic reagents for cancer immunotherapy. We aim to overview the current knowledge of CLRs signaling and the application of their ligands on tumor-associating immune response. PMID:26379663

  18. Thermostabilization of the Human Endothelin Type B Receptor.

    PubMed

    Okuta, Akiko; Tani, Kazutoshi; Nishimura, Shoko; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Doi, Tomoko

    2016-06-01

    The peptide hormone endothelin, produced by the vascular endothelium, is involved in several physiological functions, including maintenance of vascular tone and humoral homeostasis. Endothelin transmits signals through the endothelin receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor. Structural studies of the endothelin type B receptor (ETBR) have been unsuccessful due to its structural flexibility and instability in detergent-solubilized solution. To overcome these problems, we explored thermostabilization of human ETBR by establishing an ETBR expression system in Escherichia coli, followed by systematic alanine scanning mutagenesis. Among 297 point mutations, 11 thermostabilizing residues were selected and further mutated to other amino acids. The thermostability indices of these residues, represented by the ratios of endothelin-1 (ET-1) binding activities with or without heat treatment at 27°C for 30min in a ligand-free form, were compared. The ligand affinity and apparent melting temperature (Tm) of the five most thermostable mutants, R124Y, D154A, K270A, S342A, and I381A, were then examined. The apparent Tm of three single mutants, R124Y, D154A, and K270A, was approximately 7°C higher than that of the wild type. The apparent Tm value of a combination of the five residues, named the Y5 ETBR mutant, was 17°C higher than that of the wild type. The Y5 ETBR mutant exhibited an affinity for ET-1 and activated Gq similar to the wild type. Further investigation of the pharmacological properties affected by combinatorial mutations of ET-1, ET-3, TxET-1, and K8794 suggested that Y5 ETBR is highly suitable for representing a ligand-free form of ETBR and is potentially applicable for studying an ET-1-bound form. PMID:27038509

  19. Microbiota regulates type 1 diabetes through Toll-like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Michael P.; Volchkov, Pavel; Kobayashi, Koichi S.; Chervonsky, Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Deletion of the innate immune adaptor myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes (T1D) results in microbiota-dependent protection from the disease: MyD88-negative mice in germ-free (GF), but not in specific pathogen-free conditions develop the disease. These results could be explained by expansion of particular protective bacteria (“specific lineage hypothesis”) or by dominance of negative (tolerizing) signaling over proinflammatory signaling (“balanced signal hypothesis”) in mutant mice. Here we found that colonization of GF mice with a variety of intestinal bacteria was capable of reducing T1D in MyD88-negative (but not wild-type NOD mice), favoring the balanced signal hypothesis. However, the receptors and signaling pathways involved in prevention or facilitation of the disease remained unknown. The protective signals triggered by the microbiota were revealed by testing NOD mice lacking MyD88 in combination with knockouts of several critical components of innate immune sensing for development of T1D. Only MyD88- and TIR-domain containing adapter inducing IFN β (TRIF) double deficient NOD mice developed the disease. Thus, TRIF signaling (likely downstream of Toll-like receptor 4, TLR4) serves as one of the microbiota-induced tolerizing pathways. At the same time another TLR (TLR2) provided prodiabetic signaling by controlling the microbiota, as reduction in T1D incidence caused by TLR2 deletion was reversed in GF TLR2-negative mice. Our results support the balanced signal hypothesis, in which microbes provide signals that both promote and inhibit autoimmunity by signaling through different receptors, including receptors of the TLR family. PMID:26216961

  20. EGFR Transactivation by Peptide G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moody, Terry W; Nuche-Berenguer, Bernardo; Nakamura, Taichi; Jensen, Robert T

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer kills approximately 1.3 million citizens in the world annually. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) erlotinib and gefitinib are effective anti-tumor agents especially in lung cancer patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The goal is to increase the potency of TKI in lung cancer patients with wild type EGFR. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) transactivate the wild type EGFR in lung cancer cells. The GPCR can be activated by peptide agonists causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or stimulation of adenylylcyclase. Recently, nonpeptide antagonists were found to inhibit the EGFR transactivation caused by peptides. Nonpeptide antagonists for bombesin (BB), neurotensin (NTS) and cholecystokinin (CCK) inhibit lung cancer growth and increase the cytotoxicity of gefitinib. The results suggest that GPCR transactivation of the EGFR may play an important role in cancer cell proliferation. PMID:25563590

  1. Plasma levels of human neurotensin: methodological and physiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Ferris, C F; George, J K; Eastwood, G; Potegal, M; Carraway, R E

    1991-01-01

    The ingestion of a meal high in fat content is known to increase circulating levels of neurotensin (NT) in humans. However, the magnitude of the postprandial rise of NT in the general circulation and its physiological significance have been subject of much debate. The present study examines circulating levels of NT in male volunteers prior to and following each of their three daily meals (ca. 31 g fat/meal). The response observed are also compared to that elicited by the direct instillation of intralipid (ca. 44 g fat) into the duodenum. NT levels were determined by radioimmunoassay of acid/acetone extracted plasma fractionated by high pressure liquid chromatography. Meals caused a significant but modest increase in NT levels, with the largest increment (ca. 4 fmol/ml) occurring after breakfast. In contrast, NT levels increased ca. 20 fmol/ml with intraduodenal instillation of lipid. The meal-stimulated increases in circulating NT measured here are 4- to 5-fold less than those reported by others, the difference most likely reflecting the lesser amount of lipid ingested. Previous studies provided subjects with single meals containing in excess of 120 g of fat; the 30 g of fat ingested by our subjects, ca. 33% of total caloric intake, is near that recommended by the U.S. Senate, Select Committee on Nutritional and Human Needs. These data show that diets with a reasonable fat content have only a modest effect on circulating levels of NT. PMID:2067972

  2. Distribution of sup 125 I-neurotensin binding sites in human forebrain: Comparison with the localization of acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Szigethy, E.; Quirion, R.; Beaudet, A. )

    1990-07-22

    The distribution of 125I-neurotensin binding sites was compared with that of acetylcholinesterase reactivity in the human basal forebrain by using combined light microscopic radioautography/histochemistry. High 125I-neurotensin binding densities were observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, islands of Calleja, claustrum, olfactory tubercle, and central nucleus of the amygdala; lower levels were seen in the caudate, putamen, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert. Adjacent sections processed for cholinesterase histochemistry demonstrated a regional overlap between the distribution of labeled neurotensin binding sites and that of intense acetylcholinesterase staining in all of the above regions, except in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, claustrum, and central amygdaloid nucleus, where dense 125I-neurotensin labeling was detected over areas containing only weak to moderate cholinesterase staining. At higher magnification, 125I-neurotensin-labeled binding sites in the islands of Calleja, supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus, medial septum, diagonal band nucleus, and nucleus basalis of Meynert were selectively associated with neuronal perikarya found to be cholinesterase-positive in adjacent sections. Moderate 125I-neurotensin binding was also apparent over the cholinesterase-reactive neuropil of these latter three regions. These data suggest that neurotensin (NT) may directly influence the activity of magnocellular cholinergic neurons in the human basal forebrain, and may be involved in the physiopathology of dementing disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, in which these neurons have been shown to be affected.

  3. Function and regulation of endothelin type A receptor-operated transient receptor potential canonical channels.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Takahiro; Terada, Koji; Higa, Tsunaki; Aoyagi, Hiroyuki; Nishiya, Tadashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Soichi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels responsible for receptor-operated Ca(2+) entry (ROCE) triggered by activation of endothelin type A receptor (ET(A)R) and to clarify the importance of calmodulin (CaM) / inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor binding (CIRB) domain at the C terminus of TRPC channels in ET(A)R-activated channel regulation. In HEK293 cells coexpressing ET(A)R and one of seven TRPC isoforms, ET(A)R stimulation induced ROCE through TRPC3, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7. The TRPC3- and TRPC6-mediated ROCE was inhibited by selective inhibitors of G(q) protein, phospholipase C (PLC), and CaM. The CIRB domain deletion mutants of TRPC3 and TRPC6 failed to induce ET(A)R-mediated ROCE. Either deletion of the CIRB domain or pharmacological inhibition of CaM did not inhibit the targeting of these channels to the plasma membrane. These results suggest that 1) TRPC3, TRPC5, TRPC6, and TRPC7 can function as ET(A)R-operated Ca(2+) channels; 2) G(q) protein, PLC, and CaM are involved in TRPC3- and TRPC6-mediated ROCE; 3) ET(A)R-mediated activation of TRPC3 and TRPC6 requires the CIRB domain; and 4) abolition of ET(A)R-induced ROCE by CIRB domain deletion and CaM inhibition is due to loss of CaM binding to the channels but not loss of cell surface TRPC3 and TRPC6. PMID:22129540

  4. C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Unger, Wendy W. J.; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. DCs express a large array of receptors by which they scan their surroundings for recognition and uptake of pathogens. One of the receptor-families is the C-type lectins (CLR), which bind carbohydrate structures and internalize antigens upon recognition. Intracellular routing of antigen through CLR enhances loading and presentation of antigen through MHC class I and II, inducing antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell proliferation and skewing T-helper cells. These characteristics make CLRs very interesting targets for DC-based immunotherapy. Profound research has been done on targeting specific tumor antigens to CLR using either antibodies or the natural ligands such as glycan structures. In this review we will focus on the current data showing the potency of CLR-targeting and discuss improvements that can be achieved to enhance anti-tumor activity in the near future. PMID:24212951

  5. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Hong; Sung, Arthur; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Lingfang; Qiu Daoming; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Kao, Peter N. . E-mail: peterkao@stanford.edu

    2006-01-06

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function.

  6. Adenosine, type 1 receptors: role in proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Welch, W J

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine type 1 receptor (A1 -AR) antagonists induce diuresis and natriuresis in experimental animals and humans. Much of this effect is due to inhibition of A1 -ARs in the proximal tubule, which is responsible for 60-70% of the reabsorption of filtered Na(+) and fluid. Intratubular application of receptor antagonists indicates that A1 -AR mediates a portion of Na(+) uptake in PT and PT cells, via multiple transport systems, including Na(+) /H(+) exchanger-3 (NHE3), Na(+) /PO4(-) co-transporter and Na(+) -dependent glucose transporter, SGLT. Renal microperfusion and recollection studies have shown that fluid reabsorption is reduced by A1 -AR antagonists and is lower in A1 -AR KO mice, compared to WT mice. Absolute proximal reabsorption (APR) measured by free-flow micropuncture is equivocal, with studies that show either lower APR or similar APR in A1 -AR KO mice, compared to WT mice. Inhibition of A1 -ARs lowers elevated blood pressure in models of salt-sensitive hypertension, partially due to their effects in the proximal tubule. PMID:25345761

  7. Inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in Type I pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Sartorato, P; Khaldi, Y; Lapeyraque, A-L; Armanini, D; Kuhnle, U; Salomon, R; Caprio, M; Viengchareun, S; Lombès, M; Zennaro, M-C

    2004-03-31

    Type I pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1) is a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by neonatal renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Typical biochemical features include high levels of plasma aldosterone and renin, hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Different mutations of the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) gene have been identified in subjects affected by the autosomal dominant or sporadic form of the disease. Our laboratory has investigated a large number of subjects with familial and sporadic PHA1. Several different mutations have been detected, which are localized in different coding exons of the hMR gene. These mutations either create truncated proteins, either affect specific amino acids involved in receptor function. In this paper, we review hMR mutations described to date in PHA1 and their functional characterization. We discuss the absence of mutations in some kindreds and the role of precise phenotypic and biological examination of patients to allow for identification of other genes potentially involved in the disease. PMID:15134810

  8. Influence of pertussis toxin on thermic responses to morphine and neurotensin in rats.

    PubMed

    Basilico, L; Abbondi, M; Fumagalli, A; Parolaro, D; Gori, E; Giagnoni, G

    1992-11-10

    The influence of pertussis toxin (PTX) on thermic responses elicited by morphine and neurotensin was evaluated in unrestrained rats kept at 22 degrees C. High doses of morphine (9-36 micrograms/rat i.c.v.) lowered body temperature and low doses (1.25, 2.5 micrograms/rat i.c.v.) produced hyperthermia. The hyperthermic effect was more resistant than the hypothermic effect to naloxone antagonism. Neurotensin (50, 100 micrograms/rat i.c.v.) induced marked hypothermia followed by hyperthermia. I.c.v. injection of PTX (1 microgram), six days before morphine (18 micrograms/rat i.c.v.), replaced the opiate hypothermia by consistent hyperthermia and reduced by 60% the hyperthermia elicited by morphine (2.5 micrograms/rat i.c.v.). The toxin also affected the thermic responses induced by neurotensin (50 micrograms/rat i.c.v.) administered six days after PTX (1 microgram/rat i.c.v.). The initial hypothermia was enhanced by 173% and the late hyperthermia was fully antagonized. It thus appears that PTX-sensitive G-proteins play different roles in the molecular events underlying the thermoregulatory responses to morphine and neurotensin. PMID:1451736

  9. Neurotensin-loaded collagen dressings reduce inflammation and improve wound healing in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Moura, Liane I F; Dias, Ana M A; Suesca, Edward; Casadiegos, Sergio; Leal, Ermelindo C; Fontanilla, Marta R; Carvalho, Lina; de Sousa, Hermínio C; Carvalho, Eugénia

    2014-01-01

    Impaired wound healing is an important clinical problem in diabetes mellitus and results in failure to completely heal diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), which may lead to lower extremity amputations. In the present study, collagen based dressings were prepared to be applied as support for the delivery of neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide that acts as an inflammatory modulator in wound healing. The performance of NT alone and NT-loaded collagen matrices to treat wounds in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic induced mice was evaluated. Results showed that the prepared dressings were not-cytotoxic up to 72h after contact with macrophages (Raw 264.7) and human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cell lines. Moreover, those cells were shown to adhere to the collagen matrices without noticeable change in their morphology. NT-loaded collagen dressings induced faster healing (17% wound area reduction) in the early phases of wound healing in diabetic wounded mice. In addition, they also significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine expression namely, TNF-α (p<0.01) and IL-1β (p<0.01) and decreased the inflammatory infiltrate at day 3 post-wounding (inflammatory phase). After complete healing, metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is reduced in diabetic skin (p<0.05) which significantly increased fibroblast migration and collagen (collagen type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2) and collagen type III, alpha 1 (COL3A1)) expression and deposition. These results suggest that collagen-based dressings can be an effective support for NT release into diabetic wound enhancing the healing process. Nevertheless, a more prominent scar is observed in diabetic wounds treated with collagen when compared to the treatment with NT alone. PMID:24161538

  10. Antidiuretic effects of neurotensin in chloralose anaesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Kivlighn, S D; Jandhyala, B S

    1990-06-01

    1. Effects of cerebroventricular and/or intravenous infusions of neurotensin (NT), an endogenous tridecapeptide, on haemodynamics and renal function were investigated in chloralose anaesthetized dogs. 2. Cerebroventricular infusions (i.c.v.) of NT (10-6 mol/L and 10-5 mol/L, 0.1 mL/min) for 30 min did not produce any significant alterations in the measured variables. In the vagotomized dogs, intravenous (i.v.) infusion of NT (10(-5) mol/L) at a rate of 0.1 mL/min for 30 min significantly lowered the arterial blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate; these effects were accompanied by pronounced reductions in the urine flow and urinary sodium excretion and marked increases in urine osmolality. 3. In the dogs with vagi intact, i.v. infusions of NT failed to produce any alterations in the blood pressure; however, renal effects of NT were essentially identical to those observed in the vagotomized dogs. 4. Infusions of NT (10(-6) mol/L) and/or NT-metabolites NT1-8 and NT8-13 (10(-5) mol/L) directly into the renal artery failed to produce any significant alterations in the urine flow. Antidiuretic effects of i.v. NT were not prevented by acute renal denervation, adrenalectomy, or pretreatment of the animals with naloxone. However, morphine pretreatment completely abolished the hypotensive and anti-diuretic effects of NT. 5. It is proposed that i.v. infusion of NT rapidly facilitates the secretion of an endogenous substance possessing potent antidiuretic properties and opiate mechanisms are involved in mediating such an effect. Although it appears unlikely, a role for vasopressin cannot be ruled out. PMID:2390805

  11. Association of vitamin D receptor genotype with leprosy type.

    PubMed

    Roy, S; Frodsham, A; Saha, B; Hazra, S K; Mascie-Taylor, C G; Hill, A V

    1999-01-01

    Host genetic factors including major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphisms influence both susceptibility to leprosy per se and also to leprosy type. Non-MHC genes may play an important role, but such genes remain undefined. The influence of two non-MHC candidate genes was assessed in a case-control study of Bengali leprosy patients from Calcutta. Recent studies have implicated variation in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene in susceptibility to several diseases, including osteoporosis and pulmonary tuberculosis. In this population, homozygotes for the alternate alleles of the VDR polymorphism are associated, respectively, with lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy. The NRAMP1 (natural resistance associated macrophage protein 1) gene may influence human mycobacterial disease susceptibility based on studies with the murine homologue Nramp1. However, no significant association was found between NRAMP1 and leprosy susceptibility. This study suggests that the VDR polymorphism may influence susceptibility to some diseases by affecting the type and the strength of the host immune response. PMID:9841838

  12. The apelin receptor inhibits the angiotensin II type 1 receptor via allosteric trans-inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Siddiquee, K; Hampton, J; McAnally, D; May, LT; Smith, LH

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The apelin receptor (APJ) is often co-expressed with the angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1) and acts as an endogenous counter-regulator. Apelin antagonizes Ang II signalling, but the precise molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Understanding this interaction may lead to new therapies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Experimental Approach The physical interaction of APJ and AT1 receptors was detected by co-immunoprecipitation and bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Functional and pharmacological interactions were measured by G-protein-dependent signalling and recruitment of β-arrestin. Allosterism and cooperativity between APJ and AT1 were measured by radioligand binding assays. Key Results Apelin, but not Ang II, induced APJ : AT1 heterodimerization forced AT1 into a low-affinity state, reducing Ang II binding. Likewise, apelin mediated a concentration-dependent depression in the maximal production of inositol phosphate (IP1) and β-arrestin recruitment to AT1 in response to Ang II. The signal depression approached a limit, the magnitude of which was governed by the cooperativity indicative of a negative allosteric interaction. Fitting the data to an operational model of allosterism revealed that apelin-mediated heterodimerization significantly reduces Ang II signalling efficacy. These effects were not observed in the absence of apelin. Conclusions and Implications Apelin-dependent heterodimerization between APJ and AT1 causes negative allosteric regulation of AT1 function. As AT1 is significant in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, these findings suggest that impaired apelin and APJ function may be a common underlying aetiology. Linked Article This article is commented on by Goupil et al., pp. 1101–1103 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.12040 PMID:22935142

  13. Type 3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Clearance of Citrobacter rodentium

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Leon P.; Smith, Allen; Cheung, Lumei; Sun, Rex; Grinchuk, Viktoriya; Vanuytsel, Tim; Desai, Neemesh; Urban, Joseph F.; Zhao, Aiping; Raufman, Jean-Pierre; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of muscarinic receptors in mucosal homeostasis, response to enteric pathogens, and modulation of immune cell function is undefined. Methods The contribution of type 3 muscarinic receptors (M3R) to mucosal homeostasis within the colon and host defense against Citrobacter rodentium was determined in uninfected and C. rodentium-infected WT and M3R-deficient (Chrm3−/−) mice. In addition, WT and Chrm3−/− bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) were studied to determine the ability of M3R to modulate macrophage phenotype and function. Results In Chrm3−/− mice clearance of C. rodentium was delayed despite an amplified TH1/TH17 response. Delayed clearance of C. rodentium from Chrm3−/− mice was associated with prolonged adherence of bacteria to colonic mucosa, decreased goblet cell number, and decreased mucin 2 gene expression. Treatment of BMDM with bethanechol, a muscarinic-selective agonist, induced a classically activated macrophage phenotype, which was dependent on M3R expression. Chrm3−/− BMDM retained their ability to attain a classically activated macrophage phenotype when treated with the TH1 cytokine IFN-γ. Conclusions In Chrm3−/− mice mucin production is attenuated and is associated with prolonged adherence of C. rodentium to colonic mucosa. The immune response, as characterized by production of TH1/TH17 cytokines, in C. rodentium-infected Chrm3−/− mice is intact. In addition, M3R activity promotes the development of classically activated macrophages. Our data establish a role for M3R in host defense against C. rodentium through effects on goblet cell mucus production and in the modulation of macrophage phenotype and function. PMID:25985244

  14. Leptin Acts via Lateral Hypothalamic Area Neurotensin Neurons to Inhibit Orexin Neurons by Multiple GABA-Independent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Goforth, Paulette B.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Patterson, Christa M.

    2014-01-01

    The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin modulates neural systems appropriately for the status of body energy stores. Leptin inhibits lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) orexin (OX; also known as hypocretin)-producing neurons, which control feeding, activity, and energy expenditure, among other parameters. Our previous results suggest that GABAergic LHA leptin receptor (LepRb)-containing and neurotensin (Nts)-containing (LepRbNts) neurons lie in close apposition with OX neurons and control Ox mRNA expression. Here, we show that, similar to leptin, activation of LHA Nts neurons by the excitatory hM3Dq DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs) hyperpolarizes membrane potential and suppresses action potential firing in OX neurons in mouse hypothalamic slices. Furthermore, ablation of LepRb from Nts neurons abrogated the leptin-mediated inhibition, demonstrating that LepRbNts neurons mediate the inhibition of OX neurons by leptin. Leptin did not significantly enhance GABAA-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission, and GABA receptor antagonists did not block leptin-mediated inhibition of OX neuron activity. Rather, leptin diminished the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs onto OX neurons. Furthermore, leptin indirectly activated an ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel in OX neurons, which was required for the hyperpolarization of OX neurons by leptin. Although Nts did not alter OX activity, galanin, which is coexpressed in LepRbNts neurons, inhibited OX neurons, whereas the galanin receptor antagonist M40 (galanin-(1–12)-Pro3-(Ala-Leu)2-Ala amide) prevented the leptin-induced hyperpolarization of OX cells. These findings demonstrate that leptin indirectly inhibits OX neurons by acting on LHA LepRbNts neurons to mediate two distinct GABA-independent mechanisms of inhibition: the presynaptic inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission and the opening of KATP channels. PMID:25143620

  15. Pharmacology of the capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 ion channel.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Istvan; Friston, Dominic; Valente, Jojo Sousa; Torres Perez, Jose Vicente; Andreou, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    The capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel (TRPV1), has been identified as a polymodal transducer molecule on a sub-set of primary sensory neurons which responds to various stimuli including noxious heat (> -42 degrees C), protons and vanilloids such as capsaicin, the hot ingredient of chilli peppers. Subsequently, TRPV1 has been found indispensable for the development of burning pain and reflex hyperactivity associated with inflammation of peripheral tissues and viscera, respectively. Therefore, TRPV1 is regarded as a major target for the development of novel agents for the control of pain and visceral hyperreflexia in inflammatory conditions. Initial efforts to introduce agents acting on TRPV1 into clinics have been hampered by unexpected side-effects due to wider than expected expression in various tissues, as well as by the complex pharmacology, of TRPV1. However, it is believed that better understanding of the pharmacological properties of TRPV1 and specific targeting of tissues may eventually lead to the development of clinically useful agents. In order to assist better understanding of TRPV1 pharmacology, here we are giving a comprehensive account on the activation and inactivation mechanisms and the structure-function relationship of TRPV1. PMID:24941664

  16. Distribution of neurotensin/neuromedin N mRNA in rat forebrain: Unexpected abundance in hippocampus and subiculum

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, M.J.; Miller, M.A.; Dorsa, D.M.; Bullock, B.P.; Helloni, R.H. Jr.; Dobner, P.R.; Leeman, S.E. )

    1989-07-01

    The authors have used in situ hybridization to determine the regional distribution of mRNA encoding the neurotensin/neuromedin N (NT/N) precursor in the forebrain of the adult male rat. Cells containing NT/N mRNA are widely distributed in the forebrain. These areas include the septum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, preoptic area, hypothalamus, amygdala, accumbens nucleus, caudate-putamen, and piriform and retrosplenial cortex. In general, the regional distribution of NT/N mRNA corresponds to the previously determined distribution of neurotensin-immunoreactive cell bodies; however, several notable exceptions were observed. The most striking difference occurs specifically in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, where intense labeling is associated with the pyramidal cell layer despite the reported absence of neurotensin-immunoreactive cells in this region. A second major discrepancy between NT/N mRNA abundance and neurotensin-immunoreactivity occurs in the intensely labeled subiculum, a region that contains only scattered neurotensin-immunoreactive cells in the adult. These results suggest that, in specific regions of the forebrain, NT/N precursor is processed to yield products other than neurotensin. In addition, these results provide an anatomical basis for studying the physiological regulation of NT/N mRNA levels in the forebrain.

  17. Identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jacob Lauwring; Schrøder, Tenna Juul; Christensen, Søren; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; García-Alai, Maria Marta; Lindberg, Samsa; Langgård, Morten; Eskildsen, Jørgen Calí; David, Laurent; Tagmose, Lena; Simonsen, Klaus Baek; Maltas, Philip James; Rønn, Lars Christian Biilmann; Jong, Inge E. M. de; Malik, Ibrahim John; Egebjerg, Jan; Karlsson, Jens-Jacob; Watson, Steven P.

    2014-02-01

    The identification of the first small-molecule ligand of the neuronal receptor sortilin and structure determination of the receptor–ligand complex are reported. Sortilin is a type I membrane glycoprotein belonging to the vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein (Vps10p) family of sorting receptors and is most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system. Sortilin has emerged as a key player in the regulation of neuronal viability and has been implicated as a possible therapeutic target in a range of disorders. Here, the identification of AF40431, the first reported small-molecule ligand of sortilin, is reported. Crystals of the sortilin–AF40431 complex were obtained by co-crystallization and the structure of the complex was solved to 2.7 Å resolution. AF40431 is bound in the neurotensin-binding site of sortilin, with the leucine moiety of AF40431 mimicking the binding mode of the C-terminal leucine of neurotensin and the 4-methylumbelliferone moiety of AF40431 forming π-stacking with a phenylalanine.

  18. Neurotensin analog NT77 induces regulated hypothermia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; McMahon, Beth; Richelson, Elliott; Padnos, Beth; Katz, Laurence

    2003-10-01

    The potential use of hypothermia as a therapeutic treatment for stroke and other pathological insults has prompted the search for drugs that can lower core temperature. Ideally, a drug is needed that reduces the set-point for control of core temperature (T(c)) and thereby induces a regulated reduction in T(c). To this end, a neurotensin analog (NT77) that crosses the blood brain barrier and induces hypothermia was assessed for its effects on the set-point for temperature regulation in the Sprague-Dawley rat by measuring behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory responses. Following surgical implanation of radiotransmitters to monitor T(c), rats were placed in a temperature gradient and allowed to select from a range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) while T(c) was monitored by radiotelemetry. There was an abrupt decrease in selected T(a) from 29 to 16 degrees C and a concomitant reduction in T(c) from 37.4 to 34.0 degrees C 1 hr after IP injection of 5.0 mg/kg NT77. Selected T(a) and T(c) then recovered to control levels by 1.5 hr and 4 hr, respectively. Oxygen consumption (M) and heat loss (H) were measured in telemetered rats housed in a direct calorimeter maintained at a T(a) of 23.5 degrees C. Injection of NT77 initially led to a reduction in M, little change in H, and marked decrease in T(c). H initially rose but decreased around the time of the maximal decrease in T(c). Overall, NT77 appears to induce a regulated hypothermic response because the decrease in T(c) was preceded by a reduction in heat production, no change in heat loss, and preference for cold T(a)'s. Inducing a regulated hypothermic response with drugs such as NT77 may be an important therapy for ischemic disease and other insults. PMID:12967685

  19. Ventral Tegmental Area Neurotensin Signaling Links the Lateral Hypothalamus to Locomotor Activity and Striatal Dopamine Efflux in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Christa M.; Wong, Jenny-Marie T.; Leinninger, Gina M.; Allison, Margaret B.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kasper, Chelsea L.; Gonzalez, Ian E.; Mackenzie, Alexander; Jones, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    Projections from the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) innervate components of the mesolimbic dopamine (MLDA) system, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), to modulate motivation appropriately for physiologic state. Neurotensin (NT)-containing LHA neurons respond to multiple homeostatic challenges and project to the VTA, suggesting that these neurons could link such signals to MLDA function. Indeed, we found that pharmacogenetic activation of LHA NT neurons promoted prolonged DA-dependent locomotor activity and NAc DA efflux, suggesting the importance of VTA neurotransmitter release by LHA NT neurons for the control of MLDA function. Using a microdialysis-mass spectrometry technique that we developed to detect endogenous NT in extracellular fluid in the mouse brain, we found that activation of LHA NT cells acutely increased the extracellular concentration of NT (a known activator of VTA DA cells) in the VTA. In contrast to the prolonged elevation of extracellular NAc DA, however, VTA NT concentrations rapidly returned to baseline. Intra-VTA infusion of NT receptor antagonist abrogated the ability of LHA NT cells to increase extracellular DA in the NAc, demonstrating that VTA NT promotes NAc DA release. Thus, transient LHA-derived NT release in the VTA couples LHA signaling to prolonged changes in DA efflux and MLDA function. PMID:25734363

  20. Mineralocorticoid Receptor Mutations and a Severe Recessive Pseudohypoaldosteronism Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Edwige-Ludiwyne; Teissier, Raphaël; Fernandes-Rosa, Fábio L.; Fay, Michel; Rafestin-Oblin, Marie-Edith; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Metz, Chantal; Escoubet, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type 1 (PHA1) is a rare genetic disease of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by salt wasting and failure to thrive in infancy. Here we describe the first case of a newborn with severe recessive PHA1 caused by two heterozygous mutations in NR3C2, gene coding for the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Independent segregation of the mutations occurred in the family, with p.Ser166X being transmitted from the affected father and p.Trp806X from the asymptomatic mother Whereas the truncated MR166X protein was degraded, MR806X was expressed both at the mRNA and protein level. Functional studies demonstrated that despite its inability to bind aldosterone, MR806X had partial ligand-independent transcriptional activity. Partial nuclear localization of MR806X in the absence of hormone was identified as a prerequisite to initiate transcription. This exceptional case broadens the spectrum of clinical phenotypes of PHA1 and demonstrates that minimal residual activity of MR is compatible with life. It also suggests that rare hypomorphic NR3C2 alleles may be more common than expected from the prevalence of detected PHA1 cases. This might prove relevant for patient's care in neonatal salt losing disorders and may affect renal salt handling and blood pressure in the general population. PMID:21903996

  1. Structural Analysis of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type G Receptor Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, John; Karalewitz, Andrew; Benefield, Desire A.; Mushrush, Darren J.; Pruitt, Rory N.; Spiller, Benjamin W.; Barbieri, Joseph T.; Lacy, D. Borden

    2010-10-19

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) binds peripheral neurons at the neuromuscular junction through a dual-receptor mechanism that includes interactions with ganglioside and protein receptors. The receptor identities vary depending on BoNT serotype (A-G). BoNT/B and BoNT/G bind the luminal domains of synaptotagmin I and II, homologous synaptic vesicle proteins. We observe conditions under which BoNT/B binds both Syt isoforms, but BoNT/G binds only SytI. Both serotypes bind ganglioside G{sub T1b}. The BoNT/G receptor-binding domain crystal structure provides a context for examining these binding interactions and a platform for understanding the physiological relevance of different Syt receptor isoforms in vivo.

  2. An obligatory role for neurotensin in high-fat-diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Song, Jun; Zaytseva, Yekaterina Y; Liu, Yajuan; Rychahou, Piotr; Jiang, Kai; Starr, Marlene E; Kim, Ji Tae; Harris, Jennifer W; Yiannikouris, Frederique B; Katz, Wendy S; Nilsson, Peter M; Orho-Melander, Marju; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Haining; Fahrenholz, Timothy; Higashi, Richard M; Gao, Tianyan; Morris, Andrew J; Cassis, Lisa A; Fan, Teresa W-M; Weiss, Heidi L; Dobner, Paul R; Melander, Olle; Jia, Jianhang; Evers, B Mark

    2016-05-19

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities (for example, diabetes mellitus and hepatic steatosis) contribute to approximately 2.5 million deaths annually and are among the most prevalent and challenging conditions confronting the medical profession. Neurotensin (NT; also known as NTS), a 13-amino-acid peptide predominantly localized in specialized enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine and released by fat ingestion, facilitates fatty acid translocation in rat intestine, and stimulates the growth of various cancers. The effects of NT are mediated through three known NT receptors (NTR1, 2 and 3; also known as NTSR1, 2, and NTSR3, respectively). Increased fasting plasma levels of pro-NT (a stable NT precursor fragment produced in equimolar amounts relative to NT) are associated with increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality; however, a role for NT as a causative factor in these diseases is unknown. Here we show that NT-deficient mice demonstrate significantly reduced intestinal fat absorption and are protected from obesity, hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance associated with high fat consumption. We further demonstrate that NT attenuates the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and stimulates fatty acid absorption in mice and in cultured intestinal cells, and that this occurs through a mechanism involving NTR1 and NTR3 (also known as sortilin). Consistent with the findings in mice, expression of NT in Drosophila midgut enteroendocrine cells results in increased lipid accumulation in the midgut, fat body, and oenocytes (specialized hepatocyte-like cells) and decreased AMPK activation. Remarkably, in humans, we show that both obese and insulin-resistant subjects have elevated plasma concentrations of pro-NT, and in longitudinal studies among non-obese subjects, high levels of pro-NT denote a doubling of the risk of developing obesity later in life. Our findings directly link NT with increased fat absorption and obesity and

  3. The Administration of Levocabastine, a NTS2 Receptor Antagonist, Modifies Na(+), K(+)-ATPase Properties.

    PubMed

    Gutnisky, Alicia; López Ordieres, María Graciela; Rodríguez de Lores Arnaiz, Georgina

    2016-06-01

    Neurotensin behaves as a neuromodulator or as a neurotransmitter interacting with NTS1 and NTS2 receptors. Neurotensin in vitro inhibits synaptosomal membrane Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. This effect is prevented by administration of SR 48692 (antagonist for NTS1 receptor). The administration of levocabastine (antagonist for NTS2 receptor) does not prevent Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibition by neurotensin when the enzyme is assayed with ATP as substrate. Herein levocabastine effect on Na(+), K(+)-ATPase K(+) site was explored. For this purpose, levocabastine was administered to rats and K(+)-p-nitrophenylphosphatase (K(+)-p-NPPase) activity in synaptosomal membranes and [(3)H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes were assayed in the absence (basal) and in the presence of neurotensin. Male Wistar rats were administered with levocabastine (50 μg/kg, i.p., 30 min) or the vehicle (saline solution). Synaptosomal membranes were obtained from cerebral cortex by differential and gradient centrifugation. The activity of K(+)-p-NPPase was determined in media laking or containing ATP plus NaCl. In such phosphorylating condition enzyme behaviour resembles that observed when ATP hydrolyses is recorded. In the absence of ATP plus NaCl, K(+)-p-NPPase activity was similar for levocabastine or vehicle injected (roughly 11 μmole hydrolyzed substrate per mg protein per hour). Such value remained unaltered by the presence of 3.5 × 10(-6) M neurotensin. In the phosphorylating medium, neurotensin decreased (32 %) the enzyme activity in membranes obtained from rats injected with the vehicle but failed to alter those obtained from rats injected with levocabastine. Levocabastine administration enhanced (50 %) basal [(3)H]-ouabain binding to cerebral cortex membranes but failed to modify neurotensin inhibitory effect on this ligand binding. It is concluded that NTS2 receptor blockade modifies the properties of neuronal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and that neurotensin effect on Na(+), K

  4. Sensing of cell death by myeloid C-type lectin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sancho, David; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2015-01-01

    Molecules associated with dead or dying cells can be detected by receptors on macrophages and dendritic cells. Signals from these receptors impact myeloid cell function and play a role in determining whether death is silent or proinflammatory, tolerogenic or immunogenic. Prominent among myeloid receptors detecting dead cells are C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Signals from these receptors variably induce endocytosis of cell corpses, corpse degradation, retrieval of dead cell-associated antigens and/or modulation of immune responses. The sensing of tissue damage by myeloid CLRs complements detection of pathogens in immunity and represents an ancient response aimed at restoring tissue homeostasis. PMID:23332826

  5. Two types of receptors for iron on mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, J; Pollack, S

    1990-01-01

    ATP, the major ligand for Fe in the reticulocyte's low-Mr chelatable pool, transfers Fe to a mitochondrial receptor from which the Fe is incorporated into haem. However, the utilization of Fe bound to this receptor for haem synthesis is slow in comparison with that bound to a second receptor that does not accept Fe from ATP, but does accept it from AMP. The major pathway by which Fe is delivered for haem synthesis may be through hydrolysis of cytosolic ATP-Fe to AMP-Fe. PMID:2241925

  6. Differential properties of type I and type II benzodiazepine receptors in mammalian CNS neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Yakushiji, T.; Shirasaki, T.; Munakata, M.; Hirata, A.; Akaike, N.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) partial agonists, Y-23684 and CL218,872, were compared with its full agonist, diazepam, on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current (ICl) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral cortex (CTX), cerebellar Purkinje (CPJ) and spinal ventral horn (SVH) neurones, by the whole-cell mode patch-clamp technique. 2. The GABA-induced responses were essentially the same in both SVH and CPJ neurones, but the KD value of the GABA response in CTX neurone was lower than those in the other two brain regions. 3. Enhancement of the GABA response by the two partial agonists was about one-third of that by diazepam in the SVH neurones (where type II subtype of BZR, BZ2, is predominant), whereas these partial agonists potentiated the GABA response as much as diazepam in CPJ neurones (where the type I subtype of BZR, BZ1, is predominant). In CTX neurones where both type I and II variants are expressed, the augmentation ratio of the GABA response by diazepam was between the values in CPJ and SVH neurones. 4. In concentration-response relationships of BZR partial agonists, the threshold concentrations, KD values and maximal augmentation ratio of the GABA response were similar in all CTX, CPJ and SVH neurones. Also, in all preparations, the threshold concentration and KD values of diazepam action were 10 fold less than those induced by partial agonists. 5. All BZR agonists shifted the concentration-response relationship for GABA to the left without changing the maximum current amplitude, indicating that activation of both BZ1 and BZ2 increase the affinity of the GABAA receptor for GABA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8395299

  7. Sex differences in neurotensin and substance P following nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Pittenger, Steven T; Swalve, Natashia; Chou, Shinnyi; Smith, Misty D; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Pudiak, Cindy M; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R; Bevins, Rick A

    2016-08-01

    Investigator-administered nicotine alters neurotensin and substance P levels in Sprague-Dawley rats. This finding suggested a role of the dopamine-related endogenous neuropeptides in nicotine addiction. We sought to extend this observation by determining the responses of neurotensin and substance P systems (assessed using radioimmunoassay) in male and female rats following nicotine self-administration (SA). Male and female Sprague-Dawley were trained to self-administer nicotine, or receive saline infusions yoked to a nicotine-administering rat during daily sessions (1-h; 21 days). Brains were extracted 3 h after the last SA session. Nicotine SA increased tissue levels of neurotensin in the males in the anterior and posterior caudate, globus pallidus, frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens core and shell, and ventral tegmental area. Nicotine SA also increased tissue levels of neurotensin in the females in the anterior caudate, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens core and shell, but not in the posterior caudate, frontal cortex, or ventral tegmental area. There were fewer sex differences observed in the substance P systems. Nicotine SA increased tissue levels of substance P in both the males and females in the posterior caudate, globus pallidus, frontal cortex, nucleus accumbens shell, and ventral tegmental area. A sex difference was observed in the nucleus accumbens core, where nicotine SA increased tissue levels of substance P in the males, yet decreased levels in the females. The regulation of neuropeptides following nicotine SA may play a role in the susceptibility to nicotine dependence in females and males. Synapse 70:336-346, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27074301

  8. Localization of the ANG II type 2 receptor in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nora, E. H.; Munzenmaier, D. H.; Hansen-Smith, F. M.; Lombard, J. H.; Greene, A. S.; Cowley, A. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Only functional studies have suggested the presence of the ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor in the microcirculation. To determine the distribution of this receptor in the rat skeletal muscle microcirculation, a polyclonal rabbit anti-rat antiserum was developed and used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The antiserum was prepared against a highly specific and antigenic AT2-receptor synthetic peptide and was validated by competition and sensitivity assays. Western blot analysis demonstrated a prominent, single band at approximately 40 kDa in cremaster and soleus muscle. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a wide distribution of AT2 receptors throughout the skeletal muscle microcirculation in large and small microvessels. Microanatomic studies displayed an endothelial localization of the AT2 receptor, whereas dual labeling with smooth muscle alpha-actin also showed colocalization of the AT2 receptor with vascular smooth muscle cells. Other cells associated with the microvessels also stained positive for AT2 receptors. Briefly, this study confirms previous functional data and localizes the AT2 receptor to the microcirculation. These studies demonstrate that the AT2 receptor is present on a variety of vascular cell types and that it is situated in a fashion that would allow it to directly oppose ANG II type 1 receptor actions.

  9. Molecular basis of agonist binding to the type A cholecystokinin receptor.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laurence J; Lybrand, Terry P

    2002-12-01

    The receptors for cholecystokinin (CCK) peptides are guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptors in the rhodopsin/beta-adrenergic receptor family. The molecular basis of natural ligand binding to the type A CCK receptor has been studied using ligand structure-activity series, receptor mutagenesis, and photoaffinity labeling studies. These have focused attention on the extracellular loop and tail domains, with the most direct insights coming from intrinsic photoaffinity labeling studies. A model of the binding of CCK to this receptor is consistent with all these studies. This model places the carboxyl terminus of CCK adjacent to the amino-terminal tail outside of transmembrane segment 1, the mid-region of the peptide adjacent to the third extracellular loop outside of transmembrane segment 7, and includes a charge-charge interaction between peptide residue tyrosine-sulfate 27 and the arginine residue in the second extracellular loop of the receptor in position 197. PMID:12688369

  10. Impact of Cell Type and Epitope Tagging on Heterologous Expression of G Protein-Coupled Receptor: A Systematic Study on Angiotensin Type II Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lili; Teng, Gladys M. K.; Chan, Elaine Y. M.; Au, Shannon W. N.; Wise, Helen; Lee, Susanna S. T.; Cheung, Wing-Tai

    2012-01-01

    Despite heterologous expression of epitope-tagged GPCR is widely adopted for functional characterization, there is lacking of systematic analysis of the impact of expression host and epitope tag on GPCR expression. Angiotensin type II (AT2) receptor displays agonist-dependent and -independent activities, coupling to a spectrum of signaling molecules. However, consensus has not been reached on the subcellular distributions, signaling cascades and receptor-mediated actions. To examine the contributions of host cell and epitope tag on receptor expression and activity, epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were transiently or stably expressed in HEK293, CHO-K1 and PC12 cells. The epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants were detected both on the cell membrane and in the perinuclear region. In transiently transfected HEK293 cells, Myc-AT2 existed predominantly as monomer. Additionally, a ladder of ubiquitinated AT2 receptor proteins was detected. By contrast, stably expressed epitope-tagged AT2 receptor variants existed as both monomer and high molecular weight complexes, and the latter was enriched in cell surface. Glycosylation promoted cell surface expression of Myc-AT2 but had no effect on AT2-GFP in HEK293 cells. In cells that stably expressed Myc-AT2, serum starvation induced apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells but not in HEK293 or PC12 cells. Instead, HEK293 and PC12 cells stably expressing Myc-AT2 exhibited partial cell cycle arrest with cells accumulating at G1 and S phases, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that expression levels, subcellular distributions and ligand-independent constitutive activities of AT2 receptor were cell type-dependent while posttranslational processing of nascent AT2 receptor protein was modulated by epitope tag and mode of expression. PMID:23056563

  11. Amphioxus: beginning of vertebrate and end of invertebrate type GnRH receptor lineage.

    PubMed

    Tello, Javier A; Sherwood, Nancy M

    2009-06-01

    In vertebrates, activation of the GnRH receptor is necessary to initiate the reproductive cascade. However, little is known about the characteristics of GnRH receptors before the vertebrates evolved. Recently genome sequencing was completed for amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae. To understand the GnRH receptors (GnRHR) from this most basal chordate, which is also classified as an invertebrate, we cloned and characterized four GnRHR cDNAs encoded in the amphioxus genome. We found that incubation of GnRH1 (mammalian GnRH) and GnRH2 (chicken GnRH II) with COS7 cells heterologously expressing the amphioxus GnRHRs caused potent intracellular inositol phosphate turnover in two of the receptors. One of the two receptors displayed a clear preference for GnRH1 over GnRH2, a characteristic not previously seen outside the type I mammalian GnRHRs. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the four receptors into two paralogous pairs, with one pair grouping basally with the vertebrate GnRH receptors and the other grouping with the octopus GnRHR-like sequence and the related receptor for insect adipokinetic hormone. Pharmacological studies showed that octopus GnRH-like peptide and adipokinetic hormone induced potent inositol phosphate turnover in one of these other two amphioxus receptors. These data demonstrate the functional conservation of two distinct types of GnRH receptors at the base of chordates. We propose that one receptor type led to vertebrate GnRHRs, whereas the other type, related to the mollusk GnRHR-like receptor, was lost in the vertebrate lineage. This is the first report to suggest that distinct invertebrate and vertebrate GnRHRs are present simultaneously in a basal chordate, amphioxus. PMID:19264870

  12. Expression of c-kit receptor and its autophosphorylation in immature rat type A spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Dym, M; Jia, M C; Dirami, G; Price, J M; Rabin, S J; Mocchetti, I; Ravindranath, N

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the expression and activation of the c-kit receptor, a specific receptor for kit ligand (stem cell factor, steel factor), in rat type A spermatogonia. Testes were obtained from 9-day-old rats, decapsulated, and then subjected to sequential enzymatic digestion. The mixture of testicular cell types was then separated by sedimentation velocity at unit gravity. The isolated type A spermatogonia were characterized by light and electron microscopy. They exhibited spherical nuclei containing several nucleoli and associated chromatin clumps and organelles generally in a perinuclear location similar to that found in the in vivo 9-day-old testis. The synthesis of the c-kit receptor by the spermatogonia was established by hybridization of total RNA with a specific cDNA for mouse c-kit receptor. Two mRNA transcripts migrating at 4.8 kb and 12 kb were observed. Localization of the c-kit receptor in the isolated cells was determined by immunocytochemistry using an antibody to c-kit protein. Specific staining for c-kit receptor was observed in the cytoplasm of the isolated type A spermatogonia. Furthermore, the presence of the c-kit receptor protein in the spermatogonia was confirmed by Western blot analysis using the same antibody. The antibody recognized the c-kit receptor at approximately 160 kDa. In an attempt to determine whether this receptor has a functional significance, we examined the effect of kit ligand on the phosphorylation of the c-kit receptor. The c-kit receptor appeared to be constitutively autophosphorylated on tyrosine at low basal levels, and upon stimulation with kit ligand, the amount of phosphorylated protein increased significantly. These observations indicate that kit ligand induces autophosphorylation of the c-kit receptor, which may lead to the activation of other cellular target proteins responsible for spermatogonial proliferation and/or differentiation. PMID:7536046

  13. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies in childhood kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, Anna; Tangeraas, Trine; Heidecke, Harald; Dragun, Duska; Dechend, Ralf; Staff, Anne Cathrine

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antibodies (AT1 RAb) have emerged as non-HLA Ab present in patients with acute AMR and risk of graft loss. Furthermore, AT1 RAb have been shown to increase angiotensin II sensitivity which may play a role in the development of CVD and hypertension. Data on AT1 RAb in stable transplant recipients are lacking. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of AT1 RAb in a cohort of stable patients after kidney transplantation (tx) in childhood. A cross-sectional study of 30 children (median age 14, range 3-19 yr, median time since tx five yr) and 28 adults who were transplanted in childhood (median age 26, range 20-40 yr, median time since tx 18 yr) transplanted between 1993-2006 and 1983-2002, respectively, was performed. Healthy controls were 51 healthy children (5-8 yr) and 199 healthy donors (median age 56.5 yr, range 42-83 yr). Plasma AT1 RAb were analyzed by immunoassay. Median total AT1 RAb IgG concentration was significantly higher in the pediatric-tx group as compared to the adult-tx group (40.0 and 10.95 U/mL, p < 0.0001). For both groups, the tx group showed higher levels: the pediatric-tx group vs. control group (40.0 vs. 13.3 U/mL, p = 0.0006) and the adult-tx group vs. adult control group (10.95 vs. 6.5 U/mL, p < 0.0001). Age was the strongest indicator of high levels of AT1 RAb IgG (p = 0.0003). AT1 RAb total IgG levels are significantly higher in a stable pediatric-tx cohort as compared to adult-tx patients and healthy controls of comparable age groups. The relevance of our findings in relation to age, time since tx, previous or future rejection, and CVD risk merits future studies. PMID:27251358

  14. The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.B.; Lerch, T.F.; Cook, R.W.; Woodruff, T.K.; Jardetzky, T.S.

    2010-03-08

    TGF-{beta} ligands stimulate diverse cellular differentiation and growth responses by signaling through type I and II receptors. Ligand antagonists, such as follistatin, block signaling and are essential regulators of physiological responses. Here we report the structure of activin A, a TGF-{beta} ligand, bound to the high-affinity antagonist follistatin. Two follistatin molecules encircle activin, neutralizing the ligand by burying one-third of its residues and its receptor binding sites. Previous studies have suggested that type I receptor binding would not be blocked by follistatin, but the crystal structure reveals that the follistatin N-terminal domain has an unexpected fold that mimics a universal type I receptor motif and occupies this receptor binding site. The formation of follistatin:BMP:type I receptor complexes can be explained by the stoichiometric and geometric arrangement of the activin:follistatin complex. The mode of ligand binding by follistatin has important implications for its ability to neutralize homo- and heterodimeric ligands of this growth factor family.

  15. Identification of Growth Hormone Receptor in Plexiform Neurofibromas of Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Karin Soares Gonçalves; Barboza, Eliane Porto; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of growth hormone receptor in plexiform neurofibromas of neurofibromatosis type 1 patients. INTRODUCTION The development of multiple neurofibromas is one of the major features of neurofibromatosis type 1. Since neurofibromas commonly grow during periods of hormonal change, especially during puberty and pregnancy, it has been suggested that hormones may influence neurofibromatosis type 1 neurofibromas. A recent study showed that the majority of localized neurofibromas from neurofibromatosis type 1 patients have growth hormone receptor. METHODS Growth hormone receptor expression was investigated in 5 plexiform neurofibromas using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Four of the 5 plexiform neurofibromas were immunopositive for growth hormone receptor. CONCLUSION This study suggests that growth hormone may influence the development of plexiform neurofibromas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. PMID:18297205

  16. POLLUTANT PARTICLES PRODUCE VASOCONSTRICTION AND ENHANCE MAPK SIGNALING VIA ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with acute cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, but the mechanisms are not entirely clear. In this study, we hypothesized that PM may activate the angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R), a G protein-coupled receptor that regulates ...

  17. Alterations in locomotor activity after microinjections of GBR-12909, selective dopamine antagonists or neurotensin into the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, R A; Erwin, V G

    1996-06-01

    It has been postulated that increased dopamine (DA) activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) exerts an inhibitory influence over DA release in the nucleus accumbens and, thus, also over locomotor activity. Experiments were designed to examine the role of mPFC DA and neurotensin (NT), a neuropeptide which interacts with DA, in spontaneous locomotor activity. LS/IBG mice were injected bilaterally with either GBR-12909, a selective DA uptake blocker, the DA D1 receptor antagonist R-(+)-SCH-23390, the DA D2 receptor antagonist epidepride, NT or a combination of drugs. GBR-12909 produced a U-shaped dose-response curve with a maximum inhibition of 47% of control. Postmortem tissue levels of DA, 5-hydroxytryptamine, norepinephrine and their major metabolites were determined after microinjections of GBR-12909. Tissue levels of these compounds were not significantly affected by GBR-12909. However, the ratios of homovanilic acid/DA and homovanilic acid + 3,4-dihyroxyphenylacetic acid/DA were significantly decreased, whereas the 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-hydroxytryptamine ratio was not affected by GBR-12909, suggesting a selective effect on DAergic processes. By itself, R-(+)-SCH-23390 had no effect on locomotor activity except at a very high dose which caused locomotor inhibition (49% of control). Epidepride caused a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotor activity with a maximum inhibition of 49% of control. When coinjected with an inhibitory dose of GBR-12909, both epidepride and R-(+)-SCH-23390 attenuated the GBR-12909 effect in a dose-dependent manner. A broad range of doses of NT was found to have no consistent effect on locomotor activity. However, when coinjected with an inhibitory dose of GBR-12909, NT attenuated the GBR-12909-induced inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that stimulation of DA receptors in the mPFC, both DA D1 and DA D2 receptors mediates locomotor inhibition. Furthermore, stimulation of NT receptors appears to

  18. Binding of type II nuclear receptors and estrogen receptor to full and half-site estrogen response elements in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Klinge, C M; Bodenner, D L; Desai, D; Niles, R M; Traish, A M

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism by which retinoids, thyroid hormone (T3) and estrogens modulate the growth of breast cancer cells is unclear. Since nuclear type II nuclear receptors, including retinoic acid receptor (RAR), retinoid X receptor (RXR) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bind direct repeats (DR) of the estrogen response elements (ERE) half-site (5'-AGGTCA-3'), we examined the ability of estrogen receptor (ER) versus type II nuclear receptors, i.e. RARalpha, beta and gamma, RXRbeta, TRalpha and TRbeta, to bind various EREs in vitro . ER bound a consensus ERE, containing a perfectly palindromic 17 bp inverted repeat (IR), as a homodimer. In contrast, ER did not bind to a single ERE half-site. Likewise, ER did not bind two tandem (38 bp apart) half-sites, but low ER binding was detected to three tandem copies of the same half-site. RARalpha,beta or gamma bound both ERE and half-site constructs as a homodimer. RXRbeta did not bind full or half-site EREs, nor did RXRbeta enhance RARalpha binding to a full ERE. However, RARalpha and RXRbeta bound a half-site ERE cooperatively forming a dimeric complex. The RARalpha-RXRbeta heterodimer bound the Xenopus vitellogenin B1 estrogen responsive unit, with two non-consensus EREs, with higher affinity than one or two copies of the full or half-site ERE. Both TRalpha and TRbeta bound the full and the half-site ERE as monomers and homodimers and cooperatively as heterodimers with RXRbeta. We suggest that the cellular concentrations of nuclear receptors and their ligands, and the nature of the ERE or half-site sequence and those of its flanking sequences determine the occupation of EREs in estrogen-regulated genes in vivo . PMID:9115356

  19. The biological function of type I receptors of bone morphogenetic protein in bone

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuxian; Svoboda, Kathy K H; Feng, Jian Q; Jiang, Xinquan

    2016-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have multiple roles in skeletal development, homeostasis and regeneration. BMPs signal via type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors (BMPRI and BMPRII). In recent decades, genetic studies in humans and mice have demonstrated that perturbations in BMP signaling via BMPRI resulted in various diseases in bone, cartilage, and muscles. In this review, we focus on all three types of BMPRI, which consist of activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2, also called type IA activin receptor), activin-like kinase 3 (ALK3, also called BMPRIA), and activin-like kinase 6 (ALK6, also called BMPRIB). The research areas covered include the current progress regarding the roles of these receptors during myogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. Understanding the physiological and pathological functions of these receptors at the cellular and molecular levels will advance drug development and tissue regeneration for treating musculoskeletal diseases and bone defects in the future. PMID:27088043

  20. Rising stars: modulation of brain functions by astroglial type-1 cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The type-1-cannabinoid (CB1 ) receptor is amongst the most widely expressed G protein-coupled receptors in the brain. In few decades, CB1 receptors have been shown to regulate a large array of functions from brain cell development and survival to complex cognitive processes. Understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying these functions of CB1 is complex due to the heterogeneity of the brain cell types on which the receptor is expressed. Although the large majority of CB1 receptors act on neurons, early studies pointed to a direct control of CB1 receptors over astroglial functions including brain energy supply and neuroprotection. In line with the growing concept of the tripartite synapse highlighting astrocytes as direct players in synaptic plasticity, astroglial CB1 receptor signaling recently emerged as the mediator of several forms of synaptic plasticity associated to important cognitive functions. Here, we shortly review the current knowledge on CB1 receptor-mediated astroglial functions. This functional spectrum is large and most of the mechanisms by which CB1 receptors control astrocytes, as well as their consequences in vivo, are still unknown, requiring innovative approaches to improve this new cannabinoid research field. PMID:25452006

  1. The Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor in Brain Functions: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Marie-Odile; Gallo-Payet, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is the main active product of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), mediating its action via two major receptors, namely, the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor and the type 2 (AT2) receptor. Recent results also implicate several other members of the renin-angiotensin system in various aspects of brain functions. The first aim of this paper is to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the properties and signaling of the AT2 receptor, its expression in the brain, and its well-established effects. Secondly, we will highlight the potential role of the AT2 receptor in cognitive function, neurological disorders and in the regulation of appetite and the possible link with development of metabolic disorders. The potential utility of novel nonpeptide selective AT2 receptor ligands in clarifying potential roles of this receptor in physiology will also be discussed. If confirmed, these new pharmacological tools should help to improve impaired cognitive performance, not only through its action on brain microcirculation and inflammation, but also through more specific effects on neurons. However, the overall physiological relevance of the AT2 receptor in the brain must also consider the Ang IV/AT4 receptor. PMID:23320146

  2. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor: a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S.H.; Verma, A.; Trifiletti, R.R.

