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Sample records for neurotransmitters serotonin dopamine

  1. The association between the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, G; Bellani, M; Altamura, A C; Brambilla, P

    2016-04-01

    Evidence from previous studies has reported that complex traits, including psychiatric disorders, are moderately to highly heritable. Moreover, it has also been shown that specific personality traits may increase the risk to develop mental illnesses. Therefore the focus of the research shifted towards the identification of the biological mechanisms underpinning these traits by exploring the effects of a constellation of genetic polymorphisms in healthy subjects. Indeed, studying the effect of genetic variants in normal personality provides a unique means for identifying candidate genes which may increase the risk for psychiatric disorders. In this review, we discuss the impact of two of the most frequently studied genetic polymorphisms on personality in healthy subjects, the 5-HTT polymorphism of the serotonin transporter and the DRD2/DRD4 polymorphisms of the D2/D4 dopamine's receptors. The main aims are: (a) to highlight that the study of candidate genes provides a fruitful ground for the identification of the biological underpinnings of personality without, though, reaching a general consensus about the strength of this relationship; and (b) to outline that the research in personality genetics should be expanded to provide a clearer picture of the heritability of personality traits. PMID:26750396

  2. Modulation of midbrain dopamine neurotransmission by serotonin, a versatile interaction between neurotransmitters and significance for antipsychotic drug action.

    PubMed

    Olijslagers, J E; Werkman, T R; McCreary, A C; Kruse, C G; Wadman, W J

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a dysfunction of brain dopamine (DA). This, so called, DA hypothesis has been refined as new insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia have emerged. Currently, dysfunction of prefrontocortical glutamatergic and GABAergic projections and dysfunction of serotonin (5-HT) systems are also thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Refinements of the DA hypothesis have lead to the emergence of new pharmacological targets for antipsychotic drug development. It was shown that effective antipsychotic drugs with a low liability for inducing extra-pyramidal side-effects have affinities for a range of neurotransmitter receptors in addition to DA receptors, suggesting that a combination of neurotransmitter receptor affinities may be favorable for treatment outcome.This review focuses on the interaction between DA and 5-HT, as most antipsychotics display affinity for 5-HT receptors. We will discuss DA/5-HT interactions at the level of receptors and G protein-coupled potassium channels and consequences for induction of depolarization blockade with specific attention to DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra zona compacta (SN), neurons implicated in treatment efficacy and the side-effects of schizophrenia, respectively. Moreover, it has been reported that electrophysiological interactions between DA and 5-HT show subtle, but important, differences between the SN and the VTA which could explain (in part) the effectiveness and lower propensity to induce side-effects of the newer atypical antipsychotic drugs. In that respect the functional implications of DA/5-HT interactions for schizophrenia will be discussed. PMID:18615139

  3. Theoretical study of electron transfer process between fullerenes and neurotransmitters; acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and epinephrine in nanostructures [neurotransmitters].C n complexes.

    PubMed

    Taherpour, Avat Arman; Rizehbandi, Mohammad; Jahanian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Ehsan; Mahdizadeh, Nosrat-Allah

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are the compounds which allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses. They are the brain chemicals that communicate information throughout brain and body. Fullerenes are a family of carbonallotropes, molecules composed entirely of carbon, that take the forms of spheres, ellipsoids, and cylinders. Various empty carbon fullerenes (Cn) with different carbon atoms have been obtained and investigated. Topological indices have been successfully used to construct effective and useful mathematical methods to establish clear relationships between structural data and the physical properties of these materials. In this study, the number of carbon atoms in the fullerenes was used as an index to establish a relationship between the structures of neurotransmitters (NTs) acetylcholine (AC) 1, dopamine (DP) 2, serotonin (SE) 3, and epinephrine (EP) 4 as the well-known redox systems and fullerenes C n (n = 60, 70, 76, 82, and 86) which create [NT].Cn; A-1 to A-5 up to D-1 to D-5. The relationship between the number of carbon atoms and the free energy of electron transfer (ΔG et(n); n = 1-4) is assessed using the Rehm-Weller equation for A-1 to A-5 up to D-1 to D-5 supramolecular [NT].Cn complexes. The calculations are presented for the four reduction potentials ( (Red.) E 1 to (Red.) E 4 ) of fullerenes C n . The results were used to calculate the four free energy values of electron transfer (ΔG et(1) to ΔG et(4)) of the supramolecular complexes A-1 to A-8 up to D-1 to D-8 for fullerenes C60 to C120. The first to fourth free activation energy values of electron transfer and the maximum wavelength of the electron transfers, ΔG (#) et(n) and λ et (n = 1-4), respectively, were also calculated in this study for A-1 to A-8 up to D-1 to D-8 in accordance with the Marcus theory. PMID:26855678

  4. Synapsins Differentially Control Dopamine and Serotonin Release

    PubMed Central

    Kile, Brian M.; Guillot, Thomas S.; Venton, B. Jill; Wetsel, William C.; Augustine, George J.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Synapsins are a family of synaptic vesicle proteins that are important for neurotransmitter release. Here we have used triple knockout (TKO) mice lacking all three synapsin genes to determine the roles of synapsins in the release of two monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. Serotonin release evoked by electrical stimulation was identical in substantia nigra pars reticulata slices prepared from TKO and wild-type mice. In contrast, release of dopamine in response to electrical stimulation was approximately doubled in striatum of TKO mice, both in vivo and in striatal slices, in comparison to wild-type controls. This was due to loss of synapsin III, because deletion of synapsin III alone was sufficient to increase dopamine release. Deletion of synapsins also increased the sensitivity of dopamine release to extracellular calcium ions. Although cocaine did not affect the release of serotonin from nigral tissue, this drug did enhance dopamine release. Cocaine-induced facilitation of dopamine release was a function of external calcium, an effect that was reduced in TKO mice. We conclude that synapsins play different roles in the control of release of dopamine and serotonin, with release of dopamine being negatively regulated by synapsins, specifically synapsin III, while serotonin release appears to be relatively independent of synapsins. These results provide further support for the concept that synapsin function in presynaptic terminals varies according to the neurotransmitter being released. PMID:20660258

  5. Inhibition potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolites on the in vitro monoamine oxidase (MAO)-catalyzed deamination of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Andrea E; Boxler, Martina I; Stock, Lorena; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-01-22

    Neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is still controversially discussed. Formation of reactive oxygen species e.g. based on elevated dopamine (DA) concentrations and DA quinone formation is discussed among others. Inhibition potential of MDMA metabolites regarding neurotransmitter degradation by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase was described previously. Their influence on monoamine oxidase (MAO) - the major DA degradation pathway-has not yet been studied in humans. Therefore the inhibition potential of MDMA and its metabolites on the deamination of the neurotransmitters DA and serotonin (5-HT) by MAO-A and B using recombinant human enzymes in vitro should be investigated. In initial studies, MDMA and MDA showed relevant inhibition (>30%) toward MAO A for 5-HT and DA. No relevant effects toward MAO B were observed. Further investigation on MAO-A revealed MDMA as a competitive inhibitor of 5-HT and DA deamination with Ki 24.5±7.1μM and 18.6±4.3μM respectively and MDA as a mixed-type inhibitor with Ki 7.8±2.6μM and 8.4±3.2μM respectively. Although prediction of in vivo relevance needs to be done with care, relevant inhibitory effects at expected plasma concentrations after recreational MDMA consumption seems unlikely based on the obtained data. PMID:26721607

  6. Cortisol decreases and serotonin and dopamine increase following massage therapy.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Diego, Miguel; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2005-10-01

    In this article the positive effects of massage therapy on biochemistry are reviewed including decreased levels of cortisol and increased levels of serotonin and dopamine. The research reviewed includes studies on depression (including sex abuse and eating disorder studies), pain syndrome studies, research on auto-immune conditions (including asthma and chronic fatigue), immune studies (including HIV and breast cancer), and studies on the reduction of stress on the job, the stress of aging, and pregnancy stress. In studies in which cortisol was assayed either in saliva or in urine, significant decreases were noted in cortisol levels (averaging decreases 31%). In studies in which the activating neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine) were assayed in urine, an average increase of 28% was noted for serotonin and an average increase of 31% was noted for dopamine. These studies combined suggest the stress-alleviating effects (decreased cortisol) and the activating effects (increased serotonin and dopamine) of massage therapy on a variety of medical conditions and stressful experiences. PMID:16162447

  7. Optogenetic Control of Serotonin and Dopamine Release in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic control of neurotransmitter release is an elegant method to investigate neurobiological mechanisms with millisecond precision and cell type-specific resolution. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can be expressed in specific neurons, and blue light used to activate those neurons. Previously, in Drosophila, neurotransmitter release and uptake have been studied after continuous optical illumination. In this study, we investigated the effects of pulsed optical stimulation trains on serotonin or dopamine release in larval ventral nerve cords. In larvae with ChR2 expressed in serotonergic neurons, low-frequency stimulations produced a distinct, steady-state response while high-frequency patterns were peak shaped. Evoked serotonin release increased with increasing stimulation frequency and then plateaued. The steady-state response and the frequency dependence disappeared after administering the uptake inhibitor fluoxetine, indicating that uptake plays a significant role in regulating the extracellular serotonin concentration. Pulsed stimulations were also used to evoke dopamine release in flies expressing ChR2 in dopaminergic neurons and similar frequency dependence was observed. Release due to pulsed optical stimulations was modeled to determine the uptake kinetics. For serotonin, Vmax was 0.54 ± 0.07 μM/s and Km was 0.61 ± 0.04 μM; and for dopamine, Vmax was 0.12 ± 0.03 μM/s and Km was 0.45 ± 0.13 μM. The amount of serotonin released per stimulation pulse was 4.4 ± 1.0 nM, and the amount of dopamine was 1.6 ± 0.3 nM. Thus, pulsed optical stimulations can be used to mimic neuronal firing patterns and will allow Drosophila to be used as a model system for studying mechanisms underlying neurotransmission. PMID:24849718

  8. Antihistamine effect on synaptosomal uptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the effects of five H1 and H2 antihistamines on the synaptosomal uptake of serotonin (5HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) is presented. Brain homogenates from female rats were incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer solution in the presence of one of three radioactive neurotransmitters, and one of the five antihistamines. Low concentrations of pyrilamine competitively inhibited 5HT uptake, had little effect on NE uptake, and no effect on DA uptake. Promethazine, diphenhydramine, metiamide, and cimetidine had no effect on 5HT or DA uptake at the same concentration. Diphenhydramine had a small inhibitory effect on NE uptake. It is concluded that pyrilamine is a selective and potent competitive inhibitor of 5HT uptake at concentrations between .05 and .5 micromolars.

  9. The Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Mixed Serotonin, Norepinephrine and Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Skolnick, Phil

    The evolution of antidepressants over the past four decades has involved the replacement of drugs with a multiplicity of effects (e.g., TCAs) by those with selective actions (i.e., SSRIs). This strategy was employed to reduce the adverse effects of TCAs, largely by eliminating interactions with certain neurotransmitters or receptors. Although these more selective compounds may be better tolerated by patients, selective drugs, specifically SSRIs, are not superior to older drugs in treating depressed patients as measured by response and remission rates. It may be an advantage to increase synaptic levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine, as in the case of dual uptake inhibitors like duloxetine and venlafaxine. An important recent development has been the emergence of the triple-uptake inhibitors (TUIs/SNDRIs), which inhibit the uptake of the three neurotransmitters most closely linked to depression: serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that a drug inhibiting the reuptake of all three of these neurotransmitters could produce more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of mixed serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporter uptake inhibitors.

  10. Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Lauri; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Hietala, Jarmo

    2014-05-01

    All functions of the human brain are consequences of altered activity of specific neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. Although the knowledge of "system level" connectivity in the brain is increasing rapidly, we lack "molecular level" information on brain networks and connectivity patterns. We introduce novel voxel-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods for studying internal neurotransmitter network structure and intercorrelations of different neurotransmitter systems in the human brain. We chose serotonin transporter and μ-opioid receptor for this analysis because of their functional interaction at the cellular level and similar regional distribution in the brain. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two consecutive PET scans using [(11)C]MADAM, a serotonin transporter tracer, and [(11)C]carfentanil, a μ-opioid receptor tracer. First, voxel-by-voxel "intracorrelations" (hub and seed analyses) were used to study the internal structure of opioid and serotonin systems. Second, voxel-level opioid-serotonin intercorrelations (between neurotransmitters) were computed. Regional μ-opioid receptor binding potentials were uniformly correlated throughout the brain. However, our analyses revealed nonuniformity in the serotonin transporter intracorrelations and identified a highly connected local network (midbrain-striatum-thalamus-amygdala). Regionally specific intercorrelations between the opioid and serotonin tracers were found in anteromedial thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parietal cortex, i.e., in areas relevant for several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders. This methodology enables in vivo mapping of connectivity patterns within and between neurotransmitter systems. Quantification of functional neurotransmitter balances may be a useful approach in etiological studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in drug development as a biomarker-based rationale for targeted modulation of neurotransmitter networks. PMID:23671038

  11. Brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease presenting as a severe infantile hypotonic parkinsonian disorder.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jessie C; Wilson, Callum; Cunningham, Vicki; Glamuzina, Emma; Prosser, Debra O; Love, Donald R; Burgess, Trent; Taylor, Juliet; Swan, Brendan; Hill, Rosamund; Robertson, Stephen P; Snell, Russell G; Lehnert, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two male siblings from a consanguineous union presented in early infancy with marked truncal hypotonia, a general paucity of movement, extrapyramidal signs and cognitive delay. By mid-childhood they had made little developmental progress and remained severely hypotonic and bradykinetic. They developed epilepsy and had problems with autonomic dysfunction and oculogyric crises. They had a number of orthopaedic problems secondary to their hypotonia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitters were initially normal, apart from mildly elevated 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and the children did not respond favourably to a trial of levodopa-carbidopa. The youngest died from respiratory complications at 10 years of age. Repeat CSF neurotransmitters in the older sibling at eight years of age showed slightly low homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel mutation homozygous in both children in the monoamine transporter gene SLC18A2 (p.Pro237His), resulting in brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease. This is the second family to be described with a mutation in this gene. Treatment with the dopamine agonist pramipexole in the surviving child resulted in mild improvements in alertness, communication, and eye movements. This case supports the identification of the causal mutation in the original case, expands the clinical phenotype of brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease and confirms that pramipexole treatment may lead to symptomatic improvement in affected individuals. PMID:26497564

  12. APRESS: apical regulatory super system, serotonin, and dopamine interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Marty; Stein, Alvin; Uncini, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: The monoamines serotonin and dopamine are known to exist in two separate states: the endogenous state and the competitive inhibition state. The presence of the competitive inhibition state has been known to science for many years, but from a functional standpoint it has been noted in the literature as being “meaningless.” Methods: A large database of monoamine transporter response to amino acid precursor administration variations with clinical outcomes was accumulated. In the process, a new organic cation transporter (OCT) model has been published, and OCT functional status determination along with amino acid precursor manipulation methods have been invented and refined. Results: Methodology was developed whereby manipulation of the OCT, in the competitive inhibition state, is carried out in a predictable manner. This, in turn, has disproved the long-held assertion that the monoamine competitive inhibition state is functionally meaningless. Conclusion: The most significant aspect of this paper is the documentation of newly recognized relationships between serotonin and dopamine. When transport of serotonin and dopamine are both in the competitive inhibition state, manipulation of the concentrations of one will lead to predictable changes in concentrations of the other. From a functional standpoint, processes regulated and controlled by changes to only serotonin can now be controlled by changes to dopamine, and vice versa, in a predictable manner. PMID:21857786

  13. Neurodevelopmental liabilities in alcohol dependence: central serotonin and dopamine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Claudio A; Chu, Alan Y; Tremblay, Lescia K

    2002-06-01

    Alcoholism is a complex disorder with symptoms ranging from abuse to dependence, often comorbid with depression, antisocial personality, or anxiety. Neurodevelopmental causes of the disorder are unknown but inferences are possible from current knowledge. Neurobiological studies implicate multiple brain changes, which may be characterized as premorbid or morbid. These studies have also examined specific aspects of the alcohol dependence syndrome, including alcohol reinforcement and craving. Here, we review the evidence for vulnerability factors in alcohol dependence, with an emphasis on central serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Serotonin dysfunction likely contributes to the development of alcoholism since studies of alcohol-preferring rodents show decreased 5-HT function on many measures. We have shown that serotonin-enhancing drugs reduce consumption and craving in mild to moderate alcoholics, yet similar studies in severely dependent individuals remain inconclusive. Studies indicate that serotonin dysfunction may contribute to the development of dependence via impaired impulse control and/or mood regulation. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway represents another important pathophysiological target in alcoholism. Differences in D(2) receptor density, dopamine sensitivity, and gene expression have been linked to consumption, reinforcement, craving, and relapse. However, while DA agonists reduce self-administration in animals, we found no effect in humans with long-acting bromocriptine, a D(2) agonist. Dopamine may contribute differentially to the development of dependence via its effects on alcohol wanting, reinforcement, and reward memory. Although animal experiments show consistent roles for serotonin and dopamine in alcohol dependence, human studies are not always concordant. Such discrepancies highlight the complexity of dependence-related behaviors in humans and of identifying vulnerabilities to alcoholism. PMID:12829424

  14. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  15. The conformational space of the neurotransmitter serotonin: how the rotation of a hydroxyl group changes all.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Martin; Brand, Christian; Wilke, Josefin; Schmitt, Michael

    2016-05-11

    The 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors (5HTn) are optimized for 5-hydrotryptamine molecules, resulting in a significantly enhanced psychoactive response compared with the 4-, 6-, 7-isomers. This is despite their relatively similar energetic stabilities, excited state lifetimes and emission characteristics. In this work we investigate the conformational space of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) using a combination of rotationally resolved electronic spectroscopy and ab initio calculations. The geometries of the four most abundant conformers are assigned from their molecular parameters in the electronic ground and excited state. We find a conformer-dependent competition between two polar groups trying to establish a hydrogen bond with the same H-atom in the most stable conformer of serotonin. The result explains some remarkable deviations with respect to the conformational space of the closely related neurotransmitter tryptamine. Based on the comparison to other 5-substituted indoles we propose to generalize this finding to explain the conformational preferences of indole-based neurotransmitters. PMID:27136975

  16. Chemical sensing of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Tuhin; Jung, Hyo Sung; Jang, Joo Hee; Kim, Tae Woo; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Jong Seung

    2014-07-01

    In the past few decades, the development of chemosensors for neurotransmitters has emerged as a research area of significant importance, which attracted a tremendous amount of attention due to its high sensitivity and rapid response. This current review focuses on various neurotransmitter detection based on fluorescent or colorimetric spectrophotometry published for the last 12 years, covering biogenic amines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine and acetylcholine), amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glycine and tyrosine), and adenosine. PMID:24736802

  17. Opponency Revisited: Competition and Cooperation Between Dopamine and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Boureau, Y-Lan; Dayan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Affective valence lies on a spectrum ranging from punishment to reward. The coding of such spectra in the brain almost always involves opponency between pairs of systems or structures. There is ample evidence for the role of dopamine in the appetitive half of this spectrum, but little agreement about the existence, nature, or role of putative aversive opponents such as serotonin. In this review, we consider the structure of opponency in terms of previous biases about the nature of the decision problems that animals face, the conflicts that may thus arise between Pavlovian and instrumental responses, and an additional spectrum joining invigoration to inhibition. We use this analysis to shed light on aspects of the role of serotonin and its interactions with dopamine. PMID:20881948

  18. Hydroxylated serotonin and dopamine as substrates and inhibitors for human cytosolic SULT1A3.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shin; Liu, Ming-Yih; Suiko, Masahito; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2007-12-01

    Sulfation as catalyzed by the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) is known to play an important role in the regulation and homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters. The current study was designed to examine the occurrence of the sulfation of 7-hydroxyserotonin and 6-hydroxydopamine by human cytosolic SULTs and to investigate the inhibitory effects of these hydroxylated derivatives on the sulfation of their unhydroxylated counterparts, serotonin and dopamine. A systematic study using 11 known human cytosolic SULTs revealed SULT1A3 as the responsible enzyme for the sulfation of 7-hydroxyserotonin and 6-hydroxydopamine. The pH-dependence and kinetic constants of SULT1A3 with 7-hydroxyserotonin or 6-hydroxydopamine as substrate were determined. The inhibitory effects of 7-hydroxyserotonin and 6-hydroxydopamine on the sulfation of serotonin and dopamine were evaluated. Kinetic analyses indicated that the mechanism underlying the inhibition by these hydroxylated monoamine derivatives is of a competitive-type. Metabolic labeling experiments showed the generation and release of [(35) S]sulfated 7-hydroxyserotonin and [(35) S]sulfated 6-hydroxydopamine when SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells were labeled with [(35) S]sulfate in the presence of 7-hydroxyserotonin or 6-hydroxydopamine. Upon transfection of the cells with siRNAs targeted at SULT1A3, diminishment of the SULT1A3 protein and concomitantly the sulfating activity toward these hydroxylated monoamines was observed. Taken together, these results indicated clearly the involvement of sulfation in the metabolism of 7-hydroxyserotonin and 6-hydroxydopamine. By serving as substrates for SULT1A3, these hydroxylated monoamines may interfere with the homeostasis of endogenous serotonin and dopamine. PMID:17908235

  19. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell increases impulsive behavior and tissue levels of dopamine and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Sesia, Thibaut; Bulthuis, Vincent; Tan, Sonny; Lim, Lee Wei; Vlamings, Rinske; Blokland, Arjan; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Sharp, Trevor; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Temel, Yasin

    2010-10-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is gaining interest as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in refractory neuropsychiatric disorders with impulsivity as core symptom. The nucleus accumbens is composed of two subterritories, core and shell, which have different anatomical connections. In animal models, it has been shown that DBS of the NAc changes impulsive action. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a change in impulsive action by DBS of the NAc is associated with changes in dopamine levels. Rats received stimulating electrodes either in the NAc core or shell, and underwent behavioral testing in a reaction time task. In addition, in a second experiment, the effect of DBS of the NAc core and shell on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels was assessed in the NAc and medial prefrontal cortex. Control subjects received sham surgery. We have found that DBS of the NAc shell stimulation induced more impulsive action but less perseverative checking. These effects were associated with increased levels of dopamine and serotonin in the NAc, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. DBS of the NAc core had no effect on impulsive action, but decreased perseverative responses indicative of a better impulse control. In these subjects, no effects were found on neurotransmitter levels. Our data point out that DBS of the NAc shell has negative effects on impulsive action which is accompanied by increases of dopamine and serotonin levels in the NAc, whereas DBS of the NAc core has beneficial behavioral effects. PMID:20615406

  20. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  1. Neurotransmitter and psychostimulant recognition by the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kevin H; Penmatsa, Aravind; Gouaux, Eric

    2015-05-21

    Na(+)/Cl(-)-coupled biogenic amine transporters are the primary targets of therapeutic and abused drugs, ranging from antidepressants to the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamines, and to their cognate substrates. Here we determine X-ray crystal structures of the Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter (dDAT) bound to its substrate dopamine, a substrate analogue 3,4-dichlorophenethylamine, the psychostimulants d-amphetamine and methamphetamine, or to cocaine and cocaine analogues. All ligands bind to the central binding site, located approximately halfway across the membrane bilayer, in close proximity to bound sodium and chloride ions. The central binding site recognizes three chemically distinct classes of ligands via conformational changes that accommodate varying sizes and shapes, thus illustrating molecular principles that distinguish substrates from inhibitors in biogenic amine transporters. PMID:25970245

  2. Neurotransmitter and psychostimulant recognition by the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kevin H.; Penmatsa, Aravind; Gouaux, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Na+/Cl−-coupled biogenic amine transporters are the primary targets of therapeutic and abused drugs, ranging from antidepressants to the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamines, and to their cognate substrates. Here we determine x-ray crystal structures of the Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter (dDAT) bound to its substrate dopamine (DA), a substrate analogue 3,4-dichlorophenethylamine, the psychostimulants D-amphetamine, methamphetamine, or to cocaine and cocaine analogues. All ligands bind to the central binding site, located approximately halfway across the membrane bilayer, in close proximity to bound sodium and chloride ions. The central binding site recognizes three chemically distinct classes of ligands via conformational changes that accommodate varying sizes and shapes, thus illustrating molecular principles that distinguish substrates from inhibitors in biogenic amine transporters. PMID:25970245

  3. Temperature dependence of electrical properties of mixture of exogenous neurotransmitters dopamine and epinephrine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patki, Mugdha; Patil, Vidya

    2016-05-01

    Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that support the communication between the neurons. In vitro study of exogenous neurotransmitters Dopamine and Epinephrine and their mixture, carried out to learn about their electrical properties being dielectric constant and conductivity amongst others. Dielectric constant and conductivity of the selected neurotransmitters are found to increase with temperature. As a result, the time constant of the system increases with temperature. This change leads to increase in the time taken by the synapse to transport the action potential. The correlation between physical properties of exogenous neurotransmitters and psychological and physiological behaviour of human being may be understood with the help of current study. The response time of Epinephrine is in microseconds whereas response time of Dopamine is in milliseconds. The response time for both the neurotransmitters and their mixture is found to be increasing with temperature indicating the symptoms such as depression, apathy, chronic fatigue and low physical energy with no desire to exercise the body, which are observed during the fever.

  4. Analysis of Glutamate, GABA, Noradrenaline, Dopamine, Serotonin, and Metabolites Using Microbore UHPLC with Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of microbore ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with electrochemical detection for offline analysis of a number of well-known neurotransmitters in less than 10 μL microdialysis fractions is described. Two methods are presented for the analysis of monoamine or amino acid neurotransmitters, using the same UHPLC instrument. Speed of analysis of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and the metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindole aceticacid (5-HIAA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was predominated by the retention behavior of NA, the nonideal behavior of matrix components, and the loss in signal of 5-HT. This method was optimized to meet the requirements for detection sensitivity and minimizing the size of collected fractions, which determines temporal resolution in microdialysis. The amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were analyzed after an automated derivatization procedure. Under optimized conditions, Glu was resolved from a number of early eluting system peaks, while the total runtime was decreased to 15 min by a 4-fold increase of the flow rate under UHPLC conditions. The detection limit for Glu and GABA was 10 nmol/L (15 fmol in 1.5 μL); the monoamine neurotransmitters had a detection limit between 32 and 83 pmol/L (0.16–0.42 fmol in 5 μL) in standard solutions. Using UHPLC, the analysis times varied from 15 min to less than 2 min depending on the complexity of the samples and the substances to be analyzed. PMID:23642417

  5. Fluorescent false neurotransmitter reveals functionally silent dopamine vesicle clusters in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Daniela B; Schmitz, Yvonne; Mészáros, József; Merchant, Paolomi; Hu, Gang; Li, Shu; Henke, Adam; Lizardi-Ortiz, José E; Karpowicz, Richard J; Morgenstern, Travis J; Sonders, Mark S; Kanter, Ellen; Rodriguez, Pamela C; Mosharov, Eugene V; Sames, Dalibor; Sulzer, David

    2016-04-01

    Neurotransmission at dopaminergic synapses has been studied with techniques that provide high temporal resolution, but cannot resolve individual synapses. To elucidate the spatial dynamics and heterogeneity of individual dopamine boutons, we developed fluorescent false neurotransmitter 200 (FFN200), a vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) substrate that selectively traces monoamine exocytosis in both neuronal cell culture and brain tissue. By monitoring electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients with GCaMP3 and FFN200 release simultaneously, we found that only a small fraction of dopamine boutons that exhibited Ca(2+) influx engaged in exocytosis, a result confirmed with activity-dependent loading of the endocytic probe FM1-43. Thus, only a low fraction of striatal dopamine axonal sites with uptake-competent VMAT2 vesicles are capable of transmitter release. This is consistent with the presence of functionally 'silent' dopamine vesicle clusters and represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first report suggestive of presynaptically silent neuromodulatory synapses. PMID:26900925

  6. Unfaithful neurotransmitter transporters: Focus on serotonin uptake and implications for antidepressant efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Daws, Lynette C.

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic amine transporters for serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine (SERT, NET and DAT respectively), are the key players terminating transmission of these amines in the central nervous system by their high-affinity uptake. They are also major targets for many antidepressant drugs. Interestingly however, drugs targeted to a specific transporter do not appear to be as clinically efficacious as those that block two or all three of these transporters. A growing body of literature, reviewed here, supports the idea that promiscuity among these transporters (the uptake of multiple amines in addition to their “native” transmitter) may account for improved therapeutic effects of dual and triple uptake blockers. However, even these drugs do not provide effective treatment outcomes for all individuals. An emerging literature suggests that “non-traditional” transporters such as organic cation transporters (OCT) and the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) may contribute to the less than hoped for efficacy of currently prescribed uptake inhibitors. OCT and PMAT are capable of clearing biogenic amines from extracellular fluid and may serve to buffer the effects of frontline antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In addition, polymorphisms that occur in the genes encoding the transporters can lead to variation in transporter expression and function (e.g. the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region; 5-HTTLPR) and can have profound effects on treatment outcome. This may be accounted for, in part, by compensatory adaptations in other transporters. This review synthesizes the existing literature, focusing on serotonin to illustrate and revive a model for the rationale design of improved antidepressants. PMID:19022290

  7. Interaction Between Brain Histamine and Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Dopamine Systems: In Vivo Microdialysis and Electrophysiology Study.

    PubMed

    Flik, Gunnar; Folgering, Joost H A; Cremers, Thomas I H F; Westerink, Ben H C; Dremencov, Eliyahu

    2015-06-01

    Brain monoamines (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and histamine) play an important role in emotions, cognition, and pathophysiology and treatment of mental disorders. The interactions between serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were studied in numerous works; however, histamine system received less attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between histamine and other monoamines, using in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiology. It was found that the inverse agonist of histamine-3 receptors, thioperamide, increased the firing activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Selective agonist of histamine-3 receptors, immepip, reversed thiperamide-induced stimulation of firing activity of dopamine neurons. The firing rates of serotonin and norpeinephrine neurons were not attenuated by immepip or thioperamide. Thioperamide robustly and significantly increased extracellular concentrations of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the rat prefrontal cortex and slightly increased norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. It can be concluded that histamine stimulates serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine transmission in the brain. Modulation of firing of dopamine neurons is a key element in functional interactions between histamine and other monoamines. Antagonists of histamine-3 receptors, because of their potential ability to stimulate monoamine neurotransmission, might be beneficial in the treatment of mental disorders. PMID:25820671

  8. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2015-07-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements.

  9. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements. PMID:25939038

  10. Comonitoring of adenosine and dopamine using the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System: proof of principle

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Young-Min; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Object The authors of previous studies have demonstrated that local adenosine efflux may contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of action of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor. Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of DBS-targeted regions may thus advance functional neurosurgical procedures by identifying candidate neurotransmitters and neuromodulators involved in the physiological effects of DBS. This would in turn permit the development of a method of chemically guided placement of DBS electrodes in vivo. Designed in compliance with FDA-recognized standards for medical electrical device safety, the authors report on the utility of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for real-time comonitoring of electrical stimulation–evoked adenosine and dopamine efflux in vivo, utilizing fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a polyacrylonitrile-based (T-650) carbon fiber microelectrode (CFM). Methods The WINCS was used for FSCV, which consisted of a triangle wave scanned between −0.4 and +1.5 V at a rate of 400 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages applied to the CFM were with respect to an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single T-650 carbon fiber (r = 2.5 μm) into a glass capillary and pulling to a microscopic tip using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ∼ 50 μm. Proof of principle tests included in vitro measurements of adenosine and dopamine, as well as in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring adenosine and dopamine efflux in the dorsomedial caudate putamen evoked by high-frequency electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Results The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of adenosine efflux. Peak oxidative currents appeared at +1.5 V and at +1.0 V for adenosine, separate from the peak oxidative current at +0.6 V for dopamine. The WINCS detected subsecond adenosine and dopamine efflux in the caudate putamen at an implanted CFM during high-frequency stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Both in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated that WINCS can detect adenosine in the presence of other easily oxidizable neurochemicals such as dopamine comparable to the detection abilities of a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Conclusions Altogether, these results demonstrate that WINCS is well suited for wireless monitoring of high-frequency stimulation-evoked changes in brain extracellular concentrations of adenosine. Clinical applications of selective adenosine measurements may prove important to the future development of DBS technology. PMID:19731995

  11. Serotonin/dopamine interactions in a hyperactive mouse: reduced serotonin receptor 1B activity reverses effects of dopamine transporter knockout.

    PubMed

    Hall, Frank Scott; Sora, Ichiro; Hen, René; Uhl, George R

    2014-01-01

    Knockout (KO) mice that lack the dopamine transporter (SL6A3; DAT) display increased locomotion that can be attenuated, under some circumstances, by administration of drugs that normally produce psychostimulant-like effects, such as amphetamine and methylphenidate. These results have led to suggestions that DAT KO mice may model features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and that these drugs may act upon serotonin (5-HT) systems to produce these unusual locomotor decreasing effects. Evidence from patterns of brain expression and initial pharmacologic studies led us to use genetic and pharmacologic approaches to examine the influence of altered 5-HT1B receptor activity on hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Heterozygous 5-HT1B KO and pharmacologic 5-HT1B antagonism both attenuated locomotor hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Furthermore, DAT KO mice with reduced, but not eliminated, 5-HT1B receptor expression regained cocaine-stimulated locomotion, which was absent in DAT KO mice with normal levels of 5-HT1B receptor expression. Further experiments demonstrated that the degree of habituation to the testing apparatus determined whether cocaine had no effect on locomotion in DAT KO or reduced locomotion, helping to resolve differences among prior reports. These findings of complementation of the locomotor effects of DAT KO by reducing 5-HT1B receptor activity underscore roles for interactions between specific 5-HT receptors and dopamine (DA) systems in basal and cocaine-stimulated locomotion and support evaluation of 5-HT1B antagonists as potential, non-stimulant ADHD therapeutics. PMID:25514162

  12. Serotonin/Dopamine Interactions in a Hyperactive Mouse: Reduced Serotonin Receptor 1B Activity Reverses Effects of Dopamine Transporter Knockout

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Frank Scott; Sora, Ichiro; Hen, René; Uhl, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Knockout (KO) mice that lack the dopamine transporter (SL6A3; DAT) display increased locomotion that can be attenuated, under some circumstances, by administration of drugs that normally produce psychostimulant-like effects, such as amphetamine and methylphenidate. These results have led to suggestions that DAT KO mice may model features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and that these drugs may act upon serotonin (5-HT) systems to produce these unusual locomotor decreasing effects. Evidence from patterns of brain expression and initial pharmacologic studies led us to use genetic and pharmacologic approaches to examine the influence of altered 5-HT1B receptor activity on hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Heterozygous 5-HT1B KO and pharmacologic 5-HT1B antagonism both attenuated locomotor hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Furthermore, DAT KO mice with reduced, but not eliminated, 5-HT1B receptor expression regained cocaine-stimulated locomotion, which was absent in DAT KO mice with normal levels of 5-HT1B receptor expression. Further experiments demonstrated that the degree of habituation to the testing apparatus determined whether cocaine had no effect on locomotion in DAT KO or reduced locomotion, helping to resolve differences among prior reports. These findings of complementation of the locomotor effects of DAT KO by reducing 5-HT1B receptor activity underscore roles for interactions between specific 5-HT receptors and dopamine (DA) systems in basal and cocaine-stimulated locomotion and support evaluation of 5-HT1B antagonists as potential, non-stimulant ADHD therapeutics. PMID:25514162

  13. Understanding the redox coupling between quantum dots and the neurotransmitter dopamine in hybrid self-assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xin; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Wang, Wentao; Palui, Goutam; Robel, Istvan; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2015-03-01

    Interactions between luminescent fluorophores and redox active molecules often involve complex charge transfer processes, and have great ramifications in biology. Dopamine is a redox active neurotransmitter involved in a range of brain activities. We used steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence along with transient absorption bleach measurements, to probe the effects of changing the QD size and valence on the rate of photoluminescence quenching in QD-dopamine conjugates, when the pH of the medium was varied. In particular, we measured substantially larger quenching efficiencies, combined with more pronounced shortening in the PL lifetime decay when smaller size QDs and/or alkaline pH were used. Moreover, we found that changes in the nanocrystal size alter both the electron and hole relaxation of photoexcited QDs but with very different extents. For instance, a more pronounced change in the hole relaxation was recorded in alkaline buffers and for green-emitting QDs compared to their red-emitting counterparts. We attributed these results to the more favorable electron transfer pathway from the reduced form of the complex to the valence band of the QD. This process benefits from the combination of lower oxidation potential and larger energy mismatch in alkaline buffers and for green-emitting QDs. In comparison, the effects on the rate of electron transfer from excited QDs to dopamine are less affected by QD size. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that drive charge transfer interactions and the ensuing quenching of QD emission in such assemblies.

  14. The antipsychotic aripiprazole induces antinociceptive effects: Possible role of peripheral dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Santos, Ana F; Ferreira, Renata C M; Duarte, Igor D; Aguiar, Daniele C; Romero, Thiago R L; Moreira, Fabricio A

    2015-10-15

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts by multiple mechanisms, including partial agonism at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Since these neurotransmitters also modulate pain and analgesia, we tested the hypothesis that systemic or local administration of aripiprazole induces antinociceptive responses. Systemic aripiprazole (0.1-10 mg/kg; i.p.) injection in mice inhibited formalin-induced paw licking and PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw pressure test. This effect was mimicked by intra-plantar administration (12.5-100 µg/paw) in the ipsi, but not contralateral, paw. The peripheral action of aripiprazole (100 µg/paw) was reversed by haloperidol (0.1-10 µg/paw), suggesting the activation of dopamine receptors as a possible mechanism. Accordingly, quinpirole (25-100 µg/paw), a full agonist at D2/D3 receptors, also reduced nociceptive responses.. In line with the partial agoniztic activity of aripiprazole, low dose of this compound inhibited the effect of quinpirole (both at 25 µg/paw). Finally, peripheral administration of NAN-190 (0.1-10 μg/paw), a 5-HT1A antagonist, also prevented aripiprazole-induced antinociception. In conclusion, systemic or local administration of aripiprazole induces antinociceptive effects. Similar to its antipsychotic activity, the possible peripheral mechanism involves dopamine D2 and serotoninergic 5-HT1A receptors. Aripiprazole and other dopaminergic modulators should be further investigated as new treatments for certain types of pain. PMID:26325094

  15. Environment- and activity-dependent dopamine neurotransmitter plasticity in the adult substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Aumann, Tim D

    2016-04-01

    The ability of neurons to change the amount or type of neurotransmitter they use, or 'neurotransmitter plasticity', is an emerging new form of adult brain plasticity. For example, it has recently been shown that neurons in the adult rat hypothalamus up- or down-regulate dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in response to the amount of light the animal receives (photoperiod), and that this in turn affects anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors (Dulcis et al., 2013). In this Chapter I consolidate recent evidence from my laboratory suggesting neurons in the adult mouse substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) also undergo DA neurotransmitter plasticity in response to persistent changes in their electrical activity, including that driven by the mouse's environment or behavior. Specifically, we have shown that the amounts of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in DA synthesis) gene promoter activity, TH mRNA and TH protein in SNc neurons increases or decreases after ∼20h of altered electrical activity. Also, infusion of ion-channel agonists or antagonists into the midbrain for 2 weeks results in ∼10% (∼500 neurons) more or fewer TH immunoreactive (TH+) SNc neurons, with no change in the total number of SNc neurons (TH+ and TH-). Targeting ion-channels mediating cell-autonomous pacemaker activity in, or synaptic input and afferent pathways to, SNc neurons are equally effective in this regard. In addition, exposing mice to different environments (sex pairing or environment enrichment) for 1-2 weeks induces ∼10% more or fewer TH+ SNc (and ventral tegmental area or VTA) neurons and this is abolished by concurrent blockade of synaptic transmission in midbrain. Although further research is required to establish SNc (and VTA) DA neurotransmitter plasticity, and to determine whether it alters brain function and behavior, it is an exciting prospect because: (1) It may play important roles in movement, motor learning, reward, motivation, memory and cognition; and (2) Imbalances in midbrain DA cause symptoms associated with several prominent brain and behavioral disorders such as schizophrenia, addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, Parkinson's disease and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Midbrain DA neurotransmitter plasticity may therefore play a role in the etiology of these symptoms, and might also offer new treatment options. PMID:26718607

  16. Impact of grafted serotonin and dopamine neurons on development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in parkinsonian rats is determined by the extent of dopamine neuron degeneration.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Thomas; Carta, Manolo; Muñoz, Ana; Mattsson, Bengt; Winkler, Christian; Kirik, Deniz; Björklund, Anders

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that serotonin neurons play an important role in the induction and maintenance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in animals with lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine system. Patients with Parkinson's disease that receive transplants of foetal ventral mesencephalic tissue, the graft cell preparation is likely to contain, in addition to dopamine neurons, serotonin neurons that will vary in number depending on the landmarks used for dissection. Here, we have studied the impact of grafted serotonin neurons--alone or mixed with dopamine neurons--on the development of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in rats with a partial 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the host nigrostriatal projection. In these rats, which showed only low-level dyskinesia at the time of transplantation, serotonin grafts induced a worsening in the severity of dyskinesia that developed during continued L-DOPA treatment, while the dopamine-rich graft had the opposite, dampening effect. The detrimental effect seen in animals with serotonin neuron grafts was dramatically increased when the residual dopamine innervation in the striatum was removed by a second 6-hydroxydopamine lesion. Interestingly, rats with grafts that contained a mixture of dopamine and serotonin neurons (in approximately 2:1) showed a marked reduction in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia over time, and the appearance of severe dyskinesia induced by the removal of the residual dopamine innervation, seen in the animals with transplants of serotonin neurons alone, was blocked. FosB expression in the striatal projection neurons, which is associated with dyskinesias, was also normalized by the dopamine-rich grafts, but not by the serotonin neuron grafts. These data indicate that as long as a sufficient portion, some 10-20%, of the dopamine innervation still remains, the increased host serotonin innervation generated by the grafted serotonin neurons will have limited effect on the development or severity of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias. At more advanced stages of the disease, when the dopamine innervation of the putamen is reduced below this critical threshold, grafted serotonin neurons are likely to aggravate l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in those cases where the dopamine re-innervation derived from the grafted neurons is insufficient in magnitude or do not cover the critical dyskinesia-inducing sub-regions of the grafted putamen. We conclude that it is not the absolute number of serotonin neurons in the grafts, but the relative densities of dopamine and serotonin innervations in the grafted striatum that is the critical factor in determining the long-term effect of foetal tissue graft, beneficial or detrimental, on dyskinesia in grafted Parkinson's disease patients. PMID:19039008

  17. Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles for Fluorescence Imaging and Sensing of Neurotransmitter Dopamine in Living Cells and the Brains of Zebrafish Larvae.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng-Gen; Zhu, Sha; Feng, Pei-Jian; Chen, Yu-Lei; Yu, Ji-Cheng; Tang, Xin; Liu, Yun; Shen, Qun-Dong

    2015-08-26

    Nanoscale materials are now attracting a great deal of attention for biomedical applications. Conjugated polymer nanoparticles have remarkable photophysical properties that make them highly advantageous for biological fluorescence imaging. We report on conjugated polymer nanoparticles with phenylboronic acid tags on the surface for fluorescence detection of neurotransmitter dopamine in both living PC12 cells and brain of zebrafish larvae. The selective enrichment of dopamine and fluorescence signal amplification characteristics of the nanoparticles show rapid and high-sensitive probing such neurotransmitter with the detection limit of 38.8 nM, and minimum interference from other endogenous molecules. It demonstrates the potential of nanomaterials as a multifunctional nanoplatform for targeting, diagnosis, and therapy of dopamine-relative disease. PMID:26238670

  18. Dissociable roles of dopamine and serotonin transporter function in a rat model of negative urgency.

    PubMed

    Yates, Justin R; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-09-15

    Negative urgency is a facet of impulsivity that reflects mood-based rash action and is associated with various maladaptive behaviors in humans. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of negative urgency are not fully understood. Several brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), have been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular DA and 5-HT concentrations are regulated by DA transporters (DAT) and 5-HT transporters (SERT); thus, these transporters may be important molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in negative urgency. The current study employed a reward omission task to model negative urgency in rats. During reward trials, a cue light signaled the non-contingent delivery of one sucrose pellet; immediately following the non-contingent reward, rats responded on a lever to earn sucrose pellets (operant phase). Omission trials were similar to reward trials, except that non-contingent sucrose was omitted following the cue light prior to the operant phase. As expected, contingent responding was higher following omission of expected reward than following delivery of expected reward, thus reflecting negative urgency. Upon completion of behavioral training, Vmax and Km were obtained from kinetic analysis of [(3)H]DA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake using synaptosomes prepared from nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (Str), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) isolated from individual rats. Vmax for DAT in NAc and for SERT in OFC were positively correlated with negative urgency scores. The current findings suggest that mood-based impulsivity (negative urgency) is associated with enhanced DAT function in NAc and SERT function in OFC. PMID:26005123

  19. Structure-Guided Directed Evolution of Highly Selective P450-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sensors for Dopamine and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Brustad, Eric M.; Lelyveld, Victor S.; Snow, Christopher D.; Crook, Nathan; Jung, Sang Taek; Martinez, Francisco M.; Scholl, Timothy J.; Jasanoff, Alan; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-01-01

    New tools that allow dynamic visualization of molecular neural events are important for studying the basis of brain activity and disease. Sensors that permit ligand-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful reagents due to the non-invasive nature and good temporal and spatial resolution of MR methods. Paramagnetic metalloproteins can be effective MRI sensors due to the selectivity imparted by the protein active site and the ability to tune protein properties using techniques such as directed evolution. Here we show that structure-guided directed evolution of the active site of the cytochrome P450 BM3 heme domain (BM3h) produces highly selective MRI probes with sub-micromolar affinities for small molecules. We report a new, high affinity dopamine sensor as well as the first MRI reporter for serotonin, with which we demonstrate quantification of neurotransmitter release in vitro. We also present a detailed structural analysis of evolved BM3h lineages to systematically dissect the molecular basis of neurotransmitter binding affinity, selectivity, and enhanced MRI contrast activity in these engineered proteins. PMID:22659321

  20. Distribution of serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system of the female mud crab, Scylla olivacea (Herbst).

    PubMed

    Khornchatri, Kanjana; Kornthong, Napamanee; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-03-01

    In crustaceans serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters that play roles in the modulation of numerous physiological functions, including reproduction. However, in the mud crab, Scylla olivacea, the distributions of 5-HT and DA in the CNS have not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to map the distributions of these two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) of the female of this crab during the late stage of ovarian development. We found 5-HT immunoreactivity (-ir) and DA-ir in many parts of the CNS, including the eyestalk, brain, and thoracic ganglia. In the eyestalk, 5-HT-ir was localized in the medulla terminalis (MT), hemi-ellipsoid body (HB), and protocerebral tract (PT), whereas DA-ir was present in neuronal cluster 1, the LG neuropils, and PT. In the brain, 5-HT-ir and DA-ir were detected in cells and fibers of neuronal clusters 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, and 15. In the ventral nerve cord, 5-HT-ir was present in neurons of the abdominal ganglia, whereas DA was only present in fibers. These spatial distributions of 5-HT and DA suggest that they may be involved in the neuromodulation of important physiological functions, including ovarian maturation, as shown in other non-crab decapods. PMID:25618422

  1. Self-esteem in remitted patients with mood disorders is not associated with the dopamine receptor D4 and the serotonin transporter genes.

    PubMed

    Serretti, A; Macciardi, F; Di Bella, D; Catalano, M; Smeraldi, E

    1998-08-17

    Disturbances of the dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms. Associations have been reported between markers of the two neurotransmitter systems and the presence of illness or severity of depressive episodes, but no attention has been focused on the periods of remission. The present report focuses on a possible association of self-esteem in remitted mood disorder patients with the functional polymorphism located in the upstream regulatory region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4). Inpatients (N=162) affected by bipolar (n=103) and unipolar (n=59) disorder (DSM III-R) were assessed by the Self-Esteem Scale (SES, Rosenberg, 1965) and were typed for DRD4 and 5-HTTLPR (n=58 subjects) variants at the third exon using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Neither DRD4 nor 5-HTTLPR variants were associated with SES scores, and consideration of possible stratification effects such as sex and psychiatric diagnosis did not reveal any association either. The serotonin transporter and dopamine receptor D4 genes do not, therefore, influence self-esteem in remitted mood disorder subjects. PMID:9754692

  2. Electrochemical Label-Free Aptasensor for Specific Analysis of Dopamine in Serum in the Presence of Structurally Related Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2016-04-01

    Cellular and brain metabolism of dopamine can be correlated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, and as such, in vivo analysis of dopamine in the presence of structurally related neurotransmitters (NT) represents a holy grail of neuroscience. Interference from those NTs generally does not allow selective electroanalysis of dopamine, which redox transformation overlaps with those of other catecholamines. In our previous work, we reported an electrochemical RNA-aptamer-based biosensor for specific analysis of dopamine (Analytical Chemistry, 2013; Vol. 85, p 121). However, the overall design of the biosensor restricted its stability and impeded its operation in serum. Here, we show that specific biorecognition and electroanalysis of dopamine in serum can be performed by the RNA aptamer tethered to cysteamine-modified gold electrodes via the alkanethiol linker. The stabilized dopamine aptasensor allowed continuous 20 h amperometric analysis of dopamine in 10% serum within the physiologically important 0.1-1 μM range and in the presence of catechol and such dopamine precursors and metabolites as norepinephrine and l-DOPA. In a flow-injection mode, the aptasensor response to dopamine was ∼1 s, the sensitivity of analysis, optimized by adjusting the aptamer surface coverage, was 67 ± 1 nA μM(-1) cm(-2), and the dopamine LOD was 62 nM. The proposed design of the aptasensor, exploiting both the aptamer alkanethiol tethering to the electrode and screening of the catecholamine-aptamer electrostatic interactions, allows direct monitoring of dopamine levels in biological fluids in the presence of competitive NT and thus may be further applicable in biomedical research. PMID:26916821

  3. Activation, internalization, and recycling of the serotonin 2A receptor by dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Raote, Ishier; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Miledi, Ricardo; Panicker, Mitradas M.

    2006-01-01

    Serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, and their functional interactions, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of various CNS disorders. Here, we use recombinant serotonin (5-HT) 2A (5-HT2A) receptors to further investigate direct interactions between dopamine and 5-HT receptors. Previous studies in Xenopus oocytes showed that dopamine, although not the cognate ligand for the 5-HT2A receptor, acts as a partial-efficacy agonist. At micromolar concentrations, dopamine also acts as a partial-efficacy agonist on 5-HT2A receptors in HEK293 cells. Like 5-HT, dopamine also induces receptor-internalization in these cells, although at significantly higher concentrations than 5-HT. Interestingly, if the receptors are first sensitized or “primed” by subthreshold concentrations of 5-HT, then dopamine-induced internalization occurs at concentrations ≈10-fold lower than when dopamine is used alone. Furthermore, unlike 5-HT-mediated internalization, dopamine-mediated receptor internalization, alone, or after sensitization by 5-HT, does not depend on PKC. Dopamine-internalized receptors recycle to the surface at rates similar to those of 5-HT-internalized receptors. Our results suggest a previously uncharacterized role for dopamine in the direct activation and internalization of 5-HT2A receptors that may have clinical relevance to the function of serotonergic systems in anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia and also to the treatment of these disorders. PMID:17005723

  4. Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Daniel L; Koelle, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Four biogenic amines: octopamine, tyramine, dopamine and serotonin act in C. elegans to modulate behavior in response to changing environmental cues. These neurotransmitters act at both neurons and muscles to affect egg laying, pharyngeal pumping, locomotion and learning. A variety of experimental approaches including genetic, imaging, biochemical and pharmacological analyses have been used to identify the enzymes and cells that make and release the amines and the cells and receptors that bind them. Dopamine and serotonin act through receptors and downstream signaling mechanisms similar to those that operate in the mammalian brain suggesting that C. elegans will provide a valuable model for understanding biogenic amine signaling in the brain. PMID:18050501

  5. Dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid are colocalized in restricted groups of neurons in the sea lamprey brain: insights into the early evolution of neurotransmitter colocalization in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery, the possible corelease of classic neurotransmitters from neurons has received much attention. Colocalization of monoamines and amino acidergic neurotransmitters [mainly glutamate and dopamine (DA) or serotonin] in mammalian neurons has been reported. However, few studies have dealt with the colocalization of DA and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in neurons. With the aim of providing some insight into the colocalization of neurotransmitters during early vertebrate phylogeny, we studied GABA expression in dopaminergic neurons in the sea lamprey brain by using double-immunofluorescence methods with anti-DA and anti-GABA antibodies. Different degrees of colocalization of DA and GABA were observed in different dopaminergic brain nuclei. A high degree of colocalization (GABA in at least 25% of DA-immunoreactive neurons) was observed in populations of the caudal rhombencephalon, ventral isthmus, postoptic commissure nucleus, preoptic nucleus and in granule-like cells of the olfactory bulb. A new DA-immunoreactive striatal population that showed colocalization with GABA in about a quarter of its neurons was observed. In the periventricular hypothalamus, colocalization was observed in only a few cells, despite the abundance of DA- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons, and no double-labelled cells were observed in the paratubercular nucleus. The frequent colocalization of DA and GABA reveals that the dopaminergic populations of lampreys are more complex than previously reported. Double-labelled fibres or terminals were observed in different brain regions, suggesting possible corelease of DA and GABA by these lamprey neurons. The present results suggest that colocalization of DA and GABA in neurons appeared early in vertebrate evolution. PMID:19840024

  6. Implantable Microprobe with Arrayed Microsensors for Combined Amperometric Monitoring of the Neurotransmitters, Glutamate and Dopamine.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Tina T-C; Monbouquette, Harold G

    2012-08-15

    An implantable, micromachined microprobe with a microsensor array for combined monitoring of the neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glut) and dopamine (DA), by constant potential amperometry has been created and characterized. Microprobe studies in vitro revealed Glut and DA microsensor sensitivities of 126±5 nA·μM(-1)·cm(-2) and 3250±50 nA·μM(-1)·cm(-2), respectively, with corresponding detection limits of 2.1±0.2 μM and 62±8 nM, both at comparable ~1 sec response times. No diffusional interaction of H(2)O(2) among arrayed microelectrodes was observed. Also, no responses from the electroactive interferents, ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), DOPA (a DA catabolite) or DOPAC (a DA precursor), over their respective physiological concentration ranges, were detected. The dual sensing microbe attributes of size, detection limit, sensitivity, response time and selectivity make it attractive for combined sensing of Glut and DA in vivo. PMID:23139647

  7. Chromatographic assay to study the activity of multiple enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of dopamine and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lindsay D; Baker, Hannah; Yeoman, Mark S; Patel, Bhavik Anil

    2012-03-21

    Serotonin and dopamine are crucial regulators of signalling in the peripheral and central nervous systems. We present an ex-vivo, isocratic chromatographic method that allows for the measurement of tyrosine, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), serotonin and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in a model central nervous (CNS) system, to study the role of key enzymes involved in the synthesis and metabolism of serotonin and dopamine. By utilising a sample splitting technique, we could test a single CNS sample at multiple time points under various pharmacological treatments. In, addition, we were able to conduct this assay by utilising the endogenous biochemical components of the CNS to study the synthesis and metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, negating the requirement of additional enzyme activators or stabilisers in the biological matrix. Finally we utilised NSD-1015, an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase enzyme inhibitor used to study the synthesis of dopamine and serotonin to monitor alterations in levels of key neurochemicals. 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine dihydrochloride (NSD-1015) was able to reduce levels of serotonin and dopamine, whilst elevating precursors L-DOPA and 5-HTP. PMID:22290325

  8. Subminute and sensitive determination of the neurotransmitter serotonin in urine by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Román, David Arráez; Carretero, Antonio Segura; Blanco, Carmen Cruces; Gutiérrez, Alberto Fernández

    2004-09-01

    In this work, a sub-minute and sensitive capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) method was developed for the analysis and quantitation of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or serotonin in urine. The method involves precolumn derivatization with fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC) using an excitation light from an argon ion laser of 488 nm and a 520 nm band pass emission filter. Different variables that affect derivatization (pH, FITC concentration, reaction time and temperature) and separation (buffer concentration, pH, applied voltage and injection time) were studied. The linear dynamic range obtained was between 0 and 188 nM with a detection limit of 16 nm with a RSD between 2 and 9%. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated by analysis of 5-HT in human urine, establishing a concentration of 57 nM in control urine. The method was validated by standard-addition methodology. PMID:15340966

  9. Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Binding in Children with Autism Determined by SPECT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkonen, Ismo; Riikonen, Raili; Kokki, Hannu; Airaksinen, Mauno M.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the serotonergic system have been recognized in autism. To investigate the association between serotonin and dopamine transporters and autism, we studied 15 children (14 males, one female; mean age 8y 8mo [SD 3y 10mo]) with autism and 10 non-autistic comparison children (five males, five females; mean age 9y 10mo [SD 2y 8mo]) using

  10. Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Binding in Children with Autism Determined by SPECT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkonen, Ismo; Riikonen, Raili; Kokki, Hannu; Airaksinen, Mauno M.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the serotonergic system have been recognized in autism. To investigate the association between serotonin and dopamine transporters and autism, we studied 15 children (14 males, one female; mean age 8y 8mo [SD 3y 10mo]) with autism and 10 non-autistic comparison children (five males, five females; mean age 9y 10mo [SD 2y 8mo]) using…

  11. Dissociable Effects of Serotonin and Dopamine on the Valuation of Harm in Moral Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Molly J; Siegel, Jenifer Z; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Ousdal, Olga T; Story, Giles; Frieband, Carolyn; Grosse-Rueskamp, Johanna M; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-20

    An aversion to harming others is a core component of human morality and is disturbed in antisocial behavior. Deficient harm aversion may underlie instrumental and reactive aggression, which both feature in psychopathy. Past work has highlighted monoaminergic influences on aggression, but a mechanistic account of how monoamines regulate antisocial motives remains elusive. We previously observed that most people show a greater aversion to inflicting pain on others than themselves. Here, we investigated whether this hyperaltruistic disposition is susceptible to monoaminergic control. We observed dissociable effects of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the dopamine precursor levodopa on decisions to inflict pain on oneself and others for financial gain. Computational models of choice behavior showed that citalopram increased harm aversion for both self and others, while levodopa reduced hyperaltruism. The effects of citalopram were stronger than those of levodopa. Crucially, neither drug influenced the physical perception of pain or other components of choice such as motor impulsivity or loss aversion, suggesting a direct and specific influence of serotonin and dopamine on the valuation of harm. We also found evidence for dose dependency of these effects. Finally, the drugs had dissociable effects on response times, with citalopram enhancing behavioral inhibition and levodopa reducing slowing related to being responsible for another's fate. These distinct roles of serotonin and dopamine in modulating moral behavior have implications for potential treatments of social dysfunction that is a common feature as well as a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. PMID:26144968

  12. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System–based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    Object In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. Methods The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal model, the pig. Results The WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA. Conclusions By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425899

  13. Reassessment of the antioxidative mixture for the challenging electrochemical determination of dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in microdialysis samples.