    1987-10-01

    The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor is a site identified by its nanomolar affinity for (/sup 3/H)diazepam, similar to the affinity of diazepam for the central-type benzodiazepine receptor in the brain. The peripheral type benzodiazepine receptor occurs in many peripheral tissues but has discrete localizations as indicated by autoradiographic studies showing uniquely high densities of the receptors in the adrenal cortex and in Leydig cells of the testes. Subcellular localization studies reveal a selective association of the receptors with the outer membrane of mitochondria. Photoaffinity labeling of the mitochondrial receptor with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam reveals two discrete labeled protein bands of 30 and 35 kDa, respectively. The 35-kDa band appears to be identical with the voltage-dependent anion channel protein porin. Fractionation of numerous peripheral tissues reveals a single principal endogenous ligand for the receptor, consisting of porphyrins, which display nanomolar affinity. Interactions of porphyrins with the mitochondrial receptor may clarify its physiological role and account for many pharmacological actions of benzodiazepines.

  3. Endocannabinoids Stimulate Human Melanogenesis via Type-1 Cannabinoid Receptor*

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Mariangela; Pasquariello, Nicoletta; Battista, Natalia; Di Tommaso, Monia; Rapino, Cinzia; Fezza, Filomena; Zuccolo, Michela; Jourdain, Roland; Finazzi Agrò, Alessandro; Breton, Lionel; Maccarrone, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We show that a fully functional endocannabinoid system is present in primary human melanocytes (normal human epidermal melanocyte cells), including anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the respective target receptors (CB1, CB2, and TRPV1), and their metabolic enzymes. We also show that at higher concentrations AEA induces normal human epidermal melanocyte apoptosis (∼3-fold over controls at 5 μm) through a TRPV1-mediated pathway that increases DNA fragmentation and p53 expression. However, at lower concentrations, AEA and other CB1-binding endocannabinoids dose-dependently stimulate melanin synthesis and enhance tyrosinase gene expression and activity (∼3- and ∼2-fold over controls at 1 μm). This CB1-dependent activity was fully abolished by the selective CB1 antagonist SR141716 or by RNA interference of the receptor. CB1 signaling engaged p38 and p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinases, which in turn activated the cyclic AMP response element-binding protein and the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Silencing of tyrosinase or microphthalmia-associated transcription factor further demonstrated the involvement of these proteins in AEA-induced melanogenesis. In addition, CB1 activation did not engage the key regulator of skin pigmentation, cyclic AMP, showing a major difference compared with the regulation of melanogenesis by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone through melanocortin 1 receptor. PMID:22431736

  4. Regulation of body mass growth through activin type IIB receptor in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Yamila; Acosta, Jannel; Morales, Reynold; Santisteban, Yaimín; Sanchéz, Aniel; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2009-01-15

    Myostatin is a TGF-beta family member that plays a key role in regulating skeletal muscle growth. Previous studies in mammals have demonstrated that myostatin is capable of binding the two activin type II receptors. Additionally, activin type II receptors have been shown to be capable of binding a number of other TGF-beta family members besides myostatin. An injection of a soluble form of activin type IIB receptor obtained from CHO cells into wild-type mice generated up to a 60% increase in muscle mass in 2 weeks. The knowledge on the role of activin receptors in fish is limited. In the present study, we examined the growth effect of administering a recombinant, soluble form of goldfish activin type IIB receptor extracellular domain to juvenile and larval goldfish (Carassius auratus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) larvae and tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) larvae. We have expressed the goldfish activin type IIB receptor extracellular domain in the yeast Pichia pastoris and we have demonstrated for the first time that this recombinant molecule stimulates growth in teleost fish in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that this body weight increase is achieved by an increase in muscle mass and protein content. Histological analysis of the goldfish muscle revealed that treated fish exhibited hyperplasia as compared to controls. These findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate growth in non-mammalian vertebrates and suggest a powerful biotechnology approach to improving fish growth in aquaculture. PMID:19056390

  5. A novel IL-1 receptor, cloned from B cells by mammalian expression, is expressed in many cell types.

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, C J; Slack, J L; Mosley, B; Cosman, D; Lupton, S D; Brunton, L L; Grubin, C E; Wignall, J M; Jenkins, N A; Brannan, C I

    1991-01-01

    cDNA clones corresponding to an Mr approximately 80,000 receptor (type I receptor) for interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been isolated previously by mammalian expression. Here, we report the use of an improved expression cloning method to isolate human and murine cDNA clones encoding a second type (Mr approximately 60,000) of IL-1 receptor (type II receptor). The mature type II IL-1 receptor consists of (i) a ligand binding portion comprised of three immunoglobulin-like domains; (ii) a single transmembrane region; and (iii) a short cytoplasmic domain of 29 amino acids. This last contrasts with the approximately 215 amino acid cytoplasmic domain of the type I receptor, and suggests that the two IL-1 receptors may interact with different signal transduction pathways. The type II receptor is expressed in a number of different tissues, including both B and T lymphocytes, and can be induced in several cell types by treatment with phorbol ester. Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, and map to the same chromosomal location. Like the type I receptor, the human type II IL-1 receptor can bind all three forms of IL-1 (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-1ra). Vaccinia virus contains an open reading frame bearing strong resemblance to the type II IL-1 receptor. Images PMID:1833184

  6. Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors Mediate a Cell Type-Specific Plasticity in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Stempel, A Vanessa; Stumpf, Alexander; Zhang, Hai-Ying; Özdoğan, Tuğba; Pannasch, Ulrike; Theis, Anne-Kathrin; Otte, David-Marian; Wojtalla, Alexandra; Rácz, Ildikó; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Zimmer, Andreas; Schmitz, Dietmar

    2016-05-18

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) exert major control over neuronal activity by activating cannabinoid receptors (CBRs). The functionality of the eCB system is primarily ascribed to the well-documented retrograde activation of presynaptic CB1Rs. We find that action potential-driven eCB release leads to a long-lasting membrane potential hyperpolarization in hippocampal principal cells that is independent of CB1Rs. The hyperpolarization, which is specific to CA3 and CA2 pyramidal cells (PCs), depends on the activation of neuronal CB2Rs, as shown by a combined pharmacogenetic and immunohistochemical approach. Upon activation, they modulate the activity of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter, leading to a hyperpolarization of the neuron. CB2R activation occurred in a purely self-regulatory manner, robustly altered the input/output function of CA3 PCs, and modulated gamma oscillations in vivo. To conclude, we describe a cell type-specific plasticity mechanism in the hippocampus that provides evidence for the neuronal expression of CB2Rs and emphasizes their importance in basic neuronal transmission. PMID:27133464

  7. Estrogen receptors modulate striatal metabotropic receptor type 5 in intact and MPTP male mice model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Al-Sweidi, S; Morissette, M; Di Paolo, T

    2016-07-01

    Glutamate is the most important brain excitatory neurotransmitter and glutamate overactivity is well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD). Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are reported to interact with membrane estrogen receptors (ERs) and more specifically the mGlu5 receptor subtype. 17β-estradiol and mGlu5 antagonists have neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. We previously reported that ERα and ERβ are involved in neuroprotection following MPTP toxicity. The present study investigated the implication of ERs on the mGlu5 receptor adaptive response to MPTP toxicity in the brain of wild type (WT), ER knockout (ERKO)α and ERKOβ male mice. Autoradiography of [(3)H]ABP688 specific binding to striatal mGlu5 receptors showed a dorsal/ventral gradient similar for WT, ERKOα and ERKOβ mice with higher values ventrally. The lateral septum had highest [(3)H]ABP688 specific binding that remained unchanged in all experimental groups. ERKOα and ERKOβ mice had similarly lower striatal [(3)H]ABP688 specific binding than WT mice as measured also by Western blots. MPTP dose-dependently decreased striatal [(3)H]ABP688 specific binding in WT but not in ERKOα and ERKOβ mice; this correlated positively with striatal dopamine concentrations. A 17β-estradiol treatment for 10 days left unchanged striatal [(3)H]ABP688 specific binding of unlesioned mice of the three genotypes. 17β-estradiol treatment for 5 days before MPTP and for 5 days after partially prevented the mGlu5 receptor decrease only in WT MPTP mice and this was associated with higher BDNF striatal contents. These results thus show that in male mice ERs affect striatal mGlu5 receptor levels and their response to MPTP. PMID:26873133

  8. Functional alterations of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor in placenta of diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hauguel-de Mouzon, S; Louizeau, M; Girard, J

    1992-01-01

    The presence of type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) receptors on placental membranes led to the hypothesis that these receptors might play a critical role in the rapid growth of this organ. Diabetes induces feto-placental overgrowth, but it is not known whether it modifies IGF-I receptor activity in fetal and/or placental tissues. To answer this question, we have partially purified and characterized placental receptors from normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In normal rats, binding of 125I-IGF-I to a 140 kDa protein corresponding to the alpha subunit of the receptor was observed in cross-linking experiments performed under reducing conditions. Stimulation by IGF-I induces the autophosphorylation of a 105 kDa phosphoprotein representing the beta subunit of the receptor. In rats made hyperglycaemic and insulinopenic by streptozotocin injection on day 1 of pregnancy, placental IGF-I receptor-binding parameters were not different from controls on day 20 of pregnancy. In contrast, the autophosphorylation and kinase activity of IGF-I receptors of diabetic rats were increased 2-3-fold in the basal state and after IGF-I stimulation. The present study indicates that the rat placental IGF-I receptor possesses structural characteristics similar to that reported for fetal-rat muscle, and suggests that the high-molecular-mass beta subunit could represent a type of receptor specifically expressed during prenatal development. In addition, it clearly demonstrates that diabetes induces functional alterations in IGF-I receptor kinase activity that may play a major role in the placental overgrowth in diabetic pregnancy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:1445271

  9. Localization of the receptor gene for type D simian retroviruses on human chromosome 19.

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, M A; Williams, B P; McKnight, A; Goodfellow, P N; Weiss, R A

    1990-01-01

    Simian retrovirus (SRV) serotypes 1 to 5 are exogenous type D viruses causing immune suppression in macaque monkeys. These viruses exhibit receptor interference with each other, with two endogenous type D viruses of the langur (PO-1-Lu) and squirrel monkey, and with two type C retroviruses, feline endogenous virus (RD114/CCC) and baboon endogenous virus (BaEV), indicating that each utilizes the same cell surface receptor (M. A. Sommerfelt and R. A. Weiss, Virology 176:58-69, 1990). Vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype particles bearing envelope glycoproteins of RD114, BaEV, and the seven SRV strains were employed to detect receptors expressed in human-rodent somatic cell hybrids segregating human chromosomes. The only human chromosome common to all the susceptible hybrids was chromosome 19. By using hybrids retaining different fragments of chromosome 19, a provisional subchromosomal localization of the receptor gene was made to 19q13.1-13.2. Antibodies previously reported to be specific to a BaEV receptor (L. Thiry, J. Cogniaux-Leclerc, R. Olislager, S. Sprecher-Goldberger, and P. Burkens, J. Virol. 48:697-708, 1983) did not block BaEV, RD114, or SRV pseudotypes or syncytia. Antibodies to known surface markers determined by genes mapped to chromosome 19 did not block virus-receptor interaction. The identity of the receptor remains to be determined. PMID:2173788

  10. Toll-Like Receptors and Dectin-1, a C-Type Lectin Receptor, Trigger Divergent Functions in CNS Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Guan, Zhen; Beckwith, Kyle A.; Braun, Kaitlyn J.; Wei, Ping; McTigue, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) activates macrophages, endowing them with both reparative and pathological functions. The mechanisms responsible for these divergent functions are unknown but are likely controlled through stochastic activation of different macrophage receptor subtypes. Various danger-associated molecular patterns released from dying cells in the injured spinal cord likely activate distinct subtypes of macrophage pattern recognition receptors, including bacterial toll-like receptors (TLRs) and fungal C-type lectin receptors (e.g., dectin-1). To determine the in vivo consequences of activating these receptors, ligands specific for TLR2 or dectin-1 were microinjected, alone or in combination, into intact spinal cord. Both ligands elicit a florid macrophage reaction; however, only dectin-1 activation causes macrophage-mediated demyelination and axonal injury. Coactivating TLR2 reduced the injurious effects of dectin-1 activation. When injected into traumatically injured spinal cord, TLR2 agonists enhance the endogenous macrophage reaction while conferring neuroprotection. Indeed, dieback of axons was reduced, leading to smaller lesion volumes at the peak of the macrophage response. Moreover, the density of NG2+ cells expressing vimentin increased in and near lesions that were enriched with TLR2-activated macrophages. In dectin-1-null mutant (knock-out) mice, dieback of corticospinal tract axons also is reduced after SCI. Collectively, these data support the hypothesis that the ability of macrophages to create an axon growth-permissive microenvironment or cause neurotoxicity is receptor dependent and it may be possible to exploit this functional dichotomy to enhance CNS repair. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT There is a growing appreciation that macrophages exert diverse functions in the injured and diseased CNS. Indeed, both macrophage-mediated repair and macrophage-mediated injury occur, and often these effector functions are elicited simultaneously. Understanding the

  11. Modulation of neurosteroid potentiation by protein kinases at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Joanna M.; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors are important for inhibition in the CNS where neurosteroids and protein kinases are potent endogenous modulators. Acting individually, these can either enhance or depress receptor function, dependent upon the type of neurosteroid or kinase and the receptor subunit combination. However, in vivo, these modulators probably act in concert to fine-tune GABAA receptor activity and thus inhibition, although how this is achieved remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between these modulators at synaptic-type α1β3γ2L and extrasynaptic-type α4β3δ GABAA receptors using electrophysiology. For α1β3γ2L, potentiation of GABA responses by tetrahydro-deoxycorticosterone was reduced after inhibiting protein kinase C, and enhanced following its activation, suggesting this kinase regulates neurosteroid modulation. In comparison, neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at α1β3S408A,S409Aγ2L receptors, and unaltered by PKC inhibitors or activators, indicating that phosphorylation of β3 subunits is important for regulating neurosteroid activity. To determine whether extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors were similarly modulated, α4β3δ and α4β3S408A,S409Aδ receptors were investigated. Neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at both receptors by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. By contrast, neurosteroid-mediated potentiation at α4S443Aβ3S408A,S409Aδ receptors was unaffected by protein kinase inhibition, strongly suggesting that phosphorylation of α4 and β3 subunits is required for regulating neurosteroid activity at extrasynaptic receptors. Western blot analyses revealed that neurosteroids increased phosphorylation of β3S408,S409 implying that a reciprocal pathway exists for neurosteroids to modulate phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Overall, these findings provide important insight into the regulation of GABAA receptors in vivo, and into the mechanisms by which GABAergic inhibitory transmission may be simultaneously tuned by

  12. Astroglial type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1): A new player in the tripartite synapse.

    PubMed

    Oliveira da Cruz, J F; Robin, L M; Drago, F; Marsicano, G; Metna-Laurent, M

    2016-05-26

    The endocannabinoid system is an important regulator of physiological functions. In the brain, this control is mainly exerted through the type-1-cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. CB1 receptors are abundant at neuron terminals where their stimulation inhibits neurotransmitter release. However, CB1 receptors are also expressed in astrocytes and recent studies showed that astroglial cannabinoid signaling is a key element of the tripartite synapse. In this review we discuss the different mechanisms by which astroglial CB1 receptors control synaptic transmission and plasticity. The recent involvement of astroglial CB1 receptors in the effects of cannabinoids on memory highlights their key roles in cognitive processes and further indicates that astrocytes are central active elements of high-order brain functions. PMID:25967266

  13. Receptor for detection of a Type II sex pheromone in the winter moth Operophtera brumata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Hong-Lei; Schultze, Anna; Froß, Heidrun; Francke, Wittko; Krieger, Jürgen; Löfstedt, Christer

    2016-01-01

    How signal diversity evolves under stabilizing selection in a pheromone-based mate recognition system is a conundrum. Female moths produce two major types of sex pheromones, i.e., long-chain acetates, alcohols and aldehydes (Type I) and polyenic hydrocarbons and epoxides (Type II), along different biosynthetic pathways. Little is known on how male pheromone receptor (PR) genes evolved to perceive the different pheromones. We report the identification of the first PR tuned to Type II pheromones, namely ObruOR1 from the winter moth, Operophtera brumata (Geometridae). ObruOR1 clusters together with previously ligand-unknown orthologues in the PR subfamily for the ancestral Type I pheromones, suggesting that O. brumata did not evolve a new type of PR to match the novel Type II signal but recruited receptors within an existing PR subfamily. AsegOR3, the ObruOR1 orthologue previously cloned from the noctuid Agrotis segetum that has Type I acetate pheromone components, responded significantly to another Type II hydrocarbon, suggesting that a common ancestor with Type I pheromones had receptors for both types of pheromones, a preadaptation for detection of Type II sex pheromone. PMID:26729427

  14. Substantial expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor type I in human uveal melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Schally, Andrew V.; Block, Norman L; Dezso, Balazs; Olah, Gabor; Rozsa, Bernadett; Fodor, Klara; Buglyo, Armin; Gardi, Janos; Berta, Andras; Halmos, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with a very high mortality rate due to frequent liver metastases. Consequently, the therapy of uveal melanoma remains a major clinical challenge and new treatment approaches are needed. For improving diagnosis and designing a rational and effective therapy, it is essential to elucidate molecular characteristics of this malignancy. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate as a potential therapeutic target the expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor in human uveal melanoma. The expression of LHRH ligand and LHRH receptor transcript forms was studied in 39 human uveal melanoma specimens by RT-PCR using gene specific primers. The binding charachteristics of receptors for LHRH on 10 samples were determined by ligand competition assays. The presence of LHRH receptor protein was further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The expression of mRNA for type I LHRH receptor was detected in 18 of 39 (46%) of tissue specimens. mRNA for LHRH-I ligand could be detected in 27 of 39 (69%) of the samples. Seven of 10 samples investigated showed high affinity LHRH-I receptors. The specific presence of full length LHRH receptor protein was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A high percentage of uveal melanomas express mRNA and protein for type-I LHRH receptors. Our results support the merit of further investigation of LHRH receptors in human ophthalmological tumors. Since diverse analogs of LHRH are in clinical trials or are already used for the treatment of various cancers, these analogs could be considered for the LHRH receptor-based treatment of uveal melanoma. PMID:24077773

  15. Genes encoding putative natural killer cell C-type lectin receptors in teleostean fishes

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Akie; Mayer, Werner E.; Overath, Peter; Klein, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that express receptors specific for MHC class I molecules. The NK cell receptors belong to two structurally unrelated families, the killer cell Ig-like receptors and the killer cell C-type lectin receptors. We describe a cDNA clone derived from the bony (cichlid) fish Paralabidochromis chilotes and show that it encodes a protein related to the CD94/NK cell group 2 (NKG2) subfamily of the killer cell C-type lectin receptors. The gene encoding this receptor in a related species, Oreochromis niloticus, has a similar structure to the human CD94/NKG2 genes and is a member of a multigene cluster that resembles the mammalian NK cell gene complex. Thus, the CD94/NKG2 subfamily of NK cell receptors must have arisen before the divergence of fish and tetrapods and may have retained its function (possibly monitoring the expression of MHC class I molecules) for >400 million years. PMID:12802013

  16. Investigation of the Fate of Type I Angiotensin Receptor after Biased Activation

    PubMed Central

    Szakadáti, Gyöngyi; Tóth, András D.; Oláh, Ilona; Erdélyi, László Sándor; Balla, Tamas; Várnai, Péter; Balla, András

    2015-01-01

    Biased agonism on the type I angiotensin receptor (AT1-R) can achieve different outcomes via activation of G protein–dependent and –independent cellular responses. In this study, we investigated whether the biased activation of AT1-R can lead to different regulation and intracellular processing of the receptor. We analyzed β-arrestin binding, endocytosis, and subsequent trafficking steps, such as early and late phases of recycling of AT1-R in human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing wild-type or biased mutant receptors in response to different ligands. We used Renilla luciferase–tagged receptors and yellow fluorescent protein–tagged β-arrestin2, Rab5, Rab7, and Rab11 proteins in bioluminescence resonance energy transfer measurements to follow the fate of the receptor after stimulation. We found that not only is the signaling of the receptor different upon using selective ligands, but the fate within the cells is also determined by the type of the stimulation. β-arrestin binding and the internalization kinetics of the angiotensin II–stimulated AT1-R differed from those stimulated by the biased agonists. Similarly, angiotensin II–stimulated wild-type AT1-R showed differences compared with a biased mutant AT1-R (DRY/AAY AT1-R) with regards to β-arrestin binding and endocytosis. We found that the differences in the internalization kinetics of the receptor in response to biased agonist stimulation are due to the differences in plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate depletion. Moreover, the stability of the β-arrestin binding is a major determinant of the later fate of the internalized AT1-R receptor. PMID:25804845

  17. Functional Overexpression of Vomeronasal Receptors Using a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Derived Amplicon.

    PubMed

    Stein, Benjamin; Alonso, María Teresa; Zufall, Frank; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Chamero, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In mice, social behaviors such as mating and aggression are mediated by pheromones and related chemosignals. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects olfactory information from other individuals by sensory neurons tuned to respond to specific chemical cues. Receptors expressed by vomeronasal neurons are implicated in selective detection of these cues. Nearly 400 receptor genes have been identified in the mouse VNO, but the tuning properties of individual receptors remain poorly understood, in part due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here we develop a herpes virus-based amplicon delivery system to overexpress three types of vomeronasal receptor genes and to characterize cell responses to their proposed ligands. Through Ca2+ imaging in native VNO cells we show that virus-induced overexpression of V1rj2, V2r1b or Fpr3 caused a pronounced increase of responsivity to sulfated steroids, MHC-binding peptide or the synthetic hexapeptide W-peptide, respectively. Other related ligands were not recognized by infected individual neurons, indicating a high degree of selectivity by the overexpressed receptor. Removal of G-protein signaling eliminates Ca2+ responses, indicating that the endogenous second messenger system is essential for observing receptor activation. Our results provide a novel expression system for vomeronasal receptors that should be useful for understanding the molecular logic of VNO ligand detection. Functional expression of vomeronasal receptors and their deorphanization provides an essential requirement for deciphering the neural mechanisms controlling behavior. PMID:27195771

  18. Functional Overexpression of Vomeronasal Receptors Using a Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1)-Derived Amplicon

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin; Alonso, María Teresa; Zufall, Frank; Leinders-Zufall, Trese; Chamero, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In mice, social behaviors such as mating and aggression are mediated by pheromones and related chemosignals. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects olfactory information from other individuals by sensory neurons tuned to respond to specific chemical cues. Receptors expressed by vomeronasal neurons are implicated in selective detection of these cues. Nearly 400 receptor genes have been identified in the mouse VNO, but the tuning properties of individual receptors remain poorly understood, in part due to the lack of a robust heterologous expression system. Here we develop a herpes virus-based amplicon delivery system to overexpress three types of vomeronasal receptor genes and to characterize cell responses to their proposed ligands. Through Ca2+ imaging in native VNO cells we show that virus-induced overexpression of V1rj2, V2r1b or Fpr3 caused a pronounced increase of responsivity to sulfated steroids, MHC-binding peptide or the synthetic hexapeptide W-peptide, respectively. Other related ligands were not recognized by infected individual neurons, indicating a high degree of selectivity by the overexpressed receptor. Removal of G-protein signaling eliminates Ca2+ responses, indicating that the endogenous second messenger system is essential for observing receptor activation. Our results provide a novel expression system for vomeronasal receptors that should be useful for understanding the molecular logic of VNO ligand detection. Functional expression of vomeronasal receptors and their deorphanization provides an essential requirement for deciphering the neural mechanisms controlling behavior. PMID:27195771

  19. Excitation of type II anterior caudate neurons by stimulation of dopamine D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Piercey, M F; Hyslop, D K; Hoffmann, W E

    1997-07-11

    Previous studies have demonstrated that both direct- and indirect-acting dopamine (DA) receptor agonists excite type II neurons in the anterior caudate (CN) by stimulation of DA receptors belonging to the D2 receptor subfamily (D2, D3, D4 receptor subtypes). In the present study, pramipexole, a D3-preferring DA agonist effective in treating Parkinson's disease, excited type II anterior CN neurons. As with other direct-acting agonists, excitation of the CN neurons occurred only at doses above those that silenced DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC). Although more potent than pramipexole in inhibiting SNPC cells, PNU-91356A, a D2-preferring agonist, did not excite type II CN cells. The D3-preferring antagonist (+)-AJ76 was weaker than haloperidol, a D2-preferring antagonist, in reversing the effects of amphetamine on firing rates in dopaminergic neurons in both the SNPC and the CN. However, in relationship to its potency in the SNPC, (+)-AJ76 was more potent than haloperidol in the CN. PNU-101387, a selective D4 antagonist, did not alter amphetamine-induced stimulation of type II CN neurons. We conclude that DA agonists may excite type II anterior CN neurons via D3 receptor activation. The stimulation of these neurons may contribute to the anti-parkinsonian effects of pramipexole. PMID:9262154

  20. Upregulation of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptors in Dopamine D2 Receptor Knockout Mice Is Reversed by Chronic Forced Ethanol Consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K.; Gopez, V.; Delis, F.; Michaelides, M.; Grand, D.K.; Wang, G.-J.; Kunos, G.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    The anatomical proximity of the cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1/CB1R) and the dopamine D2 receptors (DRD2), their ability to form CB1R-DRD2 heteromers, their opposing roles in locomotion, and their involvement in ethanol's reinforcing and addictive properties prompted us to study the levels and distribution of CB1R after chronic ethanol intake, in the presence and absence of DRD2. We monitored the drinking patterns and locomotor activity of Drd2+/+ and Drd2-/- mice consuming either water or a 20% (v/v) ethanol solution (forced ethanol intake) for 6 months and used the selective CB1 receptor antagonist [{sup 3}H]SR141716A to quantify CB1R levels in different brain regions with in vitro receptor autoradiography. We found that the lack of DRD2 leads to a marked upregulation (approximately 2-fold increase) of CB1R in the cerebral cortex, the caudate-putamen, and the nucleus accumbens, which was reversed by chronic ethanol intake. The results suggest that DRD2-mediated dopaminergic neurotransmission and chronic ethanol intake exert an inhibitory effect on cannabinoid receptor expression in cortical and striatal regions implicated in the reinforcing and addictive properties of ethanol.

  1. Expression of Dihydropyridine and Ryanodine Receptors in Type IIA Fibers of Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Anttila, Katja; Mänttäri, Satu; Järvilehto, Matti

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the fiber type specificity of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in different rat limb muscles was investigated. Western blot and histochemical analyses provided for the first time evidence that the expression of both receptors correlates to a specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. We observed a significant (p=0.01) correlation between DHP as well as Ry receptor density and the expression of MHC IIa (correlation factor r=0.674 and r=0.645, respectively) in one slow-twitch, postural muscle (m. soleus), one mixed, fast-twitch muscle (m. gastrocnemius) and two fast-twitch muscles (m. rectus femoris, m. extensor digitorum longus). The highest DHP and Ry receptor density was found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (0.058±0.0060 and 0.057±0.0158 ODu, respectively). As expected, the highest relative percentage of MHC IIa was also found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (70.0±7.77%). Furthermore, histochemical experiments revealed that the IIA fibers stained most strongly for the fluorophore-conjugated receptor blockers. Our data clearly suggest that the expression of DHPRs and RyRs follows a fiber type-specific pattern, indicating an important role for these proteins in the maintenance of an effective Ca2+ cycle in the fast contracting fiber type IIA. PMID:17576431

  2. Orphan nuclear receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) plays a key role in hepatic cannabinoid receptor type 1-mediated induction of CYP7A1 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaochen; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Ji-Min; Park, Seung Bum; Jeong, Won-Il; Kim, Seong Heon; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Chul-Ho; Chiang, John Y L; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Bile acids are primarily synthesized from cholesterol in the liver and have important roles in dietary lipid absorption and cholesterol homoeostasis. Detailed roles of the orphan nuclear receptors regulating cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, we report that oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a novel transcriptional regulator of CYP7A1 expression. Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1 receptor) signalling induced ERRγ-mediated transcription of the CYP7A1 gene. Overexpression of ERRγ increased CYP7A1 expression in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of ERRγ attenuated CYP7A1 expression. Deletion analysis of the CYP7A1 gene promoter and a ChIP assay revealed an ERRγ-binding site on the CYP7A1 gene promoter. Small heterodimer partner (SHP) inhibited the transcriptional activity of ERRγ and thus regulated CYP7A1 expression. Overexpression of ERRγ led to increased bile acid levels, whereas an inverse agonist of ERRγ, GSK5182, reduced CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis. Finally, GSK5182 significantly reduced hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of CYP7A1 expression and bile acid synthesis in alcohol-treated mice. These results provide the molecular mechanism linking ERRγ and bile acid metabolism. PMID:26348907

  3. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Rocca, P; Ferrero, P; Gualerzi, A; Zanalda, E; Maina, G; Bergamasco, B; Ravizza, L

    1991-12-01

    Peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (pBDZr) were analyzed in lymphocyte membranes from patients with anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), n = 15; panic disorder (PD), n = 10; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), n = 18), other mental disorders (n = 40) and 50 healthy controls, by the specific binding of 3H-PK11195. The number of binding sites (Bmax) was significantly decreased in groups with both GAD and OCD as compared with age-matched controls, by 45% and 25% respectively, whereas the binding affinity (Kd) was the same in all disorder and control groups. Conversely, no changes in binding capacity was observed in the other disorder groups and particularly in the one with PD. The abnormality in pBDZr observed in patients with GAD was restored to a normal value after long-term treatment with 2'-chloro-N-desmethyldiazepam, which also coincided with their recovery from anxiety. Our data suggest that the clinical heterogeneity in anxiety disorders might be related to different biological mechanisms and that lymphocyte pBDZr might be useful in demonstrating these differences. PMID:1686517

  4. Agonist mediated fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exposure of a developing embryo or fetus to teratogenic alkaloids from plants has the potential to cause developmental defects in livestock due to the inhibition of fetal movement by alkaloids. The mechanism behind the inhibition of fetal movement is the desensitization of fetal muscle-type nico...

  5. The novel neurotensin analog NT69L blocks phencyclidine (PCP)-induced increases in locomotor activity and PCP-induced increases in monoamine and amino acids levels in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhimin; Boules, Mona; Williams, Katrina; Peris, Joanna; Richelson, Elliott

    2010-01-22

    Schizophrenia is a life-long, severe, and disabling brain disorder that requires chronic pharmacotherapy. Because current antipsychotic drugs do not provide optimal therapy, we have been developing novel treatments that focus on receptors for the neuropeptide neurotensin (NT). NT69L, an analog of neurotensin(8-13), acts like an atypical antipsychotic drug in several dopamine-based animal models used to study schizophrenia. Another current animal model utilizes non-competitive antagonists of the NMDA/glutamate receptor, such as the psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP). In the present study, we investigated the effects of NT69L on PCP-induced behavioral and biochemical changes in the rat. The top of an activity chamber was modified to allow us to perform microdialysis in rat brain, while simultaneously recording the locomotor activity of a rat. PCP injection significantly increased activity as well as the extracellular concentration of norepinephrine (NE), 5-HT, dopamine (DA), and glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Pretreating with NT69L blocked the PCP-induced hyperactivity as well as the increase of DA, 5-HT, NE, and glutamate in mPFC. Interestingly and unexpectedly, NT69L markedly increased glycine levels, while PCP was without effect on glycine levels. Thus, NT69L showed antipsychotic-like effects in this glutamate-based animal model for studying schizophrenia. Previous work from our group suggests that NT69L also has antipsychotic-like effects in dopaminergic and serotonergic rodent models. Taken together, these data suggest that NT69L in particular and NT receptor agonists in general, will be useful as broad-spectrum antipsychotic drugs. PMID:19948149

  6. Activation and modulation of recombinantly expressed serotonin receptor type 3A by terpenes and pungent substances.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Paul M; Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Flegel, Caroline; Herbrechter, Robin; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas; Hatt, Hanns; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter

    2015-11-27

    Serotonin receptor type 3 (5-HT3 receptor) is a ligand-gated ion channel that is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) as well as in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The receptor plays an important role in regulating peristalsis of the gastrointestinal tract and in functions such as emesis, cognition and anxiety. Therefore, a variety of pharmacologically active substances target the 5-HT3 receptor to treat chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The 5-HT3 receptors are activated, antagonized, or modulated by a wide range of chemically different substances, such as 2-methyl-serotonin, phenylbiguanide, setrones, or cannabinoids. Whereas the action of all of these substances is well described, less is known about the effect of terpenoids or fragrances on 5-HT3A receptors. In this study, we screened a large number of natural odorous and pungent substances for their pharmacological action on recombinantly expressed human 5-HT3A receptors. The receptors were functionally expressed in Xenopus oocytes and characterized by electrophysiological recordings using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. A screening of two odorous mixes containing a total of 200 substances revealed that the monoterpenes, thymol and carvacrol, act as both weak partial agonists and positive modulators on the 5-HT3A receptor. In contrast, the most effective blockers were the terpenes, citronellol and geraniol, as well as the pungent substances gingerol, capsaicin and polygodial. In our study, we identified new modulators of 5-HT3A receptors out of the classes of monoterpenes and vanilloid substances that frequently occur in various plants. PMID:26456648

  7. Type II Turn of Receptor-bound Salmon Calcitonin Revealed by X-ray Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Eva; Hansen, Jakob Lerche; Hansen, Ann Maria Kruse; Shaw, Allan Christian; Becker, Peter; Schäffer, Lauge; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen

    2016-06-24

    Calcitonin is a peptide hormone consisting of 32 amino acid residues and the calcitonin receptor is a Class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). The crystal structure of the human calcitonin receptor ectodomain (CTR ECD) in complex with a truncated analogue of salmon calcitonin ([BrPhe(22)]sCT(8-32)) has been determined to 2.1-Å resolution. Parallel analysis of a series of peptide ligands showed that the rank order of binding of the CTR ECD is identical to the rank order of binding of the full-length CTR, confirming the structural integrity and relevance of the isolated CTR ECD. The structure of the CTR ECD is similar to other Class B GPCRs and the ligand binding site is similar to the binding site of the homologous receptors for the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedulin (AM) recently published (Booe, J. M., Walker, C. S., Barwell, J., Kuteyi, G., Simms, J., Jamaluddin, M. A., Warner, M. L., Bill, R. M., Harris, P. W., Brimble, M. A., Poyner, D. R., Hay, D. L., and Pioszak, A. A. (2015) Mol. Cell 58, 1040-1052). Interestingly the receptor-bound structure of the ligand [BrPhe(22)]sCT(8-32) differs from the receptor-bound structure of the homologous ligands CGRP and AM. They all adopt an extended conformation followed by a C-terminal β turn, however, [BrPhe(22)]sCT(8-32) adopts a type II turn (Gly(28)-Thr(31)), whereas CGRP and AM adopt type I turns. Our results suggest that a type II turn is the preferred conformation of calcitonin, whereas a type I turn is the preferred conformation of peptides that require RAMPs; CGRP, AM, and amylin. In addition the structure provides a detailed molecular explanation and hypothesis regarding ligand binding properties of CTR and the amylin receptors. PMID:27189946

  8. Polymorphisms in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Genes Affect the Expression Levels of Membrane-Bound Type I and Type II Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sennikov, Sergey V.; Vasilyev, Filipp F.; Lopatnikova, Julia A.; Shkaruba, Nadezhda S.; Silkov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    The level of TNF receptors on various cells of immune system and its association with the gene polymorphism were investigated. Determining the levels of membrane-bound TNFα receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed by flow cytometry using BD QuantiBRITE calibration particles. Soluble TNFα receptor (sTNFRs) levels were determined by ELISA and genotyping was determined by PCR-RFLP. Homozygous TT individuals at SNP −609G/T TNFRI (rs4149570) showed lower levels of sTNFRI compared to GG genotype carriers. Homozygous carriers of CC genotype at SNP −1207G/C TNFRI (rs4149569) had lower expression densities of membrane-bound TNFRI on intact CD14+ monocytes compared to individuals with the GC genotype. The frequency differences in the CD3+ and CD19+ cells expressing TNFRII in relation to SNP −1709A/T TNFRII (rs652625) in healthy individuals were also determined. The genotype CC in SNP −3609C/T TNFRII (rs590368) was associated with a lower percentage of CD14+ cells expressing TNFRII compared to individuals with the CT genotype. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had no significant changes in the frequencies of genotypes. Reduced frequency was identified for the combination TNFRI −609GT + TNFRII −3609CC only. The polymorphisms in genes represent one of cell type-specific mechanisms affecting the expression levels of membrane-bound TNFα receptors and TNFα-mediated signaling. PMID:24782596

  9. The interleukin-1 type I receptor is expressed in human hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Hammond, E A; Smart, D; Toulmond, S; Suman-Chauhan, N; Hughes, J; Hall, M D

    1999-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that interleukin-1 (IL-1) acts directly on the central nervous system, probably within the hypothalamus, causing effects such as fever, activation of the immune response and sickness behaviour. IL-1 has also been shown to be involved in the aetiology of several neuronal diseases, including neurodegeneration, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. However, the question as to whether the full-length type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI) is expressed in the human hypothalamus has yet to be addressed. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding the human hypothalamic IL-1RI from human hypothalamic cDNA. The DNA sequence of the human hypothalamic receptor was identical to that of the human fibroblast IL-1RI. The IL-1RI receptor protein was detected in astrocytes of normal human hypothalamic brain sections using immunocytochemical techniques. To ascertain that the cloned receptor was functional, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transfected with a plasmid vector containing the IL-1RI coding region. IL-1RI-mediated-signal transduction was assessed by microphysiometry and activation of p38 MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase. We report the first demonstration that both the type I IL-1 transcript and the protein are expressed in the human hypothalamus. The receptor was expressed in a stable CHO cell line, providing a tool with which to embark on a thorough analysis of the signalling mechanisms mediated by IL-1 via this receptor. PMID:10468509

  10. Abuse and Dependence Liability of Benzodiazepine-Type Drugs: GABAA Receptor Modulation and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Rowlett, James K.

    2008-01-01

    Benzodiazepine-type drugs (benzodiazepines and the newer non-benzodiazepines) are similar to older sedative/hypnotic drugs, such as the barbiturates, in that they act at the GABAA receptor (9, 188). Unfortunately, benzodiazepine-type drugs also retain the liability for abuse and dependence associated with the earlier anxiolytics (133, 208). Action at GABAA receptors likely plays a key role in both the therapeutic as well as abuse-related effects of this important class of drugs. While the extent to which therapeutic efficacy and abuse potential can be dissociated is not yet understood fully, the biochemical processes underlying these behavioral effects are even less understood. A more comprehensive understanding of the etiology of benzodiazepine-type drug-induced abuse and dependence is likely to provide information that can inform drug development strategies to help design anxiolytics and hypnotics that have maximum clinical benefit with reduced abuse potential. Thus, this review will explore issues related to the abuse and dependence potential of benzodiazepine-type drugs and the role that GABAA receptors play in this phenomenon. Further, this review will discuss putative intracellular events that may occur as a result of the interaction between benzodiazepine-type drugs and GABAA receptors, and how those events may ultimately give rise to the abuse-related behaviors associated with these drugs. PMID:18295321

  11. Type I receptors in parotid, colon, and pituitary are aldosterone selective in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, K.; Funder, J.W. )

    1987-10-01

    Previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that type I receptors in the rat kidney are aldosterone selective, whereas those in the hippocampus do not appear to discriminate between aldosterone and corticosterone. The authors have injected mature rats with ({sup 3}H)aldosterone or ({sup 3}H)corticosterone plus 100-fold excess of RU 28362, with or without unlabeled aldosterone or corticosterone, and compared type I receptor occupancy in two classic mineralocorticoid target tissues (parotid and colon) and in the pituitary. Mature rats were killed 10-180 min after tracer administration; ({sup 3}H)aldosterone was well taken up and retained in all tissues, whereas ({sup 3}H)corticosterone was significantly retained only in the pituitary 10 min after tracer administration. To assess a possible role for corticosterone-binding globulin (CBG) in conferring aldosterone specificity on type I receptors, 10-day-old rats (with very low levels of CBG) were similarly injected. In the colon and parotid, ({sup 3}H)aldosterone binding was at least an order of magnitude higher than that of corticosterone; in the pituitary aldosterone binding was approximately three times that of corticosterone. They interpret these data as evidence that in the parotid and colon type I receptors are aldosterone selective by a non-CBG-requiring mechanism, whereas in the pituitary there appear to be both aldosterone-selective and nonselective type I sites.

  12. [Severe type A insulin resistance syndrome due to a mutation in the insulin receptor gene].

    PubMed

    Ros, P; Colino-Alcol, E; Grasso, V; Barbetti, F; Argente, J

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance syndromes without lipodystrophy are an infrequent and heterogeneous group of disorders with variable clinical phenotypes, associated with hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The three conditions related to mutations in the insulin receptor gene are leprechaunism or Donohue syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, and Type A syndrome. A case is presented on a patient diagnosed with type A insulin resistance, defined by the triad of extreme insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, and hyperandrogenism, carrying a heterozygous mutation in exon 19 of the insulin receptor gene coding for its tyrosine kinase domain that is crucial for the catalytic activity of the receptor. The molecular basis of the syndrome is reviewed, focusing on the structure-function relationships of the insulin receptor, knowing that the criteria for survival are linked to residual insulin receptor function. It is also pointed out that, although type A insulin resistance appears to represent a somewhat less severe condition, these patients have a high morbidity and their treatment is still unsatisfactory. PMID:25027621

  13. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhenji; Rumsey, John; Hazen, Bethany C; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C; Vega, Rick B; Xie, Hui; Conley, Kevin E; Auwerx, Johan; Smith, Steven R; Olson, Eric N; Kralli, Anastasia; Kelly, Daniel P

    2013-06-01

    The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure. PMID:23676496

  14. Nuclear receptor/microRNA circuitry links muscle fiber type to energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Zhenji; Rumsey, John; Hazen, Bethany C.; Lai, Ling; Leone, Teresa C.; Vega, Rick B.; Xie, Hui; Conley, Kevin E.; Auwerx, Johan; Smith, Steven R.; Olson, Eric N.; Kralli, Anastasia; Kelly, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in the coordinate regulation of the metabolic and structural programs controlling muscle fitness and endurance are unknown. Recently, the nuclear receptor PPARβ/δ was shown to activate muscle endurance programs in transgenic mice. In contrast, muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of the related nuclear receptor, PPARα, results in reduced capacity for endurance exercise. We took advantage of the divergent actions of PPARβ/δ and PPARα to explore the downstream regulatory circuitry that orchestrates the programs linking muscle fiber type with energy metabolism. Our results indicate that, in addition to the well-established role in transcriptional control of muscle metabolic genes, PPARβ/δ and PPARα participate in programs that exert opposing actions upon the type I fiber program through a distinct muscle microRNA (miRNA) network, dependent on the actions of another nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ). Gain-of-function and loss-of-function strategies in mice, together with assessment of muscle biopsies from humans, demonstrated that type I muscle fiber proportion is increased via the stimulatory actions of ERRγ on the expression of miR-499 and miR-208b. This nuclear receptor/miRNA regulatory circuit shows promise for the identification of therapeutic targets aimed at maintaining muscle fitness in a variety of chronic disease states, such as obesity, skeletal myopathies, and heart failure. PMID:23676496

  15. Antinociceptive effects induced through the stimulation of spinal cannabinoid type 2 receptors in chronically inflamed mice.

    PubMed

    Curto-Reyes, Verdad; Boto, Tamara; Hidalgo, Agustín; Menéndez, Luis; Baamonde, Ana

    2011-10-01

    The stimulation of spinal cannabinoid type 2 (CB(2)) receptors is a suitable strategy for the alleviation of experimental pain symptoms. Several reports have described the up-regulation of spinal cannabinoid CB(2) receptors in neuropathic settings together with the analgesic effects derived from their activation. Besides, we have recently reported in two murine bone cancer models that the intrathecal administration of cannabinoid CB(2) receptor agonists completely abolishes hyperalgesia and allodynia, whereas spinal cannabinoid CB(2) receptor expression remains unaltered. The present experiments were designed to measure the expression of spinal cannabinoid CB(2) receptors as well as the analgesic efficacy derived from their stimulation in mice chronically inflamed by the intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant 1 week before. Both spinal cannabinoid CB(2) receptors mRNA measured by real-time PCR and cannabinoid CB(2) receptor protein levels measured by western blot remained unaltered in inflamed mice. Besides, the intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the cannabinoid CB(2) receptor agonists AM1241, (R,S)-3-(2-Iodo-5-nitrobenzoyl)-1-(1-methyl-2-piperidinylmethyl)-1H-indole, (0.03-1 μg) and JWH 133, (6aR,10aR)-3-(1,1-Dimethylbutyl)-6a,7,10,10a-tetrahydro-6,6,9-trimethyl-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran, (3-30 μg) dose-dependently blocked inflammatory thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. The analgesic effects induced by both agonists were counteracted by the coadministration of the selective cannabinoid CB(2) receptor antagonist SR144528, 5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-[(4-methylphenyl)methyl]-N-[(1S,2S,4R)-1,3,3-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl]-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide, (5 μg) but not by the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist AM251, N-(Piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide, (10 μg). The effects induced by AM1241 were also inhibited by the coadministration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone

  16. Dopamine D1 and corticotrophin-releasing hormone type-2α receptors assemble into functionally interacting complexes in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuenzalida, J; Galaz, P; Araya, K A; Slater, P G; Blanco, E H; Campusano, J M; Ciruela, F; Gysling, K

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Dopamine and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH; also known as corticotrophin-releasing factor) are key neurotransmitters in the interaction between stress and addiction. Repeated treatment with cocaine potentiates glutamatergic transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala/cortex pathway through a synergistic action of D1-like dopamine receptors and CRH type-2α receptors (CRF2α receptors). We hypothesized that this observed synergism could be instrumented by heteromers containing the dopamine D1 receptor and CRF2α receptor. Experimental Approach D1/CRF2α receptor heteromerization was demonstrated in HEK293T cells using co-immunoprecipitation, BRET and FRET assays, and by using the heteromer mobilization strategy. The ability of D1 receptors to signal through calcium, when singly expressed or co-expressed with CRF2α receptors, was evaluated by the calcium mobilization assay. Key Results D1/CRF2α receptor heteromers were observed in HEK293T cells. When singly expressed, D1 receptors were mostly located at the cell surface whereas CRF2α receptors accumulated intracellularly. Interestingly, co-expression of both receptors promoted D1 receptor intracellular and CRF2α receptor cell surface targeting. The heteromerization of D1/CRF2α receptors maintained the signalling through cAMP of both receptors but switched D1 receptor signalling properties, as the heteromeric D1 receptor was able to mobilize intracellular calcium upon stimulation with a D1 receptor agonist. Conclusions and Implications D1 and CRF2α receptors are capable of heterodimerization in living cells. D1/CRF2α receptor heteromerization might account, at least in part, for the complex physiological interactions established between dopamine and CRH in normal and pathological conditions such as addiction, representing a new potential pharmacological target. PMID:25073922

  17. Cannabinoids mediate analgesia largely via peripheral type 1 cannabinoid receptors in nociceptors

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Nitin; Pacher, Pal; Tegeder, Irmgard; Amaya, Fumimasa; Constantin, Cristina E; Brenner, Gary J; Rubino, Tiziana; Michalski, Christoph W; Marsicano, Giovanni; Monory, Krisztina; Mackie, Ken; Marian, Claudiu; Batkai, Sandor; Parolaro, Daniela; Fischer, Michael J; Reeh, Peter; Kunos, George; Kress, Michaela; Lutz, Beat; Woolf, Clifford J; Kuner, Rohini

    2008-01-01

    Although endocannabinoids constitute one of the first lines of defense against pain, the anatomical locus and the precise receptor mechanisms underlying cannabinergic modulation of pain are uncertain. Clinical exploitation of the system is severely hindered by the cognitive deficits, memory impairment, motor disturbances and psychotropic effects resulting from the central actions of cannabinoids. We deleted the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) specifically in nociceptive neurons localized in the peripheral nervous system of mice, preserving its expression in the CNS, and analyzed these genetically modified mice in preclinical models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The nociceptor-specific loss of CB1 substantially reduced the analgesia produced by local and systemic, but not intrathecal, delivery of cannabinoids. We conclude that the contribution of CB1-type receptors expressed on the peripheral terminals of nociceptors to cannabinoid-induced analgesia is paramount, which should enable the development of peripherally acting CB1 analgesic agonists without any central side effects. PMID:17558404

  18. Coexpression of type I and type II human macrophage scavenger receptors in macrophages of various organs and foam cells in atherosclerotic lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Naito, M.; Suzuki, H.; Mori, T.; Matsumoto, A.; Kodama, T.; Takahashi, K.

    1992-01-01

    Macrophage scavenger receptors are trimeric membrane glycoproteins implicated in the pathologic deposition of cholesterol in arterial walls during atherogenesis. Two types of cDNAs for functional human receptors have been cloned, but their physiologic roles remain obscure. To study the expression of these receptors, the authors generated antibodies against scavenger receptor type-specific synthetic peptide. Immunohistochemical examination using these antibodies and other anti-human receptor antibodies shows that type I and type II receptor proteins can be detected in foam cells in various stages of atherosclerosis, most evidently in fatty streaks. Co-expression of the two types of receptor protein was also detected in macrophages of various organs. Both types of the protein were detected on the surface and the membrane of endosomes in macrophages. These results indicate that both type I and type II scavenger receptors are expressed and functionally active in physiologic and pathologic conditions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1519666

  19. Cripto forms a complex with activin and type II activin receptors and can block activin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Peter C.; Harrison, Craig A.; Vale, Wylie

    2003-01-01

    Activin, nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and signal via the activin type II (ActRII/IIB) and type I (ALK4) serine/threonine kinase receptors. Unlike activins, however, signaling by nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 requires a coreceptor from the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic protein family such as Cripto. Cripto has important roles during development and oncogenesis and binds nodal or related ligands and ALK4 to facilitate assembly of type I and type II receptor signaling complexes. Because Cripto mediates signaling via activin receptors and binds directly to ALK4, we tested whether transfection with Cripto would affect the ability of activin to signal and/or interact with its receptors. Here we show that Cripto can form a complex with activin and ActRII/IIB. We were unable to detect activin binding to Cripto in the absence of ActRII/IIB, indicating that unlike nodal, activin requires type II receptors to bind Cripto. If cotransfected with ActRII/IIB and ALK4, Cripto inhibited crosslinking of activin to ALK4 and the association of ALK4 with ActRII/IIB. In addition, Cripto blocked activin signaling when transfected into either HepG2 cells or 293T cells. We have also shown that under conditions in which Cripto facilitates nodal signaling, it antagonizes activin. Inhibition of activin signaling provides an additional example of a Cripto effect on the regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor-β superfamily members. Because activin is a potent inhibitor of cell growth in multiple cell types, these results provide a mechanism that may partially explain the oncogenic action of Cripto. PMID:12682303

  20. Distortion of maternal-fetal angiotensin II type 1 receptor allele transmission in pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, L; Crawshaw, S; Baker, P N; Brookfield, J F; Broughton Pipkin, F; Kalsheker, N

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the fetal angiotensin II type 1 receptor genotype in pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Case-control study. POPULATION: Forty-one maternal-fetal pairs from pre-eclamptic pregnancies and 80 maternal-fetal pairs from normotensive pregnancies. METHODS: Maternal and fetal DNA was genotyped at three diallelic polymorphisms, at nucleotides 573, 1062, and 1166, in the coding exon of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene, and at a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in its 3' flanking region. RESULTS: Allele and genotype frequencies at the four polymorphic regions investigated did not differ between pre-eclamptic and normotensive groups, in either fetal or maternal samples. Mothers heterozygous for the dinucleotide repeat allele designated A4 transmitted this allele to the fetus in 15 of 18 informative pre-eclamptic pregnancies and in eight of 26 normotensive pregnancies. This was greater than the expected probability in pre-eclamptic pregnancies (p=0.04) and less than expected in normotensive pregnancies (p<0.005). The 573T variant, which is in partial linkage disequilibrium with the A4 allele, showed a similar distortion of maternal-fetal transmission. CONCLUSION: Angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression in the fetus may contribute to the aetiology of pre-eclampsia. It is unclear whether susceptibility is conferred by the fetal genotype acting alone, or by allele sharing by mother and fetus. Possible mechanisms for the effect of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene are suggested by the association of the 573T variant with low levels of surface receptor expression on platelets. If receptor expression is similarly genetically determined in the placenta, responsiveness to angiotensin II may be affected, with the potential to influence placentation or placental prostaglandin secretion. PMID:9719367

  1. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhen Cheng; Liu, Dao Yan; Zhang, Li Li; Shen, Chen Yi; Ma, Qun Li; Cao, Ting Bing; Wang, Li Juan; Nie, Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu, Zhi Ming

    2007-03-01

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta)-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p<0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p<0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-delta. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-delta. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-delta by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00+/-0.06 (n=3) to 1.91+/-0.06 (n=3; p<0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-delta significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39+/-0.03 (n=3; p<0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-delta. Both CB1 and PPAR-delta are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:17223076

  2. Exercise reduces adipose tissue via cannabinoid receptor type 1 which is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta}

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Zhencheng; Liu Daoyan; Zhang Lili; Shen Chenyi; Ma Qunli; Cao Tingbing; Wang Lijuan; Nie Hai; Zidek, Walter; Tepel, Martin; Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzm@yahoo.com

    2007-03-09

    Obesity is one major cardiovascular risk factor. We tested effects of endurance exercise on cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{delta} (PPAR-{delta})-dependent pathways in adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to standard laboratory chow or a high-fat diet without and with regular endurance exercise. Exercise in rats on high-fat diet significantly reduced visceral fat mass, blood pressure, and adipocyte size (each p < 0.05). Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by increased CB1 expression in adipose tissue, whereas exercise significantly reduced CB1 expression (each p < 0.05). CB1 receptor expression and adipocyte differentiation were directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Adipocyte hypertrophy induced by high-fat diet was accompanied by reduced PPAR-{delta}. Furthermore, selective silencing of PPAR-{delta} by RNA interference in 3T3-L1-preadipocyte cells significantly increased CB1 expression from 1.00 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3) to 1.91 {+-} 0.06 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PPAR-{delta} significantly reduced CB1 expression to 0.39 {+-} 0.03 (n = 3; p < 0.01) and reduced adipocyte differentiation. In the presence of the CB1 antagonist rimonabant adipocyte differentiation in stimulated 3T3 L1 preadipocyte cells was significantly reduced. The study indicates that high-fat diet-induced hypertrophy of adipocytes is associated with increased CB1 receptor expression which is directly regulated by PPAR-{delta}. Both CB1 and PPAR-{delta} are intimately involved in therapeutic interventions against a most important cardiovascular risk factor.

  3. Sorting by the cytoplasmic domain of the amyloid precursor protein binding receptor SorLA.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Morten S; Gustafsen, Camilla; Madsen, Peder; Nyengaard, Jens R; Hermey, Guido; Bakke, Oddmund; Mari, Muriel; Schu, Peter; Pohlmann, Regina; Dennes, André; Petersen, Claus M

    2007-10-01

    SorLA/LR11 (250 kDa) is the largest and most composite member of the Vps10p-domain receptors, a family of type 1 proteins preferentially expressed in neuronal tissue. SorLA binds several ligands, including neurotensin, platelet-derived growth factor-bb, and lipoprotein lipase, and via complex-formation with the amyloid precursor protein it downregulates generation of Alzheimer's disease-associated Abeta-peptide. The receptor is mainly located in vesicles, suggesting a function in protein sorting and transport. Here we examined SorLA's trafficking using full-length and chimeric receptors and find that its cytoplasmic tail mediates efficient Golgi body-endosome transport, as well as AP-2 complex-dependent endocytosis. Functional sorting sites were mapped to an acidic cluster-dileucine-like motif and to a GGA binding site in the C terminus. Experiments in permanently or transiently AP-1 mu1-chain-deficient cells established that the AP-1 adaptor complex is essential to SorLA's transport between Golgi membranes and endosomes. Our results further implicate the GGA proteins in SorLA trafficking and provide evidence that SNX1 and Vps35, as parts of the retromer complex or possibly in a separate context, are engaged in retraction of the receptor from endosomes. PMID:17646382

  4. Characterization of additional novel immune type receptors in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mining of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) expressed sequence tag databases identified seven new novel immune type receptors (IpNITRs). These differed in sequence, but not structure, from previously described IpNITR1-11. IpNITR12a, 12b, 13 and 14, encode proteins containing a single variable (V...

  5. Cortical Serotonin Type-2 Receptor Density in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Jeremy; Anderson, George M.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Hall, Geoffrey B. C.; Nahmias, Claude; Thompson, Ann; Szatmari, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Parents (N = 19) of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and adult controls (N = 17) underwent positron emission tomography (PET) using [[superscript 18]F]setoperone to image cortical serotonin type-2 (5-HT2) receptors. The 5-HT2 binding potentials (BPs) were calculated by ratioing [[superscript 18]F]setoperone intensity in regions of…

  6. Localization of type I interferon receptor limits interferon-induced TLR-3 in epithelial cells

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study aimed to expand on the role of type I IFNs in the influenza-induced upregulation of TLR3 and determine whether and how the localization of the IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFNAR) in respiratory epithelial cells could modify IFN-induced responses. Using differentiated prima...