    PubMed

    Van Schoors, Jolien; Lens, Charlotte; Maes, Katrien; Michotte, Yvette; Smolders, Ilse; Van Eeckhaut, Ann

    2015-08-15

    In recent years, the simultaneous monitoring of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin in vivo is advancing due to innovations in miniaturized and fast chromatographic techniques. However, the determination of the most hydrophilic compound, noradrenaline, in microdialysis samples by (ultra-)high performance liquid chromatography ((U)HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ECD) is impeded by a broad solvent front, caused by the addition of antioxidative agents. Hence, an elaborate reassessment of currently used antioxidative mixtures is necessary for further analytical improvements. The proposed mixture, containing 100mM acetic acid, 0.27mM Na2EDTA and 12.5μM ascorbic acid (pH 3.2), is less complex than previously described mixtures and shows minimal ECD interference. It stabilizes the three monoamines in standard solutions and in microdialysis samples, considering both autosampler stability at 4°C for 48h and long term stability at -20°C for a duration of six months. An in vivo microdialysis experiment demonstrates the possibility to monitor changes in extracellular levels of the three monoamines simultaneously in the rat hippocampus with UHPLC-ECD using the optimized antioxidative mixture. PMID:26177328

  14. In vivo assessment of dopamine D-2 and serotonin S-2 receptors measured by C-11 N-methylspiperone (NMSP) in manic-depressive illness

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Pearlson, G.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.; Suneja, S.; Bjorgvinsson, E.; Links, J.M.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Schaerf, F.

    1985-05-01

    The hypothesis has been suggested that either the dopaminergic or serotonergic neurotransmitter systems may be involved in manic-depressive illness (MD). The authors have studied 16 subjects with C-11 NMSP PET imaging. Two had never received neuroleptics; 4 were drug free for 1 month at the time of scanning; of these 3 were acutely manic; the rest were on stable lithium treatment. The dopamine and serotonin binding was estimated by the 43 min. caudate/cerebellum (Ca/Cb) and frontal/cerebellum (FC/Cb) ratios, respectively. No statistically significant difference was detected when compared to 44 age and sex matched controls. Based upon the variance in the normal data and the average age of the patient group studied, the probability of detecting a difference of >30% between patients and normals is >0.8. Hence, identification of receptor abnormalities if present will be improved with increased sample size of both normals and patients.

  15. Genetic polymorphisms in dopamine- and serotonin-related genes and treatment responses to risperidone and perospirone.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Kikuyama, Hiroki; Okugawa, Gaku; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Toshio; Matsumoto, Naoki; Koh, Jun; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Toshihiko

    2009-09-01

    We investigated the possible association between genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor and serotonin transporter genes and the responses of schizophrenic patients treated with either risperidone or perospirone. The subjects comprised 27 patients with schizophrenia who were clinically evaluated both before and after treatment. The genotyping of the polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) (rs1801028 and rs6277), the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) (120-bp tandem repeats and rs1800955), and serotonin transporter gene (5HTT)(variable number of tandem repeats; VNTR) were performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. In DRD2 and 5HTT-VNTR, there were no significant correlations between clinical response and polymorphism in the case of risperidone, and for perospirone treatment it was impossible to analyze the clinical evaluation due to the absence of genotype information. On the other hand, in DRD4 there were significant correlations in the two-factor interaction effect on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) between the two drugs [120-bp tandem repeat, p=0.003; rs1800955, p=0.043]. Although the small sample represents a serious limitation, these results suggest that variants in DRD4 are a predictor of whether treatment will be more effective with risperidone or with perospirone in individual patients. PMID:20046399

  16. Genetic Polymorphisms in Dopamine- and Serotonin-Related Genes and Treatment Responses to Risperidone and Perospirone

    PubMed Central

    Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Kikuyama, Hiroki; Okugawa, Gaku; Uenishi, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Toshio; Matsumoto, Naoki; Koh, Jun; Shinosaki, Kazuhiro; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Kinoshita, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the possible association between genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor and serotonin transporter genes and the responses of schizophrenic patients treated with either risperidone or perospirone. The subjects comprised 27 patients with schizophrenia who were clinically evaluated both before and after treatment. The genotyping of the polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) (rs1801028 and rs6277), the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) (120-bp tandem repeats and rs1800955), and serotonin transporter gene (5HTT)(variable number of tandem repeats; VNTR) were performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. In DRD2 and 5HTT-VNTR, there were no significant correlations between clinical response and polymorphism in the case of risperidone, and for perospirone treatment it was impossible to analyze the clinical evaluation due to the absence of genotype information. On the other hand, in DRD4 there were significant correlations in the two-factor interaction effect on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) between the two drugs [120-bp tandem repeat, p=0.003; rs1800955, p=0.043]. Although the small sample represents a serious limitation, these results suggest that variants in DRD4 are a predictor of whether treatment will be more effective with risperidone or with perospirone in individual patients. PMID:20046399

  17. The mechanistic basis for noncompetitive ibogaine inhibition of serotonin and dopamine transporters.

    PubMed

    Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-05-25

    Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study. PMID:22451652

  18. In vivo binding of /sup 3/H-N-methylspiperone to dopamine and serotonin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.J.; Smith, A.C.; Kuhar, M.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1987-03-09

    /sup 3/H-N-methylspiperone (/sup 3/H-NMSP) was used to label dopamine-2 and serotonin-2 in vivo in the mouse. The striatum/cerebellum binding ratio reached a maximum of 80 eight hours after intravenous administration of /sup 3/H-NMSP. The frontal cortex/cerebellum ratio was 5 one hour after injection. The binding of /sup 3/H-NMSP was saturable in the frontal cortex and cerebellum between doses of 10 and 1000 ..mu..g/kg. Between 0.01 and 10 ..mu..g/kg the ratio total/nonspecific binding increased from 14 to 21. Inhibition of /sup 3/H-NMSP binding in the frontal cortex and striatum by ketanserin, a selective serotonin-2 antagonist, demonstrated that 20% of the total binding in the striatum was to serotonin-2 rectors and 91% of the total binding in the frontal cortex was to serotonin-2 receptors. Compared to /sup 3/H-spiperone, /sup 3/H-NMSP 1) results in a much higher specific/nonspecific binding ratio in the striatum and frontal cortex and 2) displays more than a two-fold higher brain uptake. 18 references, 4 figures.

  19. Dissociable Effects of Serotonin and Dopamine on the Valuation of Harm in Moral Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Molly J.; Siegel, Jenifer Z.; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Ousdal, Olga T.; Story, Giles; Frieband, Carolyn; Grosse-Rueskamp, Johanna M.; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary An aversion to harming others is a core component of human morality and is disturbed in antisocial behavior [1–4]. Deficient harm aversion may underlie instrumental and reactive aggression, which both feature in psychopathy [5]. Past work has highlighted monoaminergic influences on aggression [6–11], but a mechanistic account of how monoamines regulate antisocial motives remains elusive. We previously observed that most people show a greater aversion to inflicting pain on others than themselves [12]. Here, we investigated whether this hyperaltruistic disposition is susceptible to monoaminergic control. We observed dissociable effects of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the dopamine precursor levodopa on decisions to inflict pain on oneself and others for financial gain. Computational models of choice behavior showed that citalopram increased harm aversion for both self and others, while levodopa reduced hyperaltruism. The effects of citalopram were stronger than those of levodopa. Crucially, neither drug influenced the physical perception of pain or other components of choice such as motor impulsivity or loss aversion [13, 14], suggesting a direct and specific influence of serotonin and dopamine on the valuation of harm. We also found evidence for dose dependency of these effects. Finally, the drugs had dissociable effects on response times, with citalopram enhancing behavioral inhibition and levodopa reducing slowing related to being responsible for another’s fate. These distinct roles of serotonin and dopamine in modulating moral behavior have implications for potential treatments of social dysfunction that is a common feature as well as a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. PMID:26144968

  20. Fluorine-18 Radiolabeled PET Tracers for Imaging Monoamine Transporters: Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine

    PubMed Central

    Stehouwer, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Mark M.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis This review focuses on the development of fluorine-18 radiolabeled PET tracers for imaging the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET). All successful DAT PET tracers reported to date are members of the 3β-phenyl tropane class and are synthesized from cocaine. Currently available carbon-11 SERT PET tracers come from both the diphenylsulfide and 3β-phenyl nortropane class, but so far only the nortropanes have found success with fluorine-18 derivatives. NET imaging has so far employed carbon-11 and fluorine-18 derivatives of reboxetine but due to defluorination of the fluorine-18 derivatives further research is still necessary. PMID:20216936

  1. Recognition Properties and Competitive Assays of a Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Selective Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Suedee, Roongnapa; Seechamnanturakit, Vatcharee; Suksuwan, Acharee; Canyuk, Bhutorn

    2008-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with dual dopamine/serotonin-like binding sites (DS-MIP) was synthesized for use as a receptor model of study the drug-interaction of biological mixed receptors at a molecular level. The polymer material was produced using methacrylic acid (MAA) and acrylamide (ACM) as functional monomers, N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as cross-linker, methanol/water mixture (4:1, v/v) as porogen and a mixture of dopamine (D) and serotonin (S) as templates. The prepared DS-MIP exhibited the greatest rebinding of the template(s) in aqueous methanol solution with decreased recognition in acetonitrile, water and methanol solvent. The binding affinity and binding capacity of DS-MIP with S were found to be higher than those of DS-MIP with D. The selectivity profiles of DS-MIP suggest that the D binding site of DS-MIP has sufficient integrity to discriminate between species of non-optimal functional group orientation, whilst the S binding site of DS-MIP is less selective toward species having structural features and functional group orientations different from S. The ligand binding activities of a series of ergot derivatives (ergocryptine, ergocornine, ergocristine, ergonovine, agroclavine, pergolide and terguride) have been studied with the DS-MIP using a competitive ligand binding assay protocol. The binding affinities of DS-MIP were demonstrated in the micro- or submicro-molar range for a series of ergot derivatives, whereas the binding affinities were considerably greater to natural receptors derived from the rat hypothalamus. The DS-MIP afforded the same pattern of differentiation as the natural receptors, i.e. affinity for the clavines > lysergic acid derivatives > ergopeptines. The results suggest that the discrimination for the ergot derivatives by the dopamine and serotonin sites of DS-MIP is due to the structural features and functional orientation of the phenylethylamine and indolylethylamine entities at the binding sites, and the fidelity of the dopamine and serotonin imprinted cavities. PMID:19330079

  2. Changes in sensitivity of brain dopamine and serotonin receptors during long-term treatment with carbidine

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Allikmets, L.K.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The authors study the state of the dopamine and serotonin receptors of the brain during chronic administration of carbidine to animals. Parts of the brain from two rats were pooled and binding of tritium-spiperone and tritium-LSD was determined. Statistical analysis of the data for apomorphine sterotypy was carried out and the Student's test was used for analysis of the remaining data. It is shown that after discontinuation of carbidine binding of tritium-spiperone and tritium-LSD in the cortex was reduced.

  3. Flow-injection analysis systems with different detection devices and other related techniques for the in vitro and in vivo determination of dopamine as neurotransmitter. A review.

    PubMed

    van Staden, Jacobus F; van Staden, Raluca I Stefan

    2012-12-15

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the most important catecholamine neurotransmitters in the human central nervous system in the brain and plays a key role in the functioning of the renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. Abnormal levels of dopamine are related to neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease and the control and fluctuations of the amount of dopamine are extremely important in monitoring with analytical systems in the human brain. This review covers the attributes of flow-injection analysis systems with different detection devices and other related techniques for the in vitro and in vivo determination of dopamine as neurotransmitter and points out the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation thereof. PMID:23182572

  4. Brexpiprazole I: in vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kenji; Sugino, Haruhiko; Akazawa, Hitomi; Amada, Naoki; Shimada, Jun; Futamura, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Ito, Nobuaki; McQuade, Robert D; Mørk, Arne; Pehrson, Alan L; Hentzer, Morten; Nielsen, Vibeke; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Arnt, Jørn; Stensbøl, Tine Bryan; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2014-09-01

    Brexpiprazole (OPC-34712, 7-{4-[4-(1-benzothiophen-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}quinolin-2(1H)-one) is a novel drug candidate in clinical development for psychiatric disorders with high affinity for serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline receptors. In particular, it bound with high affinity (Ki < 1 nM) to human serotonin 1A (h5-HT1A)-, h5-HT2A-, long form of human D2 (hD2L)-, hα1B-, and hα2C-adrenergic receptors. It displayed partial agonism at h5-HT1A and hD2 receptors in cloned receptor systems and potent antagonism of h5-HT2A receptors and hα1B/2C-adrenoceptors. Brexpiprazole also had affinity (Ki < 5 nM) for hD3-, h5-HT2B-, h5-HT7-, hα1A-, and hα1D-adrenergic receptors, moderate affinity for hH1 (Ki = 19 nM), and low affinity for hM1 receptors (Ki > 1000 nM). Brexpiprazole potently bound to rat 5-HT2A and D2 receptors in vivo, and ex vivo binding studies further confirmed high 5-HT1A receptor binding potency. Brexpiprazole inhibited DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine)-induced head twitches in rats, suggestive of 5-HT2A antagonism. Furthermore, in vivo D2 partial agonist activity of brexpiprazole was confirmed by its inhibitory effect on reserpine-induced DOPA accumulation in rats. In rat microdialysis studies, brexpiprazole slightly reduced extracellular dopamine in nucleus accumbens but not in prefrontal cortex, whereas moderate increases of the dopamine metabolites, homovanillic acid and DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl-acetic acid), in these areas also suggested in vivo D2 partial agonist activity. In particular, based on a lower intrinsic activity at D2 receptors and higher binding affinities for 5-HT1A/2A receptors than aripiprazole, brexpiprazole would have a favorable antipsychotic potential without D2 receptor agonist- and antagonist-related adverse effects. In conclusion, brexpiprazole is a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator with a unique pharmacology, which may offer novel treatment options across a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders. PMID:24947465

  5. Dopamine transport by the serotonin transporter: a mechanistically distinct mode of substrate translocation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads Breum; Sonders, Mark S; Mortensen, Ole Valente; Larson, Gaynor A; Zahniser, Nancy R; Amara, Susan G

    2011-04-27

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the principal mechanism for terminating serotonin (5-HT) signals in the nervous system and is a site of action for a variety of psychoactive drugs including antidepressants, amphetamines, and cocaine. Here we show that human SERTs (hSERTs) and rat SERTs are capable of robust dopamine (DA) uptake through a process that differs mechanistically from 5-HT transport in several unanticipated ways. DA transport by hSERT has a higher maximum velocity than 5-HT transport, requires significantly higher Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations to sustain transport, is inhibited noncompetitively by 5-HT, and is more sensitive to SERT inhibitors, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. We use a thiol-reactive methane thiosulfonate (MTS) reagent to modify a conformationally sensitive cysteine residue to demonstrate that hSERT spends more time in an outward facing conformation when transporting DA than when transporting 5-HT. Cotransfection of an inactive or an MTS-sensitive SERT with wild-type SERT subunits reveals an absence of cooperative interactions between subunits during DA but not 5-HT transport. To establish the physiological relevance of this mechanism for DA clearance, we show using in vivo high-speed chronoamperometry that SERT has the capacity to clear extracellularly applied DA in the hippocampal CA3 region of anesthetized rats. Together, these observations suggest the possibility that SERT serves as a DA transporter in vivo and highlight the idea that there can be distinct modes of transport of alternative physiological substrates by SERT. PMID:21525301

  6. Interactions of the novel antipsychotic aripiprazole (OPC-14597) with dopamine and serotonin receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lawler, C P; Prioleau, C; Lewis, M M; Mak, C; Jiang, D; Schetz, J A; Gonzalez, A M; Sibley, D R; Mailman, R B

    1999-06-01

    OPC-14597 {aripiprazole; 7-(-4(4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) butyloxy)-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone} is a novel candidate antipsychotic that has high affinity for striatal dopamine D2-like receptors, but causes few extrapyramidal effects. These studies characterized the molecular pharmacology of OPC-14597, DM-1451 (its major rodent metabolite), and the related quinolinone derivative OPC-4392 at each of the cloned dopamine receptors, and at serotonin 5HT6 and 5HT7 receptors. All three compounds exhibited highest affinity for D2L and D2S receptors relative to the other cloned receptors examined. Both OPC-4392 and OPC-14597 demonstrated dual agonist/antagonist actions at D2L receptors, although the metabolite DM-1451 behaved as a pure antagonist. These data suggest that clinical atypicality can occur with drugs that exhibit selectivity for D2L/D2S rather than D3 or D4 receptors, and raise the possibility that the unusual profile of OPC-14597 in vivo (presynaptic agonist and postsynaptic antagonist) may reflect different functional consequences of this compound interacting with a single dopamine receptor subtype (D2) in distinct cellular locales. PMID:10327430

  7. The serotonin-dopamine interaction measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and C-11 raclopride in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.S.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J.

    1994-05-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the interaction between serotonin and dopamine can be measured with C-11 raclopride and PET in the baboon brain. A series of studies was undertaken to extend dim findings to the normal human brain. PET studies were conducted in male control subjects (n=8) using the CTI 931 tomograph. Two C-11 raclopride scans were performed, prior to and 180 minutes following administration of the selective serotonin releasing agent, fenfluramine (60mg/PO). The neuroendocrine response to fenfluramine challenge is commonly used in psychiatric research as an index of serotonin activity. The C-11 raclopride data were analyzed with the distribution volume method. For the group of subjects, an increase was observed in the striatum to cerebellum ratio (specific to non-specific binding ratio), in excess of the test-retest variability of the ligand. Variability in response was observed across subjects. These results are consistent with our previous findings in the baboon that citalopram administration increased C-11 raclopride binding, consistent with a decrease in endogenous dopamine. In vivo microdialysis studies in freely moving rats confirmed that citalopram produces a time-dependent decrease in extracellular dopamine levels, consistent with the PET results. In vivo PET studies of the serotonin-dopamine interaction are relevant to the evaluation of etiologic and therapeutic mechanisms in schizophrenia and affective disorder.

  8. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P; Newman, Amy Hauck; Ferré, Sergi; Yano, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR > D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays. PMID:26843180

  9. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2016-01-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR >> D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays. PMID:26843180

  10. Differential profile of antipsychotics at serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2S receptors coupled to extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

    PubMed

    Bruins Slot, Liesbeth A; De Vries, Luc; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Cussac, Didier

    2006-03-18

    The effects of antipsychotics targeting dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors were compared with conventional antipsychotics on phosphorylation of Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) in CHO cell lines stably expressing either the human serotonin 5-HT1A or human dopamine D2S receptor. All antipsychotics except haloperidol and olanzapine exhibited agonist properties at serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Emax values (% effect of 10 microM 5-HT) were: bifeprunox (74), SSR181507 (73), SLV313 (72), aripiprazole (60), ziprasidone (56), clozapine (33). At dopamine D2S receptors, partial agonist activity (% effect of 10 microM dopamine) was observed for bifeprunox (76), SSR181507 (66) and aripiprazole (59). Other antipsychotics attenuated dopamine-induced ERK phosphorylation, with pK(B) values of : SLV313 (8.5), haloperidol (8.1), olanzapine (7.8), ziprasidone (7.7), and clozapine (6.4). Amongst the dopamine D2/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor compounds, aripiprazole acts as a partial dopamine D2S and serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist. SSR181507 and bifeprunox possess a profile of action similar to each other, efficaciously stimulating both serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2S receptors. In contrast, SLV313, also an efficacious serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist, acted as a high potency dopamine D2 receptor antagonist. Thus, antipsychotics display varying efficacies at serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2S receptors which may play a major role in their differential functional profiles in blocking the diverse symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:16497294

  11. [The role of antibodies to neurotransmitters of antinociceptive system in mechanisms of neuropathic pain].

    PubMed

    Igonkina, S I; Vetrile, L A; Kukushkin, M L

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in order to study the role of the antibodies to neurotransmitters of antinociceptive system in pathogenesis of neuropathic pain on models of neuropathic pain. It was shown that the development of experimental neuropathic pain syndrome is accompanied with induction of autoantibodies to CABA, serotonin, noradrenalin and dopamine. It was established that the antibodies to neurotransmitters of antinociceptive system have a pronociceptive effect. PMID:24340616

  12. Dopamine in the auditory brainstem and midbrain: co-localization with amino acid neurotransmitters and gene expression following cochlear trauma

    PubMed Central

    Fyk-Kolodziej, Bozena E.; Shimano, Takashi; Gafoor, Dana; Mirza, Najab; Griffith, Ronald D.; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Holt, Avril Genene

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) modulates the effects of amino acid neurotransmitters (AANs), including GABA and glutamate, in motor, visual, olfactory, and reward systems (Hnasko et al., 2010; Stuber et al., 2010; Hnasko and Edwards, 2012). The results suggest that DA may play a similar modulatory role in the auditory pathways. Previous studies have shown that deafness results in decreased GABA release, changes in excitatory neurotransmitter levels, and increased spontaneous neuronal activity within brainstem regions related to auditory function. Modulation of the expression and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate limiting enzyme in the production of DA) in the IC following cochlear trauma has been previously reported (Tong et al., 2005). In the current study the possibility of co-localization of TH with AANs was examined. Changes in the gene expression of TH were compared with changes in the gene expression of markers for AANs in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and inferior colliculus (IC) to determine whether those deafness related changes occur concurrently. The results indicate that bilateral cochlear ablation significantly reduced TH gene expression in the CN after 2 months while in the IC the reduction in TH was observed at both 3 days and 2 months following ablation. Furthermore, in the CN, glycine transporter 2 (GLYT2) and the GABA transporter (GABAtp) were also significantly reduced only after 2 months. However, in the IC, DA receptor 1 (DRDA1), vesicular glutamate transporters 2 and 3 (VGLUT2, VGLUT3), GABAtp and GAD67 were reduced in expression both at the 3 days and 2 months time points. A close relationship between the distribution of TH and several of the AANs was determined in both the CN and the IC. In addition, GLYT2 and VGLUT3 each co-localized with TH within IC somata and dendrites. Therefore, the results of the current study suggest that DA is spatially well positioned to influence the effects of AANs on auditory neurons. PMID:26257610

  13. Dopamine in the auditory brainstem and midbrain: co-localization with amino acid neurotransmitters and gene expression following cochlear trauma.

    PubMed

    Fyk-Kolodziej, Bozena E; Shimano, Takashi; Gafoor, Dana; Mirza, Najab; Griffith, Ronald D; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Holt, Avril Genene

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) modulates the effects of amino acid neurotransmitters (AANs), including GABA and glutamate, in motor, visual, olfactory, and reward systems (Hnasko et al., 2010; Stuber et al., 2010; Hnasko and Edwards, 2012). The results suggest that DA may play a similar modulatory role in the auditory pathways. Previous studies have shown that deafness results in decreased GABA release, changes in excitatory neurotransmitter levels, and increased spontaneous neuronal activity within brainstem regions related to auditory function. Modulation of the expression and localization of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the rate limiting enzyme in the production of DA) in the IC following cochlear trauma has been previously reported (Tong et al., 2005). In the current study the possibility of co-localization of TH with AANs was examined. Changes in the gene expression of TH were compared with changes in the gene expression of markers for AANs in the cochlear nucleus (CN) and inferior colliculus (IC) to determine whether those deafness related changes occur concurrently. The results indicate that bilateral cochlear ablation significantly reduced TH gene expression in the CN after 2 months while in the IC the reduction in TH was observed at both 3 days and 2 months following ablation. Furthermore, in the CN, glycine transporter 2 (GLYT2) and the GABA transporter (GABAtp) were also significantly reduced only after 2 months. However, in the IC, DA receptor 1 (DRDA1), vesicular glutamate transporters 2 and 3 (VGLUT2, VGLUT3), GABAtp and GAD67 were reduced in expression both at the 3 days and 2 months time points. A close relationship between the distribution of TH and several of the AANs was determined in both the CN and the IC. In addition, GLYT2 and VGLUT3 each co-localized with TH within IC somata and dendrites. Therefore, the results of the current study suggest that DA is spatially well positioned to influence the effects of AANs on auditory neurons. PMID:26257610

  14. Carbon nanofiber multiplexed array and Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor for simultaneous detection of dissolved oxygen and dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Michael P.; Koehne, Jessica E.; Andrews, Russell J.; Meyyappan, M.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose While the mechanism of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) remains poorly understood, previous studies have shown that it evokes release of neurochemicals and induces activation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent signal in distinct areas of the brain. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capabilities of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor system (WINCS) in conjunction with a carbon nanofiber (CNF) multiplexed array electrode as a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanism of DBS through the simultaneous detection of multiple bioactive-molecules. Methods Patterned CNF nanoelectrode arrays were prepared on a 4-inch silicon wafer where each device consists of 3 × 3 electrode pads, 200 μm square, that contain CNFs spaced at 1μm intervals. The multiplexed carbon nanofiber CNF electrodes were integrated with WINCS to detect mixtures of dopamine (DA) and oxygen (O2) using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in vitro. Results First, simultaneous detection of O2 at two spatially different locations, 200 um apart, was demonstrated. Second, simultaneous detection of both O2 and DA at two spatially different locations, using two different decoupled waveforms was demonstrated. Third, controlled studies demonstrated that the waveform must be interleaved to avoid electrode crosstalk artifacts in the acquired data. Conclusions Multiplexed CNF nanoelectrode arrays for electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters show promise for the detection of multiple analytes with the application of time independent decoupled waveforms. Electrochemistry on CNF electrodes may be helpful in elucidating the mechanism of DBS, and may also provide the precision and sensitivity required for future applications in feedback modulated DBS neural control systems. PMID:24688800

  15. Dopamine, but not serotonin, regulates reversal learning in the marmoset caudate nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, H. F.; Hill, G. J.; Robbins, T. W.; Roberts, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of visual discrimination reversal learning have revealed striking neurochemical dissociations at the level of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) with serotoninergic, but not dopaminergic integrity being important for successful reversal learning. These findings have considerable implications for disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder and schizophrenia in which reversal learning is impaired, and are primarily treated with drugs targeting the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems. Dysfunction in such disorders however, is not limited to the OFC and extends subcortically to other structures implicated in reversal learning, such as the medial caudate nucleus. Therefore, because the roles of the serotonin and dopamine within the caudate nucleus are poorly understood, this study compared the effects of selective serotoninergic or selective dopaminergic depletions of the marmoset medial caudate nucleus on serial discrimination reversal learning. All monkeys were able to learn novel stimulus-reward associations, but unlike control monkeys and monkeys with selective serotoninergic medial caudate depletions, dopamine-depleted monkeys were markedly impaired in their ability to reverse this association. This impairment was not perseverative in nature. These findings are the opposite of those seen in the OFC and provide evidence for a neurochemical double dissociation between the OFC and medial caudate in the regulation of reversal learning. Whilst the specific contributions of these monoamines within the OFC-striatal circuit remain to be elucidated, these findings have profound implications for the development of drugs designed to remediate some of the cognitive processes underlying impaired reversal learning. PMID:21411670

  16. Serotonin and dopamine interactions in rodents and primates: implications for psychosis and antipsychotic drug development.

    PubMed

    Marek, Gerard J

    2007-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, appreciation of dopamine receptor blockade has played a primary role in understanding the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenic patients in treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g., delusions and hallucinations). Development of the second generation of antipsychotic drugs, otherwise known as atypical antipsychotic drugs, has resulted in treatments with improved subjective tolerability but relatively modest improvements in the negative symptoms of schizophrenia such as avolition, flat affect, and anhedonia. The major current challenge is to develop medications which can further improve negative symptoms treatment and also tackle the intractable clinical problems of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia. Further advances along these lines with respect to the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurostransmitter systems will be aided by an appreciation of the interaction between dopamine and serotonin receptor subtypes in a range of key brain structures, such as the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the brain stem nuclei, from which the cell bodies of monoaminergic-containing neurons originate. Increasing emphasis on the use of animal models which are homologous to critical aspects of the pathophysiology in the brains of schizophrenic patients will also be required, especially as negative symptoms and cognitive impairment become an important focus for generating novel therapeutics. PMID:17349861

  17. Dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors mediate the actions of aripiprazole in mesocortical and mesoaccumbens transmission.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, Shunsuke; Yamamura, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Masanori; Motomura, Eishi; Okada, Motohiro

    2012-02-01

    The antipsychotic agent aripiprazole acts as a partial agonist of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. However, the detailed actions of aripiprazole in mesolimbic and mesocortical transmission remain to be clarified. To address this, we examined the effects of systemic and local administrations of aripiprazole on extracellular levels of dopamine and GABA in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and anterior (aVTA) and posterior (pVTA) ventral tegmental areas. Intraperitoneal injection of aripiprazole (0.5mg/kg) increased dopamine release in mPFC without affecting those in aVTA, pVTA, or NAc, whereas 10mg/kg decreased the release in all four regions. Local sulpiride administration in aVTA increased concentration-dependently dopamine release in both aVTA and NAc without affecting that in mPFC, whereas local aripiprazole administration in aVTA concentration-dependently decreased dopamine release in aVTA and mPFC without affecting that in NAc. Blockade of 5-HT1A receptor in aVTA produced aripiprazole-induced dopamine release in aVTA and prevented the aripiprazole-induced reduction of dopamine release in mPFC. Local administration of aripiprazole in mPFC increased dopamine and decreased GABA releases, whereas local administration of sulpiride had no effect on dopamine or GABA. In mPFC, blockade of 5-HT1A receptor prevented the aripiprazole-induced dopamine elevation and GABA reduction; however, under the activation of GABA(A) receptor, local perfusion with aripiprazole in mPFC decreased GABA release without affecting dopamine release. The results suggested that the combination of 5-HT1A and D2 partial agonistic actions of aripiprazole against mesocortical and mesoaccumbens transmission, explains, at least in part, the atypical antipsychotic properties of aripiprazole. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder'. PMID:21925189

  18. [Spatial memory and regulation of brain adenylyl cyclase by serotonin and dopamine in rat with streptozotocin diabetes].

    PubMed

    Sukhov, I B; Chistyakova, O V; Shipilov, V N; Doilnitsyn, A M; Shpakov, A O

    2015-03-01

    The most common complication of diabetes mellitus of the type 1 (DM1) is a cognitive deficiency, which develops as a result of neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The aim of this work was to study the learning and spatial memory in rats with streptozotocin DM1 with different duration (1.5 and 6 months), as well as the activity of adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS) sensitive to agonists of the serotonin and the dopamine receptors in the brain of diabetic rats. Our experiments demonstrated that rats with 1.5-months DM1 has no changes in spatial memory which were evaluated in a Morris water maze whereas in rats with 6-months DM1 the spatial memory and learning ability were decreased. The alterations of the regulation of adenylyl cyclase by agonists of types 1 and 6 serotonin receptors and type 2 dopamine receptors were found in both the 1.5- and 6-months DM1 which indicates their importance in the development of cognitive deficiency. Abnormalities in the. brain ACSS can be considered as key factors in the etiology and pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunctions in DM1. Hypothesized that cognitive deficiency occurs only in the later stages of DM1 due to alterations in the serotonin and dopamine signaling systems of the brain. PMID:26016322

  19. Depressive-like behaviors alterations induced by intranigral MPTP, 6-OHDA, LPS and rotenone models of Parkinson's disease are predominantly associated with serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Ronise M; Barbieiro, Janaína; Lima, Marcelo M S; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F

    2010-08-16

    Depression is a frequently encountered non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it can have a significant impact on patient's quality of life. Considering the differential pathophysiology of depression in PD, it prompts the idea that a degenerated nigrostriatal system plays a role in depressive-like behaviors, whilst animal models of PD are employed. Therefore, we addressed the question of whether dopamine (DA) depletion, promoted by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and rotenone are able to induce depressive-like behaviors and neurotransmitters alterations similarly that encountered in PD. To test this rationale, we performed intranigral injections of each neurotoxin, followed by motor behavior, depressive-like behaviors, histological and neurochemical tests. After the motor recovery period, MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone were able to produce anhedonia and behavioral despair. These altered behavioral responses were accompanied by reductions of striatal DA, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) restricted to the 6-OHDA group. Additionally, decreases on the hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) content were detected for the MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone groups. Notably, strong correlations were detected among the groups when 5-HT and DA were correlated with swimming (r=+0.97; P=0.001) and immobility (r=-0.90; P=0.012), respectively. Our data indicate that MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone, but not LPS were able to produce depressive-like behaviors accompanied primarily by hippocampal 5-HT reductions. Moreover, DA and 5-HT strongly correlated with "emotional" impairments suggesting an important participation of these neurotransmitters in anhedonia and behavioral despair after nigral lesions promoted by the neurotoxins. PMID:20547199

  20. Dopamine and nicotine, but not serotonin, modulate the crustacean ventilatory pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Rajashekhar, K P; Wilkens, J L

    1992-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) causes a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of motor neuron bursts [virtual ventilation (fR)] produced by deafferented crab ventilatory pattern generators (CPGv). Domperidone, a D2-specific DA antagonist, by itself reversibly depresses fR and also blocks the stimulatory effects of DA. Serotonin (5HT) has no direct effects on this CPGv. Nicotine also causes dramatic dose-dependent increases in the frequency of motor bursts from the CPGv. The action is triphasic, beginning with an initial reversal of burst pattern typical of reversed-mode ventilation, followed by a 2- to 3-min period of depression and then a long period of elevated burst rate. Acetylcholine chloride (ACh) alone is ineffective, but in the presence of eserine is moderately stimulatory. The inhibitory effects of nicotine are only partially blocked by curare. The excitatory action of nicotine is blocked by prior perfusion of domperidone, but not by SKF-83566.HCl, a D1-specific DA antagonist. SKF-83566 had no effects on the ongoing pattern of firing. These observations support the hypothesis that dopaminergic pathways are involved in the maintenance of the CPGv rhythm and that the acceleratory effects of nicotine may involve release of DA either directly or via stimulation of atypical ACh receptors at intraganglionic sites. PMID:1431839

  1. Ligand Selectivity among the Dopamine and Serotonin Transporters Specified by the Forward Binding Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hasenhuetl, Peter S; Schicker, Klaus; Koenig, Xaver; Li, Yang; Sarker, Subhodeep; Stockner, Thomas; Sucic, Sonja; Sitte, Harald H; Freissmuth, Michael; Sandtner, Walter

    2015-07-01

    The membrane transporters for the monoamines serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) are prominent targets of various psychoactive substances, including competitive inhibitors, such as tricyclic antidepressants, methylphenidate, and cocaine. Upon rapid application of a substrate, SERT and DAT display an inwardly directed current comprised of a peak and a steady-state component. Binding of a competitive inhibitor to the transporter leads to reduction of the peak current amplitude because occupancy of the transporter by an inhibitor prevents the induction of the peak current by the substrate. We show that the inhibitory effect on the peak current can be used to study the association rate constant (k(on)), dissociation rate constant (k(off)), and equilibrium dissociation constant (K(D)) of chemically distinct SERT and DAT inhibitors, with high temporal precision and without the need of high-affinity radioligands as surrogates. We exemplify our approach by measuring the kinetics of cocaine, methylphenidate, and desipramine binding to SERT and DAT. Our analysis revealed that the selectivity of methylphenidate and desipramine for DAT and SERT, respectively, can be accounted for by their rate of association and not by the residence time in their respective binding sites. PMID:25873594

  2. Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Interactions with Dopamine Function: Implications for Therapeutics in Cocaine Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine exhibits prominent abuse liability, and chronic abuse can result in cocaine use disorder with significant morbidity. Major advances have been made in delineating neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine abuse; however, effective medications to treat cocaine use disorder remain to be discovered. The present review will focus on the role of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission in the neuropharmacology of cocaine and related abused stimulants. Extensive research suggests that the primary contribution of 5-HT to cocaine addiction is a consequence of interactions with dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The literature on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of cocaine is well developed, so the focus of the review will be on cocaine with inferences made about other monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers based on mechanistic considerations. 5-HT receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain, and several different 5-HT receptor subtypes have been implicated in mediating the effects of endogenous 5-HT on DA. However, the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in particular have been implicated as likely candidates for mediating the influence of 5-HT in cocaine abuse as well as to traits (e.g., impulsivity) that contribute to the development of cocaine use disorder and relapse in humans. Lastly, new approaches are proposed to guide targeted development of serotonergic ligands for the treatment of cocaine use disorder. PMID:25505168

  3. Altered Serotonin, Dopamine and Norepinepherine Levels in 15q Duplication and Angelman Syndrome Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Farook, M. Febin; DeCuypere, Michael; Hyland, Keith; Takumi, Toru; LeDoux, Mark S.; Reiter, Lawrence T.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders like Angelman syndrome and autism may be the result of underlying defects in neuronal plasticity and ongoing problems with synaptic signaling. Some of these defects may be due to abnormal monoamine levels in different regions of the brain. Ube3a, a gene that causes Angelman syndrome (AS) when maternally deleted and is associated with autism when maternally duplicated has recently been shown to regulate monoamine synthesis in the Drosophila brain. Therefore, we examined monoamine levels in striatum, ventral midbrain, frontal cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and hippocampus in Ube3a deficient and Ube3a duplication animals. We found that serotonin (5HT), a monoamine affected in autism, was elevated in the striatum and cortex of AS mice. Dopamine levels were almost uniformly elevated compared to control littermates in the striatum, midbrain and frontal cortex regardless of genotype in Ube3a deficient and Ube3a duplication animals. In the duplication 15q autism mouse model, paternal but not maternal duplication animals showed a decrease in 5HT levels when compared to their wild type littermates, in accordance with previously published data. However, maternal duplication animals show no significant changes in 5HT levels throughout the brain. These abnormal monoamine levels could be responsible for many of the behavioral abnormalities observed in both AS and autism, but further investigation is required to determine if any of these changes are purely dependent on Ube3a levels in the brain. PMID:22916201

  4. A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shah R.; Parajuli, Rishi R.; Balogun, Yetunde; Ma, Yufeng; He, Huixin

    2008-01-01

    Most of the current techniques for in vivo detection of dopamine exploit the ease of oxidation of this compound. The major problem during the detection is the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid that is oxidized at nearly the same potential as dopamine on bare electrodes. Furthermore, the oxidation product of dopamine reacts with ascorbic acid present in samples and regenerates dopamine again, which severely limits the accuracy of the detection. Meanwhile, the product could also form a melanin-like insulating film on the electrode surface, which decreases the sensitivity of the electrode. Various surface modifications on the electrode, new materials for making the electrodes, and new electrochemical techniques have been exploited to solve these problems. Recently we developed a new electrochemical detection method that did not rely on direct oxidation of dopamine on electrodes, which may naturally solve these problems. This approach takes advantage of the high performance of our newly developed poly(anilineboronic acid)/carbon nanotube composite and the excellent permselectivity of the ion-exchange polymer Nafion. The high affinity binding of dopamine to the boronic acid groups of the polymer affects the electrochemical properties of the polyaniline backbone, which act as the basis for the transduction mechanism of this non-oxidative dopamine sensor. The unique reduction capability and high conductivity of single-stranded DNA functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrochemical activity of the polymer in a physiologically-relevant buffer, and the large surface area of the carbon nanotubes increased the density of the boronic acid receptors. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor show excellent promise toward molecular diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of this novel detection approach, the new interferences in this detection approach, and how to eliminate these interferences toward in vivo and in vitro detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

  5. Highly sensitive isotope-dilution liquid-chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem-mass spectrometry approach to study the drug-mediated modulation of dopamine and serotonin levels in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Fabian; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kleuser, Burkhard; Gulbins, Erich; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Aschner, Michael; Bornhorst, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (SRT) are monoamine neurotransmitters that play a key role in regulating the central and peripheral nervous system. Their impaired metabolism has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and depression. Consequently, it is imperative to monitor changes in levels of these low-abundant neurotransmitters and their role in mediating disease. For the first time, a rapid, specific and sensitive isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of DA and SRT in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This model organism offers a unique approach for studying the effect of various drugs and environmental conditions on neurotransmitter levels, given by the conserved DA and SRT biology, including synaptic release, trafficking and formation. We introduce a novel sample preparation protocol incorporating the usage of sodium thiosulfate in perchloric acid as extraction medium that assures high recovery of the relatively unstable neurotransmitters monitored. Moreover, the use of both deuterated internal standards and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) technique allows for unequivocal quantification. Thereby, to the best of our knowledge, we achieve a detection sensitivity that clearly exceeds those of published DA and SRT quantification methods in various matrices. We are the first to show that exposure of C. elegans to the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor selegiline or the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone, in order to block DA and SRT degradation, resulted in accumulation of the respective neurotransmitter. Assessment of a behavioral output of the dopaminergic system (basal slowing response) corroborated the analytical LC-MS/MS data. Thus, utilization of the C. elegans model system in conjunction with our analytical method is well-suited to investigate drug-mediated modulation of the DA and SRT system in order to identify compounds with neuroprotective or regenerative properties. PMID:26452793

  6. Characterization of the effects of serotonin on the release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Nurse, B.; Russell, V.A.; Taljaard, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of serotonin agonists on the depolarization (K+)-induced, calcium-dependent, release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine (DA) from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices was investigated. Serotonin enhanced basal /sup 3/H overflow and reduced K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA from nucleus accumbens slices. The effect of serotonin on basal /sup 3/H overflow was not altered by the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, or the serotonin re-uptake blocker, chlorimipramine, but was reversed by the DA re-uptake carrier inhibitors nomifensine and benztropine. With the effect on basal overflow blocked, serotonin did not modulate K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens or striatum. The serotonin agonists, quipazine (in the presence of nomifensine) and 5-methoxytryptamine, did not significantly affect K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens. This study does not support suggestions that serotonin receptors inhibit the depolarization-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens or striatum of the rat brain. The present results do not preclude the possibility that serotonin may affect the mesolimbic reward system at a site which is post-synaptic to dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens.

  7. Effect of psilocin on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the mesoaccumbens and mesocortical pathway in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Yuichi; Abe, Kenji; Katagiri, Nobuyuki; Kambe, Toshie; Saitoh, Toshiaki; Utsunomiya, Iku; Horiguchi, Yoshie; Taguchi, Kyoji

    2015-01-01

    Psilocin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol) is a hallucinogenic component of the Mexican mushroom Psilocybe mexicana and a skeletal serotonin (5-HT) analogue. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-yl dihydrogen phosphate). In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered psilocin on extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex of the dopaminergic pathway in awake rats using in vivo microdialysis. Intraperitoneal administration of psilocin (5, 10 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Psilocin did not affect the extracellular 5-HT level in the nucleus accumbens. Conversely, systemic administration of psilocin (10 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular 5-HT levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, but dopamine was decreased in this region. However, neither extracellular dopamine nor 5-HT levels in the VTA were altered by administration of psilocin. Behaviorally, psilocin significantly increased the number of head twitches. Thus, psilocin affects the dopaminergic system in the nucleus accumbens. In the serotonergic system, psilocin contribute to a crucial effect in the medial prefrontal cortex. The present data suggest that psilocin increased both the extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the mesoaccumbens and/or mesocortical pathway. PMID:25342005

  8. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zahavi, Arielle Y.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Washburn, Dustin; Mazurka, Raegan; Bagby, R. Michael; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L.; Ravindran, Arun; Harkness, Kate L.

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind–the ability to decode and reason about others’ mental states–is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed) completed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes task’ and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression. PMID:26974654

  9. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, Arielle Y; Sabbagh, Mark A; Washburn, Dustin; Mazurka, Raegan; Bagby, R Michael; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L; Ravindran, Arun; Harkness, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind-the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states-is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed) completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task' and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression. PMID:26974654

  10. Brexpiprazole for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Review of this Novel Serotonin-Dopamine Activity Modulator.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Joseph; Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Brexpiprazole is an antipsychotic medication and received approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in July 2015. Brexpiprazole acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, and as an antagonist at serotonin 5-HT2A and at adrenergic alpha1B and alpha2C receptors. Compared with aripiprazole, brexpiprazole is more potent at 5-HT1A receptors and displays less intrinsic activity at D2 receptors. The recommended dose range of brexpiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia is 2-4 mg/day; the recommended titration schedule is to start with 1 mg/day and increase to 2 mg/day on Day 5 to Day 7, then to 4 mg/day on Day 8. Two positive, 6-week, Phase 3 randomized controlled trials in acute schizophrenia demonstrated superiority of brexpiprazole over placebo. Pooled responder rates were 46% for brexpiprazole 2-4 mg/day vs. 31% for placebo, resulting in a number needed to treat (NNT) of 7. In a 52-week, randomized withdrawal study, significantly fewer patients relapsed in the brexpiprazole group compared with placebo (13.5% vs. 38.5%), resulting in an NNT of 4. The most commonly encountered adverse event (incidence ≥4% and at least twice the rate of placebo) is increased weight. Short-term weight gain appears modest (approximately 10% of patients receiving brexpiprazole 1-4 mg/day gained ≥7% body weight from baseline, compared with 4% for those randomized to placebo, resulting in a number needed to harm [NNH] of 17); however, more outliers with an increase of ≥7% of body weight were evident in open-label, 52-week safety studies. Effects on glucose and lipids were small. Rates of akathisia as an adverse event were 5.5% for the pooled doses of brexpiprazole 1-4 mg/day vs. 4.6% for placebo, yielding an NNH of 112. Minimal effects on prolactin were observed, and no clinically relevant effects on the ECG QTc interval were evident. Brexpiprazole is also approved as an adjunct medication for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Phase 3 trials are ongoing in patients with agitation associated with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26757416

  11. Brexpiprazole II: antipsychotic-like and procognitive effects of a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kenji; Lerdrup, Linda; Sugino, Haruhiko; Akazawa, Hitomi; Amada, Naoki; McQuade, Robert D; Stensbøl, Tine Bryan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Arnt, Jørn; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2014-09-01

    Brexpiprazole (OPC-34712, 7-{4-[4-(1-benzothiophen-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}quinolin-2(1H)-one) is a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator with partial agonist activity at serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) and D2/3 receptors, combined with potent antagonist effects on 5-HT2A, α1B-, and α2C-adrenergic receptors. Brexpiprazole inhibited conditioned avoidance response (ED50 = 6.0 mg/kg), apomorphine- or d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity (ED50 = 2.3 and 0.90, respectively), and apomorphine-induced stereotypy (ED50 = 2.9) in rats at clinically relevant D2 receptor occupancies. Brexpiprazole also potently inhibited apomorphine-induced eye blinking in monkeys. The results suggest that brexpiprazole has antipsychotic potential. Brexpiprazole induced catalepsy (ED50 = 20) well above clinically relevant D2 receptor occupancies, suggesting a low risk for extrapyramidal side effects. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) induced cognitive impairment in both novel object recognition (NOR) and attentional set-shifting (ID-ED) tests in rats. Brexpiprazole reversed the PCP-induced cognitive impairment in the NOR test at 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, and in the ID-ED test at 1.0 mg/kg. However, aripiprazole (10 mg/kg) was ineffective in both tests, despite achieving relevant D2 occupancies. In the NOR test, the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 [(R)-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)[1-(4-fluorophenethyl)piperidin-4-yl]methanol] partially but significantly reversed PCP-induced impairment. Furthermore, the effect of brexpiprazole was reversed by cotreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide maleate). The results indicate that brexpiprazole has antipsychotic-like activity and robust efficacy in relevant models of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia. The effects of brexpiprazole in the cognitive tests are superior to those of aripiprazole. We propose that the pharmacologic profile of brexpiprazole be based on its balanced effects on 5-HT1A, D2, and 5-HT2A receptors, with possible modulating activity through additional monoamine receptors. PMID:24947464

  12. Role of Serotonin and Dopamine System Interactions in the Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression and its Comorbidity with other Clinical Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Patrick, Christopher J.; Kennealy, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Impulsive aggression is characterized by an inability to regulate affect as well as aggressive impulses, and is highly comorbid with other mental disorders including depression, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse. In an effort to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsive aggression and to help account for its connections with these other disorders, this paper reviews relevant biochemical, brain imaging, and genetic studies. The review suggests that dysfunctional interactions between serotonin and dopamine systems in the prefrontal cortex may be an important mechanism underlying the link between impulsive aggression and its comorbid disorders. Specifically, serotonin hypofunction may represent a biochemical trait that predisposes individuals to impulsive aggression, with dopamine hyperfunction contributing in an additive fashion to the serotonergic deficit. The current paper proposes a modified diathesis-stress model of impulsive aggression in which the underlying biological diathesis may be deficient serotonergic function in the ventral prefrontal cortex. This underlying disposition can be manifested behaviorally as impulsive aggression towards oneself and others, and as depression under precipitating life stressors. Substance abuse associated with impulsive aggression is understood in the context of dopamine dysregulation resulting from serotonergic deficiency. Also discussed are future research directions in the neurobiology of impulsive aggression and its comorbid disorders. PMID:19802333

  13. Reduced noradrenaline, but not dopamine and serotonin in motor thalamus of the MPTP primate: relation to severity of parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Pifl, Christian; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Blesa, Javier; Adánez, Rebeca; Cavada, Carmen; Obeso, José A

    2013-06-01

    We recently found severe noradrenaline deficits throughout the thalamus of patients with Parkinson's disease [C. Pifl, S. J. Kish and O. Hornykiewicz Mov Disord. 27, 2012, 1618.]. As this noradrenaline loss was especially severe in nuclei of the motor thalamus normally transmitting basal ganglia motor output to the cortex, we hypothesized that this noradrenaline loss aggravates the motor disorder of Parkinson's disease. Here, we analysed noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin in motor (ventrolateral and ventroanterior) and non-motor (mediodorsal, centromedian, ventroposterior lateral and reticular) thalamic nuclei in MPTP-treated monkeys who were always asymptomatic; who recovered from mild parkinsonism; and monkeys with stable, either moderate or severe parkinsonism. We found that only the symptomatic parkinsonian animals had significant noradrenaline losses specifically in the motor thalamus, with the ventroanterior motor nucleus being affected only in the severe parkinsonian animals. In contrast, the striatal dopamine loss was identical in both the mild and severe symptom groups. MPTP-treatment had no significant effect on noradrenaline in non-motor thalamic nuclei or dopamine and serotonin in any thalamic subregion. We conclude that in the MPTP primate model, loss of noradrenaline in the motor thalamus may also contribute to the clinical expression of the parkinsonian motor disorder, corroborating experimentally our hypothesis on the role of thalamic noradrenaline deficit in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23331162

  14. Methylone-induced hyperthermia and lethal toxicity: role of the dopamine and serotonin transporters.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ying-Shan; Hall, Frank Scott; Moriya, Yuki; Ito, Miki; Ohara, Arihisa; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Murphy, Dennis L; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2015-06-01

    Methylone (2-methylamino-1-[3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl]propan-1-one), an amphetamine analog, has emerged as a popular drug of abuse worldwide. Methylone induces hyperthermia, which is thought to contribute toward the lethal consequences of methylone overdose. Methylone has been assumed to induce hyperthermic effects through inhibition of serotonin and/or dopamine transporters (SERT and DAT, respectively). To examine the roles of each of these proteins in methylone-induced toxic effects, we used SERT and DAT knockout (KO) mice and assessed the hyperthermic and lethal effects caused by a single administration of methylone. Methylone produced higher rates of lethal toxicity compared with other amphetamine analogs in wild-type mice. Compared with wild-type mice, lethality was significantly lower in DAT KO mice, but not in SERT KO mice. By contrast, only a slight diminution in the hyperthermic effects of methylone was observed in DAT KO mice, whereas a slight enhancement of these effects was observed in SERT KO mice. Administration of the selective D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 and the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride reduced methylone-induced hyperthermia, but these drugs also had hypothermic effects in saline-treated mice, albeit to a smaller extent than the effects observed in methylone-treated mice. In contradistinction to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, which induces its toxicity through SERT and DAT, these data indicate that DAT, but not SERT, is strongly associated with the lethal toxicity produced by methylone, which did not seem to be dependent on the hyperthermic effects of methylone. DAT is therefore a strong candidate molecule for interventions aimed at preventing acute neurotoxic and lethal effects of methylone. PMID:25794333

  15. Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; O'Dell, Steve J; Marshall, John F; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2014-09-01

    Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, which in turn may be modulated by DA and 5HT transmission. We analyzed long-term, off-drug changes in learning from positive and negative feedback and associated striatal DA transporter (DAT) and frontocortical 5HT transporter (SERT) binding in rats pretreated with methamphetamine (mAMPH). Specifically, we assessed the reversal phase of pairwise visual discrimination learning in rats receiving single dose- (mAMPHsingle) vs. escalating-dose exposure (mAMPHescal). Using fine-grained trial-by-trial analyses, we found increased sensitivity to and reliance on positive feedback in mAMPH-pretreated animals, with the mAMPHsingle group showing more pronounced use of this type of feedback. In contrast, overall negative feedback sensitivity was not altered following any mAMPH treatment. In addition to validating the enduring effects of mAMPH on early reversal learning, we found more consecutive error commissions before the first correct response in mAMPH-pretreated rats. This behavioral rigidity was negatively correlated with subregional frontocortical SERT whereas positive feedback sensitivity negatively correlated with striatal DAT binding. These results provide new evidence for the overlapping, yet dissociable roles of DA and 5HT systems in overcoming perseveration and in learning new reward rules. PMID:24959862

  16. Acute effects of brexpiprazole on serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine systems: an in vivo electrophysiologic characterization.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Chris A; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

    2014-12-01

    Brexpiprazole, a compound sharing structural molecular characteristics with aripiprazole, is currently under investigation for the treatment of schizophrenia and depression. Using electrophysiologic techniques, the present study assessed the in vivo action of brexpiprazole on serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT2A; dopamine (DA) D2 autoreceptors, and α1- and α2-adrenergic receptors. In addition, the effects on 5-HT1A autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and D2 autoreceptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were compared with those of aripiprazole, an agent in wide clinical use. In the DRN, brexpiprazole completely inhibited the firing of 5-HT neurons via 5-HT1A agonism and was more potent than aripiprazole (ED50 = 230 and 700 μg/kg, respectively). In the locus coeruleus, brexpiprazole reversed the inhibitory effect of the preferential 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine) on norepinephrine neuronal firing (ED50 = 110 μg/kg), demonstrating 5-HT2A antagonistic action. Brexpiprazole reversed the inhibitory effect of the DA agonist apomorphine on VTA DA neurons (ED50 = 61 μg/kg), whereas it was ineffective when administered alone, indicating partial agonistic action on D2 receptors. Compared with aripiprazole, which significantly inhibited the firing activity of VTA DA neurons, brexpiprazole displayed less efficacy at D2 receptors. In the hippocampus, brexpiprazole acted as a full agonist at 5-HT1A receptors on pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, it increased 5-HT release by terminal α2-adrenergic heteroceptor but not 5-HT1B autoreceptor antagonism. In the lateral geniculate nucleus, brexpiprazole displayed α1B-adrenoceptor antagonistic action. Taken together, these results provide insight into the in vivo action of brexpiprazole on monoamine targets relevant in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia. PMID:25225185

  17. Serotonin and dopamine receptors in motivational and cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Negative symptoms (e.g., decreased spontaneity, social withdrawal, blunt affect) and disturbances of cognitive function (e.g., several types of memory, attention, processing speed, executive function, fluency) provide a major determinant of long-term outcome in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, motivation deficits, a type of negative symptoms, have been attracting interest as (1) a moderator of cognitive performance in schizophrenia and related disorders, and (2) a modulating factor of cognitive enhancers/remediation. These considerations suggest the need to clarify neurobiological substrates regulating motivation. Genetic studies indicate a role for the monoamine systems in motivation and key cognitive domains. For example, polymorphism of genes encoding catecholamine-O-methyltransferase, an enzyme catabolizing dopamine (DA), affects performance on tests of working memory and executive function in a phenotype (schizophrenia vs. healthy controls)-dependent fashion. On the other hand, motivation to maximize rewards has been shown to be influenced by other genes encoding DA-related substrates, such as DARPP-32 and DA-D2 receptors. Serotonin (5-HT) receptors may also play a significant role in cognitive and motivational disabilities in psychoses and mood disorders. For example, mutant mice over-expressing D2 receptors in the striatum, an animal model of schizophrenia, exhibit both decreased willingness to work for reward and up-regulation of 5-HT2C receptors. Taken together, genetic predisposition related to 5-HT receptors may mediate the diversity of incentive motivation that is impaired in patients receiving biological and/or psychosocial treatments. Thus, research into genetic and neurobiological measures of motivation, in association with 5-HT receptors, is likely to facilitate intervention into patients seeking better social consequences. PMID:25538549

  18. Preserved serotonin transporter binding in de novo Parkinson's disease: negative correlation with the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Karl; Wegner, Florian; Hesse, Swen; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M; Lobsien, Donald; Schwarz, Johannes; Sabri, Osama

    2011-01-01

    Recent imaging and neuropathological studies indicate reduced serotonin transporter (SERT) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, data on SERT in early PD patients are sparse. Following the hypothesis that the serotonergic system is damaged early in PD, the aim of our study was to investigate SERT availability by means of PET imaging. Since the loss of dopaminergic neurons is the pathologic hallmark of PD and SERT might be associated with psychiatric co-morbidity, we further sought to correlate SERT availability with the availability of dopamine transporter (DAT) and depressive or motor symptoms in early PD. We prospectively recruited nine early PD patients (4 female, 5 male; 42-76 years) and nine age matched healthy volunteers (5 female, 4 male; 42-72 years). Diagnosis of PD was confirmed by the UK brain bank criteria and DAT imaging. SERT availability was measured by means of [11C]DASB PET. For neuropsychiatric assessment done on the day of PET we applied UPDRS parts I, II and III, Beck's Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Mini-Mental State Examination and Demtect. SERT was not reduced in any of 14 investigated regions of interest in the nine PD patients compared to healthy controls (p>0.13). SERT was negatively associated with DAT in the striatum (r=-0.69; p=0.04) but not within the midbrain. There was no correlation of SERT availability with depressive symptoms. No alteration of SERT binding in our patients suggests that the serotonergic system is remarkably preserved in early PD. Correlation with DAT might point to a compensatory regulation of the serotonergic system in early stages of PD. PMID:20644949

  19. Comodulation of dopamine and serotonin on prefrontal cortical rhythms: a theoretical study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Da-Hui; Wong-Lin, KongFatt

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated to play an important role in cognitive control. Abnormal PFC activities and rhythms have been observed in some neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and evidences suggest influences from the neuromodulators dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Despite the high level of interest in these brain systems, the combined effects of DA and 5-HT modulation on PFC dynamics remain unknown. In this work, we build a mathematical model that incorporates available experimental findings to systematically study the comodulation of DA and 5-HT on the network behavior, focusing on beta and gamma band oscillations. Single neuronal model shows pyramidal cells with 5-HT1A and 2A receptors can be non-monotonically modulated by 5-HT. Two-population excitatory-inhibitory type network consisting of pyramidal cells with D1 receptors can provide rich repertoires of oscillatory behavior. In particular, 5-HT and DA can modulate the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations, which can emerge or cease, depending on receptor types. Certain receptor combinations are conducive for the robustness of the oscillatory regime, or the existence of multiple discrete oscillatory regimes. In a multi-population heterogeneous model that takes into account possible combination of receptors, we demonstrate that robust network oscillations require high DA concentration. We also show that selective D1 receptor antagonists (agonists) tend to suppress (enhance) network oscillations, increase the frequency from beta toward gamma band, while selective 5-HT1A antagonists (agonists) act in opposite ways. Selective D2 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (agonists) can lead to decrease (increase) in oscillation amplitude, but only 5-HT2A antagonists (agonists) can increase (decrease) the frequency. These results are comparable to some pharmacological effects. Our work illustrates the complex mechanisms of DA and 5-HT when operating simultaneously through multiple receptors. PMID:23935568

  20. Lack of evidence for reduced prefrontal cortical serotonin and dopamine efflux after acute tryptophan depletion

    PubMed Central

    Meerkerk, Dorie (T). J.; Lieben, Cindy K. J.; Blokland, Arjan; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a widely used method to study the role of serotonin (5-HT) in affect and cognition. ATD results in a strong but transient decrease in plasma tryptophan and central 5-HT synthesis and availability. Although its use is widespread, the evidence that the numerous functional effects of ATD are caused by actual changes in 5-HT neuronal release is not very strong. Thus far, decreases in 5-HT efflux (thought to reflect synaptic release) were only reported after chronic tryptophan depletion or when ATD was combined with blockade of 5-HT reuptake. Objective With the current experiment, we aimed to study the validity of the method of ATD by measuring the extent to which it reduces the efflux of 5-HT (and dopamine) in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of reuptake blockage. Materials and methods We simultaneously measured in freely moving animals plasma tryptophan via a catheter in the jugular vein and 5-HT and DA efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex through microdialysis after ATD treatment. Results ATD reduced plasma tryptophan to less than 30% of control, without affecting 5-HT or DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex, indicating that even strong reductions of plasma tryptophan do not necessarily result in decreases in central 5-HT efflux. Conclusion The present experiment showed that reductions in plasma tryptophan, similar to values associated with behavioural effects, do not necessarily reduce 5-HT efflux and suggest that the cognitive and behavioural effects of ATD may not be (exclusively) due to alterations in 5-HT release. PMID:17713760

  1. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Lee, Kendall H.; Durrer, William G.; Bennet, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We demonstrate that confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy provides rapid, detailed and accurate neurotransmitter analysis, enabling millisecond time resolution monitoring of biochemical dynamics. As a prototypical demonstration of the power of the method, we present real-time in vitro serotonin, adenosine, and dopamine detection, and dopamine diffusion in an inhomogeneous organic gel, which was used as a substitute for neurologic tissue. Materials and Methods Dopamine, adenosine and serotonin were used to prepare neurotransmitter solutions in DI water. The solutions were applied to the surfaces of glass slides, where they inter-diffused. Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping spectral signatures characteristic of the neurotransmitters with an alpha 300 WITec confocal Raman system, using 532 nm Nd:YAG laser excitation. Every local Raman spectrum was recorded in milliseconds and complete Raman mapping in a few seconds. Results Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where changes in composition can influence neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method. Conclusions Accurate nondestructive characterization for real-time detection of neurotransmitters in inhomogeneous environments without the requirement of sample labeling is a key issue in neuroscience. Our work demonstrates the capabilities of Raman spectroscopy in biological applications, possibly providing a new tool for elucidating the mechanism and kinetics of deep brain stimulation. PMID:22989218

  2. Cloning of the cocaine-sensitive bovine dopamine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Usdin, T.B.; Chen, C.; Brownstein, M.J.; Hoffman, B.J. ); Mezey, E. )

    1991-12-15

    A cDNA encoding the dopamine transporter from bovine brain substantia nigra was identified on the basis of its structural homology to other, recently cloned, neurotransmitter transporters. The sequence of the 693-amino acid protein is quite similar to those of the rat {gamma}-aminobutyric acid, human norepinephrine, and rat serotonin transporters. Dopamine transporter mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra but not in the locus coeruleus, raphe, caudate, or other brain areas. ({sup 3}H)Dopamine accumulation in tissue culture cells transfected with the cDNA was inhibited by amphetamine, cocaine, and specific inhibitors of dopamine transports, including GBR12909.

  3. High dose sapropterin dihydrochloride therapy improves monoamine neurotransmitter turnover in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Winn, Shelley R; Scherer, Tanja; Thöny, Beat; Harding, Cary O

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in phenylketonuria (PKU). Increased brain phenylalanine concentration likely competitively inhibits the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for TH and TPH activity. Our hypothesis was that treatment of hyperphenylalaninemic Pah(enu2/enu2) mice, a model of human PKU, with sapropterin dihydrochloride, a synthetic form of BH4, would stimulate TH and TPH activities leading to improved dopamine and serotonin synthesis despite persistently elevated brain phenylalanine. Sapropterin (20, 40, or 100mg/kg body weight in 1% ascorbic acid) was administered daily for 4 days by oral gavage to Pah(enu2/enu2) mice followed by measurement of brain biopterin, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and monoamine neurotransmitter content. A significant increase in brain biopterin content was detected only in mice that had received the highest sapropterin dose, 100mg/kg. Blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations were unchanged by sapropterin therapy. Sapropterin therapy also did not alter the absolute amounts of dopamine and serotonin in brain but was associated with increased homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine and serotonin metabolites respectively, in both wild type and Pah(enu2/enu2) mice. Oral sapropterin therapy likely does not directly affect central nervous system monoamine synthesis in either wild type or hyperphenylalaninemic mice but may stimulate synaptic neurotransmitter release and subsequent metabolism. PMID:26653793

  4. Dopamine and serotonin receptors measured in vivo in Huntington's Disease with C-11 n-methylspiperone PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Links, J.M.; Wanger, H.N. Jr.; Folstein, S.E.; Suneja, S.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Tune, L.E.; Pearlson, G.

    1985-05-01

    Thirteen patients with the clinical diagnosis of Huntington's Disease (HD) and nine persons at risk to develop the disease were studied by positron emission tomography (PET) after administration of /sup 11/C-n-methylspiperone (NMSP), a tracer with a high affinity for D2 dopamine and, to a lesser degree, for S2 serotonin receptors. All subjects had an X-ray CT scan for positioning and to assess caudate size. Dopamine and serotonin receptor binding (D2 and S2) were estimated by the caudate/cerebellum activity ratio at 43 min. post injection (CA/CB), and frontal cortex/cerebellum (FR/CB), respectively. CA/CB's of HD pts. were lower than age and sex matched controls. However, when corrected by recovery coefficients (RC) for our PET using CT dimensions of the caudate, CA/CB's were higher than normal. The relative total number of D2 receptors (estimated by CA/CB x CT caudate volume) was lower than the controls without or with RC correction.

  5. Reelin influences the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Varela, M J; Lage, S; Caruncho, H J; Cadavid, M I; Loza, M I; Brea, J

    2015-04-01

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a critical role in neuronal guidance during brain neurodevelopment and in synaptic plasticity in adults and has been associated with schizophrenia. Reelin mRNA and protein levels are reduced in various structures of post-mortem schizophrenic brains, in a similar way to those found in heterozygous reeler mice (HRM). Reelin is involved in protein expression in dendritic spines that are the major location where synaptic connections are established. Thus, we hypothesized that a genetic deficit in reelin would affect the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors that are associated with the action of current antipsychotic drugs. In this study, D2 and 5-HT2A receptor expression and function were quantitated by using radioligand binding studies in the frontal cortex and striatum of HRM and wild-type mice (WTM). We observed increased expression (p<0.05) in striatum membranes and decreased expression (p<0.05) in frontal cortex membranes for both dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors from HRM compared to WTM. Our results show parallel alterations of D2 and 5-HT2A receptors that are compatible with a possible hetero-oligomeric nature of these receptors. These changes are similar to changes described in schizophrenic patients and provide further support for the suitability of using HRM as a model for studying this disease and the effects of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25637489

  6. Dual ligands targeting dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors as new antipsychotical or anti-Parkinsonian agents.

    PubMed

    Ye, Na; Song, Zilan; Zhang, Ao

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease are associated with poly-factorial pathogenic mechanisms, with several neurotransmitter systems closely involved. In addition to the cerebral dopaminergic (DA) system, the serotoninergic (5-HT) system also plays a crucial role in regulating psychoemotional, cognitive and motor functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Among the large 5-HT receptor family, accumulating data have revealed new insights into the therapeutic benefit of the 5-HT1A receptor in treating various CNS disorders, especially schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. The present review discusses the advance of dual agents with mixed actions at the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in the treatment of these diseases. Aripiprazole was the only marketed drug with dual D2 and 5-HT1A profile. It is a partial D2 and 5-HT1A receptor agonist and has been prescribed as an atypical antipsychotical drug. Two other drugs Cariprazine and Pardoprunox are being investigated in clinic. Most of the other candidate compounds, including Bifeprunox, Sarizotan, Mazapertine succinate, PF-217830, and Adoprazine were discontinued due to either non-optimal pharmacokinetic properties or insufficient therapeutical efficacy. Although much effort has been done to highlight the advantages of the 5-HT1A and D2 dual approach, it has to be pointed out that many of these drugs showed poly-pharmacological profile by targeting many other receptors and/or transporters besides the D2 and 5-HT1A receptors. In this regard, 'pure' compounds exclusively acting on the D2 and 5-HT1A receptors are highly needed to further validate this approach. Meanwhile, safety concerns and in vivo pharmacokinetic alerts should also be implanted to the drug design art early. PMID:24164194

  7. The Piccolo Intronic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs13438494 Regulates Dopamine and Serotonin Uptake and Shows Associations with Dependence-Like Behavior in Genomic Association Study.

    PubMed

    Uno, K; Nishizawa, D; Seo, S; Takayama, K; Matsumura, S; Sakai, N; Ohi, K; Nabeshima, T; Hashimoto, R; Ozaki, N; Hasegawa, J; Sato, N; Tanioka, F; Sugimura, H; Fukuda, K-I-; Higuchi, S; Ujike, H; Inada, T; Iwata, N; Sora, I; Iyo, M; Kondo, N; Won, M-J; Naruse, N; Uehara-Aoyama, K; Itokawa, M; Yamada, M; Ikeda, K; Miyamoto, Y; Nitta, A

    2015-01-01

    Piccolo (PCLO) inhibits methamphetamine-induced neuropharmacological effects via modulation of dopamine (DA) uptake and regulation of the transport of synaptic vesicles in neuronal cells. Clinical studies have recently suggested that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13438494 in the intron 24 of the PCLO gene is associated with psychiatric disorder, in the meta-analysis of GWAS. Therefore, in this study, we attempted to evaluate the possible role of the PCLO SNP in the mechanisms of uptake of monoamines. To characterize rs13438494 in the PCLO gene, we constructed plasmids carrying either the C or A allele of the SNP and transiently transfected them into SH-SY5Y cells to analyze genetic effects on the splicing of PCLO mRNA. The C and A allele constructs produced different composition of the transcripts, indicating that the intronic SNP does affect the splicing pattern. We also transfected DA and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5- HT) transporters into cells and analyzed their uptakes to elucidate the association to psychiatric disorders. In the cells transfected with the C allele, both the DA and 5-HT uptake were enhanced compared to the A allele. We also conducted a clinical study, in order to clarify the genetic associations. PCLO rs13438494 exhibits a relationship with the symptoms of drug dependence or related parameters, such as the age of first exposure to methamphetamine, eating disorders, tobacco dependence and fentanyl requirement. Our findings suggest that rs13438494 is associated with drug abuse and contributes to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders via modulation of neurotransmitter turnover. PMID:25817861

  8. Zn2+ modulation of neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, K; Gether, U

    2006-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters located at the presynaptic or glial cell membrane are responsible for the stringent and rapid clearance of the transmitter from the synapse, and hence they terminate signaling and control the duration of synaptic inputs in the brain. Two distinct families of neurotransmitter transporters have been identified based on sequence homology: (1) the neurotransmitter sodium symporter family (NSS), which includes the Na+/C1(-)-dependent transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin; and (2) the dicarboxylate/amino acid cation symporter family (DAACS), which includes the Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters; EAAT). In this chapter, we describe how the identification of endogenous Zn2(+)-binding sites, as well as engineering of artificial Zn2(+)-binding sites both in the Na+/Cl(-)-dependent transporters and in the EAATs, have proved to be an important tool for studying the molecular function of these proteins. We also interpret the current available data on Zn2(+)-binding sites in the context of the recently published crystal structures. Moreover, we review how the identification of endogenous Zn2(+)-binding sites has indirectly suggested the possibility that several of the transporters are modulated by Zn2+ in vivo, and thus that Zn2+ can play a role as a neuromodulator by affecting the function of neurotransmitter transporters. PMID:16722228

  9. Hippocampal dopamine and serotonin elevations as pharmacodynamic markers for the anticonvulsant efficacy of oxcarbazepine and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine.

    PubMed

    Clinckers, Ralph; Smolders, Ilse; Meurs, Alfred; Ebinger, Guy; Michotte, Yvette

    2005-12-16

    We recently showed that dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) exert anticonvulsant effects against limbic seizures in rats mediated by hippocampal D(2) and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation. For exogenously administered monoamines, anticonvulsant activity was only observed following 70--400% and 80--350% increases in baseline levels for dopamine and serotonin, respectively. The aim of the present microdialysis study was to investigate whether oxcarbazepine and its active metabolite, 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (MHD) promote the release of hippocampal monoamines. Initially, concentration-response experiments were performed. Different concentrations of both compounds were perfused into the hippocampus via the microdialysis probe and tested for their effects on extracellular monoamine levels and anticonvulsant properties against pilocarpine-evoked seizures in rats. Anticonvulsant activity was always accompanied by significant increases in dopamine and serotonin levels. The anticonvulsant threshold concentrations for oxcarbazepine (100 microM) and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine (250 microM) were associated with, respectively, 140 and 205% increases in hippocampal dopamine and 288 and 176% increases in serotonin concentrations. Co-perfusion of these anticonvulsant threshold concentrations for both compounds either with a selective D(2) or 5-HT(1A) antagonist abolished all anticonvulsant effects. This study shows that oxcarbazepine and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine exert important monoamine promoting effects that, at least partly, contribute to the anticonvulsant mechanism of action of these compounds. The effects on dopamine and serotonin levels are therefore proposed as pharmacodynamic markers for the anticonvulsant activity of these compounds. These pharmacodynamic markers are here shown to be useful for the selection of anticonvulsant threshold concentrations of oxcarbazepine and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine. PMID:16139430

  10. A carbon nanofiber based biosensor for simultaneous detection of dopamine and serotonin in the presence of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Rand, Emily; Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Tanaka, Zuki; Zhang, David A; Marsh, Michael P; Andrews, Russell J; Lee, Kendall H; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M; Koehne, Jessica E

    2013-04-15

    A biosensor based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is found to be effective for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the presence of excess ascorbic acid (AA). The CNF electrode outperforms the conventional glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for both selectivity and sensitivity. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), three distinct peaks are seen for the CNF electrode at 0.13 V, 0.45 V, and 0.70 V for the ternary mixture of AA, DA, and 5-HT. In contrast, the analytes are indistinguishable in a mixture using a GCE. For the CNF electrode, the detection limits are 50 nM for DA and 250 nM for 5-HT. PMID:23228495

  11. The Role of Endogenous Serotonin in Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity to Dopamine Nerve Endings of the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, David M.; Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Francescutti-Verbeem, Dina M.; Shah, Mrudang M.; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic drug of abuse that damages the dopamine (DA) neuronal system in a highly delimited manner. The brain structure most affected by METH is the striatum where long-term DA depletion and microglial activation are maximal. Endogenous DA has been implicated as a critical participant in METH-induced neurotoxicity, most likely as a substrate for non-enzymatic oxidation by METH-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). The striatum is also extensively innervated by serotonin (5HT) nerve endings and this neurochemical system is modified by METH in much the same manner as seen in DA nerve endings (i.e., increased release of 5HT, loss of function in tryptophan hydroxylase and the serotonin transporter, long-term depletion of 5HT stores). 5HT can also be modified by ROS to form highly reactive species that damage neurons but its role in METH neurotoxicity has not been assessed. Increases in 5HT levels with 5HTP do not change METH-induced neurotoxicity to the DA nerve endings as revealed by reductions in DA, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels. Partial reductions in 5HT with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) are without effect on METH toxicity, despite the fact that PCPA largely prevents METH-induced hyperthermia. Mice lacking the gene for brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 are devoid of brain 5HT and respond to METH in the same manner as wild-type controls, despite showing enhanced drug-induced hyperthermia. Taken together, the present results indicate that endogenous 5HT does not appear to play a role in METH-induced damage to DA nerve endings of the striatum. PMID:20722968

  12. Multiple functions of neuronal plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Raiteri, Luca; Raiteri, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Removal from receptors of neurotransmitters just released into synapses is one of the major steps in neurotransmission. Transporters situated on the plasma membrane of nerve endings and glial cells perform the process of neurotransmitter (re)uptake. Because the density of transporters in the membranes can fluctuate, transporters can determine the transmitter concentrations at receptors, thus modulating indirectly the excitability of neighboring neurons. Evidence is accumulating that neurotransmitter transporters can exhibit multiple functions. Being bidirectional, neurotransmitter transporters can mediate transmitter release by working in reverse, most often under pathological conditions that cause ionic gradient dysregulations. Some transporters reverse to release transmitters, like dopamine or serotonin, when activated by 'indirectly acting' substrates, like the amphetamines. Some transporters exhibit as one major function the ability to capture transmitters into nerve terminals that perform insufficient synthesis. Transporter activation can generate conductances that regulate directly neuronal excitability. Synaptic and non-synaptic transporters play different roles. Cytosolic Na(+) elevations accompanying transport can interact with plasmalemmal or/and mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers thus generating calcium signals. Finally, neurotransmitter transporters can behave as receptors mediating releasing stimuli able to cause transmitter efflux through multiple mechanisms. Neurotransmitter transporters are therefore likely to play hitherto unknown roles in multiple therapeutic treatments. PMID:26300320

  13. Radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The study of neurotransmitter systems is one of the major thrusts in emission tomography today. The current generation of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radiotracers examines neurotransmitter properties from a number of different perspectives including their pre and post synaptic sites and the activity of the enzymes which regulate their concentration. Although the dopamine system has been the most extensively investigated, other neurotransmitter systems including the acetylcholine muscarine, serotonin, benzodiazepine, opiate, NMDA and others are also under intensive development. Enzymes involved in the synthesis and regulation of neurotransmitter concentration, for example monoamine oxidase and amino acid decarboxylase has also been probed in vivo. Medical applications range from the study of normal function and the characterization of neurotransmitter activity in neurological and psychiatric diseases and in heart disease and cancer to the study of the binding of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse. This chapter will provide an overview of the current generation of radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems including radiotracer design, synthesis localization mechanisms and applications in emission tomography. 60 refs., 1 tab.

  14. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

  15. Pharmacological and Behavioral Characterization of D-473, an Orally Active Triple Reuptake Inhibitor Targeting Dopamine, Serotonin and Norepinephrine Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Aloke K.; Santra, Soumava; Sharma, Horrick; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Xu, Liping; Mabrouk, Omar; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease affecting a wide cross section of people around the world. The current therapy for depression is less than adequate and there is a considerable unmet need for more efficacious treatment. Dopamine has been shown to play a significant role in depression including production of anhedonia which has been one of the untreated symptoms in MDD. It has been hypothesized that drugs acting at all three monoamine transporters including dopamine transporter should provide more efficacious antidepressants activity. This has led to the development of triple reuptake inhibitor D-473 which is a novel pyran based molecule and interacts with all three monoamine transporters. The monoamine uptake inhibition activity in the cloned human transporters expressed in HEK-293 cells (70.4, 9.18 and 39.7 for DAT, SERT and NET, respectively) indicates a serotonin preferring triple reuptake inhibition profile for this drug. The drug D-473 exhibited good brain penetration and produced efficacious activity in rat forced swim test under oral administration. The optimal efficacy dose did not produce any locomotor activation. Microdialysis experiment demonstrated that systemic administration of D-473 elevated extracellular level of the three monoamines DA, 5-HT, and NE efficaciously in the dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) area, indicating in vivo blockade of all three monoamine transporters by D-473. Thus, the current biological data from D-473 indicate potent antidepressant activity of the molecule. PMID:25427177

  16. Alterations in central fatigue by pharmacological manipulations of neurotransmitters in normal and high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain

    2010-03-01

    The scientific evidence is reviewed for the involvement of the brain monoamines serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in the onset of fatigue, in both normal and high ambient temperatures. The main focus is the pharmacological manipulations used to explore the central fatigue hypothesis. The original central fatigue hypothesis emphasizes that an exercise-induced increase in serotonin is responsible for the development of fatigue. However, several pharmacological studies attempted and failed to alter exercise capacity through changes in serotonergic neurotransmission in humans, indicating that the role of serotonin is often overrated. Recent studies, investigating the inhibition of the reuptake of both dopamine and noradrenaline, were capable of detecting changes in performance, specifically when ambient temperature was high. Dopamine and noradrenaline are prominent in innervated areas of the hypothalamus, therefore changes in the catecholaminergic concentrations may also be expected to be involved with the regulation of body core temperature during exercise in the heat. Evidence from different studies suggests that it is very unlikely that one neurotransmitter system is responsible for the appearance of central fatigue. The exact mechanism of fatigue is not known; presumably a complex interplay between both peripheral and central factors induces fatigue. Central fatigue will be determined by the collaboration of the different neurotransmitter systems, with the most important role possibly being for the catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline. PMID:20199121

  17. Neurotransmitters in the Gas Phase: La-Mb Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy combines laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets overcoming the problems of thermal decomposition associated with conventional heating methods. We present here the results on LA-MB-FTMW studies of some neurotransmitters. Six conformers of dopamine, four of adrenaline, five of noradrenaline and three conformers of serotonin have been characterized in the gas phase. The rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants extracted from the analysis of the rotational spectrum are directly compared with those predicted by ab initio methods to achieve the conclusive identification of different conformers and the experimental characterization of the intramolecular forces at play which control conformational preferences.

  18. Formation and clearance of interstitial metabolites of dopamine and serotonin in the rat striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Cumming, P; Brown, E; Damsma, G; Fibiger, H

    1992-11-01

    In vivo microdialysis was employed in order to characterize the steady-state kinetics of the turnover of specific dopamine and serotonin metabolites in the rat striatum 48 h after surgery. Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO; pargyline) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; Ro 40-7592) were administered, either separately or in conjunction, at doses sufficient to block these enzymes in the CNS. In some experiments, the acid metabolite carrier was blocked with probenecid. Temporal changes were then observed in the efflux of interstitial dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). The fractional rate constants for the accumulation or disappearance of the metabolites could be determined after pharmacological blockade of catabolic enzymes or the acid metabolite carrier. Interstitial 5-HIAA was found to be cleared with a half-life of approximately 2 h. After blockade of either MAO or COMT, HVA disappeared with a half-life of 17 min. Experiments employing probenecid suggested that some of the interstitial HVA was cleared by the acid metabolite carrier, the remainder being cleared by a probenecid-insensitive process, possibly conjugation. After MAO inhibition, DOPAC disappeared with an apparent half-life of 11.3 min. The rate of 3-MT accumulation after pargyline indicated that the majority of interstitial HVA (> 95%) is formed from DOPAC rather than 3-MT. The formation of 3-MT from interstitial dopamine, calculated from the accumulation rate of 3-MT after pargyline, appeared to follow first-order kinetics (k = 0.1 min-1). PMID:1383428

  19. Dopamine/serotonin receptor ligands. Part IV [1]: synthesis and pharmacology of novel 3-benzazecines and 3-benzazonines as potential 5-HT2A and dopamine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    El-Subbagh, Hussein; Wittig, Thomas; Decker, Michael; Elz, Sigurd; Nieger, Martin; Lehmann, Jochen

    2002-11-01

    LE 300 represents a structurally novel type of antagonist acting preferentially at the dopamine D1/D5 receptors and the serotonin 5-HT2A receptor. The compound consists of a 10-membered central azecine ring fused to indole on one and to benzene on the other side. To estimate the importance of the indole moiety in this highly active benz-indolo-azepine, the indole has to be removed and the "de-indolised" analog reinvestigated pharmacologically. Accordingly, we synthesized 3-benzazecines and in addition some homologuous 3-benzazonines. Methoxylated beta-phenylethylamines were treated with ethyl omega-bromo-butanoates and -pentanoates, respectively, to give the corresponding lactams which were cyclized (POCl3) and reduced (NaBH4), yielding the cis-annelated (X-ray) benzindolizines and -quinolizines. The 10- and 9-membered rings were obtained by cleavage of the central C-N bond, which was performed in the following two ways: Quarternisaion with methyl iodide and cleavage with sodium in liquid ammonia gave the NCH3 derivatives, reaction with benzyloxycarbonyl chloride/NaBH4 followed by catalytic debenzylation yielded a corresponding NH compound. Functional experiments on rat artery segments precontracted with ketanserin and radioligand binding experiments using human cloned dopamine receptor subtypes were conducted with all of the benzazecine and benzazonine derivatives. In contrast to the benz-indolo-compound LE 300 they did not show any significant affinity towards the D1, D2, D4, and D5 receptors and only moderate antagonistic activity at the 5-HT2A receptor. It can be concluded from our study that an indole moiety or at least another second aromatic system at the central azecine ring is part of the pharmacophore and thus essential for high biological activity. PMID:12447918

  20. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  1. WINCS-BASED WIRELESS ELECTROCHEMICAL MONITORING OF SEROTONIN (5-HT) USING FAST-SCAN CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY: PROOF OF PRINCIPLE

    PubMed Central

    Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Object We previously reported the development of a Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for measuring dopamine and suggested that this technology may be useful for evaluating deep brain stimulation (DBS)-related neuromodulatory effects on neurotransmitter systems. WINCS supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially resolved neurotransmitter measurements. The FSCV parameters used to establish WINCS dopamine measurements are not suitable for serotonin, a neurotransmitter implicated in depression, because they lead to CFM fouling and a loss of sensitivity. Here, we incorporate into WINCS a previously described N-shaped waveform applied at a high scan rate to establish wireless serotonin monitoring. Methods FSCV optimized for the detection of serotonin consisted of an N-shaped waveform scanned linearly from a resting potential of, in V, +0.2 to +1.0, then to −0.1 and back to +0.2 at a rate of 1000 V/s. Proof of principle tests included flow injection analysis and electrically evoked serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rat brain slices. Results Flow cell injection analysis demonstrated that the N waveform applied at a scan rate of 1000 V/s significantly reduced serotonin fouling of the CFM, relative to that observed with FSCV parameters for dopamine. In brain slices, WINCS reliably detected sub-second serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus evoked by local high-frequency stimulation. Conclusion WINCS supported high-fidelity wireless serotonin monitoring by FSCV at a CFM. In the future such measurements of serotonin in large animal models and in humans may help to establish the mechanism of DBS for psychiatric disease. PMID:20415521

  2. Synthesis of 3-aryl-1-[(4-phenyl-1-piperazinyl)butyl]indazole derivatives and their affinity to 5-HT1A serotonin and dopamine D1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Andronati, S; Sava, V; Makan, S; Kolodeev, G

    1999-02-01

    Eight 3-arylindazole derivatives have been synthesized and their affinity to 5-HT1A serotonin and D1 dopamine receptors was investigated by radioligand analysis. Quantitative structure-activity relationships were studied using the Free-Wilson model. An increase in affinity to dopamine D1 receptors within substituents Br > Cl > CH3 at the 5-position of the 3-arylindazole molecule has been observed. Addition of a chlorine atom to the ortho-position the of phenyl ring let to even highest activity. Replacement of the hydrogen atom at the first position of the 3-arylindazole on the (phenylpiperazine)butyl substituent caused an increase of affinity and did not change the trends of affinity dependence on structure. An inverse dependence on the structure of the studied compounds was observed for the serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Compounds containing a methyl group at the 5-position of molecule were more active than compounds containing halogens. A chlorine atom at the ortho-position of the phenyl ring decreased affinity. Replacement of the hydrogen atom at the first position of the molecule on the phenylpiperazine)butyl substituent led to an increase in affinity. Selectivity of the studied compounds varied within a wide range. Generally, the presence of the 3-aryl-indazole fragment in the new buspirone analogues increased their affinity to dopamine receptors and reduced their affinity to serotonin receptors. Compounds containing a bromine atom in the 3-arylindazole moiety may be promising ligands for D1 receptors. PMID:10084155

  3. Identification and developmental expression of the enzymes responsible for dopamine, histamine, octopamine and serotonin biosynthesis in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Fontanilla, Tiana M.; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2013-01-01

    Neurochemicals are likely to play key roles in physiological/behavioral control in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus, the biomass dominant zooplankton for much of the North Atlantic Ocean. Previously, a de novo assembled transcriptome consisting of 206,041 unique sequences was used to characterize the peptidergic signaling systems of Calanus. Here, this assembly was mined for transcripts encoding enzymes involved in amine biosynthesis. Using known Drosophila melanogaster proteins as templates, transcripts encoding putative Calanus homologs of tryptophan-phenylalanine hydroxylase (dopamine, octopamine and serotonin biosynthesis), tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine biosynthesis), DOPA decarboxylase (dopamine and serotonin biosynthesis), histidine decarboxylase (histamine biosynthesis), tyrosine decarboxylase (octopamine biosynthesis), tyramine ?-hydroxylase (octopamine biosynthesis) and tryptophan hydroxylase (serotonin biosynthesis) were identified. Reverse BLAST and domain analyses show that the proteins deduced from these transcripts possess sequence homology to and the structural hallmarks of their respective enzyme families. Developmental profiling revealed a remarkably consistent pattern of expression for all transcripts, with the highest levels of expression typically seen in the early nauplius and early copepodite. These expression patterns suggest roles for amines during development, particularly in the metamorphic transitions from embryo to nauplius and from nauplius to copepodite. Taken collectively, the data presented here lay a strong foundation for future gene-based studies of aminergic signaling in this and other copepod species, in particular assessment of the roles they may play in developmental control. PMID:24148657

  4. Silica stationary phase-based on-line sample enrichment coupled with LC-MS/MS for the quantification of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in rat brain microdialysates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjeong; Lee, Jin-Gyeom; Yang, Chae Ha; Lee, Sooyeun

    2016-06-01

    Accurate measurement of trace levels of endogenous compounds remains challenging despite advancements in analytical technologies. In particular, monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) are polar compounds with low molecular weights, which complicates the optimization of retention and detection on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Microdialysis is an important sampling technique to collect extracellular fluid from the brain of living animals. However, the very low basal concentrations of the neurotransmitters, small sample volume (maximum 30 μL) and the absence of matrix-matching calibrators are limitations of a microdialysate as an analytical sample. In the present study, an LC-MS/MS method was developed and fully validated for the quantification of DA, 5-HT and their main metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), in microdialysates from the rat nucleus accumbens shell. To improve the method sensitivity and accuracy, on-line sample enrichment using silica stationary phase was employed, before which any other sample pretreatment was not performed. The validation results proved the method to be selective, sensitive, accurate and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges. The lower limits of quantification were 0.025, 0.1, 0.5, 25 and 2.5 ng/mL for 5-HT, DA, 5-HIAA, HVA and DOPAC, respectively. This is a powerful analytical method to determine endogenous concentrations of those compounds in microdialysates from the rat nucleus accumbens and will be very useful to further study on the pathophysiological functions of monoamine neurotramsmitters in vivo. PMID:27155302

  5. Effects of AT1 receptor antagonism on kainate-induced seizures and concomitant changes in hippocampal extracellular noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Loyens, Ellen; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-05-01

    In the management of epilepsy, AT1 receptor antagonists have been suggested as an additional treatment strategy. A hyperactive brain angiotensin (Ang) II system and upregulated AT1 receptors are implicated in the cerebrovascular alterations in a genetic form of hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension could also, in turn, be a risk factor for a seizure threshold decrease and development of epileptogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the effects of the selective AT1 receptor antagonist ZD7155 on kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) development and accompanying changes in the hippocampal extracellular (EC) neurotransmitter levels of noradrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their parent strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, since monoamines are well-known neurotransmitters involved in mechanisms of both epilepsy and hypertension. Status epilepticus was evoked in freely moving rats by a repetitive intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of KA in subconvulsant doses. In the treatment group, ZD7155 (5mg/kg i.p.) was coadministered with the first KA injection. Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibited higher susceptibility to SE than WKY rats, but the AT1 receptor antagonist did not alter the development of SE in SHRs or in WKY rats. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated significant KA-induced increases of the hippocampal NAD and DA levels in SHRs and of NAD, 5-HT, and DA in WKY rats. Although SHRs developed more severe seizures while receiving a lower dose of KA compared to WKY rats, AT1 receptor antagonism completely prevented all KA-induced increases of hippocampal monoamine levels in both rat strains without affecting seizure development per se. These results suggest a lack of direct relationship between KA-induced seizure susceptibility and adaptive changes of hippocampal NAD, 5-HT, and DA levels in the effects of ZD7155 in WKY rats and SHRs. PMID:25922088

  6. Membrane phospholipid composition, alterations in neurotransmitter systems and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    du Bois, Teresa M; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2005-07-01

    This review addresses the relationship between modifications in membrane phospholipid composition (MPC) and alterations in dopaminergic, serotonergic and cholinergic neurotransmitter systems in schizophrenia. The main evidence in support of the MPC hypothesis of schizophrenia comes from post-mortem and platelet studies, which show that in schizophrenia, certain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are reduced. Furthermore, examination of several biochemical markers suggests abnormal fatty acid metabolism may be present in schizophrenia. Dietary manipulation of MPC with polyunsaturated fatty acid diets has been shown to affect densities of dopamine, serotonin and muscarinic receptors in rats. Also, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to improve mental health rating scores, and there is evidence that the mechanism behind this involves the serotonin receptor complex. This suggests that a tight relationship exists between essential fatty acid status and normal neurotransmission, and that altered PUFA levels may contribute to the abnormalities in neurotransmission seen in schizophrenia. PMID:16005134

  7. MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots exposure causes neurotoxic effects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine at the genetic level, or by increasing ROS, or both.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Zhan, Qinglin; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-12-28

    As quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in biomedical applications, the number of studies focusing on their biological properties is increasing. While several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs towards neural cells, the in vivo toxic effects on the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects and the underlying mechanisms of water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that exposure to MPA-capped CdTe QDs induced behavioral defects, including alterations to body bending, head thrashing, pharyngeal pumping and defecation intervals, as well as impaired learning and memory behavior plasticity, based on chemotaxis or thermotaxis, in a dose-, time- and size-dependent manner. Further investigations suggested that MPA-capped CdTe QDs exposure inhibited the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine in C. elegans at the genetic level within 24 h, while opposite results were observed after 72 h. Additionally, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in the CdTe QD-treated worms, which confirmed the common nanotoxicity mechanism of oxidative stress damage, and might overcome the increased gene expression of neurotransmitter transporters and receptors in C. elegans induced by long-term QD exposure, resulting in more severe behavioral impairments. PMID:26583374

  8. MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots exposure causes neurotoxic effects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine at the genetic level, or by increasing ROS, or both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Zhan, Qinglin; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-12-01

    As quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in biomedical applications, the number of studies focusing on their biological properties is increasing. While several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs towards neural cells, the in vivo toxic effects on the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects and the underlying mechanisms of water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that exposure to MPA-capped CdTe QDs induced behavioral defects, including alterations to body bending, head thrashing, pharyngeal pumping and defecation intervals, as well as impaired learning and memory behavior plasticity, based on chemotaxis or thermotaxis, in a dose-, time- and size-dependent manner. Further investigations suggested that MPA-capped CdTe QDs exposure inhibited the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine in C. elegans at the genetic level within 24 h, while opposite results were observed after 72 h. Additionally, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in the CdTe QD-treated worms, which confirmed the common nanotoxicity mechanism of oxidative stress damage, and might overcome the increased gene expression of neurotransmitter transporters and receptors in C. elegans induced by long-term QD exposure, resulting in more severe behavioral impairments.

  9. The Role of Dopamine in Schizophrenia from a Neurobiological and Evolutionary Perspective: Old Fashioned, but Still in Vogue

    PubMed Central

    Brisch, Ralf; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bielau, Hendrik; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Braun, Katharina; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej; Gos, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. The revised dopamine hypothesis states that dopamine abnormalities in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions exist in schizophrenia. However, recent research has indicated that glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin alterations are also involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This review provides an in-depth analysis of dopamine in animal models of schizophrenia and also focuses on dopamine and cognition. Furthermore, this review provides not only an overview of dopamine receptors and the antipsychotic effects of treatments targeting them but also an outline of dopamine and its interaction with other neurochemical models of schizophrenia. The roles of dopamine in the evolution of the human brain and human mental abilities, which are affected in schizophrenia patients, are also discussed. PMID:24904434

  10. In vivo assessment of dopamine and serotonin receptors measured by C-11 n-methylspiperone (NMSP) in patients with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Tune, L.E.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Suneja, S.; Bjorvinsson, E.; Pearlson, G.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Links, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The authors carried out PET imaging with C-11 NMSP in 13 pts. diagnosed as chronic schizophrenic by (DSM 3) criteria. They had no detectable serum neuroleptics by radioassay at the time of the scan. No pt. had received a neuroleptic for at least 1 week before study, with an avg. abstinence of 7 mo. One had never been on neuroleptics. During the time of scanning, 8/13 had delusions and hallucinations. There was no statistically significant difference from 44 age and sex matched control subjects for the 43 min. Caudate/cerebellar ratio, or the Frontal/Cerebellar ratio, both measures of relative dopamine D2, and serotonin S2 binding. These preliminary studies suggest that these drug free pts. show no large differences in the receptor levels compared to normal data. Differences from in vitro data could be due to: differences in duration of illness (the avg. 10.3) yrs.; difference in age (our pts. vg. 32.7 are much younger than those dying with schizophrenia); drug induced effects at death or persistent neuroleptic effect in our pts.; or difference in method.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of Dopamine, Serotonin and Ascorbic Acid at a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Carbon-Spheres

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jianqing; Sheng, Meili; Jiang, Xueyue; Wu, Guozhi; Gao, Feng

    2013-01-01

    A novel glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon-spheres has been fabricated through a simple casting procedure. The modified GCE displays high selectivity and excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA). In the co-existence system, the peak separations between AA and DA, DA and 5-HT, and AA and 5-HT are large up to 230, 180, and 410 mV, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been employed to simultaneously detect DA, 5-HT, and AA, and the linear calibration curves for DA, 5-HT, and AA are obtained in the range of 20.0–150.0 μM, 40.0–750.0 μM and 300.0–2,000.0 μM with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 2.0 μM, 0.7 μM and 0.6 μM, respectively. The proposed electrode has been applied to detect DA, 5-HT, and AA in real samples using standard addition method with satisfactory results. PMID:24135993

  12. Cytokine Targets in the Brain: Impact on Neurotransmitters and Neurocircuits

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew H.; Haroon, Ebrahim; Raison, Charles L.; Felger, Jennifer C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to the role of inflammation in a host of illnesses including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. Activation of the inflammatory response leads to release of inflammatory cytokines and mobilization of immune cells both of which have been shown to access the brain and alter behavior. The mechanisms of the effects of inflammation on the brain have become an area of intensive study. Data indicate that cytokines and their signaling pathways including p38 mitogen activated protein kinase have significant effects on the metabolism of multiple neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine and glutamate through impact on their synthesis, release and reuptake. Cytokines also activate the kynurenine pathway which not only depletes tryptophan, the primary amino acid precursor of serotonin, but also generates neuroactive metabolites that can significantly influence the regulation of dopamine and glutamate. Through their effects on neurotransmitter systems, cytokines impact neurocircuits in the brain including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, leading to significant changes in motor activity and motivation as well as anxiety, arousal and alarm. In the context of environmental challenge from the microbial world, these effects of inflammatory cytokines on the brain represent an orchestrated suite of behavioral and immune responses that subserve evolutionary priorities to shunt metabolic resources away from environmental exploration to fighting infection and wound healing, while also maintaining vigilance against attack, injury and further pathogen exposure. Chronic activation of this innate behavioral and immune response may lead to depression and anxiety disorders in vulnerable individuals. PMID:23468190

  13. Orquestic regulation of neurotransmitters on reward-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area is strongly associated with the reward system. Dopamine is released in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex as a result of rewarding experiences such as food, sex, and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. Electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area or its output pathways can itself serve as a potent reward. Different drugs that increase dopamine levels are intrinsically rewarding. Although the dopaminergic system represent the cornerstone of the reward system, other neurotransmitters such as endogenous opioids, glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, serotonin, adenosine, endocannabinoids, orexins, galanin and histamine all affect this mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Consequently, genetic variations of neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. Here, we discuss current evidence on the orquestic regulation of different neurotranmitters on reward-seeking behavior and its potential effect on drug addiction. PMID:25061480

  14. Contrasting contribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor activation to neurochemical profile of novel antipsychotics: frontocortical dopamine and hippocampal serotonin release in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Assié, Marie-Bernadette; Ravailhe, Véronique; Faucillon, Valérie; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2005-10-01

    Several novel antipsychotics, such as aripiprazole, bifeprunox, SSR181507 [(3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-(((2S)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl)methyl)-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)octane-3-methanamine], and SLV313 [1-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-4-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-piperazine], activate serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors. Such activity is associated with enhanced treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, which may be mediated by modulation of cerebral dopamine and serotonin levels. We employed microdialysis coupled to high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to examine 5-HT1A receptor activation in the modulation of extracellular dopamine in medial prefrontal cortex and serotonin in hippocampus of freely moving rats. The above compounds were compared with drugs that have less interaction with 5-HT1A receptors (clozapine, nemonapride, ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol). Hippocampal 5-HT was decreased by bifeprunox, SSR181507, SLV313, sarizotan, and nemonapride, effects similar to those seen with the 5-HT1A agonist, (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin [(+)8-OH-DPAT], consistent with activation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors. These decreases were reversed by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY100635 [N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide]. In contrast, haloperidol, risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole did not significantly modify hippocampal serotonin levels. In medial prefrontal cortex, dopamine levels were increased by SSR181507, SLV313, sarizotan, and (+)8-OH-DPAT. These effects were reversed by WAY100635, indicating mediation by 5-HT1A receptors. In contrast, the increases in dopamine levels induced by clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, and ziprasidone were not blocked by WAY100635, consistent with predominant influence of other mechanisms in the actions of these drugs. Haloperidol, nemonapride, and the D2 partial agonists, aripiprazole and bifeprunox, did not significantly alter dopamine release. Taken together, these data demonstrate the diverse contribution of 5-HT1A receptor activation to the profile of antipsychotics and suggest that novel drugs selectively targeting D2 and 5-HT1A receptors may present distinctive therapeutic properties. PMID:15987834

  15. Hyperfunctionality of serotonin-2C receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release in an animal model of depression is reversed by antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Newman, Michael E; Kinor, Noa; Blatman-Jan, Gitit; Schindler, Cheryl J; Overstreet, David H; Yadid, Gal

    2005-01-01

    Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens mediates motivation and reward, making it a likely candidate to be involved in anhedonia, one of the major symptoms of depression. In the current study, alterations in basal extracellular dopamine levels and 5HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, an animal model of depression, were investigated. We found that FSL rats have decreased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and an increased inhibitory-like effect of 5HT2C receptors on accumbal dopamine release. However, neither basal 5HT levels nor the accumbal 5HT response to the local 5HT2C receptor antagonist (RS 102221) differed between Sprague-Dawley and FSL rats. Seven-day treatment with the nefazodone (a serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and 5HT2C antagonist) as well as 7-day and 14-day treatments with a tricyclic antidepressant desipramine increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of FSL rats. However, only 14-day treatment with desipramine or 7-day treatment with nefazodone, but not 7-day treatment with desipramine, decreased 5HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release. Based on a possible correlation between the onset of 5HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition and the behavioral effects of desipramine and nefazodone treatment that was described in our previous studies, we suggest that 5HT2C receptor activation may be important for the onset of the behavioral effects of antidepressant treatment. PMID:15617725

  16. Modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters in fighting fish Betta splendens exposed to waterborne phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2010-12-01

    Endogenous estrogens are known to affect the activity of monoamine neurotransmitters in vertebrate animals, but the effects of exogenous estrogens on neurotransmitters are relatively poorly understood. We exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses of three phytoestrogens that are potential endocrine disruptors in wild fish populations: genistein, equol, and β-sitosterol. We also exposed fish to two doses of the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol, which we selected as a positive control because phytoestrogens are putative estrogen mimics. Our results were variable, but the effects were generally modest. Genistein increased dopamine levels in the forebrains of B. splendens at both environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses. The environmentally relevant dose of equol increased dopamine levels in B. splendens forebrains, and the pharmacological dose decreased norepinephrine (forebrain), dopamine (hindbrain), and serotonin (forebrain) levels. The environmentally relevant dose of β-sitosterol decreased norepinephrine and dopamine in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively. Our results suggest that sources of environmental phytoestrogens, such as runoff or effluent from agricultural fields, wood pulp mills, and sewage treatment plants, have the potential to modulate neurotransmitter activity in free-living fishes in a way that could interfere with normal behavioral processes. PMID:20012186

  17. Accumbal dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin activity after naloxone-conditioned place aversion in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Milanés, Iván; Almela, Pilar; García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; García-Gutiérrez, M Salud; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Manzanares, Jorge; Milanés Maquilón, María Victoria; Laorden, M Luisa

    2012-08-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons not only show a pattern signaling the magnitude, delay and probability of rewards but also code negative motivation and aversive events. Beside DA, other systems such as noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) may also be implicated in naloxone-induced conditioned place aversion (CPA; an index of the aversive consequences of withdrawal). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate: (i) the turnover of DA, NA and 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), one of the most important substrates for aversive states, (ii) the changes in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression in the ventral tegmental area, and (iii) total TH protein levels and TH phosphorylation in the NAc after naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal. DA, NA and 5-HT turnover was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TH gene expression was determined by real time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and total TH and TH phosphorylated at Ser31 and Ser40 were analyzed by Western blot. Present results show that the aversion for environmental cues paired with opioid withdrawal was higher than that observed in the saline group treated with naloxone, which indicates that morphine pretreatment potentiated the ability of naloxone to produce place aversion. In addition, present data show that naloxone-induced CPA positively correlated with an increase of DA and NA turnover in the NAc, which paralleled an increase in TH gene expression in the VTA and TH phosphorylation and enhanced TH protein levels in the NAc. Thus, the present study indicates that naloxone-induced aversion in morphine-dependent mice enhances DA and NA activity in the NAc and suggests that transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of TH could be involved in the hyperactivity of mesolimbic dopaminergic system observed in morphine-withdrawn mice. PMID:22713675

  18. Ethanol and acetaldehyde differentially alter extracellular dopamine and serotonin in Aldh2-knockout mouse dorsal striatum: A reverse microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Miki, Takanori; Tanaka, Naoko; Ito, Asuka; Ono, Junichiro; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) seem to be involved in several of the effects of ethanol (EtOH). Acetaldehyde (AcH), especially in the brain, induces effects that mimic those of EtOH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local perfusion of EtOH and AcH on extracellular DA and 5-HT in the dorsal striatum of Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Aldh2-KO mice were used as a model of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency in humans to examine the effects of AcH. Mice were perfused with Ringer's solution (control), EtOH (100, 200, or 500mM) and AcH (100, 200, or 500μM) into the dorsal striatum. Dialysate samples were collected every 5min, and then analyzed with HPLC coupled to an ECD. We found that local perfusion with 500mM EtOH increased extracellular levels of DA (p<0.05) in both Aldh2-KO and WT mice, while 5-HT levels remain unchanged. EtOH at a dose of 200mM also increased DA in WT mice, but this was limited to a 30-40-min time-point. In contrast, perfusion with 200 and 500μM AcH decreased both DA and 5-HT (p<0.05) in Aldh2-KO mice, but this decrease was not found in WT mice at any AcH dose, indicating an effect of AcH on DA and 5-HT levels. There were no genotype effects on the basal levels of DA and 5-HT. These results indicate that high EtOH can stimulate DA, whereas high AcH can depress both DA and 5-HT in the dorsal striatum of mice. PMID:26711020

  19. Molecular modeling and docking study on dopamine D2-like and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xinli; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Fang; Lei, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, are paid more and more attention by human due to their upward tendency in modern society. D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors have been proposed as targets of antipsychotic drugs. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been deemed to improve the treatment of positive, negative and extrapyramidal symptoms. Unfortunately, no experimental structures for these receptors are available except D3 receptor (D3R). Therefore, it is necessary to construct structures of D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors to investigate the interaction between these receptors and their antagonists. Accordingly, homology models of dopamine D2, D3, D4 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors have been built on the high-resolution crystal structure of the β2-adrenergic receptor, and refined by molecular dynamics simulations. The backbone root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of D3R model relative to crystal structure is 1.3Å, which proves the reliability of homology modeling. Docking studies reveal that the binding modes of four homology models and their antagonists are consistent with experimental site-directed mutagenesis data. The calculated pKi values agree well with the experimental pKi ones. Antagonists with linear structures such as butyrophenones and benzisoxazolyl piperidines are easily docked into D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors. Polycyclic aromatic compounds have weaker affinity with four receptors. Homology models of D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors will be helpful for predicting the affinity of novel ligands, and could be used as three-dimensional (3D) templates for antipsychotic virtual screening and further drug discovery. PMID:25728902

  20. Serotonin, but not dopamine, controls the stress response and anxiety-like behavior in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Fossat, Pascal; Bacqu-Cazenave, Julien; De Deurwaerdre, Philippe; Cattaert, Daniel; Delbecque, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    In the animal kingdom, biogenic amines are widespread modulators of the nervous system that frequently interact to control mood. Our previous investigations in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) have established that stress induces changes in brain serotonin (5-HT) concentrations that are responsible for the appearance of anxiety-like behavior (ALB). Here, we further analyze the roles of 5-HT and another biogenic amine, dopamine (DA), on the crayfish response to stress. We show that the intensity of crayfish ALB depends on the intensity of stressful stimulation and is associated with increased concentrations of 5-HT in the brain. These 5-HT levels were significantly correlated, before, as well as after stress, with those of DA, which were approximately 3- to 5-times less abundant. However, whereas the degree of ALB was clearly correlated with brain 5-HT concentrations, it was not significantly correlated with DA. Moreover, in contrast to injections of 5-HT, DA injections were not able to elicit a stress response or ALB. In addition, 5-HT and DA levels were not modified by treatment with the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, confirming that suppression of ALB by this GABA-A receptor ligand acts downstream and is independent of changes in crayfish bioamine levels. Our study also provides evidence that the anxiogenic effect of 5-HT injections can be prevented by a preliminary injection of 5-HT antagonists. Altogether, our results emphasize that the rises in brain concentrations of 5-HT, but not DA, play a role in controlling the induction and the intensity of crayfish ALB. PMID:26139659

  1. Regional and laminar distribution of the dopamine and serotonin innervation in the macaque cerebral cortex: a radioautographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.; Trottier, S.; Verney, C.; Gaspar, P.; Alvarez, C.

    1988-07-01

    The regional density and laminar distribution of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) afferents were investigated in the cerebral cortex of cynomolgus monkeys using a radioautographic technique that is based on the high affinity uptake capacity of these aminergic neurons. Large vibratome sections, 50 micron thick, were incubated with (3H) DA (0.2 microM) and desipramine (5 microM) or with unlabeled norepinephrine (5 microM) and (3H) 5-HT (0.6 microM), which allowed for the specific labeling of the DA and 5-HT innervations, respectively. After fixation, these sections were dried, defatted, and radioautographed by dipping. Semiquantitative data on the DA innervation also were provided by counting (3H) DA-labeled axonal varicosities in radioautographs from 4-micron-thick sections of the slices obtained after epon embedding. The DA innervation was widespread and differed in density and laminar distribution in the agranular and granular cortices. DA afferents were densest in the anterior cingulate (area 24) and the motor areas (areas 4, 6, and supplementary motor area (SMA)). In the latter they displayed a trilaminar pattern of distribution, predominating in layers I, IIIa, and V-VI, with characteristic cluster-like formations in layer IIIa, especially in the medial part of motor areas. In the granular prefrontal (areas 46, 9, 10, 11, 12), parietal (areas 1, 2, 3, 5, 7), temporal (areas 21, 22), and posterior cingulate (area 23) cortices, DA afferents were less dense and showed a bilaminar pattern of distribution, predominating in the depth of layer I and in layers V-VI; density in layers II, III, and IV was only 20% of that in layer I. The lowest density was in the visual cortex, particularly in area 17, where the DA afferents were almost restricted to layer I.

  2. Effects of exposure to pyrethroid cyfluthrin on serotonin and dopamine levels in brain regions of male rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J L; Ares, I; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2016-04-01

    The effects of cyfluthrin oral exposure (1, 5, 10 and 20mg/kg bw, 6 days) on brain region monoamine levels of male rats were examined. Cyfluthrin-treated rats (1, 5 and 10mg/kg bw, orally 6 days), had no visible injury, i.e., no clinical signs of dysfunction were observed. However, rats treated with cyfluthrin at the highest dose (20mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) showed skeletal muscle contraction in the hind limbs, slight movement incoordination without any signs of dyskinesia and tremor after 1-2h of treatment. These signs were reversible at 6h after dose. After last dose of cyfluthrin, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolites levels were determined in brain regions hypothalamus, midbrain, hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex by HPLC. Cyfluthrin (1mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) did not affect the DA, 5-HT and metabolites levels in the brain regions studied. Cyfluthrin (5, 10 and 20mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) caused a statistically significant decrease in DA and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA levels and in 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA levels in a brain region- and dose-related manner. Moreover, cyfluthrin (20mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) evoked a statistically significant increase in 5-HT turnover in striatum and midbrain, and in DA turnover in striatum and prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that serotoninergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is affected by exposure to cyfluthrin and may contribute to the overall spectrum of neurotoxicity caused by this pyrethroid. PMID:26826775

  3. Quantitative mapping shows that serotonin rather than dopamine receptor mRNA expressions are affected after repeated intermittent administration of MDMA in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kindlundh-Hgberg, Anna M S; Svenningsson, Per; Schith, Helgi B

    2006-09-01

    Ecstasy, (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA), is a popular recreational drug among young people. The present study aims to mimic MDMA intake among adolescents at dance clubs, taking repeated doses in the same evening on an intermittent basis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either 3x1 or 3x5 mg/kg/day (3 h apart) every seventh day during 4 weeks. We used real-time RT-PCR to determine the gene expression of serotonin 5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT2A, 5HT2C, 5HT3, 5HT6 receptors and dopamine D1, D2, D3 receptors in seven brain nuclei. The highest dose of MDMA extensively increased the 5HT1B-receptor mRNA in the cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. The 5HT2A-receptor mRNA was reduced at the highest MDMA dose in the cortex. The 5HT2C mRNA was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in the cortex and the hypothalamus, as well as the 5HT3-receptor mRNA was in the hypothalamus. The 5HT6 mRNA level was increased in the forebrain cortex and the amygdala. Dopamine receptor mRNAs were only affected in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for a unique implication of serotonin rather than dopamine receptor mRNA levels, in response to repeated intermittent MDMA administration. We therefore suggest that serotonin regulated functions also primarily underlie repeated MDMA intake at rave parties. PMID:16820177

  4. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  5. Impact of dopamine to serotonin cell ratio in transplants on behavioral recovery and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    García, Joanna; Carlsson, Thomas; Döbrössy, Máté; Nikkhah, Guido; Winkler, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Fetal dopamine (DA) cell transplantation has shown to be efficient in reversing behavioral impairments associated with Parkinson's disease. However, the beneficial effects on motor behavior and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia have varied greatly in between clinical trials and patients within the same trial. Recently, the inclusion of serotonin (5-HT) neurons in the grafted tissue has been suggested to play an important negative role, in particular, on the effect of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. In the present study we have evaluated the influence of different ratios of DA neurons in relation to 5-HT neurons in the graft on spontaneous motor behavior and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. We show that using the standard dissection method that gives rise to a DA:5-HT ratio in the graft of 2:1 to 1:2 there is significant and consistent improvement in spontaneous motor behavior and reversal of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Increasing the ratio of 5-HT neurons in the graft, to a DA:5-HT ratio of in between 1:3 and 1:10, still induces significant reduction of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia, suggesting that the detrimental effect of 5-HT neurons on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia is prevented even by small numbers of DA neurons in the graft. Nonetheless, while the post-synaptic responses were normalized following peripheral L-DOPA delivery in animals with low DA:5-HT ratio, we observed a pharmacological indication of hyperactive pre-synaptic response in these animals. These data suggests that 5-HT cells within a graft are neither detrimental nor beneficial for functional effects of DA-rich transplants; however, in absence of sufficient numbers of DA neurons, the 5-HT neurons may induce negative effects following L-DOPA therapy. In summary, our data indicate that for future clinical trials the inclusion of 5-HT neurons in grafted tissue is not critical as long as there are sufficient numbers of DA cells in the graft. PMID:21600983

  6. The Effects of LPM570065, a Novel Triple Reuptake Inhibitor, on Extracellular Serotonin, Dopamine and Norepinephrine Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyu; Li, Xiang; Shi, Yanan; Shao, Yufeng; Sun, Kaoxiang; Wang, Aiping; Sun, Fengying; Liu, Wanhui; Wang, Di; Jin, Jingji; Li, Youxin

    2014-01-01

    Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) are currently being developed as a new class of promising antidepressants that block serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) transporters, thereby increasing extracellular monoamine concentrations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of LPM570065, a novel TRI and a desvenlafaxine prodrug, on extracellular 5-HT, DA and NE levels in the rat striatum after acute and chronic administration relative to desvenlafaxine, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and microdialysis. Acute administration was performed by providing rodents with oral solutions (0.06 mmol·kg−1 p.o.), oral suspensions (0.06 mmol·kg−1 p.o.) and intravenous solutions (0.04 mmol·kg−1 i.v.) of LPM570065 and desvenlafaxine. Oral suspensions (0.06 mmol·kg−1·day−1) of the two drugs were also administered for a 14-day chronic period. HPLC analysis revealed that LPM570065 rapidly penetrated the rat striatum, converted into desvenlafaxine and exhibited larger total exposure compared with the administration of desvenlafaxine. Microdialysis revealed that acute and chronic administration of oral suspension of LPM570065 increased the 5-HT, DA and NE levels more than the relative administration of desvenlafaxine. Unlike desvenlafaxine, acute administration of an intravenous LPM570065 solution did not induce the undesirable 90% decrease in extracellular 5-HT levels. In contrast to the fully dose-dependent elevation of 5-HT induced by desvenlafaxine, the acute administration of LPM570065 showed a capped increase in extracellular 5-HT levels when combined with WAY-100635. Additionally, forced swim test demonstrated that acute and chronic administration of LPM570065 reduced the immobility time more than the relative administration of desvenlafaxine. These data suggest that LPM570065 may have greater efficacy and/or a more rapid onset of antidepressant action than desvenlafaxine and also counterbalance the harmful effects of desvenlafaxine on 5-HT neurotransmission related to 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Thus, this new class of drugs, TRIs has the potential to provide a new therapeutic mechanism for treating depression. PMID:24614602

  7. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  8. Glucocorticoid Receptors, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, Serotonin and Dopamine Neurotransmission are Associated with Interferon-Induced Depression

    PubMed Central

    Udina, M; Navinés, R; Egmond, E; Oriolo, G; Langohr, K; Gimenez, D; Valdés, M; Gómez-Gil, E; Grande, I; Gratacós, M; Kapczinski, F; Artigas, F; Vieta, E; Solà, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: The role of inflammation in mood disorders has received increased attention. There is substantial evidence that cytokine therapies, such as interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), can induce depressive symptoms. Indeed, proinflammatory cytokines change brain function in several ways, such as altering neurotransmitters, the glucocorticoid axis, and apoptotic mechanisms. This study aimed to evaluate the impact on mood of initiating IFN-alpha and ribavirin treatment in a cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis C. We investigated clinical, personality, and functional genetic variants associated with cytokine-induced depression. Methods: We recruited 344 Caucasian outpatients with chronic hepatitis C, initiating IFN-alpha and ribavirin therapy. All patients were euthymic at baseline according to DSM-IV-R criteria. Patients were assessed at baseline and 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks after treatment initiation using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). We genotyped several functional polymorphisms of interleukin-28 (IL28B), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1), serotonin receptor-1A (HTR1A), catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), glucocorticoid receptors (GCR1 and GCR2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) genes. A survival analysis was performed, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used for the multivariate analysis. Results: The cumulative incidence of depression was 0.35 at week 24 and 0.46 at week 48. The genotypic distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Older age (p = 0.018, hazard ratio [HR] per 5 years = 1.21), presence of depression history (p = 0.0001, HR = 2.38), and subthreshold depressive symptoms at baseline (p = 0.005, HR = 1.13) increased the risk of IFN-induced depression. So too did TCI personality traits, with high scores on fatigability (p = 0.0037, HR = 1.17), impulsiveness (p = 0.0200 HR = 1.14), disorderliness (p = 0.0339, HR = 1.11), and low scores on extravagance (p = 0.0040, HR = 0.85). An interaction between HTR1A and COMT genes was found. Patients carrying the G allele of HTR1A plus the Met substitution of the COMT polymorphism had a greater risk for depression during antiviral treatment (HR = 3.83) than patients with the CC (HTR1A) and Met allele (COMT) genotypes. Patients carrying the HTR1A CC genotype and the COMT Val/Val genotype (HR = 3.25) had a higher risk of depression than patients with the G allele (HTR1A) and the Val/Val genotype. Moreover, functional variants of the GCR1 (GG genotype: p = 0.0436, HR = 1.88) and BDNF genes (Val/Val genotype: p = 0.0453, HR = 0.55) were associated with depression. Conclusions: The results of the study support the theory that IFN-induced depression is associated with a complex pathophysiological background, including serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission as well as glucocorticoid and neurotrophic factors. These findings may help to improve the management of patients on antiviral treatment and broaden our understanding of the pathogenesis of mood disorders. PMID:26721949

  9. Could Dopamine Agonists Aid in Drug Development for Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  10. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Modulates the Level of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Ho Sung; Chung, Su Jin; Lim, Cheol Hee; Oh, Keon Woong; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe that extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may be relevant to changes of major neurotransmitters in rat brain. After the exposure to ELF-MF (60 Hz, 2.0 mT) for 2 or 5 days, we measured the levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites, amino acid neurotransmitters and nitric oxide (NO) in the cortex, striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. The exposure of ELF-MF for 2 or 5 days produced significant differences in norepinephrine and vanillyl mandelic acid in the striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. Significant increases in the levels of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were also observed in the striatum, thalamus or hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased the concentration of dopamine in the thalamus. ELF-MF tended to increase the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters such as glutamine, glycine and γ -aminobutyric acid in the striatum and thalamus, whereas it decreased the levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased NO concentration in the striatum, thalamus and hippocampus. The present study has demonstrated that exposure to ELF-MFs may evoke the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, amino acid and NO in the brain although the extent and property vary with the brain areas. However, the mechanisms remain further to be characterized. PMID:25605992

  11. SLC18: Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters for monoamines and acetylcholine ☆

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Hakeem O.; Krantz, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The exocytotic release of neurotransmitters requires active transport into synaptic vesicles and other types of secretory vesicles. Members of the SLC18 family perform this function for acetylcholine (SLC18A3, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter or VAChT) and monoamines such as dopamine and serotonin (SLC18A1 and 2, the vesicular monoamine transporters VMAT1 and 2, respectively). To date, no specific diseases have been attributed to a mutation in an SLC18 family member; however, polymorphisms in SLC18A1 and SLC18A2 may confer risk for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Additional members of this family include SLC18A4, expressed in insects, and SLC18B1, the function of which is not known. SLC18 is part of the Drug:H+ Antiporter-1 Family (DHA1, TCID 2.A.1.2) within the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS, TCID 2.A.1). PMID:23506877

  12. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU)

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Cary O.; Winn, Shelley R.; Gibson, K. Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Summary Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

  13. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Harding, Cary O; Winn, Shelley R; Gibson, K Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

  14. Ethylenedioxy homologs of N-methyl-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (MDMA) and its corresponding cathinone analog methylenedioxymethcathinone: Interactions with transporters for serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Del Bello, Fabio; Sakloth, Farhana; Partilla, John S; Baumann, Michael H; Glennon, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    N-Methyl-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (MDMA; 'Ecstasy'; 1) and its β-keto analog methylone (MDMC; 2) are popular drugs of abuse. Little is known about their ring-expanded ethylenedioxy homologs. Here, we prepared N-methyl-(3,4-ethylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (EDMA; 3), both of its optical isomers, and β-keto EDMA (i.e., EDMC; 4) to examine their effects at transporters for serotonin (SERT), dopamine (DAT), and norepinephrine (NET). In general, ring-expansion of the methylenedioxy group led to a several-fold reduction in potency at all three transporters. With respect to EDMA (3), S(+)3 was 6-fold, 50-fold, and 8-fold more potent than its R(-) enantiomer at SERT, DAT, and NET, respectively. Overall, in the absence of a β-carbonyl group, the ethylenedioxy (i.e., 1,4-dioxane) substituent seems better accommodated at SERT than at DAT and NET. PMID:26233799

  15. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in major depression in a multi-neurotransmitter system: a focus on antidepressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Werner, Felix-Martin; Coveñas, R

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the alterations of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides and the corresponding subreceptors involved in major depression. Neuronal circuits in the brainstem, hippocampus and hypothalamus are developed, since they can be used to derive a multimodal pharmacotherapy. In this sense, serotonin hypoactivity could occur through a strong presynaptic inhibition of glutaminergic neurons via the subtype 5 of metabotropic glutaminergic receptors, and noradrenaline hypoactivity could be due to an enhanced presynaptic inhibition of GABAergic neurons via GABAB receptors. In the hippocampus, dopamine hypoactivity leads to a decreased positive effect. In clinical trials, the antidepressant effect of drugs interfering with the mentioned subreceptors, for example the triple reuptake inhibitor amitifadine, is being investigated. Moreover, the alterations of neuropeptides, such as corticotropin-releasing hormone, neuropeptide Y and galanin are pointed out. The additional antidepressant effect of analogs, agonists and antagonists of the mentioned neuropeptides should be examined. PMID:24083608

  16. Functional mechanisms of neurotransmitter transporters regulated by lipid-protein interactions of their terminal loops.