  7. Hemagglutinin of Influenza A Virus Antagonizes Type I Interferon (IFN) Responses by Inducing Degradation of Type I IFN Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Chuan; Vijayan, Madhuvanthi; Pritzl, Curtis J.; Fuchs, Serge Y.; McDermott, Adrian B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza A virus (IAV) employs diverse strategies to circumvent type I interferon (IFN) responses, particularly by inhibiting the synthesis of type I IFNs. However, it is poorly understood if and how IAV regulates the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR)-mediated signaling mode. In this study, we demonstrate that IAV induces the degradation of IFNAR subunit 1 (IFNAR1) to attenuate the type I IFN-induced antiviral signaling pathway. Following infection, the level of IFNAR1 protein, but not mRNA, decreased. Indeed, IFNAR1 was phosphorylated and ubiquitinated by IAV infection, which resulted in IFNAR1 elimination. The transiently overexpressed IFNAR1 displayed antiviral activity by inhibiting virus replication. Importantly, the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of IAV was proved to trigger the ubiquitination of IFNAR1, diminishing the levels of IFNAR1. Further, influenza A viral HA1 subunit, but not HA2 subunit, downregulated IFNAR1. However, viral HA-mediated degradation of IFNAR1 was not caused by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. IAV HA robustly reduced cellular sensitivity to type I IFNs, suppressing the activation of STAT1/STAT2 and induction of IFN-stimulated antiviral proteins. Taken together, our findings suggest that IAV HA causes IFNAR1 degradation, which in turn helps the virus escape the powerful innate immune system. Thus, the research elucidated an influenza viral mechanism for eluding the IFNAR signaling pathway, which could provide new insights into the interplay between influenza virus and host innate immunity. IMPORTANCE Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and remains a major health concern. When triggered by influenza viral infection, host cells produce type I interferon (IFN) to block viral replication. Although IAV was shown to have diverse strategies to evade this powerful, IFN-mediated antiviral response, it is not well-defined if IAV manipulates the IFN receptor-mediated signaling

  8. Discovery of selective hexapeptide agonists to human neuromedin U receptors types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Kentaro; Mori, Kenji; Taketa, Koji; Taguchi, Akihiro; Yakushiji, Fumika; Minamino, Naoto; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Yoshio

    2014-08-14

    Neuromedin U (NMU) are bioactive peptides with a common C-terminal heptapeptide sequence (FLFRPRN-amide, 1a) among mammals, which is responsible for receptor activation, namely NMU receptor types 1 (NMUR1) and 2 (NMUR2). Among the various physiological actions of NMU, the anorexigenic effect has recently attracted attention in drug discovery efforts for treating obesity. Although several structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been reported, receptor-selective small peptide agonists have yet to be disclosed. Herein a SAR study of 1a-derived peptide derivatives is described. We initially screened both human NMUR1- and NMUR2-selective peptides in calcium-mobilization assays with cells transiently expressing receptors. Then we performed a precise assay with a stable expression system of receptors and consequently discovered hexapeptides 8d and 6b possessing selective agonist activity toward each respective receptor. Hexapeptide 6b, which selectively activates NMUR2 without significant NMUR1 activation, should aid in the development of anorexigenic drugs as well as advance NMU-related endocrinological research. PMID:24999562

  9. Receptor dimerization dynamics as a regulatory valve for plasticity of type I interferon signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wilmes, Stephan; Beutel, Oliver; Li, Zhi; Francois-Newton, Véronique; Richter, Christian P.; Janning, Dennis; Kroll, Cindy; Hanhart, Patrizia; Hötte, Katharina; You, Changjiang; Uzé, Gilles; Pellegrini, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) activate differential cellular responses through a shared cell surface receptor composed of the two subunits, IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. We propose here a mechanistic model for how IFN receptor plasticity is regulated on the level of receptor dimerization. Quantitative single-molecule imaging of receptor assembly in the plasma membrane of living cells clearly identified IFN-induced dimerization of IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The negative feedback regulator ubiquitin-specific protease 18 (USP18) potently interferes with the recruitment of IFNAR1 into the ternary complex, probably by impeding complex stabilization related to the associated Janus kinases. Thus, the responsiveness to IFNα2 is potently down-regulated after the first wave of gene induction, while IFNβ, due to its ∼100-fold higher binding affinity, is still able to efficiently recruit IFNAR1. Consistent with functional data, this novel regulatory mechanism at the level of receptor assembly explains how signaling by IFNβ is maintained over longer times compared with IFNα2 as a temporally encoded cause of functional receptor plasticity. PMID:26008745

  10. Effects of subunit types of the recombinant GABAA receptor on the response to a neurosteroid.

    PubMed

    Zaman, S H; Shingai, R; Harvey, R J; Darlison, M G; Barnard, E A

    1992-04-10

    When vertebrate brain poly(A)+ RNA is expressed in Xenopus oocytes the response of the GABA receptors formed is found to be inhibited allosterically by a neurosteroid, pregnenolone sulphate (PS). This negative modulation was reproduced after expressing RNAs encoding bovine GABAA receptor subunits in the combinations alpha i + beta 1, or alpha i + beta 1 + gamma 2 (where i = 1, 2 or 3). The characteristics of this inhibition vary significantly with the type of the alpha subunit (alpha 1, alpha 2, or alpha 3) used. When the bovine gamma 2L alternate form of the gamma 2 subunit was replaced by the human gamma 2S subunit, the behaviour was unchanged: the human gamma 2S subunit used is a newly-cloned form, which encodes a polypeptide with two amino acid differences from the human gamma 2 subunit previously described. The results of co-application of PS and 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-ol-20-one, a neurosteroid which is a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor, indicate that these act at different sites on the receptor. PS also increases the desensitisation of the receptor by GABA. This effect, also, is alpha-subunit-type dependent and occurs by an acceleration of the fast phase of desensitisation. PMID:1323476

  11. Autoradiographic localization of epidermal growth factor receptors to all major uterine cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.H.; Mukku, V.R.; Verner, G.; Kirkland, J.L.; Stancel, G.M.

    1988-03-01

    We have recently studied the structure and function of the uterine epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, its hormonal regulation, and its possible role in estrogen-induced uterine DNA synthesis. Since the uterus is composed of multiple cell types, we sought, in the work reported here, to localize EGF binding in this organ by autoradiography. Prior to the actual autoradiography, we performed a companion series of experiments to insure that EGF binding to uterine tissue in situ represented a true receptor interaction. Uteri from immature female rats were incubated in vitro with 125I-EGF at 25 degrees C. Tissue binding was maximal within 120 min and remained constant for at least an additional 120 min. This binding of labeled EGF was largely abolished by excess unlabeled EGF but not by other growth factors, indicating that binding was to specific receptors. The binding of 125I-EGF was saturable and reached a plateau at 4-8 nM; specific binding was half-maximal at 1-2 nM EGF. In situ cross-linking studies revealed that 125I-EGF was bound predominantly to a 170,000 MW EGF receptor similar to that seen in isolated uterine membranes. Incubation of uteri with 125I-EGF followed by autoradiography revealed binding to epithelial cells, stroma, and myometrium. These results provide evidence for the presence of specific EGF receptors in all major uterine cell types of the immature rat.

  12. Characterization and in vivo regulation of V sub 1 -type vasopressin receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shewey, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    Specific, high affinity binding sites for ({sup 3}H)-arginine{sup 8}-vasopressin (AVP) have been characterized in Long-Evans rat septal membranes. Binding displacement studies with peptide analogs of AVP indicate that this binding site is similar to the V{sub 1} (pressor)-type receptor for AVP. When added to rat brain septal slices that had been pre-labeled with ({sup 3}H)-myoinositol, AVP stimulated the accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol-1-phosphate (IP{sub 1}) in the presence of lithium in a dose-dependent manner. This stimulation was completely inhibited by the specific V{sub 1} antagonists, d(CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP, indicating that AVP stimulates hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in rat brain septum through an interaction with V{sub 1}-type AVP receptors. Binding studies of AVP receptors in the septum of heterozygous (HE) and homozygous, Brattleboro (BB) rats revealed an increased number of receptors with a lower affinity for AVP in the HO-BB rat when compared to the HE-BB rat. AVP-stimulated accumulation of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} was significantly greater in the septum of the HO-BB rat than in the HE-BB rat. AVP receptor binding capacity correlated with release of ({sup 3}H)-IP{sub 1} for all three groups studied.

  13. 5-HT3 Receptor Brain-Type B-Subunits are Differentially Expressed in Heterologous Systems

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Genes for five different 5-HT3 receptor subunits have been identified. Most of the subunits have multiple isoforms, but two isoforms of the B subunits, brain-type 1 (Br1) and brain-type 2 (Br2) are of particular interest as they appear to be abundantly expressed in human brain, where 5-HT3B subunit RNA consists of approximately 75% 5-HT3Br2, 24% 5-HT3Br1, and <1% 5-HT3B. Here we use two-electrode voltage-clamp, radioligand binding, fluorescence, whole cell, and single channel patch-clamp studies to characterize the roles of 5-HT3Br1 and 5-HT3Br2 subunits on function and pharmacology in heterologously expressed 5-HT3 receptors. The data show that the 5-HT3Br1 transcriptional variant, when coexpressed with 5-HT3A subunits, alters the EC50, nH, and single channel conductance of the 5-HT3 receptor, but has no effect on the potency of competitive antagonists; thus, 5-HT3ABr1 receptors have the same characteristics as 5-HT3AB receptors. There were some differences in the shapes of 5-HT3AB and 5-HT3ABr1 receptor responses, which were likely due to a greater proportion of homomeric 5-HT3A versus heteromeric 5-HT3ABr1 receptors in the latter, as expression of the 5-HT3Br1 compared to the 5-HT3B subunit is less efficient. Conversely, the 5-HT3Br2 subunit does not appear to form functional channels with the 5-HT3A subunit in either oocytes or HEK293 cells, and the role of this subunit is yet to be determined. PMID:25951416

  14. Targeting Anti-Insulin B Cell Receptors Improves Receptor Editing in Type 1 Diabetes-Prone Mice.

    PubMed

    Bonami, Rachel H; Thomas, James W

    2015-11-15

    Autoreactive B lymphocytes that commonly arise in the developing repertoire can be salvaged by receptor editing, a central tolerance mechanism that alters BCR specificity through continued L chain rearrangement. It is unknown whether autoantigens with weak cross-linking potential, such as insulin, elicit receptor editing, or whether this process is dysregulated in related autoimmunity. To resolve these issues, we developed an editing-competent model in which anti-insulin Vκ125 was targeted to the Igκ locus and paired with anti-insulin VH125Tg. Physiologic, circulating insulin increased RAG-2 expression and was associated with BCR replacement that eliminated autoantigen recognition in a proportion of developing anti-insulin B lymphocytes. The proportion of anti-insulin B cells that underwent receptor editing was reduced in the type 1 diabetes-prone NOD strain relative to a nonautoimmune strain. Resistance to editing was associated with increased surface IgM expression on immature (but not transitional or mature) anti-insulin B cells in the NOD strain. The actions of mAb123 on central tolerance were also investigated, because selective targeting of insulin-occupied BCR by mAb123 eliminates anti-insulin B lymphocytes and prevents type 1 diabetes. Autoantigen targeting by mAb123 increased RAG-2 expression and dramatically enhanced BCR replacement in newly developed B lymphocytes. Administering F(ab')2123 induced IgM downregulation and reduced the frequency of anti-insulin B lymphocytes within the polyclonal repertoire of VH125Tg/NOD mice, suggesting enhanced central tolerance by direct BCR interaction. These findings indicate that weak or faulty checkpoints for central tolerance can be overcome by autoantigen-specific immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:26432895

  15. Direct angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation decreases dopamine synthesis in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Birgit; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie

    2010-06-01

    A relationship between the central renin angiotensin system and the dopaminergic system has been described in the striatum. However, the role of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor in this interaction has not yet been established. The present study examined the outcome of direct AT(2) receptor stimulation on dopamine (DA) release and synthesis by means of the recently developed nonpeptide AT(2) receptor agonist, compound 21 (C21). The effects of AT(2) receptor agonism on the release of DA and its major metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and on the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine biosynthesis, were investigated using in vivo microdialysis. Local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) resulted in a decrease of the extracellular DOPAC levels, whereas extracellular DA concentrations remained unaltered, suggesting a reduced synthesis of DA. This effect was mediated by the AT(2) receptor since it could be blocked by the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319 (1 microM). A similar effect was observed after local striatal (10 nM) as well as systemic (0.3 and 3 mg/kg i.p.) administration of the AT(1) receptor antagonist, candesartan. TH activity as assessed by accumulation of extracellular levels of L-DOPA after inhibition of amino acid decarboxylase with NSD1015, was also reduced after local administration of C21 (0.1 and 1 microM) and candesartan (10 nM). Together, these data suggest that AT(1) and AT(2) receptors in the striatum exert an opposite effect on the modulation of DA synthesis rather than DA release. PMID:20097214

  16. Transgenic Expression of an Altered Angiotensin type I AT1 Receptor Resulting in Marked Modulation of Vascular Type I Collagen

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jun; Taylor, Linda; Rich, Celeste; Toselli, Paul; Stone, Philip; Green, Daniel; Warburton, Rod; Hill, Nicholas; Goldstein, Ronald; Polgar, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1) was modified by replacing its third intracellular loop and C-terminal tail with the corresponding regions from the bradykinin B2 receptor. Transgenic mice were produced that overexpress this mutated receptor (AB3T). Considerably less collagen content in the intact aorta and in primary aortic smooth muscle (aSMCs) cultures was observed in the transgenic mice. On the other hand, elastin content remained unchanged as measured by western blot, and insoluble amino acid quantitation. The contraction of isolated aortas also remained unaltered. The aSMCs derived from the transgenic mice showed a reduction in angiotensin II responsive type I collagen production. In aSMCs from transgenic mice, the cascade of Akt to the mammalian target rapamycin (mTOR) to p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K) was not angiotensin II activated, while in the aSMCs from wild type mice the cascade was angiotensin II activated. Angiotensin activation of Smad2 and Stat3 was also reduced in the AB3T aSMCs. However, no change in the effect of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) on type I collagen production was observed. Also, the activation of ERK and JNK and G protein linked signaling remained unaltered in response to angiotensin II. Akt and PI3K activation inhibitors blocked angiotensin II stimulated type I collagen expression in WT aSMCs, whereas ERK inhibitor had no such effect. Our results point to an Akt/ mTOR/ p70S6K regulation of collagen production by angiotensin II with participation of Smad2 and Stat3 cascades in this process. PMID:21751211

  17. Olfaction in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. I: Identification of olfactory receptor neuron types responding to environmental odors.

    PubMed

    Hull, C D; Cribb, B W

    2001-05-01

    The electroantennogram method was used to investigate the number of distinct olfactory receptor neuron types responding to a range of behaviorally active volatile chemicals in gravid Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni. Three receptor neuron types were identified. One type responds to methyl butyrate, 2-butanone, farnesene, and carbon dioxide; a second to ethanol; and a third to n-butyric acid and ammonia. The receptor neuron type responding to methyl butyrate, 2-butanone, farnesene, and carbon dioxide consists of three subtypes. The presence of a limited number of receptor neuron types responding to a diverse set of chemicals and the reception of carbon dioxide by a receptor neuron type that responds to other odorants are novel aspects of the peripheral olfactory discrimination process. PMID:11471941

  18. Inhibition of Adult Rat Retinal Ganglion Cells by D1-type Dopamine Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hayashida, Yuki; Rodríguez, Carolina Varela; Ogata, Genki; Partida, Gloria J.; Oi, Hanako; Stradleigh, Tyler W.; Lee, Sherwin C.; Colado, Anselmo Felipe; Ishida, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    The spike output of neural pathways can be regulated by modulating output neuron excitability and/or their synaptic inputs. Dopaminergic interneurons synapse onto cells that route signals to mammalian retinal ganglion cells, but it is unknown whether dopamine can activate receptors in these ganglion cells and, if it does, how this affects their excitability. Here, we show D1a-receptor-like immunoreactivity in ganglion cells identified in adult rats by retrogradely transported dextran, and that dopamine, D1-type receptor agonists, and cAMP analogs inhibit spiking in ganglion cells dissociated from adult rats. These ligands curtailed repetitive spiking during constant current injections, and reduced the number and rate of rise of spikes elicited by fluctuating current injections without significantly altering the timing of the remaining spikes. Consistent with mediation by D1-type receptors, SCH-23390 reversed the effects of dopamine on spikes. Contrary to a recent report, spike inhibition by dopamine was not precluded by blocking Ih. Consistent with the reduced rate of spike rise, dopamine reduced voltage-gated Na+ current (INa) amplitude and tetrodotoxin, at doses that reduced INa as moderately as dopamine, also inhibited spiking. These results provide the first direct evidence that D1-type dopamine receptor activation can alter mammalian retinal ganglion cell excitability, and demonstrate that dopamine can modulate spikes in these cells by a mechanism different from the pre- and postsynaptic means proposed by previous studies. To our knowledge, our results also provide the first evidence that dopamine receptor activation can reduce excitability without altering the temporal precision of spike firing. PMID:19940196

  19. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Irimura, Tatsuro; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. {yields} Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. {yields} Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. {yields} C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. {yields} Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  20. Low doses of neurotensin in the preoptic area produce hyperthermia. Comparison with other brain sites and with neurotensin-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    Benmoussa, M; Chait, A; Loric, G; de Beaurepaire, R

    1996-01-01

    High amounts of neurotensin (NT) are found in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, an area known to be involved in the regulation of body temperature. It is generally believed that NT is a peptide that produces hypothermia, and several sites in the brain have been proposed to mediate NT-induced hypothermia, including the preoptic area. However, the doses of NT used in these experiments were always very high (microgram order) whereas, according to Goedert, the total brain content of NT in the rat does not exceed 10 ng. We therefore reinvestigated the effects of microinjections of NT in the brain, using high (5 micrograms) and low (50 and 5 ng) doses, into the preoptic area and other brain sites (cerebral ventricles, posterior hypothalamus, and nucleus accumbens), and we also studied, as a comparison, the effects of high and low doses of NT on pain sensitivity in the same sites. The results show that the preoptic area has unique properties in the regulation of body temperature: low doses of NT in the preoptic area produce a hyperthermic response, whereas high doses produce hypothermia. In comparison, NT produces hypothermia in the posterior hypothalamus whatever the dose, and NT has analgesic effects in the preoptic area only at high doses. Besides, NT has no thermic effect, but does have an analgesic effect, in the nucleus accumbens. The selectivity of the actions of high doses of NT, as well as the mechanism of action of NT (possibly an endogenous neuroleptic), are discussed. PMID:8705314

  1. Pathogen recognition receptors crosstalk in respiratory syncytial virus sensing: host and cell type perspective

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Nico; Turvey, Stuart E.

    2015-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection in young children, immunocompromized adults and the elderly. The innate immune response plays a pivotal role in host defense against RSV, but whether severe outcomes following RSV infection result from excessive or poor innate immune recognition remains unclear. Recent research suggests a situation in which crosstalk between families of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) occurs in a cell type-dependent manner. The current challenge to empower novel therapeutic approaches and vaccine development is to confirm the role of the individual receptors in RSV pathogenesis in humans. PMID:24119913

  2. Type I macrophage scavenger receptor contains α-helical and collagen-like coiled coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Freeman, Mason; Rohrer, Lucia; Zabrecky, James; Matsudaira, Paul; Krieger, Monty

    1990-02-01

    The macrophage scavenger receptor is a trimeric membrane glycoprotein with unusual ligand-binding properties which has been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis. The trimeric structure of the bovine type I scavenger receptor, deduced by complementary DNA cloning, contains three extracellular C-terminal cysteine-rich domains connected to the transmembrane domain by a long fibrous stalk. This stalk structure, composed of an a-helical coiled coil and a collagen-like triple helix, has not previously been observed in an integral membrane protein.

  3. Structure-Function Basis of Attenuated Inverse Agonism of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers for Active-State Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Takezako, Takanobu; Unal, Hamiyet; Karnik, Sadashiva S; Node, Koichi

    2015-09-01

    Ligand-independent signaling by the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) can be activated in clinical settings by mechanical stretch and autoantibodies as well as receptor mutations. Transition of the AT1R to the activated state is known to lower inverse agonistic efficacy of clinically used AT1R blockers (ARBs). The structure-function basis for reduced efficacy of inverse agonists is a fundamental aspect that has been understudied not only in relation to the AT1R but also regarding other homologous receptors. Here, we demonstrate that the active-state transition in the AT1R indeed attenuates an inverse agonistic effect of four biphenyl-tetrazole ARBs through changes in specific ligand-receptor interactions. In the ground state, tight interactions of four ARBs with a set of residues (Ser109(TM3), Phe182(ECL2), Gln257(TM6), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)) results in potent inverse agonism. In the activated state, the ARB-AT1R interactions shift to a different set of residues (Val108(TM3), Ser109(TM3), Ala163(TM4), Phe182(ECL2), Lys199(TM5), Tyr292(TM7), and Asn295(TM7)), resulting in attenuated inverse agonism. Interestingly, V108I, A163T, N295A, and F182A mutations in the activated state of the AT1R shift the functional response to the ARB binding toward agonism, but in the ground state the same mutations cause inverse agonism. Our data show that the second extracellular loop is an important regulator of the functional states of the AT1R. Our findings suggest that the quest for discovering novel ARBs, and improving current ARBs, fundamentally depends on the knowledge of the unique sets of residues that mediate inverse agonistic potency in the two states of the AT1R. PMID:26121982

  4. Spinal NTS2 receptor activation reverses signs of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Tétreault, Pascal; Beaudet, Nicolas; Perron, Amélie; Belleville, Karine; René, Adeline; Cavelier, Florine; Martinez, Jean; Stroh, Thomas; Jacobi, Ashley M; Rose, Scott D; Behlke, Mark A; Sarret, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    Management of painful peripheral neuropathies remains challenging, since patients with chronic pain respond poorly to the available pharmacopeia. In recent years, the G-protein-coupled receptor neurotensin (NT) type 2 (NTS2) emerged as an attractive target for treating transitory pain states. To date, however, there is no evidence for its role in the regulation of chronic peripheral neuropathies. Here, we found that NTS2 receptors were largely localized to primary afferent fibers and superficial dorsal horns. Changes in the time course of the gene expression profile of NT, NTS1, and NTS2 were observed over a 28-d period following the sciatic nerve constriction [chronic constriction injury (CCI) model]. We next determined the effects of central delivery of selective-NTS2 agonists to CCI-treated rats on both mechanical allodynia (evoked withdrawal responses) and weight-bearing deficits (discomfort and quality-of-life proxies). The NTS2 analogs JMV431, levocabastine, and β-lactotensin were all effective in reducing ongoing tactile allodynia in CCI-treated rats. Likewise, amitriptyline, pregabalin, and morphine significantly attenuated CCI-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. NTS2 agonists were also efficient in reversing weight-bearing and postural deficits caused by nerve damage, unlike reference analgesics currently used in the clinic. Thus, NTS2 agonists may offer new treatment avenues for limiting pain associated with peripheral neuropathies and improve functional rehabilitation and well-being. PMID:23756650

  5. Expression of adenosine A2b receptor in rat type II and III taste cells.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kentaro; Dohi, Yukari; Yamanaka, Yuri; Miyata, Ai; Tsukamoto, Katsunobu; Yabu, Miharu; Ohishi, Akihiro; Nagasawa, Kazuki

    2014-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 was expressed in taste cells, suggesting the existence of an adenosine signaling system, but whether or not the expression of an adenosine receptor occurs in rat taste buds remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the expression profiles of adenosine receptors and evaluated their functionality in rat circumvallate papillae. Among adenosine receptors, the mRNA for an adenosine A2b receptor (A2bR) was expressed by the rat circumvallate papillae, and its expression level was significantly greater in the circumvallate papillae than in the non-taste lingual epithelium. A2bR-immunoreactivity was detected primarily in type II taste cells, and partial, but significant expression was also observed in type III ones, but there was no immunoreactivity in type I ones. The cAMP generation in isolated epithelium containing taste buds treated with 500 μM adenosine or 10 μM BAY60-6583 was significantly increased compared to in the controls. These findings suggest that adenosine plays a role in signaling transmission via A2bR between taste cells in rats. PMID:24327108

  6. C-C chemokine receptor type 4 antagonist Compound 22 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Kota; Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Ueno, Rino; Nakayama, Takashi; Yoshie, Osamu; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2016-02-15

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play important roles in the immune response. We previously reported the pathogenic role of C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we examined whether CCR4 antagonism modulates the disease course of EAE. Wild-type and CCR4-knockout mice were induced EAE and were administered Compound 22, an antagonist of CCR4. Compound 22 significantly ameliorated the severity of EAE in wild-type mice, but not in the CCR4-knockout mice. Compound 22 inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization of antigen-induced T-cell responses. Therefore, CCR4 antagonists might be potential therapeutic agents for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26857495

  7. A Caenorhabditis elegans type I TGF beta receptor can function in the absence of type II kinase to promote larval development.

    PubMed

    Gunther, C V; Georgi, L L; Riddle, D L

    2000-08-01

    The daf-4 gene encodes a type II bone morphogenetic protein receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans that regulates dauer larva formation, body size and male tail patterning. The putative type I receptor partner for DAF-4 in regulating dauer larva formation is DAF-1. Genetic tests of the mechanism of activation of these receptors show that DAF-1 can signal in the absence of DAF-4 kinase activity. A daf-1 mutation enhances dauer formation in a daf-4 null background, whereas overexpression of daf-1 partially rescues a daf-4 mutant. DAF-1 alone cannot fully compensate for the loss of DAF-4 activity, indicating that nondauer development normally results from the activities of both receptors. DAF-1 signaling in the absence of a type II kinase is unique in the type I receptor family. The activity may be an evolutionary remnant, owing to daf-1's origin near the type I/type II divergence, or it may be an innovation that evolved in nematodes. daf-1 and daf-4 promoters both mediated expression of green fluorescent protein in the nervous system, indicating that a DAF-1/DAF-4 receptor complex may activate a neuronal signaling pathway. Signaling from a strong DAF-1/DAF-4 receptor complex or a weaker DAF-1 receptor alone may provide larvae with more precise control of the dauer/nondauer decision in a range of environmental conditions. PMID:10887089

  8. Rectification of muscle and nerve deficits in paralyzed ryanodine receptor type 1 mutant embryos

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, M. Gartz; Niswander, Lee A.

    2015-01-01

    Locomotion and respiration require motor axon connectivity and activation of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Through a forward genetic screen for muscle weakness, we recently reported an allele of ryanodine receptor type 1 (Ryr1AG). Here we reveal a role for functional RyR1 during acetylcholine receptor (AChR) cluster formation and embryonic synaptic transmission. Ryr1AG homozygous embryos are non-motile. Motor axons extend past AChR clusters and enlarged AChR clusters are found under fasciculated nerves. Using physiological and pharmacological methods, we show that contractility can be resumed through the masking of a potassium leak, and evoked vesicular release can be resumed via bypassing the defect in RyR1 induced calcium release. Moreover, we show the involvement of ryanodine receptors in presynaptic release at the NMJ. This data provides evidence of a role for RyR1 on both the pre- and postsynaptic sides of the NMJ. PMID:26025922

  9. Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit gene are expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chini, B; Clementi, F; Hukovic, N; Sher, E

    1992-01-01

    alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha Bgtx) is a toxin known to interact with muscle nicotinic receptors and with some neuronal nicotinic receptors. We show that alpha Bgtx binding sites are also expressed in nonmuscle and nonneuronal human cells, including small cell lung carcinoma and several epithelial cell lines. These receptors are immunologically related to the alpha Bgtx receptors of unknown function described in the nervous system and in the IMR32 neuroblastoma cell line and are distinct from muscle nicotinic receptors. We have also cloned from IMR32 cells the human alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit, which is supposed to participate in the formation of alpha Bgtx receptors. Transcripts corresponding to the alpha 5-subunit gene were found not only in neuroblastoma cells but also in all the cell lines expressing alpha Bgtx receptors, with the exception of the TE671 cell line, whose nicotinic receptor subunits are of the muscle type. We conclude that both alpha Bgtx receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic subunit gene are not neuron-specific, as previously thought, but are expressed in a number of human cell lines of various origin. Images PMID:1542648

  10. Understanding cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Dao-Lai; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Ma, Ming-Liang; Wang, Wen-Bo; Li, Lin-Lin; Han, Xiao-Lin; Huo, Yuqing; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2014-12-01

    The cadherin epidermal growth factor (EGF) laminin G (LAG) seven-pass G-type receptors (CELSRs) are a special subgroup of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors, which are pivotal regulators of many biologic processes such as neuronal/endocrine cell differentiation, vessel valve formation, and the control of planar cell polarity during embryonic development. All three members of the CELSR family (CELSR1-3) have large ecto-domains that form homophilic interactions and encompass more than 2000 amino acids. Mutations in the ecto-domain or other gene locations of CELSRs are associated with neural tube defects and other diseases in humans. Celsr knockout (KO) animals have many developmental defects. Therefore, specific agonists or antagonists of CELSR members may have therapeutic potential. Although significant progress has been made regarding the functions and biochemical properties of CELSRs, our knowledge of these receptors is still lacking, especially considering that they are broadly distributed but have few characterized functions in a limited number of tissues. The dynamic activation and inactivation of CELSRs and the presence of endogenous ligands beyond homophilic interactions remain elusive, as do the regulatory mechanisms and downstream signaling of these receptors. Given this motivation, future studies with more advanced cell biology or biochemical tools, such as conditional KO mice, may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying CELSR function, laying the foundation for the design of new CELSR-targeted therapeutic reagents. The cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors (CELSRs) are a special subgroup of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which have large ecto-domains that form homophilic interactions and encompass more than 2000 amino acids. Recent studies have revealed that CELSRs are pivotal regulators of many biological processes, such as neuronal/endocrine cell differentiation, vessel valve formation and the control of planar

  11. Distribution of angiotensin type-1 receptor messenger RNA expression in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lenkei, Z; Palkovits, M; Corvol, P; Llorens-Cortes, C

    1998-02-01

    Angiotensin II and angiotensin III in the brain exert their various effects by acting on two pharmacologically well-defined receptors, the type-1 (AT1) and the type-2 (AT2) receptors. Receptor binding autoradiography has revealed the dominant presence of AT1 in brain nuclei involved in cardiovascular, body fluid and neuroendocrine control. The cloning of the AT1 complementary DNA has revealed the existence of two receptor subtypes in rodents, AT1A and AT1B. Using specific riboprobes for in situ hybridization, we have previously shown that the AT1A messenger RNA is predominantly expressed in the rat forebrain; in contrast the AT1B subtype predominates in the anterior pituitary. Using a similar technical approach, the aim of the present study was to establish the precise anatomical localization of cells synthetising the AT1A receptor in the adult rat brain. High AT1A messenger RNA expression was found in the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, the median preoptic nucleus, the subfornical organ, the hypothalamic periventricular nucleus, the parvocellular parts of the paraventricular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract and the area postrema, in agreement with previous autoradiographic studies, describing a high density of AT1 binding sites in these nuclei. In addition, AT1A messenger RNA expression was detected in several brain areas, where no AT1 binding was reported previously. Thus, we identify strong expression of AT1A messenger RNA expression in scattered cells of the lateral parts of the preoptic region, the lateral hypothalamus and several brainstem nuclei. In none of these structures was the AT1B messenger RNA detectable at the microscopic level. In conclusion, it is suggested that angiotensins may exert their central effects on body fluid and cardiovascular homeostasis mainly via the AT1A receptor subtype. PMID:9483539

  12. Characterization of an invertebrate-type dopamine receptor of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Troppmann, Britta; Balfanz, Sabine; Krach, Christian; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2) from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, we detected PeaDOP2 in neurons with their somata being located at the anterior edge of the medulla bilaterally innervating the optic lobes and projecting to the ventro-lateral protocerebrum. In order to determine the functional and pharmacological properties of the cloned receptor, we generated a cell line constitutively expressing PeaDOP2. Activation of PeaDOP2-expressing cells with dopamine induced an increase in intracellular cAMP. In contrast, a C-terminally truncated splice variant of this receptor did not exhibit any functional property by itself. The molecular and pharmacological characterization of the first dopamine receptor from P. americana provides the basis for forthcoming studies focusing on the significance of the dopaminergic system in cockroach behavior and physiology. PMID:24398985

  13. Type III secretion needle proteins induce cell signaling and cytokine secretion via Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Danielle L; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S; Nilles, Matthew L

    2014-06-01

    Pathogens are recognized by hosts by use of various receptors, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) families. Ligands for these varied receptors, including bacterial products, are identified by the immune system, resulting in development of innate immune responses. Only a couple of components from type III secretion (T3S) systems are known to be recognized by TLR or NLR family members. Known T3S components that are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are (i) flagellin, detected by TLR5 and NLRC4 (Ipaf); and (ii) T3S rod proteins (PrgJ and homologs) and needle proteins (PrgI and homologs), detected by NAIP and the NLRC4 inflammasome. In this report, we characterize the induction of proinflammatory responses through TLRs by the Yersinia pestis T3S needle protein, YscF, the Salmonella enterica needle proteins PrgI and SsaG, and the Shigella needle protein, MxiH. More specifically, we determine that the proinflammatory responses occur through TLR2 and -4. These data support the hypothesis that T3S needles have an unrecognized role in bacterial pathogenesis by modulating immune responses. PMID:24643544

  14. Cannabinoid type-1 receptor signaling in central serotonergic neurons regulates anxiety-like behavior and sociability

    PubMed Central

    Häring, Martin; Enk, Vanessa; Aparisi Rey, Alejandro; Loch, Sebastian; Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Weber, Tillmann; Bartsch, Dusan; Monory, Krisztina; Lutz, Beat

    2015-01-01

    The endocannabinoid (eCB) system possesses neuromodulatory functions by influencing the release of various neurotransmitters, including γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. A functional interaction between eCBs and the serotonergic system has already been suggested. Previously, we showed that cannabinoid type-1 (CB1) receptor mRNA and protein are localized in serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei, implying that the eCB system can modulate serotonergic functions. In order to substantiate the physiological role of the CB1 receptor in serotonergic neurons of the raphe nuclei, we generated serotonergic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neuron-specific CB1 receptor-deficient mice, using the Cre/loxP system with a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase under the control of the regulatory sequences of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2-CreERT2), thus, restricting the recombination to 5-HT neurons of the central nervous system (CNS). Applying several different behavioral paradigms, we revealed that mice lacking the CB1 receptor in serotonergic neurons are more anxious and less sociable than control littermates. Thus, we were able to show that functional CB1 receptor signaling in central serotonergic neurons modulates distinct behaviors in mice. PMID:26388750

  15. Mood stabilizer treatment increases serotonin type 1A receptor binding in bipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Allison C; Carlson, Paul J; Bain, Earle E; Eckelman, William; Herscovitch, Peter; Manji, Husseini; Zarate, Carlos A; Drevets, Wayne C

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) receptor function and binding have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Preclinical studies have consistently shown that stress decreases the gene expression of 5-HT1A receptors in experimental animals, and that the associated increase in hormone secretion plays a crucial role in mediating this effect. Chronic administration of the mood stabilizers lithium and divalproex (valproate semisodium) reduces glucocorticoid signaling and function in the hippocampus. Lithium has further been shown to enhance 5-HT1A receptor function. To assess whether these effects translate to human subject with bipolar disorder (BD), positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]trans-4-fluoro-N-(2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazino]-ethyl)-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide ([18F]FCWAY) were used to acquire PET images of 5-HT1A receptor binding in 10 subjects with BD, before and after treatment with lithium or divalproex. Mean 5-HT1A binding potential (BPP) significantly increased following mood stabilizer treatment, most prominently in the mesiotemporal cortex (hippocampus plus amygdala). When mood state was also controlled for, treatment was associated with increases in BPP in widespread cortical areas. These preliminary findings are consistent with the hypothesis that these mood stabilizers enhance 5-HT1A receptor expression in BD, which may underscore an important component of these agents' mechanism of action. PMID:23926239

  16. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pamela Y.; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A.; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D.; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S.; Herbert, De’Broski R.; Craft, Joseph E.; Flavell, Richard A.; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G.; Torgerson, Dara G.; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2016-01-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded by Tyro3 in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell–specific Pros1 knockouts phenocopied the loss of Tyro3. Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  17. The TAM family receptor tyrosine kinase TYRO3 is a negative regulator of type 2 immunity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pamela Y; Carrera Silva, Eugenio A; De Kouchkovsky, Dimitri; Joannas, Leonel D; Hao, Liming; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Eng, Celeste; Licona-Limón, Paula; Weinstein, Jason S; Herbert, De'Broski R; Craft, Joseph E; Flavell, Richard A; Repetto, Silvia; Correale, Jorge; Burchard, Esteban G; Torgerson, Dara G; Ghosh, Sourav; Rothlin, Carla V

    2016-04-01

    Host responses against metazoan parasites or an array of environmental substances elicit type 2 immunity. Despite its protective function, type 2 immunity also drives allergic diseases. The mechanisms that regulate the magnitude of the type 2 response remain largely unknown. Here, we show that genetic ablation of a receptor tyrosine kinase encoded byTyro3in mice or the functional neutralization of its ortholog in human dendritic cells resulted in enhanced type 2 immunity. Furthermore, the TYRO3 agonist PROS1 was induced in T cells by the quintessential type 2 cytokine, interleukin-4. T cell-specificPros1knockouts phenocopied the loss ofTyro3 Thus, a PROS1-mediated feedback from adaptive immunity engages a rheostat, TYRO3, on innate immune cells to limit the intensity of type 2 responses. PMID:27034374

  18. Surface receptors for serum albumin in group C and G streptococci show three different types of albumin specificity.

    PubMed Central

    Wideback, K; Kronvall, G

    1982-01-01

    A total of 100 bacterial strains were tested for binding uptake of radiolabeled albumin preparations from 15 mammalian species. Three types of surface structures with specific binding sites for albumin were defined. A previously described receptor for albumin was separated into type a in Streptococcus equisimilis strains and in human group G streptococcal strains and type b in bovine group C streptococci. A new type of albumin receptor, type c, was found in Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains, the only receptor type so far with high affinity for bovine serum albumin. Type of albumin receptor correlated with bacterial species. The three receptor types showed high binding capacities; 2 X 10(8) bacterial organisms bound from 5 to 16 micrograms of albumin. All types of albumin receptors were stable to heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 5 min, but susceptible to both pepsin and trypsin treatment. Bacteria-bound albumin preparations were eluted at various concentrations of KSCN, reflecting differences in affinity. Up to 500 micrograms of human fibrinogen or polyclonal human immunoglobulin G had no inhibitory effect on the uptake of albumin, indicating a separate molecular localization of receptors for these proteins. PMID:6295942

  19. The Blunt Trichoid Sensillum of Female Mosquitoes, Anopheles gambiae: Odorant Binding Protein and Receptor Types

    PubMed Central

    Schultze, Anna; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    In order to find a blood host and to select appropriate oviposition sites female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes rely on olfactory cues which are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located within morphologically different sensilla hairs. While the sharp type trichoid sensilla are most abundant and intensely studied, the striking blunt type trichoid sensilla exist only in small numbers and their specific function is unknown. It has been suggested that they may play a role in the detection of chemical cues indicating oviposition sites. With the aim of identifying molecular elements in blunt type trichoid sensilla, which may be relevant for chemosensory function of this sensillum type, experiments were performed which include whole mount fluorescence in situ hybridization (WM-FISH) and fluorescence immunohistochemistry (WM-FIHC). The studies were concentrated on odorant binding proteins (AgOBPs) and odorant receptors (AgORs). WM-FISH approaches using a probe for the plus-C class AgOBP47 led to the labeling of cells, which resembled in number and antennal distribution pattern the blunt type trichoid sensilla. Moreover, WM-FIHC with an antiserum for AgOBP47 allowed to assign the AgOBP47-expressing cells to blunt type trichoid sensilla and to allocate the protein within the sensillum hair shafts. The result of double WM-FISH-experiments and combined WM-FIHC/FISH approaches indicated that the AgOBP47-expressing cells are co-localized with cells, which express AgOR11, AgOR13 and AgOR55. In addition, it turned out that the two receptor types AgOR13 and AgOR55 are co-expressed in the same cells. Together, the results indicate that the blunt type trichoid sensilla contain a characteristic binding protein, plus-C AgOBP47, in the sensillum lymph and two sensory neurons, one cell which express the odorant receptor AgOR11 and a second cell which express the receptor types AgOR13 and AgOR55. The expression of characteristic chemosensory elements in blunt type trichoid

  20. Aldosterone-Induced Vascular Remodeling and Endothelial Dysfunction Require Functional Angiotensin Type 1a Receptors.

    PubMed

    Briet, Marie; Barhoumi, Tlili; Mian, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman; Coelho, Suellen C; Ouerd, Sofiane; Rautureau, Yohann; Coffman, Thomas M; Paradis, Pierre; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the role of angiotensin type 1a receptors (AGTR1a) in vascular injury induced by aldosterone activation of mineralocorticoid receptors in Agtr1a(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice infused with aldosterone for 14 days while receiving 1% NaCl in drinking water. Aldosterone increased systolic blood pressure (BP) by ≈30 mm Hg in WT mice and ≈50 mm Hg in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Aldosterone induced aortic and small artery remodeling, impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in WT mice, and enhanced fibronectin and collagen deposition and vascular inflammation. None of these vascular effects were observed in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Aldosterone effects were prevented by the AGTR1 antagonist losartan in WT mice. In contrast to aldosterone, norepinephrine caused similar BP increase and mesenteric artery remodeling in WT and Agtr1a(-/-) mice. Agtr1a(-/-) mice infused with aldosterone did not increase sodium excretion in response to a sodium chloride challenge, suggesting that sodium retention could contribute to the exaggerated BP rise induced by aldosterone. Agtr1a(-/-) mice had decreased mesenteric artery expression of the calcium-activated potassium channel Kcnmb1, which may enhance myogenic tone and together with sodium retention, exacerbate BP responses to aldosterone/salt in Agtr1a(-/-) mice. We conclude that although aldosterone activation of mineralocorticoid receptors raises BP more in Agtr1a(-/-) mice, AGTR1a is required for mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation to induce vascular remodeling and inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27045029

  1. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-D; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-05-30

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D. PMID:26079428

  2. PTPRD silencing by DNA hypermethylation decreases insulin receptor signaling and leads to type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yng-Tay; Lin, Wei-De; Liao, Wen-Lin; Lin, Ying-Ju; Chang, Jan-Gowth; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data showed that the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type delta (PTPRD) is associated with increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Han Chinese. A replication study indicated that PTPRD is involved in the insulin signaling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We evaluated PTPRD expression in patients with T2D and controls. PTPRD expression levels were lower in patients and were correlated with the duration of the disease. Overexpression of the human insulin receptor PPARγ2 in HepG2 cells induced overexpression of PTPRD and the insulin receptor. PTPRD knockdown, using a shRNA, resulted in down-regulation of the insulin receptor. These results indicate that PTPRD activates PPARγ2 in the insulin signaling pathway. Similar results for PTPRD expression were found using a T2D mouse model. Silencing of PTPRD was caused by DNA methylation in T2D mice and patients, and correlated with DNMT1 expression. Furthermore, we showed that a DNMT1 SNP (rs78789647) was correlated with susceptibility to T2D. This study shows for the first time that DNMT1 caused PTPRD DNA hypermethylation and induced insulin signaling silencing in T2D patients. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of the crucial roles of these regulatory elements in human T2D. PMID:26079428

  3. Atlantic salmon possesses two clusters of type I interferon receptor genes on different chromosomes, which allows for a larger repertoire of interferon receptors than in zebrafish and mammals.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baojian; Greiner-Tollersrud, Linn; Koop, Ben F; Robertsen, Børre

    2014-12-01

    Mammalian type I interferons (IFNs) signal through a receptor composed of the IFNAR1 and IFNAR2 chains. In zebrafish two-cysteine IFNs utilize a receptor composed of CRFB1 and CRFB5, while four-cysteine IFNs signal through a receptor formed by CRFB2 and CRFB5. In the present work two CRFB clusters were identified in different chromosomes of Atlantic salmon. Genes of three CRFB5s, one CRFB1, one CRFB2 and the novel CRFB5x were identified, cloned and studied functionally. All CRFBs were expressed in 10 different organs, but the relative expression of CRFBs varied. Mx-reporter assay was used to study which CRFBs might be involved in receptors for salmon IFNa, IFNb and IFNc. The results of Mx-reporter assays suggest that IFNa signals through a receptor composed of CRFB1a as the long chain and either CRFB5a, CRFB5b or CRFB5c as the short chain; IFNc signals through a receptor with CRFB5a or CRFB5c as the short chain while IFNb may signal through a receptor with CRFB5x as a short chain. Taken together, the present work demonstrates that Atlantic salmon has a more diverse repertoire of type I IFN receptors compared to zebrafish or mammals. PMID:25149134

  4. Evidence for a role of endogenous neurotensin in the development of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of morphine.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Karine; Lamarche, Caroline; Rompré, Pierre-Paul

    2008-10-10

    This experiment was aimed at exploring the role of endogenous neurotensin in the development of sensitization to the locomotor stimulant effect of morphine. During the induction phase (Days 1, 3, 5 and 7), male Long-Evans adult rats were treated with the neurotensin antagonist SR-48692 (160, 320 or 640 microg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle, followed by morphine (5.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or its vehicle, and their locomotor activity (ambulatory, non-ambulatory and vertical activity) was measured for 2 h. One week after the last injection, each group received a single injection of morphine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) and their locomotor activity was again measured for 2 h (sensitization test, day 14). Results show that SR-48692 alone did not change locomotion. Morphine stimulated locomotor activity, an effect that was stronger on day 7 than on day 1. The two higher doses of SR-48692 attenuated the acute stimulant effect of morphine and prevented the observed increase from day 1 to day 7. The sensitization test on day 14 showed that rats pre-treated with morphine alone displayed significantly stronger ambulatory and vertical activity than vehicle pre-treated rats, a sensitization effect that was attenuated by SR-48692. The present results suggest that endogenous neurotensin contributes to the acute locomotor stimulant effect of morphine and to the induction of its sensitization. PMID:18706409

  5. Receptor-type guanylate cyclase is required for carbon dioxide sensation by Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Spencer, W Clay; McWhirter, Rebecca D; Zeller, Georg; Henz, Stefan R; Rätsch, Gunnar; Miller, David M; Horvitz, H Robert; Sternberg, Paul W; Ringstad, Niels

    2011-01-01

    CO(2) is both a critical regulator of animal physiology and an important sensory cue for many animals for host detection, food location, and mate finding. The free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans shows CO(2) avoidance behavior, which requires a pair of ciliated sensory neurons, the BAG neurons. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show that CO(2) specifically activates the BAG neurons and that the CO(2)-sensing function of BAG neurons requires TAX-2/TAX-4 cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels and the receptor-type guanylate cyclase GCY-9. Our results delineate a molecular pathway for CO(2) sensing and suggest that activation of a receptor-type guanylate cyclase is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which animals detect environmental CO(2). PMID:21173231

  6. Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Decreases Transforming Growth Factor-β Type II Receptor Expression and Function in Human Renal Proximal Tubule Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui-Lin; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), via its receptors, induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and plays an important role in the development of renal tubulointersitial fibrosis. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R), which mediates beneficial renal physiological functions, has received attention as a prospective therapeutic target for renoprotection. In this study, we investigated the effect and underlying mechanism of AT2R on the TGF-β receptor II (TGF-βRII) expression and function in human proximal tubular cells (HK-2). Here, we show that the AT2R agonist CGP42112A decreased TGF-βRII protein expression in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in HK-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of the AT2R on TGF-βRII expression was blocked by the AT2R antagonists PD123319 or PD123177. Stimulation with TGF-β1 enhanced EMT in HK-2 cells, which was prevented by pre-treatment with CGP42112A. One of mechanisms in this regulation is associated with the increased TGF-βRII degradation after activation of AT2R. Furthermore, laser confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that AT2R and TGF-βRII colocalized in HK-2 cells. AT2R and TGF-βRII coimmunoprecipitated and this interaction was increased after AT2R agonist stimulation for 30 min. The inhibitory effect of the AT2R on TGF-βRII expression was also blocked by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME, indicating that nitric oxide is involved in the signaling pathway. Taken together, our study indicates that the renal AT2R regulates TGF-βRII expression and function via the nitric oxide pathway, which may be important in the control of renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis. PMID:26867007

  7. Different Involvement of Type 1, 2, and 3 Ryanodine Receptors in Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Quattrone, Alessandro; Vivoli, Elisa; Norcini, Monica; Bartolini, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2008-01-01

    The administration of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonist 4-Cmc (0.003-9 nmol per mouse intracerebroventricularly [i.c.v.]) ameliorated memory functions, whereas the RyR antagonist ryanodine (0.0001-1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) induced amnesia in the mouse passive avoidance test. The role of the type 1, 2, and 3 RyR isoforms in memory processes was…

  8. Orthotopic transplantation of LH receptor knockout and wild-type ovaries.

    PubMed

    Chudgar, Daksha; Lei, Zhenmin; Rao, Ch V

    2005-10-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor knockout animals have an ovarian failure due to an arrest in folliculogenesis at the antral stage. As a result, the animals have an infertility phenotype. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this phenotype could be reversed by orthotopic transplantation of wild-type ovaries. The results revealed that transplanting wild-type ovaries into null animals did not result in resumption of estrus cycles. Although the number of different types of follicles increased, none progressed to ovulation. The serum hormone profiles improved, reflecting the ovarian changes. The wild-type animals with null ovaries also failed to cycle and their ovaries and serum hormone levels were more like null animals with their own ovaries. Although the lack of rescue of null ovaries placed into wild-type animals was predicted, the failure of wild-type ovaries placed in null animals was not, which could be due to chronic exposure of transplanted tissue to high circulating LH levels and also possibly due to altered internal milieu in null animals. These findings may have implications for potential future considerations of grafting normal donor ovaries into women who have an ovarian failure resulting from inactivating LH receptor mutations. PMID:15964032

  9. Fluoxetine-induced transactivation of the platelet-derived growth factor type β receptor reveals a novel heterologous desensitization process.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Jeff S; Vasefi, Maryam S; Gondora, Nyasha; Ahmed, Nawaz; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Many G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including serotonin (5-HT) receptors promote the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) via intracellular signaling pathways in a process termed transactivation. Although transactivation pathways are commonly initiated by a GPCR, a recent report demonstrated that serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) were able to block 5-HT-induced transactivation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) type β receptor. We show that a 45 min pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with the SSRI fluoxetine indeed blocked 5-HT-induced transactivation of the PDGFβ receptor. However, upon further examination, we discovered that during the pretreatment period, fluoxetine itself was transiently transactivating the PDGFβ receptor via 5-HT2 receptor activation. After 45min, the increase in PDGFβ receptor phosphorylation induced by fluoxetine had returned to baseline, but a subsequent transactivating stimulus (5-HT) failed to "re-transactivate" the PDGFβ receptor. We further demonstrate that 45min, but not 3h, 5-HT pretreatment blocks dopamine-induced PDGFβ receptor transactivation. This did not involve changes in PDGF receptor function, since ligand (PDGF)-induced PDGFβ receptor activation was not inhibited by 5-HT pretreatment. To our knowledge this is the first demonstration of the heterologous desensitization of an RTK transactivation pathway and reveals a previously unknown short-term "blackout" period where no additional transactivation signaling is possible. PMID:25702926

  10. Modulation of TGF-beta type 1 receptor: flow cytometric detection with biotinylated TGF-beta.

    PubMed

    Newman, W; Beall, L D; Bertolini, D R; Cone, J L

    1989-10-01

    Transforming growth factor beta type 1 (TGF-beta 1) was reacted with NHS-biotin to yield a derivative of TGF-beta 1 which was biotinylated on lysine residues. The biotinylated form of TGF-beta 1 was separated from the unreacted material by reverse phase chromatography. In three separate bioassays, the derivatized peptide was as active as the starting material. The use of FITC-avidin in conjunction with flow cytometry demonstrated that the binding of biotinylated TGF-beta 1 to its receptor is saturable, competable, and specific. A 100-fold molar excess of underivatized TGF-beta 1 gave 85% inhibition of binding of the biotinylated peptide to the mink lung cell line CCL-64, while TGF-beta 2 showed no inhibition of binding, nor did insulin, calcitonin, or TGF-alpha. Both CCL-64 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed a density-dependent down-regulation of receptor expression in culture. Several factors were examined that might mediate this effect. The down-regulation was shown not to be due to the secretion of an active form of TGF-beta 1. The extracellular matrix from high-density cells did not decrease expression of the receptor. Fibronectin, collagen, and gelatin were also unable to signal changes in receptor expression, even though in other systems such matrix components can regulate the responsiveness of cells to TGF-beta 1. Lastly, staining simultaneously for DNA content and TGF-beta 1 receptor expression showed that there was no correlation between cell cycle and receptor levels. PMID:2550480

  11. Long-term potentiation alters the modulator pharmacology of AMPA-type glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Brücher, Fernando A; Colgin, Laura Lee; Lynch, Gary

    2002-06-01

    Changes in the biophysical properties of AMPA-type glutamate receptors have been proposed to mediate the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study tested if, as predicted from this hypothesis, AMPA receptor modulators differentially affect potentiated versus control synaptic currents. Whole cell recordings were collected from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices from adult rats. Within-neuron comparisons were made of the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) elicited by two separate groups of Schaffer-collateral/commissural synapses. LTP was induced by theta burst stimulation in one set of inputs; cyclothiazide (CTZ), a drug that acts on the desensitization kinetics of AMPA receptors, was infused 30 min later. The decay time constants of the potentiated EPSCs prior to drug infusion were slightly, but significantly, shorter than those of control EPSCs. CTZ slowed the decay of the EPSCs, as reported in prior studies, and did so to a significantly greater degree in the potentiated synapses. Additionally, infusion of CTZ resulted in significantly greater effects on amplitude in potentiated pathways as compared with control pathways. The interaction between LTP and CTZ was also obtained in a separate set of experiments in which GABA receptor antagonists were used to block inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Additionally, there was no significant change in paired-pulse facilitation in the presence of CTZ, indicating that presynaptic effects of the drug were negligible. These findings provide new evidence that LTP modifies AMPA receptor kinetics. Candidates for the changes responsible for the observed effects of LTP were evaluated using a model of AMPA receptor kinetics; a simple increase in the channel opening rate provided the most satisfactory match with the LTP data. PMID:12037181

  12. Impaired Expression of Type I and Type II Interferon Receptors in HCV-Associated Chronic Liver Disease and Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Partha K.; Gunduz, Feyza; Hazari, Sidhartha; Kurt, Ramazan; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Poat, Bret; Bruce, David; Cohen, Ari J.; Behorquez, Humberto E.; Carmody, Ian; Loss, George; Balart, Luis A.; Wu, Tong; Dash, Srikanta

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Chronic Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-infected patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) respond poorly to interferon-alpha (IFN-α) and ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy, but the reason for this is unclear. We previously reported that HCV-infection induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy response that selectively down regulates the type I IFN-α receptor-1 (IFNAR1) and RBV transporters (CNT1 and ENT1), leading to IFN-α/RBV resistance. The goal of this study is to verify whether an increase in ER stress and autophagy response is also associated with the reduced expression of IFNAR1 and RBV transporters in chronic HCV-infected patients. Methods Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were infected with cell culture grown HCV particles (JFH-ΔV3-Rluc). HCV replication was confirmed by the detection of viral RNA by RT-qPCR and HCV-core protein by Western blotting. The ER stress and autophagy response and expression of IFN receptors and RBV transporters in HCV infected PHH and liver tissues derived from patients were measured by Western blotting. Result HCV infection of PHH showed impaired expression of IFNAR1, IFNγR1 (Type II IFN receptor) and RBV transporters but not IL10Rβ (Type III IFN-λ receptor). ER stress markers (BiP, IRE1α and peIF2α) and autophagy response (LC3II, Beclin 1 and ATG5) were induced in HCV infected chronic liver disease (CLD) and LC patients. Liver biopsies (CLD) show a 50% reduced expression of IFNAR1 and RBV transporters. Furthermore, the expression of IFNAR1 and RBV transporters was impaired in almost all LC patients. Conclusion HCV infection induces ER stress and autophagy response in infected PHH and chronically infected liver tissues. The expression of IFNAR1, IFNγR1 and RBV transporters were significantly impaired in CLD and cirrhotic livers. Our study provides a potential explanation for the reduced response rate of IFN-α and RBV combination therapy in HCV infected patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:25265476

  13. Structural Basis of Interaction Between Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator and its Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Barinka,C.; Parry, G.; Callahan, J.; Shaw, D.; Kuo, A.; Cines, B.; Mazar, A.; Lubkowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that binding of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) to its high-affinity receptor (uPAR) orchestrates uPAR interactions with other cellular components that play a pivotal role in diverse (patho-)physiological processes, including wound healing, angiogenesis, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. However, notwithstanding the wealth of biochemical data available describing the activities of uPAR, little is known about the exact mode of uPAR/uPA interactions or the presumed conformational changes that accompany uPA/uPAR engagement. Here, we report the crystal structure of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), which contains the three domains of the wild-type receptor but lacks the cell-surface anchoring sequence, in complex with the amino-terminal fragment of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (ATF), at the resolution of 2.8 {angstrom}. We report the 1.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of free ATF. Our results provide a structural basis, represented by conformational changes induced in uPAR, for several published biochemical observations describing the nature of uPAR/uPA interactions and provide insight into mechanisms that may be responsible for the cellular responses induced by uPA binding.

  14. Patterns of Müllerian Inhibiting Substance Type II and Candidate Type I Receptors in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer†

    PubMed Central

    Basal, E.; Ayeni, T.; Zhang, Q.; Langstraat, C.; Donahoe, P.K.; Pepin, D.; Yin, X.; Leof, E.; Cliby, W.

    2016-01-01

    The MIS pathway is a potential therapeutic target in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): signaling requires both type II (T2R) and type I receptors (T1R), and results in growth inhibition. MISR2 is expressed in EOC, but the prevalence and relative contributions of candidate T1R remain unknown. We sought to: a) determine expression of T1R in EOC; b) assess impact of T1R expression with clinical outcomes; c) verify MIS-dependent Smad signaling and growth inhibition in primary EOC cell cultures. Tissue microarrays (TMA) were developed for analysis of T1Rs (ALK2/3/6) and MISR2 expression. Primary cell cultures were initiated from ascites harvested at surgery which were used to characterize response to MIS. TMA’s from 311 primary cancers demonstrated the most common receptor combinations were: MISR2+/ALK2+3+6+ (36%); MISR2+/ALK2+3+6- (34%); MISR2-/ALK2+3+6- (18%); and MISR2-/ALK2+3+6+ (6.8%). No differences in overall survival (OS) were noted between combinations. The ALK6 receptor was least often expressed T1R and was associated with lower OS in early stage disease only (p =0.03). Most primary cell cultures expressed MISR2 (14/22 (63.6%)): 95% of these express ALK 2 and ALK3, whereas 54.5% expressed ALK6. MIS-dependent Smad phosphorylation was seen in the majority of cultures (75%). Treatment with MIS led to reduced cell viability at an average of 71% (range: 57–87%) in primary cultures. MIS signaling is dependent upon the presence of both MISR2 and specific T1R. In the majority of EOC, the T1R required for MIS-dependent signaling are present and such cells demonstrate appropriate response to MIS. PMID:26917267

  15. The Unique Functions of the Type-II IL-4 Receptor are revealed in IL-13R¿1-deficient mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The IL-4 receptor is a central mediator of Th2-mediated diseases and associates with either the common gamma chain (type-I IL-4R) or IL-13Ra1 (type-II IL-4R) to form two receptor complexes. Here, using IL-13Ra1-/- mice, we characterized the distinct functions of the type-II IL-4R. In contrast to IL-...

  16. Fscn1 is required for the trafficking of TGF-β family type I receptors during endoderm formation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhaoting; Ning, Guozhu; Xu, Ranran; Cao, Yu; Meng, Anming; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules function in TGF-β signalling by facilitating the cytoplasmic trafficking of internalized receptors and the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of Smads. However, nothing is known about whether actin filaments are required for these processes. Here we report that zebrafish actin-bundling protein fscn1a is highly expressed in mesendodermal precursors and its expression is directly regulated by the TGF-β superfamily member Nodal. Knockdown or knockout of fscn1a leads to a reduction of Nodal signal transduction and endoderm formation in zebrafish embryos. Fscn1 specifically interacts with TGF-β family type I receptors, and its depletion disrupts the association between receptors and actin filaments and sequesters the internalized receptors into clathrin-coated vesicles. Therefore, Fscn1 acts as a molecular linker between TGF-β family type I receptors and the actin filaments to promote the trafficking of internalized receptors from clathrin-coated vesicles to early endosomes during zebrafish endoderm formation. PMID:27545838

  17. Cell type-specific pharmacology of NMDA receptors using masked MK801

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunlei; Lee, Peter; Sternson, Scott M

    2015-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs) are ion channels that are important for synaptic plasticity, which is involved in learning and drug addiction. We show enzymatic targeting of an NMDA-R antagonist, MK801, to a molecularly defined neuronal population with the cell-type-selectivity of genetic methods and the temporal control of pharmacology. We find that NMDA-Rs on dopamine neurons are necessary for cocaine-induced synaptic potentiation, demonstrating that cell type-specific pharmacology can be used to dissect signaling pathways within complex brain circuits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10206.001 PMID:26359633

  18. Understanding CELSRs - Cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Dao-Lai; Xu, Zhi-Gang; Ma, Ming-Liang; Wang, Wen-Bo; Li, Lin-Lin; Han, Xiao-Lin; Huo, Yuqing; Yu, Xiao; Sun, Jin-Peng

    2014-01-01

    The cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptors (CELSRs) are a special subgroup of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are pivotal regulators of many biological processes such as neuronal/endocrine cell differentiation, vessel valve formation and the control of planar cell polarity during embryonic development. All three members of the CELSR family (CELSR1-3) have large ecto-domains that form homophilic interactions and encompass more than 2,000 amino acids. Mutations in the ecto-domain or other gene locations of CELSRs are associated with neural tube defects (NTDs) and other diseases in humans. Celsr knockout (KO) animals have many developmental defects. Therefore, specific agonists or antagonists of CELSR members may have therapeutic potential. Although significant progress has been made regarding the functions and biochemical properties of CELSRs, our knowledge of these receptors is still lacking, especially considering that they are broadly distributed but have few characterized functions in a limited number of tissues. The dynamic activation and inactivation of CELSRs and the presence of endogenous ligands beyond homophilic interactions remain elusive, as do the regulatory mechanisms and downstream signaling of these receptors. Given this motivation, future studies with more advanced cell biology or biochemical tools, such as conditional KO mice, may provide further insights into the mechanisms underlying CELSR function, laying the foundation for the design of new CELSR-targeted therapeutic reagents. PMID:25280249

  19. Signalling versatility following self and non-self sensing by myeloid C-type lectin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Iborra, Salvador; Sancho, David

    2015-01-01

    Among myeloid immune receptors, C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have a remarkable capacity to sense a variety of self and non-self ligands. The coupling of CLRs to different signal transduction modules is influenced not only by the receptor, but also by the nature, density and architecture of the ligand, which can affect the rate of receptor internalization and trafficking to diverse intracellular compartments. Understanding how the variety of self and non-self ligands triggers differential CLR signalling and function presents a fascinating biological challenge. Non-self ligands usually promote inflammation and immunity, whereas self ligands are frequently involved in communication and tolerance. But pathogens can mimic self-inhibitory signals to escape immune surveillance, and endogenous ligands can contribute to the sensing of pathogens through CLRs. In this review, we survey the complexity and flexibility in functional outcome found in the myeloid CLRs, which is not only based on their differing intracellular motifs, but is also conditioned by the physical nature, affinity and avidity of the ligand. PMID:25269828

  20. Noncanonical Control of Vasopressin Receptor Type 2 Signaling by Retromer and Arrestin*

    PubMed Central

    Feinstein, Timothy N.; Yui, Naofumi; Webber, Matthew J.; Wehbi, Vanessa L.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; King, J. Darwin; Hallows, Kenneth R.; Brown, Dennis; Bouley, Richard; Vilardaga, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) is a critical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for vertebrate physiology, including the balance of water and sodium ions. It is unclear how its two native hormones, vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT), both stimulate the same cAMP/PKA pathway yet produce divergent antinatriuretic and antidiuretic effects that are either strong (VP) or weak (OT). Here, we present a new mechanism that differentiates the action of VP and OT on V2R signaling. We found that vasopressin, as opposed to OT, continued to generate cAMP and promote PKA activation for prolonged periods after ligand washout and receptor internalization in endosomes. Contrary to the classical model of arrestin-mediated GPCR desensitization, arrestins bind the VP-V2R complex yet extend rather than shorten the generation of cAMP. Signaling is instead turned off by the endosomal retromer complex. We propose that this mechanism explains how VP sustains water and Na+ transport in renal collecting duct cells. Together with recent work on the parathyroid hormone receptor, these data support the existence of a novel “noncanonical” regulatory pathway for GPCR activation and response termination, via the sequential action of β-arrestin and the retromer complex. PMID:23935101

  1. 4.1N binding regions of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Kazumi; Bannai, Hiroko; Inoue, Takafumi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2006-04-01

    Zhang et al. and Maximov et al. [S. Zhang, A. Mizutani, C. Hisatsune, T. Higo, H. Bannai, T. Nakayama, M. Hattori, and K. Mikoshiba, Protein 4.1N is required for translocation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 to the basolateral membrane domain in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4048-4056; A. Maximov, T. S. Tang, and I. Bezprozvanny, Association of the type 1 inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor with 4.1N protein in neurons, Mol. Cell. Neurosci. 22 (2003) 271-283.] reported that 4.1N is a binding partner of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP(3)R1), however the binding site of IP(3)R1 differed: the former determined the C-terminal 14 amino acids of the cytoplasmic tail (CTT14aa) as the binding site, while the latter assigned another segment, cytoplasmic tail middle 1 (CTM1). To solve this discrepancy, we performed immunoprecipitation and found that both the segments had binding activity to 4.1N. Both segments also interfered the 4.1N-regulated IP(3)R1 diffusion in neuronal dendrites. However, IP(3)R1 lacking the CTT14aa (IP(3)R1-DeltaCTT14aa) does not bind to 4.1N [S. Zhang, A. Mizutani, C. Hisatsune, T. Higo, H. Bannai, T. Nakayama, M. Hattori, and K. Mikoshiba, Protein 4.1N is required for translocation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 to the basolateral membrane domain in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4048-4056.] and its diffusion constant is larger than that of IP(3)R1 full-length in neuronal dendrites [K. Fukatsu, H. Bannai, S. Zhang, H. Nakamura, T. Inoue, and K. Mikoshiba, Lateral diffusion of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 is regulated by actin filaments and 4.1N in neuronal dendrites, J. Biol. Chem. 279 (2004) 48976-48982.]. We conclude that both the CTT14aa and CTM1 sequences can bind to 4.1N in peptide fragment forms. However, we propose that the responsible binding site for 4.1N binding in full-length tetramer form of IP

  2. The bovine papillomavirus type 1 E5 transforming protein specifically binds and activates the beta-type receptor for the platelet-derived growth factor but not other related tyrosine kinase-containing receptors to induce cellular transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, D J; Li, W; Wang, L M; Heidaran, M A; Aaronson, S; Shinn, R; Schlegel, R; Pierce, J H

    1994-01-01

    The 44-amino-acid E5 protein of bovine papillomavirus type 1 is a highly hydrophobic protein which appears to transform cells through the activation of growth factor receptors. To investigate the specificity of E5-growth factor receptor interactions required for mitogenic signaling, we utilized a nontumorigenic, murine myeloid cell line (32D) which is strictly dependent on interleukin-3 (IL-3) for sustained proliferation in culture. This IL-3 dependence can be functionally substituted by the expression of a variety of surrogate growth factor receptors and the addition of the corresponding ligand. Several receptor cDNAs for the alpha- and beta-type platelet-derived growth factor receptors [alpha PDGFR and beta PDGFR], the epidermal growth factor receptor, and the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor) were transfected into 32D cells constitutively expressing the E5 protein to test for IL-3-independent growth. Only beta PDGFR was capable of abrogating the IL-3 dependence of 32D cells. The proliferative signal induced by the coexpression of beta PDGFR and E5 was accompanied by stable complex formation between these proteins, constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. The lack of cooperative interaction between E5 and the epidermal growth factor receptor, the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor, and the highly related alpha PDGFR was paralleled by the inability of E5 to bind to these receptors and failure to increase receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, these data indicate that the ability of E5 to induce sustained proliferation and transformation of 32D cells is a direct consequence of specific interaction between the E5 protein and the beta PDGFR signaling complex and the subsequent stimulation of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. Images PMID:8207816

  3. 5-HT(1A) receptors transactivate the platelet-derived growth factor receptor type beta in neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Jeff S; Vasefi, Maryam S; Liu, Hui; Heikkila, John J; Beazely, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    In the absence of ligand, certain growth factor receptors can be activated via G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation in a process termed transactivation. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors can transactivate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β receptors in smooth muscle cells, but it is not known if similar pathways occur in neuronal cells. Here we show that 5-HT can transiently increase the phosphorylation of PDGFβ receptors through 5-HT(1A) receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. 5-HT also transactivates PDGFβ receptors in primary cortical neurons. This transactivation pathway is pertussis-toxin sensitive and Src tyrosine kinase-dependent. This pathway is also dependent on phospholipase C activity and intracellular calcium signaling. Several studies involving PDGFβ receptor transactivation by GPCRs have also demonstrated a PDGFβ receptor-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Yet in SH-SY5Y cells, 5-HT treatment causes a PDGFβ receptor-independent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation. This crosstalk between 5-HT and PDGFβ receptors identifies a potentially important signaling link between the serotonergic system and growth factor signaling in neurons. PMID:23006663

  4. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors regulate type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor expression via calmodulin kinase IV activation.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Koji; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Ohkuma, Seitaro

    2015-04-01

    Type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 R-1) are among the important calcium channels regulating intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in the central nervous system. In a previous study, we showed that drugs of abuse, such as cocaine, methamphetamine, and ethanol, induced IP3 R-1 upregulation via the calcium signal transduction pathway in psychological dependence. Although nicotine, a major component in tobacco smoke, participates in psychological and/or physical dependence, it has not yet been clarified how nicotine alters IP3 R-1 expression. The present study, therefore, seeks to clarify the mechanism bgy which nicotine modifies IP3 R-1 expression by using mouse cerebral cortical neurons in primary culture. Nicotine induced dose- and time-dependent upregulation of IP3 R-1 protein following its mRNA increase, and the latter was significantly suppressed by a nonselective nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) antagonist, mecamylamine. Both cFos and phosphorylated-cJun (p-cJun) were immediately increased in the nucleus, together with an increase of calmodulin kinase (CaMK) IV but not CaMKII expression after nicotine exposure. A nonselective inhibitor of CaMKs, KN-93, and a calcium chelating regent, BAPTA-AM, completely suppressed the expression of cFos and p-cJun in the nucleus as well as the nicotine-induced IP3 R-1 upregulation. These results indicate that nAChR activation by nicotine upregulates IP3 R-1 via increase of activator protein-1, which is a cFos and cJun dimmer, in the nucleus, with activation of Ca(2+) signaling transduction processes. PMID:25430056

  5. Monoglyceride lipase deficiency causes desensitization of intestinal cannabinoid receptor type 1 and increased colonic μ-opioid receptor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Taschler, U; Eichmann, T O; Radner, F P W; Grabner, G F; Wolinski, H; Storr, M; Lass, A; Schicho, R; Zimmermann, R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Monoglyceride lipase (MGL) degrades 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), an endogenous agonist of cannabinoid receptors (CB1/2). Because the CB1 receptor is involved in the control of gut function, we investigated the effects of pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of MGL on intestinal motility. Furthermore, we determined whether defective 2-AG degradation affects μ-opioid receptorreceptor) signalling, a parallel pathway regulating gut motility. Experimental Approach Gut motility was investigated by monitoring Evans Blue transit and colonic bead propulsion in response to MGL inhibition and CB1 receptor or μ receptor stimulation. Ileal contractility was investigated by electrical field stimulation. CB1 receptor expression in ileum and colon was assessed by immunohistochemical analyses. Key Results Pharmacological inhibition of MGL slowed down whole gut transit in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner. Conversely, genetic deletion of MGL did not affect gut transit despite increased 2-AG levels. Notably, MGL deficiency caused complete insensitivity to CB1 receptor agonist-mediated inhibition of whole gut transit and ileal contractility suggesting local desensitization of CB1 receptors. Accordingly, immunohistochemical analyses of myenteric ganglia of MGL-deficient mice revealed that CB1 receptors were trapped in endocytic vesicles. Finally, MGL-deficient mice displayed accelerated colonic propulsion and were hypersensitive to μ receptor agonist-mediated inhibition of colonic motility. This phenotype was reproduced by chronic pharmacological inhibition of MGL. Conclusion and Implications Constantly elevated 2-AG levels induce severe desensitization of intestinal CB1 receptors and increased sensitivity to μ receptor-mediated inhibition of colonic motility. These changes should be considered when cannabinoid-based drugs are used in the therapy of gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:26075589

  6. Cortical dopamine D2 receptors in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Halonen, Pirjo; Tiihonen, Jari

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with lower density of striatal dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors, but there is much less data on cortical DA D(2) receptors. We evaluated the [(125)I]epidepride binding to DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics and controls in frontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate cortices by using human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography, which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. Type 1 alcoholics had lower and type 2 alcoholics had higher DA D(2) receptor density in all cortical areas compared to controls. Although the results did not reach statistical significance, the effect sizes were high. The DA D(2) receptor density in type 2 alcoholics decreased statistically significantly with age, and after correcting for age the binding values also fell below the level of controls. A statistically non-significant tendency towards a decrease of cortical DA D(2) receptors was seen in controls, whereas in the type 1 alcoholic group no consistent correlation or even tendency towards increase with age was observed. Our results give preliminary evidence that DA D(2) receptors in cortical areas may be lower among both groups of alcoholics, but not necessarily of same magnitude as in subcortical structures. The rapid decline of cortical DA D(2) receptors among type 2 alcoholics may have some relevance to their antisociality, because this trait tends to diminish with age. The absence of correlation or even tendency towards increase of cortical DA D(2) receptors with age seen in type 1 alcoholics may give further evidence that they have a pre-existing dopaminergic deficit. However, these results especially regarding aging effect must be considered as preliminary due to the different age-range of type 2 alcoholics compared to two other groups. PMID:15452867

  7. Human Cytomegalovirus Up-Regulates Endothelin Receptor Type B: Implication for Vasculopathies?

    PubMed Central

    Yaiw, Koon-Chu; Mohammad, Abdul-Aleem; Costa, Helena; Taher, Chato; Badrnya, Sigrun; Assinger, Alice; Wilhelmi, Vanessa; Ananthaseshan, Sharan; Estekizadeh, Atosa; Davoudi, Belghis; Ovchinnikova, Olga; Shlyakhto, Eugene; Rafnsson, Arnar; Khan, Zahidul; Butler, Lynn; Rahbar, Afsar; Pernow, John; Söderberg-Nauclér, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background. Both endothelin receptor type B ([ETBR], a G protein-coupled receptor that mediates the vascular effects of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1) and human cytomegalovirus ([HCMV], a ubiquitous herpesvirus) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The effects of HCMV infection on ETBR expression are unknown. We hypothesized that HCMV may contribute to the pathogenesis of CVD via ETBR modulation. Methods. Human CMV effects on ETBR were studied in vitro in endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and ex vivo in human carotid plaque tissue specimens. Expression of ETBR and viral immediate-early were quantified using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Functional consequences after ETBR blockade in ECs were examined by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide proliferation, wound healing, tube formation, and flow adhesion assays. Results. Human CMV is capable of upregulating both ETBR mRNA and protein expression in ECs and SMCs. The ETBR was also abundantly expressed in ECs, foam cells, and SMCs, and, more importantly, in HCMV-positive cells in human carotid plaques. Endothelin receptor type B blockade led to decreased proliferation and reduced tumor necrosis factor α-mediated leukocyte recruitment in both uninfected and HCMV-infected ECs. Direct HCMV infection was antimigratory and antiangiogenic in ECs. Conclusions. Human CMV may contribute to CVD via ETBR induction. PMID:26719843

  8. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Express Functional NKp30 Receptor Inducing Type 2 Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Maryam; Xue, Luzheng; Jolin, Helen; Hardman, Clare; Cousins, David J; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defense, epithelial repair, and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged Ag-specific receptors, and although many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with the microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of group 1 ILC and group 3 ILC and thought to be important for their effector function, but they have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression and functional properties of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 on human ILC2. A subset of ex vivo and cultured ILC2 express NKp30 that upon interaction with its cognate activatory ligand B7-H6 induces rapid production of type 2 cytokines. This interaction can be blocked by NKp30 blocking Ab and an inhibitory ligand, galectin-3. Higher expression of B7-H6 was observed in lesional skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis, and incubation of keratinocytes with proinflammatory and type 2 cytokines upregulated B7-H6, leading to increased ILC2 cytokine production. NKp30-B7-H6 interaction is a novel cell contact mechanism that mediates activation of ILC2 and identifies a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. PMID:26582946

  9. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells express functional NKp30 receptor inducing type 2 cytokine production1

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Maryam; Xue, Luzheng; Jolin, Helen; Hardman, Clare; Cousins, David J.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Ogg, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defence, epithelial repair and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged antigen-specific receptors, and while many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of ILC1 and ILC3 and thought to be important for their effector function, but have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression and functional properties of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 on human group 2 innate lymphoid cells. A subset of ex vivo and cultured ILC2 express NKp30 that upon interaction with its cognate activatory ligand B7-H6 induces rapid production of type 2 cytokines. This interaction can be blocked by NKp30 blocking antibody and an inhibitory ligand, galectin-3. Higher expression of B7-H6 was observed in lesional skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis; and incubation of keratinocytes with pro-inflammatory and type 2 cytokines upregulated B7-H6 leading to increased ILC2 cytokine production. NKp30-B7-H6 interaction is a novel cell contact mechanism that mediates activation of ILC2 and identifies a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. PMID:26582946

  10. Transforming growth factor receptor type II (ec-TβR II) behaves as a halophile.

    PubMed

    Saini, Komal; Khan, M Ashhar I; Chakrapani, Sumit; Deep, Shashank

    2015-01-01

    The members of transforming growth factor β family (TGF-β) are multifunctional proteins but their main role is to control cell proliferation and differentiation. Polypeptides of TGF-β family function by binding to two related, functionally distinct transmembrane receptor kinases, first to the type II (TβR II) followed by type I receptor (TβR I). The paper describes, in details, the stability of wt-ec-TβR II under different conditions. The stability of wt-ec-TβR II was observed at different pH and salt concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy. Stability of ec-TβR II decreases with decrease in pH. Interestingly, the addition of salt increases the stability of the TβRII at pH 5.0 as observed for halophiles. Computational analysis using DELPHI suggests that this is probably due to the decrease in repulsion between negatively charged residues at surface on the addition of salt. This is further confirmed by the change in the stability of receptor on mutation of some of the residues (D32A) at surface. PMID:25316422

  11. BINDING OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CLASSIFIED AS EITHER PHENOBARBITONE-, 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE- OR MIXED-TYPE INDUCERS TO CYTOSOLIC AH RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been postulated that reversible, high-affinity binding of 3-methyl-cholanthrene (MC)-type inducers to a receptor protein (the Ah receptor) in hepatic cytosol is essential for induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) enzymic activity. To test this postulate, the bind...

  12. Activation of type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors attenuates deficits in cognitive flexibility induced by NMDA receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Stefani, Mark R.; Moghaddam, Bita

    2010-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors provide a mechanism by which the function of NMDA glutamate receptors can be modulated. As NMDA receptor hypofunction is implicated in the etiology of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, the pharmacological regulation of mGlu receptor activity represents a promising therapeutic approach. We examined the effects of the positive allosteric mGlu5 receptor modulator 3- cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB), alone and in combination with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801, on a task measuring cognitive set-shifting ability. This task measures NMDA receptor-dependent cognitive abilities analogous to those impaired in schizophrenia. Systemic administration of CDPPB (10 & 30 mg/kg i.p) blocked MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced impairments in set-shifting ability. The effect on learning was dose-dependent, with the 30 mg/kg dose having a greater effect than the 10 mg/kg dose across all trials. This ameliorative effect of CDPPB reflected a reduction in MK-801-induced perseverative responding. These results add to the evidence that mGlu5 receptors interact functionally with NMDA receptors to regulate behavior, and suggest that positive modulators of mGlu5 receptors may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of disorders, like schizophrenia, characterized by impairments in cognitive flexibility and memory. PMID:20371234

  13. Cannabinoid type 1 receptor availability in the amygdala mediates threat processing in trauma survivors.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Huang, Yiyun; Corsi-Travali, Stefani; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Lin, Shu-fei; Henry, Shannan; Potenza, Marc N; Piomelli, Daniele; Carson, Richard E; Neumeister, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Attentional bias to threat is a key endophenotype that contributes to the chronicity of trauma-related psychopathology. However, little is known about the neurobiology of this endophenotype and no known in vivo molecular imaging study has been conducted to evaluate candidate receptor systems that may be implicated in this endophenotype or the phenotypic expression of trauma-related psychopathology that comprises threat (ie, re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) and loss (ie, emotional numbing, depression/dysphoria, generalized anxiety) symptomatology. Using the radioligand [(11)C]OMAR and positron emission tomography (PET), we evaluated the relationship between in vivo cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor availability in the amygdala, and performance on a dot-probe measure of attentional bias to threat, and clinician interview-based measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The sample comprised adults presenting with a broad spectrum of trauma-related psychopathology, ranging from nontrauma-exposed, psychiatrically healthy adults to trauma-exposed adults with severe trauma-related psychopathology. Results revealed that increased CB1 receptor availability in the amygdala was associated with increased attentional bias to threat, as well as increased severity of threat, but not loss, symptomatology; greater peripheral anandamide levels were associated with decreased attentional bias to threat. A mediation analysis further suggested that attentional bias to threat mediated the relationship between CB1 receptor availability in the amygdala and severity of threat symptomatology. These data substantiate a key role for compromised endocannabinoid function in mediating both the endophenotypic and phenotypic expression of threat symptomatology in humans. They further suggest that novel pharmacotherapies that target the CB1 system may provide a more focused, mechanism-based approach to mitigating this core aspect of trauma-related psychopathology. PMID

  14. Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor Availability in the Amygdala Mediates Threat Processing in Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Huang, Yiyun; Corsi-Travali, Stefani; Zheng, Ming-Qiang; Lin, Shu-fei; Henry, Shannan; Potenza, Marc N; Piomelli, Daniele; Carson, Richard E; Neumeister, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Attentional bias to threat is a key endophenotype that contributes to the chronicity of trauma-related psychopathology. However, little is known about the neurobiology of this endophenotype and no known in vivo molecular imaging study has been conducted to evaluate candidate receptor systems that may be implicated in this endophenotype or the phenotypic expression of trauma-related psychopathology that comprises threat (ie, re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyperarousal) and loss (ie, emotional numbing, depression/dysphoria, generalized anxiety) symptomatology. Using the radioligand [11C]OMAR and positron emission tomography (PET), we evaluated the relationship between in vivo cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor availability in the amygdala, and performance on a dot-probe measure of attentional bias to threat, and clinician interview-based measures of trauma-related psychopathology. The sample comprised adults presenting with a broad spectrum of trauma-related psychopathology, ranging from nontrauma-exposed, psychiatrically healthy adults to trauma-exposed adults with severe trauma-related psychopathology. Results revealed that increased CB1 receptor availability in the amygdala was associated with increased attentional bias to threat, as well as increased severity of threat, but not loss, symptomatology; greater peripheral anandamide levels were associated with decreased attentional bias to threat. A mediation analysis further suggested that attentional bias to threat mediated the relationship between CB1 receptor availability in the amygdala and severity of threat symptomatology. These data substantiate a key role for compromised endocannabinoid function in mediating both the endophenotypic and phenotypic expression of threat symptomatology in humans. They further suggest that novel pharmacotherapies that target the CB1 system may provide a more focused, mechanism-based approach to mitigating this core aspect of trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:24820537

  15. Highly specific olfactory receptor neurons for types of amino acids in the channel catfish.

    PubMed

    Nikonov, Alexander A; Caprio, John

    2007-10-01

    Odorant specificity to l-alpha-amino acids was determined electrophysiologically for 93 single catfish olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) selected for their narrow excitatory molecular response range (EMRR) to only one type of amino acid (i.e., Group I units). These units were excited by either a basic amino acid, a neutral amino acid with a long side chain, or a neutral amino acid with a short side chain when tested at 10(-7) to 10(-5) M. Stimulus-induced inhibition, likely for contrast enhancement, was primarily observed in response to the types of amino acid stimuli different from that which activated a specific ORN. The high specificity of single Group I ORNs to type of amino acid was also previously observed for single Group I neurons in both the olfactory bulb and forebrain of the same species. These results indicate that for Group I neurons olfactory information concerning specific types of amino acids is processed from receptor neurons through mitral cells of the olfactory bulb to higher forebrain neurons without significant alteration in unit odorant specificity. PMID:17686913

  16. From synapse to behavior: rapid modulation of defined neuronal types with engineered GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Peer; Goetz, Thomas; Leppä, Elli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Renzi, Massimiliano; Swinny, Jerome D; Vekovischeva, Olga Y; Sieghart, Werner; Somogyi, Peter; Korpi, Esa R; Farrant, Mark; Wisden, William

    2007-01-01

    In mammals, identifying the contribution of specific neurons or networks to behavior is a key challenge. Here we describe an approach that facilitates this process by enabling the rapid modulation of synaptic inhibition in defined cell populations. Binding of zolpidem, a systemically active allosteric modulator that enhances the function of the GABAA receptor, requires a phenylalanine residue (Phe77) in the γ2 subunit. Mice in which this residue is changed to isoleucine are insensitive to zolpidem. By Cre recombinase-induced swapping of the γ2 subunit (that is, exchanging Ile77 for Phe77), zolpidem sensitivity can be restored to GABAA receptors in chosen cell types. We demonstrate the power of this method in the cerebellum, where zolpidem rapidly induces significant motor deficits when Purkinje cells are made uniquely sensitive to its action. This combined molecular and pharmacological technique has demonstrable advantages over targeted cell ablation and will be invaluable for investigating many neuronal circuits. PMID:17572671

  17. The type 1 lysophosphatidic acid receptor is a target for therapy in bone metastases

    PubMed Central

    Boucharaba, Ahmed; Serre, Claire-Marie; Guglielmi, Julien; Bordet, Jean-Claude; Clézardin, Philippe; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Platelet-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) supports the progression of breast and ovarian cancer metastasis to bone. The mechanisms through which LPA promotes bone metastasis formation are, however, unknown. Here we report that silencing of the type 1 LPA receptor (LPA1) in cancer cells blocks the production of tumor-derived cytokines that are potent activators of osteoclast-mediated bone destruction and significantly reduces the progression of osteolytic bone metastases. Moreover, functional blockade of LPA action on its cognate receptor LPA1 using a pharmacological antagonist mimics the effects of silencing LPA1 in tumor cells in vitro and substantially reduces bone metastasis progression in animals. Overall, these results suggest that inhibition of platelet-derived LPA action on LPA1 expressed by tumor cells may be a promising therapeutic target for patients with bone metastases. PMID:16769891

  18. From synapse to behavior: rapid modulation of defined neuronal types with engineered GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Peer; Goetz, Thomas; Leppä, Elli; Linden, Anni-Maija; Renzi, Massimiliano; Swinny, Jerome D; Vekovischeva, Olga Y; Sieghart, Werner; Somogyi, Peter; Korpi, Esa R; Farrant, Mark; Wisden, William

    2007-07-01

    In mammals, identifying the contribution of specific neurons or networks to behavior is a key challenge. Here we describe an approach that facilitates this process by enabling the rapid modulation of synaptic inhibition in defined cell populations. Binding of zolpidem, a systemically active allosteric modulator that enhances the function of the GABAA receptor, requires a phenylalanine residue (Phe77) in the gamma2 subunit. Mice in which this residue is changed to isoleucine are insensitive to zolpidem. By Cre recombinase-induced swapping of the gamma2 subunit (that is, exchanging Ile77 for Phe77), zolpidem sensitivity can be restored to GABAA receptors in chosen cell types. We demonstrate the power of this method in the cerebellum, where zolpidem rapidly induces significant motor deficits when Purkinje cells are made uniquely sensitive to its action. This combined molecular and pharmacological technique has demonstrable advantages over targeted cell ablation and will be invaluable for investigating many neuronal circuits. PMID:17572671

  19. Modulation of defensive behavior by Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) channels.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, D C; Moreira, F A; Terzian, A L; Fogaça, M V; Lisboa, S F; Wotjak, C T; Guimaraes, F S

    2014-10-01

    The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type-1 (TRPV1) was first characterized in primary afferent fibers as a receptor for capsaicin (the pungent ingredient of chili peppers). Later on, this cation-permeable ion channel was also described in the central nervous system, where its main putative endogenous ligand is N-arachidonoyl ethanolamide (an endocannabinoid, also known as anandamide). Recent results employing genetic, pharmacological and histochemical techniques indicate that TRPV1 tonically modulate anxiety, fear and panic responses in brain regions related to defensive responses, such as the dorsal periaqueductal gray, the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Genetic deletion or antagonism of this ion channel induces anxiolytic-like effects in several animal models. The main mechanism responsible for TRPV1-mediated effects on anxiety seems to involve facilitation of glutamatergic neurotransmission. In addition, there is evidence for interactions with other neurotransmitter systems, such as nitric oxide and endocannabinoids. PMID:24726577

  20. Efficient Modulation of γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A Receptors by Piperine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Piperine activates TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor) receptors and modulates γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAAR). We have synthesized a library of 76 piperine analogues and analyzed their effects on GABAAR by means of a two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. GABAAR were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Structure–activity relationships (SARs) were established to identify structural elements essential for efficiency and potency. Efficiency of piperine derivatives was significantly increased by exchanging the piperidine moiety with either N,N-dipropyl, N,N-diisopropyl, N,N-dibutyl, p-methylpiperidine, or N,N-bis(trifluoroethyl) groups. Potency was enhanced by replacing the piperidine moiety by N,N-dibutyl, N,N-diisobutyl, or N,N-bistrifluoroethyl groups. Linker modifications did not substantially enhance the effect on GABAAR. Compound 23 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dipropyl-2,4-pentadienamide] induced the strongest modulation of GABAA (maximal GABA-induced chloride current modulation (IGABA-max = 1673% ± 146%, EC50 = 51.7 ± 9.5 μM), while 25 [(2E,4E)-5-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-N,N-dibutyl-2,4-pentadienamide] displayed the highest potency (EC50 = 13.8 ± 1.8 μM, IGABA-max = 760% ± 47%). Compound 23 induced significantly stronger anxiolysis in mice than piperine and thus may serve as a starting point for developing novel GABAAR modulators. PMID:24905252

  1. Bone Cell-autonomous Contribution of Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor to Breast Cancer-induced Osteolysis*

    PubMed Central

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Marino, Silvia; Logan, John G.; Mollat, Patrick; Ralston, Stuart H.; Idris, Aymen I.

    2015-01-01

    The cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2) has previously been implicated as a regulator of tumor growth, bone remodeling, and bone pain. However, very little is known about the role of the skeletal CB2 receptor in the regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts changes associated with breast cancer. Here we found that the CB2-selective agonists HU308 and JWH133 reduced the viability of a variety of parental and bone-tropic human and mouse breast cancer cells at high micromolar concentrations. Under conditions in which these ligands are used at the nanomolar range, HU308 and JWH133 enhanced human and mouse breast cancer cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and exacerbated osteolysis, and these effects were attenuated in cultures obtained from CB2-deficient mice or in the presence of a CB2 receptor blocker. HU308 and JWH133 had no effects on osteoblast growth or differentiation in the presence of conditioned medium from breast cancer cells, but under these circumstances both agents enhanced parathyroid hormone-induced osteoblast differentiation and the ability to support osteoclast formation. Mechanistic studies in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts showed that JWH133 and HU308 induced PI3K/AKT activity in a CB2-dependent manner, and these effects were enhanced in the presence of osteolytic and osteoblastic factors such as RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand) and parathyroid hormone. When combined with published work, these findings suggest that breast cancer and bone cells exhibit differential responses to treatment with CB2 ligands depending upon cell type and concentration used. We, therefore, conclude that both CB2-selective activation and antagonism have potential efficacy in cancer-associated bone disease, but further studies are warranted and ongoing. PMID:26195631

  2. Bone Cell-autonomous Contribution of Type 2 Cannabinoid Receptor to Breast Cancer-induced Osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Marino, Silvia; Logan, John G; Mollat, Patrick; Ralston, Stuart H; Idris, Aymen I

    2015-09-01

    The cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2) has previously been implicated as a regulator of tumor growth, bone remodeling, and bone pain. However, very little is known about the role of the skeletal CB2 receptor in the regulation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts changes associated with breast cancer. Here we found that the CB2-selective agonists HU308 and JWH133 reduced the viability of a variety of parental and bone-tropic human and mouse breast cancer cells at high micromolar concentrations. Under conditions in which these ligands are used at the nanomolar range, HU308 and JWH133 enhanced human and mouse breast cancer cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and exacerbated osteolysis, and these effects were attenuated in cultures obtained from CB2-deficient mice or in the presence of a CB2 receptor blocker. HU308 and JWH133 had no effects on osteoblast growth or differentiation in the presence of conditioned medium from breast cancer cells, but under these circumstances both agents enhanced parathyroid hormone-induced osteoblast differentiation and the ability to support osteoclast formation. Mechanistic studies in osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts showed that JWH133 and HU308 induced PI3K/AKT activity in a CB2-dependent manner, and these effects were enhanced in the presence of osteolytic and osteoblastic factors such as RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand) and parathyroid hormone. When combined with published work, these findings suggest that breast cancer and bone cells exhibit differential responses to treatment with CB2 ligands depending upon cell type and concentration used. We, therefore, conclude that both CB2-selective activation and antagonism have potential efficacy in cancer-associated bone disease, but further studies are warranted and ongoing. PMID:26195631

  3. Pharmacological characterization of the rat metabotropic glutamate receptor type 8a revealed strong similarities and slight differences with the type 4a receptor.

    PubMed

    De Colle, C; Bessis, A S; Bockaert, J; Acher, F; Pin, J P

    2000-04-01

    In the brain, group-III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors mGlu(4), mGlu(7) and mGlu(8) receptors play a critical role in controlling the release process at many glutamatergic synapses. The pharmacological profile of mGlu(4) receptor has been studied extensively, allowing us to propose a pharmacophore model for this receptor subtype. Surprisingly, the activity of only a few compounds have been reported on mGlu(7) and mGlu(8) receptors. In order to identify new possibilities for the design of selective compounds able to discriminate between the members of the group-III mGlu receptors, we have undertaken a complete pharmacological characterization of mGlu(8) receptor and compared it with that of mGlu(4) receptor, using the same expression system, and the same read out. The activities of 32 different molecules revealed that these two mGlu receptors subtypes share a similar pharmacological profile. Only small differences were noticed in addition to that previously reported with S-carboxyglutamate (S-Gla) being a partial agonist at mGlu(4) receptor and a full antagonist at mGlu(8) receptor. These include: a slightly higher relative potency of the agonists 1S,3R and 1S,3S-aminocyclopentane-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD), S-4-carboxyphenylglycine (S-4CPG) and S-4-carboxy-3-hydroxyphenylglycine (S-4C3HPG), and a slightly higher potency of the antagonists 2-aminobicyclo[3.1.0]hexane-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid (LY354740) and RS-alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) on mGlu(8) receptor. When superimposed on the mGlu(4) receptor pharmacophore model, these molecules revealed three regions that may be different between the ligand binding sites of mGlu(8) and mGlu(4) receptors. PMID:10771029

  4. Effect of P2X7 receptor knockout on AQP-5 expression of type I alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ebeling, Georg; Bläsche, Robert; Hofmann, Falk; Augstein, Antje; Kasper, Michael; Barth, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    P2X7 receptors, ATP-gated cation channels, are specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiological function of this lung cell type, except a recently reported putative involvement in surfactant secretion, is unknown. In addition, P2X7 receptor-deficient mice show reduced inflammation and lung fibrosis after exposure with bleomycin. To elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor in alveolar epithelial type I cells we characterized the pulmonary phenotype of P2X7 receptor knockout mice by using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and real-time RT PCR. No pathomorphological signs of fibrosis were found. Results revealed, however, a remarkable loss of aquaporin-5 protein and mRNA in young knockout animals. Additional in vitro experiments with bleomycin treated precision cut lung slices showed a greater sensitivity of the P2X7 receptor knockout mice in terms of aquaporin-5 reduction as wild type animals. Finally, P2X7 receptor function was examined by using the alveolar epithelial cell lines E10 and MLE-12 for stimulation experiments with bleomycin. The in vitro activation of P2X7 receptor was connected with an increase of aquaporin-5, whereas the inhibition of the receptor with oxidized ATP resulted in down regulation of aquaporin-5. The early loss of aquaporin-5 which can be found in different pulmonary fibrosis models does not implicate a specific pathogenetic role during fibrogenesis. PMID:24941004

  5. Effect of P2X7 Receptor Knockout on AQP-5 Expression of Type I Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ebeling, Georg; Bläsche, Robert; Hofmann, Falk; Augstein, Antje; Kasper, Michael; Barth, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    P2X7 receptors, ATP-gated cation channels, are specifically expressed in alveolar epithelial cells. The pathophysiological function of this lung cell type, except a recently reported putative involvement in surfactant secretion, is unknown. In addition, P2X7 receptor-deficient mice show reduced inflammation and lung fibrosis after exposure with bleomycin. To elucidate the role of the P2X7 receptor in alveolar epithelial type I cells we characterized the pulmonary phenotype of P2X7 receptor knockout mice by using immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and real-time RT PCR. No pathomorphological signs of fibrosis were found. Results revealed, however, a remarkable loss of aquaporin-5 protein and mRNA in young knockout animals. Additional in vitro experiments with bleomycin treated precision cut lung slices showed a greater sensitivity of the P2X7 receptor knockout mice in terms of aquaporin-5 reduction as wild type animals. Finally, P2X7 receptor function was examined by using the alveolar epithelial cell lines E10 and MLE-12 for stimulation experiments with bleomycin. The in vitro activation of P2X7 receptor was connected with an increase of aquaporin-5, whereas the inhibition of the receptor with oxidized ATP resulted in down regulation of aquaporin-5. The early loss of aquaporin-5 which can be found in different pulmonary fibrosis models does not implicate a specific pathogenetic role during fibrogenesis. PMID:24941004

  6. Characterization of porcine intestinal receptors for the K88ac fimbrial adhesin of Escherichia coli as mucin-type sialoglycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, A K; Baker, D R; Bosworth, B T; Casey, T A; Benfield, D A; Francis, D H

    1994-01-01

    We have previously identified two K88ac adhesion receptors (210 and 240 kDa) which are present in membrane preparations from adhesive but not nonadhesive porcine intestinal brush border cells; these adhesin receptors are postulated to be important determinants of the susceptibility of pigs to K88ac+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infections (A.K. Erickson, J.A. Willgohs, S.Y. McFarland, D.A. Benfield, and D.F. Francis, Infect. Immun. 60:983-988, 1992). We now describe a procedure for the purification of these two receptors. Receptors were solubilized from adhesive intestinal brush border vesicles using deoxycholate and were purified by gel filtration chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B and then by hydroxyapatite chromatography. Amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the two receptors have similar amino acid compositions. The most distinguishing characteristic of both receptors is a high percentage of threonine and proline residues. Neuraminidase treatment caused the K88ac adhesin receptors to migrate with a slower mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels, indicating that these receptors are sialoglycoproteins. Results from lectin-binding studies indicated that the receptors contain O-linked oligosaccharides composed of galactosyl (beta-1,3)N-acetylgalactosamine, alpha-linked fucose, galactosyl(beta-1,4)N-acetylglucosamine, sialic acid, galactose, and N-acetylgalactosamine. Collectively, these characteristics indicate that the K88ac adhesin receptors are mucin-type sialoglycoproteins. Images PMID:7960120

  7. [Thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetes. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma)].

    PubMed

    Dubois, M; Vantyghem, M-C; Schoonjans, K; Pattou, F

    2002-12-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) form a new class of oral antidiabetic agents. They improve insulin sensitivity and reduce glycemia, lipidemia and insulinemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Their mechanism is original, since they activate the nuclear receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma), altering the expression of genes involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Stimulating PPARgamma improves insulin sensitivity via several mechanisms: 1) it raises the expression of GLUT4 glucose transporter; 2) it regulates release of adipocyte-derived signaling factors that affect insulin sensitivity in muscle, and 3) it contributes to a turn-over in adipose tissue, inducing the production of smaller, more insulin sensitive adipocytes. TZDs also affect free fatty acids (FFA) lipotoxicity on islets, improving pancreatic B-cell function. In addition, triglycerides and FFA levels are lowered by TZDs. Two TZDs, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, have recently obtained the European commercial licence, but their use is restricted to the association with metformin or sulfonylureas. At the moment, they are indicated in type 2 diabetes but could be of interest in a broader array of diseases related to insulin resistance. As for side effects, rosiglitazone and pioglitazone may cause increased plasma volume, edema and dose-related weight gain. TZDs offer an attractive option in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, though it may be too soon to determine if they prevent vascular complications, as do other oral antidiabetic agents. An important issue for the future will be to assess the influence of weight gain in the long time. PMID:12527853

  8. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of mannose receptor C type 1 in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Liu, Lichun; Zhou, Yang; Zhao, Xiaoheng; Xi, Mingjun; Wei, Shun; Fang, Rui; Ji, Wei; Chen, Nan; Gu, Zemao; Liu, Xueqin; Wang, Weimin; Asim, Muhammad; Liu, Xiaoling; Lin, Li

    2014-03-01

    Mannose receptor C type 1 (MRC1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) which plays a significant role in immune responses. Much work on MRC1 has been done in mammals and birds while little in fish. In this study, we cloned and characterized MRC1 in grass carp (gcMR). The full-length gcMR contained 5291bp encoding a putative protein of 1432 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequences showed that gcMR contained a signal peptide, a cysteine-rich (CR) domain, a fibronectin type II (FN II) domain, eight C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs), a transmembrane domain and a short cytoplasmic domain. gcMR were constitutively expressed in different organs with the higher expression in spleen and head kidney. During embryonic development, gcMR transcript levels were highest at cleavage stage. The up-regulation expression of gcMR, IL-1β and TNF-α in liver, spleen, head kidney and intestine after Aeromonas hydrophila infection indicating it involved in innate immune regulation during bacterial infections. PMID:24184700

  9. Association between Periodontal Disease and Inflammatory Arthritis Reveals Modulatory Functions by Melanocortin Receptor Type 3

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Madeira, Mila F.M.; Norling, Lucy V.; Alsam, Asil; Curtis, Michael A.; da Silva, Tarcília A.; Perretti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Because there is clinical evidence for an association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis, it is important to develop suitable experimental models to explore pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. The K/BxN serum model of inflammatory arthritis was applied using distinct protocols, and modulation of joint disruption afforded by dexamethasone and calcitonin was established in comparison to the melanocortin (MC) receptor agonist DTrp8–γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH; DTrp). Wild-type and MC receptor type 3 (MC3)-null mice of different ages were also used. There was significant association between severity of joint disease, induced with distinct protocols and volumes of the arthritogenic K/BxN serum, and periodontal bone damage. Therapeutic treatment with 10 μg dexamethasone, 30 ng elcatonin, and 20 μg DTrp per mouse revealed unique and distinctive pharmacological properties, with only DTrp protecting both joint and periodontal tissue. Further analyses in nonarthritic animals revealed higher susceptibility to periodontal bone loss in Mc3r−/− compared with wild-type mice, with significant exacerbation at 14 weeks of age. These data reveal novel protective properties of endogenous MC3 on periodontal status in health and disease and indicate that MC3 activation could lead to the development of a new genus of anti-arthritic bone-sparing therapeutics. PMID:24979595

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Sense Three Dimensional Type I Collagen through Discoidin Domain Receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Lund, A.W.; Stegemann, J.P.; Plopper, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    The extracellular matrix provides structural and organizational cues for tissue development and defines and maintains cellular phenotype during cell fate determination. Multipotent mesenchymal stem cells use this matrix to tightly regulate the balance between their differentiation potential and self-renewal in the native niche. When understood, the mechanisms that govern cell-matrix crosstalk during differentiation will allow for efficient engineering of natural and synthetic matrices to specifically direct and maintain stem cell phenotype. This work identifies the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a collagen activated receptor tyrosine kinase, as a potential link through which stem cells sense and respond to the 3D organization of their extracellular matrix microenvironment. DDR1 is dependent upon both the structure and proteolytic state of its collagen ligand and is specifically expressed and localized in three dimensional type I collagen culture. Inhibition of DDR1 expression results in decreased osteogenic potential, increased cell spreading, stress fiber formation and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Additionally, loss of DDR1 activity alters the cell-mediated organization of the naïve type I collagen matrix. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for DDR1 in the stem cell response to and interaction with three dimensional type I collagen. Dynamic changes in cell shape in 3D culture and the tuning of the local ECM microstructure, directs crosstalk between DDR1 and two dimensional mechanisms of osteogenesis that can alter their traditional roles. PMID:20589230

  11. Functional receptors in the avian kidney for C-type natriuretic peptide.

    PubMed

    Brenner, D; Gerstberger, R

    1999-04-01

    Renal actions of avian-specific C-type natriuretic peptide (chCNP) were investigated in the conscious Pekin duck. Under conditions of steady-state renal water and salt elimination, systemic chCNP administration (6 and 30 pmol/min x kg BW for 20 min) dose dependently induced transient natriuresis and diuresis. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate remained constant throughout the experiment. Employing receptor autoradiography, binding sites specific for [125I]BH-chCNP could be localized at high density in glomeruli of both reptilian- and mammalian-type nephrons, and arterioles of the avian kidney. The distal tubular zone revealed [125I]BH-chCNP binding sites at medium, the medullary cone area at low density. Using an enriched kidney membrane fraction, competitive displacement studies with [125I]BH-chCNP as radioligand and various unlabeled peptide analogs (chANP, chCNP, rANP, rBNP, frANP, rANP(4-23)) allowed the discrimination of high-affinity (IC50 values 10(-10)-10(-9) M) and low-affinity (IC50 values 10(-8)-10(-7) M) binding sites different from typical mammalian receptor subtypes. Intracellular cyclic GMP formation could be demonstrated immunocytochemically for both types of glomeruli and cells of the distal tubular zone in fixed tissue sections after in vivo application of chCNP (0.8 nmol/min x kg BW; 5 min). The results obtained by combination of physiological in vivo studies and in vitro receptor analysis indicate an important role for chCNP in the modulation of avian kidney function. PMID:10098496

  12. The angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker candesartan suppresses proliferation and fibrosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Mitsuyoshi; Fushida, Sachio; Harada, Shinichi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Jun; Oyama, Katsunobu; Tajima, Hidehiro; Ninomiya, Itasu; Fujimura, Takashi; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer with peritoneal dissemination has poor clinical prognosis because of the presence of rich stromal fibrosis and acquired drug resistance. Recently, Angiotensin II type I receptor blockers such as candesartan have attracted attention for their potential anti-fibrotic activity. We examined whether candesartan could attenuate tumor proliferation and fibrosis through the interaction between gastric cancer cell line (MKN45) cells and human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Candesartan significantly reduced TGF-β1 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-like change, while tumor proliferation and stromal fibrosis were impaired. Targeting the Angiotensin II signaling pathway may therefore be an efficient strategy for treatment of tumor proliferation and fibrosis. PMID:25224569

  13. The role of ryanodine receptor type 3 in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Supnet, Charlene; Sun, Suya; Zhang, Hua; Good, Levi; Popugaeva, Elena; Bezprozvanny, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium (Ca2+) signaling is reported to play an important role in Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. The role of ER Ca2+ release channels, the ryanodine receptors (RyanRs), has been extensively studied in AD models and RyanR expression and activity are upregulated in the brains of various familial AD (FAD) models. The objective of this study was to utilize a genetic approach to evaluate the importance of RyanR type 3 (RyanR3) in the context of AD pathology. PMID:24476841

  14. Relaxin requires the angiotensin II type 2 receptor to abrogate renal interstitial fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bryna S Man; Kocan, Martina; Bosnyak, Sanja; Sarwar, Mohsin; Wigg, Belinda; Jones, Emma S; Widdop, Robert E; Summers, Roger J; Bathgate, Ross A D; Hewitson, Tim D; Samuel, Chrishan S

    2014-07-01

    Fibrosis is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease, for which there is currently no effective cure. The hormone relaxin is emerging as an effective antifibrotic therapy; however, its mechanism of action is poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that relaxin disrupts the profibrotic actions of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) by its cognate receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, and a neuronal nitric oxide synthase-dependent pathway to abrogate Smad2 phosphorylation. Since angiotensin II also inhibits TGF-β1 activity through its AT2 receptor (AT2R), we investigated the extent to which relaxin interacts with the AT2R. The effects of the AT2R antagonist, PD123319, on relaxin activity were examined in primary rat kidney myofibroblasts, and in kidney tissue from relaxin-treated male wild-type and AT2R-knockout mice subjected to unilateral ureteric obstruction. Relaxin's antifibrotic actions were significantly blocked by PD123319 in vitro and in vivo, or when relaxin was administered to AT2R-knockout mice. While heterodimer complexes were formed between RXFP1 and AT2Rs independent of ligand binding, relaxin did not directly bind to AT2Rs but signaled through RXFP1-AT2R heterodimers to induce its antifibrotic actions. These findings highlight a hitherto unrecognized interaction that may be targeted to control fibrosis progression. PMID:24429402

  15. Overlapping binding sites drive allosteric agonism and positive cooperativity in type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Xavier; Malhaire, Fanny; Scholler, Pauline; Rodrigo, Jordi; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Patricia; Llebaria, Amadeu; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Giraldo, Jesús; Goudet, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Type 4 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu4) receptors are emerging targets for the treatment of various disorders. Accordingly, numerous mGlu4-positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) have been identified, some of which also display agonist activity. To identify the structural bases for their allosteric action, we explored the relationship between the binding pockets of mGlu4 PAMs with different chemical scaffolds and their functional properties. By use of innovative mGlu4 biosensors and second-messenger assays, we show that all PAMs enhance agonist action on the receptor through different degrees of allosteric agonism and positive cooperativity. For example, whereas VU0155041 and VU0415374 display equivalent efficacies [log(τ(B)) = 1.15 ± 0.38 and 1.25 ± 0.44, respectively], they increase the ability of L-AP4 to stabilize the active conformation of the receptor by 4 and 39 times, respectively. Modeling and docking studies identify 2 overlapping binding pockets as follows: a first site homologous to the pocket of natural agonists of class A GPCRs linked to allosteric agonism and a second one pointing toward a site topographically homologous to the Na(+) binding pocket of class A GPCRs, occupied by PAMs exhibiting the strongest cooperativity. These results reveal that intrinsic efficacy and cooperativity of mGlu4 PAMs are correlated with their binding mode, and vice versa, integrating structural and functional knowledge from different GPCR classes. PMID:25342125

  16. Nanoparticle Targeting and Cholesterol Flux Through Scavenger Receptor Type B-1 Inhibits Cellular Exosome Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Plebanek, Michael P.; Mutharasan, R. Kannan; Volpert, Olga; Matov, Alexandre; Gatlin, Jesse C.; Thaxton, C. Shad

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are nanoscale vesicles that mediate intercellular communication. Cellular exosome uptake mechanisms are not well defined partly due to the lack of specific inhibitors of this complex cellular process. Exosome uptake depends on cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains called lipid rafts, and can be blocked by non-specific depletion of plasma membrane cholesterol. Scavenger receptor type B-1 (SR-B1), found in lipid rafts, is a receptor for cholesterol-rich high-density lipoproteins (HDL). We hypothesized that a synthetic nanoparticle mimic of HDL (HDL NP) that binds SR-B1 and removes cholesterol through this receptor would inhibit cellular exosome uptake. In cell models, our data show that HDL NPs bind SR-B1, activate cholesterol efflux, and attenuate the influx of esterified cholesterol. As a result, HDL NP treatment results in decreased dynamics and clustering of SR-B1 contained in lipid rafts and potently inhibits cellular exosome uptake. Thus, SR-B1 and targeted HDL NPs provide a fundamental advance in studying cholesterol-dependent cellular uptake mechanisms. PMID:26511855

  17. Mutations in the Endothelin Receptor Type A Cause Mandibulofacial Dysostosis with Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher T.; Weaver, K. Nicole; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria; Madsen, Erik C.; Tavares, Andre L.P.; Oufadem, Myriam; Kurihara, Yukiko; Adameyko, Igor; Picard, Arnaud; Breton, Sylvain; Pierrot, Sébastien; Biosse-Duplan, Martin; Voisin, Norine; Masson, Cécile; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschké, Patrick; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Lacombe, Didier; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Moura, Priscila Padilha; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Munnich, Arnold; Ernfors, Patrik; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Kurihara, Hiroki; Saal, Howard M.; Weaver, David D.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Golzio, Christelle; Clouthier, David E.; Amiel, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) signaling pathway is essential for the establishment of mandibular identity during development of the first pharyngeal arch. We report four unrelated individuals with the syndrome mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia (MFDA) who have de novo missense variants in EDNRA. Three of the four individuals have the same substitution, p.Tyr129Phe. Tyr129 is known to determine the selective affinity of EDNRA for endothelin 1 (EDN1), its major physiological ligand, and the p.Tyr129Phe variant increases the affinity of the receptor for EDN3, its non-preferred ligand, by two orders of magnitude. The fourth individual has a somatic mosaic substitution, p.Glu303Lys, and was previously described as having Johnson-McMillin syndrome. The zygomatic arch of individuals with MFDA resembles that of mice in which EDNRA is ectopically activated in the maxillary prominence, resulting in a maxillary to mandibular transformation, suggesting that the p.Tyr129Phe variant causes an EDNRA gain of function in the developing upper jaw. Our in vitro and in vivo assays suggested complex, context-dependent effects of the EDNRA variants on downstream signaling. Our findings highlight the importance of finely tuned regulation of EDNRA signaling during human craniofacial development and suggest that modification of endothelin receptor-ligand specificity was a key step in the evolution of vertebrate jaws. PMID:25772936

  18. Activation of Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Type 1 Contributes to Pathophysiology of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Nogueira, Eva; López-Serrano, Clara; Hernández, Joaquim; Lago, Natalia; Astudillo, Alma M.; Balsinde, Jesús; Estivill-Torrús, Guillermo; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; Chun, Jerold

    2015-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is an extracellular lipid mediator involved in many physiological functions that signals through six known G-protein-coupled receptors (LPA1–LPA6). A wide range of LPA effects have been identified in the CNS, including neural progenitor cell physiology, astrocyte and microglia activation, neuronal cell death, axonal retraction, and development of neuropathic pain. However, little is known about the involvement of LPA in CNS pathologies. Herein, we demonstrate for the first time that LPA signaling via LPA1 contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord injury. LPA levels increase in the contused spinal cord parenchyma during the first 14 d. To model this potential contribution of LPA in the spinal cord, we injected LPA into the normal spinal cord, revealing that LPA induces microglia/macrophage activation and demyelination. Use of a selective LPA1 antagonist or mice lacking LPA1 linked receptor-mediated signaling to demyelination, which was in part mediated by microglia. Finally, we demonstrate that selective blockade of LPA1 after spinal cord injury results in reduced demyelination and improvement in locomotor recovery. Overall, these results support LPA–LPA1 signaling as a novel pathway that contributes to secondary damage after spinal cord contusion in mice and suggest that LPA1 antagonism might be useful for the treatment of acute spinal cord injury. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reveals that LPA signaling via LPA receptor type 1 activation causes demyelination and functional deficits after spinal cord injury. PMID:26180199

  19. High affinity binding of (/sup 3/H)neurotensin of rat uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Pettibone, D.J.; Totaro, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    (/sup 3/H)Neurotensin (NT) was found to bind specifically and with high affinity to crude membranes prepared from rat uterus. Scatchard analysis of saturation binding studies indicated that (/sup 3/H)NT apparently binds to two sites (high affinity Kd 0.5 nM; low affinity Kd 9 nM) with the density of high affinity sites (41 fmoles/mg prot.) being about one-third that of the low affinity sites (100 fmoles/mg prot.). In competition studies, NT and various fragments inhibited (/sup 3/H)NT binding with the following potencies (approximately IC50): NT 8-13 (0.4 nM), NT 1-13 (4 nM), NT 9-13 (130 nM), NT 1-11, NT 1-8 (greater than 100 microM). Quantitatively similar results were obtained using brain tissue. These findings raise the possibility of a role for NT in uterine function.