    PubMed

    Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2015-09-01

    The physiological functions of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) in reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synapse into the presynaptic nerve have been shown to be complemented by their involvement, together with non-plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters, in the reverse transport of substrate (efflux) in response to psychostimulants. Recent experimental evidence implicates highly anionic phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP(2)) lipids in such functions of the serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) transporters. Thus, for both SERT and DAT, neurotransmitter efflux has been shown to be strongly regulated by the presence of PIP(2) lipids in the plasma membrane, and the electrostatic interaction of the N-terminal region of DAT with the negatively charged PIP(2) lipids. We examine the experimentally established phenotypes in a structural context obtained from computational modeling based on recent crystallographic data. The results are shown to set the stage for a mechanistic understanding of physiological actions of neurotransmitter transporters in the NSS family of membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25847498

  17. LeuT-Desipramine Structure Reveals How Antidepressants Block Neurotransmitter Reuptake

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,Z.; Zhen, J.; Karpowich, N.; Goetz, R.; Law, C.; Reith, M.; Wang, D.

    2007-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants exert their pharmacological effect -- inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine -- by directly blocking neurotransmitter transporters (SERT, NET, and DAT, respectively) in the presynaptic membrane. The drug-binding site and the mechanism of this inhibition are poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure at 2.9 angstroms of the bacterial leucine transporter (LeuT), a homolog of SERT, NET, and DAT, in complex with leucine and the antidepressant desipramine. Desipramine binds at the inner end of the extracellular cavity of the transporter and is held in place by a hairpin loop and by a salt bridge. This binding site is separated from the leucine-binding site by the extracellular gate of the transporter. By directly locking the gate, desipramine prevents conformational changes and blocks substrate transport. Mutagenesis experiments on human SERT and DAT indicate that both the desipramine-binding site and its inhibition mechanism are probably conserved in the human neurotransmitter transporters.

  18. An extended reinforcement learning model of basal ganglia to understand the contributions of serotonin and dopamine in risk-based decision making, reward prediction, and punishment learning

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Pragathi P.; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Although empirical and neural studies show that serotonin (5HT) plays many functional roles in the brain, prior computational models mostly focus on its role in behavioral inhibition. In this study, we present a model of risk based decision making in a modified Reinforcement Learning (RL)-framework. The model depicts the roles of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in Basal Ganglia (BG). In this model, the DA signal is represented by the temporal difference error (δ), while the 5HT signal is represented by a parameter (α) that controls risk prediction error. This formulation that accommodates both 5HT and DA reconciles some of the diverse roles of 5HT particularly in connection with the BG system. We apply the model to different experimental paradigms used to study the role of 5HT: (1) Risk-sensitive decision making, where 5HT controls risk assessment, (2) Temporal reward prediction, where 5HT controls time-scale of reward prediction, and (3) Reward/Punishment sensitivity, in which the punishment prediction error depends on 5HT levels. Thus the proposed integrated RL model reconciles several existing theories of 5HT and DA in the BG. PMID:24795614

  19. Potentiation of neurite outgrowth by brexpiprazole, a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator: a role for serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Ishima, Tamaki; Futamura, Takashi; Ohgi, Yuta; Yoshimi, Noriko; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Brexpiprazole, a novel atypical antipsychotic drug, is currently being tested in clinical trials for treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. The drug is known to act through a combination of partial agonistic activity at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A, and dopamine D2 receptors, and antagonistic activity at 5-HT2A receptors. Accumulating evidence suggests that antipsychotic drugs act by promoting neurite outgrowth. In this study, we examined whether brexpiprazole affected neurite outgrowth in cell culture. We found that brexpiprazole significantly potentiated nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, in a concentration dependent manner. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100,635, was able to block the effects of brexpiprazole on neurite outgrowth, unlike the selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride. Furthermore, the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907, but not DOI (5-HT2A receptor agonist), significantly potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, xestospongin C and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), both specific inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors, significantly blocked the effects of brexpiprazole. These findings suggest that brexpiprazole-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated through 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, and subsequent Ca(2+) signaling via IP3 receptors. PMID:25687838

  20. Neurotransmitter properties of the newborn human retina

    SciTech Connect

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Frederick, J.M.; Rayborn, M.E.

    1983-07-01

    Human retinal tissue from a newborn was examined autoradiographically for the presence of high-affinity uptake and localization of the following putative neurotransmitters: dopamine, glycine, GABA, aspartate, and glutamate. In addition, the dopamine content of this newborn retina was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Our study reveals that specific uptake mechanisms for /sup 3/H-glycine, /sup 3/H-dopamine, and /sup 3/H-GABA are present at birth. However, the number and distribution of cells labeled with each of these /sup 3/H-transmitters are not identical to those observed in adult human retinas. Furthermore, the amount of endogenous dopamine in the newborn retina is approximately 1/20 the adult level. Photoreceptor-specific uptake of /sup 3/H-glutamate and /sup 3/H-aspartate are not observed. These findings indicate that, while some neurotransmitter-specific properties are present at birth, significant maturation of neurotransmitter systems occurs postnatally.

  1. Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive–compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Moya, Pablo R.; Fox, Meredith A.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Wendland, Jens R.; Timpano, Kiara R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders. PMID:23440468

  2. Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive-compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dennis L; Moya, Pablo R; Fox, Meredith A; Rubenstein, Liza M; Wendland, Jens R; Timpano, Kiara R

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders. PMID:23440468

  3. Carbon nanopipette electrodes for dopamine detection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Hillary R.; Anderson, Sean E.; Privman, Eve; Bau, Haim H.; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-01-01

    Small, robust, sensitive electrodes are desired for in vivo neurotransmitter measurements. Carbon nanopipettes have been previously manufactured and used for single cell drug delivery and electrophysiological measurements. Here, a modified fabrication procedure was developed to produce batches of solid carbon nanopipette electrodes (CNPEs) with ~250 nm diameter tips, and controllable lengths of exposed carbon, ranging from 5 μm to 175 μm. The electrochemical properties of CNPEs were characterized with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) for the first time. CNPEs were used to detect the electroactive neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. CNPEs were significantly more sensitive for serotonin detection than traditional carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs). Similar to CFMEs, CNPEs have a linear response for dopamine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 μM and a LOD of 25 ± 5 nM. Recordings with CNPEs were stable for over 3 hours when the applied triangle waveform was scanned between −0.4 and 1.3 V vs. Ag/AgCl/Cl− at 400 V/s. CNPEs were used to detect endogenous dopamine release in Drosophila larvae using optogenetics, which verified the utility of CNPEs for in vivo neuroscience studies. CNPEs are advantageous because they are an order of magnitude smaller in diameter than typical CFMEs and have a sharp, tunable geometry that facilitates penetration and implantation for localized measurements in distinct regions of small organisms, such as the Drosophila brain. PMID:25711512

  4. Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a negligible change to the signal. Chapter 3 is devoted to the development and characterization of new CNT-Yarn Microelectrodes (CNTYME) which display a beneficial enhancement in sensitivity and reduction in both electron transfer kinetics and overpotential. Chapter 4 introduces the high-speed dopamine detection capabilities of CNTYMEs, almost two orders of magnitude faster than at CFMEs without any compromise in electrochemical sensitivity, and discusses how adsorption and desorption relate to this phenomenon.

  5. The presence of both serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene variants increase the risk of borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Peter R.; Stephenson, John; Kennedy, Martin; Mulder, Roger T.; McHugh, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction in the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems has been demonstrated to be important in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We investigated the relationship of two BPD risk factors, the HTR1A promoter polymorphism -1019C > G (rs6295) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) repeat allele, with BPD in a major depressive disorder cohort of 367 patients. Out-patients with major depressive disorder were recruited for two treatment trials and assessed for personality disorders, including BPD. DNA samples were collected and the rs6295 polymorphism was detected with a TaqMan® assay. The DAT1 repeat allele was genotyped using a modified PCR method. The impact of polymorphisms on BPD was statistically analyzed using uncontrolled logistic and multiple logistic regression models. BPD patients had higher frequencies of the DAT1 9,9 (OR = 2.67) and 9,10 (OR = 3.67) genotypes and also those homozygous HTR1A G allele (OR = 2.03). No significant interactions between HTR1A and DAT1 genotypes, were observed; however, an increased risk of BPD was observed for those patients who were either 9,10; G,G (OR = 6.64) and 9,9; C,G (OR = 5.42). Furthermore, the odds of BPD in patients exhibiting high-risk variants of these two genes differed from those of patients in low-risk groups by up to a factor of 9. Our study provides evidence implicating the importance of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in BPD and that the interaction between genes from different neurotransmitters may play a role in the susceptibility to BPD. PMID:24432029

  6. Effect of antiparkinson drug HP-200 (Mucuna pruriens) on the central monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Manyam, Bala V; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Hare, Theodore A

    2004-02-01

    HP-200, which contains Mucuna pruriens endocarp, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Mucuna pruriens endocarp has also been shown to be more effective compared to synthetic levodopa in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. The present study was designed to elucidate the long-term effect of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in HP-200 on monoaminergic neurotransmitters and its metabolite in various regions of the rat brain. HP-200 at a dose of 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg/day was mixed with rat chow and fed daily ad lib to Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 for each group) for 52 weeks. Controls (n = 6) received no drug. Random assignment was made for doses and control. The rats were sacrificed at the end of 52 weeks and the neurotransmitters were analyzed in the cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and striatum. Oral administration of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in the form of HP-200 had a significant effect on dopamine content in the cortex with no significant effect on levodopa, norepinephrine or dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites- HVA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA in the nigrostriatal tract. The failure of Mucuna pruriens endocarp to significantly affect dopamine metabolism in the striatonigral tract along with its ability to improve Parkinsonian symptoms in the 6-hydorxydopamine animal model and humans may suggest that its antiparkinson effect may be due to components other than levodopa or that it has an levodopa enhancing effect. PMID:15022157

  7. Synthesis, structure-activity relationships, and biological properties of 1-heteroaryl-4-[omega-(1H-indol-3-yl)alkyl]piperazines, novel potential antipsychotics combining potent dopamine D2 receptor antagonism with potent serotonin reuptake inhibition.

    PubMed

    Smid, Pieter; Coolen, Hein K A C; Keizer, Hiskias G; van Hes, Rolf; de Moes, Jan-Peter; den Hartog, Arnold P; Stork, Bob; Plekkenpol, Rob H; Niemann, Leonarda C; Stroomer, Cees N J; Tulp, Martin Th M; van Stuivenberg, Herman H; McCreary, Andrew C; Hesselink, Mayke B; Herremans, Arnoud H J; Kruse, Chris G

    2005-11-01

    A series of novel bicyclic 1-heteroaryl-4-[omega-(1H-indol-3-yl)alkyl]piperazines was synthesized and evaluated on binding to dopamine D(2) receptors and serotonin reuptake sites. This class of compounds proved to be potent in vitro dopamine D(2) receptor antagonists and in addition were highly active as serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Some key representatives showed potent pharmacological in vivo activities after oral dosing in both the antagonism of apomorphine-induced climbing and the potentiation of 5-HTP-induced behavior in mice. On the basis of the preclinical data, 8-{4-[3-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)propyl]piperazin-1-yl}-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-(R)-2-methyl-3-one (45c, SLV314) was selected for clinical development. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that 45c has favorable pharmacokinetic properties and a high CNS-plasma ratio. Molecular modeling studies showed that the bifunctional activity of 45c can be explained by its ability to adopt two different conformations fitting either the dopamine D(2) receptor pharmacophore or the serotonin transporter pharmacophore. PMID:16250644

  8. Antipsychotics differ in their ability to internalise human dopamine D2S and human serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in HEK293 cells.

    PubMed

    Heusler, Peter; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Loock, Timothé; Cussac, Didier

    2008-02-26

    Antipsychotic drugs act preferentially via dopamine D(2) receptor blockade, but interaction with serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors has attracted interest as additional target for antipsychotic treatment. As receptor internalisation is considered crucial for drug action, we tested the propensity of antipsychotics to internalise human (h)D(2S) receptors and h5-HT(1A) receptors. Agonist-induced internalisation of hemaglutinin (HA)-tagged hD(2S) and HA-h5-HT(1A) receptors expressed in HEK293 cells was increased by coexpression of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestin2. At the HA-hD(2S) receptor, dopamine, quinpirole and bromocriptine behaved as full agonists, while S(-)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine [(-)-3PPP] and sarizotan were partial agonists. The typical antipsychotic, haloperidol, and the atypical compounds, olanzapine, nemonapride, ziprasidone and clozapine did not internalise HA-hD(2S) receptors, whereas aripiprazole potently internalised these receptors (>50% relative efficacy). Among antipsychotics with combined D(2)/5-HT(1A) properties, bifeprunox and (3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-[[(2S)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl]methyl]-8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]octane-3-methanamine (SSR181507) partially internalised HA-hD(2S) receptors, piperazine, 1-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-5-yl)-4-[[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-pyridinyl]methyl (SLV313) and N-[(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-benzofuran-7-yloxy)ethyl]-3-(cyclopent-1-enyl)-benzylamine (F15063) were inactive. At the HA-h5-HT(1A) receptor, serotonin, (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin [(+)-8-OH-DPAT] and sarizotan were full agonists, buspirone acted as partial agonist. (-)-Pindolol showed little activity and no internalising properties were manifested for the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635). Most antipsychotics induced HA-h5-HT(1A) receptor internalisation, with an efficacy rank order: nemonapride>F15063>SSR181507>bifeprunox approximately SLV313 approximately ziprasidone>aripiprazole and potencies: SLV313>SSR181507 approximately F15063>bifeprunox approximately nemonapride approximately aripiprazole>ziprasidone. Interestingly, the internalisation induced by clozapine was only minimal, whereas aripirazole and bifeprunox were more potent for internalisation than for G-protein activation. These different profiles of antipsychotics for receptor internalisation may help to evaluate their potential therapeutic impact in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:18190908

  9. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kimble, Christopher J; Johnson, David M; Winter, Bruce A; Whitlock, Sidney V; Kressin, Kenneth R; Horne, April E; Robinson, Justin C; Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Tye, Susannah J; Chang, Su-Youne; Agnesi, Filippo; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Covey, Daniel; Shon, Young-Min; Bennet, Kevin E; Garris, Paul A; Lee, Kendall H

    2009-01-01

    The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter concentrations at an electrochemical sensor, typically a carbon-fiber microelectrode. WINCS comprises a battery-powered patient module and a custom software application (WINCSware) running on a nearby personal computer. The patient module impresses upon the electrochemical sensor either a constant potential (for FPA) or a time-varying waveform (for FSCV). A transimpedance amplifier converts the resulting current to a signal that is digitized and transmitted to the base station via a Bluetooth radio link. WINCSware controls the operational parameters for FPA or FSCV, and records the transmitted data stream. Filtered data is displayed in various formats, including a background-subtracted plot of sequential FSCV scans - a representation that enables users to distinguish the signatures of various analytes with considerable specificity. Dopamine, glutamate, adenosine and serotonin were selected as analytes for test trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow-injection measurements and in vivo measurements in rat and pig. Further testing demonstrated basic functionality in a 3-Tesla MRI unit. WINCS was designed in compliance with consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, and it is anticipated that its capability for real-time intraoperative monitoring of neurotransmitter release at an implanted sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery. PMID:19963865

  10. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) for Intraoperative Neurochemical Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kimble, Christopher J.; Johnson, David M.; Winter, Bruce A.; Whitlock, Sidney V.; Kressin, Kenneth R.; Horne, April E.; Robinson, Justin C.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Tye, Susannah J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Agnesi, Filippo; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Covey, Daniel; Shon, Young-Min; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter concentrations at an electrochemical sensor, typically a carbon-fiber microelectrode. WINCS comprises a battery-powered patient module and a custom software application (WINCSware) running on a nearby personal computer. The patient module impresses upon the electrochemical sensor either a constant potential (for FPA) or a time-varying waveform (for FSCV). A transimpedance amplifier converts the resulting current to a signal that is digitized and transmitted to the base station via a Bluetooth® radio link. WINCSware controls the operational parameters for FPA or FSCV, and records the transmitted data stream. Filtered data is displayed in various formats, including a background-subtracted plot of sequential FSCV scans—a representation that enables users to distinguish the signatures of various analytes with considerable specificity. Dopamine, glutamate, adenosine and serotonin were selected as analytes for test trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow-injection measurements and in vivo measurements in rat and pig. Further testing demonstrated basic functionality in a 3-Tesla MRI unit. WINCS was designed in compliance with consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, and it is anticipated that its capability for real-time intraoperative monitoring of neurotransmitter release at an implanted sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery. PMID:19963865

  11. Optimization of solid phase microextraction coatings for liquid chromatography mass spectrometry determination of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Cudjoe, Erasmus; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    A simple solid phase microextraction method coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is introduced for the analysis of neurotransmitter compounds with a wide range of polarities in biological matrices. A novel "reversed" reverse-phase chromatographic method was developed without pre-column derivatization for the analysis of dopamine, serotonin, gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate. New solid phase microextraction "in house" coatings using mixed-mode solid phase extraction particles were prepared, and used for the extraction of polar neurotransmitters. The polymer-support base reverse phase mixed-mode sorbents with strong ion exchange properties generally had higher extraction efficiencies compared to similar sorbents with weak ion exchange properties. The linear range was determined to be between 0.01 and 150ng/mL for all the analytes, except for GABA, which was from 0.1 to 100ng/mL. The limit of detection range was from 6 to 10pg/mL for all the neurotransmitters, and the limits of quantitation were in the range of 20-35pg/mL. The results demonstrate the potential of the SPME-LC-MS/MS technique for bioanalysis of small polar endogenous compounds, such as neurotransmitters, from various biological matrices using the mixed-mode sorbents as the extraction phase. PMID:24685167

  12. The Fluorescence Methods to Study Neurotransmitters (Biomediators) in Plant Cells.

    PubMed

    Roshchina, Victoria V

    2016-05-01

    Fluorescence as a parameter for analysis of intracellular binding and localization of neurotransmitters also named biomediators (acetylcholine and biogenic amines such as catecholamines, serotonin, histamine) as well as their receptors in plant cells has been estimated basing on several world publications and own experiments of the author. The subjects of the consideration were 1. application of reagents forming fluorescent products (for catecholamines - glyoxylic acid, for histamine - formaldehyde or ortho-phthalic aldehyde) to show the presence and binding of the compounds in cells, 2. binding of their fluorescent agonists and antagonists with cell, 3. effects of the compounds, their agonists and antagonists on autofluorescence, 4. action of external factors on the accumulation of the compounds in cells. How neurotransmitters can bind to certain cellular compartments has been shown on intact individual cells (vegetative microspores, pollens, secretory cells) and isolated organelles. The staining with reagents on biogenic amines leads to the appearance blue or blue-green emission on the surface and excretions of intact cells as well in some DNA-containing organelles within cells. The difference between autofluorescence and histochemically induced fluorescence may reflect the occurrence and amount of biogenic amines in the cells studied. Ozone and salinity as external factors can regulate the emission of intact cells related to biogenic amines. After the treatment of isolated cellular organelles with glyoxylic acid blue emission with maximum 460-475 nm was seen in nuclei and chloroplasts (in control variants in this spectral region the noticeable emission was absent) and very expressive fluorescence (more than twenty times as compared to control) in the vacuoles. After exposure to ortho-phthalic aldehyde blue emission was more noticeable in nuclei and chloroplasts. Fluorescent agonists (muscarine, 6,7-diOHATN, BODIPY-dopamine or BODIPY-5HT) or antagonists (d-tubocurarine for acetylcholine, yohimbine for dopamine and norepinephrine, inmecarb for serotonin) of neurotransmitters that bound with animal receptors fluorescent in blue (460-480 nm) or blue-green (490-530 nm) and usually are bound with the plasmatic membrane of intact cells or with membrane of the isolated organelles studied. In some model cells autofluorescence (belonging to chlorophyll or not, for example secondary metabolites) may be stimulated by exogenous biogenic amines or their agonists and, on the contrary, be inhibited by certain antagonists. The fluorescence data may be applied for the testing in ecological monitoring, medicine and pharmacology. PMID:27056187

  13. Changes in the levels, expression, and possible roles of serotonin and dopamine during embryonic development in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), and their possible roles during embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 5-HT and DA concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The levels of 5-HT and DA gradually increased from early developing embryos to late developing embryos. The 5-HT concentrations gradually increased from the pale yellow egg to orange egg stages, and reaching a maximum at the black egg stage. DA concentrations were much lower in the early embryos than those of 5-HT (P<0.05), and gradually increased to reach the highest level at the black egg stage. Immunohistochemically, 5-HT was firstly detected in the early embryonic stages, whereas DA developed later than 5-HT. Functionally, 5-HT-treated female prawns at doses of 2.5×10(-5), 2.5×10(-6) and 2.5×10(-7)mol/prawn, produced embryos with significantly shortened lengths of early embryonic stages, whereas DA-treated prawns at all three doses, exerted its effects by significantly lengthening the period of mid-embryonic stage onwards. These results suggest significant involvement of 5-HT and DA in embryonic developmental processes of this species. PMID:26393313

  14. Coordinated Recruitment of Cortical-Subcortical Circuits and Ascending Dopamine and Serotonin Neurons During Inhibitory Control of Cocaine Seeking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Navailles, Sylvia; Guillem, Karine; Vouillac-Mendoza, Caroline; Ahmed, Serge H

    2015-09-01

    People with cocaine addiction retain some degree of prefrontal cortex (PFC) inhibitory control of cocaine craving, a brain capacity that may underlie the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for addiction. Similar findings were recently found in rats after extended access to and escalation of cocaine self-administration. Rats' inhibitory control of cocaine seeking was flexible, sufficiently strong to suppress cocaine-primed reinstatement and depended, at least in part, on neuronal activity within the prelimbic (PL) PFC. Here, we used a large-scale and high-resolution Fos mapping approach to identify, beyond the PL PFC, how top-down and/or bottom-up PFC-subcortical circuits are recruited during inhibition of cocaine seeking. Overall, we found that effective inhibitory control of cocaine seeking is associated with the coordinated recruitment of different top-down cortical-striatal circuits originating from different PFC territories, and of different bottom-up dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) midbrain subsystems that normally modulate activity in these circuits. This integrated brain response suggests that rats concomitantly engage and experience intricate cognitive and affective processes when they have to inhibit intense cocaine seeking. Thus, even after extended drug use, rats can be successfully trained to engage whole-brain inhibitory control mechanisms to suppress cocaine seeking. PMID:24872521

  15. Simultaneous quantification of neuroactive dopamine serotonin and kynurenine pathway metabolites in gender-specific youth urine by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haihua; Yu, Jing; Wang, Jun; Wu, Linlin; Xiao, Hang; Gao, Rong

    2016-04-15

    Neuroactive metabolites in dopamine, serotonin and kynurenine metabolic pathways play key roles in several physiological processes and their imbalances have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a wide range of disorders. The association of these metabolites' alterations with various pathologies has raised interest in analytical methods for accurate quantification in biological fluids. However, simultaneous measurement of various neuroactive metabolites represents great challenges due to their trace level, high polarity and instability. In this study, an analytical method was developed and validated for accurately quantifying 12 neuroactive metabolites covering three metabolic pathways in youth urine by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS). The strategy of dansyl chloride derivatization followed by solid phase extraction on C18 cartridges were employed to reduce matrix interference and improve the extraction efficiency. The reverse phase chromatographic separation was achieved with a gradient elution program in 20min. The high resolution mass spectrometer (Q Exactive) was employed, with confirmation and quantification by Target-MS/MS scan mode. Youth urine samples collected from 100 healthy volunteers (Female:Male=1:1) were analyzed to explore the differences in metabolite profile and their turnover between genders. The results demonstrated that the UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS method is sensitive and robust, suitable for monitoring a large panel of metabolites and for discovering new biomarkers in the medical fields. PMID:26845201

  16. Developmental Exposure to Fluoxetine Modulates the Serotonin System in Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Cecilia; Backström, Tobias; Winberg, Svante; Lindberg, Richard; Brandt, Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLU, Prozac®) is commonly prescribed for depression in pregnant women. This results in SSRI exposure of the developing fetus. However, there are knowledge gaps regarding the impact of SSRI exposure during development. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its cross-talk with sex hormone function, we investigated effects of developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of FLU (3 and 30 nM (measured)) on brain neurotransmitter levels, gonadal differentiation, aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and the thyroid system, using the Xenopus tropicalis model. Tadpoles were chronically exposed (8 weeks) until metamorphosis. At metamorphosis brains were cryosectioned and levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and their metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid were measured in discrete regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and the reticular formation) of the cryosections using high-performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to 30 nM FLU increased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in hypothalamus compared with controls. FLU exposure did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid histology, gonadal sex differentiation, or aromatase activity implying that the effect on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the hypothalamus region was specific. The FLU concentration that impacted the serotonin system is lower than the concentration measured in umbilical cord serum, suggesting that the serotonin system of the developing brain is highly sensitive to in utero exposure to FLU. To our knowledge this is the first study showing effects of developmental FLU exposure on brain neurochemistry. Given that SSRIs are present in the aquatic environment the current results warrant further investigation into the neurobehavioral effects of SSRIs in aquatic wildlife. PMID:23383055

  17. Does chronic nicotine alter neurotransmitter receptors involved in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.A.; Lapin, E.P.; Lajtha, A.; Maker, H.S.

    1986-03-05

    Cigarette smokers are fewer in number among Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients than among groups of persons who do not have PD. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. One which must be tested is the possibility that some pharmacologic agent present in cigarette smoke may interact with some central nervous system component involved in PD. To this end, they have investigated the effect of chronic nicotine administration on receptors for some of the neurotransmitters that are affected in PD. Rats were injected for six weeks with saline or nicotine 0.8 mg/kg S.C., then killed and brains removed and dissected. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-ketanserin to serotonin receptors in frontal cortex and of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone to dopamine receptors in caudate was not affected. However, the binding of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone in nucleus accumbens was altered: the K/sub d/ increased from 0.16 +/- 0.02 nM to 0.61 +/- 0.07 nM, and the B/sub max/ increased from 507 +/- 47 fmol/mg protein to 910 +/- 43 fmol/mg (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). These values are based on three ligand concentrations. Additional studies are in progress to substantiate the data. It is concluded that chronic nicotine administration may alter dopamine receptors in nucleus accumbens.

  18. Antagonism by olanzapine of dopamine D1, serotonin2, muscarinic, histamine H1 and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bymaster, F P; Nelson, D L; DeLapp, N W; Falcone, J F; Eckols, K; Truex, L L; Foreman, M M; Lucaites, V L; Calligaro, D O

    1999-05-01

    The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine has relatively high affinity for a number of neuronal receptors in radioreceptor binding assays. The ability of olanzapine to activate or antagonize a number of neuronal receptors was investigated in vitro, in cell lines transfected selectively with receptor subtypes and in receptor-selective isolated tissue studies. Olanzapine had no agonist activity at any of the receptors examined. However, olanzapine was a potent antagonist of 5-HT-stimulated increases in IP3 in cell lines transfected with 5-HT2A or 5-HT2B receptors with IC50 values of 30-40 nM. Olanzapine weakly blocked 5-HT-induced formation of IP3 in cell lines transfected with 5-HT2c receptors, but in this cell line potently inhibited 5-HT-stimulated [35S]GTP gamma S binding with a Ki value of 15 nM. Olanzapine blocked dopamine-stimulated adenylyl cyclase in rat retina with modest potency (Ki = 69 nM), consistent with its relatively low affinity for dopamine D1 receptors. Olanzapine blocked agonist-induced activities at the muscarinic receptor subtypes M1, M2, M3, and M5 with Ki values of 70, 622, 126, and 82 nM, respectively. In studies using cell lines transfected with muscarinic M4 receptors, olanzapine and the atypical antipsychotic clozapine did not have agonist activities as determined with cAMP inhibition and stimulation assays, arachidonic acid release and [35S]GTP gamma S binding assays. However, olanzapine antagonized agonist-induced effects in muscarinic M4 cells with a Ki value of 350 nM. In isolated tissue studies, olanzapine potently blocked agonist-induced effects at alpha 1-adrenergic and histamine H1 receptors (KB = 9 and 19 nM, respectively). Thus, olanzapine was an antagonist at all receptors investigated and was a particularly potent antagonist at 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, alpha 1-adrenergic and histamine H1 receptors. Olanzapine was a weaker antagonist at muscarinic and dopamine D1 receptors. PMID:10227113

  19. Why are neurotransmitters neurotoxic? An evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Keith D.; Weiss, Meital; Zahavi, Amotz

    2014-01-01

    In the CNS, minor changes in the concentration of neurotransmitters such as glutamate or dopamine can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. We present an evolutionary perspective on the function of neurotransmitter toxicity in the CNS. We hypothesize that neurotransmitters are selected because of their toxicity, which serves as a test of neuron quality and facilitates the selection of neuronal pathways. This perspective may offer additional explanations for the reduction of neurotransmitter concentration in the CNS with age, and suggest an additional role for the blood-brain barrier. It may also suggest a connection between the specific toxicity of the neurotransmitters released in a specific region of the CNS, and elucidate their role as chemicals that are optimal for testing the quality of cells in that region. PMID:25580225

  20. Sleep and Rhythm Consequences of a Genetically Induced Loss of Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Decaix, Caroline; Moussa, Fathi; Clot, Fabienne; Boniol, Camille; Touitou, Yvan; Levy, Richard; Vidailhet, Marie; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Background: A genetic deficiency in sepiapterin reductase leads to a combined deficit of serotonin and dopamine. The motor phenotype is characterized by a dopa–responsive fluctuating generalized dystonia–parkinsonism. The non–motor symptoms are poorly recognized. In particular, the effects of brain serotonin deficiency on sleep have not been thoroughly studied. Objective: We examine the sleep, sleep–wake rhythms, CSF neurotransmitters, and melatonin profile in a patient with sepiapterin reductase deficiency. Patient: The patient was a 28–year–old man with fluctuating generalized dystonia–parkinsonism caused by sepiapterin reductase deficiency. Methods: A sleep interview, wrist actigraphy, sleep log over 14 days, 48–h continuous sleep and core temperature monitoring, and measurement of CSF neurotransmitters and circadian serum melatonin and cortisol levels before and after treatment with 5–hydroxytryptophan (the precursor of serotonin) and levodopa were performed. Results: Before treatment, the patient had mild hypersomnia with long sleep time (704 min), ultradian sleep–wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 11.8 ± 5.3 h), organic hyperphagia, attention/executive dysfunction, and no depression. The serotonin metabolism in the CSF was reduced, and the serum melatonin profile was flat, while cortisol and core temperature profiles were normal. Supplementation with 5–hydroxytryptophan, but not with levodopa, normalized serotonin metabolism in the CSF, reduced sleep time to 540 min, normalized the eating disorder and the melatonin profile, restored a circadian sleep–wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 24±1.7 h, P < 0.0001), and improved cognition. Conclusion: In this unique genetic paradigm, the melatonin deficiency (caused by a lack of its substrate, serotonin) may cause the ultradian sleep–wake rhythm. Citation: Leu–Semenescu S; Arnulf I; Dicaix C; Moussa F; Clot F; Boniol C; Touitou Y; Levy R; Vidailhet M; Roze E. Sleep and rhythm consequences of a genetically induced loss of serotonin. SLEEP 2010;33(3):307–314. PMID:20337188

  1. Unraveling the modulatory actions of serotonin on male rat sexual responses.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Casillas, A; Rodríguez-Quintero, C M; Rodríguez-Manzo, G; Fernández-Guasti, A

    2015-08-01

    Animal studies and clinical investigations reveal that serotonin plays a central role in the control of the ejaculatory threshold. The chronic use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) frequently results in sexual dysfunction, inviting to analyze the modulatory actions of serotonin on male sexual function in depth. Even though the main effect of serotonin on male sexual responses is inhibitory, this neuromodulator also mediates brief important stimulatory actions. Serotonin (5-HT) can activate two intracellular signaling pathways: a lower-threshold facilitatory pathway, and a higher-threshold inhibitory pathway, leading to biphasic effects. We propose that these divergent actions are related to the stimulation or inhibition of glutamatergic and GABAergic interneurons. Experimental evidence suggests that low 5-HT concentrations produce stimulatory actions on male ejaculatory aspects that might be mediated by the blockade of the GABAergic neurotransmission in the MPOA and spinal cord, which in turn releases a tonic inhibition that allows other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, noradrenaline, oxytocin and dopamine to initiate a sequence of molecular events resulting in the expression of ejaculation. Similar serotonin actions, mediated via interneurons, have been proposed for the regulation of other processes and occur in many central nervous system areas, indicating that it is not an isolated phenomenon. PMID:25979142

  2. Lack of involvement of dopamine and serotonin during the orphanin FQ/Nociceptin (OFQ/N)-induced prolactin secretory response.

    PubMed

    Kraska, Amy; Bryant, Winnifred; Murphree, Emily; Callahan, Phyllis; Janik, James

    2005-08-12

    The purpose of these studies was to examine possible mechanisms of Orphanin FQ/Nociceptin (OFQ/N)-induced prolactin release. We investigated the involvement of the dopaminergic neurons by quantifying DOPAC:DA levels in the median eminence and neurointermediate lobe following central administration of OFQ/N to female Sprague-Dawley rats. To specifically determine the involvement of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons, immunocytochemical studies were conducted to visualize c-fos protein expression in the arcuate nucleus following central administration of OFQ/N. In addition, the role of serotonergic activation was examined in dose response studies using the selective serotonin antagonist ritansarin and the nonselective antagonist metergoline. Finally, the pharmacological specificity of the prolactin response was examined by pretreating animals with [Nphe1] NC (1-13)NH2, a drug reported to antagonize OFQ/N effects. The results of these studies indicate that the increase in prolactin release following central administration of OFQ/N does not inhibit tuberoinfundibular, tuberohypophyseal or periventricular hypophysial dopaminergic neuronal activity at 10 min after drug administration, a time when prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Furthermore, serotonergic activation is not involved since pharmacological blockade of serotonergic receptors did not alter the prolactin secretory response to OFQ/N. NC (1-13)NH2 did not antagonize the stimulatory effects of OFQ/N on prolactin secretion. The neural effects of OFQ/N on dopaminergic neuronal activity may occur following a different time course than that of the prolactin increase. PMID:15996688

  3. [Neurotransmitter disorders in children--special reference to Segawa disease].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2011-09-01

    Aminergic neurotransmitter disorders occurring in childhood include metabolic disorders of pteridine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Pteridine metabolic disorders cause a deficiency of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) and TH disorder causes a deficiency of noradrenaline (NA) and DA in the terminals of each aminergic neuron. The activities of TH or DA in the terminals are marked in early childhood, and then they show an exponential age-dependent decrement and achieve stationary or minimal levels in the twenties. As observed in Segawa disease, TH or DA activities in these disorders follow this age-related decrease with levels around 20% of normal, and patients develop symptoms age-dependently, with onset in childhood, progression by the late teens, and a stationary period after the twenties, but this does not cause morphological changes. These phenomena may occur with other neurotransmitters. So replacement therapies are effective irrespective of the clinical course. However, early-onset cases in infancy or early childhood showing a marked decrement of 5-HT or NA activities show postural hypotonia and failed locomotion. These cause failure in atonia restriction in the REM stage and induce dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus, and, consequently induce dysfunction or failure in the development of DA neurons in the sutbstantia nigra and ventrotegmental area. These relate to failure in the development of higher cortical functions. Thus, assessing of ages at onset and activities of antigravity muscles and locomotion in infancy is cardinal for the treatment the neurotransmitter disorders occurring in infancy and early childhood. PARK2 with deficiency of DA in the substantia nigra leads to dystonia in the teens and Parkinson disease after 20 years, although these respond to 1-Dopa favorably but induce D2 receptor upregulation and intractable dyskinesia. A decrease of DA in the perikaryon leads to symptoms after 10 years and causes dysfunction of the target structures. PMID:21941841

  4. Neurotransmitters - Duration: 20 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Our nerve cells (neurons) communicate with each other using little chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters are transferred from one neuron to the next within a space c...

  5. Effect of long-term actual spaceflight on the expression of key genes encoding serotonin and dopamine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Nina; Shenkman, Boris; Naumenko, Vladimir; Kulikov, Alexander; Kondaurova, Elena; Tsybko, Anton; Kulikova, Elisabeth; Krasnov, I. B.; Bazhenova, Ekaterina; Sinyakova, Nadezhda

    The effect of long-term spaceflight on the central nervous system represents important but yet undeveloped problem. The aim of our work was to study the effect of 30-days spaceflight of mice on Russian biosatellite BION-M1 on the expression in the brain regions of key genes of a) serotonin (5-HT) system (main enzymes in 5-HT metabolism - tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2), monoamine oxydase A (MAO A), 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors); b) pivotal enzymes in DA metabolism (tyrosine hydroxylase, COMT, MAO A, MAO B) and D1, D2 receptors. Decreased expression of genes encoding the 5-HT catabolism (MAO A) and 5-HT2A receptor in some brain regions was shown. There were no differences between “spaceflight” and control mice in the expression of TPH-2 and 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 receptor genes. Significant changes were found in genetic control of DA system. Long-term spaceflight decreased the expression of genes encoding the enzyme in DA synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase in s.nigra), DA metabolism (MAO B in the midbrain and COMT in the striatum), and D1 receptor in hypothalamus. These data suggested that 1) microgravity affected genetic control of 5-HT and especially the nigrostriatal DA system implicated in the central regulation of muscular tonus and movement, 2) the decrease in the expression of genes encoding key enzyme in DA synthesis, DA degradation and D1 receptor contributes to the movement impairment and dyskinesia produced by the spaceflight. The study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant № 14-04-00173.

  6. Serotonin2C receptor stimulation inhibits cocaine-induced Fos expression and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in the rat striatum independently of dopamine outflow.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Maitre, Marlène; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Revest, Jean-Michel; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-02-01

    The serotonin(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) is known to control dopamine (DA) neuron function by modulating DA neuronal firing and DA exocytosis at terminals. Recent studies assessing the influence of 5-HT(2C)Rs on cocaine-induced neurochemical and behavioral responses have shown that 5-HT2CRs can also modulate mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by controlling DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), independently of DA release itself. A similar mechanism has been proposed to occur at the level of the nigrostriatal DA system. Here, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats and molecular approaches, we assessed this hypothesis by studying the influence of the 5-HT(2C)R agonist Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced responses in the striatum. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1 mg/kg Ro 60-0175 had no effect on the increase in striatal DA outflow induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, Ro 60-0175 inhibited cocaine-induced Fos immunoreactivity and phosphorylation of the DA and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at threonine 75 residue in the striatum. Finally, the suppressant effect of Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced DARPP-32 phosphorylation was reversed by the selective 5-HT(2C)R antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). In keeping with the key role of DARPP-32 in DA neurotransmission, our results demonstrate that 5-HT(2C)Rs are capable of modulating nigrostriatal DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by specifically controlling DA signaling in the striatum. PMID:25446572

  7. L-DOPA-induced dysregulation of extrastriatal dopamine and serotonin and affective symptoms in a bilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Eskow Jaunarajs, K L; George, J A; Bishop, C

    2012-08-30

    Convergent evidence indicates that raphestriatal serotonin (5-HT) neurons can convert and release dopamine (DA) derived from exogenous administration of the pharmacotherapeutic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA) as a treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). While aspects of such neuroplasticity may be beneficial, chronic L-DOPA may also modify native 5-HT function, precipitating the appearance prevalent non-motor PD symptoms such as anxiety and depression. To examine this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered parkinsonian with bilateral medial forebrain bundle 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) infusions and treated for at least 28 days with vehicle or L-DOPA. In the first experiment, striatal, hippocampal, amygdalar, and prefrontal cortex DA and 5-HT levels were examined at various post-treatment time-points. In experiment 2, L-DOPA's effects on DA and 5-HT cell bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta and dorsal raphe, respectively, were examined. Finally, the effects of L-DOPA on affective behaviors were assessed in locomotor chambers, social interaction, forced swim, and elevated plus maze behavioral tests. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesion induced approximately 80% DA and 30% 5-HT depletion in the striatum compared to sham-lesioned controls, while monoamine levels remained largely unchanged in extrastriatal regions. Tissue levels of DA were increased at the expense of 5-HT levels in parkinsonian rats subjected to chronic L-DOPA injections in all regions sampled, though DA or 5-HT cell bodies were unaffected. Behaviorally, rats could only be tested 24h after their last L-DOPA injection due to severe dyskinesia. Despite this, prior exposure to chronic L-DOPA treatment exerted a pronounced anxiogenic phenotype. Collectively, these results suggest that chronic L-DOPA treatment may interfere with the balance of DA and 5-HT function in affect-related brain regions and could induce and/or exacerbate non-motor symptoms in PD. PMID:22659568

  8. Bifeprunox: a partial agonist at dopamine D2 and serotonin 1A receptors, influences nicotine-seeking behaviour in response to drug-associated stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Di Clemente, Angelo; Franchi, Carlotta; Orr, Alessandro; Arnt, Jorn; Cervo, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    Environmental stimuli repeatedly associated with the self-administered drugs may acquire motivational importance. Because dopamine (DA) D(2) /D(3) partial agonists and D(3) antagonists interfere with the ability of drug-associated cues to induce drug-seeking behaviour, the present study investigated whether bifeprunox, 7-[4-([1,1'biphenyl]-3-ylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-2(3H)-benzoxazolone mesylate), a high-affinity partial agonist of the D(2) subfamily of DA receptors and of serotonin(1A) receptors, influences reinstatement of drug-associated cue-induced nicotine-seeking behaviour. The study also explored whether bifeprunox reduced motivated behaviour by evaluating its effects on reinstatement induced by stimuli conditioned to sucrose. To verify whether bifeprunox interferes with the primary reinforcing properties of either drug or sucrose, we compared its effects on nicotine self-administration and on sucrose-reinforced behaviour. Different groups of experimentally nave, food-restricted Wistar rats were trained to associate a discriminative stimulus with response-contingent availability of nicotine or sucrose and tested for reinstatement after extinction of nicotine or sucrose-reinforced behaviour. Bifeprunox (4-16?g/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently attenuated the response-reinstating effects of nicotine-associated cues. Higher doses (64-250?g/kg, s.c.) reduced spontaneous locomotor activity and suppressed operant responding induced by sucrose-associated cues and by the primary reinforcing properties of nicotine or sucrose. Provided they can be extrapolated to abstinent human addicts, these results suggest the potential therapeutic use of partial DA D(2) receptor agonist to prevent cue-controlled nicotine-seeking and relapse. The profile of action of high doses of bifeprunox remains to be examined for potential sedation or anhedonia effects. PMID:21521422

  9. Abuse-Related Neurochemical Effects of Para-Substituted Methcathinone Analogs in Rats: Microdialysis Studies of Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine and Serotonin.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Julie A; Sakloth, Farhana; Kolanos, Renata; Glennon, Richard A; Lazenka, Matthew F; Negus, S Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Methcathinone (MCAT) is a monoamine releaser and parent compound to a new class of designer drugs that includes the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and flephedrone. Using MCAT and a series of para-substituted (or 4-substituted) MCAT analogs, it has been previously shown that expression of abuse-related behavioral effects in rats correlates both with the volume of the para substituent and in vitro neurochemical selectivity to promote monoamine release via the dopamine (DA) versus serotonin (5-HT) transporters in rat brain synaptosomes. The present study used in vivo microdialysis to determine the relationship between these previous measures and the in vivo neurochemical selectivity of these compounds to alter nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA and 5-HT levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae targeting the NAc. MCAT and five para-substituted analogs (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Br, 4-CH3, and 4-OCH3) produced dose- and time-dependent increases in NAc DA and/or 5-HT levels. Selectivity was determined as the dose required to increase peak 5-HT levels by 250% divided by the dose required to increase peak DA levels by 250%. This measure of in vivo neurochemical selectivity varied across compounds and correlated with 1) in vivo expression of abuse-related behavioral effects (r = 0.89, P = 0.02); 2) in vitro selectivity to promote monoamine release via DA and 5-HT transporters (r = 0.95, P < 0.01); and 3) molecular volume of the para substituent (r = -0.85, P = 0.03). These results support a relationship between these molecular, neurochemical, and behavioral measures and support a role for molecular structure as a determinant of abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of MCAT analogs. PMID:26645638

  10. Variation in Dopamine D2 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Genes is Associated with Working Memory Processing and Response to Treatment with Antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Pierluigi; Fazio, Leonardo; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Taurisano, Paolo; Masellis, Rita; Romano, Raffaella; Mancini, Marina; Zhang, Fengyu; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Apud, Jose; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors contribute to modulate prefrontal cortical physiology and response to treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Similarly, functional variation in the genes encoding these receptors is also associated with these phenotypes. In particular, the DRD2 rs1076560 T allele predicts a lower ratio of expression of D2 short/long isoforms, suboptimal working memory processing, and better response to antipsychotic treatment compared with the G allele. Furthermore, the HTR2A T allele is associated with lower 5-HT2A expression, impaired working memory processing, and poorer response to antipsychotics compared with the C allele. Here, we investigated in healthy subjects whether these functional polymorphisms have a combined effect on prefrontal cortical physiology and related cognitive behavior linked to schizophrenia as well as on response to treatment with second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. In a total sample of 620 healthy subjects, we found that subjects with the rs1076560 T and rs6314 T alleles have greater fMRI prefrontal activity during working memory. Similar results were obtained within the attentional domain. Also, the concomitant presence of the rs1076560 T/rs6314 T alleles also predicted lower behavioral accuracy during working memory. Moreover, we found that rs1076560 T carrier/rs6314 CC individuals had better responses to antipsychotic treatment in two independent samples of patients with schizophrenia (n=63 and n=54, respectively), consistent with the previously reported separate effects of these genotypes. These results indicate that DRD2 and HTR2A genetic variants together modulate physiological prefrontal efficiency during working memory and also modulate the response to antipsychotics. Therefore, these results suggest that further exploration is needed to better understand the clinical consequences of these genotype-phenotype relationships. PMID:25563748

  11. Effects of mesulergine treatment on diet selection, brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) turnover in free feeding rats.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, G; Galanopoulou, P; Daifotis, Z; Couvaris, C

    1998-07-01

    1. The effects of mesulergine, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor antagonist with dopamine (DA) agonistic properties, on rats diet selection over a seven day period and on 5-HT and DA turnover was studied. 2. Three groups of male Wistar rats were individually caged and ad libitum fed with a standard (SD) and 50% sweet carbohydrate enriched diet (CED). Food intake was measured daily 4 hrs and 24 hrs after i.p. injections of mesulergine (1 and 3 mg/kg) or vehicle. 5-HT and 5-HIAA in hypothalamus (Hy), Striatum (St) and hippocampus (Hi) as well as DA and DOPAC in (Hy) and (St) were assayed at the 8th day of the experiment. 3. There was a dose dependent increase of SD consumption 4 hrs after mesulergine treatment while the CED remained unchanged with total food intake dose dependently increased as a consequence. At 24 hrs measurements SD consumption was increased only for the dose of 1 mg/kg of mesulergine, while a dose dependent decrease of CED intake was observed. Total food intake was unchanged for the dose of 1 mg/kg and decreased with the dose of 3 mg/kg consequently. A dose dependent decrease of rats body weight was observed too. 4. A significant increase of 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in (Hy) and (St) for the dose of 1 mg/kg and in (Hi) for the dose of 3 mg/kg with no changes of DA turnover were found. 5. The above data suggest a dual mode of action of mesulergine presented as a short term hyperphagia due to simultaneous antiserotonergic and dopaminergic activity and long-term hypophagia due to long-term agonistic effects of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:9723121

  12. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Graphical Kinetic Data Analysis of the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System: An Exercise for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Mirrione, Martine M.; Ruth, Nora; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna; Kernan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), are widely used in clinical settings and in basic neuroscience research. Education in these methods and their applications may be incorporated into curricula to keep pace with this expanding field. Here, we have developed pedagogical materials on the fundamental principles of PET that incorporate a hands-on laboratory activity to view and analyze human brain scans. In this activity, students will use authentic PET brain scans generated from original research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Volkow et al., 2009) to explore the neurobiological effects of a drug on the dopamine system. We provide lecture and assignment materials (including a 50-minute PowerPoint presentation introducing PET concepts), written background information for students and instructors, and explicit instructions for a 4-hour, computer-based laboratory to interested educators. Also, we discuss our experience implementing this exercise as part of an advanced undergraduate laboratory course at Stony Brook University in 2010 and 2011. Observing the living human brain is intriguing, and this laboratory is designed to illustrate how PET neuroimaging techniques are used to directly probe biological processes occurring in the living brain. Laboratory course modules on imaging techniques such as PET can pique the interest of students potentially interested in neuroscience careers, by exposing them to current research methods. This activity provides practical experience analyzing PET data using a graphical analysis method known as the Logan plot, and applies core neuropharmacology concepts. We hope that this manuscript inspires college instructors to incorporate education in PET neuroimaging into their courses. PMID:24693258

  13. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Graphical Kinetic Data Analysis of the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System: An Exercise for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course.

    PubMed

    Mirrione, Martine M; Ruth, Nora; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna; Kernan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), are widely used in clinical settings and in basic neuroscience research. Education in these methods and their applications may be incorporated into curricula to keep pace with this expanding field. Here, we have developed pedagogical materials on the fundamental principles of PET that incorporate a hands-on laboratory activity to view and analyze human brain scans. In this activity, students will use authentic PET brain scans generated from original research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Volkow et al., 2009) to explore the neurobiological effects of a drug on the dopamine system. We provide lecture and assignment materials (including a 50-minute PowerPoint presentation introducing PET concepts), written background information for students and instructors, and explicit instructions for a 4-hour, computer-based laboratory to interested educators. Also, we discuss our experience implementing this exercise as part of an advanced undergraduate laboratory course at Stony Brook University in 2010 and 2011. Observing the living human brain is intriguing, and this laboratory is designed to illustrate how PET neuroimaging techniques are used to directly probe biological processes occurring in the living brain. Laboratory course modules on imaging techniques such as PET can pique the interest of students potentially interested in neuroscience careers, by exposing them to current research methods. This activity provides practical experience analyzing PET data using a graphical analysis method known as the Logan plot, and applies core neuropharmacology concepts. We hope that this manuscript inspires college instructors to incorporate education in PET neuroimaging into their courses. PMID:24693258

  14. Classical Neurotransmitters and their Significance within the Nervous System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veca, A.; Dreisbach, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the chemical compounds involved in the nervous system and their roles in transmitting nerve signals. Discusses acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine, glycine, glutemate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and their effects within the nervous system. (CW)

  15. The appetite regulatory effect of guggulsterones in rats: a repertoire of plasma hormones and neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-09-01

    Guggulsterone or guggulipid is a steroidal constituent present in the neutral fraction of gum resin of Commiphora mukul, commonly known as guggul. The traditional uses of guggul-resin extract are well documented in the Ayurveda-where it is prescribed to treat a variety of ailments including lipid-related disorders such as obesity and arteriosclerosis. The hypolipidemic activity of the extracts known since ancient times can be traced to the two closely related steroidal ketones, E-guggulsterone and Z-guggulsterone. In this study, we have investigated the dose dependent (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) effect of guggulsterones on appetite regulating hormones [ghrelin, leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK)] and neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine), which play a major role in the energy homeostasis and thus influence obesity related factors. We have also studied its effect on food intake, body weight and plasma triglycerides and glucose in rats. Guggulsterones at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight was able to significantly reduce food intake and limit body weight gain over a period of 15 days. It also significantly decreased the plasma ghrelin, glucose, triglyceride levels and increased plasma leptin, serotonin, dopamine levels, but did not show much effect on CCK levels. PMID:25025986

  16. Biochemical and neurotransmitters changes associated with tramadol in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Ezzeldin, Essam; Souror, Wafaa A H; El-Nahhas, Toqa; Soudi, Abdel Nasser M M; Shahat, Abdelaaty A

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Chronic neuropathic pain occurs in approximately 25% of diabetic patients. Tramadol, an atypical analgesic with a unique dual mechanism of action, is used in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. It acts on monoamine transporters to inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes on the brain neurotransmitter alterations induced by tramadol in rats, and to study the hepatic and renal toxicities of the drug. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two sets: the normal set and the diabetic set. Diabetes was induced in rats. Tramadol was administered orally once daily for 28 days. The levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in cerebral cortex, thalamus/hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem were evaluated in rats. In addition, the renal toxicity and histopathological effects of the drug were assessed. The induction of diabetes altered neurotransmitter levels. Oral administration of tramadol significantly decreased the neurotransmitter levels. Diabetes significantly altered the effects of tramadol in all brain regions. Tramadol affected function and histology of the liver and kidney. The clinical effects of tramadol in diabetic patients should be stressed. PMID:24971322

  17. Neurotransmitter and their metabolite concentrations in different areas of the HPRT knockout mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tschirner, Sarah K; Gutzki, Frank; Schneider, Erich H; Seifert, Roland; Kaever, Volkhard

    2016-06-15

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is characterized by uric acid overproduction and severe neurobehavioral symptoms, such as recurrent self-mutilative behavior. To learn more about the pathophysiology of the disease, we quantified neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata of HPRT knockout mice, an animal model for LNS, in comparison to the corresponding wild-type. Our analyses included l-glutamate, 4-aminobutanoic acid (GABA), acetylcholine, serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), norepinephrine, l-normetanephrine, epinephrine and l-metanephrine and were conducted via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Among these neurotransmitter systems, we did not find any abnormalities in the HPRT knockout mouse brains. On one side, this might indicate that HPRT deficiency most severely affects dopamine signaling, while brain functioning based on other neurotransmitters is more or less spared. On the other hand, our findings may reflect a compensating mechanism for impaired purine salvage that protects the brain in HPRT-deficient mice but not in LNS patients. PMID:27206901

  18. Simultaneous analysis of multiple neurotransmitters by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tufi, Sara; Lamoree, Marja; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim

    2015-05-22

    Neurotransmitters are endogenous metabolites that allow the signal transmission across neuronal synapses. Their biological role is crucial for many physiological functions and their levels can be changed by several diseases. Because of their high polarity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is a promising tool for neurotransmitter analysis. Due to the large number of HILIC stationary phases available, an evaluation of the column performances and retention behaviors has been performed on five different commercial HILIC packing materials (silica, amino, amide and two zwitterionic stationary phases). Several parameters like the linear correlation between retention and the distribution coefficient (logD), the separation factor k and the column resolution Rs have been investigated and the column performances have been visualized with a heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis. An optimized and validated HILIC-MS/MS method based on the ZIC-cHILIC column is proposed for the simultaneous detection and quantification of twenty compounds consisting of neurotransmitters, precursors and metabolites: 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-hydroxy-L-tripthophan, acetylcholine, choline, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, epinephrine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glutamine, histamine, histidine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, norepinephrine, normetanephrine, phenylalanine, serotonin and tyramine. The method was applied to neuronal metabolite profiling of the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. This method is suitable to explore neuronal metabolism and its alteration in different biological matrices. PMID:25869798

  19. Imaging neurotransmitter release kinetics in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Weihong; Yeung, E.S.; Haydon, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    A new UV-laser based optical microscope and CCD detection system has been developed to image neurotransmitter in living biological cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. The detection methodology has high sensitivity, low limit of detection and does not require coupling to fluorescence dyes. We have studied serotonin uptake kinetics and its release dynamics in single glial cells. Different regions of a glial cell have taken up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of kinetics. Similarly, different serotonin release mechanisms have been observed in different astrocyte cell regions. The temporal resolution of this detection system is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. We will also report on single enzyme molecule reaction studies and single metal ion detection based on CCD imaging of pL reaction vials formed by micromachining on fused silica.