  20. Role of endogenous somatostatin in postprandial hypersecretion of neurotensin in patients after gastrectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, T; Miyata, M; Izukura, M; Tanaka, Y; Iwase, K; Imabun, S; Matsuda, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report is to elucidate the mechanism of the hypersecretion of neurotensin (NT) after gastrectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: NT secretion induced by fat ingestion is increased after pancreatoduodenectomy or distal gastrectomy. The hypersecretion of NT in the patients undergoing resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract is suppressed by an exogenous somatostatin (SST) analog. METHODS: We observed simultaneously the secretion of NT and SST in the same patients before and after gastrectomy (n = 7). We also observed the secretion of these hormones induced by intraduodenal (ID) fat infusion in the normal volunteers (n = 6). RESULTS: The response of plasma NT to fat ingestion was significantly increased after gastrectomy compared with that before gastrectomy. The response of plasma SST after gastrectomy was significantly suppressed. The response of plasma NT and SST after ID fat infusion in the normal volunteers was similar to the gastrectomized state. CONCLUSION: Diminution of SST secretion, probably caused by the lack of SST cells in the distal part of the stomach, may play a role in augmenting NT secretion after gastrectomy. PMID:9114796

  1. Effects of Peripheral Neurotensin on Appetite Regulation and Its Role in Gastric Bypass Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ratner, Cecilia; Skov, Louise J; Raida, Zindy; Bächler, Thomas; Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Le Foll, Christelle; Sivertsen, Bjørn; Dalbøge, Louise S; Hartmann, Bolette; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Madsen, Andreas N; Jelsing, Jacob; Holst, Jens J; Lutz, Thomas A; Andrews, Zane B; Holst, Birgitte

    2016-09-01

    Neurotensin (NT) is a peptide expressed in the brain and in the gastrointestinal tract. Brain NT inhibits food intake, but the effects of peripheral NT are less investigated. In this study, peripheral NT decreased food intake in both mice and rats, which was abolished by a NT antagonist. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we found that peripheral NT activated brainstem and hypothalamic regions. The anorexigenic effect of NT was preserved in vagotomized mice but lasted shorter than in sham-operated mice. This in combination with a strong increase in c-Fos activation in area postrema after ip administration indicates that NT acts both through the blood circulation and the vagus. To improve the pharmacokinetics of NT, we developed a pegylated NT peptide, which presumably prolonged the half-life, and thus, the effect on feeding was extended compared with native NT. On a molecular level, the pegylated NT peptide increased proopiomelanocortin mRNA in the arcuate nucleus. We also investigated the importance of NT for the decreased food intake after gastric bypass surgery in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). NT was increased in plasma and in the gastrointestinal tract in RYGB rats, and pharmacological antagonism of NT increased food intake transiently in RYGB rats. Taken together, our data suggest that NT is a metabolically active hormone, which contributes to the regulation of food intake. PMID:27580810

  2. Evidence for two different types of P2 receptors stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic B cell.

    PubMed

    Petit, P; Hillaire-Buys, D; Manteghetti, M; Debrus, S; Chapal, J; Loubatières-Mariani, M M

    1998-11-01

    Adenine nucleotides have been shown to stimulate insulin secretion by acting on P2 receptors of the P2Y type. Since there have been some discrepancies in the insulin response of different analogues of ATP and ADP, we investigated whether two different types of P2 receptors exist on pancreatic B cells. The effects of alpha,beta-methylene ATP, which is more specific for the P2X subtype, were studied in vitro in pancreatic islets and isolated perfused pancreas from rats, in comparison with the potent P2Y receptor agonist ADPbetaS. In isolated islets, incubated with a slightly stimulating glucose concentration (8.3 mM), alpha,beta-me ATP (200 microM) and ADPbetaS (50 microM) similarly stimulated insulin secretion; by contrast, under a non stimulating glucose concentration (3 mM), alpha,beta-me ATP was still effective whereas ADPbetaS was not. In the same way, in islets perifused with 3 mM glucose, alpha,beta-me ATP but not ADPbetaS induced a partial but significant reduction in the peak 86Rb efflux induced by the ATP-dependent potassium channel opener diazoxide. In the isolated pancreas, perfused with a non stimulating glucose concentration (4.2 mM), ADPbetaS and alpha,beta-me ATP (5-50 microM), administered for 10 min, induced an immediate, transient and concentration-dependent increase in the insulin secretion; their relative potency was not significantly different. In contrast, with a slightly stimulating glucose concentration (8.3 mM), ADPbetaS was previously shown to be 100 fold more potent than alpha,beta-me ATP. Furthermore, at 4.2 mM glucose a second administration of alpha,beta-me ATP was ineffective. In the same way, ADPbetaS was also able to desensitize its own insulin response. At 3 mM glucose, alpha,beta-me ATP as well as ADPbetaS (50 microM) induced a transient stimulation of insulin secretion and down regulated the action of each other. These results give evidence that pancreatic B cells, in addition to P2Y receptors, which potentiate glucose

  3. P01.23NEUROTENSIN PROMOTES THE PROGRESSION OF MALIGNANT GLIOMA THROUGH NTSR1 AND IMPACTS THE PROGNOSIS OF GLIOMA PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Yi, L.; Xu, M.; Xu, L.; Feng, H.; Cui, H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurotensin (NTS) functions as a neuromodulator and induces cellular proliferation and migration in various solid tumors. However, whether NTS can promote the progression of malignant glioma and its prognostic significance for glioma patients remain unclear. METHODS: NTS and its high-affinity receptor (NTSR1) expression levels in clinical glioma samples were detected by immunohistochemistry and immunobloting. The prognostic analysis in glioma patients were conducted online by R2 microarray analysis and the visualization platform. The proliferation of glioma cells were evaluated by CCK8 and BrdU incorporation assay. The celluar invasiveness were tested by wound healing model and the Matrigel transwell assay. A neutralizing antibody to NTS, NTSR1-selective antagonist SR48692 and NTSR1-siRNA were used to suppress the NTS stimulation. Erk1/2 phosphorylation was tested by immunobloting. The orthotopic glioma implantation model was established to examine the role of NTS and NTSR1 in the progression of glioma in vivo. RESULTS: Positive correlations were shown between the expression levels of NTS and NTSR1 with the pathological grade of gliomas. The high levels of NTS and NTSR1 expression indicate a worse prognosis in glioma patients. The proliferation and invasiveness of glioma cells could be enhanced by NTS stimulation and impaired by the inhibition of NTSR1 functions. NTS stimulated Erk1/2 phosphorylation in glioma cells, which could be reversed by treatment with SR48692 or NTSR1-siRNA. In vivo experiments showed that therapy with SR48692 significantly prolonged the survival length of glioma-bearing mice and inhibited glioma cell invasiveness in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: NTS promotes the proliferation and invasion of glioma via the activation of NTSR1 and its downstream signaling molecules, resulting in Erk1/2 phosphorylation. High levels of NTS and NTSR1 expression predict a bad prognosis in glioma patients.

  4. Interactions of pyrethroid insecticides with GABA sub A and peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Devaud, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are potent proconvulsants in the rat. All pyrethroids evincing proconvulsant activity elicited a similar 25-30% maximal reduction of seizure threshold. The Type II pyrethroids were the most potent proconvulsants with 1R{alpha}S, cis cypermethrin having an ED{sub 50} value of 6.3 nmol/kg. The proconvulsant activity of both Type I and Type II pyrenthroids was blocked by pretreatment with PK 11195, the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PTBR) antagonist. In contrast, phenytoin did not antagonize the proconvulsant activity of either deltamethrin or permethrin. Pyrethroids displaced the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)Ro5-4864 to rat brain membranes with a significant correlation between the log EC{sub 50} values for their activities as proconvulsants and the log IC{sub 50} values for their inhibition of ({sup 3}H)Ro5-4864 binding. Both Ro5-4864 and pyrethroid insecticides were found to influence specific ({sup 35}S)TBPS binding in a GABA-dependent manner. PK 11195 and the Type II pyrethroid, deltamethrin antagonized the Ro5-4864-induced modulation of ({sup 35}S)TBPS binding. Pyrethroid insecticides, Ro5-4864 and veratridine influenced GABA-gated {sup 36}Chloride influx. Moreover, the Type II pyrethroids elicited an increase in {sup 36}chloride influx in the absence of GABA-stimulation. Both of these actions were antagonized by PK 11195 and tetrodotoxin.

  5. Tannic acid down-regulates the angiotensin type 1 receptor through a MAPK-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yesudas, Rekha; Gumaste, Upendra; Snyder, Russell; Thekkumkara, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of tannic acid (TA), a hydrolysable polyphenol, on angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression in continuously passaged rat liver epithelial cells. Under normal conditions, exposure of cells to TA resulted in the down-regulation of AT1R-specific binding in concentrations ranging from 12.5-100 μg/ml (7.34-58.78 μm) over a time period of 2-24 h with no change in receptor affinity to angiotensin II (AngII). The inhibitory effect of TA on AT1R was specific and reversible. In TA-treated cells, we observed a significant reduction in AngII-mediated intracellular calcium signaling, a finding consistent with receptor down-regulation. Under similar conditions, TA down-regulated AT1R mRNA expression without changing the rate of mRNA degradation, suggesting that TA's effect is mediated through transcriptional inhibition. Cells expressing recombinant AT1R without the native promoter show no change in receptor expression, whereas a pCAT reporter construct possessing the rat AT1R promoter was significantly reduced in activity. Furthermore, TA induced the phosphorylation of MAPK p42/p44. Pretreatment of the cells with a MAPK kinase (MEK)-specific inhibitor PD98059 prevented TA-induced MAPK phosphorylation and down-regulation of the AT1R. Moreover, there was no reduction in AngII-mediated intracellular calcium release upon MEK inhibition, suggesting that TA's observed inhibitory effect is mediated through MEK/MAPK signaling. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that TA inhibits AT1R gene expression and cellular response, suggesting the observed protective effects of dietary polyphenols on cardiovascular conditions may be, in part, through inhibition of AT1R expression. PMID:22322600

  6. Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 and melastatin type-8.

    PubMed

    De Petrocellis, Luciano; Vellani, Vittorio; Schiano-Moriello, Aniello; Marini, Pietro; Magherini, Pier Cosimo; Orlando, Pierangelo; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2008-06-01

    The plant cannabinoids (phytocannabinoids), cannabidiol (CBD), and Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were previously shown to activate transient receptor potential channels of both vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1), respectively. Furthermore, the endocannabinoid anandamide is known to activate TRPV1 and was recently found to antagonize the menthol- and icilin-sensitive transient receptor potential channels of melastatin type 8 (TRPM8). In this study, we investigated the effects of six phytocannabinoids [i.e., CBD, THC, CBD acid, THC acid, cannabichromene (CBC), and cannabigerol (CBG)] on TRPA1- and TRPM8-mediated increase in intracellular Ca2+ in either HEK-293 cells overexpressing the two channels or rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons. All of the compounds tested induced TRPA1-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells with efficacy comparable with that of mustard oil isothiocyanates (MO), the most potent being CBC (EC(50) = 60 nM) and the least potent being CBG and CBD acid (EC(50) = 3.4-12.0 microM). CBC also activated MO-sensitive DRG neurons, although with lower potency (EC(50) = 34.3 microM). Furthermore, although none of the compounds tested activated TRPM8-mediated Ca2+ elevation in HEK-293 cells, they all, with the exception of CBC, antagonized this response when it was induced by either menthol or icilin. CBD, CBG, THC, and THC acid were equipotent (IC(50) = 70-160 nM), whereas CBD acid was the least potent compound (IC(50) = 0.9-1.6 microM). CBG inhibited Ca2+ elevation also in icilin-sensitive DRG neurons with potency (IC(50) = 4.5 microM) similar to that of anandamide (IC(50) = 10 microM). Our findings suggest that phytocannabinoids and cannabis extracts exert some of their pharmacological actions also by interacting with TRPA1 and TRPM8 channels, with potential implications for the treatment of pain and cancer. PMID:18354058

  7. Striatal dopamine D1 receptors in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Tiihonen, Jari

    2005-01-01

    A considerable number of human and animal studies have implied the importance of dopamine system and alterations in dopamine receptors in the context of alcoholism. However, it has remained unclear if the alcohol-abuse related dopaminergic deficit is specifically associated with certain receptor subtype. The aim of this study was to compare putative alterations of dopamine D(1) receptors in caudate and putamen of nine type 1 alcoholics, eight type 2 alcoholics and 10 healthy controls by using [(3)H]SCH 23390 as a radioligand in postmortem human whole hemisphere autoradiography. In addition, we compared the present results to our earlier studies on dopamine transporters and dopamine D(2) receptors in these same subjects and evaluated the putative correlations of dopamine D(1) receptor densities between the nucleus accumbens and the above-mentioned structures. Our results show that alcoholics do not have significantly different striatal dopamine D(1) receptor densities compared to controls. Neither were there any significant correlations between the dopamine D(1) receptors and the two other dopamine binding sites. However, the correlations of the dopamine D(1) receptors between nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatal structures were consistently and mostly statistically significantly positive in alcoholics, but not in controls, which may suggest some pathology related to addiction. In addition, considering the facts that dopamine D(1) receptors were more abundant in the mesolimbic nucleus accumbens than in the caudate or putamen and that there was a strong tendency towards lower binding among type 1 alcoholics may suggest the importance of dopamine D(1) receptors in reward and/or alcoholism. PMID:15621009

  8. Scavenger receptor class B, type I (Scarb1) deficiency promotes osteoblastogenesis but stunts terminal osteocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Martineau, Corine; Kevorkova, Olha; Brissette, Louise; Moreau, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR‐BI), the Scarb1 gene product, is a high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor which was shown to influence bone metabolism. Its absence in mice is associated with alterations of the glucocorticoid/adrenocorticotropic hormone axis, and translated in high bone mass and enhanced bone formation. Since the cellular alterations underlying the enhanced bone formation remain unknown, we investigated Scarb1‐deficient marrow stromal cells (MSC) behavior in vitro. No difference in HDL3, cholesteryl ester (CE) or estradiol (E) association/binding was measured between Scarb1‐null and wild‐type (WT) cells. Scarb1 genic expression was down‐regulated twofold following osteogenic treatment. Neither WT nor null cell proliferation was influenced by HDL3 exposure whereas this condition decreased genic expression of osteoblastic marker osterix (Sp7), and osteocyte markers sclerostin (Sost) and dentin matrix protein 1 (Dmp1) independently of genotype. Sost and Dmp1 basal expression in null cells was 40% and 50% that of WT cells; accordingly, osteocyte density was 20% lower in vertebrae from Scarb1‐null mice. Genic expression of co‐receptors for Wnt signaling, namely LDL‐related protein (Lrp) 5 and Lrp8, was increased, respectively, by two‐ and threefold, and of transcription target‐genes axis inhibition protein 2 (Axin2) and lymphoid enhancer‐binding factor 1 (Lef1) over threefold. Gene expression of Wnt signaling agonist Wnt5a and of the antagonist dickkopfs‐related protein 1 (Dkk1) were found to be increased 10‐ to 20‐fold in null MSC. These data suggest alterations of Wnt pathways in Scarb1‐deficient MSC potentially explaining their enhanced function, hence contributing to the high bone mass observed in these mice. PMID:25281615

  9. The evolution of HIV-1 interactions with coreceptors and mannose C-type lectin receptors.

    PubMed

    Borggren, Marie; Jansson, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) commonly evolves between and within infected individuals, at virus transmission, and during disease progression. This evolution includes altered interactions between the virus and its coreceptors, i.e., chemokine receptors, as well as mannose C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). Transmitted/founder viruses are predominantly restricted to CCR5, whereas the subsequent intrapatient evolution of HIV-1 coreceptor use during progressive disease can be subdivided into two distinct pathways. Accordingly, the CCR5-restricted virus population is either gradually replaced by virus variants able to use CXCR4 or evolves toward an altered, more flexible use of CCR5. Despite a strong dependency on these coreceptors for host cell entry, HIV-1 also interacts with other cell surface molecules during target cell attachment, including the CLRs. The virus interaction with the CLRs may result either in the efficient transfer of virus to CD4(+) T cells or in the degradation of the virus in endosomal compartments. The determinants of the diverse outcomes depend on which CLR is engaged and also on the glycan makeup of the envelope glycoproteins, which may evolve with the strength of the immune pressure during the disease course. With the current clinical introduction of CCR5 antagonists and the development of additional entry inhibitors, knowledge on the evolution and baseline characteristics of HIV-1 interactions with coreceptor and CLR interactions may play important roles for individualized and optimized treatment strategies. This review summarizes our current understanding of the evolution of HIV-1 interactions with these receptors. PMID:25595802

  10. Rundown of GABA type A receptors is a dysfunction associated with human drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ragozzino, D.; Palma, E.; Di Angelantonio, S.; Amici, M.; Mascia, A.; Arcella, A.; Giangaspero, F.; Cantore, G.; Di Gennaro, G.; Manfredi, M.; Esposito, V.; Quarato, P. P.; Miledi, R.; Eusebi, F.

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacotherapeutic strategies have been difficult to develop for several forms of temporal lobe epilepsy, which are consequently treated by surgical resection. To examine this problem, we have studied the properties of transmitter receptors of tissues removed during surgical treatment. We find that when cell membranes, isolated from the temporal neocortex of patients afflicted with drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), are injected into frog oocytes they acquire GABA type A receptors (GABAA-receptors) that display a marked rundown during repetitive applications of GABA. In contrast, GABAA-receptor function is stable in oocytes injected with cell membranes isolated from the temporal lobe of TLE patients afflicted with neoplastic, dysgenetic, traumatic, or ischemic temporal lesions (lesional TLE, LTLE). Use-dependent GABAA-receptor rundown is also found in the pyramidal neurons of TLE neocortical slices and is antagonized by BDNF. Pyramidal neurons in cortical slices of a traumatic LTLE patient did not show GABAA-receptor rundown. However, the apparent affinity of GABAA-receptor in oocytes microtransplanted with membranes from all of the epileptic patients studied was smaller than the affinity of receptors transplanted from the nonepileptic brain. We conclude that the use-dependent rundown of neocortical GABAA-receptor represents a TLE-specific dysfunction, whereas the reduced affinity may be a general feature of brains of both TLE and LTLE patients, and we speculate that our findings may help to develop new treatments for TLE and LTLE. PMID:16217016

  11. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey

    2011-11-15

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  12. Activating and deactivating mutations in the receptor interaction site of GDF5 cause symphalangism or brachydactyly type A2.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Petra; Schwappacher, Raphaela; Kjaer, Klaus W; Krakow, Deborah; Lehmann, Katarina; Dawson, Katherine; Stricker, Sigmar; Pohl, Jens; Plöger, Frank; Staub, Eike; Nickel, Joachim; Sebald, Walter; Knaus, Petra; Mundlos, Stefan

    2005-09-01

    Here we describe 2 mutations in growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) that alter receptor-binding affinities. They cause brachydactyly type A2 (L441P) and symphalangism (R438L), conditions previously associated with mutations in the GDF5 receptor bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1b (BMPR1B) and the BMP antagonist NOGGIN, respectively. We expressed the mutant proteins in limb bud micromass culture and treated ATDC5 and C2C12 cells with recombinant GDF5. Our results indicated that the L441P mutant is almost inactive. The R438L mutant, in contrast, showed increased biological activity when compared with WT GDF5. Biosensor interaction analyses revealed loss of binding to BMPR1A and BMPR1B ectodomains for the L441P mutant, whereas the R438L mutant showed normal binding to BMPR1B but increased binding to BMPR1A, the receptor normally activated by BMP2. The binding to NOGGIN was normal for both mutants. Thus, the brachydactyly type A2 phenotype (L441P) is caused by inhibition of the ligand-receptor interaction, whereas the symphalangism phenotype (R438L) is caused by a loss of receptor-binding specificity, resulting in a gain of function by the acquisition of BMP2-like properties. The presented experiments have identified some of the main determinants of GDF5 receptor-binding specificity in vivo and open new prospects for generating antagonists and superagonists of GDF5. PMID:16127465

  13. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) in Type 1 Diabetes Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Leung, Sherman S; Forbes, Josephine M; Borg, Danielle J

    2016-10-01

    The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a novel protein increasingly studied in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). RAGE is expressed by several immune cell types, including T cells, antigen-presenting cells, endothelial cells, and the endocrine cells of the pancreatic islets. RAGE binds various ligands including advanced glycation end products (AGEs), high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), S100 proteins, β-amyloid, β-sheet fibrils, and lipopolysaccharide. AGEs are a particularly interesting ligand because their exogenous introduction into the body can be accelerated by the consumption of AGE-rich processed foods. This review will detail RAGE isoforms and its ligands and discuss how RAGE binding on the aforementioned cells could be linked to T1D pathogenesis. PMID:27612847

  14. Constitutive aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling constrains type I interferon-mediated antiviral innate defense.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Taisho; Horimoto, Hiromasa; Kameyama, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Sumio; Yamato, Hiroaki; Dazai, Masayoshi; Takada, Ayato; Kida, Hiroshi; Bott, Debbie; Zhou, Angela C; Hutin, David; Watts, Tania H; Asaka, Masahiro; Matthews, Jason; Takaoka, Akinori

    2016-06-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that mediates the toxic activity of many environmental xenobiotics. However, its role in innate immune responses during viral infection is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that constitutive AHR signaling negatively regulates the type I interferon (IFN-I) response during infection with various types of virus. Virus-induced IFN-β production was enhanced in AHR-deficient cells and mice and resulted in restricted viral replication. We found that AHR upregulates expression of the ADP-ribosylase TIPARP, which in turn causes downregulation of the IFN-I response. Mechanistically, TIPARP interacted with the kinase TBK1 and suppressed its activity by ADP-ribosylation. Thus, this study reveals the physiological importance of endogenous activation of AHR signaling in shaping the IFN-I-mediated innate response and, further, suggests that the AHR-TIPARP axis is a potential therapeutic target for enhancing antiviral responses. PMID:27089381

  15. Ca(2+) microdomains, NAADP and type 1 ryanodine receptor in cell activation.

    PubMed

    Guse, Andreas H; Wolf, Insa M A

    2016-06-01

    Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a Ca(2+) mobilizing second messenger that belongs to the superfamily of regulatory adenine nucleotides. Though NAADP has been known since 20years, several aspects of its metabolism and molecular mode of action are still under discussion. Though the importance of the type 1 ryanodine receptor was discovered and published already in 2002 Hohenegger et al. (2002 Oct 15) , recent data re-emphasize these original findings in pancreatic acinar cells and in T-lymphocytes. Here we review recent developments in NAADP formation and metabolism, putative target Ca(2+) channels for NAADP with special emphasis on the type 1 ryanodine receptor, and NAADP binding proteins. The latter are basis for a unifying hypothesis for NAADP action. Finally, the role of NAADP in T cell Ca(2+) signaling and activation is discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate . Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen. PMID:26804481

  16. APPL proteins promote TGFβ-induced nuclear transport of the TGFβ type I receptor intracellular domain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunyan; Bergh, Anders; Miaczynska, Marta; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Landström, Marene

    2016-01-01

    The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is produced by several types of cancers, including prostate cancer, and promote tumour progression in autocrine and paracrine manners. In response to ligand binding, the TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) activates Smad and non-Smad signalling pathways. The ubiquitin-ligase tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) was recently linked to regulate intramembrane proteolytic cleavage of the TβRI in cancer cells. Subsequently, the intracellular domain (ICD) of TβRI enters in an unknown manner into the nucleus, where it promotes the transcription of pro-invasive genes, such as MMP2 and MMP9. Here we show that the endocytic adaptor molecules APPL1 and APPL2 are required for TGFβ-induced nuclear translocation of TβRI-ICD and for cancer cell invasiveness of human prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, APPL proteins were found to be expressed at high levels in aggressive prostate cancer tissues, and to be associated with TβRI in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the APPL–TβRI complex promotes prostate tumour progression, and may serve as a prognostic marker. PMID:26583432

  17. Microsatellite mutation of type II transforming growth factor-beta receptor is rare in atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed

    Clark, K J; Cary, N R; Grace, A A; Metcalfe, J C

    2001-04-01

    A somatic mutation within a microsatellite polyA tract in the coding region of the type II transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta receptor gene was reported to occur in human atherosclerotic and restenotic lesions. This mutation occurs frequently in colorectal cancer with the replication error repair phenotype and results in loss of sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta in cells from the tumors. The mutation was proposed to account for the clonal expansion of vascular smooth muscle cells observed in atherosclerotic plaques, through loss of the growth inhibitory effect of TGF-beta. The frequency of the mutation and the extent of clonal expansion of the mutated cells have major implications for the mechanism of atherogenesis and therapeutic strategies. We analyzed a set of 22 coronary arterial and 9 aortic samples containing early to advanced atherosclerotic lesions for the mutation in the type II TGF-beta receptor polyA tract. Only 1 coronary arterial sample from an advanced lesion showed detectable amounts of the mutation, present at a low level (8% of the DNA sample). The data imply that the mutation occurs only at low frequency and is not a major mechanistic contributor to the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:11304472

  18. APPL proteins promote TGFβ-induced nuclear transport of the TGFβ type I receptor intracellular domain.

    PubMed

    Song, Jie; Mu, Yabing; Li, Chunyan; Bergh, Anders; Miaczynska, Marta; Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Landström, Marene

    2016-01-01

    The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) is produced by several types of cancers, including prostate cancer, and promote tumour progression in autocrine and paracrine manners. In response to ligand binding, the TGFβ type I receptor (TβRI) activates Smad and non-Smad signalling pathways. The ubiquitin-ligase tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) was recently linked to regulate intramembrane proteolytic cleavage of the TβRI in cancer cells. Subsequently, the intracellular domain (ICD) of TβRI enters in an unknown manner into the nucleus, where it promotes the transcription of pro-invasive genes, such as MMP2 and MMP9. Here we show that the endocytic adaptor molecules APPL1 and APPL2 are required for TGFβ-induced nuclear translocation of TβRI-ICD and for cancer cell invasiveness of human prostate and breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, APPL proteins were found to be expressed at high levels in aggressive prostate cancer tissues, and to be associated with TβRI in a TRAF6-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the APPL-TβRI complex promotes prostate tumour progression, and may serve as a prognostic marker. PMID:26583432

  19. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) in renal and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bryna S M; Allen, Terri J

    2016-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is well-considered to be the principal effector of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which binds with strong affinity to the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) receptor subtype. However, activation of both receptors is likely to stimulate different signalling mechanisms/pathways and produce distinct biological responses. The haemodynamic and non-haemodynamic effects of Ang II, including its ability to regulate blood pressure, maintain water-electrolyte balance and promote vasoconstriction and cellular growth are well-documented to be mediated primarily by the AT1R. However, its biological and functional effects mediated through the AT2R subtype are still poorly understood. Recent studies have emphasized that activation of the AT2R regulates tissue and organ development and provides in certain context a potential counter-regulatory mechanism against AT1R-mediated actions. Thus, this review will focus on providing insights into the biological role of the AT2R, in particular its actions within the renal and cardiovascular system. PMID:27358027

  20. Small Molecule Agonists for the Type I Interferon Receptor: An In Silico Approach.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lianhu; Bello, Angelica M; Majchrzak-Kita, Beata; Salum, Noruê; Lewis, Melissa M; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Fish, Eleanor N

    2016-03-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) exhibit broad-spectrum antiviral activity, with potential utility against emerging acute virus infections that pose a threat to global health. Recombinant IFN-αs that have been approved for clinical use require cold storage and are administered through intramuscular or subcutaneous injection, features that are problematic for global distribution, storage, and administration. Cognizant that the biological potency of an IFN-α subtype is determined by its binding affinity to the type I IFN receptor, IFNAR, we identified a panel of small molecule nonpeptide compounds using an in silico screening strategy that incorporated specific structural features of amino acids in the receptor-binding domains of the most potent IFN-α, IFN alfacon-1. Hit compounds were selected based on ease of synthesis and formulation properties. In preliminary biological assays, we provide evidence that these compounds exhibit antiviral activity. This proof-of-concept study validates the strategy of in silico design and development for IFN mimetics. PMID:26700737

  1. FGFR3 induces degradation of BMP type I receptor to regulate skeletal development

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Huabing; Jin, Min; Duan, Yaqi; Du, Xiaolan; Zhang, Yuanquan; Ren, Fangli; Wang, Yinyin; Tian, Qingyun; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quan; Zhu, Ying; Xie, Yangli; Liu, Chuanju; Cao, Xu; Mishina, Yuji; Chen, Di; Deng, Chu-xia; Chang, Zhijie; Chen, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) play significant roles in vertebrate organogenesis and morphogenesis. FGFR3 is a negative regulator of chondrogenesis and multiple mutations with constitutive activity of FGFR3 result in achondroplasia, one of the most common dwarfisms in humans, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we found that chondrocyte-specific deletion of BMP type I receptor a (Bmpr1a) rescued the bone overgrowth phenotype observed in Fgfr3 deficient mice by reducing chondrocyte differentiation. Consistently, using in vitro chondrogenic differentiation assay system, we demonstrated that FGFR3 inhibited BMPR1a-mediated chondrogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we showed that FGFR3 hyper-activation resulted in impaired BMP signaling in chondrocytes of mouse growth plates. We also found that FGFR3 inhibited BMP-2- or constitutively activated BMPR1-induced phosphorylation of Smads through a mechanism independent of its tyrosine kinase activity. We found that FGFR3 facilitates BMPR1a to degradation through Smurf1-mediated ubiquitination pathway. We demonstrated that down-regulation of BMP signaling by BMPR1 inhibitor dorsomorphin led to the retardation of chondrogenic differentiation, which mimics the effect of FGF-2 on chondrocytes and BMP-2 treatment partially rescued the retarded growth of cultured bone rudiments from thanatophoric dysplasia type II mice. Our findings reveal that FGFR3 promotes the degradation of BMPR1a, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of FGFR3-related skeletal dysplasia. PMID:24657641

  2. Common pathways regulate Type III TGFβ receptor-dependent cell invasion in epicardial and endocardial cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cynthia R; Robinson, Jamille Y; Sanchez, Nora S; Townsend, Todd A; Arrieta, Julian A; Merryman, W David; Trykall, David Z; Olivey, Harold E; Hong, Charles C; Barnett, Joey V

    2016-06-01

    Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transformation (EMT) and the subsequent invasion of epicardial and endocardial cells during cardiac development is critical to the development of the coronary vessels and heart valves. The transformed cells give rise to cardiac fibroblasts and vascular smooth muscle cells or valvular interstitial cells, respectively. The Type III Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβR3) receptor regulates EMT and cell invasion in both cell types, but the signaling mechanisms downstream of TGFβR3 are not well understood. Here we use epicardial and endocardial cells in in vitro cell invasion assays to identify common mechanisms downstream of TGFβR3 that regulate cell invasion. Inhibition of NF-κB activity blocked cell invasion in epicardial and endocardial cells. NF-κB signaling was found to be dysregulated in Tgfbr3(-/-) epicardial cells which also show impaired cell invasion in response to ligand. TGFβR3-dependent cell invasion is also dependent upon Activin Receptor-Like Kinase (ALK) 2, ALK3, and ALK5 activity. A TGFβR3 mutant that contains a threonine to alanine substitution at residue 841 (TGFβR3-T841A) induces ligand-independent cell invasion in both epicardial and endocardial cells in vitro. These findings reveal a role for NF-κB signaling in the regulation of epicardial and endocardial cell invasion and identify a mutation in TGFβR3 which stimulates ligand-independent signaling. PMID:26970186

  3. Mineralocorticoid specificity of renal type I receptors: in vivo binding studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, K.; Funder, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    The authors have injected rats with (TH)aldosterone or (TH) corticosterone, plus 100-fold excess of the highly specific glucocorticoid RU 28362, with or without excess unlabeled aldosterone or corticosterone and compared type I receptor occupancy in kidney and hippocampus. Thirty minutes after subcutaneous injection (TH)aldosterone was well retained in renal papilla-inner medulla, renal cortex-outer medulla, and hippocampus; in contrast, (TH)corticosterone was well retained only in hippocampus. Competition studies for (TH)aldosterone binding sites showed corticosterone to be a poor competitor in the kidney compared with hippocampus. Time-course studies, with rats killed 10-180 min after tracer administration, showed very low uptake/retention of (TH)corticosterone by kidney; in hippocampus (TH)corticosterone retention was similar to that of (TH)aldosterone in kidney, and retention of (TH)aldosterone by hippocampus was much more prolonged than of either tracer in any other tissue. Studies in 10-day-old rats, with very low levels of corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), showed a high degree of aldosterone selectivity in both zones of the kidney, whereas 9TH)aldosterone and (TH)corticosterone were equivalently bound in hippocampus. They interpret these data as evidenced for a mechanism unrelated to extravascular CBG conferring mineralocorticoid specificity on renal type I receptors and propose two models derived from their findings consistent with such differential selectivity.

  4. Transfected Type II Interleukin-1 Receptor Impairs Responsiveness of Human Keratinocytes to Interleukin-1

    PubMed Central

    Bossú, Paola; Visconti, Ugo; Ruggiero, Paolo; Macchia, Giovanni; Muda, Marco; Bertini, Riccardo; Bizzarri, Cinzia; Colagrande, Antonella; Sabbatini, Vilma; Maurizi, Giovanni; Del Grosso, Egidio; Tagliabue, Aldo; Boraschi, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Of the two known types of specific receptors for interleukin (IL)-1, the function of the type II IL-1 receptor (IL-IRII) is stil elusive. IL-1RII, is alleg-edly devoid of signaling capacity and is therefore thought to act by trapping and inbibiting IL-1. To directly assess the functional role of IL-1RII, a human keratinocyte cell line has been stably transfected with a cDNA coding for IL-1RII, and its responsiveness to IL-1 has been compared with that of nontransfected cells. Parental cells express IL-1RI and are responsive to low doses of IL-1, whereas transfected cells overexpress IL-1RII, both in its membrane and soluble form, and show a dramatically impaired response to IL-1. Selective block of IL-1RII restores the ability of transfected keratinocytes to respond to IL-1, indicating that the overexpressed IL-1RII, is in fact uniquely responsible for their refractori-ness to IL-1. The main mechanism of unrespon-siveness in transfected keratinocytes appears to be the capture and neutralization of IL-1 by the soluble form of IL-1RII. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7495308

  5. Phosphatase inhibitors remove the run-down of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors in the human epileptic brain

    PubMed Central

    Palma, E.; Ragozzino, D. A.; Di Angelantonio, S.; Spinelli, G.; Trettel, F.; Martinez-Torres, A.; Torchia, G.; Arcella, A.; Di Gennaro, G.; Quarato, P. P.; Esposito, V.; Cantore, G.; Miledi, R.; Eusebi, F.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors (GABAA receptors) microtransplanted from the human epileptic brain to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes were compared with those recorded directly from neurons, or glial cells, in human brains slices. Cell membranes isolated from brain specimens, surgically obtained from six patients afflicted with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) were injected into frog oocytes. Within a few hours, these oocytes acquired GABAA receptors that generated GABA currents with an unusual run-down, which was inhibited by orthovanadate and okadaic acid. In contrast, receptors derived from membranes of a nonepileptic hippocampal uncus, membranes from mouse brain, or recombinant rat α1β2γ2-GABA receptors exhibited a much less pronounced GABA-current run-down. Moreover, the GABAA receptors of pyramidal neurons in temporal neocortex slices from the same six epileptic patients exhibited a stronger run-down than the receptors of rat pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the GABAA receptors of neighboring glial cells remained substantially stable after repetitive activation. Therefore, the excessive GABA-current run-down observed in the membrane-injected oocytes recapitulates essentially what occurs in neurons, rather than in glial cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses from the same TLE neocortex specimens revealed that GABAA-receptor β1, β2, β3, and γ2 subunit mRNAs were significantly overexpressed (8- to 33-fold) compared with control autopsy tissues. Our results suggest that an abnormal GABA-receptor subunit transcription in the TLE brain leads to the expression of run-down-enhanced GABAA receptors. Blockage of phosphatases stabilizes the TLE GABAA receptors and strengthens GABAergic inhibition. It may be that this process can be targeted to develop new treatments for intractable epilepsy. PMID:15218107

  6. Dopamine D1 receptor expression is bipolar cell type-specific in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Farshi, Pershang; Fyk-Kolodziej, Bozena; Krolewski, David M; Walker, Paul D; Ichinose, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    In the retina, dopamine is a key molecule for daytime vision. Dopamine is released by retinal dopaminergic amacrine cells and transmits signaling either by conventional synaptic or by volume transmission. By means of volume transmission, dopamine modulates all layers of retinal neurons; however, it is not well understood how dopamine modulates visual signaling pathways in bipolar cells. Here we analyzed Drd1a-tdTomato BAC transgenic mice and found that the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) is expressed in retinal bipolar cells in a type-dependent manner. Strong tdTomato fluorescence was detected in the inner nuclear layer and localized to type 1, 3b, and 4 OFF bipolar cells and type 5-2, XBC, 6, and 7 ON bipolar cells. In contrast, type 2, 3a, 5-1, 9, and rod bipolar cells did not express Drd1a-tdTomato. Other interneurons were also found to express tdTomato including horizontal cells and a subset (25%) of AII amacrine cells. Diverse visual processing pathways, such as color or motion-coded pathways, are thought to be initiated in retinal bipolar cells. Our results indicate that dopamine sculpts bipolar cell performance in a type-dependent manner to facilitate daytime vision. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2059-2079, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26587737

  7. Toll-like receptor 3 gene polymorphisms in South African Blacks with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pirie, F J; Pegoraro, R; Motala, A A; Rauff, S; Rom, L; Govender, T; Esterhuizen, T M

    2005-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes is the consequence of exposure of genetically susceptible individuals to specific environmental precipitants. The innate immune system provides the initial response to exogenous antigen and links with the adaptive immune system. The aim of this study was to assess the role of polymorphisms occurring in the cytoplasmic region of toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 gene and immediate 5' sequence, in subjects of Zulu descent with type 1 diabetes in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Seventy-nine subjects with type 1 diabetes and 74 healthy normal glucose tolerant gender-matched control subjects were studied. Parts of exon 4 and exon 3/intron 3 of the TLR3 gene were studied by polymerase chain reaction, direct sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion with Bts 1. Of the nine polymorphisms studied, a significant association with type 1 diabetes was found for the major allele in the 2593 C/T polymorphism and for the minor alleles in the 2642 C/A and 2690 A/G polymorphisms, which were found to be in complete linkage disequilibrium. Correction of the P-values for the number of alleles studied, however, rendered the results no longer significant. These results suggest that polymorphisms in the TLR3 gene, which is part of the innate immune system, may be associated with type 1 diabetes in this population. PMID:16029432

  8. Disordered Control of Intestinal Sweet Taste Receptor Expression and Glucose Absorption in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Richard L.; Chia, Bridgette; Isaacs, Nicole J.; Ma, Jing; Khoo, Joan; Wu, Tongzhi; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    We previously established that the intestinal sweet taste receptors (STRs), T1R2 and T1R3, were expressed in distinct epithelial cells in the human proximal intestine and that their transcript levels varied with glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes. Here we determined whether STR expression was 1) acutely regulated by changes in luminal and systemic glucose levels, 2) disordered in type 2 diabetes, and 3) linked to glucose absorption. Fourteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with type 2 diabetes were studied twice, at euglycemia (5.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L) or hyperglycemia (12.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L). Endoscopic biopsy specimens were collected from the duodenum at baseline and after a 30-min intraduodenal glucose infusion of 30 g/150 mL water plus 3 g 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG). STR transcripts were quantified by RT-PCR, and plasma was assayed for 3-OMG concentration. Intestinal STR transcript levels at baseline were unaffected by acute variations in glycemia in healthy subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients. T1R2 transcript levels increased after luminal glucose infusion in both groups during euglycemia (+5.8 × 104 and +5.8 × 104 copies, respectively) but decreased in healthy subjects during hyperglycemia (−1.4 × 104 copies). T1R2 levels increased significantly in type 2 diabetic patients under the same conditions (+6.9 × 105 copies). Plasma 3-OMG concentrations were significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in healthy control subjects during acute hyperglycemia. Intestinal T1R2 expression is reciprocally regulated by luminal glucose in health according to glycemic status but is disordered in type 2 diabetes during acute hyperglycemia. This defect may enhance glucose absorption in type 2 diabetic patients and exacerbate postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:23761104

  9. Felbamate is a subunit selective modulator of recombinant gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Timothy A; Otto, James F; Wilcox, Karen S; White, H Steve

    2006-12-15

    Felbamate (2-phenyl-1,3-propanediol dicarbamate) is clinically available for the treatment of refractory epileptic seizures, and is known to modulate several ion channels including gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors. To determine felbamate subunit selectivity for GABA(A) receptors we expressed 15 different GABA(A) receptor combinations in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Felbamate positively modulated GABA-currents of alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2S), alpha(1)beta(3)gamma(2S), alpha(2)beta(2)gamma(2S) and alpha(2)beta(3)gamma(2S), whereas felbamate was either ineffective or negatively modulated the other 11 receptor combinations. Regional distributions of GABA(A) receptor subunits suggest that felbamate may differentially modulate distinct inhibitory circuits, a possibility that may have relevance to felbamate efficacy in refractory epilepsies. PMID:17056029

  10. Enhanced Functional Activity of the Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Mediates Adolescent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Kasanetz, Fernando; Lynch, Diane L.; Friemel, Chris M.; Lassalle, Olivier; Hurst, Dow P.; Steindel, Frauke; Monory, Krisztina; Schäfer, Carola; Miederer, Isabelle; Leweke, F. Markus; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Lutz, Beat; Reggio, Patricia H.; Manzoni, Olivier J.; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by drastic behavioral adaptations and comprises a particularly vulnerable period for the emergence of various psychiatric disorders. Growing evidence reveals that the pathophysiology of these disorders might derive from aberrations of normal neurodevelopmental changes in the adolescent brain. Understanding the molecular underpinnings of adolescent behavior is therefore critical for understanding the origin of psychopathology, but the molecular mechanisms that trigger adolescent behavior are unknown. Here, we hypothesize that the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) may play a critical role in mediating adolescent behavior because enhanced endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been suggested to occur transiently during adolescence. To study enhanced CB1R signaling, we introduced a missense mutation (F238L) into the rat Cnr1 gene that encodes for the CB1R. According to our hypothesis, rats with the F238L mutation (Cnr1F238L) should sustain features of adolescent behavior into adulthood. Gain of function of the mutated receptor was demonstrated by in silico modeling and was verified functionally in a series of biochemical and electrophysiological experiments. Mutant rats exhibit an adolescent-like phenotype during adulthood compared with wild-type littermates, with typical high risk/novelty seeking, increased peer interaction, enhanced impulsivity, and augmented reward sensitivity for drug and nondrug reward. Partial inhibition of CB1R activity in Cnr1F238L mutant rats normalized behavior and led to a wild-type phenotype. We conclude that the activity state and functionality of the CB1R is critical for mediating adolescent behavior. These findings implicate the eCB system as an important research target for the neuropathology of adolescent-onset mental health disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We present the first rodent model with a gain-of-function mutation in the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R). Adult mutant rats exhibit an adolescent

  11. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Thiophene-Based Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Radiotracers for PET Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Ahmed; Müller Herde, Adrienne; Slavik, Roger; Weber, Markus; Mugnaini, Claudia; Ligresti, Alessia; Schibli, Roger; Mu, Linjing; Mensah Ametamey, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, our understanding of the endocannabinoid system has greatly improved due to the wealth of results obtained from exploratory studies. Currently, two cannabinoid receptor subtypes have been well-characterized. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) is widely expressed in the central nervous system, while the levels of the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in the brain and spinal cord of healthy individuals are relatively low. However, recent studies demonstrated a CB2 upregulation on activated microglia upon neuroinflammation, an indicator of neurodegeneration. Our research group aims to develop a suitable positron emission tomography (PET) tracer to visualize the CB2 receptor in patients suffering from neurodegenerative diseases. Herein we report two novel thiophene-based 11C-labeled PET ligands designated [11C]AAT-015 and [11C]AAT-778. The reference compounds were synthesized using Gewald reaction conditions to obtain the aminothiophene intermediates, followed by amide formation. Saponification of the esters provided their corresponding precursors. Binding affinity studies revealed Ki-values of 3.3 ± 0.5 nM (CB2) and 1.0 ± 0.2 μM (CB1) for AAT-015. AAT-778 showed similar Ki-values of 4.3 ± 0.7 nM (CB2) and 1.1 ± 0.1 μM (CB1). Radiosynthesis was carried out under basic conditions using [11C]iodomethane as methylating agent. After semi-preparative HPLC purification both radiolabeled compounds were obtained in 99% radiochemical purity and the radiochemical yields ranged from 12 to 37%. Specific activity was between 96 and 449 GBq/μmol for both tracers. In order to demonstrate CB2 specificity of [11C]AAT-015 and [11C]AAT-778, we carried out autoradiography studies using CB2-positive mouse/rat spleen tissues. The obtained results revealed unspecific binding in spleen tissue that was not blocked by an excess of CB2-specific ligand GW402833. For in vivo analysis, [11C]AAT-015 was administered to healthy rats via tail-vein injection

  12. The localization of FGFR3 mutations causing thanatophoric dysplasia type I differentially affects phosphorylation, processing and ubiquitylation of the receptor.

    PubMed

    Bonaventure, Jacky; Gibbs, Linda; Horne, William C; Baron, Roland

    2007-06-01

    Recurrent missense fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations have been ascribed to skeletal dysplasias of variable severity including the lethal neonatal thanatophoric dysplasia types I (TDI) and II (TDII). To elucidate the role of activating mutations causing TDI on receptor trafficking and endocytosis, a series of four mutants located in different domains of the receptor were generated and transiently expressed. The putatively elongated X807R receptor was identified as three isoforms. The fully glycosylated mature isoform was constitutively but mildly phosphorylated. Similarly, mutations affecting the extracellular domain (R248C and Y373C) induced moderate constitutive receptor phosphorylation. By contrast, the K650M mutation affecting the tyrosine kinase 2 (TK2) domain produced heavy phosphorylation of the nonglycosylated and mannose-rich isoforms that impaired receptor trafficking through the Golgi network. This resulted in defective expression of the mature isoform at the cell surface. Normal processing was rescued by tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Internalization of the R248C and Y373C mutant receptors, which form stable disulfide-bonded dimers at the cell surface was less efficient than the wild-type, whereas ubiquitylation was markedly increased but apparently independent of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase casitas B-lineage lymphoma (c-Cbl). Constitutive phosphorylation of c-Cbl by the K650M mutant appeared to be related to the intracellular retention of the receptor. Therefore, although mutation K650M affecting the TK2 domain induces defective targeting of the overphosphorylated receptor, a different mechanism characterized by receptor retention at the plasma membrane, excessive ubiquitylation and reduced degradation results from mutations that affect the extracellular domain and the stop codon. PMID:17509076

  13. Ancient Evolutionary Origin of Diversified Variable Regions Demonstrated by Crystal Structures of an Immune-Type Receptor in Amphioxus

    SciTech Connect

    Prada,J.; Haire, R.; Allaire, M.; Jakoncic, J.; Stojanoff, V.; Cannon, J.; Litman, G.; Ostrov, D.

    2006-01-01

    Although the origins of genes encoding the rearranging binding receptors remain obscure, it is predicted that their ancestral forms were nonrearranging immunoglobulin-type domains. Variable region-containing chitin-binding proteins (VCBPs) are diversified immune-type molecules found in amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae), an invertebrate that diverged early in deuterostome phylogeny. To study the potential evolutionary relationships between VCBPs and vertebrate adaptive immune receptors, we solved the structures of both a single V-type domain (to 1.15 Angstroms) and a pair of V-type domains (to 1.85 Angstroms) from VCBP3. The deduced structures show integral features of the ancestral variable-region fold as well as unique features of variable-region pairing in molecules that may reflect characteristics of ancestral forms of diversified immune receptors found in modern-day vertebrates.

  14. 12-Lipoxygenase Inhibition on Microalbuminuria in Type-1 and Type-2 Diabetes Is Associated with Changes of Glomerular Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Related to Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Zhao; Cheng, Yan-Li; Wang, Wan-Ning; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Zang, Chong-Sen; Xu, Zhong-Gao

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: 12-lipoxygenase (12-LO) is involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). In the present study, we investigated whether 12-LO inhibition may ameliorate type-2 DN (T2DN) by interfering with insulin resistance (IR); (2) Methods: Rat glomerular mesangial cells, glomeruli and skeletal muscles were isolated and used in this study. Kidney histological changes were confirmed by periodic-acid Schiff staining; mRNA expression was detected by competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; and the protein level was determined by Western blot and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively; (3) Results: The inhibition of 12-LO attenuated microalbuminuria (MAU) increases in type-2 diabetic rats, but not in type-1 diabetic rats. Infusion of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)-HETE) significantly increased the expression of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R), but decreased the expression of AT1R-associated protein (ATRAP) in rat glomeruli, compared to the control. An in vitro study revealed that both 12(S)-HETE and insulin upregulated AT1R expression in rat mesangial cells. In the presence of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, SB202190, the 12(S)-HETE-induced ATRAP reduction was significantly abolished. Interestingly, 12-LO inhibition did not influence AT1R expression in type-1 diabetic rats, but significantly abolished the increased AT1R and Ang II expression in glomeruli of type-2 diabetic rats. Furthermore, the inhibition of 12-LO significantly corrected impaired insulin sensitivity and fast serum insulin level, as well as the p-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) reduction in skeletal muscle of type-2 diabetic rats; (4) Conclusion: The inhibition of 12-LO potentially ameliorated MAU by preventing IR through the downregulation of glomerular AT1R expression in T2DN. PMID:27164093

  15. Activated central galanin type 1 receptor alleviated insulin resistance in diabetic rat muscle.

    PubMed

    Bu, Le; Chang, Xusheng; Cheng, Xiaoyun; Yao, Qian; Su, Bin; Sheng, Chunjun; Qu, Shen

    2016-10-01

    Evidence indicates that central galanin is involved in regulation of insulin resistance in animals. This study investigates whether type 1 galanin receptor (GAL1) in the brain mediates the ameliorative effect of galanin on insulin resistance in skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic rats. Rats were intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injected with galanin(1-13)-bradykinin(2-9) amide (M617), a GAL1 agonist, and/or Akti-1/2, an Akt inhibitor, via caudal veins once per day for 10 days. Insulin resistance in muscle tissues was evaluated by glucose tolerance and 2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG) tests, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression levels, Akt phosphorylation, and GLUT4 and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) concentration at plasma membranes in muscle cells. The results show that i.c.v. treatment with M617 increased glucose tolerance, 2-NBDG uptake, PPARγ levels, Akt phosphorylation, GLUT4 protein, and GLUT4 mRNA expression levels as well as GLUT4 and VAMP2 concentration at plasma membranes. All increases may be blocked by pretreatment with Akti-1/2. These results suggest that activated central GAL1 may trigger the Akt signaling pathway to alleviate insulin resistance in muscle cells. Therefore, the impact of galanin on insulin resistance is mediated mainly by GAL1 in the brain, and the GAL1 agonist may be taken as a potential antidiabetic agent for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27410235

  16. The critical role of spinal 5-HT7 receptors in opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia.

    PubMed

    Yesilyurt, Ozgur; Seyrek, Melik; Tasdemir, Serdar; Kahraman, Serdar; Deveci, Mehmet Salih; Karakus, Emre; Halici, Zekai; Dogrul, Ahmet

    2015-09-01

    The opioid and non-opioid types of stress-induced analgesia have been well defined. One of the non-opioid type involve the endocannabinoid system. We previously reported that the spinal serotonin 7 receptor (5-HT7) blockers inhibit both morphine and cannabinoid-induced analgesia, thus we hypothesized that descending serotonergic pathways-spinal 5-HT7 receptor loop might contribute to stress-induced analgesia. Stress-induced analgesia was induced with warm (32°C) or cold (20°C) water swim stress in male Balb-C mice. The effects of intrathecal injection of a selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, SB 269970, of the denervation of serotonergic neurons by intrathecal administration of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) and of lesions of the dorsolateral funiculus on opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia were evaluated with the tail-flick and hot plate tests. The expression of 5-HT7 receptors mRNA in the dorsal lumbar region of spinal cord were analyzed by RT-PCR following spinal serotonin depletion or dorsolateral funiculus lesion. The effects of the selective 5-HT7 receptor agonists LP 44 and AS 19 were tested on nociception. Intrathecal SB 269970 blocked both opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia. Dorsolateral funiculus lesion or denervation of the spinal serotonergic neurons resulted in a marked decrease in 5-HT7 receptor expression in the dorsal lumbar spinal cord, accompanied by inhibition of opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia. However, the systemic or intrathecal LP 44 and AS 19 alone did not produce analgesia in unstressed mice. These results indicate that descending serotonergic pathways and the spinal 5-HT7 receptor loop play a crucial role in mediating both opioid and non-opioid type stress-induced analgesia. PMID:25917322

  17. Phenotype of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 Ser351Cys mutation: Pfeiffer syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Gripp, K W; Stolle, C A; McDonald-McGinn, D M; Markowitz, R I; Bartlett, S P; Katowitz, J A; Muenke, M; Zackai, E H

    1998-07-24

    We present a patient with pansynostosis, hydrocephalus, seizures, extreme proptosis with luxation of the eyes out of the lids, apnea and airway obstruction, intestinal non-rotation, and severe developmental delay. His skeletal abnormalities include bilateral elbow ankylosis, radial head dislocation, and unilateral broad and deviated first toe. The phenotype of this patient is consistent with that previously reported in Pfeiffer syndrome type III, but is unusual for the lack of broad thumbs. Our patient most closely resembles the case described by Kerr et al. [1996: Am J Med Genet 66:138-143] as Pfeiffer syndrome type III with normal thumbs. Mutations in the genes for fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 2 have previously been seen in patients with Pfeiffer syndrome type I. The mutation identified in our patient, Ser351Cys in FGFR2, represents the first reported cause of Pfeiffer syndrome type III. An identical mutation was described once previously by Pulleyn et al., in a patient whose brief clinical description included cloverleaf skull, significant developmental delay, and normal hands and feet [Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 4: 283-291, 1996]. In our patient, previously performed single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis failed to detect a band shift; the mutation was identified only after independent sequence analysis. PMID:9714439

  18. Dopamine D2 receptors and transporters in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Bergström, Kim; Mantere, Tuija; Räsänen, Pirkko; Särkioja, Terttu; Tiihonen, Jari

    2003-10-01

    Increasing evidence implies the involvement of the dopamine (DA) system in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. We measured striatal DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics by using [(125)I]epidepride in human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography (WHA), which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. We also evaluated the correlation between transporter and receptor DA binding site densities and putative correlation of [(125)I]epidepride binding between the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. In the type 1 alcoholics, the DA D(2) receptor density was 21.4-32.6% lower in all dorsal striatal structures (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus) when compared with the controls. Type 2 alcoholics had 19.6-21.4% lower binding in other dorsal striatal structures, except medial globus pallidus, where they were not significantly different from controls. The density of DA D(2) receptors and DAT had a significant positive correlation only in the putamen of type 1 alcoholics. The binding of [(125)I]epidepride showed also consistent and statistically significant positive correlation between nucleus accumbens and all dorsal striatal areas in type 1 alcoholics but not in the controls. In the type 2 alcoholics, the correlation was weaker than that observed in the type 1 alcoholics, and no correlation was observed between nucleus accumbens and globus pallidus. Our results show that these two subgroups of alcoholics have stark differences in their DA D(2) receptor binding characteristics. Type 2 alcoholics may have selective deficiency in the dorsal striatum, whereas in limbic structures they may not differ significantly from controls. Moreover, WHA provides a useful tool for detailed mapping of neuronal receptors in healthy as well as diseased brain, and can also be used in radioligand development for PET. PMID:14505335

  19. All-Atom Structural Models of the Transmembrane Domains of Insulin and Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadiarani, Hossein; Vashisth, Harish

    2016-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase superfamily comprises many cell-surface receptors including the insulin receptor (IR) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) that are constitutively homodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins. Therefore, these receptors require ligand-triggered domain rearrangements rather than receptor dimerization for activation. Specifically, binding of peptide ligands to receptor ectodomains transduces signals across the transmembrane domains for trans-autophosphorylation in cytoplasmic kinase domains. The molecular details of these processes are poorly understood in part due to the absence of structures of full-length receptors. Using MD simulations and enhanced conformational sampling algorithms, we present all-atom structural models of peptides containing 51 residues from the transmembrane and juxtamembrane regions of IR and IGF1R. In our models, the transmembrane regions of both receptors adopt helical conformations with kinks at Pro961 (IR) and Pro941 (IGF1R), but the C-terminal residues corresponding to the juxtamembrane region of each receptor adopt unfolded and flexible conformations in IR as opposed to a helix in IGF1R. We also observe that the N-terminal residues in IR form a kinked-helix sitting at the membrane–solvent interface, while homologous residues in IGF1R are unfolded and flexible. These conformational differences result in a larger tilt-angle of the membrane-embedded helix in IGF1R in comparison to IR to compensate for interactions with water molecules at the membrane–solvent interfaces. Our metastable/stable states for the transmembrane domain of IR, observed in a lipid bilayer, are consistent with a known NMR structure of this domain determined in detergent micelles, and similar states in IGF1R are consistent with a previously reported model of the dimerized transmembrane domains of IGF1R. Our all-atom structural models suggest potentially unique structural organization of kinase domains in each receptor. PMID

  20. Elucidating determinants of aerosol composition through particle-type-based receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; Slowik, J. G.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Corbin, J. C.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Rehbein, P. J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2011-03-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed at a semi-rural site in Southern Ontario to characterize the size and chemical composition of individual particles. Particle-type-based receptor modelling of these data was used to investigate the determinants of aerosol chemical composition in this region. Individual particles were classified into particle-types and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to their temporal trends to separate and cross-apportion particle-types to factors. The extent of chemical processing for each factor was assessed by evaluating the internal and external mixing state of the characteristic particle-types. The nine factors identified helped to elucidate the coupled interactions of these determinants. Nitrate-laden dust was found to be the dominant type of locally emitted particles measured by ATOFMS. Several factors associated with aerosol transported to the site from intermediate local-to-regional distances were identified: the Organic factor was associated with a combustion source to the north-west; the ECOC Day factor was characterized by nearby local-to-regional carbonaceous emissions transported from the south-west during the daytime; and the Fireworks factor consisted of pyrotechnic particles from the Detroit region following holiday fireworks displays. Regional aerosol from farther emissions sources were reflected through three factors: two biomass burning factors and a highly chemically processed long range transport factor. The biomass burning factors were separated by PMF due to differences in chemical processing which were caused in part by the passage of two thunderstorm gust fronts with different air mass histories. The remaining two factors, ECOC Night and Nitrate Background, represented the night-time partitioning of nitrate to pre-existing particles of different origins. The distinct meteorological conditions observed during this month-long study in the summer of 2007 provided a unique range

  1. Elucidating determinants of aerosol composition through particle-type-based receptor modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M. L.; Jeong, C.-H.; Slowik, J. G.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Corbin, J. C.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Rehbein, P. J. G.; Sills, D. M. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed at a semi-rural site in southern Ontario to characterize the size and chemical composition of individual particles. Particle-type-based receptor modelling of these data was used to investigate the determinants of aerosol chemical composition in this region. Individual particles were classified into particle-types and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to their temporal trends to separate and cross-apportion particle-types to factors. The extent of chemical processing for each factor was assessed by evaluating the internal and external mixing state of the characteristic particle-types. The nine factors identified helped to elucidate the coupled interactions of these determinants. Nitrate-laden dust was found to be the dominant type of locally emitted particles measured by ATOFMS. Several factors associated with aerosol transported to the site from intermediate local-to-regional distances were identified: the Organic factor was associated with a combustion source to the north-west; the ECOC Day factor was characterized by nearby local-to-regional carbonaceous emissions transported from the south-west during the daytime; and the Fireworks factor consisted of pyrotechnic particles from the Detroit region following holiday fireworks displays. Regional aerosol from farther emissions sources was reflected through three factors: two Biomass Burning factors and a highly chemically processed Long Range Transport factor. The Biomass Burning factors were separated by PMF due to differences in chemical processing which were in part elucidated by the passage of two thunderstorm gust fronts with different air mass histories. The remaining two factors, ECOC Night and Nitrate Background, represented the night-time partitioning of nitrate to pre-existing particles of different origins. The distinct meteorological conditions observed during this month-long study in the summer of 2007 provided a unique

  2. Type 1 IGF receptor translocates to the nucleus of human tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Aleksic, Tamara; Chitnis, Meenali M.; Perestenko, Olga V.; Gao, Shan; Thomas, Peter H.; Turner, Gareth D.; Protheroe, Andrew S.; Howarth, Mark; Macaulay, Valentine M.