  20. [C-11]{beta}CNT: A new monoamine uptake ligand for studying serotonin and dopamine transporter sites in the living brain with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.K.; Zheng, Q.H.; Zhou, F.C.

    1996-05-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) function in the human brain. Altered levels of 5HT and DA are recognized in drug abuse, neurotoxicities, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease. Several phenyltropane analogs of cocaine bind tightly to both DA and 5HT uptake proteins. We have made a new agent from this class called {beta}CNT, 2{beta}-carboxymethyl-3{beta}-(2-naphthyl)-tropane, the isosteric O-for-CH{sub 2} analog of a compound reported to have among the highest measured affinities for DA and 5HT transporters and studied its in vivo brain distributions in animals for the first time. Optically pure {beta}CNT was made from cocaine, and labeled at the O-methyl position by esterification of {beta}CNT-acid with [C-11]CH{sub 3}OTfl under conditions similar to Wilson`s. HPLC-purified (99+%) final products (15-50% eob yield from CO{sub 2}, 40 min synth) had specific activities 0.1-1.2 Ci/{mu}mol at the time of injection. Preliminary [C-11]{beta}{beta}CNT rodent distribution showed very high brain uptake (3% ID at 60 min) and localization (striat: fr cort: hypo: cer: blood, 11: 5: 4: 1: 06). {beta}CNT-PET studies in juvenile pigs (5-20 mCi, 20-35 kg) found rapid brain uptake, and prominent retention (85 min) in midbrain, anterior brainstem and striatum, followed by cortex and olfactory bulb. Paroxetine pretreatment (5HT uptake blocker, 2mg/kg), diminished retention in most brain areas; nomifensine (DA/NE uptake blocker, 6 mg/kg) reduced striatum selectively. Direct comparisons of [C-11]{beta}CNT with other PET transporter radioligands {beta}CFT, {beta}CIT, and {beta}CTT (RTI-32) in the same pig found {beta}CNT had highest overall brain uptake among the agents. These initial results suggest {beta}CNT has favorable properties for imaging both 5HT and DA transporters in vivo, and further evaluation of its potential as a human PET agent is warranted.

  1. A network model of basal ganglia for understanding the roles of dopamine and serotonin in reward-punishment-risk based decision making.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Pragathi P; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    There is significant evidence that in addition to reward-punishment based decision making, the Basal Ganglia (BG) contributes to risk-based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Despite this evidence, little is known about the computational principles and neural correlates of risk computation in this subcortical system. We have previously proposed a reinforcement learning (RL)-based model of the BG that simulates the interactions between dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in a diverse set of experimental studies including reward, punishment and risk based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Starting with the classical idea that the activity of mesencephalic DA represents reward prediction error, the model posits that serotoninergic activity in the striatum controls risk-prediction error. Our prior model of the BG was an abstract model that did not incorporate anatomical and cellular-level data. In this work, we expand the earlier model into a detailed network model of the BG and demonstrate the joint contributions of DA-5HT in risk and reward-punishment sensitivity. At the core of the proposed network model is the following insight regarding cellular correlates of value and risk computation. Just as DA D1 receptor (D1R) expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum were thought to be the neural substrates for value computation, we propose that DA D1R and D2R co-expressing MSNs are capable of computing risk. Though the existence of MSNs that co-express D1R and D2R are reported by various experimental studies, prior existing computational models did not include them. Ours is the first model that accounts for the computational possibilities of these co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs, and describes how DA and 5HT mediate activity in these classes of neurons (D1R-, D2R-, D1R-D2R- MSNs). Starting from the assumption that 5HT modulates all MSNs, our study predicts significant modulatory effects of 5HT on D2R and co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs which in turn explains the multifarious functions of 5HT in the BG. The experiments simulated in the present study relates 5HT to risk sensitivity and reward-punishment learning. Furthermore, our model is shown to capture reward-punishment and risk based decision making impairment in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The model predicts that optimizing 5HT levels along with DA medications might be essential for improving the patients' reward-punishment learning deficits. PMID:26136679

  2. Abuse-Related Effects of Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Releasers with Varying Potency to Release Norepinephrine in Male Rats and Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Blough, Bruce E.; Rothman, Richard B.; Partilla, John S.; Baumann, Michael H; Negus, S. Stevens

    2014-01-01

    d-Amphetamine selectively promotes release of both dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) vs. serotonin (5HT), and chronic d-amphetamine treatment decreases cocaine-taking behavior in rats, nonhuman primates, and humans. However, abuse liability limits the clinical utility of amphetamine maintenance for treating cocaine abuse. One strategy to improve safety and efficacy of monoamine releasers as candidate anti-cocaine medications has been to develop dual DA/5HT releasers like 1-napthyl-2-aminopropane (PAL-287), but the pharmacology of this class of compounds has not been extensively examined. In particular, PAL-287 has similar potencies to release DA, 5HT and NE, and the role of manipulating NE release potency on abuse-related or anti-cocaine effects of dual DA/5HT releasers is not known. To address this issue, the present study compared effects of four novel DA/5HT releasers that varied >800-fold in their selectivities to release DA/5HT vs NE: [1-(5-chloro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-542), 1-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-544), 1-(1H-indol-5-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-571), and (R)-1-(1H-indol-1-yl)propain-2-amine (PAL-569). Abuse-related effects of all four compounds were evaluated in assays of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats and cocaine discrimination in rats and monkeys, and none of the compounds reliably facilitated ICSS or substituted for cocaine. Anti-cocaine effects of the compound with highest selectivity to release DA/5HT vs. NE (PAL-542) were tested in an assay of cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys, and PAL-542 failed to reduce cocaine choice. These results suggesst that potency to release NE has minimal influence on abuse liability of dual DA/5HT releasers, and reducing relative potency to release NE vs. DA/5HT does not improve anti-cocaine efficacy. PMID:24796848

  3. A network model of basal ganglia for understanding the roles of dopamine and serotonin in reward-punishment-risk based decision making

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Pragathi P.; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    There is significant evidence that in addition to reward-punishment based decision making, the Basal Ganglia (BG) contributes to risk-based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Despite this evidence, little is known about the computational principles and neural correlates of risk computation in this subcortical system. We have previously proposed a reinforcement learning (RL)-based model of the BG that simulates the interactions between dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in a diverse set of experimental studies including reward, punishment and risk based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Starting with the classical idea that the activity of mesencephalic DA represents reward prediction error, the model posits that serotoninergic activity in the striatum controls risk-prediction error. Our prior model of the BG was an abstract model that did not incorporate anatomical and cellular-level data. In this work, we expand the earlier model into a detailed network model of the BG and demonstrate the joint contributions of DA-5HT in risk and reward-punishment sensitivity. At the core of the proposed network model is the following insight regarding cellular correlates of value and risk computation. Just as DA D1 receptor (D1R) expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum were thought to be the neural substrates for value computation, we propose that DA D1R and D2R co-expressing MSNs are capable of computing risk. Though the existence of MSNs that co-express D1R and D2R are reported by various experimental studies, prior existing computational models did not include them. Ours is the first model that accounts for the computational possibilities of these co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs, and describes how DA and 5HT mediate activity in these classes of neurons (D1R-, D2R-, D1R-D2R- MSNs). Starting from the assumption that 5HT modulates all MSNs, our study predicts significant modulatory effects of 5HT on D2R and co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs which in turn explains the multifarious functions of 5HT in the BG. The experiments simulated in the present study relates 5HT to risk sensitivity and reward-punishment learning. Furthermore, our model is shown to capture reward-punishment and risk based decision making impairment in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The model predicts that optimizing 5HT levels along with DA medications might be essential for improving the patients' reward-punishment learning deficits. PMID:26136679

  4. Diverse, region-specific effects of addition of arachidonic and docosahexanoic acids to formula with low or adequate linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids on piglet brain monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    de la Presa Owens, S; Innis, S M

    2000-07-01

    Differences in visual, auditory, and learning tasks have been reported for infants and animals given diets varying in omega-3 fatty acids, but the neurobiochemical basis for these changes is unclear. This study investigated the effect of feeding formula with 0.8% energy C18:2omega-6 + 0.05% C18:3omega-3 (low), or 8.3% C18:2omega-6 + 0.8% C18:3omega-3 (adequate), with and without 0.2% energy arachidonic acid (C20:4omega-6) and 0.16% docosahexanoic acid (C22:6omega-3), on monoaminergic neurotransmitters in different brain regions of piglets fed formula from birth to 18 d. The amount of C18:2omega-6 + C18:3omega-3 fed in formula had a significant effect on frontal cortex dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid; striatum serotonin and inferior colliculus serotonin, resulting in lower concentrations in piglets fed the low compared with adequate C18:2omega-6 + C18:3omega-3 formula. Inclusion of arachidonic acid and docosahexanoic acid in the low, but not in the adequate, C18:2omega-6 + C18:3omega-3 formula resulted in increased concentrations of all monoamines in the frontal cortex, and in striatum and inferior colliculus serotonin. Feeding arachidonic acid and docosahexanoic acid in the formulas increased dopamine and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in superior and inferior colliculus, areas related to processing and integration of visual and auditory information. Higher dopamine and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid were found in these regions even when arachidonic acid and docosahexanoic acid were added to the C18:2omega-6 + C18:3omega-3 adequate formula. This study suggests that functional changes among animals and infants fed diets varying in omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids may involve altered neurotransmitter metabolism. PMID:10879811

  5. Treatment with the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline elevates monoamine neurotransmitter levels and improves affective phenotypes in a mouse model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Miralles, Marta; Ooi, Jolene; Ferrari Bardile, Costanza; Tan, Liang Juin; George, Maya; Drum, Chester L; Lin, Rachel Yanping; Hayden, Michael R; Pouladi, Mahmoud A

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO-A/B) activity and an imbalance in monoamine neurotransmitters have been suggested to underlie the pathobiology of depression, a major psychiatric symptom observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington disease (HD). Increased MAO-A/B activity has been observed in brain tissue from patients with HD and in human and rodent HD neural cells. Using the YAC128 mouse model of HD, we studied the effect of an irreversible MAO-A inhibitor, clorgyline, on the levels of select monoamine neurotransmitters associated with affective function. We observed a decrease in striatal levels of the MAO-A/B substrates, dopamine and norepinephrine, in YAC128 HD mice compared with wild-type mice, which was accompanied by increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour at five months of age. Treatment for 26days with clorgyline restored dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine neurotransmitter levels in the striatum and reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in YAC128 HD mice. This study supports a potential therapeutic use for MAO-A inhibitors in the treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with HD. PMID:26825854

  6. Synaptic Neurotransmitter-Gated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Trevor G.; Paoletti, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors in the brain, many have deliberated over their likely structures and how these may relate to function. This was initially satisfied by the determination of the first amino acid sequences of the Cys-loop receptors that recognized acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and glycine, followed later by similar determinations for the glutamate receptors, comprising non-NMDA and NMDA subtypes. The last decade has seen a rapid advance resulting in the first structures of Cys-loop receptors, related bacterial and molluscan homologs, and glutamate receptors, determined down to atomic resolution. This now provides a basis for determining not just the complete structures of these important receptor classes, but also for understanding how various domains and residues interact during agonist binding, receptor activation, and channel opening, including allosteric modulation. This article reviews our current understanding of these mechanisms for the Cys-loop and glutamate receptor families. PMID:22233560

  7. Vanillin-induced amelioration of depression-like behaviors in rats by modulating monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinyong; Xu, Hui; Liu, Yang; He, Haihui; Li, Guangwu

    2015-02-28

    Olfaction plays an important role in emotions in our daily life. Pleasant odors are known to evoke positive emotions, inducing relaxation and calmness. The beneficial effects of vanillin on depressive model rats were investigated using a combination of behavioral assessments and neurotransmitter measurements. Before and after chronic stress condition (or olfactory bulbectomy), and at the end of vanillin or fluoxetine treatment, body weight, immobility time on the forced swimming test and sucrose consumption in the sucrose consumption test were measured. Changes in these assessments revealed the characteristic phenotypes of depression in rats. Neurotransmitters were measured using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. Our results indicated that vanillin could alleviate depressive symptoms in the rat model of chronic depression via the olfactory pathway. Preliminary analysis of the monoamine neurotransmitters revealed that vanillin elevated both serotonin and dopamine levels in brain tissue. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effect of vanillin against chronic depressive disorder via olfactory pathway. This suggests that vanillin may be a potential pharmacological agent for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:25595338

  8. Role of serotonin in fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Parvathy; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviors, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may also play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction. PMID:26097446

  9. Role of serotonin in fish reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Parvathy; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2015-01-01

    The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviors, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may also play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction. PMID:26097446

  10. The subpopulation of microglia sensitive to neurotransmitters/neurohormones is modulated by stimulation with LPS, interferon-γ, and IL-4.

    PubMed

    Pannell, Maria; Szulzewsky, Frank; Matyash, Vitali; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Recently, neurotransmitters/neurohormones have been identified as factors controlling the function of microglia, the immune competent cells of the central nervous system. In this study, we compared the responsiveness of microglia to neurotransmitters/neurohormones. We freshly isolated microglia from healthy adult C57Bl/6 mice and found that only a small fraction (1-20%) responded to the application of endothelin, histamine, substance P, serotonin, galanin, somatostatin, angiotensin II, vasopressin, neurotensin, dopamine, or nicotine. In cultured microglia from neonatal and adult mice, a similarly small population of cells responded to these neurotransmitters/neurohormones. To induce a proinflammatory phenotype, we applied lipopolysaccaride (LPS) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) to the cultures for 24 h. Several of the responding populations increased; however, there was no uniform pattern when comparing adult with neonatal microglia or LPS with IFN-γ treatment. IL-4 as an anti-inflammatory substance increased the histamine-, substance P-, and somatostatin-sensitive populations only in microglia from adult, but not in neonatal cells. We also found that the expression of different receptors was not strongly correlated, indicating that there are many different populations of microglia with a distinct set of receptors. Our results demonstrate that microglial cells are a heterogeneous population with respect to their sensitivity to neurotransmitters/neurohormones and that they are more responsive in defined activation states. PMID:24504982

  11. The conditioning of intervention effects on early adolescent alcohol use by maternal involvement and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, H Harrington; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark; Greenberg, Mark; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve; Shriver, Mark D; Zaidi, Arslan A; Hair, Kerry L

    2015-02-01

    Data drawn from the in-home subsample of the PROSPER intervention dissemination trial were used to investigate the moderation of intervention effects on underage alcohol use by maternal involvement and candidate genes. The primary gene examined was dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4). Variation in this gene and maternal involvement were hypothesized to moderate the influence of intervention status on alcohol use. The PROSPER data used were drawn from 28 communities randomly assigned to intervention or comparison conditions. Participating youth were assessed in five in-home interviews from sixth to ninth grades. A main effect of sixth-grade pretest maternal involvement on ninth-grade alcohol use was found. Neither intervention status nor DRD4 variation was unconditionally linked to ninth-grade drinking. However, moderation analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction among DRD4 status, maternal involvement, and intervention condition. Follow-up analyses revealed that prevention reduced drinking risk, but only for youth with at least one DRD4 seven-repeat allele who reported average or greater pretest levels of maternal involvement. To determine if this conditional pattern was limited to the DRD4 gene, we repeated analyses using the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region site near the serotonin transporter gene. The results for this supplemental analysis revealed a significant three-way interaction similar but not identical to that found for DRD4. PMID:25640830

  12. Biophysical Approaches to the Study of LeuT, a Prokaryotic Homolog of Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satinder K; Pal, Aritra

    2015-01-01

    Ion-coupled secondary transport is utilized by multiple integral membrane proteins as a means of achieving the thermodynamically unfavorable translocation of solute molecules across the lipid bilayer. The chemical nature of these molecules is diverse and includes sugars, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and other ions. LeuT is a sodium-coupled, nonpolar amino acid symporter and eubacterial member of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family of Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters. Eukaryotic counterparts encompass the clinically and pharmacologically significant transporters for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE). Since the crystal structure of LeuT was first solved in 2005, subsequent crystallographic, binding, flux, and spectroscopic studies, complemented with homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulations, have allowed this protein to emerge as a remarkable mechanistic paradigm for both the SLC6 class as well as several other sequence-unrelated SLCs whose members possess astonishingly similar architectures. Despite yielding groundbreaking conceptual advances, this vast treasure trove of data has also been the source of contentious hypotheses. This chapter will present a historical scientific overview of SLC6s; recount how the initial and subsequent LeuT structures were solved, describing the insights they each provided; detail the accompanying functional techniques, emphasizing how they either supported or refuted the static crystallographic data; and assemble these individual findings into a mechanism of transport and inhibition. PMID:25950965

  13. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in generalized epilepsy: a focus on antiepileptic drugs.

    PubMed

    Werner, F-M; Coveñas, R

    2011-01-01

    We describe the alterations of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in generalized epilepsy. A neuronal network in this disease is developed. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) hypoactivity induces dopamine hyperactivity because dopaminergic neurons are affected by the inhibitory influence of the GABAergic system through GABA(A) receptors. Glutamate hyperactivity is exerted via presynaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which strongly inhibit serotoninergic neurons, and via postsynaptic ionotropic glutaminergic receptors, which can induce epileptic seizures. A collection of specific subreceptors of classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides involved in epileptogenesis is reported. The question arises whether agonists/antagonists of neuropeptides (neuropeptide Y, galanin…) could have additional antiepileptic properties. The effect of conventional and newer antiepileptic drugs interfering with these subreceptors is discussed on the basis of the neuronal network suggested. From these data, it is concluded that new antiepileptic drugs interfering with other specific subreceptors (GABA(B) antagonists, metabotropic glutaminergic receptors subtype 5 (mGlu5R) antagonists, mGlu2/3R agonists, 5-serotonin (5-HT(7)) agonists) could further stabilize the neuronal network in generalized epilepsy. PMID:22050744

  14. Biophysical Approaches to the Study of LeuT, a Prokaryotic Homolog of Neurotransmitter Sodium Symporters

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Satinder K.; Pal, Aritra

    2016-01-01

    Ion-coupled secondary transport is utilized by multiple integral membrane proteins as a means of achieving the thermodynamically unfavorable translocation of solute molecules across the lipid bilayer. The chemical nature of these molecules is diverse and includes sugars, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and other ions. LeuT is a sodium-coupled, nonpolar amino acid symporter and eubacterial member of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) family of Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporters. Eukaryotic counterparts encompass the clinically and pharmacologically significant transporters for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE). Since the crystal structure of LeuT was first solved in 2005, subsequent crystallographic, binding, flux, and spectroscopic studies, complemented with homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulations, have allowed this protein to emerge as a remarkable mechanistic paradigm for both the SLC6 class as well as several other sequence-unrelated SLCs whose members possess astonishingly similar architectures. Despite yielding groundbreaking conceptual advances, this vast treasure trove of data has also been the source of contentious hypotheses. This chapter will present a historical scientific overview of SLC6s; recount how the initial and subsequent LeuT structures were solved, describing the insights they each provided; detail the accompanying functional techniques, emphasizing how they either supported or refuted the static crystallographic data; and assemble these individual findings into a mechanism of transport and inhibition. PMID:25950965

  15. Presence and functional significance of neuropeptide and neurotransmitter receptors in subcommissural organ cells.

    PubMed

    Nürnberger, F; Schöniger, S

    2001-03-01

    The subcommissural organ (SCO) of mammals is innervated by several neuropeptide and neurotransmitter systems. So far, substance P (SP), oxytocin (OXT), vasopressin (VP), somatostatin (SOM), thyrotropin-releasing factor (TRF), and angiotensin II (ANGII) were identified in neuropeptidergic input systems, and serotonin (5HT), gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), and acetylcholine (Ach) were neurotransmitters observed in systems afferent to the SCO. In the present report, based on literature data and our own investigations, we describe the occurrence of peptide and transmitter receptors in the SCO by means of autoradiographic and biochemical studies. Further, we summarize aspects of the signal transduction cascades possibly linked to different receptor types of the SCO; these studies included the use of calcium imaging (FURA-2 technique), ELISA technique, and immunocytochemistry. Receptors were identified for adenosine, angiotensin II, imidazoline, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, NA, and embryonic brain kinase. The studies on intracellular signal-transduction indicated receptors for tachykinins and for ATP. In SCO cells, Ca(++) and c-AMP were identified to act as second messengers. As important transcription factor, cAMP-/Ca(++)-response element binding protein (CREB) was observed. Ach and NA did not show a significant effect on the subcommissural signal transduction. PMID:11241863

  16. Abnormalities of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems in human neuroepithelioma cells infected by three Toxoplasma strains

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Jones-Brando, Lorraine; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Since Toxoplasma gondii can establish a persistent infection in the central nervous system in humans, we studied its effects on a host's neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems (NNS). Using microarray technology we have screened the expression of genes coding for NNS in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to representative strains of Toxoplasma to identify potential target genes. Transcripts that displayed expression levels distinct from uninfected controls were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Our results indicate the presence of disturbed NNS upon Toxoplasma infection and the extent of this disturbance varies considerably among the three strains. In cells infected by type I strain, three neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, glutamate and serotonin) and two neuropeptides (PROK2 and TAC1) displayed abnormalities relative to controls. Type III infection led to the change of a critical enzyme, TDO2, in the kynurenine pathway. No significant effects of type II infection were found in the NNS. These data may have implications for understanding the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of neurologic disturbances in toxoplasmosis. PMID:23821371

  17. Abnormalities of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems in human neuroepithelioma cells infected by three Toxoplasma strains.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Jones-Brando, Lorraine; Yolken, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    Since Toxoplasma gondii can establish a persistent infection in the central nervous system in humans, we studied its effects on a host's neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems (NNS). Using microarray technology, we have screened the expression of genes coding for NNS in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to representative strains of Toxoplasma to identify potential target genes. Transcripts that displayed expression levels distinct from uninfected controls were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Our results indicate the presence of disturbed NNS upon Toxoplasma infection and the extent of this disturbance varies considerably among the three strains. In cells infected by type I strain, three neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, glutamate and serotonin) and two neuropeptides (PROK2 and TAC1) displayed abnormalities relative to controls. Type III infection led to the change of a critical enzyme, TDO2, in the kynurenine pathway. No significant effects of type II infection were found in the NNS. These data may have implications for understanding the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of neurologic disturbances in toxoplasmosis. PMID:23821371

  18. Serotonin catabolism in the central and enteric nervous systems of rats upon induction of serotonin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Squires, Leah N; Talbot, Kristen N; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2007-10-01

    Serotonin, a well-known neurotransmitter in mammals, has been linked to a number of neurological and gastrointestinal disorders. One of these disorders, serotonin syndrome, is a potentially deadly condition caused by increased levels of serotonin in the extracellular space. Information on the neurochemical effects of serotonin syndrome on serotonin catabolism is lacking, particularly in relation to the enteric system of the gastrointestinal tract. Here the catabolism of serotonin is monitored in rats with pharmacologically induced serotonin syndrome, with the catabolites characterized using a specialized capillary electrophoresis system with laser-induced native fluorescence detection. Animals induced with serotonin syndrome demonstrate striking increases in the levels of serotonin and its metabolites. In the brain, levels of serotonin increased 2- to 3-fold in animals induced with serotonin syndrome. A major serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, increased 10- to 100-fold in experimental animals. Similar results were observed in the gastrointestinal tissues; in the small intestines, serotonin levels increased 4- to 5-fold. Concentrations of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid increased 32- to 100-fold in the intestinal tissues of experimental animals. Serotonin sulfate showed surprisingly large increases, marking what may be the first time the compound has been reported in rat intestinal tissues. PMID:17877637

  19. Serotonin catabolism in the central and enteric nervous systems of rats upon induction of serotonin syndrome.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Squires LN; Talbot KN; Rubakhin SS; Sweedler JV

    2007-01-01

    Serotonin, a well-known neurotransmitter in mammals, has been linked to a number of neurological and gastrointestinal disorders. One of these disorders, serotonin syndrome, is a potentially deadly condition caused by increased levels of serotonin in the extracellular space. Information on the neurochemical effects of serotonin syndrome on serotonin catabolism is lacking, particularly in relation to the enteric system of the gastrointestinal tract. Here the catabolism of serotonin is monitored in rats with pharmacologically induced serotonin syndrome, with the catabolites characterized using a specialized capillary electrophoresis system with laser-induced native fluorescence detection. Animals induced with serotonin syndrome demonstrate striking increases in the levels of serotonin and its metabolites. In the brain, levels of serotonin increased 2- to 3-fold in animals induced with serotonin syndrome. A major serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, increased 10- to 100-fold in experimental animals. Similar results were observed in the gastrointestinal tissues; in the small intestines, serotonin levels increased 4- to 5-fold. Concentrations of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid increased 32- to 100-fold in the intestinal tissues of experimental animals. Serotonin sulfate showed surprisingly large increases, marking what may be the first time the compound has been reported in rat intestinal tissues.

  20. HPLC Neurotransmitter Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holm, Thomas Hellesøe; Isaksen, Toke Jost; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a powerful tool to measure neurotransmitter levels in specific tissue samples and dialysates from patients and animals. In this chapter, we list the current protocols used to measure neurotransmitters in the form of biogenic amines from murine brain samples. PMID:26695044

  1. Neurotransmitter imaging in living cells based on native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.; Yeung, E.S. |; Parpura, V.; Haydon, P.G.

    1995-08-01

    A UV laser-based optical microscope and CCD detection system with high sensitivity has been developed to image neurotransmitters in living cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. We found that the fluorescence intensity of astrocytes increased by up to 10 times after serotonin uptake. The temporal resolution of this detection system at 10{sup -4} M serotonin is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. This UV laser microscope imaging system shows promise for studies of spatial-temporal dynamics of neurotransmitter levels in living neurons and glia. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Serotonin and stress coping.

    PubMed

    Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Andolina, Diego

    2015-01-15

    Coping is the necessary outcome of any stressful situation and the major determinant of stress resilience. Coping strategies can be divided into two broad categories, based on the presence (active) or absence (passive) of attempts to act upon the stressor. The role of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in coping behavior that is emerging from studies in animals and humans is the subject of this article. We have focused attention on studies that consider the coping behavior exhibited when the individual is faced with a new stressful experience. Coping styles characterize different species with different evolutionary histories, from fishes to mammals, and evidence shows that serotonin transmission in the central nervous system, with differences in transporter, receptor types and hormone or neurotransmitter influences is critical in determining coping behavior. Moreover, a major role of environmental challenges throughout the lifespan affects brain systems that control coping outcomes through 5-HT transmission. In particular early experiences, for their long-term effects in adulthood, and social experiences throughout the life span, for the effects on serotonin functioning, received attention in preclinical research because of their parallelism in humans and animals. Based on growing evidence pointing to a medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala system in mediating adaptive and maladaptive stress responses, we propose a brain circuit in which serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe depending on the CRF (corticotropin releasing factor) regulatory action engage a prefrontal cortical-amygdala pathway through 5-HT1A receptors, GABA and Glutamate to moderate coping behavior. PMID:25108244

  3. Secondary neurotransmitter deficiencies in epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channelopathies: A potential treatment target?

    PubMed

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Demos, Michelle; Shyr, Casper; Matthews, Allison; Zhang, Linhua; Race, Simone; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Van Allen, Margot I; Mancarci, Ogan; Toker, Lilah; Pavlidis, Paul; Ross, Colin J; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Trump, Natalie; Heales, Simon; Pope, Simon; Cross, J Helen; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2016-01-01

    We describe neurotransmitter abnormalities in two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy resulting from deleterious de novo mutations in sodium channel genes. Whole exome sequencing identified a de novo SCN2A splice-site mutation (c.2379+1G>A, p.Glu717Gly.fs*30) resulting in deletion of exon 14, in a 10-year old male with early onset global developmental delay, intermittent ataxia, autism, hypotonia, epileptic encephalopathy and cerebral/cerebellar atrophy. In the cerebrospinal fluid both homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased; extensive biochemical and genetic investigations ruled out primary neurotransmitter deficiencies and other known inborn errors of metabolism. In an 8-year old female with an early onset intractable epileptic encephalopathy, developmental regression, and progressive cerebellar atrophy, a previously unreported de novo missense mutation was identified in SCN8A (c.5615G>A; p.Arg1872Gln), affecting a highly conserved residue located in the C-terminal of the Nav1.6 protein. Aside from decreased homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was also found to be low. We hypothesize that these channelopathies cause abnormal synaptic mono-amine metabolite secretion/uptake via impaired vesicular release and imbalance in electrochemical ion gradients, which in turn aggravate the seizures. Treatment with oral 5-hydroxytryptophan, l-Dopa/Carbidopa, and a dopa agonist resulted in mild improvement of seizure control in the male case, most likely via dopamine and serotonin receptor activated signal transduction and modulation of glutamatergic, GABA-ergic and glycinergic neurotransmission. Neurotransmitter analysis in other sodium channelopathy patients will help validate our findings, potentially yielding novel treatment opportunities. PMID:26647175

  4. Neurotransmitters and neuronal apoptotic cell death of chronically aluminum intoxicated Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to ascorbic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Samah R; Hussein, Mohamed M A

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out to assess the neurotoxic effect of aluminum (Al) on the aquatic creatures. This study aims to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of long term Al exposure on the Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and the potential ameliorative influence of ascorbic acid (ASA) over a 180 days exposure period. Forty eight Nile catfish were divided into four groups: control group, placed in clean water, ASA exposed group (5mg/l), AlCl3 received group (28.96 μg/l; 1/20 LC50), and group received AlCl3 concomitantly with ASA. Brain tissue was examined by using flow cytometry to monitor the apoptotic cell population, HPLC analysis for the quantitative estimation of brain monoamine neurotransmitters [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE)]. The amino acid neurotransmitters [serum taurine, glycine, aspartate and glutamine and brain gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)] levels were assessed, plus changes in brain tissue structure using light microscopy. The concentration of Al in both brain tissue and serum was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. The Al content in serum and brain tissue were both elevated and Al exposure induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, a marked reduction of the monoamine and amino acids neurotransmitters levels and changes in tissue morphology. ASA supplementation partially abolished the effects of AL on the reduced neurotransmitter, the degree of apoptosis and restored the morphological changes to the brain. Overall, our results indicate that, ASA is a promising neuroprotective agent against for Al-induced neurotoxicity in the Nile catfish. PMID:26459186

  5. Function and evolution of the serotonin-synthetic bas-1 gene and other aromatic amino acid decarboxylase genes in Caenorhabditis

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Emily E; Loer, Curtis M

    2004-01-01

    Background Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of biogenic amines, including the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, throughout the animal kingdom. These neurotransmitters typically perform important functions in both the nervous system and other tissues, as illustrated by the debilitating conditions that arise from their deficiency. Studying the regulation and evolution of AADC genes is therefore desirable to further our understanding of how nervous systems function and evolve. Results In the nematode C. elegans, the bas-1 gene is required for both serotonin and dopamine synthesis, and maps genetically near two AADC-homologous sequences. We show by transformation rescue and sequencing of mutant alleles that bas-1 encodes an AADC enzyme. Expression of a reporter construct in transgenics suggests that the bas-1 gene is expressed, as expected, in identified serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. The bas-1 gene is one of six AADC-like sequences in the C. elegans genome, including a duplicate that is immediately downstream of the bas-1 gene. Some of the six AADC genes are quite similar to known serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic AADC's from other organisms whereas others are divergent, suggesting previously unidentified functions. In comparing the AADC genes of C. elegans with those of the congeneric C. briggsae, we find only four orthologous AADC genes in C. briggsae. Two C. elegans AADC genes – those most similar to bas-1 – are missing from C. briggsae. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one or both of these bas-1-like genes were present in the common ancestor of C. elegans and C. briggsae, and were retained in the C. elegans line, but lost in the C. briggsae line. Further analysis of the two bas-1-like genes in C. elegans suggests that they are unlikely to encode functional enzymes, and may be expressed pseudogenes. Conclusions The bas-1 gene of C. elegans encodes a serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic AADC enzyme. Two C. elegans AADC-homologous genes that are closely related to bas-1 are missing from the congeneric C. briggsae; one or more these genes was present in the common ancestor of C. elegans and C. briggsae. Despite their persistence in C. elegans, evidence suggests the bas-1-like genes do not encode functional AADC proteins. The presence of the genes in C. elegans raises questions about how many 'predicted genes' in sequenced genomes are functional, and how duplicate genes are retained or lost during evolution. This is another example of unexpected retention of duplicate genes in eukaryotic genomes. PMID:15287963

  6. Chronic social isolation affects thigmotaxis and whole-brain serotonin levels in adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Shams, Soaleha; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The popularity of the zebrafish has been growing in behavioral brain research. Previously utilized mainly in developmental biology and genetics, the zebrafish has turned out to possess a complex behavioral repertoire. For example, it is a highly social species, and individuals form tight groups, a behavior called shoaling. Social isolation induced changes in brain function and behavior have been demonstrated in a variety of laboratory organisms. However, despite its highly social nature, the zebrafish has rarely been utilized in this research area. Here, we investigate the effects of chronic social isolation (lasting 90 days) on locomotor activity and anxiety-related behaviors in an open tank. We also examine the effect of chronic social isolation on levels of whole-brain serotonin and dopamine and their metabolites. We found that long-term social deprivation surprisingly decreased anxiety-related behavious during open-tank testing but had no effect on locomotor activity. We also found that serotonin levels, decreased significantly in socially isolated fish, but levels of dopamine and metabolites of these neurotransmitters 5HIAA and DOPAC, respectively, remained unchanged. Our results imply that the standard high density housing employed in most zebrafish laboratories may not be the optimal way to keep these fish, and open a new avenue towards the analysis of the biological mechanisms of social behavior and of social deprivation induced changes in brain function using this simple vertebrate model organism. PMID:26119237

  7. Influence of cytotoxic doses of 4-hydroxynonenal on selected neurotransmitter receptors in PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, M A; Singh, G; Kashyap, M P; Khanna, V K; Yadav, S; Chandra, D; Pant, A B

    2008-10-01

    Effect of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), a long-chain alpha, beta unsaturated aldehyde product, generated by the oxidation of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the sensitivity of selected neurotransmitter receptors was studied in PC-12 cells. Cytotoxicity profiling was carried out at varying concentrations of HNE (0.1-50microM) for 30min to 24h. Trypan blue dye exclusion, MTT, LDH release and neutral red uptake (NRU) assays were carried out to assess the cytotoxicity of HNE. Cytotoxic response was found to be significant at 2h of exposure. Cytotoxicity of HNE at 50microM was exerted even at 90min. HNE 10-50microM was found to be cytotoxic, whereas, 2-5microM causes physiological stress only and 1-0.1microM non-cytotoxic. Effect on dopamine, cholinergic, serotonin and benzodiazepine receptors was studied at varying concentrations of HNE (1, 10, 25 and 50microM for 1-8h). A significant decrease in binding of 3H-QNB, 3H-Fluinitrazepam and 3H-Ketanserin, known to label cholinergic (muscarinic), benzodiazepine and serotonin (5HT(2A)) receptors respectively was observed at 1h exposure of PC-12 cells to HNE at 25 and 50microM concentrations. The decrease in the binding of (3)H-Spiperone, known to label dopamine (DA-D2) receptors was evident at 4h of exposure of PC-12 cells to HNE. The decrease in the binding with DA-D2 receptors continued till 8h. Effect on the binding of (3)H-Fluinitrazepam and 3H-Ketanserin appeared to be maximum at 25 and 50microM concentrations of HNE for 4h and 8h. The PC-12 cells appear to be vulnerable to cytotoxic concentrations of HNE. Experimental HNE exposure provides an intriguing model of toxicant-cell interactions involving neurotransmitter receptors in HNE neurotoxicity. PMID:18672050

  8. Colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (amphibia; Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Dünker, N

    1998-01-01

    Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, a member of the limbless Gymnophiona, has a specialized subterranean burrowing mode of life and a predominantly olfactory-guided orientation. The only visually guided behavior seems to be negative phototaxis. As these animals possess extremely small eyes (only 540 microm in diameter in adults), functional investigations of single retinal cells by electrophysiological methods have so far failed. Therefore, the content and distribution of retinal transmitters have been investigated as indications of a functioning sense organ in an animal that is supposed to be blind. Previous immunohistochemical investigation of the retinal transmitter system revealed immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthetic pathway. The present studies have been performed in order to determine a possible colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of the caecilian retina. Therefore retinal cryostat sections of various developmental stages have been investigated by the indirect fluorescence method. In single-label preparations, serotonin is localized to cells in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. GABA immunocytochemistry labels a variety of cell types in the inner nuclear layer as well as cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer. In double-label preparations, some of the serotonergic cells are found to express GABA immunoreactivity and some GABAergic neurons also label for serotonin immunocytochemistry. Thus, despite the fact that caecilians mainly rely on olfaction and are believed to have a reduced visual system, their retina exhibits a surprisingly "normal" distribution of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, also typical of other anamniotes with a well-developed visual system, including the partial colocalization of serotonin and GABA at all developmental stages of I. kohtaoensis. These results indicate that a functional system that is under no strong selective pressure obviously has a long evolutionary persistence irrespective of its need for use. PMID:9462859

  9. Nanosensors for neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Polo, Elena; Kruss, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Neurotransmitters are an important class of messenger molecules. They govern chemical communication between cells for example in the brain. The spatiotemporal propagation of these chemical signals is a crucial part of communication between cells. Thus, the spatial aspect of neurotransmitter release is equally important as the mere time-resolved measurement of these substances. In conclusion, without tools that provide the necessary spatiotemporal resolution, chemical signaling via neurotransmitters cannot be studied in greater detail. In this review article we provide a critical overview about sensors/probes that are able to monitor neurotransmitters. Our focus are sensing concepts that provide or could in the future provide the spatiotemporal resolution that is necessary to 'image' dynamic changes of neurotransmitter concentrations around cells. These requirements set the bar for the type of sensors we discuss. The sensor must be small enough (if possible on the nanoscale) to provide the envisioned spatial resolution and it should allow parallel (spatial) detection. In this article we discuss both optical and electrochemical concepts that meet these criteria. We cover techniques that are based on fluorescent building blocks such as nanomaterials, proteins and organic dyes. Additionally, we review electrochemical array techniques and assess limitations and possible future directions. PMID:26586160

  10. Effects of low dose endosulfan exposure on brain neurotransmitter levels in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Preud'homme, Valérie; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie; De Pauw, Edwin; Denoël, Mathieu; Kestemont, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of its wide use and known effects, particularly neurotoxic, on a variety of organisms. However, the effect of endosulfan was not yet evaluated on amphibians at levels encompassing simultaneously brain neurotransmitters and behavioural endpoints. In this context, tadpoles of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis were submitted to four treatments during 27 d: one control, one ethanol control, and two low environmental concentrations of endosulfan (0.1 and 1 μg L(-1)). Endosulfan induced a significant increase of brain serotonin level at both concentrations and a significant increase of brain dopamine and GABA levels at the lower exposure but acetylcholinesterase activity was not modified by the treatment. The gene coding for the GABA transporter 1 was up-regulated in endosulfan contaminated tadpoles while the expression of other genes coding for the neurotransmitter receptors or for the enzymes involved in their metabolic pathways was not significantly modified by endosulfan exposure. Endosulfan also affected foraging, and locomotion in links with the results of the physiological assays, but no effects were seen on growth. These results show that low environmental concentrations of endosulfan can induce adverse responses in X. laevis tadpoles. At a broader perspective, this suggests that more research using and linking multiple markers should be used to understand the complex mode of action of pollutants. PMID:25192837

  11. Measuring the serotonin uptake site using (/sup 3/H)paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand.

  12. Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Metal Microelectrodes for the Detection of Dopamine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Jacobs, Christopher B; Nguyen, Michael D; Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Zestos, Alexander G; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Venton, B Jill

    2016-01-01

    Microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are useful for the detection of neurotransmitters because the CNTs enhance sensitivity and have electrocatalytic effects. CNTs can be grown on carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) but the intrinsic electrochemical activity of carbon fibers makes evaluating the effect of CNT enhancement difficult. Metal wires are highly conductive and many metals have no intrinsic electrochemical activity for dopamine, so we investigated CNTs grown on metal wires as microelectrodes for neurotransmitter detection. In this work, we successfully grew CNTs on niobium substrates for the first time. Instead of planar metal surfaces, metal wires with a diameter of only 25 μm were used as CNT substrates; these have potential in tissue applications due to their minimal tissue damage and high spatial resolution. Scanning electron microscopy shows that aligned CNTs are grown on metal wires after chemical vapor deposition. By use of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, CNT-coated niobium (CNT-Nb) microelectrodes exhibit higher sensitivity and lower ΔEp value compared to CNTs grown on carbon fibers or other metal wires. The limit of detection for dopamine at CNT-Nb microelectrodes is 11 ± 1 nM, which is approximately 2-fold lower than that of bare CFMEs. Adsorption processes were modeled with a Langmuir isotherm, and detection of other neurochemicals was also characterized, including ascorbic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, adenosine, and histamine. CNT-Nb microelectrodes were used to monitor stimulated dopamine release in anesthetized rats with high sensitivity. This study demonstrates that CNT-grown metal microelectrodes, especially CNTs grown on Nb microelectrodes, are useful for monitoring neurotransmitters. PMID:26639609

  13. Carbon nanotubes grown on metal microelectrodes for the detection of dopamine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Cheng; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Nguyen, Michael; Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Zestos, Alexander; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-12-07

    Microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are useful for the detection of neurotransmitters because the CNTs enhance sensitivity and have electrocatalytic effects. CNTs can be grown on carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) but the intrinsic electrochemical activity of carbon fibers makes evaluating the effect of CNT enhancement difficult. Metal wires are highly conductive and many metals have no intrinsic electrochemical activity for dopamine, so we investigated CNTs grown on metal wires as microelectrodes for neurotransmitter detection. In this work, we successfully grew CNTs on niobium substrates for the first time. Instead of planar metal surfaces, metal wires with a diameter ofmore » only 25 μm were used as CNT substrates; these have potential in tissue applications due to their minimal tissue damage and high spatial resolution. Scanning electron microscopy shows that aligned CNTs are grown on metal wires after chemical vapor deposition. By use of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, CNT-coated niobium (CNT-Nb) microelectrodes exhibit higher sensitivity and lower ΔEp value compared to CNTs grown on carbon fibers or other metal wires. The limit of detection for dopamine at CNT-Nb microelectrodes is 11 ± 1 nM, which is approximately 2-fold lower than that of bare CFMEs. Adsorption processes were modeled with a Langmuir isotherm, and detection of other neurochemicals was also characterized, including ascorbic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, adenosine, and histamine. CNT-Nb microelectrodes were used to monitor stimulated dopamine release in anesthetized rats with high sensitivity. This research demonstrates that CNT-grown metal microelectrodes, especially CNTs grown on Nb microelectrodes, are useful for monitoring neurotransmitters.« less

  14. Carbon nanotubes grown on metal microelectrodes for the detection of dopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cheng; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Nguyen, Michael; Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Zestos, Alexander; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-12-07

    Microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are useful for the detection of neurotransmitters because the CNTs enhance sensitivity and have electrocatalytic effects. CNTs can be grown on carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) but the intrinsic electrochemical activity of carbon fibers makes evaluating the effect of CNT enhancement difficult. Metal wires are highly conductive and many metals have no intrinsic electrochemical activity for dopamine, so we investigated CNTs grown on metal wires as microelectrodes for neurotransmitter detection. In this work, we successfully grew CNTs on niobium substrates for the first time. Instead of planar metal surfaces, metal wires with a diameter of only 25 μm were used as CNT substrates; these have potential in tissue applications due to their minimal tissue damage and high spatial resolution. Scanning electron microscopy shows that aligned CNTs are grown on metal wires after chemical vapor deposition. By use of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, CNT-coated niobium (CNT-Nb) microelectrodes exhibit higher sensitivity and lower ΔEp value compared to CNTs grown on carbon fibers or other metal wires. The limit of detection for dopamine at CNT-Nb microelectrodes is 11 ± 1 nM, which is approximately 2-fold lower than that of bare CFMEs. Adsorption processes were modeled with a Langmuir isotherm, and detection of other neurochemicals was also characterized, including ascorbic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, adenosine, and histamine. CNT-Nb microelectrodes were used to monitor stimulated dopamine release in anesthetized rats with high sensitivity. This research demonstrates that CNT-grown metal microelectrodes, especially CNTs grown on Nb microelectrodes, are useful for monitoring neurotransmitters.

  15. Reprint of: Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.

    PubMed

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low μg/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 μg/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 μg/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24679646

  16. Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.

    PubMed

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low μg/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 μg/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 μg/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24486880

  17. Effects of an oral dose of l-glutamic acid on circulating neurotransmitters: Possible roles of the C1(Ad) and the A5(NA) pontomedullary nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Lechin, Fuad; van der Dijs, Bertha; Pardey-Maldonado, Betty; Rivera, Jairo E; Lechin, Marcel E; Baez, Scarlet

    2010-01-01

    Objective Investigation of the effects of an oral administration of a small dose of l-glutamic acid on the two peripheral sympathetic branches (neural and adrenal) of the autonomic nervous system. Research design and methods Circulating neurotransmitters and cardiovascular parameters were assessed in 28 healthy volunteers before and after the administration of 500 mg of l-glutamic acid or placebo. Results The drug triggered a significant and sustained enhancement of the noradrenaline and dopamine circulating levels which were paralleled and positively correlated with the diastolic blood pressure increases. Conversely, both platelet and plasma serotonin showed significant falls throughout the test. Significant positive correlations were registered between noradrenaline, dopamine, and noradrenaline/dopamine ratio versus diastolic blood pressure but not versus systolic blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusion The above results allowed us to postulate that the drug provoked a significant enhancement of peripheral neural sympathetic activity and the reduction of adrenal sympathetic and parasympathetic drives. Both sympathetic branches are positively correlated with the A5 noradrenergic and the C1 adrenergic pontomedullary nuclei, which interchange inhibitory axons that act at post-synaptic α2 inhibitory autoreceptors. In addition, we discussed the mechanisms able to explain why the drug acted preferentially at the A5 noradrenergic rather than the C1 adrenergic nuclei.

  18. Developmental fluoxetine and prenatal stress effects on serotonin, dopamine, and synaptophysin density in the PFC and hippocampus of offspring at weaning.

    PubMed

    Gemmel, Mary; Rayen, Ine; Lotus, Tiffany; van Donkelaar, Eva; Steinbusch, Harry W; De Lacalle, Sonsoles; Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2016-04-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication exposure during the perinatal period can have a long term impact in adult offspring on neuroplasticity and the serotonergic system, but the impact of these medications during early development is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of developmental exposure to the SSRI, fluoxetine, on the serotonergic system, dopaminergic system, and synaptophysin density in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as number of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, in juvenile rat offspring at weaning. To model aspects of maternal depression, prenatal restraint stress was used. Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to either prenatal stress and/or fluoxetine. Main findings show that developmental fluoxetine exposure to prenatally stressed offspring decreased 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels and altered the dopaminergic system in the hippocampus. Prenatal stress, regardless of fluoxetine, increased synaptophysin density in the PFC. This work indicates that early exposure to maternal stress and SSRI medication can alter brain monoamine levels and synaptophysin density in offspring at weaning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 315-327, 2016. PMID:26477449

  19. Dopamine regulates body size in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Takashi; Oami, Eitaro; Kutsuna, Natsumaro; Ishiura, Shoichi; Suo, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    The nervous system plays a critical role in the regulation of animal body sizes. In Caenorhabditis elegans, an amine neurotransmitter, dopamine, is required for the tactile perception of food and food-dependent behavioral changes, while its role in development is unknown. In this study, we show that dopamine negatively regulates body size through a D2-like dopamine receptor, DOP-3, in C. elegans. Dopamine alters body size without affecting food intake or developmental rate. We also found that dopamine promotes egg-laying, although the regulation of body size by dopamine was not solely caused by this effect. Furthermore, dopamine negatively regulates body size through the suppression of signaling by octopamine and Gq-coupled octopamine receptors, SER-3 and SER-6. Our results demonstrate that dopamine and octopamine regulate the body size of C. elegans and suggest a potential role for perception in addition to ingestion of food for growth. PMID:26921458

  20. Integrated Carbon Nanostructures for Detection of Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Sainio, Sami; Palomäki, Tommi; Tujunen, Noora; Protopopova, Vera; Koehne, Jessica; Kordas, Krisztian; Koskinen, Jari; Meyyappan, M; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-based materials, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are inherently interesting for neurotransmitter detection due to their good biocompatibility, low cost and relatively simple synthesis. In this paper, we report on new carbon-hybrid materials, where either CNTs or CNFs are directly grown on top of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). We show that these hybrid materials have electrochemical properties that not only combine the best characteristics of the individual "building blocks" but their synergy makes the electrode performance superior compared to conventional carbon based electrodes. By combining ta-C with CNTs, we were able to realize electrode materials that show wide and stable water window, almost reversible electron transfer properties and high sensitivity and selectivity for detecting dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensitivity of ta-C + CNF hybrids towards dopamine as well as glutamate has been found excellent paving the road for actual in vivo measurements. The wide and stable water window of these sensors enables detection of other neurotransmitters besides DA as well as capability of withstanding higher potentials without suffering from oxygen and hydrogen evolution. PMID:26093378

  1. Serotonergic and catecholaminergic interactions with co-localised dopamine-melatonin neurones in the hypothalamus of the female turkey.

    PubMed

    Kang, S W; Leclerc, B; Mauro, L J; El Halawani, M E

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin and catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine) have important roles as neurotransmitters in avian reproduction, but their anatomical relationship to the neuroendocrine circuitry that regulates reproduction is poorly understood. Our previous studies have shown that co-localised dopamine-melatonin (DA-MEL) neurones in the avian premammillary nucleus (PMM) are active during periods of photoresponsiveness and, therefore, are potentially photosensitive neurones. Because serotonergic and catecholaminergic neurotransmitters are important regulators of reproductive function in the female turkey, we hypothesised that the serotonergic/catecholaminergic neurones within the brainstem might interact with PMM DA-MEL neurones and constitute an important circuit for reproductive function. To examine this possible interaction, the retrograde fluorescent tract tracer, 1,1'dioctadecyl-3,3,3'3'-tetramethyleindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) was injected into the PMM, and combined with serotonin, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and phenyl N-methyltransferse (PNMT) immunocytochemistry to reveal neuroanatomical connections. Changes in the activities of serotonergic, dopaminergic, adrenergic and noradrenergic neuronal systems projecting to the PMM were measured at different reproductive states with in situ hybridisation (ISH) techniques, using tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and TH mRNA expression, respectively. Cells labelled with DiI were found in anatomically discrete areas in or near the hypothalamus and the brainstem. Double immunocytochemistry confirmed that there were serotonin, DBH and PNMT fibres in close apposition to DA-MEL neurones. TPH2 mRNA expression in serotonin neurones was found in several nuclei, and its most abundant mRNA expression was seen in the nucleus Locus ceruleus of laying and incubating hens. TH mRNA expression levels in the six catecholaminegic areas labelled with DiI was measured across the different reproductive states. In the nucleus tractus solitarius (adrenergic), the highest level of TH mRNA expression was found in photorefractory hens and the lowest level in incubating hens. These observed patterns of serotonin/catecholamine neuronal distribution and their variable interactions with PMM DA-MEL neurones during different reproductive states may offer a significant neuroanatomical basis for understanding the control of avian reproductive seasonality. PMID:19094089

  2. Metabolomics of Neurotransmitters and Related Metabolites in Post-Mortem Tissue from the Dorsal and Ventral Striatum of Alcoholic Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Kashem, Mohammed Abul; Ahmed, Selina; Sultana, Nilufa; Ahmed, Eakhlas U; Pickford, Russell; Rae, Caroline; Šerý, Omar; McGregor, Iain S; Balcar, Vladimir J

    2016-02-01

    We report on changes in neurotransmitter metabolome and protein expression in the striatum of humans exposed to heavy long-term consumption of alcohol. Extracts from post mortem striatal tissue (dorsal striatum; DS comprising caudate nucleus; CN and putamen; P and ventral striatum; VS constituted by nucleus accumbens; NAc) were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomics was studied in CN by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass-spectrometry. Proteomics identified 25 unique molecules expressed differently by the alcohol-affected tissue. Two were dopamine-related proteins and one a GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD65. Two proteins that are related to apoptosis and/or neuronal loss (BiD and amyloid-β A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 3) were increased. There were no differences in the levels of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC), serotonin (5HT), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (HIAA), histamine, L-glutamate (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Tryp) between the DS (CN and P) and VS (NAc) in control brains. Choline (Ch) and acetylcholine (Ach) were higher and norepinephrine (NE) lower, in the VS. Alcoholic striata had lower levels of neurotransmitters except for Glu (30 % higher in the alcoholic ventral striatum). Ratios of DOPAC/DA and HIAA/5HT were higher in alcoholic striatum indicating an increase in the DA and 5HT turnover. Glutathione was significantly reduced in all three regions of alcohol-affected striatum. We conclude that neurotransmitter systems in both the DS (CN and P) and the VS (NAc) were significantly influenced by long-term heavy alcohol intake associated with alcoholism . PMID:26801172

  3. Protective Effect of Spermidine Against Excitotoxic Neuronal Death Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats: Possible Neurotransmitters and Neuroinflammatory Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Sumit; Singh, Shamsher; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Puneet

    2015-08-01

    Huntington disease is hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by selective and immense degradation of GABAergic medium spiny neurons in striatum. Quinolinic acid (QA)-induced neurotoxicity involves a cascade of events such as excitotoxicity, ATP depletion, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, as well as selective GABAergic neuronal loss. Therefore, we investigated spermidine, an endogenous molecule with free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic properties, for its beneficial potential if any, in QA-induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Rats were administered with QA (200 nmol/2 µl saline) bilaterally on 0 day. Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 21 days once a day. Behavioral parameters (body weight, locomotor activity, grip strength, and narrow beam walk) observations were done on 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after QA treatment. On 21st day, animals were sacrificed and rat striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH, Nitrite), neuroinflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and neurochemical analysis (GABA, glutamate, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA, adenosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, and inosine). QA treatment significantly altered body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination, oxidative defense (increased LPO, nitrite, and decreased GSH), pro-inflammatory levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), GABA, glutamate, catecholamines level (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites), and purines level (adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine). Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated these alterations in body weight, motor impairments, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory markers, GABA, glutamate, catecholamines, adenosine, and their metabolites levels in striatum. The neuroprotective effect of spermidine against QA-induced excitotoxic cell death is attributed to its antioxidant, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic, anti-inflammatory properties, and prevention of neurotransmitters alteration in striatum. PMID:26078029

  4. Schizophrenia and dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Philip

    2013-09-01

    Schizophrenia patients are behaviorally supersensitive to dopamine-like drugs such as amphetamine or methylphenidate, meaning that patients respond to such drugs with increased psychotic symptoms, as compared to control subjects. A basis of such supersensitivity may be an increased pre-synaptic release of dopamine or a post-synaptic elevation of D2 receptors or of D2High receptors in active stages of schizophrenia. While the pre-synaptic release of dopamine is normal in stable patients with schizophrenia, brain imaging studies find that D2 receptors are increased by an average of 5.8% in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients. It is possible that the behavioral supersensitivity may stem from more D2High receptors in schizophrenia. Although the antipsychotic/dopamine D2 receptor can exist in vitro in a state of high affinity for dopamine (as D2High), or in a state of low affinity for dopamine (as D2Low), there is no clear evidence that D2High states can be selectively labeled or stably exist in vivo. Nevertheless, two studies revealed an 80% increase in apparent D2High receptors in schizophrenia patients after reducing endogenous dopamine. The elevation in apparent D2High receptors in vivo in schizophrenia matches the elevation in D2High receptors in vitro in animal models of psychosis, including dopamine-supersensitive animals pretreated with amphetamine, marijuana, or phencyclidine, or animals with gene knockouts in various neurotransmitter pathways, including those for glutamate receptors. The elevation of D2High receptors in vitro and the increased apparent D2High receptors in vivo is consistent with behavioral dopamine supersensitivity in schizophrenia patients. PMID:23860356

  5. Cortical GABA, striatal dopamine and midbrain serotonin as the key players in compulsive and anxiety disorders--results from in vivo imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Antke, Christina; Beu, Markus; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Various factors are discussed in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, including dysfunctions of the (DA)ergic, serotonin (5-HT)ergic and GABAergic system. We assessed the contribution of the individual synaptic constituents by subjecting all available in vivo imaging studies on patients with anxiety disorders to a retrospective analysis. On a total of 504 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder (PD), phobia, or posttraumatic stress-disorder (PTSD) and 593 controls, investigations of VMAT2, DAT, SERT, D1, D2, 5-HTIA, 5-HT2A, GABA(A), and NK1 receptor binding in neostriatum, ventral striatum, thalamus, neocortex, limbic system, cingulate, midbrain/ pons or cerebellum were performed using either PET or SPECT. Separate analyses of the individual disorders showed significant decreases of striatal D2 receptors in OCD (-18%), mesencephalic SERT in OCD (-13%), frontocortical GABAA receptors in PD (-13%) and temporocortical GABAA receptors in GAD (-16%). Pooling of all disorders yielded a significant reduction of mesencephalic SERT (-13%), mesencephalic (-27%) as well as cingulate 5-HT1A receptors (-18%), striatal D2 receptors (-21%) and frontal (-14%), temporal (-14%), occipital (-13%) and cingulate GABAA receptors (-15%). The results show that DA, 5-HT, and GABA play a major role in all subtypes of anxiety disorders. In particular, the findings imply that the regulation state of DA as modulated by GABA and 5-HT may be crucial for the development of anxiety- and compulsion-related disorders. As GABA and 5-HT inhibit DAergic neurotransmission, the reductions of GABAA, 5-HT1A and SERT can be assumed to result in an enhanced activity of the mesolimbic DAergic system. This notion is also reflected by the decrease of striatal D2 receptor binding, which is indicative of an increased availability of synaptic DA. PMID:20614802

  6. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    PubMed

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia. PMID:26712377

  7. Evidence for a neurotransmitter function of acetylcholine in rabbit superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, T; Illing, R B; Starke, K

    1987-12-01

    Acetylcholinesterase staining and studies on the uptake of [3H]choline into the subsequent efflux of tritium from collicular slices were carried out in order to provide evidence for a neurotransmitter function of acetylcholine in rabbit superior colliculus. Acetylcholinesterase staining was dense and homogeneous in superficial layers whereas the staining was arranged in patches with slightly higher density caudally than rostrally in the intermediate layers. The accumulation of tritium in slices incubated with [3H]choline depended on time, temperature and concentration, and was inhibited by hemicholinium-3. Accumulation was slightly higher in caudal than in rostral slices. Electrical stimulation enhanced tritium outflow from slices preincubated with [3H]choline. Tetrodotoxin and a low calcium medium inhibited the evoked overflow whereas hemicholinium-3 caused an enhancement. Oxotremorine decreased the evoked overflow; atropine prevented this effect. The opioids [D-Ala2, MePhe4, Glycol5]enkephalin, [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin and ethylketocyclazocine caused an inhibition. The effects of the latter two agonists were antagonized by naloxone. The GABAB-receptor-agonist (-)-baclofen decreased the evoked overflow at lower concentrations than GABA, whereas the GABAA-receptor-agonist muscimol was ineffective. Serotonin produced an inhibition which was prevented by metitepin, alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor as well as dopamine-receptor ligands caused no change. It is concluded that in the rabbit superior colliculus the pattern of acetylcholinesterase staining is comparable, but not identical to the distribution in other species. The accumulation of [3H]choline, as well as the tetrodotoxin-sensitive and calcium-dependent overflow of tritium upon electrical stimulation (reflecting presumably release of [3H]acetylcholine) indicate that acetylcholine has a neurotransmitter function in this tissue. The release of [3H]acetylcholine was modulated by various transmitter substances and related compounds. The pattern of modulation of release differed from the pattern in other cholinergically innervated tissues. PMID:2893996

  8. Changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice--A quantitative multireceptor study.

    PubMed

    Cremer, J N; Amunts, K; Schleicher, A; Palomero-Gallagher, N; Piel, M; Rsch, F; Zilles, K

    2015-12-17

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-characterized neurological disorder with regard to its neuropathological and symptomatic appearance. At the genetic level, mutations of particular genes, e.g. Parkin and DJ-1, were found in human hereditary PD with early onset. Neurotransmitter receptors constitute decisive elements in neural signal transduction. Furthermore, since they are often altered in neurological and psychiatric diseases, receptors have been successful targets for pharmacological agents. However, the consequences of PD-associated gene mutations on the expression of transmitter receptors are largely unknown. Therefore, we studied the expression of 16 different receptor binding sites of the neurotransmitters glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and adenosine by means of quantitative receptor autoradiography in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice. These knockout mice exhibit electrophysiological and behavioral deficits, but do not show the typical dopaminergic cell loss. We demonstrated differential changes of binding site densities in eleven brain regions. Most prominently, we found an up-regulation of GABA(B) and kainate receptor densities in numerous cortical areas of Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice, as well as increased NMDA but decreased AMPA receptor densities in different brain regions of the Parkin knockout mice. The alterations of three different glutamate receptor types may indicate the potential relevance of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of PD. Furthermore, the cholinergic M1, M2 and nicotinic receptors as well as the adrenergic ?2 and the adenosine A(2A) receptors showed differentially increased densities in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice. Taken together, knockout of the PD-associated genes Parkin or DJ-1 results in differential changes of neurotransmitter receptor densities, highlighting a possible role of altered non-dopaminergic, and in particular of glutamatergic neurotransmission in PD pathogenesis. PMID:26546471

  9. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  10. Tritium-3-N-methylspiperone labels D2 dopamine receptors in basal ganglia and S2 serotonin receptors in cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, R.A.; Titeler, M.; Frost, J.J.; Whitehouse, P.J.; Wong, D.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.; Links, J.M.; Kuhar, M.J.

    1986-10-01

    Detailed studies of the properties of /sup 3/H-3-N-methylspiperone (NMSP) binding in rat and human brain homogenates were performed at 37/sup 0/C. In homogenates of rat striatum and frontal cortex and human caudate and frontal cortex tissues, the specific binding was found to be saturable. Rat caudate contained 33.2 pmol/gm wet-weight tissue and displayed an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 8.7 X 10(-11) M; rat frontal cortex contained 18.5 pmol/gm wet-weight tissue and displayed a Kd of 1.5 X 10(-10) M. Human caudate contained 8.96 pmol/gm wet-weight tissue and displayed a Kd of 1.1 X 10(-10) M; human frontal cortex possessed 9.8 pmol/gm wet-weight tissue and a Kd of 4.4 X 10(-10) M. Kinetic studies revealed a very rapid rate of association in all the tissues studied. The rate of dissociation was relatively slow in all 4 tissue preparations; the dissociation rate was somewhat slower in rat striatum and human caudate relative to rat and human frontal cortex. This was consistent with the somewhat higher affinity, relative to frontal cortex, displayed by /sup 3/H-NMSP in rat striatal and human caudate tissue. The pharmacological properties of the specific binding in rat striatal and human caudate tissues were very similar and indicated the presence of brain D2 dopamine receptors. In rat and human frontal cortex tissue homogenates, the pharmacological characteristics of the specific binding indicated the presence of 5-HT2 receptors.

  11. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  12. Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Covey, Daniel P.; Blaha, Charles D.; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M.; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.; Garris, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Object Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. Methods The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between −0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 μm) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ~ 100 μm. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. Results The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer); 2) Bluetooth transceiver; 3) microprocessor; and 4) direct-current battery. A Windows-XP laptop computer running custom software and equipped with a Universal Serial Bus–connected Bluetooth transceiver served as the base station. Computer software directed wireless data acquisition at 100 kilosamples/second and remote control of FSCV operation and adjustable waveform parameters. The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of dopamine and other neurochemicals such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and ascorbic acid by using FSCV at CFM and by flow injection analysis. In rats, the WINCS detected subsecond striatal dopamine release at the implanted sensor during high-frequency stimulation of ascending dopaminergic fibers. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated comparable signals to a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Importantly, the WINCS reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic noise typically found in an operating room setting. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that the WINCS is well suited for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring. It is anticipated that neurotransmitter measurements at an implanted chemical sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425890

  13. Mefloquine and Psychotomimetics Share Neurotransmitter Receptor and Transporter Interactions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Janowsky, Aaron; Eshleman, Amy J.; Johnson, Robert A.; Wolfrum, Katherine M.; Hinrichs, David J.; Yang, Jongtae; Zabriskie, T. Mark; Smilkstein, Martin J.; Riscoe, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Mefloquine is used for the prevention and treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria, but its use is associated with nightmares, hallucinations, and exacerbation of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. We hypothesized that potential mechanisms of action for the adverse psychotropic effects of mefloquine resemble those of other known psychotomimetics. Objectives Using in vitro radioligand binding and functional assays, we examined the interaction of (+)- and (−)-mefloquine enantiomers, the non-psychotomimetic anti-malarial agent, chloroquine, and several hallucinogens and psychostimulants with recombinant human neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Results Hallucinogens and mefloquine bound stereoselectively and with relatively high affinity (Ki = 0.71–341 nM) to serotonin (5-HT) 2A but not 5-HT1A or 5-HT2C receptors. Mefloquine but not chloroquine was a partial 5-HT2A agonist and a full 5-HT2C agonist, stimulating inositol phosphate accumulation, with similar potency and efficacy as the hallucinogen dimethyltryptamine (DMT). 5-HT receptor antagonists blocked mefloquine’s effects. Mefloquine had low or no affinity for dopamine D1, D2, D3, and D4.4 receptors, or dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. However, mefloquine was a very low potency antagonist at the D3 receptor and mefloquine but not chloroquine or hallucinogens blocked [3H]5-HT uptake by the 5-HT transporter. Conclusions Mefloquine but not chloroquine shares an in vitro receptor interaction profile with some hallucinogens and this neurochemistry may be relevant to the adverse neuropsychiatric effects associated with mefloquine use by a small percentage of patients. Additionally, evaluating interactions with this panel of receptors and transporters may be useful for characterizing effects of other psychotropic drugs and for avoiding psychotomimetic effects for new pharmacotherapies, including antimalarial quinolines. PMID:24488404

  14. Actions of novel antipsychotic agents on apomorphine-induced PPI disruption: influence of combined serotonin 5-HT1A receptor activation and dopamine D2 receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Agnès L; Kleven, Mark S; Besnard, Joël; Depoortère, Ronan; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

    2006-09-01

    The dopamine D1/D2 agonist apomorphine (0.63 mg/kg) disrupted prepulse inhibition (PPI) of acoustic startle in rats, a model of sensorimotor gating deficits observed in schizophrenia. All current antipsychotics, which antagonize D2 receptors, prevent this apomorphine-induced deficit. A novel class of antipsychotics possesses, in addition to D2 antagonist property, various levels of 5-HT1A agonist activity. Considering that the latter itself produces PPI deficits, it appeared necessary to assess the potential of this novel class of antipsychotics to reverse apomorphine-PPI deficits. Potent D2 antagonists, like haloperidol (0.63-2.5 mg/kg), risperidone (0.63-10 mg/kg), and olanzapine (0.63-40 mg/kg) prevented apomorphine PPI disruption. The atypical antipsychotics, clozapine (40 mg/kg), nemonapride (0.01-2.5 mg/kg), ziprasidone (10 mg/kg), and aripiprazole (0.01 and 10 mg/kg), which all exhibit 5-HT1A agonist properties, reversed PPI deficits at some doses only, whereas the anti-dyskinetic agent sarizotan (0.16-10 mg/kg), an efficacious 5-HT1A agonist, did not. New generation antipsychotics with marked 5-HT1A agonist properties, such as SLV313 and SSR181507 (0.0025-10 mg/kg and 0.16-10 mg/kg, respectively) did not reverse these deficits whereas bifeprunox (0.04-2.5 mg/kg) did. To reveal the contribution of 5-HT1A agonist properties in the lack of effects of SLV313 and SSR181507, we pretreated rats with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635 (0.63 mg/kg). Under these conditions, significant reversal of PPI deficit was observed, indicating that D2 antagonist properties of SLV313 and SSR181507 are now sufficient to overcome the disruptive effects of apomorphine. To summarize, antipsychotics possessing agonist efficacy at 5-HT1A receptors exhibit diverse profiles against apomorphine-induced PPI deficits, depending on the balance between D2 and 5-HT1A activities, suggesting that they may display distinct activity on some aspects of gating deficits in schizophrenic patients. PMID:16421514

  15. Serotonin, personality and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Hansenne, M; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2002-04-01

    Serotonin is one of the neurotransmitters implicated in normal personality. Many psychobiological models of personality include some dimensions related to serotonin. For instance, the harm avoidance dimension of the biosocial model developed by Cloninger is related to serotonergic activity. Higher scores on the harm avoidance dimension should theoretically reflect increased serotonergic activity. However, correlation studies related serotonin activity to harm avoidance dimension have not yielded consistent findings. These controversial results are probably related to the complexity of the neurotransmitter systems, and the different assessment techniques used in these studies. Finally, recent genetic studies have examined the association between personality dimensions and serotonergic receptor polymorphisms with mixed results. Serotonin is not only related to some dimensions of normal personality. Several psychopathological disorders are associated with serotonergic dysfunction. More particularly, borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be defined by many of the symptoms associated with serotonergic dysregulation, including affective lability, suicidal behaviours, impulsivity and loss of impulse control. Indeed, several reports have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin re-uptake drugs in treating the depressive and impulsive symptoms of patients with BPD. Moreover, some challenge studies have reported a lower serotonergic activity in BPD. Because these challenges are not specific, we have assessed the serotonergic activity in BPD with the flesinoxan challenge. Preliminary results showed that the prolactine responses to flesinoxan were significantly lower in BPD patients compared to those observed in controls. PMID:26983967

  16. Peripheral Serotonin: a New Player in Systemic Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Jun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sangkyu

    2015-01-01

    Whole body energy balance is achieved through the coordinated regulation of energy intake and energy expenditure in various tissues including liver, muscle and adipose tissues. A positive energy imbalance by excessive energy intake or insufficient energy expenditure results in obesity and related metabolic diseases. Although there have been many obesity treatment trials aimed at the reduction of energy intake, these strategies have achieved only limited success because of their associated adverse effects. An ancient neurotransmitter, serotonin is among those traditional pharmacological targets for anti-obesity treatment because it exhibits strong anorectic effect in the brain. However, recent studies suggest the new functions of peripheral serotonin in energy homeostasis ranging from the endocrine regulation by gut-derived serotonin to the autocrine/paracrine regulation by adipocyte-derived serotonin. Here, we discuss the role of serotonin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and introduce peripheral serotonin as a possible target for anti-obesity treatment. PMID:26628041

  17. Development of a simple and rapid solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the analysis of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in human urine.

    PubMed

    Naccarato, Attilio; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-01-31

    The work aims at developing a simple and rapid method for the quantification of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in human urine. The urinary levels of these biogenic amines can be correlated with several pathological conditions concerning heart disease, stress, neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. The proposed analytical approach is based on the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) after a fast derivatization of both aliphatic amino and phenolic moieties by propyl chloroformate. The variables influencing the derivatization reaction were reliably optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design". The optimal conditions were obtained by performing derivatization with 100?L of propyl chloroformate and 100?L of pyridine. The extraction ability of five commercially available SPME fibers was evaluated in univariate mode and the best results were obtained using the polyacrylate fiber. The variables affecting the efficiency of SPME analysis were again optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design" and, in particular, a central composite design (CCD) was applied. The optimal values were extraction in 45min at room temperature, desorption temperature at 300C, no addition of NaCl. Assay of derivatized analytes was performed by using a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) system in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. An evaluation of all analytical parameters demonstrates that the developed method provides satisfactory results. Indeed, very good linearities were achieved in the tested calibration range with correlation coefficient values of 0.9995, 0.9999 and 0.9997 for DA, 5-HT and NE, respectively. Accuracies and RSDs calculated for between-run and tested at concentrations of 30, 200, and 800?g L(-1) were in the range from 92.8% to 103.0%, and from 0.67 to 4.5%, respectively. Finally, the LOD values obtained can be considered very good (0.587, 0.381 and 1.23?g L(-1) for DA, 5-HT and NE, respectively). PMID:24439500

  18. Serotonin Test

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Connections found between each meridian (heart, stomach, triple burner, etc.) & organ representation area of corresponding internal organs in each side of the cerebral cortex; release of common neurotransmitters and hormones unique to each meridian and corresponding acupuncture point & internal organ after acupuncture, electrical stimulation, mechanical stimulation (including shiatsu), soft laser stimulation or QI Gong.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1989-01-01

    Using the "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Imaging Technique", the author has been able to accurately localize meridians and acupuncture points that correspond to specific internal organs and has found that most general patterns of meridians and the number of acupuncture points on each of the meridians of specific internal organs of the 12 main internal organs described in the literature of ancient Chinese medicine, are more or less correct, with the exception of some variations and inaccuracies. Each meridian of specific internal organs was found to be connected to the organ representation area in the cerebral cortex of specific internal organs. The acupuncture point has an area and occupies 3-dimensional space. It has a circular or slightly oval boundary with diameter in the range of 3 mm to 2.7 cm, although 6-12 mm are the most common diameters in human adults, with the exception of the area outside the corners of the nailbeds of the fingers and toes. Using the "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Molecular Identification Method", the author also found that within the boundary of most acupuncture points and meridian lines (including Heart, Stomach, and Triple Burner) were high concentrations of neurotransmitters and hormones, including Acetylcholine, Methionine-Enkephalin, Beta-Endorphin, ACTH, Secretin, Cholecystokinin, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, and GABA. On all these meridian lines, in addition to the above neurotransmitters and hormones, Dopamine, Dynorphin 1-13, Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and VIP were found, but the latter do not usually exist within the boundary of the acupuncture point with the exception of the center midline of the acupuncture point where the meridian line is situated. Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Cholecystokinin appeared in either one of the above 2 patterns, depending on the individual. Usually, no significant amounts of these neurotransmitters and hormones were found at the surrounding area outside of meridian and acupuncture points. However, the essential amino acid L-Tryptophan (which is a precursor of Serotonin), was usually found outside of the boundary of the acupuncture point and the meridian but not within the boundary of the acupuncture point and the meridian. Wherever Serotonin appeared, L-Tryptophan disappeared significantly and when the Serotonin disappeared, L-Tryptophan reappeared. In addition to the above common neurotransmitters and hormones, the Heart meridian had additional Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in both the meridian and its acupuncture points. Similarly, the Stomach meridian had additional Gastrin in both the meridian and its acupuncture points. Likewise,the Triple Burner meridian had additional Testosterone (in the male) and Estrogen (especially Estriol and Estradiol in the female. PMID:2575347

  20. The Influence of Serotonin on Fear Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hindi Attar, Catherine; Finckh, Barbara; Büchel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Learning of associations between aversive stimuli and predictive cues is the basis of Pavlovian fear conditioning and is driven by a mismatch between expectation and outcome. To investigate whether serotonin modulates the formation of such aversive cue-outcome associations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dietary tryptophan depletion to reduce brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in healthy human subjects. In a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, 5-HT depleted subjects compared to a non-depleted control group exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to cues indicating the upcoming of an aversive event. These results were closely paralleled by reduced aversive learning signals in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, two prominent structures of the neural fear circuit. In agreement with current theories of serotonin as a motivational opponent system to dopamine in fear learning, our data provide first empirical evidence for a role of serotonin in representing formally derived learning signals for aversive events. PMID:22879964

  1. Salvinorin A regulates dopamine transporter function via a kappa opioid receptor and ERK1/2-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kivell, Bronwyn; Uzelac, Zeljko; Sundaramurthy, Santhanalakshmi; Rajamanickam, Jeyaganesh; Ewald, Amy; Chefer, Vladimir; Jaligam, Vanaja; Bolan, Elizabeth; Simonson, Bridget; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D; Sitte, Harald H; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Shippenberg, Toni S

    2014-11-01

    Salvinorin A (SalA), a selective κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist, produces dysphoria and pro-depressant like effects. These actions have been attributed to inhibition of striatal dopamine release. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine transmission via uptake of released neurotransmitter. KORs are apposed to DAT in dopamine nerve terminals suggesting an additional target by which SalA modulates dopamine transmission. SalA produced a concentration-dependent, nor-binaltorphimine (BNI)- and pertussis toxin-sensitive increase of ASP(+) accumulation in EM4 cells coexpressing myc-KOR and YFP-DAT, using live cell imaging and the fluorescent monoamine transporter substrate, trans 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium) (ASP(+)). Other KOR agonists also increased DAT activity that was abolished by BNI pretreatment. While SalA increased DAT activity, SalA treatment decreased serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and had no effect on norepinephrine transporter (NET) activity. In striatum, SalA increased the Vmax for DAT mediated DA transport and DAT surface expression. SalA up-regulation of DAT function is mediated by KOR activation and the KOR-linked extracellular signal regulated kinase-½ (ERK1/2) pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and BRET studies revealed that DAT and KOR exist in a complex. In live cells, DAT and KOR exhibited robust FRET signals under basal conditions. SalA exposure caused a rapid and significant increase of the FRET signal. This suggests that the formation of KOR and DAT complexes is promoted in response to KOR activation. Together, these data suggest that enhanced DA transport and decreased DA release resulting in decreased dopamine signalling may contribute to the dysphoric and pro-depressant like effects of SalA and other KOR agonists. PMID:25107591

  2. Salvinorin A Regulates Dopamine Transporter Function Via A Kappa Opioid Receptor and ERK1/2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kivell, Bronwyn; Uzelac, Zeljko; Sundaramurthy, Santhanalakshmi; Rajamanickam, Jeyaganesh; Ewald, Amy; Chefer, Vladimir; Jaligam, Vanaja; Bolan, Elizabeth; Simonson, Bridget; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Prisinzano, Thomas; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.; Sitte, Harald H.; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Shippenberg, Toni S.

    2014-01-01

    Salvinorin A (SalA), a selective κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist, produces dysphoria and pro-depressant like effects. These actions have been attributed to inhibition of striatal dopamine release. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine transmission via uptake of released neurotransmitter. KORs are apposed to DAT in dopamine nerve terminals suggesting an additional target by which SalA modulates dopamine transmission. SalA produced a concentration-dependent, nor-binaltorphimine (BNI)- and pertussis toxin-sensitive increase of ASP+ accumulation in EM4 cells coexpressing myc-KOR and YFP-DAT, using live cell imaging and the fluorescent monoamine transporter substrate, trans 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium) (ASP+). Other KOR agonists also increased DAT activity that was abolished by BNI pretreatment. While SalA increased DAT activity, SalA treatment decreased serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and had no effect on norepinephrine transporter (NET) activity. In striatum, SalA increased the Vmax for DAT mediated DA transport and DAT surface expression. SalA up-regulation of DAT function is mediated by KOR activation and the KOR-linked extracellular signal regulated kinase-½ (ERK1/2) pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and BRET studies revealed that DAT and KOR exist in a complex. In live cells, DAT and KOR exhibited robust FRET signals under basal conditions. SalA exposure caused a rapid and significant increase of the FRET signal. This suggests that the formation of KOR and DAT complexes is promoted in response to KOR activation. Together, these data suggest that enhanced DA transport and decreased DA release resulting in decreased dopamine signaling may contribute to the dysphoric and pro-depressant like effects of SalA and other KOR agonists. PMID:25107591

  3. Modulation of pumping rate by two species of marine bivalve molluscs in response to neurotransmitters: Comparison of in vitro and in vivo results.

    PubMed

    Frank, Dana M; Deaton, Lewis; Shumway, Sandra E; Holohan, Bridget A; Ward, J Evan

    2015-07-01

    Most studies regarding the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of molluscan ctenidia have focused on isolated ctenidial tissue preparations. This study investigated how bivalve molluscs modulate their feeding rates by examining the effects of a variety of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, and the dopamine agonist apomorphine on both isolated ctenidial tissue and in intact members of two commercially important bivalve species: the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis; and the bay scallop Argopecten irradians. In particular, we examined the effect of changes in: 1) beat of the lateral cilia (in vitro), 2) distance between ctenidial filaments and/or plicae (in vivo), and 3) diameter of the siphonal openings (in vivo) on alteration of bulk water flow through the mantle cavity. Important differences were found between isolated tissue and whole animals, and between species. Drugs that stimulated ciliary beat in vitro did not increase water processing rate in vivo. None of the treatments increased water flow through the mantle cavity of intact animals. Results suggest that A. irradians was primarily modulating lateral ciliary activity, while M. edulis appeared to have a number of ways to control water processing activity, signifying that the two species may have different compensatory and regulatory mechanisms controlling feeding activity. PMID:25847101

  4. Role of serotonin neurons in the induction of levodopa- and graft-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Carta, Manolo; Carlsson, Thomas; Muñoz, Ana; Kirik, Deniz; Björklund, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) have provided evidence that dopamine released from spared serotonin afferents can act as a trigger of dyskinetic movements induced by repetitive, low doses of levodopa. Serotonin neurons have the capacity to store and release dopamine synthesized from systemically administered levodopa. However, because of the lack of any autoregulatory feedback control, dopamine released from serotonin terminals results in excessive swings in extracellular dopamine levels after peripheral administration of levodopa. Such "dysregulated" release of levodopa-derived dopamine is likely to be responsible for the appearance of the abnormal movements in levodopa-primed animals. This mechanism may also play a role in the development of graft-induced dyskinesias in patients that receive fetal neuron transplants, possibly due to the inclusion of serotonin neurons in the grafted ventral midbrain tissue, which contribute to maintain dopamine receptors of the denervated striatum in a supersensitive state. PMID:20187238

  5. Expression of serotonin receptor genes in cranial ganglia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naohiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Taste cells release neurotransmitters to gustatory neurons to transmit chemical information they received. Sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells use ATP as a neurotransmitter. However, ATP release from sour taste cells has not been observed so far. Instead, they release serotonin when they are activated by sour/acid stimuli. Thus it is still controversial whether sour taste cells use ATP, serotonin, or both. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses, we revealed that of 14 serotonin receptor genes only 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B showed significant/clear signals in a subset of neurons of cranial sensory ganglia in which gustatory neurons reside. Double-fluorescent labeling analyses of ISH for serotonin receptor genes with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in cranial sensory ganglia of pkd1l3-WGA mice whose sour neural pathway is visualized by the distribution of WGA originating from sour taste cells in the posterior region of the tongue revealed that WGA-positive cranial sensory neurons rarely express either of serotonin receptor gene. These results suggest that serotonin receptors expressed in cranial sensory neurons do not play any role as neurotransmitter receptor from sour taste cells. PMID:26854841

  6. Imaging dopamine receptors in the human brain by position tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstrom, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors may be involved in a number of neuropsychiatric disease states. The ligand 3-N-(/sup 11/C)methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans. This technique holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptors in humans.

  7. Role of serotonin in the hepato-gastroIntestinal tract: an old molecule for new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lesurtel, M; Soll, C; Graf, R; Clavien, P-A

    2008-03-01

    Beside its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, serotonin appears to be a central physiologic mediator of many gastrointestinal (GI) functions and a mediator of the brain-gut connection. By acting directly and via modulation of the enteric nervous system, serotonin has numerous effects on the GI tract. The main gut disturbances in which serotonin is involved are acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, carcinoid syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin also has mitogenic properties. Platelet-derived serotonin is involved in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. In diseased liver, serotonin may play a crucial role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis and the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. Better understanding of the role of the serotonin receptor subtypes and serotonin mechanisms of action in the liver and gut may open new therapeutic strategies in hepato-gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:18080089

  8. Dietary fatty acid composition in pregnancy alters neurite membrane fatty acids and dopamine in newborn rat brain.

    PubMed

    Innis, S M; de La Presa Owens, S

    2001-01-01

    The importance of maternal dietary fatty acids on arachidonic acid [AA; 20:4(n-6)] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)] in fetal brain nerve growth cone membranes and monoaminergic neurotransmitters was investigated. Rats were fed purified diets containing 20 g/100 g safflower oil with 74.3% 18:2(n-6), 0.2% 18:3(n-3), soybean oil with 55.4% 18:2(n-6), 7.7% 18:3(n-3) or high fish oil with 24.6% 22:6(n-3) through gestation. Tissue for rats within a litter were pooled at birth, brain growth cone membranes prepared and phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) fatty acids quantified by gas-liquid chromatography. Dopamine, serotonin, and the metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid were quantified by HPLC. Growth cone membranes from offspring of rats fed safflower oil had significantly lower, and offspring of rats fed high 22:6(n-3) fish oil had significantly higher 22:6(n-3) in PE, PS and PI than the soybean oil group. The growth cone membrane PC, PE and PS 20:4(n-6) was significantly lower in the fish oil than in the soybean or safflower oil groups. Serotonin concentration was significantly higher in brain of offspring in the safflower oil compared with the soybean oil group. The newborn brain dopamine was inversely related to PE DHA and PS DHA (P < 0.001), but positively related to PC AA (P < 0.05). These studies show that maternal dietary fatty acids may alter fetal brain growth cone (n-6) and (n-3) fatty acids, and neurotransmitters involved in neurite extension, target finding and synaptogenesis. The functional importance, however, is not known at this time. PMID:11208947

  9. Harmane: an atypical neurotransmitter?

    PubMed

    Abu Ghazaleh, Haya; Lalies, Maggie D; Nutt, David J; Hudson, Alan L

    2015-03-17

    Harmane is an active component of clonidine displacing substance and a candidate endogenous ligand for imidazoline binding sites. The neurochemistry of tritiated harmane was investigated in the present study examining its uptake and release properties in the rat brain central nervous system (CNS) in vitro. At physiological temperature, [(3)H]harmane was shown to be taken up in rat brain cortex. Further investigations demonstrated that treatment with monoamine uptake blockers (citalopram, nomifensine and nisoxetine) did not alter [(3)H]harmane uptake implicating that the route of [(3)H]harmane transport was distinct from the monoamine uptake systems. Furthermore, imidazoline ligands (rilmenidine, efaroxan, 2-BFI and idazoxan) showed no prominent effect on [(3)H]harmane uptake suggesting the lack of involvement of imidazoline binding sites. Subsequent analyses showed that disruption of the Na(+) gradient using ouabain or choline chloride did not block [(3)H]harmane uptake suggesting a Na(+)-independent transport mechanism. Moreover, higher temperatures (50°C) failed to impede [(3)H]harmane uptake implying a non-physiological transporter. The failure of potassium to evoke the release of preloaded [(3)H]harmane from rat brain cortex indicates that the properties of this putative endogenous ligand for imidazoline binding sites do not resemble that of a conventional neurotransmitter. PMID:25625221

  10. Neurotransmitters of the suprachiasmatic nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Reghunandanan, Vallath; Reghunandanan, Rajalaxmy

    2006-01-01

    There has been extensive research in the recent past looking into the molecular basis and mechanisms of the biological clock, situated in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. Neurotransmitters are a very important component of SCN function. Thorough knowledge of neurotransmitters is not only essential for the understanding of the clock but also for the successful manipulation of the clock with experimental chemicals and therapeutical drugs. This article reviews the current knowledge about neurotransmitters in the SCN, including neurotransmitters that have been identified only recently. An attempt was made to describe the neurotransmitters and hormonal/diffusible signals of the SCN efference, which are necessary for the master clock to exert its overt function. The expression of robust circadian rhythms depends on the integrity of the biological clock and on the integration of thousands of individual cellular clocks found in the clock. Neurotransmitters are required at all levels, at the input, in the clock itself, and in its efferent output for the normal function of the clock. The relationship between neurotransmitter function and gene expression is also discussed because clock gene transcription forms the molecular basis of the clock and its working. PMID:16480518

  11. Serotonin receptor signaling and regulation via ?-arrestins

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Laura M.; Schmid, Cullen L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin receptors are the product of 15 distinct genes, 14 of which are G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in a wide range of cell types, including distinct neuronal populations, and promote diverse functional responses in multiple organ systems. These receptors are important for mediating the in vivo effects of their cognate neurotransmitter, serotonin, as well as the endogenous tryptamines. In addition, the actions of many drugs are mediated, either directly or indirectly, through serotonin receptors, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, sleep aids, migraine therapies, gastrointestinal therapeutics and hallucinogenic drugs. It is becoming increasingly evident that serotonin receptors can engage in differential signaling that is determined by the chemical nature of the ligand and that ligands that demonstrate a predilection for inducing a particular signaling cascade are considered to have functional selectivity. The elucidation of the cellular signaling pathways that mediate the physiological responses to serotonin and other agonists is an active area of investigation and will be an onward-looking focal point for determining how to effectively and selectively promote beneficial serotonergic mimicry while avoiding unwanted clinical side effects. This review highlights the modulation of serotonin 2A, 2C, and four receptors by ?-arrestins, which may represent a fulcrum for biasing receptor responsiveness in vivo. PMID:20925600

  12. Comparison of phenelzine and geometric isomers of its active metabolite, β-phenylethylidenehydrazine, on rat brain levels of amino acids, biogenic amine neurotransmitters and methylamine.

    PubMed

    Matveychuk, Dmitriy; Nunes, Emerson; Ullah, Nasir; Velázquez-Martinez, Carlos A; MacKenzie, Erin M; Baker, Glen B

    2013-06-01

    Phenelzine is a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor used in treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. It also elevates brain levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and inhibits primary amine oxidase (PrAO), an enzyme whose activity and/or expression has been reported to be increased in diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disorders. Phenelzine is not only an inhibitor of, but also a substrate for, MAO and it has been suggested that an active metabolite, namely β-phenylethylidenehydrazine (PEH), is responsible for phenelzine's effects on amino acids. PEH is also a strong inhibitor of PrAO but has weak effects on MAO. PEH has a double bond and can thus exist as (E)- and (Z)-geometric isomers, but to date the two isomers have not been compared with regard to their neurochemical effects. We have investigated the effects of phenelzine, (E)- and (Z)-PEH on rat whole brain levels of amino acids, biogenic amine neurotransmitters and methylamine (an endogenous substrate of PrAO). Under the conditions used in the study, (E)- and (Z)-PEH appear to be equivalent in their neurochemical properties. Both PEH isomers and phenelzine produced marked increases in rat brain levels of GABA and alanine while decreasing brain levels of glutamine. Phenelzine increased brain levels of biogenic amine neurotransmitters (noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin), whereas neither PEH isomer altered levels of these neurotransmitters to a considerable extent. All three drugs significantly increased rat brain levels of methylamine, with (E)- and (Z)-PEH causing a greater increase than phenelzine. These results are discussed in relation to the possible therapeutic applications of these drugs. PMID:23392617

  13. Moderate exercise and chronic stress produce counteractive effects on different areas of the brain by acting through various neurotransmitter receptor subtypes: A hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Sarbadhikari, Suptendra N; Saha, Asit K

    2006-01-01

    Background Regular, "moderate", physical exercise is an established non-pharmacological form of treatment for depressive disorders. Brain lateralization has a significant role in the progress of depression. External stimuli such as various stressors or exercise influence the higher functions of the brain (cognition and affect). These effects often do not follow a linear course. Therefore, nonlinear dynamics seem best suited for modeling many of the phenomena, and putative global pathways in the brain, attributable to such external influences. Hypothesis The general hypothesis presented here considers only the nonlinear aspects of the effects produced by "moderate" exercise and "chronic" stressors, but does not preclude the possibility of linear responses. In reality, both linear and nonlinear mechanisms may be involved in the final outcomes. The well-known neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (D) and norepinephrine (NE) all have various receptor subtypes. The article hypothesizes that 'Stress' increases the activity/concentration of some particular subtypes of receptors (designated nts) for each of the known (and unknown) neurotransmitters in the right anterior (RA) and left posterior (LP) regions (cortical and subcortical) of the brain, and has the converse effects on a different set of receptor subtypes (designated nth). In contrast, 'Exercise' increases nth activity/concentration and/or reduces nts activity/concentration in the LA and RP areas of the brain. These effects may be initiated by the activation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) (among others) in exercise and its suppression in stress. Conclusion On the basis of this hypothesis, a better understanding of brain neurodynamics might be achieved by considering the oscillations caused by single neurotransmitters acting on their different receptor subtypes, and the temporal pattern of recruitment of these subtypes. Further, appropriately designed and planned experiments will not only corroborate such theoretical models, but also shed more light on the underlying brain dynamics. PMID:16995950

  14. Analysis of 17 neurotransmitters, metabolites and precursors in zebrafish through the life cycle using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos-Fandila, A; Vázquez, E; Barranco, A; Zafra-Gómez, A; Navalón, A; Rueda, R; Ramírez, M

    2015-09-15

    An ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of neurotransmitters, metabolites and precursors at different stages in zebrafish life was developed. Betaine, glutamine, glutamic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine, choline, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, tyrosine, epinephrine, tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and agmatine were selected as analytes. The method consisted of a simple deproteinization of samples using methanol and formic acid, subsequent injection onto the chromatographic equipment and quantification with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer detector using an electrospray ionization interface in positive mode. Limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 11ngmL(-1) and limits of quantification from 0.1 to 38ngmL(-1), depending on the analyte. The method was validated according to US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) guideline for bioanalytical assays. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD), was lower than 15% in all cases, and the determination coefficient (R(2)) was equal or higher than 99.0% with a residual deviation for each calibration point lower than ±25%. Mean recoveries were between 85% and 115%. The method was applied to determine of these compounds in zebrafish from early stages of development to adulthood and showed the time-course of neurotransmitters and others neurocompounds through the life cycle. The possibility of measuring up to 17 compounds related with the main neurotransmitter systems in a simple analytical method will complement and reinforce the use of zebrafish in multiple applications in the field of neurosciences. The proposed method will facilitate future studies related with brain development. PMID:26281771

  15. Head-to-Head Comparisons of Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Coatings for Sensitive and Selective Neurotransmitter Detection by Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yogesh S.; Sawarynski, Lauren E.; Dabiri, Pasha D.; Choi, Wonwoo R.; Andrews, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Voltammetry is widely used to investigate neurotransmission and other biological processes but is limited by poor chemical selectivity and fouling of commonly used carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs). We performed direct comparisons of three key coating materials purported to impart selectivity and fouling resistance to electrodes: Nafion, base-hydrolyzed cellulose acetate (BCA), and fibronectin. We systematically evaluated the impact on a range of electrode parameters. Fouling due to exposure to brain tissue was investigated using an approach that minimizes the use of animals while enabling evaluation of statistically significant populations of electrodes. We find that BCA is relatively fouling resistant. Moreover, detection at BCA-coated CFMs can be tuned by altering hydrolysis times to minimize the impact on sensitivity losses while maintaining fouling resistance. Fibronectin coating is associated with moderate losses in sensitivity after coating and fouling. Nafion imparts increased sensitivity for dopamine and norepinephrine but not serotonin, as well as the anticipated selectivity for cationic neurotransmitters over anionic metabolites. However, while Nafion has been suggested to resist fouling, both dip-coating and electro-deposition of Nafion are associated with substantial fouling, similar to levels observed at bare electrodes after exposure to brain tissue. Direct comparisons of these coatings identified unique electroanalytical properties of each that can be used to guide selection tailored to the goals and environment of specific studies. PMID:21770471

  16. Head-to-head comparisons of carbon fiber microelectrode coatings for sensitive and selective neurotransmitter detection by voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Yogesh S; Sawarynski, Lauren E; Dabiri, Pasha D; Choi, Wonwoo R; Andrews, Anne M

    2011-09-01

    Voltammetry is widely used to investigate neurotransmission and other biological processes but is limited by poor chemical selectivity and fouling of commonly used carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs). We performed direct comparisons of three key coating materials purported to impart selectivity and fouling resistance to electrodes: Nafion, base-hydrolyzed cellulose acetate (BCA), and fibronectin. We systematically evaluated the impact on a range of electrode parameters. Fouling due to exposure to brain tissue was investigated using an approach that minimizes the use of animals while enabling evaluation of statistically significant populations of electrodes. We find that BCA is relatively fouling-resistant. Moreover, detection at BCA-coated CFMs can be tuned by altering hydrolysis times to minimize the impact on sensitivity losses while maintaining fouling resistance. Fibronectin coating is associated with moderate losses in sensitivity after coating and fouling. Nafion imparts increased sensitivity for dopamine and norepinephrine but not serotonin, as well as the anticipated selectivity for cationic neurotransmitters over anionic metabolites. Although Nafion has been suggested to resist fouling, both dip-coating and electrodeposition of Nafion are associated with substantial fouling, similar to levels observed at bare electrodes after exposure to brain tissue. Direct comparisons of these coatings identified unique electroanalytical properties of each that can be used to guide selection tailored to the goals and environment of specific studies. PMID:21770471

  17. Alterations of serotonin transmission in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2007-01-01

    A role for serotonin alterations in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has long been suspected because of the psychotogenic effects of serotonergic agonists and the therapeutic effects of 5-HT(2) antagonism. This chapter is a review of the evidence derived from pharmacological studies, postmortem, and imaging studies that have assessed the role of serotonin transmission in schizophrenia. While a clear picture of specific serotonergic alterations in schizophrenia has not emerged despite much research, this review reinforces a modulatory role of serotonergic agents on dopamine transmission in schizophrenia, which may contribute to the therapeutic effects of atypical antipsychotics. PMID:17349860

  18. Macrocyclic Gd(3+) complexes with pendant crown ethers designed for binding zwitterionic neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Logothetis, Nikos K; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-07-27

    A series of Gd(3+) complexes exhibiting a relaxometric response to zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters was synthesized. The design concept involves ditopic interactions 1) between a positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated Gd(3+) chelate and the carboxylate group of the neurotransmitters and 2) between an azacrown ether appended to the chelate and the amino group of the neurotransmitters. The chelates differ in the nature and length of the linker connecting the cyclen-type macrocycle that binds the Ln(3+) ion and the crown ether. The complexes are monohydrated, but they exhibit high proton relaxivities (up to 7.7 mM(-1)  s(-1) at 60 MHz, 310 K) due to slow molecular tumbling. The formation of ternary complexes with neurotransmitters was monitored by (1) H relaxometric titrations of the Gd(3+) complexes and by luminescence measurements on the Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) analogues at pH 7.4. The remarkable relaxivity decrease (≈80 %) observed on neurotransmitter binding is related to the decrease in the hydration number, as evidenced by luminescence lifetime measurements on the Eu(3+) complexes. These complexes show affinity for amino acid neurotransmitters in the millimolar range, which can be suited to imaging concentrations of synaptically released neurotransmitters. They display good selectivity over non-amino acid neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, and noradrenaline) and hydrogenphosphate, but selectivity over hydrogencarbonate was not achieved. PMID:26118946

  19. Effects of Postnatal Serotonin Agonism on Fear Response and Memory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) also acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain. Early administration of a 5-HT agonist could alter the development of the serotonergic circuitry, altering behaviors mediated by 5-HT signaling, such as memory, fear and aggression. White leghorn chicks...

  20. Neurotransmitters in the CNS control of breathing.

    PubMed

    Bonham, A C

    1995-09-01

    This review summarises our current understanding of the neurotransmitters involved in the generation, transmission and modulation of respiratory rhythm. The principal neurotransmitters involved in generating and transmitting respiratory rhythm include glutamate, GABA, and glycine. Glutamate acts primarily at non-NMDA receptors within the networks to generate respiratory rhythm in neonatal in vitro preparations, but it may also engage NMDA receptors in mature intact animals. Glutamate may likewise act as presynaptic AP-4 metabotropic receptors to fine tune its own release in the transmission of respiratory rhythm to the phrenic motoneurones. The role of other metabotropic receptors in rhythmogenesis is not known. GABA (primarily by acting at GABAA receptors), as well as glycine, transmit phasic waves of inhibition within the primary respiratory network. Neuroactive agents synthesized outside the primary network may shape the final expression of the basic rhythm. The most studied inputs originate in the pons and from the slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SAR). Both of these inputs contribute to the transition from inspiration to expiration. Pontine mechanisms rely on excitatory amino acid activation of NMDA receptors, while SAR pathways utilize non-NMDA receptors. Serotonin has also been implicated in regulating respiratory rhythm, possibly via serotonergic projections originating in the raphe nuclei. The amine has diverse effects on respiratory neuronal activity; the most consistent effect appears to be an augmentation of phrenic motoneuronal at the level of the spinal cord. Substance P regulates respiratory activity by acting in the CNS and on peripheral sensory receptors. Centrally, substance P largely augments respiration, by increasing respiratory rhythm in neonatal in vitro preparations and also by increasing tidal volume in the intact animal. Substance P is also released by carotid chemoreceptor afferents during hypoxia. Opioids are well known to decrease respiration; the central mechanism involves the suppression of baseline inspiratory neuronal activity and possibly the blunting of glutamate-evoked increases in inspiration drive. PMID:8606995

  1. Brain neurotransmitters in fatigue and overtraining.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Romain; Watson, Philip; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria F

    2007-10-01

    Since the publication of the serotonin hypothesis, numerous theories involving the accumulation or depletion of different substances in the brain have been proposed to explain central fatigue. Although the theoretical rationale for the "serotonin-fatigue hypothesis" is clear, several seemingly well-conducted studies have failed to support a significant role for 5-hydroxytryptamine in the development of fatigue. As brain function appears to be dependent upon the interaction of a number of systems, it is unlikely that a single neurotransmitter system is responsible for central fatigue. Several other mechanisms are involved, with evidence supporting a role for the brain catecholamines. Fatigue is therefore probably an integrated phenomenon, with complex interaction among central and peripheral factors. When prolonged and excessive training happens, concurrent with other stressors and insufficient recovery, performance decrements can result in chronic maladaptations that can lead to the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The mechanism of the OTS could be difficult to examine in detail, perhaps because the stress caused by excessive training load, in combination with other stressors, might trigger different "defence mechanisms" such as the immunological, neuroendocrine, and other physiological systems that all interact and probably therefore cannot be pinpointed as the "sole" cause of the OTS. It might be that, as in other syndromes, the psychoneuroimmunology (study of brain-behavior-immune interrelationships) might shed a light on the possible mechanisms of the OTS, but until there is a definite diagnostic tool, it is of utmost importance to standardize measures that are now thought to provide a good inventory of the training status of the athlete. It is very important to emphasize the need to distinguish the OTS from overreaching and other potential causes of temporary underperformance such as anemia, acute infection, muscle damage, and insufficient carbohydrate intake. PMID:18059610

  2. A re-evaluation of the neurotransmitter basis of chemotherapy-induced immediate and delayed vomiting: evidence from the least shrew.

    PubMed

    Darmani, Nissar A; Crim, Jennifer L; Janoyan, Jano J; Abad, Joseph; Ramirez, Juan

    2009-01-12

    Although the neurotransmitter basis of chemotherapy-induced vomiting (CIV) is thought to be multifactorial, it is generally accepted that acute (immediate) CIV is mainly due to the release of serotonin (5-HT) within the gastrointestinal tract, while the delayed phase occurs following substance P (SP) release in the brainstem. The aim of the current study was to test this dogma in the least shrew model of vomiting. Thus, we initially investigated the temporal development of cisplatin's immediate and delayed emetic effects in the least shrew and subsequently determined the concomitant changes in the turnover of major emetic neurotransmitters both in the central and peripheral loci associated with CIV. Cisplatin (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) caused dose- and time-dependent emetic effects. A 10 mg/kg dose of cisplatin produced both phases of emesis with corresponding peak mean frequencies occurring at 2-3 and 33 h post-treatment, at 5 mg/kg it failed to cause significant emesis in either phase, while its 20 mg/kg dose induced both phases earlier but toxicity restricted the full 47 hour observation. Cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced peak immediate and delayed phases were associated with concomitant increases in the turnover of 5-HT, dopamine and SP in both the shrew brainstem and jejunum. The discussed increases during both phases appear to be site specific since neurotransmitter release was not persistently altered in the shrew frontal cortex or duodenum, although occasionally increases or decreases did occur. Our findings suggest that the least shrew appears to be a sensitive and rapid emesis model for both phases of CIV, and both emetic phases are associated with specific increases in the release of all of the cited neurotransmitters in both the brainstem and jejunum. Thus, the generally accepted neurotransmitter dogma needs to be updated since more recent neurochemical studies in humans as well as other clinical findings support the current basic results obtained in the least shrew. PMID:19022231

  3. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states. PMID:26154191

  4. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  5. Convergent Pathways for Steroid Hormone-and Neurotransmitter-Induced Rat Sexual Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, S. K.; Allen, J. M. C.; Clark, J. H.; Blaustein, J. D.; O'Malley, B. W.

    1994-08-01

    Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D_1 receptor agonist, but not a D_2 receptor agonist, mimicked the effects of progesterone in facilitating sexual behavior in female rats. The facilitatory effect of the neurotransmitter was blocked by progesterone receptor antagonists, a D_1 receptor antagonist, or antisense oligonucleotides to the progesterone receptor. The results suggest that in rodents neurotransmitters may regulate in vivo gene expression and behavior by means of cross-talk with steroid receptors in the brain.

  6. Paradoxical modulation of short-term facilitation of dopamine release by dopamine autoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Kita, Justin M; Parker, Lauren E; Phillips, Paul E M; Garris, Paul A; Wightman, R Mark

    2007-08-01

    Electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that dopaminergic neurons burst fire during certain aspects of reward-related behavior; however, the correlation between dopamine release and cell firing is unclear. When complex stimulation patterns that mimic intracranial self-stimulation were employed, dopamine release was shown to exhibit facilitated as well as depressive components (Montague et al. 2004). Understanding the biological mechanisms underlying these variations in dopamine release is necessary to unravel the correlation between unit activity and neurotransmitter release. The dopamine autoreceptor provides negative feedback to dopamine release, inhibiting release on the time scale of a few seconds. Therefore, we investigated this D(2) receptor to see whether it is one of the biological mechanisms responsible for the history-dependent modulation of dopamine release. Striatal dopamine release in anesthetized rats was evoked with stimulus trains that were designed to promote the variability of dopamine release. Consistent with the well established D(2)-mediated autoinhibition, the short-term depressive component of dopamine release was blocked by raclopride, a D(2) antagonist, and enhanced by quinpirole, a D(2)-receptor agonist. Surprisingly, these same drugs exerted a similar effect on the short-term facilitated component: a decrease with raclopride and an increase with quinpirole. These data demonstrate that the commanding control exerted by dopamine autoreceptors over short-term neuroadaptation of dopamine release involves both inhibitory and paradoxically, facilitatory components. PMID:17663751

  7. Voltammetric and Mathematical Evidence for Dual Transport Mediation of Serotonin Clearance In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin M.; Zeqja, Anisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; Best, Janet; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin underlies many of the brain’s functions. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is important for improving treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Antidepressants commonly target serotonin clearance via serotonin transporters (SERTs) and have variable clinical effects. Adjunctive therapies, targeting other systems including serotonin autoreceptors, also vary clinically and carry adverse consequences. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is particularly well suited for studying antidepressant effects on serotonin clearance and autoreceptors by providing real-time chemical information on serotonin kinetics in vivo. However, the complex nature of in vivo serotonin responses makes it difficult to interpret experimental data with established kinetic models. Here, we electrically stimulated the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to provoke and detect terminal serotonin in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). In response to MFB stimulation we found three dynamically distinct serotonin signals. To interpret these signals we developed a computational model that supports two independent serotonin reuptake mechanisms (high affinity, low efficiency reuptake mechanism and low affinity, high efficiency reuptake system) and bolsters an important inhibitory role for the serotonin autoreceptors. Our data and analysis, afforded by the powerful combination of voltammetric and theoretical methods, gives new understanding of the chemical heterogeneity of serotonin dynamics in the brain. This diverse serotonergic matrix likely contributes to clinical variability of antidepressants. PMID:24702305

  8. Serotonin released from amacrine neurons is scavenged and degraded in bipolar neurons in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Kanika; Zelinka, Christopher; Fischer, Andy J.

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin is synthesized in the retina by one type of amacrine neuron but accumulates in bipolar neurons in many vertebrates. The mechanisms, functions and purpose underlying of serotonin in bipolar cells remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that exogenous serotonin transiently accumulates in a distinct type of bipolar neuron. KCl-mediated depolarization causes the depletion of serotonin from amacrine neurons and, subsequently, serotonin is taken-up by bipolar neurons. The accumulation of endogenous or exogenous serotonin by bipolar neurons is blocked by selective reuptake inhibitors. Exogenous serotonin is specifically taken-up by bipolar neurons even when serotonin-synthesizing amacrine neurons are destroyed; excluding the possibility that serotonin diffuses through gap junctions from amacrine into bipolar neurons. Further, inhibition of monoamine oxidase (A) prevents the degradation of serotonin in bipolar neurons, suggesting that MAO(A) is present in these neurons. However, the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) is present only in amacrine cells suggesting that serotonin is not transported into synaptic vesicles and re-used as a transmitter in the bipolar neurons. We conclude that the serotonin-accumulating bipolar neurons perform glial functions in the retina by actively transporting and degrading serotonin that is synthesized in neighboring amacrine cells. PMID:19619137

  9. Serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neurons in the antenna of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Shimohigashi, Miki; Yokohari, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    The antennae of insects contain a vast array of sensory neurons that process olfactory, gustatory, mechanosensory, hygrosensory, and thermosensory information. Except those with multimodal functions, most sensory neurons use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Using immunohistochemistry combined with retrograde staining of antennal sensory neurons in the cockroach Periplaneta americana, we found serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neurons in the antenna. These were selectively distributed in chaetic and scolopidial sensilla and in the scape, the pedicel, and first 15 segments of the flagellum. In a chaetic sensillum, A single serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neuron cohabited with up to four serotonin-negative sensory neurons. Based on their morphological features, serotonin-immunopositive and -negative sensory neurons might process mechanosensory and contact chemosensory modalities, respectively. Scolopidial sensilla constitute the chordotonal and Johnston's organs within the pedicel and process antennal vibrations. Immunoelectron microscopy clearly revealed that serotonin-immunoreactivities selectively localize to a specific type of mechanosensory neuron, called type 1 sensory neuron. In a chordotonal scolopidial sensillum, a serotonin-immunoreactive type 1 neuron always paired with a serotonin-negative type 1 neuron. Conversely, serotonin-immunopositive and -negative type 1 neurons were randomly distributed in Johnston's organ. In the deutocerebrum, serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neuron axons formed three different sensory tracts and those from distinct types of sensilla terminated in distinct brain regions. Our findings indicate that a biogenic amine, serotonin, may act as a neurotransmitter in peripheral mechanosensory neurons. PMID:23852943

  10. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a preconcentration tool for the simultaneous determination of the panel of underivatized neurotransmitters in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-01-29

    A simple and sensitive method using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 compounds of different polarities, comprising monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin) along with their respective precursors and metabolites, in human urine samples. The microextraction procedure was based on the fast injection of a mixture of ethanol (disperser solvent) and dichloromethane (extraction solvent) into a human urine sample, forming a cloudy solution in the Eppendorf tube. After centrifugation, the sedimented phase was collected and subsequently analyzed by LC-HILIC-MS in about 12min without a derivatization step. The separation was performed on an XBridge Amide™ BEH column 3.0×100mm, 3.5mm and the mobile phase consisted of phase A: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in water pH 3.0 and phase B: 10 mM ammonium formate buffer in acetonitrile, under gradient program elution. Tyrosine, tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, 3-methoxytyramine, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine and norvaline (internal standard) were detected in the positive ionization mode. While vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine (internal standard) were detected in the negative ionization mode. Parameters influencing DLLME and LC-HILIC-MS were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method exhibited a low detection limit (5-10ngmL(-1)), and good linearity with R between 0.9991 and 0.9998. The recoveries in human urine samples were 99.0%±3.6%. for the 13 studied biogenic amines with intra- and inter-day RSDs of 0.24-9.55% and 0.31-10.0%, respectively. The developed DLLME-LC-MS method could be successfully applied for the determination of trace amounts of polar endogenous compounds, such as neurotransmitters, in human urine samples, including samples with a reduced volume obtained from pediatric patients. PMID:26747692

  11. Serotonin modulation of cortical neurons and networks

    PubMed Central

    Celada, Pau; Puig, M. Victoria; Artigas, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    The serotonergic pathways originating in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively) are critically involved in cortical function. Serotonin (5-HT), acting on postsynaptic and presynaptic receptors, is involved in cognition, mood, impulse control and motor functions by (1) modulating the activity of different neuronal types, and (2) varying the release of other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine and dopamine. Also, 5-HT seems to play an important role in cortical development. Of all cortical regions, the frontal lobe is the area most enriched in serotonergic axons and 5-HT receptors. 5-HT and selective receptor agonists modulate the excitability of cortical neurons and their discharge rate through the activation of several receptor subtypes, of which the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT3 subtypes play a major role. Little is known, however, on the role of other excitatory receptors moderately expressed in cortical areas, such as 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors are key players and exert opposite effects on the activity of pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The activation of 5-HT1A receptors in mPFC hyperpolarizes pyramidal neurons whereas that of 5-HT2A receptors results in neuronal depolarization, reduction of the afterhyperpolarization and increase of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and of discharge rate. 5-HT can also stimulate excitatory (5-HT2A and 5-HT3) and inhibitory (5-HT1A) receptors in GABA interneurons to modulate synaptic GABA inputs onto pyramidal neurons. Likewise, the pharmacological manipulation of various 5-HT receptors alters oscillatory activity in PFC, suggesting that 5-HT is also involved in the control of cortical network activity. A better understanding of the actions of 5-HT in PFC may help to develop treatments for mood and cognitive disorders associated with an abnormal function of the frontal lobe. PMID:23626526

  12. Common Drugs Inhibit Human Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1)-Mediated Neurotransmitter Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Boxberger, Kelli H.; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The human organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is a polyspecific transporter involved in the uptake of positively charged and neutral small molecules in the liver. To date, few endogenous compounds have been identified as OCT1 substrates; more importantly, the effect of drugs on endogenous substrate transport has not been examined. In this study, we established monoamine neurotransmitters as substrates for OCT1, specifically characterizing serotonin transport in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kinetic analysis yielded a Km of 197 micomolar and a Vmax of 561 pmol/mg protein/minute for serotonin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that serotonin uptake was inhibited by diphenhydramine, fluoxetine, imatinib, and verapamil, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. These results were recapitulated in primary human hepatocytes, suggesting that OCT1 plays a significant role in hepatic elimination of serotonin and that xenobiotics may alter the elimination of endogenous compounds as a result of interactions at the transporter level. PMID:24688079

  13. Release of ileal neurotensin in the rat by neurotransmitters and neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, C; Cuber, J C; Abello, J; Dakka, T; Bernard, C; Chayvialle, J A

    1991-02-01

    To investigate the functional relationship between the enteric nervous system and the intestinal neurotensin (N) cells, the release of neurotensin (NT) was measured upon vascular 8-min infusion periods of various neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in an isolated vascularly perfused rat jejunoileum. NT-like immunoreactivity (NT-LI) was measured with an antiserum that specifically recognizes intact NT. The cholinergic agonists methacholine and carbachol produced a strong release of NT-LI (250% and 700% of basal, respectively at 10(-5) M). The infusion of a lower dose (10(-7) M) was less effective in both cases. The nicotinic receptor agonist DMPP (10(-4) M) had no significant effect on NT-LI release. Norepinephrine (10(-6) M) produced a moderate and well-sustained secretion of NT (200% of basal). Infusion of higher doses of these neurotransmitters dramatically increased the arterial pressure. G-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA), histamine, serotonin and dopamine administered at final concentrations up to 10(-5) M had no effect on NT-LI release. In contrast, gastrin-releasing peptide and bombesin induced a dose-dependent transient increase of portal NT-LI (maximal value at 10(-7) M: 1000% of basal) followed by a rapid return to near basal values. Substance P (10(-7) M) evoked a prompt release of NT-LI with a peak at 600% of basal followed by a decline to 200% of basal at the end of the session. Leu-enkephalin and calcitonin-gene-related-peptide (CGRP, 10(-7) M) produced a small rise in portal NT-LI, while Met-enkephalin, dynorphin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), galanin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI), neuromedin U and thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) had no stimulatory effect. Our results indicate that additionally to the secretion of NT induced by cholinergic agents and bombesin, substance P and to a lesser extent Leu-enkephalin are capable of stimulating NT release in the rat. PMID:1674614

  14. Role of the perifornical hypothalamic monoamine neurotransmitter systems in anorectic effects of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Trinka W; Corll, Connie; Svec, Frank; Porter, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    The cachexia-anorexia syndrome, in which patients suffering from chronic illness lack the desire to eat and experience weight loss, creates a serious clinical problem when patients are attempting to overcome the disease process. Endotoxin (ET) has many actions in the brain and peripheral injections can affect regulation of monoamines in brain areas as diverse as the olfactory lobes and the locus coeruleus. Certainly, ET is involved in the febrile process and it plays a prominent role in the regulation of food intake and maintenance of body weight during chronic illnesses. Monoamine neurotransmitters in specific regions of the hypothalamus also participate in the regulation of food intake and body weight and have been well characterized. In this regard, the hypothalamic perifornical nucleus (PFN) is of interest to our lab due to its role in drug-induced anorexia caused by amphetamines. It is also the most sensitive site in the hypothalamic monoaminergic system that involves dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EPI). DA antagonist, stereotaxically placed in this site, can stimulate feeding, and specific injections of DA or EPI can result in a 70-90% decrease in food intake, even in food-deprived animals. We have shown in our studies that ET in a dose (0.2 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide) that does not induce noticeable ambulatory (lack of movement) effects (related to malaise) can cause a significant decrease in food intake in lean Zucker rats. We hypothesize that exogenous ET causes an increase in the extracellular concentrations of monoamines in the perifornical hypothalamus, which in turn can mediate the decrease in food intake. Microdialysis was utilized to measure extracellular concentrations of EPI, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, DA, and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine. These measurements were taken at a post-ET time period that coincides with an ET-induced decrease (4x) in food intake. Extracellular DA and EPI both significantly increased in the PFN in response to injection of ET. Increases in extracellular DA were dose related and were significant (p < 0.05) compared to zero baseline and saline at both doses of ET. No statistically significant differences were found in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, norepinephrine, and serotonin in microdialysates of this part of the hypothalamus. The present data suggest that catecholamines, namely DA and EPI which are known to decrease food intake, in the PFN may be involved in the regulation of decreases in food intake caused by peripherally administered ET. This does not rule out a role for locally produced inflammatory molecules in the brain in this process. PMID:19940463

  15. Mimicking subsecond neurotransmitter dynamics with femtosecond laser stimulated nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Chin, Catherine; Myint, David Mo Aung; Tan, Eng Wui; Hale, Peter John; Krishna M., Bala Murali; Reynolds, John N. J.; Wickens, Jeff; Dani, Keshav M.