    2010-01-01

    The type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R) is a transmembrane glycoprotein comprising two extracellular α subunits and two β subunits with tyrosine kinase activity. The IGF-1R is frequently upregulated in cancers, and signals from the cell surface to promote proliferation and cell survival. Recent attention has focused on the IGF-1R as a target for cancer treatment. Here we report that the nuclei of human tumor cells contain IGF-1R, detectable using multiple antibodies to α- and β- subunit domains. Cell surface IGF-1R translocates to the nucleus following clathrin-mediated endocytosis, regulated by IGF levels. The IGF-1R is unusual among transmembrane receptors that undergo nuclear import, in that both α and β subunits traffic to the nucleus. Nuclear IGF-1R is phosphorylated in response to ligand, and undergoes IGF-induced interaction with chromatin, suggesting direct engagement in transcriptional regulation. The IGF-dependence of these phenomena indicate a requirement for the receptor kinase, and indeed IGF-1R nuclear import and chromatin binding can be blocked by a novel IGF-1R kinase inhibitor. Nuclear IGF-1R is detectable in primary renal cancer cells, formalin-fixed tumors, preinvasive lesions in the breast, and non-malignant tissues characterized by a high proliferation rate. In clear cell renal cancer, nuclear IGF-1R is associated with adverse prognosis. Our findings suggest that IGF-1R nuclear import has biological significance, may contribute directly to IGF-1R function, and may influence the efficacy of IGF-1R inhibitory drugs. PMID:20710042

  3. Toll-like receptor expression and function in type I bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Wieck, Andrea; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; do Prado, Carine Hartmann; Viola, Thiago Wendt; Petersen, Laura Esteves; Porto, Bárbara; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Bauer, Moisés Evandro

    2016-05-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with immune imbalance and low-grade inflammation. The underlying mechanisms remain largely obscure but may involve changes in cell signaling. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are widely expressed by immune cells. Specific binding of TLRs to pathogen- or danger-associated signals leads to inflammatory responses. Here, we analyzed the frequencies of TLR-1, TLR-2, TLR-4, TLR-5 and TLR-6 in monocytes, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and activated T cells from type I BD euthymic patients and healthy controls (HCs). Monocytes were stimulated in vitro with specific TLR agonists (flagellin, LPS, LTA, BLP and PGN) and immunophenotyped. Cytokines (IL-8, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-alpha and IL-12p70) were assessed with cytometric bead arrays. At baseline, increased percentages of TLR-1+ and TLR-2+ monocytes and reduced expression of TLR-5 were observed in BD. Following stimulation, the percentage of TLR-1+, TLR-2+, and TLR-6+ monocytes was higher in BD subjects than in HCs. Increased levels of IL-8, IL-12p70 and TNF were observed following stimulation with TLR-1, TLR-2 and TLR-6 agonists, suggesting increased signaling via these receptors in BD. In contrast to HCs, BD patients exhibited no changes in TLR-5 expression following stimulation. The percentage of TLR-2+ Treg cells as well as activated T cells expressing both TLR-2 and TLR-5 increased in BD patients. Given the importance of TLRs in triggering immune responses, our data indicate a role for these receptors in the low-grade inflammatory profile documented in BD. PMID:26795430

  4. Activation of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors via an allosteric transmembrane site.

    PubMed

    Lansdell, Stuart J; Sathyaprakash, Chaitra; Doward, Anne; Millar, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    In common with other members of the Cys-loop family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) are activated by the binding of a neurotransmitter to an extracellular orthosteric site, located at the interface of two adjacent receptor subunits. In addition, a variety of compounds have been identified that modulate agonist-evoked responses of 5-HT3Rs, and other Cys-loop receptors, by binding to distinct allosteric sites. In this study, we examined the pharmacological effects of a group of monoterpene compounds on recombinant 5-HT3Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Two phenolic monoterpenes (carvacrol and thymol) display allosteric agonist activity on human homomeric 5-HT3ARs (64 ± 7% and 80 ± 4% of the maximum response evoked by the endogenous orthosteric agonist 5-HT, respectively). In addition, at lower concentrations, where agonist effects are less apparent, carvacrol and thymol act as potentiators of responses evoked by submaximal concentrations of 5-HT. By contrast, carvacrol and thymol have no agonist or potentiating activity on the closely related mouse 5-HT3ARs. Using subunit chimeras containing regions of the human and mouse 5-HT3A subunits, and by use of site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified transmembrane amino acids that either abolish the agonist activity of carvacrol and thymol on human 5-HT3ARs or are able to confer this property on mouse 5-HT3ARs. By contrast, these mutations have no significant effect on orthosteric activation of 5-HT3ARs by 5-HT. We conclude that 5-HT3ARs can be activated by the binding of ligands to an allosteric transmembrane site, a conclusion that is supported by computer docking studies. PMID:25338672

  5. Histamine impairs midbrain dopaminergic development in vivo by activating histamine type 1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Histamine (HA) regulates the sleep-wake cycle, synaptic plasticity and memory in adult mammals. Dopaminergic specification in the embryonic ventral midbrain (VM) coincides with increased HA brain levels. To study the effect of HA receptor stimulation on dopamine neuron generation, we administered HA to dopamine progenitors, both in vitro and in vivo. Results Cultured embryonic day 12 (E12) VM neural stem/progenitor cells expressed transcripts for HA receptors H1R, H2R and H3R. These undifferentiated progenitors increased intracellular calcium upon HA addition. In HA-treated cultures, dopamine neurons significantly decreased after activation of H1R. We performed intrauterine injections in the developing VM to investigate HA effects in vivo. HA administration to E12 rat embryos notably reduced VM Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) staining 2 days later, without affecting GABA neurons in the midbrain, or serotonin neurons in the mid-hindbrain boundary. qRT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that several markers important for the generation and maintenance of dopaminergic lineage such as TH, Lmx1a and Lmx1b were significantly diminished. To identify the cell type susceptible to HA action, we injected embryos of different developmental stages, and found that neural progenitors (E10 and E12) were responsive, whereas differentiated dopaminergic neurons (E14 and E16) were not susceptible to HA actions. Proliferation was significantly diminished, whereas neuronal death was not increased in the VM after HA administration. We injected H1R or H2R antagonists to identify the receptor responsible for the detrimental effect of HA on dopaminergic lineage and found that activation of H1R was required. Conclusion These results reveal a novel action of HA affecting dopaminergic lineage during VM development. PMID:25112718

  6. Binding of Gq protein stabilizes the activated state of the muscarinic receptor type 1.

    PubMed

    Tateyama, Michihiro; Kubo, Yoshihiro

    2013-02-01

    Activation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) induces various cellular responses through interactions with G proteins. The key trigger of GPCR activation is agonist binding. It is reportedly known that the agonist-bound active conformation of the GPCRs, such as the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 1 (M(1)R), can be affected by the coupling of G proteins and by depolarization of the membrane potential. Here we aimed at investigating their effects on the structural rearrangements of the M(1)Rs between the active and quiescent states, using the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. For this purpose, fluorescent M(1)R constructs that maintained intact activation of the Gq pathway and interaction with Gq were used. We captured the agonist-induced conformational changes of the M(1)R as the FRET decreases and found that the FRET decreases were enhanced by co-expression of the Gq subunits. In addition, co-expression of the Gq subunits decelerated the recovery of the declined FRET upon removal of the agonists, which was slower than the dissociation of the Gq subunits from the receptor. These results suggested that Gq binding stabilizes the agonist-induced activated conformation of the M(1)R. We also found that depolarization of the membrane potential slightly but significantly enhanced the agonist-induced FRET decrease, by accelerating the agonist-induced conformational changes. Thus, structural rearrangement analyses by FRET revealed that Gq coupling stabilizes the active conformation of the M(1)R and also suggested that depolarization accelerates the transition from quiescent to activation conformation. PMID:23085334

  7. Studying Cerebellar Circuits by Remote Control of Selected Neuronal Types with GABAA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wisden, William; Murray, Andrew J.; McClure, Christina; Wulff, Peer

    2009-01-01

    Although GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition of cerebellar Purkinje cells by molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) has been studied intensely at the cellular level, it has remained unclear how this inhibition regulates cerebellum-dependent behaviour. We have implemented two complementary approaches to investigate the function of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse on the behavioural level. In the first approach we permanently disrupted inhibitory fast synaptic transmission at the synapse by genetically removing the postsynaptic GABAA receptors from Purkinje cells (PC-Δγ2 mice). We found that chronic disruption of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse strongly impaired cerebellar learning of the vestibular occular reflex (VOR), presumably by disrupting the temporal patterns of Purkinje cell activity. However, in PC-Δγ2 mice the baseline VOR reflex was only mildly affected; indeed PC-Δγ2 mice show no ataxia or gait abnormalities, suggesting that MLI control of Purkinje cell activity is either not involved in ongoing motor tasks or that the system compensates for its loss. To investigate the latter possibility we developed an alternative genetic technique; we made the MLI-Purkinje cell synapse selectively sensitive to rapid manipulation with the GABAA receptor modulator zolpidem (PC-γ2-swap mice). Minutes after intraperitoneal zolpidem injection, these PC-γ2-swap mice developed severe motor abnormalities, revealing a substantial contribution of the MLI-Purkinje cell synapses to real time motor control. The cell-type selective permanent knockout of synaptic GABAergic input and the fast reversible modulation of GABAergic input at the same synapse illustrate how pursuing both strategies gives a fuller view. PMID:20076763

  8. Expression of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 in otorhinolaryngologic neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tian; Xia, Qing Jie; Qiao, Xiaoming; Xi, Mingrong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION C-X-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CXCR7) has recently been characterised as a novel receptor for the C-X-C motif chemokine 12 (CXCL12)/stromal cell-derived factor 1-alpha. CXCR7 has been thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis, angiogenesis and tumour metastasis. The present study aimed to examine the expression of CXCR7 in tissue samples of laryngeal cancer and maxillary sinus carcinoma to determine its role in the development of otorhinolaryngologic neoplasms. METHODS Samples of otorhinolaryngologic neoplasms were obtained from 17 patients with either nasal polyps (n = 7), laryngeal cancer (n = 5) or maxillary sinus carcinoma (n = 5), and who underwent surgical resection at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Total RNA was isolated and CXCR7 mRNA expression was examined and quantified by relative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A one-way analysis of variance was performed using SPSS Statistics version 11.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) to compare the CXCR7 mRNA levels among the three groups of patients. RESULTS All samples tested positive for CXCR7 mRNA. The quantitative results showed that the CXCR7 mRNA levels were highest in laryngeal cancer and lowest in maxillary sinus carcinoma neoplasms, although there was no significant difference among the three samples. CONCLUSION CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR7 may contribute to eosinophilic inflammation in patients with chronic sinusitis and nasal polyps. Our results also suggest that CXCR7 may play a role in the progression, metastasis and angiogenesis of otorhinolaryngologic tumours. PMID:26996902

  9. Immunocytochemical evidence for co-expression of Type III IP3 receptor with signaling components of bitter taste transduction

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Tod R; Stone, Leslie M; Margolskee, Robert F; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2001-01-01

    Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli into electrical signals that lead to the sense of taste. An important second messenger in taste transduction is IP3, which is involved in both bitter and sweet transduction pathways. Several components of the bitter transduction pathway have been identified, including the T2R/TRB taste receptors, phospholipase C β2, and the G protein subunits α-gustducin, β3, and γ13. However, the identity of the IP3 receptor subtype in this pathway is not known. In the present study we used immunocytochemistry on rodent taste tissue to identify the IP3 receptors expressed in taste cells and to examine taste bud expression patterns for IP3R3. Results Antibodies against Type I, II, and III IP3 receptors were tested on sections of rat and mouse circumvallate papillae. Robust cytoplasmic labeling for the Type III IP3 receptor (IP3R3) was found in a large subset of taste cells in both species. In contrast, little or no immunoreactivity was seen with antibodies against the Type I or Type II IP3 receptors. To investigate the potential role of IP3R3 in bitter taste transduction, we used double-label immunocytochemistry to determine whether IP3R3 is expressed in the same subset of cells expressing other bitter signaling components. IP3R3 immunoreactive taste cells were also immunoreactive for PLCβ2 and γ13. Alpha-gustducin immunoreactivity was present in a subset of IP3R3, PLCβ2, and γ13 positive cells. Conclusions IP3R3 is the dominant form of the IP3 receptor expressed in taste cells and our data suggest it plays an important role in bitter taste transduction. PMID:11346454

  10. (/sup 3/H)Ethylketocyclazocine binding to mouse brain membranes: evidence for a kappa opioid receptor type

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, J.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Lee, N.M.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of the putative kappa agonist ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) to synaptosomal membranes of mouse brain was studied. This benzomorphan was able to bind to different opioid receptors. A portion of this binding was not inhibited by the agonist naloxone, even at high concentrations (10 microM). This population of receptors, to which opioate alkaloids and opiod peptides display very low affinity, is probably the sigma receptor. Another class of binding sites was identified by the simultaneous addition of the selective agonists Sandoz FK-33824 and D-Ala2-D-Leu5-enkephalin, which blocked the access of EKC to mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively, leaving a portion of naloxone-displaceable benzomorphan binding still detectable. Analysis of this remaining binding revealed a small population of receptors of high affinity, the kappa receptor. Therefore, EKC binds to the mu, delta, kappa and sigma receptors in the mouse brain, with similar affinities for the mu and kappa (0.22 and 0.15 nM). These results confirm the existence of a kappa opioid receptor type in the mouse brain.

  11. Stat-mediated Signaling Induced by Type I and Type II Interferons (IFNs) Is Differentially Controlled through Lipid Microdomain Association and Clathrin-dependent Endocytosis of IFN Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Marta; Monier, Marie-Noelle; Fradagrada, Alexandre; Mitchell, Keith; Baychelier, Florence; Eid, Pierre; Johannes, Ludger

    2006-01-01

    Type I (α/β) and type II (γ) interferons (IFNs) bind to distinct receptors, although they activate the same signal transducer and activator of transcription, Stat1, raising the question of how signal specificity is maintained. Here, we have characterized the sorting of IFN receptors (IFN-Rs) at the plasma membrane and the role it plays in IFN-dependent signaling and biological activities. We show that both IFN-α and IFN-γ receptors are internalized by a classical clathrin- and dynamin-dependent endocytic pathway. Although inhibition of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked the uptake of IFN-α and IFN-γ receptors, this inhibition only affected IFN-α–induced Stat1 and Stat2 signaling. Furthermore, the antiviral and antiproliferative activities induced by IFN-α but not IFN-γ were also affected. Finally, we show that, unlike IFN-α receptors, activated IFN-γ receptors rapidly become enriched in plasma membrane lipid microdomains. We conclude that IFN-R compartmentalization at the plasma membrane, through clathrin-dependent endocytosis and lipid-based microdomains, plays a critical role in the signaling and biological responses induced by IFNs and contributes to establishing specificity within the Jak/Stat signaling pathway. PMID:16624862

  12. Aspirin suppresses cardiac fibroblast proliferation and collagen formation through downregulation of angiotensin type 1 receptor transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xianwei Lu, Jingjun; Khaidakov, Magomed; Mitra, Sona; Ding, Zufeng; Raina, Sameer; Goyal, Tanu; Mehta, Jawahar L.

    2012-03-15

    Aspirin (acetyl salicylic acid, ASA) is a common drug used for its analgesic and antipyretic effects. Recent studies show that ASA not only blocks cyclooxygenase, but also inhibits NADPH oxidase and resultant reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, a pathway that underlies pathogenesis of several ailments, including hypertension and tissue remodeling after injury. In these disease states, angiotensin II (Ang II) activates NADPH oxidase via its type 1 receptor (AT1R) and leads to fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. In this study, we examined if ASA would inhibit NADPH oxidase activation, upregulation of AT1R transcription, and subsequent collagen generation in mouse cardiac fibroblasts challenged with Ang II. Mouse heart fibroblasts were isolated and treated with Ang II with or without ASA. As expected, Ang II induced AT1R expression, and stimulated cardiac fibroblast growth and collagen synthesis. The AT1R blocker losartan attenuated these effects of Ang II. Similarly to losartan, ASA, and its SA moiety suppressed Ang II-mediated AT1R transcription and fibroblast proliferation as well as expression of collagens and MMPs. ASA also suppressed the expression of NADPH oxidase subunits (p22{sup phox}, p47{sup phox}, p67{sup phox}, NOX2 and NOX4) and ROS generation. ASA did not affect total NF-κB p65, but inhibited its phosphorylation and activation. These observations suggest that ASA inhibits Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase expression, NF-κB activation and AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts, and fibroblast proliferation and collagen expression. The critical role of NADPH oxidase activity in stimulation of AT1R transcription became apparent in experiments where ASA also inhibited AT1R transcription in cardiac fibroblasts challenged with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Since SA had similar effect as ASA on AT1R expression, we suggest that ASA's effect is mediated by its SA moiety. -- Highlights: ► Aspirin in therapeutic concentrations decreases mouse cardiac fibroblast

  13. Nutrient induced type 2 and chemical induced type 1 experimental diabetes differently modulate gastric GLP-1 receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Olga; Broide, Efrat; Ben-Yehudah, Gilad; Cantrell, Dror; Shirin, Haim; Rapoport, Micha J

    2015-01-01

    T2DM patients demonstrate reduced GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression in their gastric glands. Whether induced T2DM and T1DM differently affect the gastric GLP-1R expression is not known. This study assessed extrapancreatic GLP-1R system in glandular stomach of rodents with different types of experimental diabetes. T2DM and T1DM were induced in Psammomys obesus (PO) by high-energy (HE) diet and by streptozotocin (STZ) in Sprague Dawly (SD) rats, respectively. GLP-1R expression was determined in glandular stomach by RT PCR and immunohistomorphological analysis. The mRNA expression and cellular association of the GLP-1R in principal glands were similar in control PO and SD rats. However, nutrient and chemical induced diabetes resulted in opposite alterations of glandular GLP-1R expression. Diabetic PO demonstrated increased GLP-1R mRNA expression, intensity of cellular GLP-1R immunostaining, and frequency of GLP-1R positive cells in the neck area of principal glands compared with controls. In contrast, SD diabetic rats demonstrated decreased GLP-1 mRNA, cellular GLP-1R immunoreactivity, and frequency of GLP-1R immunoreactive cells in the neck area compared with controls. In conclusion, nutrient and chemical induced experimental diabetes result in distinct opposite alterations of GLP-1R expression in glandular stomach. These results suggest that induced T1DM and T2DM may differently modulate GLP-1R system in enteropancreatic axis. PMID:25893200

  14. Presynaptic GABAB receptors reduce transmission at parabrachial synapses in the lateral central amygdala by inhibiting N-type calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, A.J.; Crane, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    The nocioceptive information carried by neurons of the pontine parabrachial nucleus to neurons of the lateral division of the central amydala (CeA-L) is thought to contribute to the affective components of pain and is required for the formation of conditioned-fear memories. Importantly, excitatory transmission between parabrachial axon terminals and CeA-L neurons can be inhibited by a number of presynaptic receptors linked to Gi/o-type G-proteins, including α2-adrenoceptors and GABAB receptors. While the intracellular signalling pathway responsible for α2-adrenoceptor inhibition of synaptic transmission at this synapse is known, the mechanism by which GABAB receptors inhibits transmission has not been determined. The present study demonstrates that activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors reduces excitatory transmission between parabrachial axon terminals and CeA-L neurons by inhibiting N-type calcium channels. While the involvement of Gβγ subunits in mediating the inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors on N-type calcium channels is unclear, this inhibition does not involve Gβγ-independent activation of pp60C-src tyrosine kinase. The results of this study further enhance our understanding of the modulation of the excitatory input from parabrachial axon terminals to CeA-L neurons and indicate that presynaptic GABAB receptors at this synapse could be valuable therapeutic targets for the treatment of fear- and pain-related disorders. PMID:26755335

  15. Presynaptic GABAB receptors reduce transmission at parabrachial synapses in the lateral central amygdala by inhibiting N-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Delaney, A J; Crane, J W

    2016-01-01

    The nocioceptive information carried by neurons of the pontine parabrachial nucleus to neurons of the lateral division of the central amydala (CeA-L) is thought to contribute to the affective components of pain and is required for the formation of conditioned-fear memories. Importantly, excitatory transmission between parabrachial axon terminals and CeA-L neurons can be inhibited by a number of presynaptic receptors linked to Gi/o-type G-proteins, including α2-adrenoceptors and GABAB receptors. While the intracellular signalling pathway responsible for α2-adrenoceptor inhibition of synaptic transmission at this synapse is known, the mechanism by which GABAB receptors inhibits transmission has not been determined. The present study demonstrates that activation of presynaptic GABAB receptors reduces excitatory transmission between parabrachial axon terminals and CeA-L neurons by inhibiting N-type calcium channels. While the involvement of Gβγ subunits in mediating the inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors on N-type calcium channels is unclear, this inhibition does not involve Gβγ-independent activation of pp60C-src tyrosine kinase. The results of this study further enhance our understanding of the modulation of the excitatory input from parabrachial axon terminals to CeA-L neurons and indicate that presynaptic GABAB receptors at this synapse could be valuable therapeutic targets for the treatment of fear- and pain-related disorders. PMID:26755335

  16. Defective Natriuretic Peptide Receptor Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Links Obesity to Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Coué, Marine; Badin, Pierre-Marie; Vila, Isabelle K; Laurens, Claire; Louche, Katie; Marquès, Marie-Adeline; Bourlier, Virginie; Mouisel, Etienne; Tavernier, Geneviève; Rustan, Arild C; Galgani, Jose E; Joanisse, Denis R; Smith, Steven R; Langin, Dominique; Moro, Cedric

    2015-12-01

    Circulating natriuretic peptide (NP) levels are reduced in obesity and predict the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Since skeletal muscle was recently shown as a key target tissue of NP, we aimed to investigate muscle NP receptor (NPR) expression in the context of obesity and T2D. Muscle NPRA correlated positively with whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans and was strikingly downregulated in obese subjects and recovered in response to diet-induced weight loss. In addition, muscle NP clearance receptor (NPRC) increased in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and T2D. Similar results were found in obese diabetic mice. Although no acute effect of brain NP (BNP) on insulin sensitivity was observed in lean mice, chronic BNP infusion improved blood glucose control and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle of obese and diabetic mice. This occurred in parallel with a reduced lipotoxic pressure in skeletal muscle due to an upregulation of lipid oxidative capacity. In addition, chronic NP treatment in human primary myotubes increased lipid oxidation in a PGC1α-dependent manner and reduced palmitate-induced lipotoxicity. Collectively, our data show that activation of NPRA signaling in skeletal muscle is important for the maintenance of long-term insulin sensitivity and has the potential to treat obesity-related metabolic disorders. PMID:26253614

  17. Statins Increase Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Gene Transcription through a Pregnane X Receptor Regulated Element

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Frederick M.; Linder, Kathryn M.; Cardozo, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a multifunctional protein that has important roles in inflammation and wound healing. Its aberrant regulation may contribute to many disease processes such as heart disease. The PAI-1 promoter is responsive to multiple inputs including cytokines, growth factors, steroids and oxidative stress. The statin drugs, atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin, increased basal and stimulated expression of the PAI-1 promoter 3-fold. A statin-responsive, nuclear hormone response element was previously identified in the PAI-1 promoter, but it was incompletely characterized. We characterized this direct repeat (DR) of AGGTCA with a 3-nucleotide spacer at -269/-255 using deletion and directed mutagenesis. Deletion or mutation of this element increased basal transcription from the promoter suggesting that it repressed PAI-1 transcription in the unliganded state. The half-site spacing and the ligand specificity suggested that this might be a pregnane X receptor (PXR) responsive element. Computational molecular docking showed that atorvastatin, mevastatin and rosuvastatin were structurally compatible with the PXR ligand-binding pocket in its agonist conformation. Experiments with Gal4 DNA binding domain fusion proteins showed that Gal4-PXR was activated by statins while other DR + 3 binding nuclear receptor fusions were not. Overexpression of PXR further enhanced PAI-1 transcription in response to statins. Finally, ChIP experiments using Halo-tagged PXR and RXR demonstrated that both components of the PXR-RXR heterodimer bound to this region of the PAI-1 promoter. PMID:26379245

  18. Interferon alpha bioactivity critically depends on Scavenger receptor class B type I function.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Marcos; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Paredes, Vladimir; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Méndez, Miriam; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Larrea, Esther; Gao, Qinshan; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-08-01

    Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) binds pathogen-associated molecular patterns participating in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction but there is no information regarding potential interactions between SR-B1 and the interferon system. Herein, we report that SR-B1 ligands strongly regulate the transcriptional response to interferon α (IFNα) and enhance its antiviral and antitumor activity. This effect was mediated by the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as it was annulled by the addition of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies. In vivo, we maximized the antitumor activity of IFNα co-expressing in the liver a SR-B1 ligand and IFNα by adeno-associated viruses. This gene therapy strategy eradicated liver metastases from colon cancer with reduced toxicity. On the other hand, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SR-B1 blocks the clathrin-dependent interferon receptor recycling pathway with a concomitant reduction in IFNα signaling and bioactivity. This effect can be applied to enhance cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses. Indeed, SR-B1 antagonists facilitate replication of oncolytic viruses amplifying their tumoricidal potential. In conclusion, SR-B1 agonists behave as IFNα enhancers while SR-B1 inhibitors dampen IFNα activity. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is a suitable pharmacology target to enhance cancer immunotherapy based on IFNα and oncolytic viruses. PMID:27622065

  19. Computational and Experimental Prediction of Human C-Type Lectin Receptor Druggability

    PubMed Central

    Aretz, Jonas; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian; Hanske, Jonas; Heymann, Dario; Rademacher, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian C-type lectin receptors (CTLRS) are involved in many aspects of immune cell regulation such as pathogen recognition, clearance of apoptotic bodies, and lymphocyte homing. Despite a great interest in modulating CTLR recognition of carbohydrates, the number of specific molecular probes is limited. To this end, we predicted the druggability of a panel of 22 CTLRs using DoGSiteScorer. The computed druggability scores of most structures were low, characterizing this family as either challenging or even undruggable. To further explore these findings, we employed a fluorine-based nuclear magnetic resonance screening of fragment mixtures against DC-SIGN, a receptor of pharmacological interest. To our surprise, we found many fragment hits associated with the carbohydrate recognition site (hit rate = 13.5%). A surface plasmon resonance-based follow-up assay confirmed 18 of these fragments (47%) and equilibrium dissociation constants were determined. Encouraged by these findings we expanded our experimental druggability prediction to Langerin and MCL and found medium to high hit rates as well, being 15.7 and 10.0%, respectively. Our results highlight limitations of current in silico approaches to druggability assessment, in particular, with regard to carbohydrate-binding proteins. In sum, our data indicate that small molecule ligands for a larger panel of CTLRs can be developed. PMID:25071783

  20. Type III TGF-β receptor promotes FGF2-mediated neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Knelson, Erik H.; Gaviglio, Angela L.; Tewari, Alok K.; Armstrong, Michael B.; Mythreye, Karthikeyan; Blobe, Gerard C.

    2013-01-01

    Growth factors and their receptors coordinate neuronal differentiation during development, yet their roles in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma remain unclear. Comparison of mRNA from benign neuroblastic tumors and neuroblastomas revealed that expression of the type III TGF-β receptor (TGFBR3) decreases with advancing stage of neuroblastoma and this loss correlates with a poorer prognosis. Patients with MYCN oncogene amplification and low TGFBR3 expression were more likely to have an adverse outcome. In vitro, TβRIII expression was epigenetically suppressed by MYCN-mediated recruitment of histone deacetylases to regions of the TGFBR3 promoter. TβRIII bound FGF2 and exogenous FGFR1, which promoted neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. TβRIII and FGF2 cooperated to induce expression of the transcription factor inhibitor of DNA binding 1 via Erk MAPK. TβRIII-mediated neuronal differentiation suppressed cell proliferation in vitro as well as tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. These studies characterize a coreceptor function for TβRIII in FGF2-mediated neuronal differentiation, while identifying potential therapeutic targets and clinical biomarkers for neuroblastoma. PMID:24216509

  1. Retinoid X receptor α attenuates host antiviral response by suppressing type I interferon

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Liu, Su-Yang; Razani, Bahram; Arora, Neda; Li, Bing; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Tontonoz, Peter; Núñez, Vanessa; Ricote, Mercedes; Cheng, Genhong

    2015-01-01

    The retinoid X receptor α (RXRα), a key nuclear receptor in metabolic processes, is down-regulated during host antiviral response. However, the roles of RXRα in host antiviral response are unknown. Here we show that RXRα overexpression or ligand activation increases host susceptibility to viral infections in vitro and in vivo, while Rxra −/− or antagonist treatment reduces infection by the same viruses. Consistent with these functional studies, ligand activation of RXR inhibits the expression of antiviral genes including type I interferon (IFN) and Rxra −/− macrophages produce more IFNβ than WT macrophages in response to polyI:C stimulation. Further results indicate that ligand activation of RXR suppresses the nuclear translocation of β-catenin, a co-activator of IFNβ enhanceosome. Thus, our studies have uncovered a novel RXR-dependent innate immune regulatory pathway, suggesting that the downregulation of RXR expression or RXR antagonist treatment benefits host antiviral response, whereas RXR agonist treatment may increase the risk of viral infections. PMID:25417649

  2. Interferon alpha bioactivity critically depends on Scavenger receptor class B type I function

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Marcos; Fioravanti, Jessica; Aranda, Fernando; Paredes, Vladimir; Gomar, Celia; Ardaiz, Nuria; Fernandez-Ruiz, Veronica; Méndez, Miriam; Nistal-Villan, Estanislao; Larrea, Esther; Gao, Qinshan; Gonzalez-Aseguinolaza, Gloria; Prieto, Jesus; Berraondo, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1) binds pathogen-associated molecular patterns participating in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction but there is no information regarding potential interactions between SR-B1 and the interferon system. Herein, we report that SR-B1 ligands strongly regulate the transcriptional response to interferon α (IFNα) and enhance its antiviral and antitumor activity. This effect was mediated by the activation of TLR2 and TLR4 as it was annulled by the addition of anti-TLR2 or anti-TLR4 blocking antibodies. In vivo, we maximized the antitumor activity of IFNα co-expressing in the liver a SR-B1 ligand and IFNα by adeno-associated viruses. This gene therapy strategy eradicated liver metastases from colon cancer with reduced toxicity. On the other hand, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of SR-B1 blocks the clathrin-dependent interferon receptor recycling pathway with a concomitant reduction in IFNα signaling and bioactivity. This effect can be applied to enhance cancer immunotherapy with oncolytic viruses. Indeed, SR-B1 antagonists facilitate replication of oncolytic viruses amplifying their tumoricidal potential. In conclusion, SR-B1 agonists behave as IFNα enhancers while SR-B1 inhibitors dampen IFNα activity. These results demonstrate that SR-B1 is a suitable pharmacology target to enhance cancer immunotherapy based on IFNα and oncolytic viruses. PMID:27622065

  3. Stimulation of oval cell and hepatocyte proliferation by exogenous bombesin and neurotensin in partially hepatectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    Assimakopoulos, Stelios F; Tsamandas, Athanassios C; Alexandris, Ilias H; Georgiou, Christos; Vagianos, Constantine E; Scopa, Chrisoula D

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of the neuropeptides bombesin (BBS) and neurotensin (NT) on oval cell proliferation in partially hepatectomized rats not pretreated with a known hepatocyte inhibitor. METHODS: Seventy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: I = controls, II = sham operated, III = partial hepatectomy 70% (PHx), IV = PHx + BBS (30 μg/kg per day), V = PHx + NT (300 μg/kg per day). Forty eight hours after liver resection, portal endotoxin levels and hepatic glutathione redox state were determined. α-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA (in situ hybridisation), cytokeratin-19 and Ki67 antigen expression (immunohistochemistry) and apoptosis (TUNEL) were evaluated on liver tissue samples. Cells with morphological features of oval cells that were cytokeratin-19 (+) and AFP mRNA (+) were scored in morphometric analysis and their proliferation was recorded. In addition, the proliferation and apoptotic rates of hepatocytes were determined. RESULTS: In the control and sham operated groups, oval cells were significantly less compared to groups III, IV and V (P < 0.001). The neuropeptides BBS and NT significantly increased the proliferation of oval cells compared to group III (P < 0.001). In addition, BBS and NT induced a significant increase of hepatocyte proliferation (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased their apoptotic activity (P < 0.001) compared to group III. BBS and NT significantly decreased portal endotoxemia (P < 0.001) and increased the hepatic GSH: GSSG ratio (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) compared to group III. CONCLUSION: BBS and NT stimulated oval cell proliferation in a model of liver regeneration, without use of concomitant suppression of hepatocyte proliferation as oval cell activation stimuli, and improved the hepatocyte regenerative response. This peptides-induced combined stimulation of oval cell and hepatocyte proliferation might serve as a possible treatment modality for several liver diseases. PMID:22180848

  4. Neurotensin releases norepinephrine differentially from perfused hypothalamus of sated and fasted rat

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.F.; Rezvani, A.H.; Hepler, J.R.; Myers, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The central injection of neurotensin (NT) has been reported to attenuate the intake of food in the fasted animal. To determine whether endogenous norepinephrine (NE) is involved in the satiating effect of NT, the in vivo activity of NE in circumscribed sites in the hypothalamus of the unanesthetized rat was examined. Bilateral guide tubes for push-pull perfusion were implanted stereotaxically to rest permanently above one of several intended sites of perfusion, which included the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), ventromedial nucleus (VMN), and the lateral hypothalamic (LH) area. After endogenous stores of NE at a specific hypothalamic locus were radiolabeled by microinjection of 0.02-0.5 ..mu..Ci of (/sup 3/H)NE, an artificial cerebrospinal fluid was perfused at the site at a rate of 20 ..mu..l/min over successive intervals of 5.0 min. When 0.05 or 0.1 ..mu..g/..mu..l NT was added to the perfusate, the peptide served either to enhance or educe the local release of NE at 50% of the sites of perfusion. In these experiments, the circumscribed effect of NT on the characteristics of catecholamine efflux depended entirely on the state of hunger or satiety of the rat. That is, when NT was perfused in the fully satiated rat, NE release was augmented within the PVn or VMN; conversely, NE release was inhibited in the LH. in the animal fasted for 18-22 h, NT exerted an opposite effect on the activity of NE within the same anatomical loci in that the efflux of NE was enhanced in the LH but attenuated or unaffected in the PVN or VMN. Taken together, these observations provide experimental support for the view-point that NT could act as a neuromodulator of the activity of hypothalamic noradrenergic neurons that are thought to play a functional role in the regulation of food intake.

  5. Pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidines as adenosine receptor antagonists: Effect of the N-5 bond type on the affinity and selectivity at the four adenosine receptor subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Bolcato, Chiara; Cusan, Claudia; Pastorin, Giorgia; Cacciari, Barbara; Klotz, Karl Norbert; Morizzo, Erika

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years, many efforts have been made to search for potent and selective human A3 adenosine antagonists. In particular, one of the most promising human A3 adenosine receptor antagonists is represented by the pyrazolo-triazolo-pyrimidine family. This class of compounds has been strongly investigated from the point of view of structure-activity relationships. In particular, it has been observed that fundamental requisites for having both potency and selectivity at the human A3 adenosine receptors are the presence of a small substituent at the N8 position and an unsubstitued phenyl carbamoyl moiety at the N5 position. In this study, we report the role of the N5-bond type on the affinity and selectivity at the four adenosine receptor subtypes. The observed structure-activity relationships of this class of antagonists are also exhaustively rationalized using the recently published ligand-based homology modeling approach. PMID:18368532

  6. Human GRK4γ142V Variant Promotes Angiotensin II Type I Receptor-Mediated Hypertension via Renal Histone Deacetylase Type 1 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zeng, Chunyu; Villar, Van Anthony M; Chen, Shi-You; Konkalmatt, Prasad; Wang, Xiaoyan; Asico, Laureano D; Jones, John E; Yang, Yu; Sanada, Hironobu; Felder, Robin A; Eisner, Gilbert M; Weir, Matthew R; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A

    2016-02-01

    The influence of a single gene on the pathogenesis of essential hypertension may be difficult to ascertain, unless the gene interacts with other genes that are germane to blood pressure regulation. G-protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4) is one such gene. We have reported that the expression of its variant hGRK4γ(142V) in mice results in hypertension because of impaired dopamine D1 receptor. Signaling through dopamine D1 receptor and angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) reciprocally modulates renal sodium excretion and blood pressure. Here, we demonstrate the ability of the hGRK4γ(142V) to increase the expression and activity of the AT1R. We show that hGRK4γ(142V) phosphorylates histone deacetylase type 1 and promotes its nuclear export to the cytoplasm, resulting in increased AT1R expression and greater pressor response to angiotensin II. AT1R blockade and the deletion of the Agtr1a gene normalize the hypertension in hGRK4γ(142V) mice. These findings illustrate the unique role of GRK4 by targeting receptors with opposite physiological activity for the same goal of maintaining blood pressure homeostasis, and thus making the GRK4 a relevant therapeutic target to control blood pressure. PMID:26667412

  7. Evolution of Spatially Coexpressed Families of Type-2 Vomeronasal Receptors in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Francia, Simona; Silvotti, Lucia; Ghirardi, Filippo; Catzeflis, François; Percudani, Riccardo; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an olfactory structure for the detection of pheromones. VNO neurons express three groups of unrelated G-protein-coupled receptors. Type-2 vomeronasal receptors (V2Rs) are specifically localized in the basal neurons of the VNO and are believed to sense protein pheromones eliciting specific reproductive behaviors. In murine species, V2Rs are organized into four families. Family-ABD V2Rs are expressed monogenically and coexpress with family-C V2Rs of either subfamily C1 (V2RC1) or subfamily C2 (V2RC2), according to a coordinate temporal diagram. Neurons expressing the phylogenetically ancient V2RC1 coexpress family-BD V2Rs or a specific group of subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA8-10), whereas a second neuronal subset (V2RC2-positive) coexpresses a recently expanded group of five subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA1-5) along with vomeronasal-specific Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules (H2-Mv). Through database mining and Sanger sequencing, we have analyzed the onset, diversification, and expansion of the V2R-families throughout the phylogeny of Rodentia. Our results suggest that the separation of V2RC1 and V2RC2 occurred in a Cricetidae ancestor in coincidence with the evolution of the H2-Mv genes; this phylogenetic event did not correspond with the origin of the coexpressing V2RA1-5 genes, which dates back to an ancestral myomorphan lineage. Interestingly, the evolution of receptors within the V2RA1-5 group may be implicated in the origin and diversification of some of the V2R putative cognate ligands, the exocrine secreting peptides. The establishment of V2RC2, which probably reflects the complex expansion and diversification of family-A V2Rs, generated receptors that have probably acquired a more subtle functional specificity. PMID:25539725

  8. Molecular determinants and feedback circuits regulating type 2 CRH receptor signal integration.

    PubMed

    Markovic, Danijela; Punn, Anu; Lehnert, Hendrik; Grammatopoulos, Dimitris K

    2011-05-01

    In most target tissues, the adenylyl cyclase/cAMP/PKA, the extracellular signal regulated kinase and the protein kinase B/Akt are the main pathways employed by the type 2 corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor to mediate the biological actions of urocortins (Ucns) and CRH. To decipher the molecular determinants of CRH-R2 signaling, we studied the signaling pathways in HEK293 cells overexpressing recombinant human CRH-R2β receptors. Use of specific kinase inhibitors showed that the CRH-R2β cognate agonist, Ucn 2, activated extracellular signal regulated kinase in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate/PKA-dependent manner with contribution from Epac activation. Ucn 2 also induced PKA-dependent association between AKAP250 and CRH-R2β that appeared to be necessary for extracellular signal regulated kinase activation. PKB/Akt activation was also mediated via pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins and PI3-K activation but did not require cAMP/PKA, Epac or protein kinase C for optimal activation. Potential feedback mechanisms that target the CRH-R2β itself and modulate receptor trafficking and endocytosis were also investigated. Indeed, our results suggested that inhibition of either PKA or extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway accelerates CRH-R2β endocytosis. Furthermore, Ucn 2-activated extracellular signal regulated kinase appeared to target β-arrestin1 and modulate, through phosphorylation at Ser412, β-arrestin1 translocation to the plasma membrane and CRH-R2β internalization kinetics. Loss of this "negative feedback" mechanism through inhibition of the extracellular signal regulated kinase activity resulted in significant attenuation of Ucn 2-induced cAMP response, whereas Akt phosphorylation was not affected by altered receptor endocytosis. These findings reveal a complex interplay between the signaling molecules that allow "fine-tuning" of CRH-R2β functional responses and regulate signal integration. This article is part of

  9. Activation of Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors Inhibits HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein gp120-Induced Synapse Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Jung; Shin, Angela H.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system is associated with dendritic and synaptic damage that correlates with cognitive decline in patients with HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). HAD is due in part to the release of viral proteins from infected cells. Because cannabinoids modulate neurotoxic and inflammatory processes, we investigated their effects on changes in synaptic connections induced by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120. Morphology and synapses between cultured hippocampal neurons were visualized by confocal imaging of neurons expressing DsRed2 and postsynaptic density protein 95 fused to green fluorescent protein (PSD95-GFP). Twenty-four-hour treatment with gp120 IIIB decreased the number of PSD95-GFP puncta by 37 ± 4%. The decrease was concentration-dependent (EC50 = 153 ± 50 pM). Synapse loss preceded cell death as defined by retention of DsRed2 fluorescence gp120 activated CXCR4 on microglia to evoke interleukin-1β (IL-1β) release. Pharmacological studies determined that sequential activation of CXCR4, the IL-1β receptor, and the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor was required. Expression of alternative reading frame polypeptide, which inhibits the ubiquitin ligase murine double minute 2, protected synapses, implicating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Cannabimimetic drugs are of particular relevance to HAD because of their clinical and illicit use in patients with AIDS. The cannabinoid receptor full agonist [(R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-(1-naphthalenyl) methanone mesylate salt] (Win55,212-2) inhibited gp120-induced IL-1β production and synapse in a manner reversed by a cannabinoid type 2 receptor antagonist. In contrast, Win55,212-2 did not inhibit synapse loss elicited by exposure to the HIV-1 protein Tat. These results indicate that cannabinoids prevent the impairment of network function produced by gp120 and, thus, might have therapeutic potential in HAD. PMID:21670103

  10. Evolution of spatially coexpressed families of type-2 vomeronasal receptors in rodents.

    PubMed

    Francia, Simona; Silvotti, Lucia; Ghirardi, Filippo; Catzeflis, François; Percudani, Riccardo; Tirindelli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is an olfactory structure for the detection of pheromones. VNO neurons express three groups of unrelated G-protein-coupled receptors. Type-2 vomeronasal receptors (V2Rs) are specifically localized in the basal neurons of the VNO and are believed to sense protein pheromones eliciting specific reproductive behaviors. In murine species, V2Rs are organized into four families. Family-ABD V2Rs are expressed monogenically and coexpress with family-C V2Rs of either subfamily C1 (V2RC1) or subfamily C2 (V2RC2), according to a coordinate temporal diagram. Neurons expressing the phylogenetically ancient V2RC1 coexpress family-BD V2Rs or a specific group of subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA8-10), whereas a second neuronal subset (V2RC2-positive) coexpresses a recently expanded group of five subfamily-A V2Rs (V2RA1-5) along with vomeronasal-specific Major Histocompatibility Complex molecules (H2-Mv). Through database mining and Sanger sequencing, we have analyzed the onset, diversification, and expansion of the V2R-families throughout the phylogeny of Rodentia. Our results suggest that the separation of V2RC1 and V2RC2 occurred in a Cricetidae ancestor in coincidence with the evolution of the H2-Mv genes; this phylogenetic event did not correspond with the origin of the coexpressing V2RA1-5 genes, which dates back to an ancestral myomorphan lineage. Interestingly, the evolution of receptors within the V2RA1-5 group may be implicated in the origin and diversification of some of the V2R putative cognate ligands, the exocrine secreting peptides. The establishment of V2RC2, which probably reflects the complex expansion and diversification of family-A V2Rs, generated receptors that have probably acquired a more subtle functional specificity. PMID:25539725

  11. Bright Fluorescence Monitoring System Utilizing Zoanthus sp. Green Fluorescent Protein (ZsGreen) for Human G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling in Microbial Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are currently the most important pharmaceutical targets for drug discovery because they regulate a wide variety of physiological processes. Consequently, simple and convenient detection systems for ligands that regulate the function of GPCR have attracted attention as powerful tools for new drug development. We previously developed a yeast-based fluorescence reporter ligand detection system using flow cytometry. However, using this conventional detection system, fluorescence from a cell expressing GFP and responding to a ligand is weak, making detection of these cells by fluorescence microscopy difficult. We here report improvements to the conventional yeast fluorescence reporter assay system resulting in the development of a new highly-sensitive fluorescence reporter assay system with extremely bright fluorescence and high signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. This new system allowed the easy detection of GPCR signaling in yeast using fluorescence microscopy. Somatostatin receptor and neurotensin receptor (implicated in Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, respectively) were chosen as human GPCR(s). The facile detection of binding to these receptors by cognate peptide ligands was demonstrated. In addition, we established a highly sensitive ligand detection system using yeast cell surface display technology that is applicable to peptide screening, and demonstrate that the display of various peptide analogs of neurotensin can activate signaling through the neurotensin receptor in yeast cells. Our system could be useful for identifying lead peptides with agonistic activity towards targeted human GPCR(s). PMID:24340008

  12. Hypercholesterolemia, low density lipoprotein receptor and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hong-mei; Zhang, Da-wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are positively correlated with the risk of atherosclerosis. High plasma LDL concentrations in patients with hypercholesterolemia lead to build-up of LDL in the inner walls of the arteries, which becomes oxidized and promotes the formation of foam cells, consequently initiating atherosclerosis. Plasma LDL is mainly cleared through the LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway. Mutations in the LDLR cause familiar hypercholesterolemia and increase the risk of premature coronary heart disease. The expression of LDLR is regulated at the transcriptional level via the sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2) and at the posttranslational levels mainly through proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-type 9 (PCSK9) and inducible degrader of the LDLR (IDOL). In this review, we summarize the latest advances in the studies of PCSK9. PMID:26445568

  13. Neuroprotective effect of angiotensin II type 2 receptor during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-ye; Yin, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation has been shown to protect against stroke, but its precise mechanism remains poorly understood. We investigated whether the protective effect of AT2R against ischemia/reperfusion injury is mediated by the suppression of immune and inflammatory responses. Rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion were intraperitoneally injected with physiological saline, the AT2R agonist CGP42112 (1 mg/kg per day) or antagonist PD123319 (1 mg/kg per day). In the CGP42112 group, AT2R expression increased, the infarct area decreased, interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α expression decreased, and interleukin-10 expression increased compared with the saline group. Antagonisin AT2R using PD123319 produced the opposite effects. These results indicate that AT2R activation suppresses immune and inflammatory responses, and protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  14. Estrogens and Spermiogenesis: New Insights from Type 1 Cannabinoid Receptor Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cacciola, Giovanna; Chioccarelli, Teresa; Fasano, Silvia; Pierantoni, Riccardo; Cobellis, Gilda

    2013-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex mechanism which allows the production of male gametes; it consists of mitotic, meiotic, and differentiation phases. Spermiogenesis is the terminal differentiation process during which haploid round spermatids undergo several biochemical and morphological changes, including extensive remodelling of chromatin and nuclear shape. Spermiogenesis is under control of endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors, like gonadotropins and testosterone. More recently, emerging pieces of evidence are suggesting that, among these factors, estrogens may have a role. To date, this is a matter of debate and concern because of the agonistic and antagonistic estrogenic effects that environmental chemicals may have on animal and human with damaging outcome on fertility. In this review, we summarize data which fuel this debate, with a particular attention to our recent results, obtained using type 1 cannabinoid receptor knockout male mice as animal model. PMID:24324492

  15. Evidence for the transport of glutathione through ryanodine receptor channel type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Bánhegyi, Gábor; Csala, Miklós; Nagy, Gábor; Sorrentino, Vincenzo; Fulceri, Rosella; Benedetti, Angelo

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the role of RyR1 (ryanodine receptor calcium channel type 1) in glutathione (GSH) transport through the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane of skeletal muscles. Lanthanum chloride, a prototypic blocker of cation channels, inhibited the influx and efflux of GSH in SR vesicles. Using a rapid-filtration-based assay and lanthanum chloride as a transport blocker, an uptake of radiolabelled GSH into SR vesicles was observed. Pretreatment of SR vesicles with the RyR1 antagonists Ruthenium Red and ryanodine as well as with lanthanum chloride blocked the GSH uptake. An SR-like GSH uptake appeared in microsomes obtained from an HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney 293) cell line after transfection of RyR1. These observations strongly suggest that RyR1 mediates GSH transport through the SR membranes of skeletal muscles. PMID:14519101

  16. The Angiotensin II Type 2 (AT2) Receptor Promotes Axonal Regeneration in the Optic Nerve of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lucius, Ralph; Gallinat, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Herdegen, Thomas; Sievers, Jobst; Unger, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been traditionally linked to blood pressure and volume regulation mediated through the angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 (AT1) receptor. Here we report that ANG II via its ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptor promotes the axonal elongation of postnatal rat retinal explants (postnatal day 11) and dorsal root ganglia neurons in vitro, and, moreover, axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells after optic nerve crush in vivo. In retinal explants, ANG II (10−7–10−5 M) induced neurite elongation via its AT2 receptor, since the effects were mimicked by the AT2 receptor agonist CGP 42112 (10−5 M) and were entirely abolished by costimulation with the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123177 (10−5 M), but not by the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (10−5 M). To investigate whether ANG II is able to promote axonal regeneration in vivo, we performed optic nerve crush experiments in the adult rats. After ANG II treatment (0.6 nmol), an increased number of growth-associated protein (GAP)-43–positive fibers was detected and the regenerating fibers regularly crossed the lesion site (1.6 mm). Cotreatment with the AT2 receptor antagonist PD 123177 (6 nmol), but not with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan (6 nmol), completely abolished the ANG II–induced axonal regeneration, providing for the first time direct evidence for receptor-specific neurotrophic action of ANG II in the central nervous system of adult mammals and revealing a hitherto unknown function of the RAS. PMID:9705948

  17. Type 2 cannabinoid receptor contributes to the physiological regulation of spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Daniele; De Domenico, Emanuela; Sette, Claudio; Geremia, Raffaele; Grimaldi, Paola

    2016-04-01

    Type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2) has been proposed to play a pivotal role in meiotic entry of male germ cells, similar to retinoic acid (RA). In this study, we showed that activation of CB2with the specific agonist JWH133 [3-(1',1'-dimethylbutyl)-1-deoxy-8-THC] (IC5010(-6)M) mimics epigenetic events induced by RA (IC5010(-7)M) in spermatogonia. Both JWH133 and RA treatments stimulate the expression of the meiotic genes c-KitandStra8, by up-regulating H3K4me3 and down-regulating H3K9me2 levels in genomic regions flanking the transcription start site. Moreover, both agents increase the expression ofPrdm9, the gene encoding a meiosis-specific histone, H3K4me3 methyltransferase, which marks hotspots of recombination in prophase I, thus resulting in a global increase in H3K4me3. Notably, prolonged administration of JWH133 to immature 7 dpp CD-1 mice induced an acceleration of the onset of spermatogenesis, whereas the specific CB2antagonist delayed germ cell differentiation. Thus, both hyper- and hypostimulation of CB2disrupted the temporal dynamics of the spermatogenic cycle. These findings highlight the importance of proper CB2signaling for the maintenance of a correct temporal progression of spermatogenesis and suggest a possible adverse effect of cannabis in deregulating this process.-Di Giacomo, D., De Domenico, E., Sette, C., Geremia, R., Grimaldi, P. Type 2 cannabinoid receptor contributes to the physiological regulation of spermatogenesis. PMID:26671998

  18. Enhancement by T-type Ca2+ currents of odor sensitivity in olfactory receptor cells.

    PubMed

    Kawai, F; Miyachi, E

    2001-05-15

    Mechanisms underlying action potential initiation in olfactory receptor cells (ORCs) during odor stimulation were investigated using conventional and dynamic patch-clamp recording techniques. Under current-clamp conditions, action potentials generated by a least effective odor-induced depolarization were almost completely blocked by 0.1 mm Ni(2+), a T-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, but not by 0.1 mm Cd(2+), a high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channel blocker. Under voltage-clamp conditions, depolarizing voltage steps induced a fast transient inward current, which consisted of Na(+) (I(Na)) and T-type Ca(2+) (I(Ca,T)) currents. The amplitude of I(Ca,T) was approximately one-fourth of that of I(Na) (0.23 +/- 0.03, mean +/- SEM). Because both I(Na) and I(Ca,T) are known to show rapid inactivation, we examined how much I(Na) and I(Ca,T) are activated during the gradually depolarizing initial phase of receptor potentials. The ratio of I(Ca,T)/I(Na) during a ramp depolarization at the slope of 0.5 mV/msec was 0.56 +/- 0.03. Using the dynamic patch-clamp recording technique, we also recorded I(Ca,T) and I(Na) during the generation of odor-induced action potentials. This ratio of I(Ca,T)/I(Na) was 0.54 +/- 0.04. These ratios were more than twice as large as that (0.23) obtained from the experiment using voltage steps, suggesting that I(Ca,T) carries significant amount of current to generate the action potentials. We conclude that I(Ca,T) contributes to enhance odor sensitivity by lowering the threshold of spike generation in ORCs. PMID:11319242

  19. The Structure-Function Relationships of Complement Receptor Type 2 (CR2; CD21).

    PubMed

    Hannan, Jonathan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Human complement receptor type 2 (CR2; CD21) is a surface-associated glycoprotein which binds to a variety of endogenous ligands, including the complement component C3 fragments iC3b, C3dg and C3d, the low-affinity IgE receptor CD23, and the type I cytokine, interferon-alpha. CR2 links the innate complement-mediated immune response to pathogens and foreign antigens with the adaptive immune response by binding to C3d that is covalently attached to targets, and which results in a cell signalling phenomenon that lowers the threshold for B cell activation. Variations or deletions of the CR2 gene in humans, or the Cr2 gene in mice associate with a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. A number of infectious agents including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and prions also bind to CR2 either directly or indirectly by means of C3d-targeted immune complexes. In this review we discuss the interactions that CR2 undertakes with its best characterized ligands C3d, CD23 and the EBV gp350/220 envelope protein. To date only a single physiologically relevant complex of CR2 with one of its ligands, C3d, has been elucidated. By contrast, the interactions with CD23 and EBV gp350/220, while being important from physiologic and disease-associated standpoints, respectively, are only incompletely understood. A detailed knowledge of the structure-function relationships that CR2 undergoes with its ligands is necessary to understand the implications of using recombinant CR2 in therapeutic or imaging agents, or alternatively targeting CR2 to down-regulate the antibody mediated immune response in cases of autoimmunity. PMID:26916158