    2014-06-01

    Existing nanoscale chemical delivery systems target diseased cells over long, sustained periods of time, typically through one-time, destructive triggering. Future directions lie in the development of fast and robust techniques capable of reproducing the pulsatile chemical activity of living organisms, thereby allowing us to mimic biofunctionality. Here, we demonstrate that by applying programmed femtosecond laser pulses to robust, nanoscale liposome structures containing dopamine, we achieve sub-second, controlled release of dopamine - a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system - thereby replicating its release profile in the brain. The fast delivery system provides a powerful new interface with neural circuits, and to the larger range of biological functions that operate on this short timescale.

  16. Grafted dopamine neurons: Morphology, neurochemistry, and electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Ingrid; Bickford, Paula; Gerhardt, Greg A

    2010-02-01

    Grafting of dopamine-rich tissue to counteract the symptoms in Parkinson's disease became a promising tool for future treatment. This article discusses how to improve the functional outcome with respect to graft outgrowth and functions of dopamine release and electrophysiological responses to graft implantation in the host brain striatal target. It has been documented that a subpopulation of the dopamine neurons innervates the host brain in a target-specific manner, while some of the grafted dopamine neurons never project to the host striatum. Neurochemical studies have demonstrated that the graft-induced outgrowth synthesize, store, metabolize and release dopamine and possibly other neurotransmitters such as 5-HT. Furthermore, the released dopamine affects the dopamine-depleted brain in areas that are larger than the graft-derived nerve fibers reach. While stem cells will most likely be the future source of cells to be used in grafting, it is important to find the guiding cues for how to reinnervate the dopamine-depleted striatum in a proper way with respect to the dopamine subpopulations of A9 and A10 to efficiently treat the motor abnormalities seen in Parkinson's disease. PMID:19853009

  17. Neurotransmitters involved in the opioid regulation of prolactin secretion at the end of pregnancy in rats.

    PubMed

    Soaje, Marta; Bregonzio, Claudia; Carón, Rubén W; Deis, Ricardo P

    2004-01-01

    Using a pharmacological approach, we explored potential mechanisms for the regulation of prolactin secretion by opioid peptides at the end of pregnancy in rats. On day 19 of pregnancy, intracereboventricular administration of the mu-opioid receptor agonist (D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Gly-ol5)-enkephalin (DAMGO) or beta-endorphin (beta-END) induced a dose-related increase in serum prolactin levels 30 min later. Pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone abolished the increase induced by DAMGO injection. At lower doses, DAMGO and beta-END did not modify the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio, but at higher doses, the mu-agonists evoked a significant increase of the dopaminergic activity as compared with saline control. The time course of the effects of beta-END (2.5 microg/rat) showed a higher increase in serum prolactin levels at 15 min than at 30 min after treatment. The 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid/dopamine ratio increased 15 min after beta-END administration and was even higher 30 min later. Neither the selective kappa-agonist U50,488H nor the selective delta-agonist (D-Pen2, D-Pen5)- enkephalin were able to modify the serum prolactin levels at the doses studied. To evaluate potential neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of prolactin secretion at the end of pregnancy, we combined the administration of serotoninergic or GABAergic antagonists with the opioid agonist DAMGO. The serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin increased the serum prolactin levels and potentiated the effect of DAMGO. The intracerebroventricular administration of SR-95531 did not modify the serum prolactin concentration under basal conditions, but partially prevented the increase induced by DAMGO injection. The intracerebroventricular administration of the GABA(B) receptor antagonist phaclofen had no effect on the serum prolactin levels either in naive or DAMGO-treated rats. The present results support the proposal that activation of mu-opioid receptors stimulates prolactin secretion at the end of pregnancy. Although the exact mechanisms by which the opioid system modulates prolactin secretion at the end of pregnancy are unclear, these results suggest an interaction of the opioidergic system with serotoninergic and GABAergic systems, without ruling out a direct or indirect action on dopaminergic neurons. In conclusion, the opioid system may regulate prolactin secretion at the end of pregnancy through either stimulatory (present results) or inhibitory actions previously described. PMID:15340248

  18. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Eells, J.T.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ((R,S)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(R,S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine or (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions.

  19. The role of serotonin in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin is probably best known for its role in conveying a sense of contentedness and happiness. It is one of the most unique and pharmacologically complex monoamines in both the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS). Serotonin has become in focus of interest for the treatment of depression with multiple serotonin-mimetic and modulators of adult neurogenesis used clinically. Here we will take a broad view of serotonin from development to its physiological role as a neurotransmitter and its contribution to homeostasis of the adult rodent hippocampus. This chapter reflects the most significant findings on cellular and molecular mechanisms from neuroscientists in the field over the last two decades. We illustrate the action of serotonin by highlighting basic receptor targeting studies, and how receptors impact brain function. We give an overview of recent genetically modified mouse models that differ in serotonin availability and focus on the role of the monoamine in antidepressant response. We conclude with a synthesis of the most recent data surrounding the role of serotonin in activity and hippocampal neurogenesis. This synopsis sheds light on the mechanisms and potential therapeutic model by which serotonin plays a critical role in the maintenance of mood. PMID:25125239

  20. Profiling neurotransmitter receptor expression in the Ambystoma mexicanum brain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Limon, Agenor; Korn, Matthew J; Nakamura, Paul A; Shirkey, Nicole J; Wong, Jamie K; Miledi, Ricardo

    2013-03-22

    Ability to regenerate limbs and central nervous system (CNS) is unique to few vertebrates, most notably the axolotl (Ambystoma sp.). However, despite the fact the neurotransmitter receptors are involved in axonal regeneration, little is known regarding its expression profile. In this project, RT-PCR and qPCR were performed to gain insight into the neurotransmitter receptors present in Ambystoma. Its functional ability was studied by expressing axolotl receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes by either injection of mRNA or by direct microtransplantation of brain membranes. Oocytes injected with axolotl mRNA expressed ionotropic receptors activated by GABA, aspartate+glycine and kainate, as well as metabotropic receptors activated by acetylcholine and glutamate. Interestingly, we did not see responses following the application of serotonin. Membranes from the axolotl brain were efficiently microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes and two types of native GABA receptors that differed in the temporal course of their responses and affinities to GABA were observed. Results of this study are necessary for further characterization of axolotl neurotransmitter receptors and may be useful for guiding experiments aimed at understanding activity-dependant limb and CNS regeneration. PMID:23353105

  1. A Dualistic Conformational Response to Substrate Binding in the Human Serotonin Transporter Reveals a High Affinity State for Serotonin*

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida; Wiborg, Ove; Sinning, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes that occur in the human SERT upon binding of ions, the translocation of substrate, and the role of cholesterol in this interplay are not fully elucidated. Here we show that serotonin induces a dualistic conformational response in SERT. We exploited the substituted cysteine scanning method under conditions that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation. Furthermore, we found that membrane cholesterol plays a role in the dualistic conformational response in SERT induced by serotonin. Our results indicate the existence of a subpopulation of SERT responding differently to serotonin binding than hitherto believed and that membrane cholesterol plays a role in this subpopulation of SERT. PMID:25614630

  2. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic

  3. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic…

  4. Dopamine Transporter Blockade Increases LTP in the CA1 Region of the Rat Hippocampus via Activation of the D3 Dopamine Receptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swant, Jarod; Wagner, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has been demonstrated to be involved in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. As monoamine transporter blockade will increase the actions of endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters, the effect of a dopamine transporter (DAT) antagonist on LTP was assessed using field excitatory postsynaptic

  5. Dopamine Transporter Blockade Increases LTP in the CA1 Region of the Rat Hippocampus via Activation of the D3 Dopamine Receptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swant, Jarod; Wagner, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has been demonstrated to be involved in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. As monoamine transporter blockade will increase the actions of endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters, the effect of a dopamine transporter (DAT) antagonist on LTP was assessed using field excitatory postsynaptic…

  6. A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of four endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters in rat brain using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbin; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Lyu, Chunming; Zhang, Shen; Yan, Chao; Cheng, Yu; Wei, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters play an essential role in neural communication in mammalians. Many quantitative methods for endogenous monoamines have been developed during recent decades. Yet, matrix effect was usually a challenge in the quantification, in many cases asking for tedious sample preparation or sacrificing sensitivity. In this work, a simple, fast and sensitive method with no matrix effect was developed to simultaneously determine four endogenous monoamines including serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in rat brain tissues, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, ion source, MS/MS conditions, and brain tissue preparation methods, were optimized and validated. Pre-weighed 20mg brain sample could be effectively and reproducibly homogenized and protein-precipitated by 20 times value of 0.2% formic acid in cold organic solvents (methanol-acetonitrile, 10:90, v/v). This method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes (regression coefficients>0.998 or 0.999). The precision, expressed as coefficients of variation, was less than 3.43% for intra-day analyses and ranged from 4.17% to 15.5% for inter-day analyses. Good performance was showed in limit of detection (between 0.3nM and 3.0nM for all analytes), recovery (90.8-120%), matrix effect (84.4-107%), accuracy (89.8-100%) and stability (88.3-104%). The validated method was well applied to simultaneously determine the endogenous serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in four brain sections of 18 Wistar rats. The quantification of four endogenous monoamines in rat brain performed excellently in the sensitivity, high throughput, simple sample preparation and matrix effect. PMID:26363373

  7. Modeling the kinetic diversity of dopamine in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Walters, Seth H; Robbins, Elaine M; Michael, Adrian C

    2015-08-19

    Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter that exhibits numerous functions in the healthy, injured, and diseased brain. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry paired with electrical stimulation of dopamine axons is a popular and powerful method for investigating the dynamics of dopamine in the extracellular space. Evidence now suggests that the heterogeneity of electrically evoked dopamine responses reflects the inherent kinetic diversity of dopamine systems, which might contribute to their diversity of physiological function. Dopamine measurements by fast scan cyclic voltammetry are affected by the adsorption of dopamine to carbon fiber electrodes. The temporal distortion caused by dopamine adsorption is correctable by a straightforward mathematical procedure. The corrected responses exhibit excellent agreement with a dopamine kinetic model cast to provide a generic description of restricted diffusion, short-term plasticity of dopamine release, and first-order dopamine clearance. The new DA kinetic model brings to light the rich kinetic information content of electrically evoked dopamine responses recorded via fast scan cyclic voltammetry in the rat dorsal striatum. PMID:26083009

  8. Serotonin neuron transplants exacerbate L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Thomas; Carta, Manolo; Winkler, Christian; Björklund, Anders; Kirik, Deniz

    2007-07-25

    Clinical trials in patients with Parkinson's disease have shown that transplants of fetal mesencephalic dopamine neurons can form a new functional innervation of the host striatum, but the clinical benefits have been highly variable: some patients have shown substantial recovery in motor function, whereas others have shown no improvement and even a worsening in the 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinetic side effects. Differences in the composition of the grafted cell preparation may contribute to these discrepancies. In particular, the number of serotonin neurons contained in the graft can vary greatly depending on the dissection of the fetal tissue. Importantly, serotonin neurons have the ability to store and release dopamine, formed from exogenously administered L-DOPA. Here, we have evaluated the effect of transplants containing serotonin neurons, or a mixture of dopamine and serotonin neurons, on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned animals. As expected, dopamine neuron-rich grafts induced functional recovery, accompanied by a 60% reduction in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia that developed gradually over the first 10 weeks. Rats with serotonin-rich grafts with few dopamine neurons, in contrast, showed a progressive worsening of their L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias over time, and no functional improvement. The antidyskinetic effect of dopamine-rich grafts was independent of the number of serotonin neurons present. We conclude that serotonin neurons in the grafts are likely to have a detrimental effect on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias in cases in which the grafts contain no or few dopamine neurons. PMID:17652591

  9. Microfluidic platform for neurotransmitter sensing based on cyclic voltammetry and dielectrophoresis for in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Mathault, Jessy; Zamprogno, Pauline; Greener, Jesse; Miled, Amine

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a new microfluidic platform that can simultaneously measure and locally modulate neurotransmitter concentration in a neuron network. This work focuses on the development of a first prototype including a potentiostat and electrode functionalization to detect several neurotransmitter's simultaneously. We tested dopamine as proof of concept to validate functionality. The system is based on 320 bidirectional electrode array for dielectrophoretic manipulation and cyclic voltammetry. Each electrode is connected to a mechanical multiplexer in order to reduce noise interference and fully isolate the electrode. The multiplexing rate is 476 kHz and each electrode can drive a signal with an amplitude of 60 V pp for dielectrophoretic manipulation. PMID:26736720

  10. Prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide enriched butanolic residue from Senecio brasiliensis affects behavior and striatal neurotransmitter levels of rats in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sandini, Thaísa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Sanches, Daniel; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Flório, Jorge Camilo; Spinosa, Helenice de S

    2015-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxins that are exclusively biosynthesized by plants and are commonly present in foods and herbs. PAs are usually associated with poisoning events in livestock and human beings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to PA integerrimine N-oxide of rats in adulthood. Pregnant Wistar rats received integerrimine N-oxide from the butanolic residue of Senecio brasiliensis by gavage on gestational days 6-20 at doses of 3, 6 and 9 mg/kg. During adulthood of the offspring, the following behavioral tests were performed: open-field, plus-maze, forced swimming, catalepsy and stereotypy. Histological analyses and monoamine levels were measured. Male offspring from dams that were exposed to 9 mg/kg showed an increase in locomotion in the open-field test, an increased frequency of entries and time spent in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, as well as decreased swimming time. In the female offspring from dams that were exposed to 9 mg/kg, there was an increased time of climbing in forced swimming and intensity of stereotyped behavior. The histological study indicates an increase in the number of multinucleated cells in the liver (6 and 9 mg/kg). In neurotransmitter analysis, specifically in the striatum, we observed change in dopamine and serotonin levels in the middle dose. Thus, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide changed behavior in adulthood and neurotransmitter levels in the striatum. Our results agree with previous studies, which showed that integerrimine N-oxide impaired physical and neurobehavioral development in childhood that can persist until adulthood. PMID:26416213

  11. Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Aluminum (Al) is a known neurotoxicant and circumstantial evidence has linked this metal with several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, but no causal relationship has yet been proved. Al-induced behavioral alterations as well as cognitive deficits and rodent brain neurotransmitter level, are well known in adults but the exact mechanism in the offspring of perinatally Al exposed dams is not yet understood properly and needs more attention. In the present study, the perinatal oral exposure of the dams to 300 and 600mg/kg/day Al (aluminum chloride) resulted in significant and deleterious effects in the offspring inflicting a dose-dependent reduction in postnatal body weight gain, delays in opening of the eyes and appearance of body hair fuzz, and deficits in the sensory motor reflexes of the mice pups during weaning period (from the day of birth to postnatal day 21). During adolescent ages of the male offspring, a significant and dose-dependent deficit was also observed in their locomotor activity at postnatal day 22 (PD 22), learning capability (at PD 25), and cognitive behavior (at PD 30-36). Furthermore, a significant and dose-dependent disturbance in the levels of neurotransmitters like dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) was also observed in the forebrain region of the offspring at PD 7, PD 14, PD 21, PD 30, and PD 36. Thus, perinatal Al exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation period, can affect the in utero developing fetus and postnatal developing sucklings, raising the concerns that during a critical perinatal period of brain development, Al exposure has potential and long lasting neurotoxic hazards and might modify the properties of the dopaminergic system and thus can change the threshold of that system or other related systems at later ages. A reduced use of Al during pregnancy is of crucial importance in preventing Al-induced delayed neurotoxicity in the offspring. PMID:22115621

  12. Is Aspartate an Excitatory Neurotransmitter?

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Bruce E.; Silm, Katlin

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has resurrected the idea that the amino acid aspartate, a selective NMDA receptor agonist, is a neurotransmitter. Using a mouse that lacks the glutamate-selective vesicular transporter VGLUT1, we find that glutamate alone fully accounts for the activation of NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses in the hippocampus. This excludes a role for aspartate and, by extension, a recently proposed role for the sialic acid transporter sialin in excitatory transmission. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT It has been proposed that the amino acid aspartate serves as a neurotransmitter. Although aspartate is a selective agonist for NMDA receptors, we find that glutamate alone fully accounts for neurotransmission at excitatory synapses in the hippocampus, excluding a role for aspartate. PMID:26180193

  13. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters: mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Anne, Christine; Gasnier, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Secondary transporters driven by a V-type H⁺-ATPase accumulate nonpeptide neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles. Distinct transporter families are involved depending on the neurotransmitter. Monoamines and acetylcholine on the one hand, and glutamate and ATP on the other hand, are accumulated by SLC18 and SLC17 transporters, respectively, which belong to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). GABA and glycine accumulate through a common SLC32 transporter from the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily. Although crystallographic structures are not yet available for any vesicular transporter, homology modeling studies of MFS-type vesicular transporters based on distantly related bacterial structures recently provided significant advances, such as the characterization of substrate-binding pockets or the identification of spatial clusters acting as hinge points during the alternating-access cycle. However, several basic issues, such as the ion stoichiometry of vesicular amino acid transporters, remain unsettled. PMID:24745982

  14. Detection of dopamine neurotransmission in “real time”

    PubMed Central

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.

    2013-01-01

    Current imaging techniques have limited ability to detect neurotransmitters released during brain processing. It is a critical limitation because neurotransmitters have significant control over the brain activity. In this context, recent development of single-scan dynamic molecular imaging technique is important because it allows detection, mapping, and measurement of dopamine released in the brain during task performance. The technique exploits the competition between endogenously released dopamine and its receptor ligand for occupancy of receptor sites. Dopamine released during task performance is detected by dynamically measuring concentration of intravenously injected radiolabeled ligand using a positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Based on the ligand concentration, values of receptor kinetic parameters are estimated. These estimates allow detection of dopamine released in the human brain during task performance. PMID:23874267

  15. Carbon nanofiber electrode array for electrochemical detection of dopamine using fast scan cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Koehne, Jessica E; Marsh, Michael; Boakye, Adwoa; Douglas, Brandon; Kim, In Yong; Chang, Su-Youne; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Bennet, Kevin E; Kimble, Christopher; Andrews, Russell; Meyyappan, M; Lee, Kendall H

    2011-05-01

    A carbon nanofiber (CNF) electrode array was integrated with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor System (WINCS) for the detection of dopamine using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Dopamine detection performance by CNF arrays was comparable to that of traditional carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs), demonstrating that CNF arrays can be utilized as an alternative carbon electrode for neurochemical monitoring. PMID:21387028

  16. Carbon nanofiber electrode array for electrochemical detection of dopamine using fast scan cyclic voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Koehne, Jessica E.; Marsh, Michael; Boakye, Adwoa; Douglas, Brandon; Kim, In Yong; Chang, Su-Youne; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Bennet, Kevin E.; Kimble, Christopher; Andrews, Russell; Meyyappan, M.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2012-01-01

    A carbon nanofiber (CNF) electrode array was integrated with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Sensor System (WINCS) for detection of dopamine using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV). Dopamine detection performance by CNF arrays was comparable to that of traditional carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs), demonstrating that CNF arrays can be utilized as an alternative carbon electrodes for neurochemical monitoring. PMID:21387028

  17. Detection of dopamine using a silicon nanowire patterned by nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han; Lee, Jin-Ho; Chae, Eun Ji; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2011-08-01

    Dopamine is one of the most important catecholamine neurotransmitter in the nucleus accumbens of wide variety of animals, including humans. In this study, silicon nanowire FET device was fabricated by UV-assisted NIL method and dopamine was successfully measured by conductance versus time characteristics within 10 pM to 100 nM. PMID:22103233

  18. A conserved salt bridge between transmembrane segments 1 and 10 constitutes an extracellular gate in the dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anders V; Andreassen, Thorvald F; Loland, Claus J

    2014-12-12

    Neurotransmitter transporters play an important role in termination of synaptic transmission by mediating reuptake of neurotransmitter, but the molecular processes behind translocation are still unclear. The crystal structures of the bacterial homologue, LeuT, provided valuable insight into the structural and dynamic requirements for substrate transport. These structures support the existence of gating domains controlling access to a central binding site. On the extracellular side, access is controlled by the "thin gate" formed by an interaction between Arg-30 and Asp-404. In the human dopamine transporter (DAT), the corresponding residues are Arg-85 and Asp-476. Here, we present results supporting the existence of a similar interaction in DAT. The DAT R85D mutant has a complete loss of function, but the additional insertion of an arginine in opposite position (R85D/D476R), causing a charge reversal, results in a rescue of binding sites for the cocaine analogue [(3)H]CFT. Also, the coordination of Zn(2+) between introduced histidines (R85H/D476H) caused a ∼ 2.5-fold increase in [(3)H]CFT binding (Bmax). Importantly, Zn(2+) also inhibited [(3)H]dopamine transport in R85H/D476H, suggesting that a dynamic interaction is required for the transport process. Furthermore, cysteine-reactive chemistry shows that mutation of the gating residues causes a higher proportion of transporters to reside in the outward facing conformation. Finally, we show that charge reversal of the corresponding residues (R104E/E493R) in the serotonin transporter also rescues [(3)H](S)-citalopram binding, suggesting a conserved feature. Taken together, these data suggest that the extracellular thin gate is present in monoamine transporters and that a dynamic interaction is required for substrate transport. PMID:25339174

  19. Glutamate is a cotransmitter in ventral midbrain dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Rayport, S

    2001-07-01

    Interactions between apparently separate dopaminergic and glutamatergic pathways figure prominently in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease. So it is surprising that the ventral midbrain dopamine neurons, which give rise to the dopaminergic pathway, may themselves also be glutamatergic. We have addressed this idea in both rat and monkey brain and found that most ventral midbrain dopamine neurons exhibit glutamate immunoreactivity. We used postnatal cell culture to examine ventral midbrain dopamine neurons more closely. In vitro most dopamine neurons exhibit glutamate immunoreactivity, as well as immunoreactivity for phosphate-activated glutaminase, the enzyme principally responsible for the synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate; inhibition of glutaminase reduces glutamate staining. In single cell microcultures, dopamine neurons make both dopaminergic and glutamatergic synaptic varicosities. Stimulation of individual dopamine neurons evokes a fast excitatory synaptic response mediated by glutamate; it also evokes dopamine release that inhibits the excitatory response via presynaptic D2 receptors. Thus, dopamine neurons appear to exert rapid synaptic actions via their glutamatergic synapses and slower modulatory actions via their dopaminergic synapses, including possibly inhibition of their own glutamatergic synapses. So, in the setting of dopamine neuron demise, there will be a loss of both dopaminergic and glutamatergic inputs to the striatum; furthermore, glutamate released by dopamine neurons may contribute to an excitotoxic cascade and the death of neighboring dopamine neurons. PMID:11331197

  20. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  1. Interaction of curcumin with manganese may compromise metal and neurotransmitter homeostasis in the hippocampus of young mice.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Ariana Ern; de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; de Souza, Luiz F; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Danielski, Samara; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Fisher, Andrew; Farina, Marcelo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

    2014-06-01

    Manganese (Mn) exposure is related to industrial activities, where absorption by inhalation has high relevance. Manganism, a syndrome caused as a result of excessive accumulation of Mn in the central nervous system, has numerous symptoms similar to those seen in idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD). Some of these symptoms, such as learning, memory, sensorial, and neurochemical changes, appear before the onset of motor deficits in both manganism and IPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effects of curcumin against behavioral deficits induced by Mn toxicity in young (2 months old) Swiss mice. We evaluated the effect of chronic inhalation of a Mn mixture [Mn(OAc)3 and MnCl2 (20:40 mM)], 1 h/session, three times a week, over a 14-week period on behavioral and neurochemical parameters. Curcumin was supplemented in the diet (500 or 1,500 ppm in food pellets). The Mn disrupted the motor performance evaluated in the single-pellet reach task, as well as the short- and long-term spatial memory evaluated in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Surprisingly, curcumin also produced similar deleterious effects in such behavioral tests. Moreover, the association of Mn plus curcumin significantly increased the levels of Mn and iron, and decreased the levels of dopamine and serotonin in the hippocampus. These alterations were not observed in the striatum. In conclusion, the current Mn treatment protocol resulted in mild deficits in motor and memory functions, resembling the early phases of IPD. Additionally, curcumin showed no beneficial effects against Mn-induced disruption of hippocampal metal and neurotransmitter homeostasis. PMID:24723215

  2. Effects of novel monoamine oxidases and cholinesterases targeting compounds on brain neurotransmitters and behavior in rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, Anna; Mussur, Mirosław; Unzeta, Mercedes; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Marco-Contelles, José L; Fogel, W Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with different neurochemical and morphological alterations in the brain leading to cognitive and behavioural impairments. New therapeutic strategies comprise multifunctional drugs. The aim of the presented studies is to evaluate in vivo the novel compounds - ASS188 and ASS234 - which combine the benzylpiperidine moiety of the acetylcholinesteras (AChE) inhibitor donepezil and the indolyl propargylamino moiety of the monoaminooxidase (MAO) inhibitor, N-[(5-benzyloxy-1- methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl]-N-methylprop-2-yn-1-amine, with respect to their influence on cerebral amine neurotransmitters systems and neuroprotective activity. The presumed therapeutic potential of these compounds has been evaluated following their administration to rats with experimental vascular dementia. A rat model of the permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCCAO) and the holeboard memory test were employed for this purpose. Wistar rats were used, either intact or 1 day after BCCAO. ASS188 (1 mg/kg) and ASS234 (5 mg/kg) were given s.c. for 5 consecutive days. Working and reference memory in rats was evaluated by holeboard tests before- and 7 and 12 days after BCCAO. The activities of MAOs, AChE and histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT), as well as cerebral amines concentrations were assayed. A significant inhibition of brain MAO A (>95%) and weaker MAO B (ca 60%) and HMT (<30%) and reduced AChE activities were recorded with a pronounced (2 - 10 fold) increase in the cerebral concentrations of serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline and smaller rises (up to 30%) of histamine. The BCCAO rats treated with ASS188 or ASS234 tended to perform holeboard tests better than the BCCAO untreated group, indicating a beneficial effect of the administered therapeutics. PMID:23701539

  3. PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S. |

    1996-07-01

    Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it an important topic in research in the neurosciences and an important molecular target in drug development. PET enables the direct measurement of components of the dopamine system in the living human brain. It relies on radiotracers which label dopamine receptors, dopamine transporters, precursors of dopamine or compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade dopamine. Additionally, by using tracers that provide information on regional brain metabolism or blood flow as well as neurochemically specific pharmacological interventions, PET can be used to assess the functional consequences of change in brain dopamine activity. PET dopamine measurements have been used to investigate the normal human brain and its involvement in psychiatric and neurological diseases. It has also been used in psychopharmacological research to investigate dopamine drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease and of schizophrenia as well as to investigate the effects of drugs of abuse on the dopamine system. Since various functional and neurochemical parameters can be studied in the same subject, PET enables investigation of the functional integrity of the dopamine system in the human brain and investigation of the interactions of dopamine with other neurotransmitters. This paper summarizes the different tracers and experimental strategies developed to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and their applications to clinical research. 254 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Neurotransmitter Specific, Cellular-Resolution Functional Brain Mapping Using Receptor Coated Nanoparticles: Assessment of the Possibility

    PubMed Central

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sabouni, Abas; Ray, Supriyo; Head, Brian; Schoen, Christian; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Receptor coated resonant nanoparticles and quantum dots are proposed to provide a cellular-level resolution image of neural activities inside the brain. The functionalized nanoparticles and quantum dots in this approach will selectively bind to different neurotransmitters in the extra-synaptic regions of neurons. This allows us to detect neural activities in real time by monitoring the nanoparticles and quantum dots optically. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with two different geometries (sphere and rod) and quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were studied along with three different neurotransmitters: dopamine, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine. The absorption/emission spectra of GNPs and QDs before and after binding of neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors are reported. The results using QDs and nanorods with diameter 25nm and aspect rations larger than three were promising for the development of the proposed functional brain mapping approach. PMID:26717196

  5. Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome: phenotypic spectrum from infancy to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Joanne; Zhen, Juan; Meyer, Esther; Erreger, Kevin; Li, Yan; Kakar, Naseebullah; Ahmad, Jamil; Thiele, Holger; Kubisch, Christian; Rider, Nicholas L.; Holmes Morton, D.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; D’Agnano, Daniela; Anikster, Yair; Carducci, Claudia; Hyland, Keith; Rotstein, Michael; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Borck, Guntram; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome due to SLC6A3 mutations is the first inherited dopamine ‘transportopathy’ to be described, with a classical presentation of early infantile-onset progressive parkinsonism dystonia. In this study we have identified a new cohort of patients with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome, including, most significantly, atypical presentation later in childhood with a milder disease course. We report the detailed clinical features, molecular genetic findings and in vitro functional investigations undertaken for adult and paediatric cases. Patients presenting with parkinsonism dystonia or a neurotransmitter profile characteristic of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome were recruited for study. SLC6A3 mutational analysis was undertaken in all patients. The functional consequences of missense variants on the dopamine transporter were evaluated by determining the effect of mutant dopamine transporter on dopamine uptake, protein expression and amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux using an in vitro cellular heterologous expression system. We identified eight new patients from five unrelated families with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome. The median age at diagnosis was 13 years (range 1.5–34 years). Most significantly, the case series included three adolescent males with atypical dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome of juvenile onset (outside infancy) and progressive parkinsonism dystonia. The other five patients in the cohort presented with classical infantile-onset parkinsonism dystonia, with one surviving into adulthood (currently aged 34 years) and labelled as having ‘juvenile parkinsonism’. All eight patients harboured homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in SLC6A3, of which the majority are previously unreported variants. In vitro studies of mutant dopamine transporter demonstrated multifaceted loss of dopamine transporter function. Impaired dopamine uptake was universally present, and more severely impacted in dopamine transporter mutants causing infantile-onset rather than juvenile-onset disease. Dopamine transporter mutants also showed diminished dopamine binding affinity, reduced cell surface transporter, loss of post-translational dopamine transporter glycosylation and failure of amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux. Our data series expands the clinical phenotypic continuum of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome and indicates that there is a phenotypic spectrum from infancy (early onset, rapidly progressive disease) to childhood/adolescence and adulthood (later onset, slower disease progression). Genotype–phenotype analysis in this cohort suggests that higher residual dopamine transporter activity is likely to contribute to postponing disease presentation in these later-onset adult cases. Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome remains under-recognized and our data highlights that dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis for both infantile- and juvenile-onset movement disorders, including cerebral palsy and juvenile parkinsonism. PMID:24613933

  6. Serotonin and Mental Disorders: A Concise Review on Molecular Neuroimaging Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin is one of the most important neurotransmitters influencing mental health and, thus, is a potential target for pharmaco-logical treatments. Functional neuroimaging techniques, such as positron-emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), could provide persuasive evidence for the association between mental disorders and serotonin. In this concise review, we focus on evidence of the links between serotonin and major depressive disorders, as well as other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism. PMID:25598822

  7. Serotonin, genetic variability, behaviour, and psychiatric disorders - a review

    PubMed Central

    Oreland, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Brain monoamines, and serotonin in particular, have repeatedly been shown to be linked to different psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, antisocial behaviour, and dependence. Many studies have implicated genetic variability in the genes encoding monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and the serotonin transporter (5HTT) in modulating susceptibility to these conditions. Paradoxically, the risk variants of these genes have been shown, in vitro, to increase levels of serotonin, although many of the conditions are associated with decreased levels of serotonin. Furthermore, in adult humans, and monkeys with orthologous genetic polymorphisms, there is no observable correlation between these functional genetic variants and the amount or activity of the corresponding proteins in the brain. These seemingly contradictory data might be explained if the association between serotonin and these behavioural and psychiatric conditions were mainly a consequence of events taking place during foetal and neonatal brain development. In this review we explore, based on recent research, the hypothesis that the dual role of serotonin as a neurotransmitter and a neurotrophic factor has a significant impact on behaviour and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders through altered development of limbic neurocircuitry involved in emotional processing, and development of the serotonergic neurons, during early brain development. PMID:20187845

  8. Ratio of antibodies to neurotransmitters in the serum of students, occasional drug users.

    PubMed

    Davydova, T V; Vetrile, L A; Nevidimova, T I; Vetlugina, T P; Fomina, V G; Zakharova, I A; Batukhtina, E I; Bokhan, N A

    2014-07-01

    The survey included volunteer students of secondary and higher educational institutions. Two groups have been formed based on the results of clinical and laboratory studies. Group 1 comprised students occasionally using cannabinoids and amphetamines (risk group for psychoactive substances addiction) and group 2 included students who do not use drugs. The serum level of autoantibodies to norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin was reduced in the risk group. PMID:25070161

  9. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits.

    PubMed

    Masoud, S T; Vecchio, L M; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, M M; Nguyen, L T; Bermejo, M K; Kile, B; Sotnikova, T D; Siesser, W B; Gainetdinov, R R; Wightman, R M; Caron, M G; Richardson, J R; Miller, G W; Ramsey, A J; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with l-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25447236

  10. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  11. Chemical stimulants of leaf-trenching by cabbage loopers: natural products, neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs.

    PubMed

    Dussourd, David E

    2003-09-01

    Larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), often transect leaves with a narrow trench before eating the distal section. The trench reduces larval exposure to exudates, such as latex, during feeding. Plant species that do not emit exudate, such as Plantago lanceolata, are not trenched. However, if exudate is applied to a looper's mouth during feeding on P. lanceolata, the larva will often stop and cut a trench. Dissolved chemicals can be similarly applied and tested for effectiveness at triggering trenching. With this assay, I have documented that lactucin from lettuce latex (Lactuca sativa), myristicin from parsley oil (Petroselinum crispum), and lobeline from cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) elicit trenching. These compounds are the first trenching stimulants reported. Several other constituents of lettuce and parsley, including some phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes, and furanocoumarins had little or no activity. Cucurbitacin E glycoside found in cucurbits, another plant family trenched by cabbage loopers, also was inactive. Lactucin, myristicin, and lobeline all affect the nervous system of mammals, with lobeline acting specifically as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. To determine if cabbage loopers respond selectively to compounds active at acetylcholine synapses, I tested several neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs with known neurological activity, many of which triggered trenching. Active compounds included dopamine, serotonin, the insecticide imidacloprid, and various drugs such as ipratropium, apomorphine, buspirone, and metoclopramide. These results document that noxious plant chemicals trigger trenching, that loopers respond to different trenching stimulants in different plants, that diverse neuroactive chemicals elicit the behavior, and that feeding deterrents are not all trenching stimulants. The trenching assay offers a novel approach for identifying defensive plant compounds with potential uses in agriculture or medicine. Cabbage loopers in the lab and field routinely trench and feed on plants in the Asteraceae and Apiaceae. However, first and third instar larvae enclosed on Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) failed to develop, even though the third instar larvae attempted to trench. Trenching ability does not guarantee effective feeding on plants with canal-borne exudates. Cabbage loopers must not only recognize and respond to trenching stimulants, they must also tolerate exudates during the trenching procedure to disable canalicular defenses. PMID:14584674

  12. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Forough; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and l-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25-30 μmol L(-1). Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. PMID:27026604

  13. Alteration of neurotransmitter phenotype in noradrenergic neurons of transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Cadd, G G; Hoyle, G W; Quaife, C J; Marck, B; Matsumoto, A M; Brinster, R L; Palmiter, R D

    1992-11-01

    The normal complement of neurotransmitters in noradrenergic neurons was altered by expressing the structural gene for the enzyme phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PNMT) under the control of the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase gene promoter in transgenic mice. This resulted in accumulation of large amounts of epinephrine in neurons of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and central nervous system (CNS) but did not reduce norepinephrine levels. Adrenalectomy reduced PNMT levels in the SNS and CNS, suggesting that the transgene is positively regulated by adrenal steroids. Epinephrine levels were unaffected by this treatment in the CNS, suggesting that PNMT is not rate limiting for epinephrine synthesis. However, catecholamines were elevated in a sympathetic ganglion and a target tissue of the SNS, perhaps due to up-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase in response to adrenalectomy. These transgenic mice also reveal a marked difference in the ability of chromaffin cells and neurons to synthesize epinephrine. PMID:1480181

  14. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonism contributes to blonanserin-induced cortical dopamine and acetylcholine efflux and cognitive improvement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Kwon, Sunoh; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-11-01

    Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug (APD), which, unlike most atypical APDs, has a slightly higher affinity for dopamine (DA) D2 than serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors, and is an antagonist at both, as well as at D3 receptors. The effects of atypical APDs to enhance rodent cortical, hippocampal, limbic, and dorsal striatal (dSTR) DA and acetylcholine (ACh) release, contribute to their ability to improve novel object recognition (NOR) in rodents treated with sub-chronic (sc) phencyclidine (PCP) and cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Here we determined the ability of blonanserin, the D3 antagonist NGB 2904, and the typical APD, haloperidol, a D2 antagonist, to enhance neurotransmitter efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dSTR of mice, and to ameliorate the scPCP-induced deficit in NOR in rats. Blonanserin, 10mg/kg, i.p., increased DA, norepinephrine (NE), and ACh efflux in mPFC and dSTR. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, increased DA and ACh, but not NE, efflux in mPFC, and DA, but not ACh, efflux in dSTR. Haloperidol increased DA and NE efflux in dSTR only. The selective D3 agonist PD 128907 partially blocked the blonanserin-induced cortical ACh, DA, NE and striatal DA efflux. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, like blonanserin, 1mg/kg, and the combination of sub-effective doses of NGB 2904 and blonanserin (both 0.3mg/kg), ameliorated the scPCP-induced NOR deficit in rats. These results suggest that D3 receptor blockade may contribute to the ability of blonanserin to increase cortical DA and ACh efflux, as well as to restore NOR and improve CIAS. PMID:26383990

  15. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  16. Larvae of small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, express a novel serotonin receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter in vertebrates and invertebrates. It acts in regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioral processes through G protein-coupled receptors. Insects express five 5-HT receptor subtypes that share high simila...

  17. Effects of Early Serotonin Programming on Fear Response, Memory and Aggression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) also acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain. Early administration of a 5-HT agonist could alter development of serotonergic circuitry, altering behaviors mediated by 5-HT signaling, including memory, fear and aggression. The present study was desi...

  18. meso-Transdiene analogs inhibit vesicular monoamine transporter-2 function and methamphetamine-evoked dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Horton, David B; Siripurapu, Kiran B; Norrholm, Seth D; Culver, John P; Hojahmat, Marhaba; Beckmann, Joshua S; Harrod, Steven B; Deaciuc, Agripina G; Bardo, Michael T; Crooks, Peter A; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2011-03-01

    Lobeline, a nicotinic receptor antagonist and neurotransmitter transporter inhibitor, is a candidate pharmacotherapy for methamphetamine abuse. meso-Transdiene (MTD), a lobeline analog, lacks nicotinic receptor affinity, retains affinity for vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), and, surprisingly, has enhanced affinity for dopamine (DA) and serotonin transporters [DA transporter (DAT) and serotonin transporter (SERT), respectively]. In the current study, MTD was evaluated for its ability to decrease methamphetamine self-administration in rats relative to food-maintained responding. MTD specifically decreased methamphetamine self-administration, extending our previous work. Classical structure-activity relationships revealed that more conformationally restricted MTD analogs enhanced VMAT2 selectivity and drug likeness, whereas affinity at the dihydrotetrabenazine binding and DA uptake sites on VMAT2 was not altered. Generally, MTD analogs exhibited 50- to 1000-fold lower affinity for DAT and were equipotent or had 10-fold higher affinity for SERT, compared with MTD. Representative analogs from the series potently and competitively inhibited [(3)H]DA uptake at VMAT2. (3Z,5Z)-3,5-bis(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidine (UKMH-106), the 3Z,5Z-2,4-dichlorophenyl MTD analog, had improved selectivity for VMAT2 over DAT and importantly inhibited methamphetamine-evoked DA release from striatal slices. In contrast, (3Z,5E)-3,5-bis(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidine (UKMH-105), the 3Z,5E-geometrical isomer, inhibited DA uptake at VMAT2, but did not inhibit methamphetamine-evoked DA release. Taken together, these results suggest that these geometrical isomers interact at alternate sites on VMAT2, which are associated with distinct pharmacophores. Thus, structural modification of the MTD molecule resulted in analogs exhibiting improved drug likeness and improved selectivity for VMAT2, as well as the ability to decrease methamphetamine-evoked DA release, supporting the further evaluation of these analogs as treatments for methamphetamine abuse. PMID:21177475

  19. A CMOS Amperometric System for Multi-Neurotransmitter Detection.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Genevieve; Carrara, Sandro; Di Micheli, Giovanni; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-06-01

    In vivo multi-target and selective concentration monitoring of neurotransmitters can help to unravel the brain chemical complex signaling interplay. This paper presents a dedicated integrated potentiostat transducer circuit and its selective electrode interface. A custom 2-electrode time-based potentiostat circuit was fabricated with 0.13 μm CMOS technology and provides a wide dynamic input current range of 20 pA to 600 nA with 56 μ W, for a minimum sampling frequency of 1.25 kHz. A multi-working electrode chip is functionalized with carbon nanotubes (CNT)-based chemical coatings that offer high sensitivity and selectivity towards electroactive dopamine and non-electroactive glutamate. The prototype was experimentally tested with different concentrations levels of both neurotransmitter types, and results were similar to measurements with a commercially available potentiostat. This paper validates the functionality of the proposed biosensor, and demonstrates its potential for the selective detection of a large number of neurochemicals. PMID:26761882

  20. Serotonin as a Modulator of Glutamate- and GABA-Mediated Neurotransmission: Implications in Physiological Functions and in Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ciranna, L

    2006-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), widely distributed in the central nervous system (CNS), is involved in a large variety of physiological functions. In several brain regions 5-HT is diffusely released by volume transmission and behaves as a neuromodulator rather than as a “classical” neurotransmitter. In some cases 5-HT is co-localized in the same nerve terminal with other neurotransmitters and reciprocal interactions take place. This review will focus on the modulatory action of 5-HT on the effects of glutamate and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), which are the principal neurotransmitters mediating respectively excitatory and inhibitory signals in the CNS. Examples of interaction at pre-and/or post-synaptic levels will be illustrated, as well as the receptors involved and their mechanisms of action. Finally, the physiological meaning of neuromodulatory effects of 5-HT will be briefly discussed with respect to pathologies deriving from malfunctioning of serotonin system. PMID:18615128

  1. Hypoxia. 3. Hypoxia and neurotransmitter synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Central and peripheral neurons as well as neuroendocrine cells express a variety of neurotransmitters/modulators that play critical roles in regulation of physiological systems. The synthesis of several neurotransmitters/modulators is regulated by O2-requiring rate-limiting enzymes. Consequently, hypoxia resulting from perturbations in O2 homeostasis can affect neuronal functions by altering neurotransmitter synthesis. Two broad categories of hypoxia are frequently encountered: continuous hypoxia (CH) and intermittent hypoxia (IH). CH is often seen during high altitude sojourns, whereas IH is experienced in sleep-disordered breathing with recurrent apneas (i.e., brief, repetitive cessations of breathing). This article presents what is currently known on the effects of both forms of hypoxia on neurotransmitter levels and neurotransmitter synthesizing enzymes in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PMID:21270298

  2. Differential effects of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins on serotonin 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, and dopamine D2 receptor-mediated signaling and adenylyl cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Ghavami, Afshin; Hunt, Rachel A; Olsen, Michael A; Zhang, Jie; Smith, Deborah L; Kalgaonkar, Sachin; Rahman, Zia; Young, Kathleen H

    2004-06-01

    Regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins function as GTPase accelerating proteins (GAP) for Galpha subunits, attenuating G-protein-coupled receptor signal transduction. The present study tested the ability of members of different subfamilies of RGS proteins to modulate both G-protein-dependent and -independent signaling in mammalian cells. RGS4, RGS10, and RGSZ1 significantly attenuated Galphai-mediated signaling by 5-HT1A, but not by dopamine D2, receptor-expressing cells. Additionally, RGS4 and RGS10 significantly inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in both cell lines. In contrast, RGS2, RGS7, and RGSZ1 had no effect on forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in these cells. RGS2 and RGS7 significantly decreased Galphaq-mediated signaling by 5-HT2A receptors, confirming that the RGS4 and RGS10 effects on forskolin-stimulated cAMP production were specific, and not simply due to overexpression. Interestingly, similar expression levels of RGS4 protein resulted in greater inhibition of G-protein-independent cAMP production compared to G-protein-dependent GAP activity. Our results suggest specificity and selectivity of RGS proteins on G-protein-dependent and -independent signaling in mammalian cells. PMID:15093612

  3. Optogenetic control of striatal dopamine release in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Vance, Zachary B; Sullivan, Ryan P; Bonin, Keith D; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2010-01-01

    Optogenetic control over neuronal firing has become an increasingly elegant method to dissect the microcircuitry of mammalian brains. To date, examination of these manipulations on neurotransmitter release has been minimal. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of optogenetic stimulation on dopamine neurotransmission in the dorsal striatum of urethane-anesthetized rats. By combining the tight spatial and temporal resolution of both optogenetics and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry we have determined the parameters necessary to control phasic dopamine release in the dorsal striatum of rats in vivo. The kinetics of optically induced dopamine release mirror established models of electrically evoked release, indicating that potential artifacts of electrical stimulation on ion channels and the dopamine transporter are negligible. Furthermore a lack of change in extracellular pH indicates that optical stimulation does not alter blood flow. Optical control over dopamine release is highly reproducible and flexible. We are able to repeatedly evoke concentrations of dopamine release as small as a single dopamine transient (50 nM). A U-shaped frequency response curve exists with maximal stimulation inducing dopamine effluxes exceeding 500 nM. Taken together, these results have obvious implications for understanding the neurobiological basis of dopaminergic-based disorders and provide the framework to effectively manipulate dopamine patterns. PMID:20534006

  4. RAPID DOPAMINE TRANSMISSION WITHIN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS DRAMATICALLY DIFFERS FOLLOWING MORPHINE AND OXYCODONE DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Omar S.; Lovic, Vedran; Singer, Bryan F.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    While most drugs of abuse increase dopamine neurotransmission, rapid neurochemical measurements show that different drugs evoke distinct dopamine release patterns within the nucleus accumbens. Rapid changes in dopamine concentration following psychostimulant administration have been well studied; however, such changes have never been examined following opioid delivery. Here, we provide novel measures of rapid dopamine release following intravenous infusion of two opioids, morphine and oxycodone, in drug naïve rats using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and rapid (1 min) microdialysis coupled with mass spectrometry. In addition to measuring rapid dopamine transmission, microdialysis HPLC-MS measures changes in GABA, glutamate, monoamines, monoamine metabolites, and several other neurotransmitters. Although both opioids increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, their patterns of drug-evoked dopamine transmission differed dramatically. Oxycodone evoked a robust and stable increase in dopamine concentration and a robust increase in the frequency and amplitude of phasic dopamine release events. Conversely, morphine evoked a brief (~ 1 min) increase in dopamine that was coincident with a surge in GABA concentration and then both transmitters returned to baseline levels. Thus, by providing rapid measures of neurotransmission, this study reveals previously unknown differences in opioid-induced neurotransmitter signaling. Investigating these differences may be essential for understanding how these two drugs of abuse could differentially usurp motivational circuitry and powerfully influence behavior. PMID:25208732

  5. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ

    PubMed Central

    Słoniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Byström, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides/neurotransmitters are involved in cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, it is possible that they play a role in corneal wound healing. PMID:26214847

  6. Mifepristone modulates serotonin transporter function

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaokun; Shan, Linlin; Li, Xinjuan; Wei, Linyu; Li, Dongliang

    2014-01-01

    Regulating serotonin expression can be used to treat psychotic depression. Mifepristone, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, is an effective candidate for psychotic depression treatment. However, the underlying mechanism related to serotonin transporter expression is poorly understood. In this study, we cloned the human brain serotonin transporter into Xenopus oocytes, to establish an in vitro expression system. Two-electrode voltage clamp recordings were used to detect serotonin transporter activity. Our results show that mifepristone attenuates serotonin transporter activity by directly inhibiting the serotonin transporter, and suggests that the serotonin transporter is a pharmacological target of mifepristone for the treatment of psychotic depression. PMID:25206868

  7. Serotonin neuronal function and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Kaye, W; Gendall, K; Strober, M

    1998-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are disorders characterized by aberrant patterns of feeding behavior and weight regulation, and disturbances in attitudes toward weight and shape and the perception of body shape. Emerging data support the possibility that substantial biologic and genetic vulnerabilities contribute to the pathogenesis of AN and BN. Multiple neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter abnormalities have been documented in AN and BN, but for the most part, these disturbances are state-related and tend to normalize after symptom remission and weight restoration; however, elevated concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid after recovery suggest that altered serotonin activity in AN and BN is a trait-related characteristic. Elevated serotonin activity is consistent with behaviors found after recovery from AN and BN, such as obsessionality with symmetry and exactness, harm avoidance, perfectionism, and behavioral over control. In BN, serotonergic modulating antidepressant medications suppress symptoms independently of their antidepressant effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are not useful when AN subjects are malnourished and under-weight; however, when given after weight restoration, fluoxetine may significantly reduce the extremely high rate of relapse normally seen in AN. Nonresponse to SSRI medication in ill AN subjects could be a consequence of an inadequate supply of nutrients, which are essential to normal serotonin synthesis and function. These data raise the possibility that a disturbance of serotonin activity may create a vulnerability for the expression of a cluster of symptoms that are common to both AN and BN and that nutritional factors may affect SSRI response in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or other conditions characterized by disturbances in serotonergic pathways. PMID:9807638

  8. Effects of central activation of serotonin 5-HT2A/2C or dopamine D2/3 receptors on the acute and repeated effects of clozapine in the conditioned avoidance response test

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Gao, Jun; Sui, Nan; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Acute administration of clozapine (a gold standard of atypical antipsychotics) disrupts avoidance response in rodents, while repeated administration often causes a tolerance effect. Objective: The present study investigated the neuroanatomical basis and receptor mechanisms of acute and repeated effects of clozapine treatment in the conditioned avoidance response test in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amphetamine, a preferential 5-HT2A/2C agonist) or quinpirole (a preferential dopamine D2/3 agonist) was microinjected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or nucleus accumbens shell (NAs), and their effects on the acute and long-term avoidance-disruptive effect of clozapine were tested. Results: Intra-mPFC microinjection of quinpirole enhanced the acute avoidance disruptive effect of clozapine (10 mg/kg, sc), while DOI microinjections reduced it marginally. Repeated administration of clozapine (10 mg/kg, sc) daily for 5 days caused a progressive decrease in its inhibition of avoidance responding, indicating tolerance development. Intra-mPFC microinjection of DOI at 25.0 (but not 5.0) μg/side during this period completely abolished the expression of clozapine tolerance. This was indicated by the finding that clozapine-treated rats centrally infused with 25.0 μg/side DOI did not show higher levels of avoidance responses than the vehicle-treated rats in the clozapine challenge test. Microinjection of DOI into the mPFC immediately before the challenge test also decreased the expression of clozapine tolerance. Conclusions: Acute behavioral effect of clozapine can be enhanced by activation of the D2/3 receptors in the mPFC. Clozapine tolerance expression relies on the neuroplasticity initiated by its antagonist action against 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25288514

  9. Combined serotonin (5-HT)1A agonism, 5-HT(2A) and dopamine D₂ receptor antagonism reproduces atypical antipsychotic drug effects on phencyclidine-impaired novel object recognition in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-05-15

    Subchronic administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), produces prolonged impairment of novel object recognition (NOR), suggesting they constitute a hypoglutamate-based model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS). Acute administration of atypical, e.g. lurasidone, but not typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), e.g. haloperidol, are able to restore NOR following PCP (acute reversal model). Furthermore, atypical APDs, when co-administered with PCP, have been shown to prevent development of NOR deficits (prevention model). Most atypical, but not typical APDs, are more potent 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonists than dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists, and have been shown to enhance cortical and hippocampal efflux and to be direct or indirect 5-HT(1A) agonists in vivo. To further clarify the importance of these actions to the restoration of NOR by atypical APDs, sub-effective or non-effective doses of combinations of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist (tandospirone), the 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist (pimavanserin), or the D2 antagonist (haloperidol), as well as the combination of all three agents, were studied in the acute reversal and prevention PCP models of CIS. Only the combination of all three agents restored NOR and prevented the development of PCP-induced deficit. Thus, this triple combination of 5-HT(1A) agonism, 5-HT(2A) antagonism/inverse agonism, and D2 antagonism is able to mimic the ability of atypical APDs to prevent or ameliorate the PCP-induced NOR deficit, possibly by stimulating signaling cascades from D1 and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, modulated by D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. PMID:25448429

  10. Neurotransmitters, temperament and social functioning.

    PubMed

    Bond, A J

    2001-08-01

    Dimensional models can be usefully employed to describe both normal and disordered personality. Studies in molecular genetics, receptor binding, peripheral monoamines and pharmacological challenges have investigated the neurochemical basis of personality. Substantial evidence now exists to support a psychobiological model but the specificity of Cloninger's theory has not always been confirmed. Clinical studies have shown both temperament and character dimensions to improve with pharmacological treatment especially in treatment responders. Some personality changes are found to be independent of clinical effects and even to occur in normal subjects. Models of personality can help in predicting treatment outcome but individual dimensions may not be useful. It is hypothesised that social adaptation is related to the character dimensions and different sources of evidence link these to serotonergic actions. However, recent clinical studies have shown a specific effect of noradrenaline on self-perception and social motivation. Drugs with specific actions on different neurotransmitters may exert a distinctive pattern of effects on personality and social behaviour. PMID:11532380

  11. Triptans, serotonin agonists, and serotonin syndrome (serotonin toxicity): a review.

    PubMed

    Gillman, P Ken

    2010-02-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have suggested that fatal serotonin syndrome (SS) is possible with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and triptans: this warning affects millions of patients as these drugs are frequently given simultaneously. SS is a complex topic about which there is much misinformation. The misconception that 5-HT1A receptors can cause serious SS is still widely perpetuated, despite quality evidence that it is activation of the 5-HT2A receptor that is required for serious SS. This review considers SS involving serotonin agonists: ergotamine, lysergic acid diethylamide, bromocriptine, and buspirone, as well as triptans, and reviews the experimental foundation underpinning the latest understanding of SS. It is concluded that there is neither significant clinical evidence, nor theoretical reason, to entertain speculation about serious SS from triptans and SSRIs. The misunderstandings about SS exhibited by the FDA, and shared by the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (in relation to methylene blue), are an important issue with wide ramifications. PMID:19925619

  12. Mechanism of Paroxetine (Paxil) Inhibition of the Serotonin Transporter.

    PubMed

    Davis, Bruce A; Nagarajan, Anu; Forrest, Lucy R; Singh, Satinder K

    2016-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is an integral membrane protein that exploits preexisting sodium-, chloride-, and potassium ion gradients to catalyze the thermodynamically unfavorable movement of synaptic serotonin into the presynaptic neuron. SERT has garnered significant clinical attention partly because it is the target of multiple psychoactive agents, including the antidepressant paroxetine (Paxil), the most potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor known. However, the binding site and orientation of paroxetine in SERT remain controversial. To provide molecular insight, we constructed SERT homology models based on the Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter and docked paroxetine to these models. We tested the predicted binding configurations with a combination of radioligand binding and flux assays on wild-type and mutant SERTs. Our data suggest that the orientation of paroxetine, specifically its fluorophenyl ring, in SERT's substrate binding site directly depends on this pocket's charge distribution, and thereby provide an avenue toward understanding and enhancing high-affinity antidepressant activity. PMID:27032980

  13. Mechanism of Paroxetine (Paxil) Inhibition of the Serotonin Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Bruce A.; Nagarajan, Anu; Forrest, Lucy R.; Singh, Satinder K.

    2016-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is an integral membrane protein that exploits preexisting sodium-, chloride-, and potassium ion gradients to catalyze the thermodynamically unfavorable movement of synaptic serotonin into the presynaptic neuron. SERT has garnered significant clinical attention partly because it is the target of multiple psychoactive agents, including the antidepressant paroxetine (Paxil), the most potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor known. However, the binding site and orientation of paroxetine in SERT remain controversial. To provide molecular insight, we constructed SERT homology models based on the Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter and docked paroxetine to these models. We tested the predicted binding configurations with a combination of radioligand binding and flux assays on wild-type and mutant SERTs. Our data suggest that the orientation of paroxetine, specifically its fluorophenyl ring, in SERT’s substrate binding site directly depends on this pocket’s charge distribution, and thereby provide an avenue toward understanding and enhancing high-affinity antidepressant activity. PMID:27032980

  14. The serotonin aldehyde, 5-HIAL, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Cooney, Adele; Sullivan, Patricia; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2015-03-17

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate aldehyde intermediate in neuronal dopamine metabolism, potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein. PD involves alpha-synuclein deposition in brainstem raphe nuclei; however, whether 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde (5-HIAL), the aldehyde of serotonin, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein has been unknown. In this study we tested whether 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein in vitro and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein oligomers were quantified by western blotting after incubation of alpha-synuclein with serotonin and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) to generate 5-HIAL or dopamine to generate DOPAL. Oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in PC12 cells over-expressing the protein was compared between vehicle-treated cells and cells incubated with levodopa to generate DOPAL or 5-hydroxytryptophan to generate 5-HIAL. Monoamine aldehyde mediation of the oligomerization was assessed using the MAO inhibitor, pargyline. Dopamine and serotonin incubated with MAO-A both strongly oligomerized alpha-synuclein (more than 10 times control); pargyline blocked the oligomerization. In synuclein overexpressing PC12 cells, levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan elicited pargyline-sensitive alpha-synuclein oligomerization. 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein both in vitro and in synuclein-overexpressing PC12 cells, in a manner similar to DOPAL. The findings may help explain loss of serotonergic neurons in PD. PMID:25637699

  15. The serotonin aldehyde, 5-HIAL, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Cooney, Adele; Sullivan, Patricia; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S.