  20. Toll-like receptor 9 trafficking and signaling for type I interferons requires PIKfyve activity.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kachiko; Sasai, Miwa; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2015-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) traffic to distinct membranes for signaling. TLR7 and TLR9 recognize viral nucleic acids in the endosomes and induce robust anti-viral program. Signaling from these TLRs bifurcate at the level of distinct endosomal compartments, namely VAMP3(+) and LAMP(+) endosomes, to mediate the induction of cytokine and type I interferon (IFN) genes, respectively. The formation of the TLR9 endosome competent for IFNs induction requires AP-3. Phosphoinositides (PIs) mark distinct subcellular membranes and control membrane trafficking. However, their role in TLR trafficking and signaling in different dendritic cell (DC) subsets remains unclear. Here, we examined the role of phosphatidylinositol 3P 5-kinase, PIKfyve, in TLR9 trafficking and signaling. We demonstrate that inhibition of PIKfyve activity preferentially blocks TLR9 signaling for type I IFN induction in FLT3L-bone marrow-derived DCs. By confocal microscopy using RAW264.7 cells, we show that trafficking of both TLR9 and CpG to the LAMP1(+) compartment was blocked by PIKfyve inhibitor treatment, whereas their trafficking to the VAMP3(+) endosome remained intact. Further, AP-3 recruitment to TLR9 endosomes was impaired by PIKfyve inhibition. These data indicate that PIKfyve provides critical PIs necessary for the formation of endosome from which TLR9 signals to induce type I IFNs. PMID:25925170

  1. Identification, Characterization, and Developmental Expression Pattern of Type III Interferon Receptor Gene in the Chinese Goose

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qin; Chen, Shun; Qi, Yulin; Zhou, Hao; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Chen, Xiaoyue; Zhou, Xue; Cheng, Anchun

    2015-01-01

    Interferons, as the first line of defense against the viral infection, play an important role in innate immune responses. Type III interferon (IFN-λ) was a newly identified member of IFN family, which plays IFN-like antiviral activity. Towards a better understanding of the type III interferon system in birds, type III interferon lambda receptor (IFNLR1) was first identified in the Chinese goose. In this paper, we had cloned 1952 bp for goose IFNLR1 (goIFNLR1), including an ORF of 1539 bp, encoding a 512-amino acid protein with a 20 aa predict signal peptide at its N terminal and a 23 aa transmembrane region. The predicted amino acid sequence of goIFNLR1 has 90%, 73%, and 34% identity with duck IFNLR1 (predicted sequence), chicken IFNLR1, and human IFNLR1, respectively. And the age-related tissue distribution of goIFNLR1 was identified by Real Time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we found that the goIFNLR1 has a mainly expression in epithelium-rich tissues similar to other species', such as small intestinal, lung, liver, and stomach. Moreover, a relatively high expression of goIFNLR1 was also observed in the secondary immune tissues (harderian gland and cecal tonsil). The identification and tissue distribution of goIFNLR1 will facilitate further study of the role of IFN-λ in goose antiviral defense. PMID:26064884

  2. Investigation of the role of Endo180/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein as a collagenase 3 (matrix metalloproteinase 13) receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Louise; Wienke, Dirk; Howard, Matthew; Knäuper, Vera; Isacke, Clare M; Murphy, Gillian

    2002-01-01

    Procollagenase 3 can be activated by interaction with and cleavage by the cell-associated membrane type 1 metalloproteinase (MT1 MMP; MMP 14). It has also been shown to bind to a specific receptor, and is subsequently internalized via the low-density lipoprotein-related receptor by osteoblast cell lines. The receptor was identified as a recycling glycoprotein of the macrophage mannose receptor family, Endo180. In order to ascertain whether there is a relationship between Endo180 binding and procollagenase 3 activation, we have compared procollagenase 3 activation by an HT1080 fibrosarcoma cell line overexpressing MT1 MMP, without and with overexpression of Endo180. No difference in procollagenase 3 activation was observed, and neither was the enzyme bound to the cells or internalized. In contrast, the osteoblast cell lines, MG63 and UMR-106, both bound and internalized procollagenase 3. However, immunolocalization studies showed that the Endo180 abundantly expressed by these cells did not co-localize with the procollagenase 3. In further biochemical studies we confirmed that procollagenase 3 did not bind to Endo180, using both ligand- blotting and immunoprecipitation techniques. We conclude that Endo180 is unlikely to be a receptor for collagenase 3 in relation to either its activation or cell binding and internalization, and that other interaction partners must be sought. PMID:11903048

  3. Functional Interaction between Angiotensin II Receptor Type 1 and Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor 2 with Implications for Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robyn S.; See, Heng B.; Johnstone, Elizabeth K. M.; McCall, Elizabeth A.; Williams, James H.; Kelly, Darren J.; Pfleger, Kevin D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding functional interactions between G protein-coupled receptors is of great physiological and pathophysiological importance. Heteromerization provides one important potential mechanism for such interaction between different signalling pathways via macromolecular complex formation. Previous studies suggested a functional interplay between angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) and Chemokine (C-C motif) Receptor 2 (CCR2). However the molecular mechanisms are not understood. We investigated AT1-CCR2 functional interaction in vitro using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer in HEK293 cells and in vivo using subtotal-nephrectomized rats as a well-established model for chronic kidney disease. Our data revealed functional heteromers of these receptors resulting in CCR2-Gαi1 coupling being sensitive to AT1 activation, as well as apparent enhanced β-arrestin2 recruitment with agonist co-stimulation that is synergistically reversed by combined antagonist treatment. Moreover, we present in vivo findings where combined treatment with AT1- and CCR2-selective inhibitors was synergistically beneficial in terms of decreasing proteinuria, reducing podocyte loss and preventing renal injury independent of blood pressure in the subtotal-nephrectomized rat model. Our findings further support a role for G protein-coupled receptor functional heteromerization in pathophysiology and provide insights into previous observations indicating the importance of AT1-CCR2 functional interaction in inflammation, renal and hypertensive disorders. PMID:25807547

  4. Different binding of stimulatory-type and blocking-type TSH receptor antibody with guinea-pig testis membrane.

    PubMed

    Inui, T; Ochi, Y; Hachiya, T; Chen, W; Nakajima, Y; Kajita, Y; Ogura, H

    1991-11-01

    A receptor assay using [125I]bTSH-binding to guinea-pig testis membrane was developed. Unlabelled hCG and FSH inhibited [125I]bTSH binding. In patients with Graves' disease and in untreated hyperthyroid patients, almost all long-acting thyroid stimulators and thyroid-stimulating antibodies, respectively did not inhibit [125I]bTSH binding, which on the other hand was inhibited by thyroid stimulation blocking antibodies in patients with primary hypothyroidism. When the inhibitory effect on the binding of [125I]hCG and 125I-synthetic alpha-subunit peptide (alpha 26-46) of hCG to testis membrane was examined, bTSH resulted in a significant inhibition. However, all three kinds of TSH receptor antibodies had no inhibitory effect. This study demonstrated 1. interaction of alpha-subunit of TSH and hCG with the testicular receptor; 2. binding of thyroid stimulation-blocking antibody and lack of binding of thyroid-stimulating antibody to the testicular TSH receptor in spite of binding of these TSH receptor antibodies to the thyroidal TSH receptor, and 3. lack of binding of thyroid-stimulating antibody and thyroid stimulation-blocking antibody to the testicular gonadotropin receptor. PMID:1684686

  5. PROXIMAL GUT MUCOSAL EPITHELIAL HOMEOSTASIS IN AGED IL-1 TYPE I RECEPTOR KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER STARVATION

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juquan; Wolf, Steven E.; Wu, Xiao-Wu; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that starvation induces small bowel atrophy, and that atrophy diminishes with aging. In this experiment, we assessed whether starvation-induced atrophy of proximal gut mucosa is associated with the Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathway in aged mice. Materials and Methods Thirty 26-month-old IL-1R knockout mice and age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: ad libitum fed and fasted. Mice were euthanized 12 or 48 hours after starvation. The proximal small bowel was harvested for morphologic analysis. Gut epithelial cell proliferation was detected using immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and apoptosis was identified using terminal deoxyuridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Results Aged IL-1R knockout mice were larger than aged-matched wild-type mice (p<0.05). Proximal gut mucosal height and mucosal cell number were not different between aged IL-1R knockout and wild-type groups. The apoptosis index in gut epithelial cells was higher in fed IL-1R knockout versus wild-type mice (p<0.05), while no significant difference in cell proliferation between both groups. Mucosal atrophy was induced in both aged IL-1R knockout and wild-type groups by starvation (p<0.05), however, aged IL-1R knockout mice experienced greater losses in proximal gut weight, mucosal length, and corresponding cell number than did wild-type mice at the 12-hour time point (p<0.05). The apoptosis index in gut epithelial cells significantly increased in both groups after starvation (p<0.05). Starvation decreased cell proliferation in IL-1R knockout mice (p<0.05), but not in wild-type mice. Conclusions The response in aged IL-1R knockout mice differs from wild-type mice in that starvation increases atrophy and is associated with decreased cell proliferation rather than increased apoptosis. PMID:20605606

  6. The Role of Dopamine in Reinforcement: Changes in Reinforcement Sensitivity Induced by D[subscript 1]-Type, D[subscript 2]-Type, and Nonselective Dopamine Receptor Agonists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratcher, Natalie A.; Farmer-Dougan, Valeri; Dougan, James D.; Heidenreich, Byron A.; Garris, Paul A.

    2005-01-01

    Dose-dependent changes in sensitivity to reinforcement were found when rats were treated with low, moderate, and high doses of the partial dopamine D[subscript 1]-type receptor agonist SKF38393 and with the nonselective dopamine agonist apomorphine, but did not change when rats were treated with similar doses of the selective dopamine D[subscript…

  7. Developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor expression in the rat spinal cord

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegenga, S. L.; Kalb, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Spinal motor neurons undergo experience-dependent development during a critical period in early postnatal life. It has been suggested that the repertoire of glutamate receptor subunits differs between young and mature motor neurons and contributes to this activity-dependent development. In the present study we examined the expression patterns of N-methyl-D-aspartate- and kainate-type glutamate receptor subunits during the postnatal maturation of the spinal cord. Young motor neurons express much higher levels of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR1 than do adult motor neurons. Although there are eight potential splice variants of NR1, only a subgroup is expressed by motor neurons. With respect to NR2 receptor subunits, young motor neurons express NR2A and C, while adult motor neurons express only NR2A. Young motor neurons express kainate receptor subunits GluR5, 6 and KA2 but we are unable to detect these or any other kainate receptor subunits in the adult spinal cord. Other spinal cord regions display a distinct pattern of developmental regulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptor subunit expression in comparison to motor neurons. Our findings indicate a precise spatio-temporal regulation of individual subunit expression in the developing spinal cord. Specific combinations of subunits in developing neurons influence their excitable properties and could participate in the emergence of adult neuronal form and function.

  8. Histamine type I (H/sub 1/) receptor radioligand binding studies on normal T cell subsets, B cells, and monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, W.; Doyle, K.; Rocklin, R.E.

    1986-03-15

    A single, specific binding site for (/sup 3/H)pyrilamine on normal human T helper, T suppressor, B cells, and monocytes was documented. The binding of the radioligand to its receptor is reversible with cold H/sub 1/ antagonist, saturates at 40 to 60 nM, and binding equilibrium is achieved in 2 to 4 min. Using a computer program (Ligand), the authors calculated the dissociation constants, binding capacities, and numbers of receptors per cell for each of the different cell types. Monocytes were found to have the highest affinity for (/sup 3/H)pyrilamine, followed by T helper cells, B cells and T suppressor cells (K/sub D/ = 44.6 +/- 49.4 nM). T suppressor cells were found to express the higher number of H/sub 1/ receptors per cell followed by B cells, T helper cells, and monocytes. The binding affinity for (/sup 3/H)pyrilamine increased over a 48-hr period, whereas the number of receptors per T cell was essentially unchanged. In contrast, T cells stimulated with Con A or PHA were shown to have a greater than fourfold increase in the number of receptors per cell, whereas the binding affinity for (/sup 3/H)pyrilamine decreased over the 48-hr period. Although the function of H/sub 1/ receptors on T cells, B cells, and monocytes has not been completely defined, this receptor has the potential of playing an important role in the modulating the immune response.

  9. [Extrapancreatic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists: an open window towards new treatment goals in type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Salvador, Javier; Andrada, Patricia

    2014-09-01

    The wide ubiquity of GLP-1 receptors in the body has stimulated the search for different extrapancreatic actions of GLP-1 and its receptor agonists. Thus, severe cardioprotective effects directed on myocardial ischaemia and dysfunction as well as diverse antiaterogenic actions have been reported. Also, native and GLP-1 receptor agonists have demonstrated significant beneficial effects on liver steatosis and fibrosis and on neuronal protection in experimental models of Alzheimer, and Parkinson's disease as well as on cerebral ischaemia. Recent evidences suggest that these drugs may also be useful for prevention and treatment of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and peripheral neuropathy. Good results have also been reported in psoriasis. Despite we still need confirmation that these promising effects can be applied to clinical practice, they offer new interesting perspectives for treatment of type 2 diabetes associated complications and give to GLP-1 receptor agonists an even more integral position in diabetes therapy. PMID:25437463

  10. The impact of tonic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition on neuronal excitability varies across brain region and cell type

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vallent; Maguire, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    The diversity of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) subunits and the numerous configurations during subunit assembly give rise to a variety of receptors with different functional properties. This heterogeneity results in variations in GABAergic conductances across numerous brain regions and cell types. Phasic inhibition is mediated by synaptically-localized receptors with a low affinity for GABA and results in a transient, rapidly desensitizing GABAergic conductance; whereas, tonic inhibition is mediated by extrasynaptic receptors with a high affinity for GABA and results in a persistent GABAergic conductance. The specific functions of tonic versus phasic GABAergic inhibition in different cell types and the impact on specific neural circuits are only beginning to be unraveled. Here we review the diversity in the magnitude of tonic GABAergic inhibition in various brain regions and cell types, and highlight the impact on neuronal excitability in different neuronal circuits. Further, we discuss the relevance of tonic inhibition in various physiological and pathological contexts as well as the potential of targeting these receptor subtypes for treatment of diseases, such as epilepsy. PMID:24550784

  11. Interleukin-1 interaction with neuroregulatory systems: selective enhancement by recombinant human and mouse interleukin-1 of in vitro opioid peptide receptor binding in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedermann, C.J.

    1989-02-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) exerts a wide variety of biological effects on various cell types and may be regarded as a pleiotropic peptide hormone. Biological evidence suggests that IL-1 participates in the modulation of central nervous system physiology and behavior in a fashion characteristic of neuroendocrine hormones. In this investigation, recombinant (r) human (h) IL-1 and r mouse (m) IL-1 were examined for their modulation of opioid peptide receptor binding in vitro. Experiments were performed on frozen sections of rat brain. Receptor binding of radiolabeled substance P and of radiolabeled neurotensin were not significantly affected by the presence of rIL-1s. Recombinant IL-1s, however, significantly enhanced specific binding of 125I-beta-endorphin (125I-beta-END) and of D-ala2-(tyrosyl-3,5-3H)enkephalin-(5-D-leucine) (3H-D-ALA), equipotently and in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal activity occurring at a concentration of 10 LAF units/ml. The increased binding of 125I-beta-END and 3H-D-ALA was blocked steroselectively by (-)-naloxone and by etorphine, suggesting detection of opiate receptors. In addition, brain distribution patterns of receptors labeled in the presence of rIL-1s corresponded to patterns previously published for opiate receptors. Autoradiographic visualization of receptors revealed that rIL-1s in the different areas of the brain exert their effect on opioid binding with comparable potencies. The data suggest that certain central nervous system effects of IL-1s may be mediated by their selective interaction with opiatergic systems at the receptor level.

  12. Interleukin-1 interaction with neuroregulatory systems: selective enhancement by recombinant human and mouse interleukin-1 of in vitro opioid peptide receptor binding in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, C J

    1989-02-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) exerts a wide variety of biological effects on various cell types and may be regarded as a pleiotropic peptide hormone. Biological evidence suggests that IL-1 participates in the modulation of central nervous system physiology and behaviour in a fashion characteristic of neuroendocrine hormones. In this investigation, recombinant (r) human (h) IL-1 and r mouse (m) IL-1 were examined for their modulation of opioid peptide receptor binding in vitro. Experiments were performed on frozen sections of rat brain. Receptor binding of radiolabeled substance P and of radiolabeled neurotensin were not significantly affected by the presence of rIL-1s. Recombinant IL-1s, however, significantly enhanced specific binding of 125I-beta-endorphin (125I-beta-END) and of D-ala2-(tyrosyl-3,5-3H)enkephalin-(5-D-leucine) (3H-D-ALA), equipotently and in a concentration-dependent manner with maximal activity occurring at a concentration of 10 LAF units/ml. The increased binding of 125I-beta-END and 3H-D-ALA was blocked steroselectively by (-)-naloxone and by etorphine, suggesting detection of opiate receptors. In addition, brain distribution patterns of receptors labeled in the presence of rIL-1s corresponded to patterns previously published for opiate receptors. Autoradiographic visualization of receptors revealed that rIL-1s in the different areas of the brain exert their effect on opioid binding with comparable potencies. The data suggest that certain central nervous system effects of IL-1s may be mediated by their selective interaction with opiatergic systems at the receptor level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2468786

  13. IL-6/STAT3 signaling in mice with dysfunctional type-2 ryanodine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tai-Qin; Willis, Monte S; Meissner, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mice with genetically modified cardiac ryanodine receptor (Ryr2ADA/ADA mice) are impaired in regulation by calmodulin, develop severe cardiac hypertrophy and die about 2 weeks after birth. We hypothesized that the interleukin 6 (IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) signaling pathway has a role in the development of the Ryr2ADA/ADA cardiac hypertrophy phenotype, and determined cardiac function and protein levels of IL-6, phosphorylation levels of STAT3, and downstream targets c-Fos and c-Myc in wild-type and RyR2ADA/ADA mice, mice with a disrupted IL-6 gene, and mice treated with STAT3 inhibitor NSC74859. IL-6 protein levels were increased at postnatal day 1 but not day 10, whereas pSTAT3-Tyr705/STAT3 ratio and c-Fos and c-Myc protein levels increased in hearts of 10-day but not 1-day old Ryr2ADA/ADA mice compared with wild type. Both STAT3 and pSTAT3-Tyr705 accumulated in the nuclear fraction of 10-day old Ryr2ADA/ADA mice compared with wild type. Ryr2ADA /ADA /IL-6−/− mice lived 1.5 times longer, had decreased heart to body weight ratio, and reduced c-Fos and c-Myc protein levels. The STAT3 inhibitor NSC74859 prolonged life span by 1.3-fold, decreased heart to body weight ratio, increased cardiac performance, and decreased pSTAT-Tyr705/STAT3 ratio and IL-6, c-Fos and c-Myc protein levels of Ryr2ADA /ADA mice. The results suggest that upregulation of IL-6 and STAT3 signaling contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and early death of mice with a dysfunctional ryanodine receptor. They further suggest that STAT3 inhibitors may be clinically useful agents in patients with altered Ca2+ handling in the heart. PMID:27217982

  14. Type III TGFβ receptor and Src direct hyaluronan-mediated invasive cell motility.

    PubMed

    Allison, Patrick; Espiritu, Daniella; Barnett, Joey V; Camenisch, Todd D

    2015-03-01

    During embryogenesis, the epicardium undergoes proliferation, migration, and differentiation into several cardiac cell types which contribute to the coronary vessels. This process requires epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and directed cellular invasion. The Type III Transforming Growth Factor-beta Receptor (TGFβR3) is required for epicardial cell invasion and coronary vessel development. Using primary epicardial cells derived from Tgfbr3(+/+) and Tgfbr3(-/-) mouse embryos, high-molecular weight hyaluronan (HMWHA) stimulated cellular invasion and filamentous (f-actin) polymerization are detected in Tgfbr3(+/+) cells, but not in Tgfbr3(-/-) cells. Furthermore, HMWHA-stimulated cellular invasion and f-actin polymerization in Tgfbr3(+/+) epicardial cells are dependent on Src kinase. Src activation in HMWHA-stimulated Tgfbr3(-/-) epicardial cells is not detected in response to HMWHA. RhoA and Rac1 also fail to activate in response to HMWHA in Tgfbr3(-/-) cells. These events coincide with defective f-actin formation and deficient cellular invasion. Finally, a T841A activating substitution in TGFβR3 drives ligand-independent Src activation. Collectively, these data define a TGFβR3-Src-RhoA/Rac1 pathway that is essential for hyaluronan-directed cell invasion in epicardial cells. PMID:25499979

  15. Targeting Sindbis virus-based vectors to Fc receptor-positive cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Klimstra, William B.; Williams, Jacqueline C.; Ryman, Kate D.; Heidner, Hans W. . E-mail: hans.heidner@utsa.edu

    2005-07-20

    Some viruses display enhanced infection for Fc receptor (FcR)-positive cell types when complexed with virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig). This process has been termed antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection (ADE). We reasoned that the mechanism of ADE could be exploited and adapted to target alphavirus-based vectors to FcR-positive cell types. Towards this goal, recombinant Sindbis viruses were constructed that express 1 to 4 immunoglobulin-binding domains of protein L (PpL) as N-terminal extensions of the E2 glycoprotein. PpL is a bacterial protein that binds the variable region of antibody kappa light chains from a range of mammalian species. The recombinant viruses incorporated PpL/E2 fusion proteins into the virion structure and recapitulated the species-specific Ig-binding phenotypes of native PpL. Virions reacted with non-immune serum or purified IgG displayed enhanced binding and ADE for several species-matched FcR-positive murine and human cell lines. ADE required virus expression of a functional PpL Ig-binding domain, and appeared to be Fc{gamma}R-mediated. Specifically, ADE did not occur with Fc{gamma}R-negative cells, did not require active complement proteins, and did not occur on Fc{gamma}R-positive murine cell lines when virions were bound by murine IgG-derived F(ab'){sub 2} fragments.

  16. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression.

    PubMed

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D).We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen.In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2. PMID:27121132

  17. Impact of angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene polymorphism on insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Mesallamy, H; El-Refaie, T; El-Razek, R A

    2013-04-01

    Insulin resistance is allegedly a target pathophysiological mechanism in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome. Moreover, this metabolic alteration is possibly genetically determined. In view of the recent evidence implicating genetic variants of the renin-angiotensin system as candidates in several metabolic disorders, we investigated the allele and genotype frequencies of the A1166 C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor in relation with various metabolic and biochemical parameters in affected females trying to asses its role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. The study was conducted on 83 females of which 39 females served as the control group. The participants were matched for age, body mass index and degree of obesity. For all subjects biochemical parameters were assayed including soluble CD40 ligand together with fasting glucose and insulin which were used for calculation of insulin resistance indices, Genotyping performed using real time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the C allele frequency and the AC genotype were less frequently observed in patients compared to controls, however this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.146). Lack of the C allele was associated with adverse metabolic parameters including higher rate of insulin resistance as well as solubes CD40 ligand in the patients group. Results of the current study support a causative role for the A1166 C polymorphism of the angiotensin II type 1 gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis or phenotypic expression of polycystic ovary syndrome. PMID:23564192

  18. Different inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in fourteen families affected by type I pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Sartorato, Paola; Lapeyraque, Anne-Laure; Armanini, Decio; Kuhnle, Ursula; Khaldi, Yasmina; Salomon, Rémi; Abadie, Véronique; Di Battista, Eliana; Naselli, Arturo; Racine, Alain; Bosio, Maurizio; Caprio, Massimiliano; Poulet-Young, Véronique; Chabrolle, Jean-Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; De Gennes, Christiane; Lecornec, Marie-Hélène; Poisson, Elodie; Fusco, Anna Maria; Loli, Paola; Lombès, Marc; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2003-06-01

    We have analyzed the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) gene in 14 families with autosomal dominant or sporadic pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1), a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by neonatal renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Six heterozygous mutations were detected. Two frameshift mutations in exon 2 (insT1354, del8bp537) and one nonsense mutation in exon 4 (C2157A, Cys645stop) generate truncated proteins due to premature stop codons. Three missense mutations (G633R, Q776R, L979P) differently affect hMR function. The DNA binding domain mutant R633 exhibits reduced maximal transactivation, although its binding characteristics and ED(50) of transactivation are comparable with wild-type hMR. Ligand binding domain mutants R776 and P979 present reduced or absent aldosterone binding, respectively, which is associated with reduced or absent ligand-dependent transactivation capacity. Finally, P979 possesses a transdominant negative effect on wild-type hMR activity, whereas mutations G633R and Q776R probably result in haploinsufficiency in PHA1 patients. We conclude that hMR mutations are a common feature of autosomal dominant PHA1, being found in 70% of our familial cases. Their absence in some families underscores the importance of an extensive investigation of the hMR gene and the role of precise diagnostic procedures to allow for identification of other genes potentially involved in the disease. PMID:12788847

  19. Genetic polymorphism of estrogen receptor alpha gene in Egyptian women with type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Motawi, Tarek M.K.; El-Rehany, Mahmoud A.; Rizk, Sherine M.; Ramzy, Maggie M.; el-Roby, Doaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen might play an important role in type 2 diabetes mellitus pathogenesis. A number of polymorphisms have been reported in the estrogen receptor alpha gene including the XbaI and PvuII restriction enzyme polymorphisms. The aim of this study was to determine if ESRα gene polymorphisms are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and correlated with lipid profile. Ninety diabetic Egyptian patients were compared with forty healthy controls. ESRα genotyping of PvuII and XbaI was performed using restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Our study showed that there is more significant difference in the frequency of C and G polymorphic allele between patients and control groups in PvuII and XbaI respectively. Also carriers of minor C and G alleles of PvuII and XbaI gene polymorphisms were associated with increased fasting blood glucose and disturbance in lipid profile as there is an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and Low density lipoprotein. So findings of present study suggest the possibility that PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms in ERα are related to T2DM and with increased serum lipids among Egyptian population. PMID:26401488

  20. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor causes acquired resistance to erlotinib in lung cancer cells with the wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Katsuaki; Takemoto, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2014-08-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy often provides a dramatic response in lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations. In addition, moderate clinical efficacy of the EGFR-TKI, erlotinib, has been shown in lung cancer patients with the wild-type EGFR. Numerous molecular mechanisms that cause acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs have been identified in lung cancers with the EGFR mutations; however, few have been reported in lung cancers with the wild-type EGFR. We used H358 lung adenocarcinoma cells lacking EGFR mutations that showed modest sensitivity to erlotinib. The H358 cells acquired resistance to erlotinib via chronic exposure to the drug. The H358 erlotinib-resistant (ER) cells do not have a secondary EGFR mutation, neither MET gene amplification nor PTEN downregulation; these have been identified in lung cancers with the EGFR mutations. From comprehensive screening of receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation, we observed increased phosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) in H358ER cells compared with parental H358 cells. H358ER cells responded to combined therapy with erlotinib and NVP-AEW541, an IGF1R-TKI. Our results indicate that IGF1R activation is a molecular mechanism that confers acquired resistance to erlotinib in lung cancers with the wild-type EGFR. PMID:24458568

  1. Pharmacological characterization of receptor types mediating the dilator action of anandamide on blood vessels of the rat knee joint.

    PubMed

    Lam, Francis F Y; Luk, Phoebe W S; Ng, Ethel S K

    2007-03-27

    This study investigates the actions of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide (anandamide) on blood flow of the rat knee joint. Topical bolus administration of anandamide (10-1000 nmol) onto the exposed knee joint capsules produced dose-dependent increases in the knee joint blood flow. Various antagonists were tested on the vasodilator response to 100 nmol anandamide. Capsazepine (N-[2-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-7,8-dihydroxy-2H-2-benzazepine-2-carbothioamide), an antagonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) receptor, given at 10 and 100 nmol, suppressed the response by a maximum of 71%. A cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist AM281 (10 nmol) and a CB(2) receptor antagonist AM630 (10 nmol) shortened its duration from 15 min to 5 min. O-1918 (1 nmol), an antagonist of the putative endothelial anandamide/abnormal-cannabidiol receptor, on its own or combined with capsazepine and the two cannabinoid receptor antagonists produced 38% and 24% inhibition on the peak vasodilator response to anandamide, respectively. URB597 (1 nmol), an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) suppressed the response by 40%, and an anandamide transporter inhibitor [N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenamide] (AM404; 1 nmol) or a cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitor flurbiprofen (20 nmol) abolished the response. These findings suggest the vasodilator action of anandamide in the rat knee joint involved hydrolysis of the compound by FAAH, production of COX-derived eicosanoid(s), activation of TRPV1 receptors, and a small component involved activation of endothelial anandamide/abnormal-cannabidiol receptors; a minor delayed dilator response was mediated by activation of conventional cannabinoid receptors. PMID:17275857

  2. Positioning of the α-subunit isoforms confers a functional signature to γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Minier, Frédéric; Sigel, Erwin

    2004-01-01

    Fast synaptic inhibitory transmission in the CNS is mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. They belong to the ligand-gated ion channel receptor superfamily, and are constituted of five subunits surrounding a chloride channel. Their clinical interest is highlighted by the number of therapeutic drugs that act on them. It is well established that the subunit composition of a receptor subtype determines its pharmacological properties. We have investigated positional effects of two different α-subunit isoforms, α1 and α6, in a single pentamer. For this purpose, we used concatenated subunit receptors in which subunit arrangement is predefined. The resulting receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed by using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thus, we have characterized γ2β2α1β2α1, γ2β2α6β2α6, γ2β2α1β2α6, and γ2β2α6β2α1 GABAA receptors. We investigated their response to the agonist GABA, to the partial agonist piperidine-4-sulfonic acid, to the noncompetitive inhibitor furosemide and to the positive allosteric modulator diazepam. Each receptor isoform is characterized by a specific set of properties. In this case, subunit positioning provides a functional signature to the receptor. We furthermore show that a single α6-subunit is sufficient to confer high furosemide sensitivity, and that the diazepam efficacy is determined exclusively by the α-subunit neighboring the γ2-subunit. By using this diagnostic tool, it should become possible to determine the subunit arrangement of receptors expressed in vivo that contain α1- and α6-subunits. This method may also be applied to the study of other ion channels. PMID:15136735

  3. Differential regulation of interleukin-8 gene transcription by death receptor 3 (DR3) and type I TNF receptor (TNFRI).

    PubMed

    Su, Wenlynn B; Chang, Ying-Hsin; Lin, Wan-Wan; Hsieh, Shie-Liang

    2006-02-01

    TL1A induces interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophage in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Overexpression of its cognate receptor DR3 can induce a higher amount of IL-8 protein secretion than that induced by TNFRI even though both receptors activate IL-8 gene transcription in a similar fashion. The underlying mechanism for the regulation of the IL-8 gene transcription by DR3 has not been investigated yet. Here, we used HEK293 cells as a model system to dissect the possible signaling components that are involved in the regulation of DR3-mediated IL-8 gene expression. Although both DR3 and TNFRI activated TRAF2 and NF-kappaB to induce IL-8 gene transcription, the kinase cascades that transduce signals for DR3- and TNFRI-induced IL-8 gene transcription are different. The axis TAK1/ASK1-MKK4/MKK7-JNK2 is responsible for DR3-mediated IL-8 gene expression whereas the axis ASK1-MKK4-JNK1/JNK2/p38MAPK is the choice for TNFRI-mediated activation of IL-8 gene expression. This indicates that the downstream signaling pathways of DR3 and TNFRI for IL-8 secretion are divergent even though both receptors contain death-domain and induce IL-8 secretion via TRAF2. PMID:16324699

  4. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists in animal models of vascular, cardiac, metabolic and renal disease.

    PubMed

    Michel, Martin C; Brunner, Hans R; Foster, Carolyn; Huo, Yong

    2016-08-01

    We have reviewed the effects of angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (ARBs) in various animal models of hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiac function, hypertrophy and fibrosis, glucose and lipid metabolism, and renal function and morphology. Those of azilsartan and telmisartan have been included comprehensively whereas those of other ARBs have been included systematically but without intention of completeness. ARBs as a class lower blood pressure in established hypertension and prevent hypertension development in all applicable animal models except those with a markedly suppressed renin-angiotensin system; blood pressure lowering even persists for a considerable time after discontinuation of treatment. This translates into a reduced mortality, particularly in models exhibiting marked hypertension. The retrieved data on vascular, cardiac and renal function and morphology as well as on glucose and lipid metabolism are discussed to address three main questions: 1. Can ARB effects on blood vessels, heart, kidney and metabolic function be explained by blood pressure lowering alone or are they additionally directly related to blockade of the renin-angiotensin system? 2. Are they shared by other inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, e.g. angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors? 3. Are some effects specific for one or more compounds within the ARB class? Taken together these data profile ARBs as a drug class with unique properties that have beneficial effects far beyond those on blood pressure reduction and, in some cases distinct from those of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The clinical relevance of angiotensin receptor-independent effects of some ARBs remains to be determined. PMID:27130806

  5. Targeting Incretins in Type 2 Diabetes: Role of GLP-1 Receptor Agonists and DPP-4 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Pratley, Richard E.; Gilbert, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been conceptualized in terms of the predominant defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. It is now recognized that abnormalities in other hormones also contribute to the development of hyperglycemia. For example, the incretin effect, mediated by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), is attenuated in T2DM. Intravenous administration of GLP-1 ameliorates hyperglycemia in patients with T2DM, but an extremely short half-life limits its utility as a therapeutic agent. Strategies to leverage the beneficial effects of GLP-1 include GLP-1 receptor agonists or analogs or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors—agents that act by slowing the inactivation of endogenous GLP-1 and GIP. The GLP-1 agonist exenatide has been shown to improve HbA1c and decrease body weight. However, exenatide is limited by its relatively short pharmacologic half-life, various gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, and the development of antibodies. Studies of a long-acting exenatide formulation suggest that it has improved efficacy and also promotes weight loss. Another prospect is liraglutide, a once-daily human GLP-1 analog. In phase 2 studies, liraglutide lowered HbA1c by up to 1.7% and weight by approximately 3 kg, with apparently fewer GI side effects than exenatide. DPP-4 inhibitors such as sitagliptin and vildagliptin result in clinically significant reductions in HbA1c, and are weight neutral with few GI side effects. This review will provide an overview of current and emerging agents that augment the incretin system with a focus on the role of GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. PMID:18795210

  6. Minor Type IV Collagen α5 Chain Promotes Cancer Progression through Discoidin Domain Receptor-1

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qian; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Qingbo; Yue, Jiao; Liu, Chunying; Zhao, Xiaotong; Qiao, Yuemei; Ji, Hongbin; Chen, Jianfeng; Ge, Gaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Type IV collagens (Col IV), components of basement membrane, are essential in the maintenance of tissue integrity and proper function. Alteration of Col IV is related to developmental defects and diseases, including cancer. Col IV α chains form α1α1α2, α3α4α5 and α5α5α6 protomers that further form collagen networks. Despite knowledge on the functions of major Col IV (α1α1α2), little is known whether minor Col IV (α3α4α5 and α5α5α6) plays a role in cancer. It also remains to be elucidated whether major and minor Col IV are functionally redundant. We show that minor Col IV α5 chain is indispensable in cancer development by using α5(IV)-deficient mouse model. Ablation of α5(IV) significantly impeded the development of KrasG12D-driven lung cancer without affecting major Col IV expression. Epithelial α5(IV) supports cancer cell proliferation, while endothelial α5(IV) is essential for efficient tumor angiogenesis. α5(IV), but not α1(IV), ablation impaired expression of non-integrin collagen receptor discoidin domain receptor-1 (DDR1) and downstream ERK activation in lung cancer cells and endothelial cells. Knockdown of DDR1 in lung cancer cells and endothelial cells phenocopied the cells deficient of α5(IV). Constitutively active DDR1 or MEK1 rescued the defects of α5(IV)-ablated cells. Thus, minor Col IV α5(IV) chain supports lung cancer progression via DDR1-mediated cancer cell autonomous and non-autonomous mechanisms. Minor Col IV can not be functionally compensated by abundant major Col IV. PMID:25992553

  7. Pharmacological benefits of selective modulation of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in experimental Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jayant, Shalini; Sharma, Brij Mohan; Bansal, Rani; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that pervasively affects the population across the world. Currently, there is no effective treatment available for this and existing drugs merely slow the progression of cognitive function decline. Thus, massive effort is required to find an intended therapeutic target to overcome this condition. The present study has been framed to investigate the ameliorative role of selective modulator of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2), 1-phenylisatin in experimental AD condition. We have induced experimental AD in mice by using two induction models viz., intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and aluminum trichloride (AlCl3)+d-galactose. Morris water maze (MWM) and attentional set shifting test (ASST) were used to assess learning and memory. Hematoxylin-eosin and Congo red staining were used to examine the structural variation in brain. Brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and glutathione), nitric oxide levels (nitrites/nitrates), acetyl cholinesterase activity, myeloperoxidase and calcium levels were also estimated. i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3+d-galactose have impaired spatial and reversal learning with executive functioning, increased brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, cholinergic activity, inflammation and calcium levels. Furthermore, these agents have also enhanced the burden of Aβ plaque in the brain. Treatment with 1-phenylisatin and donepezil attenuated i.c.v. STZ as well as AlCl3+d-galactose induced impairment of learning-memory, brain biochemistry and brain damage. Hence, this study concludes that CB2 receptor modulation can be a potential therapeutic target for the management of AD. PMID:26577751

  8. Generation and Characterization of Mice Expressing a Conditional Allele of the Interleukin-1 Receptor Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Matthew J.; Zhu, Chong-Bin; Quinlan, Meagan A.; Botschner, David A.; Baganz, Nicole L.; Lindler, Kathryn M.; Thome, Jason G.; Hewlett, William A.; Blakely, Randy D.

    2016-01-01

    The cytokines IL-1α and IL-1β exert powerful pro-inflammatory actions throughout the body, mediated primarily by the intracellular signaling capacity of the interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1). Although Il1r1 knockout mice have been informative with respect to a requirement for IL-1R1 signaling in inflammatory events, the constitutive nature of gene elimination has limited their utility in the assessment of temporal and spatial patterns of cytokine action. To pursue such questions, we have generated C57Bl/6J mice containing a floxed Il1r1 gene (Il1r1loxP/loxP), with loxP sites positioned to flank exons 3 and 4 and thereby the ability to spatially and temporally eliminate Il1r1 expression and signaling. We found that Il1r1loxP/loxP mice breed normally and exhibit no gross physical or behavioral phenotypes. Moreover, Il1r1loxP/loxP mice exhibit normal IL-1R1 receptor expression in brain and spleen, as well as normal IL-1R1-dependent increases in serum IL-6 following IL-1α injections. Breeding of Il1r1loxP/loxP mice to animals expressing a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-driven Cre recombinase afforded efficient excision at the Il1r1 locus. The Il1r1loxP/loxP line should be a valuable tool for the assessment of contributions made by IL-1R1 signaling in diverse cell types across development. PMID:26930558

  9. MPZP: a novel small molecule corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor (CRF1) antagonist.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Heather N; Zhao, Yu; Fekete, Eva M; Funk, Cindy K; Wirsching, Peter; Janda, Kim D; Zorrilla, Eric P; Koob, George F

    2008-02-01

    The extrahypothalamic stress peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system is an important regulator of behavioral responses to stress. Dysregulation of CRF and the CRF type 1 receptor (CRF(1)) system is hypothesized to underlie many stress-related disorders. Modulation of the CRF(1) system by non-peptide antagonists currently is being explored as a therapeutic approach for anxiety disorders and alcohol dependence. Here, we describe a new, less hydrophilic (cLogP approximately 2.95), small molecule, non-peptide CRF(1) antagonist with high affinity (K(i)=4.9 nM) and specificity for CRF(1) receptors: N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-7-amine (MPZP). The compound was systemically administered to adult male rats in two behavioral models dependent on the CRF(1) system: defensive burying (0, 5, 20 mg/kg, n=6-11 for each dose) and alcohol dependence (0, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg, n=8 for each self-administration group). Acute administration of MPZP reduced burying behavior in the defensive burying model of active anxiety-like behavior. MPZP also attenuated withdrawal-induced excessive drinking in the self-administration model of alcohol dependence without affecting nondependent alcohol drinking or water consumption. The present findings support the proposed significance of the CRF(1) system in anxiety and alcohol dependence and introduce a promising new compound for further development in the treatment of alcohol dependence and stress-related disorders. PMID:18031798

  10. Evaluation of the specificity of antibodies raised against cannabinoid receptor type 2 in the mouse retina.

    PubMed

    Cécyre, Bruno; Thomas, Sébastien; Ptito, Maurice; Casanova, Christian; Bouchard, Jean-François

    2014-02-01

    Cannabinoid receptors (CB1R and CB2R) are among the most abundant G protein-coupled receptors in the central nervous system. The endocannabinoid system is an attractive therapeutic target for immune system modulation and peripheral pain management. While CB1R is distributed in the nervous system, CB2R has traditionally been associated to the immune system. This dogma is currently a subject of debate since the discovery of CB2R expression in neurons using antibody-based methods. The localization of CB2R in the central nervous system (CNS) could have a significant impact on drug development because it would mean that in addition to its effects on the peripheral pain pathway, CB2R could also mediate some central effects of cannabinoids. In an attempt to clarify the debate over CB2R expression in the CNS, we tested several commercially or academically produced CB2R antibodies using Western blot and immunohistochemistry on retinal tissue obtained from wild-type mice and mice lacking CB2R (cnr2 (-/-) ). One of the antibodies tested exhibited a valuable specificity as it marked a single band near the predicted molecular weight in Western blot and produced no staining in cnr2 (-/-) mice retina sections. The other antibodies tested detected multiple bands in Western blot and labeled unidentified proteins when used with their immunizing peptide or on cnr2 (-/-) retinal sections. We conclude that many commonly used antibodies raised against CB2R are not specific for use in immunohistochemistry, at least in the context of the mouse retina. Moreover, some of them tested presented significant lot-to-lot variability. Hence, caution should be used when interpreting prior and future studies using CB2R antibodies. PMID:24185999

  11. Phylogeny of the vomeronasal system and of receptor cell types in the olfactory and vomeronasal epithelia of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Eisthen, H L

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, the evolutionary origin of the vomeronasal system as a discrete sensory system separate from olfaction is examined. The presence of a discrete vomeronasal system appears to be a derived character in tetrapods, and its presence in larval amphibians indicates that the system did not arise as a terrestrial adaptation. The vomeronasal system has been lost independently in several taxa, including crocodilians, some bats, cetaceans, and some primates. The presence of microvillar receptor cells in the vomeronasal epithelium appears to be the ancestral condition for tetrapods, and alternative hypotheses concerning the ancestral condition for receptor cell types in the vertebrate olfactory epithelium are discussed. Finally, the possibility that the vomeronasal system is present in some fishes in a form that has not been recognized is discussed in relation to the phylogenetic distribution of receptor cell types in vertebrates. PMID:1392068

  12. Inhibition of activin receptor type IIB increases strength and lifespan in myotubularin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Michael W; Read, Benjamin P; Edelstein, Rachel; Yang, Nicole; Pierson, Christopher R; Stein, Matthew J; Wermer-Colan, Ariana; Buj-Bello, Anna; Lachey, Jennifer L; Seehra, Jasbir S; Beggs, Alan H

    2011-02-01

    X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM) is a congenital disorder caused by deficiency of the lipid phosphatase, myotubularin. Patients with XLMTM often have severe perinatal weakness that requires mechanical ventilation to prevent death from respiratory failure. Muscle biopsy specimens from patients with XLMTM exhibit small myofibers with central nuclei and central aggregations of organelles in many cells. It was postulated that therapeutically increasing muscle fiber size would cause symptomatic improvement in myotubularin deficiency. Recent studies have elucidated an important role for the activin-receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) in regulation of muscle growth and have demonstrated that ActRIIB inhibition results in significant muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate whether promoting muscle hypertrophy can attenuate symptoms resulting from myotubularin deficiency, the effect of ActRIIB-mFC treatment was determined in myotubularin-deficient (Mtm1δ4) mice. Compared with wild-type mice, untreated Mtm1δ4 mice have decreased body weight, skeletal muscle hypotrophy, and reduced survival. Treatment of Mtm1δ4 mice with ActRIIB-mFC produced a 17% extension of lifespan, with transient increases in weight, forelimb grip strength, and myofiber size. Pathologic analysis of Mtm1δ4 mice during treatment revealed that ActRIIB-mFC produced marked hypertrophy restricted to type 2b myofibers, which suggests that oxidative fibers in Mtm1δ4 animals are incapable of a hypertrophic response in this setting. These results support ActRIIB-mFC as an effective treatment for the weakness observed in myotubularin deficiency. PMID:21281811

  13. Functional consequences of transferrin receptor-2 mutations causing hereditary hemochromatosis type 3.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ricky; Shvartsman, Maya; Morán, Erica; Lois, Sergi; Aranda, Jessica; Barqué, Anna; de la Cruz, Xavier; Bruguera, Miquel; Vagace, José Manuel; Gervasini, Guillermo; Sanz, Cristina; Sánchez, Mayka

    2015-05-01

    Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) type 3 is an autosomal recessive disorder of iron metabolism characterized by excessive iron deposition in the liver and caused by mutations in the transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) gene. Here, we describe three new HH type 3 Spanish families with four TFR2 mutations (p.Gly792Arg, c.1606-8A>G, Gln306*, and Gln672*). The missense variation p.Gly792Arg was found in homozygosity in two adult patients of the same family, and in compound heterozygosity in an adult proband that also carries a novel intronic change (c.1606-8A>G). Two new nonsense TFR2 mutations (Gln306* and Gln672*) were detected in a pediatric case. We examine the functional consequences of two TFR2 variants (p.Gly792Arg and c.1606-8A>G) using molecular and computational methods. Cellular protein localization studies using immunofluorescence demonstrated that the plasma membrane localization of p.Gly792Arg TFR2 is impaired. Splicing studies in vitro and in vivo reveal that the c.1606-8A>G mutation leads to the creation of a new acceptor splice site and an aberrant TFR2 mRNA. The reported mutations caused HH type 3 by protein truncation, altering TFR2 membrane localization or by mRNA splicing defect, producing a nonfunctional TFR2 protein and a defective signaling transduction for hepcidin regulation. TFR2 genotyping should be considered in adult but also in pediatric cases with early-onset of iron overload. PMID:26029709

  14. Kinin B1 Receptor Deletion Affects Bone Healing in Type 1 Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Cignachi, Natália P; Pesquero, João B; Oliveira, Rogério B; Etges, Adriana; Campos, Maria M

    2015-12-01

    The effects of kinin B1 receptor (B1 R) deletion were examined on femur bone regeneration in streptozotocin (STZ)-type 1 diabetes. Diabetes induction in wild-type C57/BL6 (WTC57BL6) mice led to decrease in body weight and hyperglycemia, compared to the non-diabetic group of the same strain. The lack of B1 R did not affect STZ-elicited body weight loss, but partially prevented hyperglycemia. Diabetic mice had a clear delay in bone regeneration, and displayed large areas of loose connective tissue within the defects, with a reduced expression of the mineralization-related protein osteonectin, when compared to the non-diabetic WTC57/BL6. The non-diabetic and diabetic B1 R knockout (B1 RKO) mice had bone regeneration levels and osteonectin expression comparable to that seen in control WTC57/BL6 mice. WTC57/BL6 STZ-diabetic mice also showed a marked reduction of collagen contents, with increased immunolabeling for the apoptosis marker caspase-3, whereas diabetic B1 RKO had collagen levels and caspase-3 activity comparable to those observed in non-diabetic WTC57/BL6 or B1 RKO mice. No significant difference was detected in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-stained cells, or in RANK/RANKL/OPG system immunolabeling throughout the experimental groups. Data bring novel evidence on the relevance of kinin B1 R under type 1 diabetes with regards to its role in bone regeneration. PMID:25969420

  15. Tumor biology in estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-negative breast cancer: Mind the menopausal status

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is not one disease, but can be categorized into four major molecular subtypes according to hormone receptor [estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR)] and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) expression status. Ki67 labeling index and/or multigene assays are used to classify ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer into luminal A and luminal B (HER2-negative) subtypes. To date, most studies analyzing predictive or prognostic factors in ER-positive breast cancer have been performed in postmenopausal women, mainly using patients and samples in adjuvant aromatase inhibitor trials. In contrast, even the clinical roles of PgR and Ki67 have been little analyzed so far in premenopausal women. PgR is one of the estrogen-responsive genes, and it has been reported that plasma estradiol levels are related to expression levels of estrogen-responsive genes including PGR in ER-positive breast cancer. In this article, biological differences, especially differences in expression of PgR and Ki67 in ER-positive breast cancer between pre- and postmenopausal women are discussed. Clinical roles of PgR and Ki67 in ER-positive breast cancer differ between pre- and postmenopausal women. We suggest that the mechanisms of development and estrogen-dependent growth of ER-positive breast cancer might differ according to menopausal status. PMID:26677435

  16. Scavenger Receptor Class B Type I (SCARB1) c.1119C>T Polymorphism Affects Postprandial Triglyceride Metabolism in Men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The scavenger receptor class B type I (SCARB1) is a cell surface glycoprotein that plays a key role in reverse cholesterol transport. A polymorphism in exon 8 (c.1119C>T) has been associated with fasting HDL- and LDL- cholesterol concentrations in Caucasian populations. This study evaluated whether ...

  17. Vascular Type 1A Angiotensin II Receptors Control BP by Regulating Renal Blood Flow and Urinary Sodium Excretion.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Matthew A; Stegbauer, Johannes; Chen, Daian; Gomez, Jose A; Griffiths, Robert C; Azad, Hooman A; Herrera, Marcela; Gurley, Susan B; Coffman, Thomas M

    2015-12-01

    Inappropriate activation of the type 1A angiotensin (AT1A) receptor contributes to the pathogenesis of hypertension and its associated complications. To define the role for actions of vascular AT1A receptors in BP regulation and hypertension pathogenesis, we generated mice with cell-specific deletion of AT1A receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMKO mice) using Loxp technology and Cre transgenes with robust expression in both conductance and resistance arteries. We found that elimination of AT1A receptors from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) caused a modest (approximately 7 mmHg) yet significant reduction in baseline BP and exaggerated sodium sensitivity in mice. Additionally, the severity of angiotensin II (Ang II)-dependent hypertension was dramatically attenuated in SMKO mice, and this protection against hypertension was associated with enhanced urinary excretion of sodium. Despite the lower BP, acute vasoconstrictor responses to Ang II in the systemic vasculature were largely preserved (approximately 80% of control levels) in SMKO mice because of exaggerated activity of the sympathetic nervous system rather than residual actions of AT1B receptors. In contrast, Ang II-dependent responses in the renal circulation were almost completely eliminated in SMKO mice (approximately 5%-10% of control levels). These findings suggest that direct actions of AT1A receptors in VSMCs are essential for regulation of renal blood flow by Ang II and highlight the capacity of Ang II-dependent vascular responses in the kidney to effect natriuresis and BP control. PMID:25855778

  18. Scavenger Receptor C-Type Lectin Binds to the Leukocyte Cell Surface Glycan Lewis By a Novel Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, H.; Taylor, M.E.; Weis, W.I.; /Stanford U., Med. School /Imperial Coll., London

    2007-07-10

    The scavenger receptor C-type lectin (SRCL) is unique in the family of class A scavenger receptors, because in addition to binding sites for oxidized lipoproteins it also contains a C-type carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) that interacts with specific glycans. Both human and mouse SRCL are highly specific for the Lewis(x) trisaccharide, which is commonly found on the surfaces of leukocytes and some tumor cells. Structural analysis of the CRD of mouse SRCL in complex with Lewis(x) and mutagenesis show the basis for this specificity. The interaction between mouse SRCL and Lewis(x) is analogous to the way that selectins and DC-SIGN bind to related fucosylated glycans, but the mechanism of the interaction is novel, because it is based on a primary galactose-binding site similar to the binding site in the asialoglycoprotein receptor. Crystals of the human receptor lacking bound calcium ions reveal an alternative conformation in which a glycan ligand would be released during receptor-mediated endocytosis.

  19. Metformin Disrupts Crosstalk Between G protein-Coupled Receptor and Insulin Receptor Signaling Systems and Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kisfalvi, Krisztina; Eibl, Guido; Sinnett-Smith, James; Rozengurt, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Recently we identified a novel crosstalk between insulin and G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways in human pancreatic cancer cells. Insulin enhanced GPCR signaling through a rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-dependent pathway. Metformin, the most widely used drug in the treatment of type-2 diabetes, activates AMP kinase (AMPK), which negatively regulates mTOR. Here, we determined whether metformin disrupts crosstalk between insulin receptor and GPCR signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. Treatment of human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1, MIAPaCa-2, BxPC-3) with insulin (10ng/ml) for 5 min markedly enhanced the increase in intracellular [Ca2+] induced by GPCR agonists (e.g. neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensin II). Metformin pretreatment completely abrogated insulin-induced potentiation of Ca2+ signaling but did not interfere with the effect of GPCR agonists alone. Insulin also enhanced GPCR agonist-induced growth, measured by DNA synthesis, and numbers of cells cultured in adherent or non-adherent conditions. Low doses of metformin (0.1-0.5 mM) blocked stimulation of DNA synthesis, anchorage-dependent and independent growth induced by insulin and GPCR agonists. Treatment with metformin induced striking and sustained increase in the phosphorylation of AMPK at Thr172 and a selective AMPK inhibitor (compound C, at 5μM) reversed the effects of metformin on [Ca2+]i, and DNA synthesis, indicating that metformin acts through AMPK activation. In view of these results we tested whether metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer growth. Administration of metformin significantly decreased the growth of MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells xenografted on the flank of nude mice. The results raise the possibility that metformin could be a potential candidate in novel treatment strategies for human pancreatic cancer. PMID:19679549

  20. Catestatin attenuates endoplasmic reticulum induced cell apoptosis by activation type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Feng; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Junyan; Fan, Jinghui; Wang, Jing; Yang, Jichun; Cui, Qinghua; Xu, Guoheng; Tang, Chaoshu; Geng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Catestatin (CST) is a catecholamine secretion inhibiting peptide as non-competitive inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. CST play a protective role in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Cardiomyocytes endogenously produced CST and its expression was reduced after I/R. CST pretreatment decreased apoptosis especially endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response during I/R. The protection of CST was confirmed in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts under Anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). In contrast, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CST exaggerated ER stress induced apoptosis. The protective effects of CST were blocked by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD90895 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor wortmannin. CST also increased ERK1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation and which was blocked by atropine and selective type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine (M2) receptor, but not type 1 muscarinic acetylcholine (M1) receptor antagonist. Receptor binding assay revealed that CST competitively bound to the M2 receptor with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 25.7 nM. Accordingly, CST inhibited cellular cAMP stimulated by isoproterenol or forskolin, and which was blocked by selective M2 receptor antagonist. Our findings revealed that CST binds to M2 receptor, then activates ERK1/2 and PI3 K/Akt pathway to inhibit ER stress-induced cell apoptosis resulting in attenuation cardiac I/R injury. PMID:26567709

  1. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker losartan prevents and rescues cerebrovascular, neuropathological and cognitive deficits in an Alzheimer's disease model.

    PubMed

    Ongali, Brice; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Tong, Xin-Kang; Aboulkassim, Tahar; Papadopoulos, Panayiota; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Lecrux, Clotilde; Imboden, Hans; Hamel, Edith

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) receptor blockers that bind selectively AngII type 1 (AT1) receptors may protect from Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the ability of the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan to cure or prevent AD hallmarks in aged (~18months at endpoint, 3months treatment) or adult (~12months at endpoint, 10months treatment) human amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. We tested learning and memory with the Morris water maze, and evaluated neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling using [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-PET and laser Doppler flowmetry responses to whisker stimulation. Cerebrovascular reactivity was assessed with on-line videomicroscopy. We measured protein levels of oxidative stress enzymes (superoxide dismutases SOD1, SOD2 and NADPH oxidase subunit p67phox), and quantified soluble and deposited amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), AngII receptors AT1 and AT2, angiotensin IV receptor AT4, and cortical cholinergic innervation. In aged APP mice, losartan did not improve learning but it consolidated memory acquisition and recall, and rescued neurovascular and neurometabolic coupling and cerebrovascular dilatory capacity. Losartan normalized cerebrovascular p67phox and SOD2 protein levels and up-regulated those of SOD1. Losartan attenuated astrogliosis, normalized AT1 and AT4 receptor levels, but failed to rescue the cholinergic deficit and the Aβ pathology. Given preventively, losartan protected cognitive function, cerebrovascular reactivity, and AT4 receptor levels. Like in aged APP mice, these benefits occurred without a decrease in soluble Aβ species or plaque load. We conclude that losartan exerts potent preventive and restorative effects on AD hallmarks, possibly by mitigating AT1-initiated oxidative stress and normalizing memory-related AT4 receptors. PMID:24807206

  2. Ambrisentan, an endothelin receptor type A-selective endothelin receptor antagonist, for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kingman, Martha; Ruggiero, Rosechelle; Torres, Fernando

    2009-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by vasoconstriction and vascular proliferation, which leads to right heart failure and death. Prostacyclin, NO and endothelin are felt to be key mediators in the development of PAH. We present the available published and presented data about ambrisentan, an ET(A)-selective endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA) and newest ERA agent to be approved by the FDA for the treatment of PAH in patients with WHO functional class II and III symptoms. Randomized, placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated a significant improvement in exercise capacity and decrease in time to clinical worsening, along with evidence to support an improvement in WHO functional class and quality of life for patients receiving ambrisentan. Long-term data have shown a 1-year survival of 95%; of the survivors, 94% remained on ambrisentan monotherapy. Endothelin receptor antagonists as a drug class have previously been associated with peripheral edema, aminotransferases abnormalities and a teratogenic risk to a developing fetus. Peripheral edema was observed in patients receiving ambrisentan; however, a greater percentage was experienced in patients aged > 65 years. In contrast, significant aminotransferase abnormalities were not observed with ambrisentan treatment in the placebo-controlled trials, and in all clinical trials combined the 1-year risk seems to be low (< 3%). Despite these data, the FDA requires monthly liver function tests monitoring. As with other ERAs, monthly pregnancy testing is required in all women of child bearing potential. PMID:19601701

  3. Visualization of multiple opioid-receptor types in rat striatum after specific mesencephalic lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, M.; Santoro, C.; Paredes, W.; Gardner, E.L.; Zukin, R.S.

    1987-09-01

    In order to gain insight into a possible modulatory role for ..mu.., delta, and kappa opioid receptors of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway, the authors investigated the topographical organization of the receptors with respect to pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Dopaminergic terminals projecting from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum were destroyed by unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the susbstantia nigra. Quantitative receptor assays using highly specific radioligands were used to measure the density of striatal ..mu.., delta, and kappa receptors before and after denervation. Quantitative in vitro autoradiography was used to visualize the neuroanatomical pattern of receptors on lesioned and nonlesioned sides of the brain under the light microscope. Loss of ..mu.. receptors in striatal patches was striking in the ventro-lateral areas of the striatum, whereas the most notable loss of delta receptors was found in the central striatum. Other brain areas did not differ significantly in ..mu.. receptor density between the lesioned and nonlesioned sides, as determined by autoradiography. These findings suggest that a high percentage of ..mu.. and delta receptors in the striatum are located on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic terminals and support the concept of a modulatory role for ..mu.. and delta opioid peptides in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway.

  4. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered that Vibrio parahaemolyticus VtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15718.001 PMID:27377244

  5. A soluble activin receptor type IIB does not improve blood glucose in streptozotocin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  6. Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors are highly concentrated in mitochondrial membranes of rat testicular interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Calvo, D J; Ritta, M N; Calandra, R S; Medina, J H

    1990-10-01

    The binding of 3H-RO 5-4864 to the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors (PBZDR) in rat testicular interstitial cells (TIC) was characterized. The binding was saturable, reversible and showed a single high-affinity (Kd = 5.02 +/- 0.86 nM) class of binding sites. The maximal binding capacity (Bmax) in crude mitochondrial fractions (77.6 +/- 9.1 pmol/mg protein) represents the highest density of PBZDR in tissues thus far studied. In comparison with the crude mitochondrial fraction the subcellular fractionation of TIC revealed a 2-fold enrichment of 3H-RO 5-4864 binding sites to the purified mitochondria (Bmax = 140 +/- 23 pmol/mg protein). The ability of various drugs to displace 3H-RO 5-4864 from TIC binding sites was examined and the inhibition constants (Ki) for RO 5-4864, PK 11195, diazepam and flunitrazepam were 3.5, 4.4, 159, and 353 nM, respectively, whereas clonazepam and RO 15-1788 were inefficient in displacing 3H-RO 5-4864 (Ki greater than 10 microM). This pharmacological profile is characteristic of PBZDR described in other tissues. In conclusion, rat TIC possess a very high concentration of PBZDR primarily associated with mitochondrial membranes. PMID:2175849

  7. Astrocytic expression of cannabinoid type 1 receptor in rat and human sclerotic hippocampi

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xian-Dong; Wei, Dong; Li, Juan; Kang, Jun-Jun; Wu, Chen; Ma, Lei; Yang, Feng; Zhu, Ge-Min; Ou-Yang, Tang-Peng; Liu, Ying-Ying; Jiang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R), which is traditionally located on axon terminals, plays an important role in the pathology of epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases by modulating synaptic transmission. Using the pilocarpine model of chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures, which mimics the main features of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) in humans, we examined the expression of CB1R in hippocampal astrocytes of epileptic rats. Furthermore, we also examined the expression of astrocytic CB1R in the resected hippocampi from patients with medically refractory mesial TLE. Using immunofluorescent double labeling, we found increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in hippocampi of epileptic rats, whereas expression of astrocytic CB1R was not detectable in hippocampi of saline treated animals. Furthermore, CB1R was also found in some astrocytes in sclerotic hippocampi in a subset of patients with intractable mesial TLE. Detection with immune electron microscopy showed that the expression of CB1R was increased in astrocytes of epileptic rats and modest levels of CB1R were also found on the astrocytic membrane of sclerotic hippocampi. These results suggest that increased expression of astrocytic CB1R in sclerotic hippocampi might be involved in the cellular basis of the effects of cannabinoids on epilepsy. PMID:25031702

  8. Tryptamine-Based Derivatives as Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Type 8 (TRPM8) Channel Modulators.

    PubMed

    Bertamino, Alessia; Ostacolo, Carmine; Ambrosino, Paolo; Musella, Simona; Di Sarno, Veronica; Ciaglia, Tania; Soldovieri, Maria Virginia; Iraci, Nunzio; Fernandez Carvajal, Asia; de la Torre-Martinez, Roberto; Ferrer-Montiel, Antonio; Gonzalez Muniz, Rosario; Novellino, Ettore; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Campiglia, Pietro; Gomez-Monterrey, Isabel

    2016-03-10

    Pharmacological modulation of the transient receptor potential melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) is currently under investigation as a new approach for the treatment of pain and other diseases. In this study, a series of N-substituted tryptamines was prepared to explore the structural requirements determining TRPM8 modulation. Using a fluorescence-based screening assay, we identified two compounds acting as an activator (2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N-(4-phenoxybenzyl)ethanamine, 21) or an inhibitor (N,N-dibenzyl-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine, 12) of calcium influx in HEK293 cells. In patch-clamp recordings, compound 21 displayed a significantly higher potency (EC50 = 40 ± 4 μM) and a similar efficacy when compared to menthol; by contrast, compound 12 produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of menthol-induced TRPM8 currents (IC50 = 367 ± 24 nM). Molecular modeling studies using a homology model of a single rat TRPM8 subunit identified a putative binding site located between the VSD and the TRP box, disclosing differences in the binding modes for the agonist and the antagonist. PMID:26847872

  9. Gene profiling of embryonic skeletal muscle lacking type I ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) release channel.

    PubMed

    Filipova, Dilyana; Walter, Anna M; Gaspar, John A; Brunn, Anna; Linde, Nina F; Ardestani, Mostafa A; Deckert, Martina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Sachinidis, Agapios; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    In mature skeletal muscle, the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration rises dramatically upon membrane depolarization, constituting the link between excitation and contraction. This process requires Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1). However, RYR1's potential roles in muscle development remain obscure. We used an established RyR1- null mouse model, dyspedic, to investigate the effects of the absence of a functional RYR1 and, consequently, the lack of RyR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling, during embryogenesis. Homozygous dyspedic mice die after birth and display small limbs and abnormal skeletal muscle organization. Skeletal muscles from front and hind limbs of dyspedic fetuses (day E18.5) were subjected to microarray analyses, revealing 318 differentially expressed genes. We observed altered expression of multiple transcription factors and members of key signaling pathways. Differential regulation was also observed for genes encoding contractile as well as muscle-specific structural proteins. Additional qRT-PCR analysis revealed altered mRNA levels of the canonical muscle regulatory factors Six1, Six4, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG and MRF4 in mutant muscle, which is in line with the severe developmental retardation seen in dyspedic muscle histology analyses. Taken together, these findings suggest an important non-contractile role of RyR1 or RYR1-mediated Ca(2+) signaling during muscle organ development. PMID:26831464

  10. Augmented noncanonical BMP type II receptor signaling mediates the synaptic abnormality of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Risa; Roy, Sougata; Ascano, Manuel; Martinez-Cerdeno, Veronica; Ariza-Torres, Jeanelle; Kim, Sunghwan; Louie, Justin; Lu, Yao; Leyton, Patricio; Bloch, Kenneth D; Kornberg, Thomas B; Hagerman, Paul J; Hagerman, Randi; Lagna, Giorgio; Hata, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), a common inherited form of intellectual disability and autism. FXS correlates with abnormal synapse and dendritic spine development, but the molecular link between the absence of the FMR1 product FMRP, an RNA binding protein, and the neuropathology is unclear. We found that the messenger RNA encoding bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR2) is a target of FMRP. Depletion of FMRP increased BMPR2 abundance, especially that of the full-length isoform that bound and activated LIM domain kinase 1 (LIMK1), a component of the noncanonical BMP signal transduction pathway that stimulates actin reorganization to promote neurite outgrowth and synapse formation. Heterozygosity for BMPR2 rescued the morphological abnormalities in neurons both in Drosophila and in mouse models of FXS, as did the postnatal pharmacological inhibition of LIMK1 activity. Compared with postmortem prefrontal cortex tissue from healthy subjects, the amount of full-length BMPR2 and of a marker of LIMK1 activity was increased in this brain region from FXS patients. These findings suggest that increased BMPR2 signal transduction is linked to FXS and that the BMPR2-LIMK1 pathway is a putative therapeutic target in patients with FXS and possibly other forms of autism. PMID:27273096

  11. Alleviating pain hypersensitivity through activation of type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptor.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Bruno; Busserolles, Jérôme; Ling, Bing; Laffray, Sophie; Ulmann, Lauriane; Malhaire, Fanny; Chapuy, Eric; Aissouni, Youssef; Etienne, Monique; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Acher, Francine; Pin, Jean-Philippe; Eschalier, Alain; Goudet, Cyril

    2013-11-27

    Hyperactivity of the glutamatergic system is involved in the development of central sensitization in the pain neuraxis, associated with allodynia and hyperalgesia observed in patients with chronic pain. Herein we study the ability of type 4 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu4) to regulate spinal glutamate signaling and alleviate chronic pain. We show that mGlu4 are located both on unmyelinated C-fibers and spinal neurons terminals in the inner lamina II of the spinal cord where they inhibit glutamatergic transmission through coupling to Cav2.2 channels. Genetic deletion of mGlu4 in mice alters sensitivity to strong noxious mechanical compression and accelerates the onset of the nociceptive behavior in the inflammatory phase of the formalin test. However, responses to punctate mechanical stimulation and nocifensive responses to thermal noxious stimuli are not modified. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of mGlu4 inhibits mechanical hypersensitivity in animal models of inflammatory or neuropathic pain while leaving acute mechanical perception unchanged in naive animals. Together, these results reveal that mGlu4 is a promising new target for the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:24285900

  12. Gene profiling of embryonic skeletal muscle lacking type I ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel

    PubMed Central

    Filipova, Dilyana; Walter, Anna M.; Gaspar, John A.; Brunn, Anna; Linde, Nina F.; Ardestani, Mostafa A.; Deckert, Martina; Hescheler, Jürgen; Pfitzer, Gabriele; Sachinidis, Agapios; Papadopoulos, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    In mature skeletal muscle, the intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises dramatically upon membrane depolarization, constituting the link between excitation and contraction. This process requires Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via the type 1 ryanodine receptor (RYR1). However, RYR1’s potential roles in muscle development remain obscure. We used an established RyR1- null mouse model, dyspedic, to investigate the effects of the absence of a functional RYR1 and, consequently, the lack of RyR1-mediated Ca2+ signaling, during embryogenesis. Homozygous dyspedic mice die after birth and display small limbs and abnormal skeletal muscle organization. Skeletal muscles from front and hind limbs of dyspedic fetuses (day E18.5) were subjected to microarray analyses, revealing 318 differentially expressed genes. We observed altered expression of multiple transcription factors and members of key signaling pathways. Differential regulation was also observed for genes encoding contractile as well as muscle-specific structural proteins. Additional qRT-PCR analysis revealed altered mRNA levels of the canonical muscle regulatory factors Six1, Six4, Pax7, MyoD, MyoG and MRF4 in mutant muscle, which is in line with the severe developmental retardation seen in dyspedic muscle histology analyses. Taken together, these findings suggest an important non-contractile role of RyR1 or RYR1-mediated Ca2+ signaling during muscle organ development. PMID:26831464

  13. Endothelial Expression of Scavenger Receptor Class B, Type I Protects against Development of Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vaisman, Boris L.; Vishnyakova, Tatyana G.; Freeman, Lita A.; Amar, Marcelo J.; Demosky, Stephen J.; Liu, Chengyu; Stonik, John A.; Sampson, Maureen L.; Pryor, Milton; Bocharov, Alexander V.; Eggerman, Thomas L.; Patterson, Amy P.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) in endothelial cells (EC) was examined in several novel transgenic mouse models expressing SR-BI in endothelium of mice with normal C57Bl6/N, apoE-KO, or Scarb1-KO backgrounds. Mice were also created expressing SR-BI exclusively in endothelium and liver. Endothelial expression of the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene had no significant effect on plasma lipoprotein levels in mice on a normal chow diet but on an atherogenic diet, significantly decreased plasma cholesterol levels, increased plasma HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, and protected mice against atherosclerosis. In 8-month-old apoE-KO mice fed a normal chow diet, the Tie2-Scarb1 transgene decreased aortic lesions by 24%. Mice expressing SR-BI only in EC and liver had a 1.5 ± 0.1-fold increase in plasma cholesterol compared to mice synthesizing SR-BI only in liver. This elevation was due mostly to increased HDL-C. In EC culture studies, SR-BI was found to be present in both basolateral and apical membranes but greater cellular uptake of cholesterol from HDL was found in the basolateral compartment. In summary, enhanced expression of SR-BI in EC resulted in a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile and decreased atherosclerosis, suggesting a possible role for endothelial SR-BI in the flux of cholesterol across EC. PMID:26504816

  14. In vivo demonstration of cell types in bone that harbor epidermal growth factor receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Martineau-Doize, B.; Lai, W.H.; Warshawsky, H.; Bergeron, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    The binding and internalization of (/sup 125/I)iodoepidermal growth factor (EGF) by bone cells of the rat was demonstrated in situ by quantitative radioautography. Specific binding sites were observed on a cell profile enriched in endocytic components, including lysosome-like structures, a rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell profile, and a cell profile that histologically resembles an undifferentiated precursor cell. By the criteria of gel filtration and precipitability by trichloroacetic acid, most of the bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF was considered intact. By morphological criteria none of the cell profiles that bound (/sup 125/I)iodo-EGF corresponded to fully formed osteoclasts or osteoblasts. The endocytic cell was found in the epiphyseal plate between the invading capillary and the transverse and longitudinal cartilage septa as well as near osteoclasts in the zone of mixed spicules. The rough endoplasmic reticulum-rich cell was present in vacated chondrocyte lacunae of the epiphyseal plate close to the metaphysis, and the poorly differentiated cell was observed between the mixed spicules of the metaphysis. Similar cell types were also found in the alveolar bone surrounding the incisors. These cells may be the origin of established bone cell lines that harbor high concentrations of EGF receptors and may also be responsible for the humoral hypercalcemia in response to the reported actions of injected EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha as well as that of malignancy.

  15. Expression of the Scavenger Receptor Class B type I (SR-BI) family in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Herboso, Leire; Talamillo, Ana; Pérez, Coralia; Barrio, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, cholesterol is transformed into steroid hormones in the adrenal gland, the ovaries or the testes. The Scavenger Receptors Class B Type I (SR-BI) are membrane proteins that belong to the CD36 family and participate in the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl ester in the mammalian steroidogenic tissues. Fourteen members of the CD36 family have been identified in Diptera, although their expression patterns remain uncharacterized. Using in situ hybridization we have characterized the expression patterns of the fourteen SR-BIs in Drosophila melanogaster. We analyzed three different developmental larval stages prior to and during the peak of the insect steroid hormone ecdysone, which triggers the larval to pupal transition. We focused on the steroidogenic tissues, such as the prothoracic gland, the ovaries and the testes, and extended our analysis to non-steroidogenic tissues, such as the fat body, salivary glands, the gut, the gastric caeca or the central nervous system. Our results show highly regulated expression patterns, with three genes crq, pes and Snmp being upregulated in steroidogenic tissues at the onset of pupariation when steroidogenesis is crucial. This study underlines the importance of the transport of cholesterol and steroids in the process of ecdysone synthesis. PMID:21948708

  16. The conformation and activity relationship of benzofuran type of angiotensin II receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Yoo, S E; Kim, S K; Lee, S H; Kim, N J; Lee, D W

    2000-09-01

    As a continuing effort to establish the structure and activity relationship in a benzofuran type of angiotensin II antagonist, we synthesized various regioisomers and performed a series of QSAR analyses. The conformational analyses of target isomers were carried out using molecular mechanics and fine-tuned using the information from the NMR NOE experiment. The conformations of compounds with a good binding activity are quite similar to that of DuP753, a prototype of AII antagonist, suggesting that these compounds also bind to the same site of AII receptor. We then studied the compounds with a varied length of the hydroxyl group bearing side chain to find out the optimum distance between the hydroxyl group and the imidazole ring. The CoMFA with these compounds gave acceptable statistical measures (cross-validated r2 and conventional r2 to be 0.881 and 0.974, respectively) and the map was well consistent with the previously proposed pharmacophore. PMID:11026543

  17. Induction of type 1 interferon receptor by zinc in U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Nagamine, Takeaki; Nakajima, Kastuyuki; Takada, Hisashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to determine whether zinc enhances interferon (IFN)-alpha activity in U937 cells. Type 1 IFN2 receptor (IFNAR2) protein in U937 cells was measured by flow cytometry. After 24h of exposure to zinc chloride or polaprezinc (a chelate of zinc and L-carnosine) at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 microM, histograms showing anti-IFNAR2 antibody-positive cells shifted to a higher FITC intensity. Zinc chloride and polaprezinc increased IFNAR2 mRNA levels approximately 30% and 40%, respectively, compared to the control. L-carnosine alone did not alter IFNAR2 mRNA or protein levels. Cellular levels of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) were markedly increased by IFN-alpha, and the increase was significantly accelerated by polaprezinc. However, polaprezinc alone did not increase 2'-5'OAS levels. The finding suggests that zinc, especially polaprezinc, enhances the expression of INFAR2 in U937 cells, thereby inducing production of the anti-viral protein 2'-5'OAS. PMID:19362011

  18. The type III transforming growth factor beta receptor regulates vascular and osteoblast development during palatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Cynthia R.; Jacobs, Britni H.; Brown, Christopher B.; Barnett, Joey V.; Goudy, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cleft palate occurs in up to 1:1000 live births and is associated with mutations in multiple genes. Palatogenesis involves a complex choreography of palatal shelf elongation, elevation, and fusion. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) canonical signaling is required during each stage of palate development. The type III TGFβ receptor (TGFβR3) binds all three TGFβ ligands and BMP2, but its contribution to palatogenesis is unknown. Results The role of TGFβR3 during palate formation was found to be during palatal shelf elongation and elevation. Tgfbr3-/- embryos displayed reduced palatal shelf width and height, changes in proliferation and apoptosis, and reduced vascular and osteoblast differentiation. Abnormal vascular plexus organization as well as aberrant expression of arterial (Notch1, Alk1), venous (EphB4), and lymphatic (Lyve1) markers was also observed. Decreased osteoblast differentiation factors (Runx2, alk phos, osteocalcin, col1A1, and col1A2) demonstrated poor mesenchymal cell commitment to the osteoblast lineage within the maxilla and palatal shelves in Tgfbr3-/- embryos. Additionally, in vitro bone mineralization induced by osteogenic medium (OM+BMP2) was insufficient in Tgfbr3-/- palatal mesenchyme, but mineralization was rescued by overexpression of TGFβR3. Conclusions These data reveal a critical, previously unrecognized role for TGFβR3 in vascular and osteoblast development during palatogenesis. PMID:25382630

  19. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  20. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 and inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Spalinger, Marianne R; McCole, Declan F; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene locus encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) with the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory disorders. Expression of PTPN2 is enhanced in actively inflamed intestinal tissue featuring a marked up-regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. PTPN2 deficient mice suffer from severe intestinal and systemic inflammation and display aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, PTPN2 is involved in the regulation of inflammatory signalling cascades, and critical for protecting intestinal epithelial barrier function, regulating innate and adaptive immune responses, and finally for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. On one hand, dysfunction of PTPN2 has drastic effects on innate host defence mechanisms, including increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, limited autophagosome formation in response to invading pathogens, and disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, PTPN2 function is crucial for controlling adaptive immune functions, by regulating T cell proliferation and differentiation as well as maintaining T cell tolerance. In this way, dysfunction of PTPN2 contributes to the manifestation of IBD. The aim of this review is to present an overview of recent findings on the role of PTPN2 in intestinal homeostasis and the impact of dysfunctional PTPN2 on intestinal inflammation. PMID:26811645

  1. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor polymorphisms and susceptibility to hypertension: A HuGE review

    PubMed Central

    Mottl, Amy K.; Shoham, David A.; North, Kari E.

    2016-01-01

    The angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) plays an integral role in blood pressure control, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Polymorphisms within this gene have been extensively studied in association with hypertension; however, findings are conflicting. To clarify these data, we conducted a systematic review of association studies of AGTR1 polymorphisms and hypertension, and performed a meta-analysis of the rs5186 variant. Results show that the currently available literature is too heterogeneous to draw meaningful conclusions. The definition of hypertension and gender composition of individual studies helps to explain this heterogeneity. Although the structure and splicing pattern of AGTR1 would suggest a likely effect of polymorphisms within the promoter region on gene function, few studies have been conducted thus far. In conclusion, there is insufficient evidence that polymorphisms in the AGTR1 gene are risk factors for hypertension. However, most studies are inadequately powered, and larger well-designed studies of haplotypes are warranted. PMID:18641512

  2. Overexpression of angiotensin II type I receptor in cardiomyocytes induces cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Pierre; Dali-Youcef, Nassim; Paradis, François W.; Thibault, Gaétan; Nemer, Mona

    2000-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) is a major determinant of arterial pressure and volume homeostasis, mainly because of its vascular action via the AII type 1 receptor (AT1R). AII has also been implicated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy because angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors and AT1R antagonists prevent or regress ventricular hypertrophy in animal models and in human. However, because these treatments impede the action of AII at cardiac as well as vascular levels, and reduce blood pressure, it has been difficult to determine whether AII action on the heart is direct or a consequence of pressure-overload. To determine whether AII can induce cardiac hypertrophy directly via myocardial AT1R in the absence of vascular changes, transgenic mice overexpressing the human AT1R under the control of the mouse α-myosin heavy chain promoter were generated. Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of AT1R induced, in basal conditions, morphologic changes of myocytes and nonmyocytes that mimic those observed during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in human and in other mammals. These mice displayed significant cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling with increased expression of ventricular atrial natriuretic factor and interstitial collagen deposition and died prematurely of heart failure. Neither the systolic blood pressure nor the heart rate were changed. The data demonstrate a direct myocardial role for AII in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure and provide a useful model to elucidate the mechanisms of action of AII in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. PMID:10639182

  3. Overexpression of angiotensin II type I receptor in cardiomyocytes induces cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling.

    PubMed

    Paradis, P; Dali-Youcef, N; Paradis, F W; Thibault, G; Nemer, M

    2000-01-18

    Angiotensin II (AII) is a major determinant of arterial pressure and volume homeostasis, mainly because of its vascular action via the AII type 1 receptor (AT1R). AII has also been implicated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy because angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitors and AT1R antagonists prevent or regress ventricular hypertrophy in animal models and in human. However, because these treatments impede the action of AII at cardiac as well as vascular levels, and reduce blood pressure, it has been difficult to determine whether AII action on the heart is direct or a consequence of pressure-overload. To determine whether AII can induce cardiac hypertrophy directly via myocardial AT1R in the absence of vascular changes, transgenic mice overexpressing the human AT1R under the control of the mouse alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter were generated. Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of AT1R induced, in basal conditions, morphologic changes of myocytes and nonmyocytes that mimic those observed during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in human and in other mammals. These mice displayed significant cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling with increased expression of ventricular atrial natriuretic factor and interstitial collagen deposition and died prematurely of heart failure. Neither the systolic blood pressure nor the heart rate were changed. The data demonstrate a direct myocardial role for AII in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure and provide a useful model to elucidate the mechanisms of action of AII in the pathogenesis of cardiac diseases. PMID:10639182

  4. Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone type-1 receptor accelerate myocyte differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Shigemi; Yoshioka, Kowasi

    2014-01-01

    The ZHTc6-MyoD embryonic stem cell line expresses the myogenic transcriptional factor MyoD under the control of a tetracycline-inducible promoter. Following induction, most of the ZHTc6-MyoD cells differentiate to myotubes. However, a small fraction does not differentiate, instead forming colonies that retain the potential for myocyte differentiation. In our current study, we found that parathyroid hormone type 1 receptor (PTH1R) expression in colony-forming cells at 13 days after differentiation was higher than that in the undifferentiated ZHTc6-MyoD cells. We also found that PTH1R expression was required for myocyte differentiation, and that parathyroid hormone accelerated the differentiation. Our analysis of human and mouse skeletal muscle tissues showed that most cells expressing PTH1R also expressed Pax7 and CD34, which are biomarkers of satellite cells. Furthermore, we found that parathyroid hormone treatment significantly improved muscle weakness in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. This is the first report indicating that PTH1R and PTH accelerate myocyte differentiation. PMID:24919035

  5. A reassessment of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in glomerular disease

    PubMed Central

    Spinale, Joann M.; Mariani, Laura H.; Kapoor, Shiv; Zhang, Jidong; Weyant, Robert; Song, Peter X.; Wong, Hetty N.; Troost, Jonathan P.; Gadegbeku, Crystal A.; Gipson, Debbie S.; Kretzler, Matthias; Nihalani, Deepak; Holzman, Lawrence B.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) is a causative circulating factor for and a biomarker of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here we undertook validation of these assumptions in both mouse and human models. Injection of recombinant suPAR in wild-type mice did not induce proteinuria within 24 hours. Moreover, a disease phenotype was not seen in an inducible transgenic mouse model that maintained elevated suPAR concentrations for 6 weeks. Plasma and urine suPAR concentrations were evaluated as clinical biomarkers in 241 patients with glomerular disease from the prospective, longitudinal multi-center observational NEPTUNE cohort. The serum suPAR concentration at baseline inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the urine suPAR/creatinine ratio positively correlated with the urine protein/creatinine ratio. After adjusting for eGFR and urine protein, neither the serum nor urine suPAR level was an independent predictor of FSGS histopathology. A multivariable mixed-effects model of longitudinal data evaluated the association between the change in serum suPAR concentration from baseline with eGFR. After adjusting for baseline suPAR concentration, age, gender, proteinuria and time, the change in suPAR from baseline was associated with eGFR, but this association was not different for patients with FSGS as compared to other diagnoses. Thus, these results do not support a pathological role for suPAR in FSGS. PMID:25354239

  6. A reassessment of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Spinale, Joann M; Mariani, Laura H; Kapoor, Shiv; Zhang, Jidong; Weyant, Robert; Song, Peter X; Wong, Hetty N; Troost, Jonathan P; Gadegbeku, Crystal A; Gipson, Debbie S; Kretzler, Matthias; Nihalani, Deepak; Holzman, Lawrence B

    2015-03-01

    It has been suggested that soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) is a causative circulating factor for and a biomarker of focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here we undertook validation of these assumptions in both mouse and human models. Injection of recombinant suPAR in wild-type mice did not induce proteinuria within 24 h. Moreover, a disease phenotype was not seen in an inducible transgenic mouse model that maintained elevated suPAR concentrations for 6 weeks. Plasma and urine suPAR concentrations were evaluated as clinical biomarkers in 241 patients with glomerular disease from the prospective, longitudinal multicenter observational NEPTUNE cohort. The serum suPAR concentration at baseline inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the urine suPAR/creatinine ratio positively correlated with the urine protein/creatinine ratio. After adjusting for eGFR and urine protein, neither the serum nor urine suPAR level was an independent predictor of FSGS histopathology. A multivariable mixed-effects model of longitudinal data evaluated the association between the change in serum suPAR concentration from baseline with eGFR. After adjusting for baseline suPAR concentration, age, gender, proteinuria, and time, the change in suPAR from baseline was associated with eGFR, but this association was not different for patients with FSGS as compared with other diagnoses. Thus these results do not support a pathological role for suPAR in FSGS. PMID:25354239

  7. Decreased expression of TGF-ß type II receptor in bronchial glands of smokers with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Baraldo, S; Bazzan, E; Turato, G; Calabrese, F; Beghe, B; Papi, A; Maestrelli, P; Fabbri, L; Zuin, R; Saetta, M

    2005-01-01

    Background: The role of transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is still controversial, but it has been proposed that it may protect from mucus hypersecretion since it is able to downregulate mucin production. A study was undertaken to investigate the expression of TGF-ß1 and its type II receptor (TGF-ß RII) in the bronchial glands of smokers with COPD. Methods: The expression of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß RII were examined immunohistochemically in the bronchial glands of 24 smokers undergoing lung resection for solitary peripheral nodules: 12 with airflow limitation (smokers with COPD) and 12 with normal lung function. Results: The expression of TGF-ß1 in bronchial glands was similar in the two groups of subjects while that of TGF-ß RII was lower in smokers with COPD than in smokers with normal lung function (p = 0.004). TGF-ß RII expression was inversely correlated with the values of Reid's index, a measure of gland size (p = 0.02, r = –0.50). Conclusions: In the bronchial glands of smokers with COPD there is decreased expression of TGF-ß RII which is associated with bronchial gland enlargement. These findings support the view that the absence of TGF-ß signalling may induce structural changes in the bronchial glands which, in turn, may promote mucus hypersecretion. PMID:16227324

  8. Pentameric quaternary structure of the intracellular domain of serotonin type 3A receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pandhare, Akash; Grozdanov, Petar N.; Jansen, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    In spite of extensive efforts over decades an experimentally-derived structure of full-length eukaryotic pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) is still lacking. These pharmaceutically highly-relevant channels contain structurally well-conserved and characterized extracellular and transmembrane domains. The intracellular domain (ICD), however, has been orphaned in structural studies based on the consensus assumption of being largely disordered. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that the serotonin type 3A (5-HT3A) ICD assembles into stable pentamers in solution in the absence of the other two domains, thought to be the drivers for oligomerization. Additionally, the soluble 5-HT3A-ICD construct interacted with the protein RIC-3 (resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase). The interaction provides evidence that the 5-HT3A-ICD is not only required but also sufficient for interaction with RIC-3. Our results suggest the ICD constitutes an oligomerization domain. This novel role significantly adds to its known contributions in receptor trafficking, targeting, and functional fine-tuning. The innate diversity of the ICDs with sizes ranging from 50 to 280 amino acids indicates new methodologies need to be developed to determine the structures of these domains. The use of soluble ICD proteins that we report in the present study constitutes a useful approach to address this gap. PMID:27045630

  9. Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Spalinger, Marianne R; McCole, Declan F; Rogler, Gerhard; Scharl, Michael

    2016-01-21

    Genome wide association studies have associated single nucleotide polymorphisms within the gene locus encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) with the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other inflammatory disorders. Expression of PTPN2 is enhanced in actively inflamed intestinal tissue featuring a marked up-regulation in intestinal epithelial cells. PTPN2 deficient mice suffer from severe intestinal and systemic inflammation and display aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses. In particular, PTPN2 is involved in the regulation of inflammatory signalling cascades, and critical for protecting intestinal epithelial barrier function, regulating innate and adaptive immune responses, and finally for maintaining intestinal homeostasis. On one hand, dysfunction of PTPN2 has drastic effects on innate host defence mechanisms, including increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, limited autophagosome formation in response to invading pathogens, and disruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier. On the other hand, PTPN2 function is crucial for controlling adaptive immune functions, by regulating T cell proliferation and differentiation as well as maintaining T cell tolerance. In this way, dysfunction of PTPN2 contributes to the manifestation of IBD. The aim of this review is to present an overview of recent findings on the role of PTPN2 in intestinal homeostasis and the impact of dysfunctional PTPN2 on intestinal inflammation. PMID:26811645

  10. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor signaling is critical in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell growth and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ying-Na; Cao, Xue; Luo, Dong-Hua; Sun, Rui; Peng, Li-Xia; Wang, Lin; Yan, Yong-Pan; Zheng, Li-Sheng; Xie, Ping; Cao, Yun; Liang, Ying-Ying; Zheng, Fang-Jing; Huang, Bi-Jun; Xiang, Yan-Qun; Lv, Xing; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Huang, Pei-Yu; Guo, Ling; Mai, Hai-Qiang; Guo, Xiang; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Qian, Chao-Nan

    2014-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common malignancies in southern China and Southeast Asia, with the highest metastasis rate among head and neck cancers. The mechanisms underlying NPC progression remain poorly understood. Genome-wide expression profiling on 18 NPC vs. 18 noncancerous nasopharyngeal tissues together with GeneGo pathway analysis and expression verification in NPC cells and tissues revealed a potential role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) in NPC progression, which has not been investigated in NPC. We then observed that uPAR expression is increased in poorly differentiated, highly metastatic NPC cells compared with lowly metastatic cells or differentiated NPC cells. In vitro studies demonstrated that uPAR regulates NPC cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion and promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Additional tumor xenograft and spontaneous metastasis experiments revealed that uPAR promotes NPC cell growth and metastasis in vivo. The JAK-STAT pathway is involved in uPAR-regulated signaling in NPC cells as determined by immunoblotting. Moreover, uPAR-mediated growth and motility is partially abolished upon treatment with the Jak1/Jak2 inhibitor INCB018424. We suppressed uPA expression in uPAR-overexpressing NPC cells and found that uPAR-mediated cellular growth and motility is not exclusively dependent on uPA. In summary, uPAR is a significant regulator of NPC progression and could serve as a promising therapeutic target. PMID:24763226

  11. Cell type-dependent divergence of transactivation by glucocorticoid receptor ligand.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Katsunao; Nagase, Hideki; Miyake, Hidekazu; Kiniwa, Mamoru; Ikizawa, Koichi

    2002-12-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor regulates gene expression mainly by two mechanisms; transactivation and trans-repression. A ligand with strong transrepression and weak transactivation activity is predicted to be a beneficial agent with potent anti-inflammatory activity and minor adverse effects. Recently, the profile of a synthetic steroid, RU24858, has been reported to fulfill this condition in vitro, but others have reported no dissociation between the anti-inflammatory activity and side effects in vivo. To gain further information on the profile of this compound, we evaluated its transactivation ability using a reporter gene analysis both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro analysis, RU24858 demonstrated only a weak transactivation activity in HeLa cells, when compared with prednisolone. In CV-1 cells, however, these two glucocorticoids exhibited equivalent transactivation activities. This behavior is independent of whether the reporter gene is regulated by mouse mammary tumor virus promoter or multiple copies of glucocorticoid response element. When the reporter plasmid was inoculated into mouse abdominal skin using a gene gun, followed by orally administration of glucocorticoids, RU24858 induced significantly higher reporter enzyme activity than prednisolone. These results suggest that the profile of RU24858 is divergent and its transactivation ability is comparable to prednisolone depending on the cell-type both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:12499651

  12. Different types of androgen receptor mutations in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jialiang; Hou, Jiangang; Li, Bingkun; Li, Dongyang; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xiang

    2015-02-01

    Mutations of androgen receptor (AR) are the most frequent cause of 46, XY disorders of sex development and associated with a variety of phenotypes, ranging from phenotypic women (complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)) to milder degrees of undervirilization (partial form or PAIS) or men with only infertility (mild form or MAIS). From 2009 to 2012, two young Chinese female individuals with CAIS from two families were referred to our hospital due to primary amenorrhea. Defects in testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) synthesis were excluded. Physical examination revealed that the patients have normal female external genitalia, normal breast development, vellus hair in the axilla and on the arms and legs, but absence of pubic hair, and a blind-ending vagina. Two different types of AR mutations have been detected by sequencing of genomic DNA: Family A showed deletion of exon 2 in AR gene; Family B showed a single nucleotide C-to-T transition in exon 8 of AR gene resulting in a proline 893-to-leucine substitution (Pro893Leu). Testicular histology showed developmental immaturity of seminiferous tubules with the absence of spermatogenic cells or spermatozoa. No AR immunoreactivity was observed in either case. Three adult patients recovered well from bilateral orchiectomy. The juvenile patient of family B was followed up. Our present study on these two families revealed two different types of AR mutation. The definitive diagnosis of AIS was based on clinical examination and genetic investigations. Our findings verified the mechanism of CAIS and also enriched AR Gene Mutation Database. PMID:25674389

  13. Transient Receptor Potential Canonical Type 3 Channels Control the Vascular Contractility of Mouse Mesenteric Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Soo-In; Kim, Joo Young; Yeon, Dong-Soo; Abramowitz, Joel; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Muallem, Shmuel; Lee, Young-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels are non-selective cation channels and regulate intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We examined the role of TRPC3 channels in agonist-, membrane depolarization (high K+)-, and mechanical (pressure)-induced vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation in mouse mesenteric arteries. Vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation of endothelial cells intact mesenteric arteries were measured in TRPC3 wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice. Calcium concentration ([Ca2+]) was measured in isolated arteries from TRPC3 WT and KO mice as well as in the mouse endothelial cell line bEnd.3. Nitric oxide (NO) production and nitrate/nitrite concentrations were also measured in TRPC3 WT and KO mice. Phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was reduced in TRPC3 KO mice when compared to that of WT mice, but neither high K+- nor pressure-induced vasoconstriction was altered in TRPC3 KO mice. Acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited in TRPC3 KO mice and by the selective TRPC3 blocker pyrazole-3. Acetylcholine blocked the phenylephrine-induced increase in Ca2+ ratio and then relaxation in TRPC3 WT mice but had little effect on those outcomes in KO mice. Acetylcholine evoked a Ca2+ increase in endothelial cells, which was inhibited by pyrazole-3. Acetylcholine induced increased NO release in TRPC3 WT mice, but not in KO mice. Acetylcholine also increased the nitrate/nitrite concentration in TRPC3 WT mice, but not in KO mice. The present study directly demonstrated that the TRPC3 channel is involved in agonist-induced vasoconstriction and plays important role in NO-mediated vasorelaxation of intact mesenteric arteries. PMID:25310225

  14. Association between Toll-like Receptors expression and Human Papillomavirus Type 16 Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Daud, Ibrahim I.; Scott, Mark E.; Ma, Yifei; Shiboski, Stephen; Farhat, Sepideh; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms involved in mucosal immune control of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remain ill-defined. Because Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key players in innate immune responses, we investigated the association between TLR expression and viral persistence or clearance in young women with incident infections with oncogenic HPV types 16 or 51. Messenger RNA expression of TLR1, TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 was measured by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR using human endocervical specimens, collected before and following viral acquisition, in a cohort well characterized for HPV infections. Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare the change seen from pre-infection to incident infection between women who subsequently cleared infection with those who did not. HPV 16 infections that cleared were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with an increase in expression of the four viral nucleic acid-sensing TLRs (TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9) as well as TLR2 upon viral acquisition. Similar associations were not observed for HPV 51. In women who subsequently cleared their HPV 16 infection, changes in TLR1, TLR3, TLR7, and TLR8 expression levels between pre-incident and incident visits were significantly correlated with parallel changes in the levels of interferon-α2, measured by immunoassay in cervical lavage specimens. This study suggests that dampened TLR expression in the cervical mucosa is a type-specific mechanism by which HPV 16 interferes with innate immune responses, contributing to viral persistence, and that TLR upregulation and resultant cytokine induction is important in subsequent viral clearance. PMID:20473890

  15. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor modulates epileptogenesis in mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ndode-Ekane, Xavier Ekolle; Pitkänen, Asla

    2013-06-01

    Mutation in Plaur gene encoding urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) results in epilepsy and autistic phenotype in mice. In humans, a single nucleotide polymorphism in PLAUR gene represents a risk for autism spectrum disorders. Importantly, the expression of uPAR is elevated in the brain after various epileptogenic insults like traumatic brain injury and status epilepticus. So far, the consequences of altered uPAR expression on brain networks are poorly known. We tested a hypothesis that uPAR regulates post-injury neuronal reorganization and consequent functional outcome, particularly epileptogenesis. Epileptogenesis was induced by intrahippocampal injection of kainate in adult male wild type (Wt) or uPAR knockout (uPAR-/-) mice, and animals were monitored with continuous (24/7) video-electroencephalogram for 30 days. The severity of status epilepticus did not differ between the genotypes. The spontaneous electrographic seizures which developed were, however, longer and their behavioral manifestations were more severe in uPAR-/- than Wt mice. The more severe epilepsy phenotype in uPAR-/- mice was associated with delayed but augmented inflammatory response and more severe neurodegeneration in the hippocampus. Also, the distribution of newly born cells in the dentate gyrus was more scattered, and the recovery of hippocampal blood vessel length from status epilepticus-induced damage was compromised in uPAR-/- mice as compared to Wt mice. Our data demonstrate that a deficiency in uPAR represents a mechanisms which results in the development of a more severe epilepsy phenotype and progressive brain pathology after status epilepticus. We suggest that uPAR represents a rational target for disease-modifying treatments after epileptogenic brain insults. PMID:23263886

  16. DEFICIENCY OF THE TYPE I INTERFERON RECEPTOR PROTECTS MICE FROM EXPERIMENTAL LUPUS

    PubMed Central

    Nacionales, Dina C.; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M.; Lee, Pui Y.; Weinstein, Jason S.; Lyons, Robert; Sobel, Eric; Satoh, Minoru; Reeves, Westley H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is diagnosed by a spectrum of clinical manifestations and autoantibodies associated with abnormal expression of Type I interferon (IFN-I) stimulated genes (ISGs). The role of IFN-I in the pathogenesis of SLE remains uncertain, partly due to the lack of suitable animal models. The objective of this study was to examine the role of IFN-I signaling in the pathogenesis of murine lupus induced by 2, 6, 10, 14 tetramethylpentadecane (TMPD). Methods 129Sv IFN-I receptor deficient (IFNAR−/−) and control 129Sv mice were treated i.p. with TMPD. The expression of ISGs was measured by real-time PCR. Autoantibody production was evaluated by immunofluorescence and ELISA. Proteinuria and renal glomerular cellularity were measured and renal immune complexes were examined by immunofluorescence. Results Increased ISG expression was seen in peripheral blood of TMPD-treated wild type but not IFNAR−/− mice. TMPD did not induce lupus-specific autoantibodies (anti-nRNP/Sm, -dsDNA) in IFNAR−/− mice, whereas 129Sv controls developed these specificities. Although glomerular immune complexes were present in IFNAR−/− mice, proteinuria and glomerular hypercellularity did not develop, unlike TMPD-treated controls. Thus, consistent with the association of increased ISG expression with lupus-specific autoantibodies, and nephritis in humans, these clinical and serological manifestations were strongly dependent on IFNAR signaling in TMPD-treated mice. Conclusion Signaling via the IFNAR is central to the pathogenesis of autoantibodies and glomerulonephritis in TMPD-lupus, consistent with a similar role in human SLE. TMPD-lupus is the first animal model shown to recapitulate the interferon signature in peripheral blood. PMID:17968932

  17. Cardiomyocytes hypertrophic status after myocardial infarction determines distinct types of arrhythmia: role of the ryanodine receptor.

    PubMed

    Fauconnier, Jérémy; Pasquié, Jean-Luc; Bideaux, Patrice; Lacampagne, Alain; Richard, Sylvain

    2010-09-01

    The mechanisms responsible for sudden cardiac death in heart failure (HF) are unclear. We investigated early and delayed afterdepolarizations (EADs, DADs) in HF. Cardiomyocytes were enzymatically isolated from the right ventricle (RV) and the septum of rats 8 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI) and sham-operated animals. Membrane capacitance, action potentials (AP) and ionic currents were measured by whole-cell patch-clamp. The [Ca(2+)](i) transients and Ca(2+) sparks were recorded with Fluo-4 during fluorescence measurements. Arrhythmia was triggered in 40% of MI cells (not in sham) using trains of 5 stimulations at 2.0 Hz. EADs and DADs occurred in distinct cell populations both in the RV and the septum. EADs occurred in normal-sized PMI cells (<230 pF), whereas DADs occurred in hypertrophic PMI cells (>230 pF). All cells exhibited prolonged APs due to reduced I(to) current. However, additional modifications in Ca(2+)-dependent ionic currents occurred in hypertrophic cells: a decrease in the inward rectifier K(+) current I(K1), and a slowing of L-type Ca(2+) current inactivation which was responsible for the lack of adaptation of APs to abrupt changes in the pacing rate. The occurrence of spontaneous Ca(2+) sparks, reflecting ryanodine receptor (RyR2) diastolic activity, increased with hypertrophy. The [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitude, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load and Ca(2+) sparks amplitude were all inversely correlated with cell size. We conclude that the trophic status of cardiomyocytes determines the type of cellular arrhythmia in MI rats, based on differential electrophysiological remodeling which may reflect early-mild and late-severe or differential modifications in the RyR2 function. PMID:20109482

  18. Expression of type I and type II bovine scavenger receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells: Lipid droplet accumulation and nonreciprocal cross competition by acetylated and oxidized low density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, M. Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston ); Ekkel, Y.; Rohrer, L.; Penman, M.; Freedman, N.J.; Krieger, M. ); Chisolm, G.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Type I and type II scavenger receptors, which have been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis and other macrophage-associated functions, differ only by the presence in the type I receptor of an extracellular cysteine-rich C-terminal domain. Stable Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transfectants expressing high levels of either the type I or type II bovine scavenger receptors have been generated. Type I and type II receptors in these cells mediated high-affinity saturable endocytosis of both {sup 125}I-labeled acetylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) and {sup 125}I-labeled oxidized LDL with the distinctive broad ligand specificity characteristic of scavenger receptors. After incubation for 2 days with acetylated LDL, the transfected cells accumulated oil red O-staining lipid droplets reminiscent of those in macrophage foam cells, whereas untransfected CHO cells did not. Thus, macrophage-specific gene products other than the scavenger receptor are not required for modified-LDL-induced intracellular lipid accumulation. In transfected cells, acetylated LDL efficiently competed for both its own endocytosis and that of oxidized LDL. This nonreciprocal cross competition suggests that these ligands may bind to nonidentical but interacting sites on a single receptor. Results were similar for transfectants expressing either type I or type II scavenger receptors. The nonreciprocal cross competition seen in the transfected CHO cells differs from that previously observed with cultured macrophages.

  19. MCL and Mincle: C-Type Lectin Receptors That Sense Damaged Self and Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Mark B.; Williams, Spencer J.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage C-type lectin (MCL) and macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) comprise part of an extensive repertoire of pattern recognition receptors with the ability to sense damage-associated and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In this review, we cover the discovery and molecular characterization of these C-type lectin receptors, and highlight recent advances in the understanding of their roles in orchestrating the response of the immune system to bacterial and fungal infection, and damaged self. We also discuss the identification and structure–activity relationships of activating ligands, particularly trehalose dimycolate and related mycobacterial glycolipids, which have significant potential in the development of TH1/TH17 vaccination strategies. PMID:25002863

  20. Wild-type p53-mediated down-modulation of interleukin 15 and interleukin 15 receptors in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    De Giovanni, C.; Nanni, P.; Sacchi, A.; Soddu, S.; Manni, I.; D'Orazi, G.; Bulfone-Paus, S.; Pohl, T.; Landuzzi, L.; Nicoletti, G.; Frabetti, F.; Rossi, I.; Lollini, P. L.

    1998-01-01

    We recently reported that rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines express and secrete interleukin 15 (IL-15), a tightly regulated cytokine with IL-2-like activity. To test whether the p53-impaired function that is frequently found in this tumour type could play a role in the IL-15 production, wild-type p53 gene was transduced in the human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line RD (which harbours a mutated p53 gene), and its effect on proliferation and expression of IL-15 was studied. Arrest of proliferation was induced by wild-type p53; increased proportions of G1-arrested cells and of apoptotic cells were observed. A marked down-modulation of IL-15 expression, at both the mRNA and protein level, was found in p53-transduced cells. Because a direct effect of IL-15 on normal muscle cells has been reported, the presence of IL-15 membrane receptors was studied by cytofluorometric analysis. Rhabdomyosarcoma cells showed IL-15 membrane receptors, which are down-modulated by wild-type p53 transfected gene. In conclusion, wild-type p53 transduction in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells induces the down-modulation of both IL-15 production and IL-15 receptor expression. Images Figure 3 PMID:9862562

  1. ZK91587: a novel synthetic antimineralocorticoid displays high affinity for corticosterone (type I) receptors in the rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Sutanto, W.; de Kloet, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    In vitro cytosol binding assays have shown the properties of binding of a novel steroid, ZK91587 (15..beta.., 16..beta..b-methylene-mexrenone) in the brain of rats. Scatchard and Woolf analyses of the binding data reveal the binding of (/sup 3/H) ZK91587 to the total hippocampal coritcosteroid receptor sites with high affinity, and low capacity. When 100-fold excess RU28362 was included simultaneously with (/sup 3/H) ZK91587, the labelled steroid binds with the same affinity and capacity. Relative binding affinities (RBA) of various steroids for the Type I or Type II corticosteroid receptor in these animals are: Type I: ZK91587 = corticosterone (B) > cortisol (F); Type II: B > F >>> ZK91587. In the binding kinetic study, ZK91587 has a high association rate of binding in the rat. The steroid dissociates following a one slope pattern, indicating, the present data demonstrate that in the rat hippocampus, ZK91587 binds specifically to the Type I (corticosterone-preferring/mineralocorticoid-like receptor.

  2. Enhanced type 1alpha metabotropic glutamate receptor-stimulated phosphoinositide signaling after pertussis toxin treatment.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, A M; Challiss, R A; Mistry, R; Saunders, R; Thomsen, C; Nahorski, S R

    1997-09-01

    The regulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by the type 1alpha metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR1alpha) was investigated in stably transfected baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Incubation of the cells with L-glutamate, quisqualate, and 1-aminocyclopentane-1S, 3R-dicarboxylic acid resulted in a marked accumulation of [3H]inositol monophosphate (InsP1) and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] mass in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment of BHK-mGluR1alpha cells with pertussis toxin [ 100 ng/ml, 24 hr] led to a dramatic 12-16-fold increase in the accumulation of [3H]InsP1 and a 2-fold increase in Ins(1,4,5)P3 in the absence of added agonist. Although only very low levels (/=75%, and the EC50 shifted leftward by 65-fold [-log EC50 values (molar), 7.26 +/- 0.23 versus 5.45 +/- 0.07; n = 4) in PTX-treated compared with control cells. In contrast, antagonist effects on agonist-stimulated [3H]InsP1 responses were similar in control and PTX-treated BHK-mGluR1alpha cells. These changes in the concentration-effect curves for mGluR agonists are consistent with a model in which the receptor associates with PTX-sensitive inhibitory (Gi/o) and PTX-insensitive stimulatory (Gq/11) G proteins that can each influence PIC activity. The present observations are consistent with a dual regulation of mGluR1alpha-mediated PIC activity that could be fundamental in

  3. Urine soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor levels correlate with proteinuria in Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Outinen, Tuula K.; Mäkelä, Satu; Huttunen, Reetta; Mäenpää, Niina; Libraty, Daniel; Vaheri, Antti; Mustonen, Jukka; Aittoniemi, Janne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is upregulated during inflammation and known to bind to β3-integrins, receptors used by pathogenic hantaviruses to enter endothelial cells. It has been proposed that soluble uPAR (suPAR) is a circulating factor that causes focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria by activating β3-integrin in kidney podocytes. Proteinuria is also a characteristic feature of hantavirus infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between urine suPAR levels and disease severity in acute Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. Design A single-centre, prospective cohort study. Subjects and methods Urinary suPAR levels were measured twice during the acute phase and once during convalescence in 36 patients with serologically confirmed PUUV infection. Fractional excretion of suPAR (FE suPAR) and of albumin (FE alb) were calculated. Results The FE suPAR was significantly elevated during the acute phase of PUUV infection compared to the convalescent phase (median 3.2%, range 0.8–52.0%, vs. median 1.9%, range 1.0–5.8%, P = 0.005). Maximum FE suPAR was correlated markedly with maximum FE alb (r = 0.812, P < 0.001), and with several other variables that reflect disease severity. There was a positive correlation with the length of hospitalization (r = 0.455, P = 0.009) and maximum plasma creatinine level (r = 0.780, P < 0.001), and an inverse correlation with minimum urinary output (r = −0.411, P = 0.030). There was no correlation between FE suPAR and plasma suPAR (r = 0.180, P = 0.324). Conclusion Urinary suPAR is markedly increased during acute PUUV infection and is correlated with proteinuria. High urine suPAR level may reflect local production of suPAR in the kidney during the acute infection. PMID:24717117

  4. Inhibitory effects of azole-type fungicides on interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, Hiroyuki; Muromoto, Ryuta; Takahashi, Miki; Takeuchi, Shinji; Takeda, Yukimasa; Jetten, Anton M.; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2012-03-15

    The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. However, it remains unclear whether environmental chemicals, including pesticides, have agonistic and/or antagonistic activity against RORα/γ. In this study, we investigated the RORα/γ activity of several azole-type fungicides, and the effects of these fungicides on the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In the ROR-reporter gene assays, five azole-type fungicides (imibenconazole, triflumizole, hexaconazole, tetraconazole and imazalil) suppressed RORα- and/or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity as did benzenesulphonamide T0901317, a ROR inverse agonist and a liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. In particular, imibenconazole, triflumizole and hexaconazole showed RORγ inverse agonistic activity at concentrations of 10{sup −6} M. However, unlike T0901317, these fungicides failed to show any LXRα/β agonistic activity. Next, five azole-type fungicides, showing ROR inverse agonist activity, were tested on IL-17 mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that these fungicides suppressed the expression of IL-17 mRNA without effecting RORα and RORγ mRNA levels. In addition, the inhibitory effect of imibenconazole as well as that of T0901317 was absorbed in RORα/γ-knocked down EL4 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that some azole-type fungicides inhibit IL-17 production via RORα/γ. This also provides the first evidence that environmental chemicals can act as modulators of IL-17 expression in immune cells. -- Highlights: ► Nuclear receptors, RORα and RORγ, are key regulators of Th17 cell differentiation. ► Five azole-type fungicides act as RORα/γ inverse agonists. ► These fungicides

  5. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Type A Receptor in Human and Rat Radiation Proctitis: Preclinical Therapeutic Approach With Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Jullien, Nicolash; Blirando, Karl; Milliat, Fabien; Benderitter, Marc; Francois, Agnes

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Rectum radiation damage and fibrosis are often associated with radiation therapy of pelvic tumors. The endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in several fibrotic diseases but never studied in the context of gastrointestinal radiation damage. This study assessed modifications in ET type 1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ET{sub A}), and ET type B receptor (ET{sub B}) localization and/or expression in irradiated human rectal tissue and in a rat model of delayed colorectal injury. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of long-term ET receptor blockade. Methods and Materials: Routine histological studies of sections of healthy and radiation-injured human rectum tissue were done; the sections were also immunostained for ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} receptors. The rat model involved the delivery of 27 Gy in a single dose to the colons and rectums of the animals. The ET-1/ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} expression and ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} localization were studied at 10 weeks postexposure. The abilities of bosentan and atrasentan to protect against delayed rectal injury were also investigated. Results: The immunolocalization of ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} in healthy human rectums was similar to that in rat rectums. However, strong ET{sub A} immunostaining was seen in the presence of human radiation proctitis, and increased ET{sub A} mRNA levels were seen in the rat following colorectal irradiation. Immunostaining for ET{sub A} was also strongly positive in rats in areas of radiation-induced mucosal ulceration, atypia, and fibroproliferation. However, neither bosentan nor atrasentan prevented radiation damage to the rectum when given long term. The only effect seen for atrasentan was an increased number of sclerotic vessel sections in injured tissues. Conclusions: As the result of the overexpression of ET{sub A}, radiation exposure deregulates the endothelin system through an 'ET{sub A} profile' in the human and rodent rectum. However, therapeutic interventions involving mixed or

  6. Molecular interactions of the type 1 human immunodeficiency virus transregulatory protein Tat with N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Chandra, T; Maier, W; König, H-G; Hirzel, K; Kögel, D; Schüler, T; Chandra, A; Demirhan, I; Laube, B

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effect of type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) regulatory protein Tat on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by voltage-clamp recording and its role in NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity using cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Tat (0.01-1muM) potentiated NMDA-induced currents of recombinant NMDA receptors. However, in the presence of Zn(2+), the potentiating effect of Tat was much more pronounced, indicating an additional Zn(2+)-related effect on NMDA receptors. Consistently, Tat potentiated currents of the particularly Zn(2+)-sensitive NR1/NR2A NMDA receptor with a higher efficacy, whereas currents from a Zn(2+)-insensitive mutant were only marginally augmented. In addition, chemical-modified Tat, deficient for metal binding, did not reverse Zn(2+)-mediated inhibition of NMDA responses, demonstrating that Tat disinhibits NMDA receptors from Zn(2+)-mediated antagonism by complexing the cation. We therefore investigated the interplay of Tat and Zn(2+) in NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity using cultures of rat hippocampal neurons. Zn(2+) exhibited a prominent rescuing effect when added together with the excitotoxicant NMDA, which could be reverted by the Zn(2+)-chelator tricine. Similar to tricine, Tat enhanced NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity in the presence of neuroprotective Zn(2+) concentrations. Double-staining with antibodies against Tat and the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor revealed partial colocalization of the immunoreactivities in membrane patches of hippocampal neurons, supporting the idea of a direct interplay between Tat and glutamatergic transmission. We therefore propose that release of Zn(2+)-mediated inhibition of NMDA receptors by HIV-1 Tat contributes to the neurotoxic effect of glutamate and may participate in the pathogenesis of AIDS-associated dementia. PMID:15964699

  7. Hypercholesterolaemia exacerbates ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction in the rat: role of angiotensin II type 1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mączewski, M; Mączewska, J; Duda, M

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Diet-induced hypercholesterolaemia exacerbates post-myocardial infarction (MI) ventricular remodelling and heart failure, but the mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. This study examined whether worsening of post-MI ventricular remodelling induced by dietary hypercholesterolaemia was related to upregulation of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor in the rat heart. Experimental approach: MI was induced surgically in rats fed normal or high cholesterol diet. Both groups of rats were then assigned to control, atorvastatin, losartan or atorvastatin+losartan-treated subgroups and followed for 8 weeks. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed with echocardiography. In isolated hearts, LV pressures were measured with a latex balloon and a tip catheter. AT1-receptor density was assessed in LV membranes with radioligand-binding assays. Key results: High cholesterol diet exacerbated LV dilation and dysfunction in post-MI hearts. Atorvastatin or losartan prevented these hypercholesterolaemia-induced effects, whereas their combination was not more effective