    2016-01-01

    In Parkinson’s disease (PD) alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate aldehyde intermediate in neuronal dopamine metabolism, potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein. PD involves alpha-synuclein deposition in brainstem raphe nuclei; however, whether 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde (5-HIAL), the aldehyde of serotonin, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein has been unknown. In this study we tested whether 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein in vitro and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein oligomers were quantified by western blotting after incubation of alpha-synuclein with serotonin and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) to generate 5-HIAL or dopamine to generate DOPAL. Oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in PC12 cells over-expressing the protein was compared between vehicle-treated cells and cells incubated with levodopa to generate DOPAL or 5-hydroxytryptophan to generate 5-HIAL. Monoamine aldehyde mediation of the oligomerization was assessed using the MAO inhibitor, pargyline. Dopamine and serotonin incubated with MAO-A both strongly oligomerized alpha-synuclein (more than 10 times control); pargyline blocked the oligomerization. In synuclein overexpressing PC12 cells, levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan elicited pargyline-sensitive alpha-synuclein oligomerization. 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein both in vitro and in synuclein-overexpressing PC12 cells, in a manner similar to DOPAL. The findings may help explain loss of serotonergic neurons in PD. PMID:25637699

  16. Measuring serotonin distribution in live cells with three-photon excitation.

    PubMed

    Maiti, S; Shear, J B; Williams, R M; Zipfel, W R; Webb, W W

    1997-01-24

    Tryptophan and serotonin were imaged with infrared illumination by three-photon excitation (3PE) of their native ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence. This technique, established by 3PE cross section measurements of tryptophan and the monoamines serotonin and dopamine, circumvents the limitations imposed by photodamage, scattering, and indiscriminate background encountered in other UV microscopies. Three-dimensionally resolved images are presented along with measurements of the serotonin concentration ( approximately 50 mM) and content (up to approximately 5 x 10(8) molecules) of individual secretory granules. PMID:8999797

  17. The dopamine theory of addiction: 40 years of highs and lows.

    PubMed

    Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Erritzoe, David; Stokes, Paul R A

    2015-05-01

    For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. In this Opinion article, we review the origins of the dopamine theory of addiction and discuss the ability of addictive drugs to elicit the release of dopamine in the human striatum. There is robust evidence that stimulants increase striatal dopamine levels and some evidence that alcohol may have such an effect, but little evidence, if any, that cannabis and opiates increase dopamine levels. Moreover, there is good evidence that striatal dopamine receptor availability and dopamine release are diminished in individuals with stimulant or alcohol dependence but not in individuals with opiate, nicotine or cannabis dependence. These observations have implications for understanding reward and treatment responses in various addictions. PMID:25873042

  18. The Dopamine Augmenter L-DOPA Does Not Affect Positive Mood in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Liggins, John; Pihl, Robert O.; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission influences approach toward rewards and reward-related cues. The best cited interpretation of this effect proposes that dopamine mediates the pleasure that commonly accompanies reward. This hypothesis has received support in some animal models and a few studies in humans. However, direct assessments of the effect of transiently increasing dopamine neurotransmission have been largely limited to the use of psychostimulant drugs, which elevate brain levels of multiple neurotransmitters in addition to dopamine. In the present study we tested the effect of more selectively elevating dopamine neurotransmission, as produced by administration of the immediate dopamine precursor, L-DOPA (0, 100/25, 200/50 mg, Sinemet), in healthy human volunteers. Neither dose altered positive mood. The results suggest that dopamine neurotransmission does not directly influence positive mood in humans. PMID:22238577

  19. Serotonin deficiency exacerbates acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyao; Song, Sidong; Pang, Qing; Zhang, Ruiyao; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Sushun; Meng, Fandi; Wu, Qifei; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a major cause of acute liver failure. Peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) is a cytoprotective neurotransmitter which is also involved in the hepatic physiological and pathological process. This study seeks to investigate the mechanisms involved in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, as well as the role of 5-HT in the liver's response to APAP toxicity. We induced APAP hepatotoxicity in mice either sufficient of serotonin (wild-type mice and TPH1-/- plus 5- Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)) or lacking peripheral serotonin (Tph1-/- and wild-type mice plus p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)). Mice with sufficient 5-HT exposed to acetaminophen have a significantly lower mortality rate and a better outcome compared with mice deficient of 5-HT. This difference is at least partially attributable to a decreased level of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Glutathione (GSH) depletion, peroxynitrite formation, hepatocyte apoptosis, elevated hepatocyte proliferation, activation of 5-HT2B receptor, less activated c-Jun NH₂-terminal kinase (JNK) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in the mice sufficient of 5-HT versus mice deficient of 5-HT. We thus propose a physiological function of serotonin that serotonin could ameliorate APAP-induced liver injury mainly through inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis ER stress and promoting liver regeneration. PMID:25631548

  20. Heterogeneous rate of protein evolution in serotonin genes.

    PubMed

    Andrés, Aida M; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Bertranpetit, Jaume

    2007-12-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is a neurotransmitter crucial for cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and brain function. It is also involved in several aspects of behavior and associated with a variety of personality disorders in humans. Its dual role as a crucial element in vital physiological functions (strictly evolutionary conserved) and in traits that differ substantially across species makes the evolution of serotonin function particularly interesting. We studied the evolution of serotonin function through the identification of the selective forces shaping the evolution of genes in its functional pathway in primates and rodents. Serotonin genes are highly conserved and show no signals of positive selection, suggesting functional constraint as the main force driving their evolution. They show, nevertheless, considerable differences in constraint between primates and rodents, with some genes showing dramatic differences between the 2 groups. These genes most likely represent cases of functional divergence between primates and rodents and point out to the relevance of using closely related species in gene-based evolutionary studies to avoid the effect of unrecognized functional differences between distant species. Within each group (rodents or primates), genes also show heterogeneity in evolution. Genes from the same gene family (with structure and function alike) tend to evolve at a similar rate, but this is not always the case. A few serotonin genes show substantial differences in constraint with the rest of members of their family, suggesting the presence of important and unrecognized functional differences among the genes, which may be involved in species-specific evolution. PMID:17884826

  1. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  2. Sampling phasic dopamine signaling with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in awake behaving rats

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, SM; Cone, JJ; Ng-Evans, S; McCutcheon, JE; Roitman, MF

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique which permits the in vivo measurement of extracellular fluctuations in multiple chemical species. The technique is frequently utilized to sample sub-second (phasic) concentration changes of the neurotransmitter dopamine in awake and behaving rats. Phasic dopamine signaling is implicated in reinforcement, goal-directed behavior, and locomotion and FSCV has been used to investigate how rapid changes in striatal dopamine concentration contribute to these and other behaviors. This unit describes the instrumentation and construction, implantation, and use of necessary components required to sample and analyze dopamine concentration changes in awake rats with FSCV. PMID:25559005

  3. The Role of Dopamine and Its Dysfunction as a Consequence of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Juárez Olguín, Hugo; Calderón Guzmán, David; Hernández García, Ernestina; Barragán Mejía, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is produced in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus of the brain. Dysfunction of the dopamine system has been implicated in different nervous system diseases. The level of dopamine transmission increases in response to any type of reward and by a large number of strongly additive drugs. The role of dopamine dysfunction as a consequence of oxidative stress is involved in health and disease. Introduce new potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions based on antioxidant compounds. The present review focuses on the therapeutic potential of antioxidant compounds as a coadjuvant treatment to conventional neurological disorders is discussed. PMID:26770661

  4. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  5. Levels in neurotransmitter precursor amino acids correlate with mental health in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hüfner, K; Oberguggenberger, A; Kohl, C; Geisler, S; Gamper, E; Meraner, V; Egeter, J; Hubalek, M; Beer, B; Fuchs, D; Sperner-Unterweger, B

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females. Approximately 30% of cancer patients develop depression or depressive adaptation disorder within 5 years post diagnosis. Low grade inflammation and subsequent changes in neurotransmitter levels could be the pathophysiological link. In the current study we investigated the association of neurotransmitter precursor amino acids with a diagnosis of depression or state anxiety in 154 subjects suffering from breast cancer (BCA(+)), depression (DPR(+)), both or neither. Sociodemographic parameters, severity of depressive symptoms, and state anxiety (ANX) were recorded. Neopterin, kynurenine/tryptophan and phenylalanine/tyrosine were analysed by HPLC or ELISA. Significantly higher serum neopterin values were found in DPR(+) patients (p = 0.034) and in ANX(+) subjects (p = 0.008), as a marker of Th1-related inflammation. The phenylalanine/tyrosine ratio (index of the catecholamine pathway) was associated with the factors "breast cancer" and "depression" and their interaction (all p < 0.001); it was highest in the DPR(+)BCA(+) group. The kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (index of the serotonin pathway) was significantly associated with the factors "breast cancer" and "state anxiety" and their interaction (p < 0.001, p = 0.026, p = 0.02, respectively); it was highest in the ANX(+)BCA(+) group. In BCA(+) patients kynurenine/tryptophan ratios correlated with severity of state anxiety (r = 0.226, p = 0.048, uncorrected) and phenylalanine/tyrosine ratios with severity of depressive symptoms (r = 0.376, p < 0.05, corrected). In conclusion, levels of neurotransmitter precursor amino acids correlate with mental health, an effect which was much more pronounced in BCA(+) patients than in BCA(-) subjects. Aside from identifying underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, these results could be the basis for future treatment studies: in BCA(+) patients with depression the use of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors might be recommended while in those with predominant anxiety selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors might be the treatment of choice. PMID:26112459

  6. Antidepressant treatment and emotional processing: can we dissociate the roles of serotonin and noradrenaline?

    PubMed

    Pringle, A; McCabe, C; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J

    2013-08-01

    The ability to match individual patients to tailored treatments has the potential to greatly improve outcomes for individuals suffering from major depression. In particular, while the vast majority of antidepressant treatments affect either serotonin or noradrenaline or a combination of these two neurotransmitters, it is not known whether there are particular patients or symptom profiles which respond preferentially to the potentiation of serotonin over noradrenaline or vice versa. Experimental medicine models suggest that the primary mode of action of these treatments may be to remediate negative biases in emotional processing. Such models may provide a useful framework for interrogating the specific actions of antidepressants. Here, we therefore review evidence from studies examining the effects of drugs which potentiate serotonin, noradrenaline or a combination of both neurotransmitters on emotional processing. These results suggest that antidepressants targeting serotonin and noradrenaline may have some specific actions on emotion and reward processing which could be used to improve tailoring of treatment or to understand the effects of dual-reuptake inhibition. Specifically, serotonin may be particularly important in alleviating distress symptoms, while noradrenaline may be especially relevant to anhedonia. The data reviewed here also suggest that noradrenergic-based treatments may have earlier effects on emotional memory that those which affect serotonin. PMID:23392757

  7. Regulation of serotonin biosynthesis by the G proteins Galphao and Galphaq controls serotonin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Tanis, Jessica E; Moresco, James J; Lindquist, Robert A; Koelle, Michael R

    2008-01-01

    To analyze mechanisms that modulate serotonin signaling, we investigated how Caenorhabditis elegans regulates the function of serotonergic motor neurons that stimulate egg-laying behavior. Egg laying is inhibited by the G protein Galphao and activated by the G protein Galphaq. We found that Galphao and Galphaq act directly in the serotonergic HSN motor neurons to control egg laying. There, the G proteins had opposing effects on transcription of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene tph-1, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis. Antiserotonin staining confirmed that Galphao and Galphaq antagonistically affect serotonin levels. Altering tph-1 gene dosage showed that small changes in tph-1 expression were sufficient to affect egg-laying behavior. Epistasis experiments showed that signaling through the G proteins has additional tph-1-independent effects. Our results indicate that (1) serotonin signaling is regulated by modulating serotonin biosynthesis and (2) Galphao and Galphaq act in the same neurons to have opposing effects on behavior, in part, by antagonistically regulating transcription of specific genes. Galphao and Galphaq have opposing effects on many behaviors in addition to egg laying and may generally act, as they do in the egg-laying system, to integrate multiple signals and consequently set levels of transcription of genes that affect neurotransmitter release. PMID:18202365

  8. Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates, and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a meal to increase or decrease brain neurotransmitter synthesis has been studied. It is concluded that brain serotonin synthesis is directly controlled by the proportions of carbohydrate to protein in meals and snacks that increase or decrease brain tryptophan levels, thereby changing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase and the rate of serotonin synthesis. The ability of serotoninergic neurons to have their output coupled to dietary macronutrients enables them to function as sensors of peripheral metabolism, and to subserve an important role in the control of appetite. The robust and selective responses of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons to supplemental tyrosine and choline suggest that these compounds may become useful as a new type of drug for treating deseases or conditions in which adequate quantities of the transmitter would otherwise be unavailable.

  9. Dopamine transporter mutant mice in experimental neuropharmacology.

    PubMed

    Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2008-06-01

    An opportunity to perform targeted genetic manipulations in mice has provided another dimension for modern pharmacological research. Genetically modified mice have become important tools to investigate functions of previously unexplored proteins, define mechanism of action of new and known pharmacological drugs, and validate novel targets for treatment of human disorders. One of the best examples of such use of genetic models in experimental pharmacology represents investigations involving mice deficient in the gene encoding the dopamine transporter (DAT). The dopamine transporter tightly regulates the extracellular dynamics of dopamine by recapturing released neurotransmitter into the presynaptic terminals, and genetic deletion of this protein results in profound alterations in both the presynaptic homeostasis and the extracellular dynamics of dopamine. By using this model of severe dopaminergic dysregulation, significant progress has been made in defining the major target of psychotropic drugs, understanding the mechanisms of their action, unraveling novel signaling events relevant for dopaminergic transmission, and mapping neuronal pathways involved in dopamine-related behaviors. Furthermore, DAT mutant mice provided an opportunity to model in vivo conditions of extreme dopaminergic dysfunction that could be relevant for human disorders such as ADHD, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease and, thus, could serve as test systems for developing novel treatments for these and related disorders. PMID:18057916

  10. Serotonin: a novel bone mass controller may have implications for alveolar bone.

    PubMed

    Galli, Carlo; Macaluso, Guido; Passeri, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    As recent studies highlight the importance of alternative mechanisms in the control of bone turnover, new therapeutic approaches can be envisaged for bone diseases and periodontitis-induced bone loss. Recently, it has been shown that Fluoxetine and Venlafaxine, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors commonly used as antidepressants, can positively or negatively affect bone loss in rat models of induced periodontitis. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that can be found within specific nuclei of the central nervous system, but can also be produced in the gut and be sequestered inside platelet granules. Although it is known to be mainly involved in the control of mood, sleep, and intestinal physiology, recent evidence has pointed at far reaching effects on bone metabolism, as a mediator of the effects of Lrp5, a membrane receptor commonly associated with Wnt canonical signaling and osteoblast differentiation. Deletion of Lrp5 in mice lead to increased expression of Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1, the gut isoform of the enzyme required for serotonin synthesis, thus increasing serum levels of serotonin. Serotonin, in turn, could bind to HTR1B receptors on osteoblasts and stop their proliferation by activating PKA and CREB.Although different groups have reported controversial results on the existence of an Lrp5-serotonin axis and the action of serotonin in bone remodeling, there is convincing evidence that serotonin modulators such as SSRIs can affect bone turnover. Consequently, the effects of this drug family on periodontal physiology should be thoroughly explored. PMID:23964727

  11. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational design of new inhibitors.

  12. Movies of dopamine transporter occupancy with ultra-high resolution focusing pinhole SPECT.

    PubMed

    Vastenhouw, B; van der Have, F; van der Linden, A J A; von Oerthel, L; Booij, J; Burbach, J P H; Smidt, M P; Beekman, F J

    2007-11-01

    A pivotal question in neuropharmacology is how the function of neurotransmitter systems relates to psychiatric diseases. In experimental neuropharmacology, we have dreamt about a looking glass that would allow us to see neurotransmitter systems in action, and about animals that would faithfully serve us as models for human psychiatric disease. Analysis of animal models has been limited by the availability of methods to study in vivo neurotransmitter dynamics. Now, a single photon emission computed tomography system called U-SPECT can localize dopamine transporters in sub-compartments of the mouse brain during a range of points in time. Applied to the midbrain dopamine system of different models of disease, this will aid the understanding of dynamic processes of this neurotransmitter that underlie brain functions and human brain pathology. PMID:17957236

  13. Evolution of neurotransmitter receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Venter, J C; di Porzio, U; Robinson, D A; Shreeve, S M; Lai, J; Kerlavage, A R; Fracek, S P; Lentes, K U; Fraser, C M

    1988-01-01

    The presence of hormones, neurotransmitters, their receptors and biosynthetic and degradative enzymes is clearly not only associated with the present and the recent past but with the past several hundred million years. Evidence is mounting which indicates substantial conservation of protein structure and function of these receptors and enzymes over these tremendous periods of time. These findings indicate that the evolution and development of the nervous system was not dependent upon the formation of new or better transmitter substances, receptor proteins, transducers and effector proteins but involved better utilization of these highly developed elements in creating advanced and refined circuitry. This is not a new concept; it is one that is now substantiated by increasingly sophisticated studies. In a 1953 article discussing chemical aspects of evolution (Danielli, 1953) Danielli quotes Medawar, "... endocrine evolution is not an evolution of hormones but an evolution of the uses to which they are put; an evolution not, to put it crudely, of chemical formulae but of reactivities, reaction patterns and tissue competences." To also quote Danielli, "In terms of comparative biochemistry, one must ask to what extent the evolution of these reactivities, reaction patterns and competences is conditional upon the evolution of methods of synthesis of new proteins, etc., and to what extent the proteins, etc., are always within the synthetic competence of an organism. In the latter case evolution is the history of changing uses of molecules, and not of changing synthetic abilities." (Danielli, 1953). Figure 4 outlines a phylogenetic tree together with an indication of where evidence exists for both the enzymes that determine the biosynthesis and metabolism of the cholinergic and adrenergic transmitters and their specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. This figure illustrates a number of important points. For example, the evidence appears to show that the transmitters and their associated enzymes existed for a substantial period before their respective receptor proteins. While the transmitters and enzymes appear to exist in single cellular organisms, there is no solid evidence for the presence of adrenergic or cholinergic receptors until multicellular organisms where the receptors appear to be clearly associated with specific cellular and neuronal communication (Fig. 4). One can only speculate as to the possible role for acetylcholine and the catecholamine in single cell organisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2830635

  14. Fast Phasic Release Properties of Dopamine Studied with a Channel Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Kress, Geraldine J.; Shu, Hong-Jin; Yu, Andrew; Taylor, Amanda; Benz, Ann; Harmon, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Few other neurotransmitters are of as intense interest to neuropsychiatry and neurology as dopamine, yet existing techniques to monitor dopamine release leave an important spatiotemporal gap in our understanding. Electrochemistry and fluorescence imaging tools have been developed to fill the gap, but these methods have important limitations. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a dopamine-gated chloride channel into rat dorsal striatal medium spiny neurons, targets of strong dopamine innervation, thereby transforming dopamine from a slow transmitter into a fast transmitter and revealing new opportunities for studying moment-to-moment regulation of dopamine release. We demonstrate pharmacological and biophysical properties of the channel that make it suitable for fast, local dopamine measurements, and we demonstrate for the first time spontaneous and evoked responses to vesicular dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Evoked dopamine currents were separated into a fast, monosynaptic component and a slower-rising and decaying disynaptic component mediated by nicotinic receptor activation. In summary, LGC-53 represents a dopamine biosensor with properties suitable for temporal separation of distinct dopamine signals in targets of dopamine innervation. PMID:25164674

  15. Presence and function of dopamine transporter (DAT) in stallion sperm: dopamine modulates sperm motility and acrosomal integrity.

    PubMed

    Urra, Javier A; Villaroel-Espíndola, Franz; Covarrubias, Alejandra A; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

  16. Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

  17. [Simultaneous detection of 8 monoamine neurotransmitters in the different sections of rat brains by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Liu, Liyan; Han, Yuanyuan; Bai, Jie; Du, Guangling; Gao, Qian

    2011-02-01

    A method for the simultaneous detection of L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin hydrochloride, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid and homovanillic acid in the different sections of mouse brains was established by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection and isocratic elution. Before analysis, the sample was deproteinized by 0.60 mol/L perchloric acid, followed by adjusting pH value of the sample with 1.20 mol/L K2HPO4, addition of 0.1 g/L L-cysteine as antioxidant and 0.50 mmol/L Na2EDTA as complexing agent. The separation column was a Shim-pack C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and the mobile phase (pH 3.8) was 13% methanol containing 50 mmol/L citric acid, 50 mmol/L sodium acetate, 0.5 mmol/L 1-heptanesulfonic acid sodium salt, 5 mmol/L triethylamine and 0.5 mmol/L Na2EDTA. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The injection volume was 10 microL. The emission and excitation wavelengths were 330 nm and 280 nm, respectively. Under the optimized separation conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity within the concentrations of 1.25 - 5000 microg/L (r > 0.9999). The limits of detection were between 0.20 - 5.00 microg/L, the average recoveries were between 94.83% and 99.19%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were between 0.08% and 2.51%. The advantages of the method include easy and prompt operation, high recovery, low detection limit, good separation effect, high accuracy and precision. The method has practical value for detecting 8 monoamine neurotransmitters in biological samples. PMID:21598515

  18. Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressant, produces regionally selective increases of multiple neurotransmitters--a rat microdialysis and electrophysiology study.

    PubMed

    Pehrson, Alan L; Cremers, Thomas; Bétry, Cecile; van der Hart, Marieke G C; Jørgensen, Laerke; Madsen, Mathias; Haddjeri, Nasser; Ebert, Bjarke; Sanchez, Connie

    2013-02-01

    The monoaminergic network, including serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) pathways, is highly interconnected and has a well-established role in mood disorders. Preclinical research suggests that 5-HT receptor subtypes, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as the 5-HT transporter (SERT), may have important roles in treating depression. This study evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressant combining 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, 5-HT1A receptor agonism, and SERT inhibition in recombinant cell lines. Extracellular 5-HT, NE and DA levels were evaluated in the ventral hippocampus (vHC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) after acute and subchronic treatment with Lu AA21004 or escitalopram. The acute effects of LuAA21004 on NE and DA neuronal firing were also evaluated in the locus coeruleus (LC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), respectively. Acute Lu AA21004 dose-dependently increased 5-HT in the vHC, mPFC and NAc. Maximal 5-HT levels in the vHC were higher than those in the mPFC. Furthermore, mPFC 5-HT levels were increased at low SERT occupancy levels. In the vHC and mPFC, but not the NAc, high Lu AA21004 doses increased NE and DA levels. Lu AA21004 slightly decreased LC NE neuronal firing and had no effect on VTA DA firing. Results are discussed in context of occupancy at 5-HT3, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1A receptors and SERT. In conclusion, Lu AA21004, acting via two pharmacological modalities, 5-HT receptor modulation and SERT inhibition, results in a brain region-dependent increase of multiple neurotransmitter concentrations. PMID:22612991

  19. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5 mg kg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18 m min(-1) at 23 °C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91 ± 14.1 min; CAF: 137 ± 25.8 min; NECA: 31 ± 13.7 min; CAF+NECA: 85 ± 11.8 min; p<0.05). NECA decreased the core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption, which is an index of heat production, tail skin temperature, which is an index of heat loss, and extracellular dopamine (DA) release at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, caffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. PMID:26604076

  20. Melatonin Supports CYP2D-Mediated Serotonin Synthesis in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Haduch, Anna; Bromek, Ewa; Wójcikowski, Jacek; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Daniel, Władysława A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is used in the therapy of sleep and mood disorders and as a neuroprotective agent. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that melatonin supported (via its deacetylation to 5-methoxytryptamine) CYP2D-mediated synthesis of serotonin from 5-methoxytryptamine. We measured serotonin tissue content in some brain regions (the cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, brain stem, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum) (model A), as well as its extracellular concentration in the striatum using an in vivo microdialysis (model B) after melatonin injection (100 mg/kg i.p.) to male Wistar rats. Melatonin increased the tissue concentration of serotonin in the brain structures studied of naïve, sham-operated, or serotonergic neurotoxin (5,7-dihydroxytryptamine)-lesioned rats (model A). Intracerebroventricular quinine (a CYP2D inhibitor) prevented the melatonin-induced increase in serotonin concentration. In the presence of pargyline (a monoaminoxidase inhibitor), the effect of melatonin was not visible in the majority of the brain structures studied but could be seen in all of them in 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-lesioned animals when serotonin storage and synthesis via a classic tryptophan pathway was diminished. Melatonin alone did not significantly increase extracellular serotonin concentration in the striatum of naïve rats but raised its content in pargyline-pretreated animals (model B). The CYP2D inhibitor propafenone given intrastructurally prevented the melatonin-induced increase in striatal serotonin in those animals. The obtained results indicate that melatonin supports CYP2D-catalyzed serotonin synthesis from 5-methoxytryptamine in the brain in vivo, which closes the serotonin-melatonin-serotonin biochemical cycle. The metabolism of exogenous melatonin to the neurotransmitter serotonin may be regarded as a newly recognized additional component of its pharmacological action. PMID:26884482

  1. Calmodulin-dependent regulation of neurotransmitter release differs in subsets of neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kosuke; Kudo, Yoshihisa; Aoyagi, Kyota; Ishikawa, Ryoki; Igarashi, Michihiro; Takahashi, Masami

    2013-10-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether calmodulin (CaM) plays a role in neurotransmitter release by examining the effect that ophiobolin A (OBA), a CaM antagonist, on neurotransmitter release from clonal rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, primary cortical neurons, and primary cerebellar granule cells. OBA inhibited Ca²⁺/CaM-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein in all cell types tested. Moreover, Ca²⁺-dependent release of dopamine and acetylcholine from PC12 cells were remarkably reduced by OBA in a dose-dependent and temporal manner, but neurotransmitter release partially recovered with the addition of CaM in membrane permeabilized PC12 cells. OBA and several synthetic CaM antagonists suppressed Ca²⁺-dependent glutamate release from cerebral cortical neurons, but not from cerebellar granule cells. Myosin Va, a CaM binding protein, localized to synaptic vesicles of PC12 cells and cerebral cortical neurons, but not in cerebellar granule cells. OBA suppressed Ca²⁺-induced myosin Va dissociation from secretory vesicles, and inhibited secretory vesicle motility in PC12 cells. These results suggest that CaM, although not essential, regulates neurotransmitter release in a subset of neurons and secretory cells, and myosin Va is a possible target of OBA in this process. PMID:23973605

  2. A linear model for estimation of neurotransmitter response profiles from dynamic PET data.

    PubMed

    Normandin, Marc D; Schiffer, Wynne K; Morris, Evan D

    2012-02-01

    The parametric ntPET model (p-ntPET) estimates the kinetics of neurotransmitter release from dynamic PET data with receptor-ligand radiotracers. Here we introduce a linearization (lp-ntPET) that is computationally efficient and can be applied to single scan data. lp-ntPET employs a non-invasive reference region input function and extends the LSRRM of Alpert et al. (2003) using basis functions to characterize the time course of neurotransmitter activation. In simulation studies, the temporal precision of neurotransmitter profiles estimated by lp-ntPET was similar to that of p-ntPET (standard deviation ~3 min for responses early in the scan) while computation time was reduced by several orders of magnitude. Violations of model assumptions such as activation-induced changes in regional blood flow or specific binding in the reference tissue have negligible effects on lp-ntPET performance. Application of the lp-ntPET method is demonstrated on [11C]raclopride data acquired in rats receiving methamphetamine, which yielded estimated response functions that were in good agreement with simultaneous microdialysis measurements of extracellular dopamine concentration. These results demonstrate that lp-ntPET is a computationally efficient, linear variant of ntPET that can be applied to PET data from single or multiple scan designs to estimate the time course of neurotransmitter activation. PMID:21767654

  3. CMOS neurotransmitter microarray: 96-channel integrated potentiostat with on-die microsensors.

    PubMed

    Nazari, Meisam Honarvar; Mazhab-Jafari, Hamed; Leng, Lian; Guenther, Axel; Genov, Roman

    2013-06-01

    A 8 × 12 array of integrated potentiostats for on-CMOS neurotransmitter imaging is presented. Each potentiostat channel measures bidirectional redox currents proportional to the concentration of a neurochemical. By combining the current-to-frequency and the single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) architectures a total linear dynamic range of 95 dB is achieved. A 3.8 mm × 3.1 mm prototype fabricated in a 0.35 μm standard CMOS technology was integrated with flat and 3D on-die gold microelectrodes and an on-chip microfluidic network. It is experimentally validated in in-situ recording of neurotransmitter dopamine. PMID:23853333

  4. Central actions of a novel and selective dopamine antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine traditionally have been divided into two subgroups: the D/sub 1/ class, which is linked to the stimulation of adenylate cyclase-activity, and the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ dopamine receptor that mediates the physiological and behavioral actions of dopamine in the intact animal. However, the benzazepine SCH23390 is a dopamine antagonist which has potent behavioral actions while displaying apparent neurochemical selectivity for the D/sub 1/ class of dopamine receptors. The purpose of this dissertation was to (1) confirm and characterize this selectivity, and (2) test certain hypothesis related to possible modes of action of SCH233390. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase by SCH23390 occurred via an action at the dopamine receptor only. A radiolabeled analog of SCH23390 displayed the receptor binding properties of a specific high-affinity ligand, and regional receptor densities were highly correlated with dopamine levels. The subcellular distribution of (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding did not correspond completely with that of dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase. The neurochemical potency of SCH23390 as a D/sub 1/ receptor antagonist was preserved following parental administration. A variety of dopamine agonists and antagonists displayed a high correlation between their abilities to compete for (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding in vitro and to act at an adenylate cyclase-linked receptor. Finally, the relative affinities of dopamine and SCH23390 for both D/sub 1/ receptors and (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding sites were comparable. It is concluded that the behavioral effects of SCH23390 are mediated by actions at D/sub 1/ dopamine receptors only, and that the physiological importance of this class of receptors should be reevaluated.

  5. Molecular Mechanism of Dopamine Transport by Human Dopamine Transporter.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mary Hongying; Bahar, Ivet

    2015-11-01

    Dopamine transporters (DATs) control neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) homeostasis by reuptake of excess DA, assisted by sodium and chloride ions. The recent resolution of DAT structure (dDAT) from Drosophila permits us for the first time to directly view the sequence of events involved in DA reuptake in human DAT (hDAT) using homology modeling and full-atomic microseconds accelerated simulations. Major observations are spontaneous closure of extracellular gates prompted by DA binding; stabilization of a holo-occluded intermediate; disruption of N82-N353 hydrogen bond and exposure to intracellular (IC) water triggered by Na2 dislocation; redistribution of a network of salt bridges at the IC surface in the inward-facing state; concerted tilting of IC-exposed helices to enable the release of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions; and DA release after protonation of D79. The observed time-resolved interactions confirm the conserved dynamics of LeuT-fold family, while providing insights into the mechanistic role of specific residues in hDAT. PMID:26481814

  6. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays critical roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding. Neurons immunoreactive (IR)to 5-HT were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the larval and adult stages of the stab...

  7. Dynamic changes of five neurotransmitters and their related enzymes in various rat tissues following β-asarone and levodopa co-administration

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, LIPING; DENG, MINZHEN; FANG, YONGQI; LI, LING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamic changes of five neurotransmitters and their associated enzymes in the rat plasma and brain tissues following the co-administration of β-asarone and levodopa (L-dopa). The rats were divided into five groups, including the control group and four treatment groups that were intragastrically co-administered β-asarone and L-dopa and sacrificed at 1, 5, 18 and 48 h, respectively. Neurotransmitter levels in the brain tissues and plasma were detected using high performance liquid chromatograph and the related enzymes of dopamine (DA) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the striatal levels of L-dopa and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) peaked at 1 h and then returned to the normal levels, while the striatal levels of DA were stable within 48 h. In the cortex and hippocampus tissue, L-dopa, DA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels peaked at 1 h and then returned to normal levels. In the plasma, L-dopa, DA, DOPAC and HVA levels peaked at 1 h. Compared with the control group, L-dopa, DA and HVA levels were higher between 18 and 48 h, whereas the DOPAC level was lower. By contrast, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serotonin (5-HT) levels among the plasma, hippocampus, cortex and striatum. Furthermore, the DA/L-dopa ratio in the brain tissues and plasma increased in the first 5 h, while (DOPAC + HVA)/DA ratios demonstrated a significant reduction. Striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) levels were higher compared with the control group; however, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase B levels were reduced. In the rat plasma, TH and COMT peaked at 1 h, while AADC peaked at 5 h. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the co-administration of L-dopa and β-asarone may be used to maintain a stable striatal DA level within 48 h. In addition, this treatment may promote DA generation by AADC and reduce the metabolism of DA by COMT. PMID:26622527

  8. Serotonin produces monoamine oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in human heart valves

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jordan D.; Chu, Yi; Heistad, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    Heart valve disease and pulmonary hypertension, in patients with carcinoid tumors and people who used the fenfluramine-phentermine combination for weight control, have been associated with high levels of serotonin in blood. The mechanism by which serotonin induces valvular changes is not well understood. We recently reported that increased oxidative stress is associated with valvular changes in aortic valve stenosis in humans and mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin induces oxidative stress in human heart valves, and examined mechanisms by which serotonin may increase reactive oxygen species. Superoxide (O2·−) was measured in heart valves from explanted human hearts that were not used for transplantation. O2·− levels (lucigenin-enhanced chemoluminescence) were increased in homogenates of cardiac valves and blood vessels after incubation with serotonin. A nonspecific inhibitor of flavin-oxidases (diphenyliodonium), or inhibitors of monoamine oxidase [MAO (tranylcypromine and clorgyline)], prevented the serotonin-induced increase in O2·−. Dopamine, another MAO substrate that is increased in patients with carcinoid syndrome, also increased O2·− levels in heart valves, and this effect was attenuated by clorgyline. Apocynin [an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase] did not prevent increases in O2·− during serotonin treatment. Addition of serotonin to recombinant human MAO-A generated O2·−, and this effect was prevented by an MAO inhibitor. In conclusion, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby MAO-A can contribute to increased oxidative stress in human heart valves and pulmonary artery exposed to serotonin and dopamine. PMID:19666839

  9. Dopamine Signaling Regulates Fat Content through β-Oxidation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Alexandre Guimarães de Almeida; Bridi, Jessika Cristina; de Souza, Bruno Rezende; de Castro Júnior, Célio; de Lima Torres, Karen Cecília; Malard, Leandro; Jorio, Ado; de Miranda, Débora Marques; Ashrafi, Kaveh; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of energy balance involves an intricate interplay between neural mechanisms that respond to internal and external cues of energy demand and food availability. Compelling data have implicated the neurotransmitter dopamine as an important part of body weight regulation. However, the precise mechanisms through which dopamine regulates energy homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate mechanisms through which dopamine modulates energy storage. We showed that dopamine signaling regulates fat reservoirs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the fat reducing effects of dopamine were dependent on dopaminergic receptors and a set of fat oxidation enzymes. Our findings reveal an ancient role for dopaminergic regulation of fat and suggest that dopamine signaling elicits this outcome through cascades that ultimately mobilize peripheral fat depots. PMID:24465759

  10. Aripiprazole: pharmacodynamics of a dopamine partial agonist for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gründer, G; Kungel, M; Ebrecht, M; Göröcs, T; Modell, S

    2006-02-01

    Aripiprazole is the first approved atypical antipsychotic with a mechanism of action that exerts a partial agonism with high affinity at Dopamin D2- and Serotonin-5-HT1A-receptors as well as an antagonism at Serotonin-5-HT2A-receptors. Aripiprazole provides good clinical effectiveness and a favorable profile of safety and tolerability. The special pharmacodynamics of aripiprazole are described herein. PMID:16508892

  11. Serotonin Effects on Sleep and Emotional Disorders in Adolescent Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Pakalnis, Ann; Splaingard, Mark; Splaingard, Deborah; Kring, Donna; Colvin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine frequency of emotional disorders and sleep disturbances in adolescent migraineurs with episodic and chronic headaches. To determine the relationship of whole blood serotonin, caffeine consumption, and frequency of sleep and mood disorders. Background The neurotransmitter serotonin has been implicated to play a role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep and in modulating mood. A putative role in migraine pathophysiology is also known. Methods Adolescents from 13 to 17 years of age were identified from our headache clinic with episodic or chronic migraine (according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-Second Edition criteria) and healthy controls enrolled. Psychological rating scales were completed, including Adolescent Symptom Inventory (4th Edition) and Child Depression Inventory. Sleep questionnaires (Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire) were completed by the teenager’s parents/guardian. Whole blood serotonin levels were drawn and analyzed and caffeine consumption obtained by history. Results A total of 18 controls (8 girls) and 15 patients each with episodic migraines (9 girls) and chronic migraine (10 girls) were studied. Patients with headache had significantly more sleep problems than controls. Patients with chronic migraines had increased daytime sleepiness and dysthymia compared with teenagers with episodic migraines. Serotonin levels were not significantly different, and no association was noted between serotonin levels and sleep abnormalities or emotional rating scales. Increased caffeine intake was related to sleep and depressive complaints. Conclusions Sleep and emotional disorders were common in adolescents with migraine. Sleep disorders and dysthymia were more prevalent with increased headache frequency. No correlation was noted with whole blood serotonin levels. PMID:19486363

  12. Glucocorticoids Inhibit Basal and Hormone-Induced Serotonin Synthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasni Ebou, Moina; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Launay, Jean-Marie; Callebert, Jacques; Tronche, François; Ferré, Pascal; Gautier, Jean-François; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Bréant, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major complication of chronic Glucocorticoids (GCs) treatment. GCs induce insulin resistance and also inhibit insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Yet, a full understanding of this negative regulation remains to be deciphered. In the present study, we investigated whether GCs could inhibit serotonin synthesis in beta cell since this neurotransmitter has been shown to be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. To this aim, serotonin synthesis was evaluated in vitro after treatment with GCs of either islets from CD1 mice or MIN6 cells, a beta-cell line. We also explored the effect of GCs on the stimulation of serotonin synthesis by several hormones such as prolactin and GLP 1. We finally studied this regulation in islet in two in vivo models: mice treated with GCs and with liraglutide, a GLP1 analog, and mice deleted for the glucocorticoid receptor in the pancreas. We showed in isolated islets and MIN6 cells that GCs decreased expression and activity of the two key enzymes of serotonin synthesis, Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and 2 (Tph2), leading to reduced serotonin contents. GCs also blocked the induction of serotonin synthesis by prolactin or by a previously unknown serotonin activator, the GLP-1 analog exendin-4. In vivo, activation of the Glucagon-like-Peptide-1 receptor with liraglutide during 4 weeks increased islet serotonin contents and GCs treatment prevented this increase. Finally, islets from mice deleted for the GR in the pancreas displayed an increased expression of Tph1 and Tph2 and a strong increased serotonin content per islet. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an original inhibition of serotonin synthesis by GCs, both in basal condition and after stimulation by prolactin or activators of the GLP-1 receptor. This regulation may contribute to the deleterious effects of GCs on beta cells. PMID:26901633

  13. Glucocorticoids Inhibit Basal and Hormone-Induced Serotonin Synthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Hasni Ebou, Moina; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Launay, Jean-Marie; Callebert, Jacques; Tronche, François; Ferré, Pascal; Gautier, Jean-François; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Bréant, Bernadette; Blondeau, Bertrand; Riveline, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major complication of chronic Glucocorticoids (GCs) treatment. GCs induce insulin resistance and also inhibit insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Yet, a full understanding of this negative regulation remains to be deciphered. In the present study, we investigated whether GCs could inhibit serotonin synthesis in beta cell since this neurotransmitter has been shown to be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. To this aim, serotonin synthesis was evaluated in vitro after treatment with GCs of either islets from CD1 mice or MIN6 cells, a beta-cell line. We also explored the effect of GCs on the stimulation of serotonin synthesis by several hormones such as prolactin and GLP 1. We finally studied this regulation in islet in two in vivo models: mice treated with GCs and with liraglutide, a GLP1 analog, and mice deleted for the glucocorticoid receptor in the pancreas. We showed in isolated islets and MIN6 cells that GCs decreased expression and activity of the two key enzymes of serotonin synthesis, Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and 2 (Tph2), leading to reduced serotonin contents. GCs also blocked the induction of serotonin synthesis by prolactin or by a previously unknown serotonin activator, the GLP-1 analog exendin-4. In vivo, activation of the Glucagon-like-Peptide-1 receptor with liraglutide during 4 weeks increased islet serotonin contents and GCs treatment prevented this increase. Finally, islets from mice deleted for the GR in the pancreas displayed an increased expression of Tph1 and Tph2 and a strong increased serotonin content per islet. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an original inhibition of serotonin synthesis by GCs, both in basal condition and after stimulation by prolactin or activators of the GLP-1 receptor. This regulation may contribute to the deleterious effects of GCs on beta cells. PMID:26901633

  14. Effect of manganese treatment on the levels of neurotransmitters, hormones, and neuropeptides: modulation by stress

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.S.; Jung, C.R.; Seth, P.K.; Mason, G.; Bondy, S.C.

    1984-08-01

    Six weeks of daily intraperitoneal injection with manganese chloride (15 mg/kg body wt) reduced the normal weight gain of male Fischer-344 rats. This treatment depressed plasma testosterone and corticosterone levels, but prolactin levels were unaffected. The only significant changes in the levels of a variety of neuropeptides assayed in several regions were increases in the levels of hypothalamic substance P and pituitary neurotensin. Striatal serotonin, dopamine, and their metabolites were unchanged in manganese-exposed rats relative to saline-injected controls. However, the stress of injection combined with the effect of manganese appeared to significantly increase concentrations of striatal monoamines relative to uninjected controls.

  15. Drug Abuse and the Simplest Neurotransmitter

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter vesicles are known to concentrate hydrogen ions (or protons), the simplest ion, and to release them during neurotransmission. Furthermore, receptors highly sensitive to protons, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), were previously localized on the opposite side of the synaptic cleft on dendritic spines. Now, recent experiments provide some of the strongest support to date that protons function as a neurotransmitter in mice, crossing synapses onto medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), activating ASICs, and ultimately suppressing drug abuse-related behaviors. PMID:25054738

  16. Platelet serotonin modulates immune functions.

    PubMed

    Mauler, M; Bode, C; Duerschmied, D

    2016-02-10

    This short review addresses immune functions of platelet serotonin. Platelets transport serotonin at a high concentration in dense granules and release it upon activation. Besides haemostatic, vasotonic and developmental modulation, serotonin also influences a variety of immune functions (mediated by different serotonin receptors). First, platelet serotonergic effects are directed against invading pathogens via activation and proliferation of lymphocytes, modulation of cytokine release, and recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation by induction of selectin expression on endothelial cells. Second, serotonin levels are elevated in autoimmune diseases, such as asthma or rheumatoid arthritis, and during tissue regeneration after ischemia of myocardium or brain. Specific antagonism of serotonin receptors appears to improve survival after myocardial infarction or sepsis and to attenuate asthmatic attacks in animal models. It will be of great clinical relevance if these findings can be translated into human applications. In conclusion, targeting immune modulatory effects of platelet serotonin may provide novel therapeutic options for common health problems. PMID:25693763

  17. Distinct effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors milnacipran and venlafaxine on rat pineal monoamines.

    PubMed

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-06-17

    Monoamine systems are involved in the pathology and therapeutic mechanism of depression. The pineal gland contains large amounts of serotonin as a precursor for melatonin, and its activity is controlled by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves. Pineal diurnal activity and its release of melatonin are relevant to aberrant states observed in depression. We investigated the effects on pineal monoamines of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, which are widely used antidepressants. Four days of milnacipran treatment led to an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin levels, whereas 4 days of venlafaxine treatment reduced 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels; both agents induced an increase in dopamine levels. Our data suggest that milnacipran increases levels of the precursor for melatonin synthesis by facilitating the noradrenergic regulation of pineal activity and that venlafaxine inhibits serotonin reuptake into noradrenergic terminals on the pineal gland. PMID:26016648

  18. A Neurobiological Hypothesis of Treatment-Resistant Depression – Mechanisms for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Non-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Gopinath, Srinath; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Berry, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    First-line treatment of major depression includes administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), yet studies suggest that remission rates following two trials of an SSRI are <50%. The authors examine the putative biological substrates underlying “treatment resistant depression (TRD)” with the goal of elucidating novel rationales to treat TRD. We look at relevant articles from the preclinical and clinical literature combined with clinical exposure to TRD patients. A major focus was to outline pathophysiological mechanisms whereby the serotonin system becomes impervious to the desired enhancement of serotonin neurotransmission by SSRIs. A complementary focus was to dissect neurotransmitter systems, which serve to inhibit the dorsal raphe. We propose, based on a body of translational studies, TRD may not represent a simple serotonin deficit state but rather an excess of midbrain peri-raphe serotonin and subsequent deficit at key fronto-limbic projection sites, with ultimate compromise in serotonin-mediated neuroplasticity. Glutamate, serotonin, noradrenaline, and histamine are activated by stress and exert an inhibitory effect on serotonin outflow, in part by “flooding” 5-HT1A autoreceptors by serotonin itself. Certain factors putatively exacerbate this scenario – presence of the short arm of the serotonin transporter gene, early-life adversity and comorbid bipolar disorder – each of which has been associated with SSRI-treatment resistance. By utilizing an incremental approach, we provide a system for treating the TRD patient based on a strategy of rescuing serotonin neurotransmission from a state of SSRI-induced dorsal raphe stasis. This calls for “stacked” interventions, with an SSRI base, targeting, if necessary, the glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and histaminergic systems, thereby successively eliminating the inhibitory effects each are capable of exerting on serotonin neurons. Future studies are recommended to test this biologically based approach for treatment of TRD. PMID:24904340

  19. Direct affinity of dopamine to lipid membranes investigated by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matam, Yashasvi; Ray, Bruce D; Petrache, Horia I

    2016-04-01

    Dopamine, a naturally occurring neurotransmitter, plays an important role in the brain's reward system and acts on sensory receptors in the brain. Neurotransmitters are contained in lipid membraned vesicles and are released by exocytosis. All neurotransmitters interact with transport and receptor proteins in glial cells, on neuronal dendrites, and at the axonal button, and also must interact with membrane lipids. However, the extent of direct interaction between lipid membranes in the absence of receptors and transport proteins has not been extensively investigated. In this report, we use UV and NMR spectroscopy to determine the affinity and the orientation of dopamine interacting with lipid vesicles made of either phosphatidylcholine (PC) or phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids which are primary lipid components of synaptic vesicles. We quantify the interaction of dopamine's aromatic ring with lipid membranes using our newly developed method that involves reference spectra in hydrophobic environments. Our measurements show that dopamine interacts with lipid membranes primarily through the aromatic side opposite to the hydroxyl groups, with this aromatic side penetrating deeper into the hydrophobic region of the membrane. Since dopamine's activity involves its release into extracellular space, we have used our method to also investigate dopamine's release from lipid vesicles. We find that dopamine trapped inside PC and PS vesicles is released into the external solution despite its affinity to membranes. This result suggests that dopamine's interaction with lipid membranes is complex and involves both binding as well as permeation through lipid bilayers, a combination that could be an effective trigger for apoptosis of dopamine-generating cells. PMID:26960008

  20. Dopamine and T cells: dopamine receptors and potent effects on T cells, dopamine production in T cells, and abnormalities in the dopaminergic system in T cells in autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Levite, M

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine, a principal neurotransmitter, deserves upgrading to 'NeuroImmunotransmitter' thanks to its multiple, direct and powerful effects on most/all immune cells. Dopamine by itself is a potent activator of resting effector T cells (Teffs), via two independent ways: direct Teffs activation, and indirect Teffs activation by suppression of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The review covers the following findings: (i) T cells express functional dopamine receptors (DRs) D1R-D5R, but their level and function are dynamic and context-sensitive, (ii) DR membranal protein levels do not necessarily correlate with DR mRNA levels, (iii) different T cell types/subtypes have different DR levels and composition and different responses to dopamine, (iv) autoimmune and pro-inflammatory T cells and T cell leukaemia/lymphoma also express functional DRs, (v) dopamine (~10(-8) M) activates resting/naive Teffs (CD8(+) >CD4(+) ), (vi) dopamine affects Th1/Th2/Th17 differentiation, (vii) dopamine inhibits already activated Teffs (i.e. T  cells that have been already activated by either antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies cytokines or other molecules), (viii) dopamine inhibits activated Tregs in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, dopamine 'suppresses the suppressors' and releases the inhibition they exert on Teffs, (ix) dopamine affects intracellular signalling molecules and cascades in T cells (e.g. ERK, Lck, Fyn, NF-κB, KLF2), (x) T cells produce dopamine (Tregs>Teffs), can release dopamine, mainly after activation (by antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies, PKC activators or other), uptake extracellular dopamine, and most probably need dopamine, (xi) dopamine is important for antigen-specific interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, (xii) in few autoimmune diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis/SLE/rheumatoid arthritis), and neurological/psychiatric diseases (e.g. Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and Tourette), patient's T cells seem to have abnormal DRs expression and/or responses to dopamine or production of dopamine, (xiii) drugs that affect the dopaminergic system have potent effects on T cells (e.g. dopamine=Intropin, L-dopa, bromocriptine, haloperidol, quinpirole, reserpine, pergolide, ecopipam, pimozide, amantadine, tetrabenazine, nomifensine, butaclamol). Dopamine-induced activation of resting Teffs and suppression of Tregs seem beneficial for health and may also be used for immunotherapy of cancer and infectious diseases. Independently, suppression of DRs in autoimmune and pro-inflammatory T cells, and also in cancerous T cells, may be advantageous. The review is relevant to Immunologists, Neurologists, Neuroimmunologists, Hematologists, Psychiatrists, Psychologists and Pharmacologists. PMID:25728499

  1. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  2. Imaging neurotransmitter uptake and depletion in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.; Haydon, P.G.; Yeung, E.S.

    1997-08-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) laser-based optical microscope and charge-coupled device (CCD) detection system was used to obtain chemical images of biological cells. Subcellular structures can be easily seen in both optical and fluorescence images. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection provides high sensitivity and low limits of detection, and it does not require coupling to fluorescent dyes. We were able to quantitatively monitor serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual astrocytes on the basis of its native fluorescence. Different regions of the cells took up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of uptake kinetics. Similarly, we observed different serotonin depletion dynamics in different astrocyte regions. There were also some astrocyte areas where no serotonin uptake or depletion was observed. Potential applications include the mapping of other biogenic species in cells as well as the ability to image their release from specific regions of cells in response to external stimuli. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  3. Synthesis on accumulation of putative neurotransmitters by cultured neural crest cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.; Rafford, C.E.

    1982-07-01

    The events mediating the differentiation of embryonic neural crest cells into several types of neurons are incompletely understood. In order to probe one aspect of this differentiation, we have examined the capacity of cultured quail trunk neural crest cells to synthesize, from radioactive precursors, and store several putative neurotransmitter compounds. These neural crest cultures develop the capacity to synthesize and accumulate acetylcholine and the catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine. In contrast, detectable but relatively little synthesis and accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine gamma-aminobutyric acid, or octopamine from the appropriate radiolabeled precursors were observed. The capacity for synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines is very low or absent at 2 days in vitro. Between 3 and 7 days in vitro, there is a marked rise in both catecholamine and acetylcholine accumulation in the cultures. These findings suggest that, under the particular conditions used in these experiments, the development of neurotransmitter biosynthesis in trunk neural crest cells ijs restricted and resembles, at least partially, the pattern observed in vivo. The development of this capacity to synthesize and store radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines from the appropriate radioactive precursors coincides closely with the development of the activities of the synthetic enzymes choline acetyltransferase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase reported by others.

  4. Neuromolecular Imaging Shows Temporal Synchrony Patterns between Serotonin and Movement within Neuronal Motor Circuits in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    The present discourse links the electrical and chemical properties of the brain with neurotransmitters and movement behaviors to further elucidate strategies to diagnose and treat brain disease. Neuromolecular imaging (NMI), based on electrochemical principles, is used to detect serotonin in nerve terminals (dorsal and ventral striata) and somatodendrites (ventral tegmentum) of reward/motor mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal brain circuits. Neuronal release of serotonin is detected at the same time and in the same animal, freely moving and unrestrained, while open-field behaviors are monitored via infrared photobeams. The purpose is to emphasize the unique ability of NMI and the BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors to empirically image a pattern of temporal synchrony, previously reported, for example, in Aplysia using central pattern generators (CPGs), serotonin and cerebral peptide-2. Temporal synchrony is reviewed within the context of the literature on central pattern generators, neurotransmitters and movement disorders. Specifically, temporal synchrony data are derived from studies on psychostimulant behavior with and without cocaine while at the same time and continuously, serotonin release in motor neurons within basal ganglia, is detected. The results show that temporal synchrony between the neurotransmitter, serotonin and natural movement occurs when the brain is NOT injured via, e.g., trauma, addictive drugs or psychiatric illness. In striking contrast, in the case of serotonin and cocaine-induced psychostimulant behavior, a different form of synchrony and also asynchrony can occur. Thus, the known dysfunctional movement behavior produced by cocaine may well be related to the loss of temporal synchrony, the loss of the ability to match serotonin in brain with motor activity. The empirical study of temporal synchrony patterns in humans and animals may be more relevant to the dynamics of motor circuits and movement behaviors than are studies of static parameters currently relied upon within the realms of science and medicine. There are myriad applications for the use of NMI to discover clinically relevant diagnoses and treatments for brain disease involving the motor system. PMID:24961434

  5. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kenneth T; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; White, Jason P; Ellis, Thomas L; Phillips, Paul E M; Montague, P Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson's disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson's disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  6. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward

    PubMed Central

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; White, Jason P.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson’s disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  7. Dopamine Regulation of Human Speech and Bird Song: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonyan, Kristina; Horwitz, Barry; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the neural basis of human speech control, extensive research has been done using a variety of methodologies in a range of experimental models. Nevertheless, several critical questions about learned vocal motor control still remain open. One of them is the mechanism(s) by which neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, modulate speech and…

  8. Blink Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Evidence for Altered Dopamine Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. E.; Symons, F. J.; Johnson, A.-M.; Hatton, D. D.; Boccia, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor and cognitive functioning, can be non-invasively measured via observation of spontaneous blink rates. Blink rates have been studied in a number of clinical conditions including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinsons, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with results implicating either…

  9. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in…

  10. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in

  11. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M

    1992-10-01

    Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390

  12. Context-dependent fluctuation of serotonin in the auditory midbrain: the influence of sex, reproductive state and experience

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of changing behavioral situations, plasticity of sensory systems can be a valuable mechanism to facilitate appropriate behavioral responses. In the auditory system, the neurotransmitter serotonin is an important messenger for context-dependent regulation because it is sensitive to both external events and internal state, and it modulates neural activity. In male mice, serotonin increases in the auditory midbrain region, the inferior colliculus (IC), in response to changes in behavioral context such as restriction stress and social contact. Female mice have not been measured in similar contexts, although the serotonergic system is sexually dimorphic in many ways. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sex, experience and estrous state on the fluctuation of serotonin in the IC across contexts, as well as potential relationships between behavior and serotonin. Contrary to our expectation, there were no sex differences in increases of serotonin in response to a restriction stimulus. Both sexes had larger increases in second exposures, suggesting experience plays a role in serotonergic release in the IC. In females, serotonin increased during both restriction and interactions with males; however, the increase was more rapid during restriction. There was no effect of female estrous phase on the serotonergic change for either context, but serotonin was related to behavioral activity in females interacting with males. These results show that changes in behavioral context induce increases in serotonin in the IC by a mechanism that appears to be uninfluenced by sex or estrous state, but may depend on experience and behavioral activity. PMID:24198252

  13. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, S M; Clarke, G; Borre, Y E; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-01-15

    The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin functions as a key neurotransmitter at both terminals of this network. Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the gut microbiome in regulating normal functioning of this axis. In particular, it is becoming clear that the microbial influence on tryptophan metabolism and the serotonergic system may be an important node in such regulation. There is also substantial overlap between behaviours influenced by the gut microbiota and those which rely on intact serotonergic neurotransmission. The developing serotonergic system may be vulnerable to differential microbial colonisation patterns prior to the emergence of a stable adult-like gut microbiota. At the other extreme of life, the decreased diversity and stability of the gut microbiota may dictate serotonin-related health problems in the elderly. The mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk require further elaboration but may be related to the ability of the gut microbiota to control host tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway, thereby simultaneously reducing the fraction available for serotonin synthesis and increasing the production of neuroactive metabolites. The enzymes of this pathway are immune and stress-responsive, both systems which buttress the brain-gut axis. In addition, there are neural processes in the gastrointestinal tract which can be influenced by local alterations in serotonin concentrations with subsequent relay of signals along the scaffolding of the brain-gut axis to influence CNS neurotransmission. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota might be a viable treatment strategy for serotonin-related brain-gut axis disorders. PMID:25078296

  14. IL-4 Inhibits IL-1β-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior and Central Neurotransmitter Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun-Soo; An, Kyungeh; Starkweather, Angela; Kim, Kyung Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    It has been known that activation of the central innate immune system or exposure to stress can disrupt balance of anti-/proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the modulation of depressive-like behaviors, the hormonal and neurotransmitter systems in rats. We investigated whether centrally administered IL-1β is associated with activation of CNS inflammatory pathways and behavioral changes and whether treatment with IL-4 could modulate IL-1β-induced depressive-like behaviors and central neurotransmitter systems. Infusion of IL-4 significantly decreased IL-1β-induced anhedonic responses and increased social exploration and total activity. Treatment with IL-4 markedly blocked IL-1β-induced increase in PGE2 and CORT levels. Also, IL-4 reduced IL-1β-induced 5-HT levels by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA and activating serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hippocampus, and levels of NE were increased by activating tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that IL-4 may locally contribute to the regulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and may inhibit IL-1β-induced behavioral and immunological changes. The present results suggest that IL-4 modulates IL-1β-induced depressive behavior by inhibiting IL-1β-induced central glial activation and neurotransmitter alterations. IL-4 reduced central and systemic mediatory inflammatory activation, as well as reversing the IL-1β-induced alterations in neurotransmitter levels. The present findings contribute a biochemical pathway regulated by IL-4 that may have therapeutic utility for treatment of IL-1β-induced depressive behavior and neuroinflammation which warrants further study. PMID:26417153

  15. Influence of tacrine on dopamine-induced reactions of the gastric smooth muscle of rats.

    PubMed

    Turijski, V; Krustev, A; Getova-Spassova, D; Spassov, V

    2004-03-01

    The clinical usage of the cholinesterase inhibitor tacrine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease is accompanied by adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract. These adverse effects are a result of the direct action of tacrine on the intestinal smooth muscles or of the modulation of certain neurotransmitters regulating gastrointestinal functions. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that modulates gastrointestinal motility. This study was designed to examine in vitro the effects of tacrine on dopamine-induced changes in spontaneous activity of smooth muscle preparations from rat's gastric corpus. The mechanical activity was isometrically registered. Tacrine 1.10(-7)-1.10(-5) mol/l caused smooth muscle contraction, which was blocked by atropine 1.10(-6) mol/l. Tacrine 1.10(-4) mol/l provoked a relaxation resistant to atropine. Dopamine and D(2)-receptor antagonists haloperidol and R121 had no effect on tacrine-induced relaxation. Dopamine-induced contraction was concentration-dependent. It was blocked by D(2)-receptor antagonists haloperidol and R121 and by tacrine 1.10(-4) mol/l. In the presence of tacrine 1.10(-7)-10(-5) mol/l or atropine the dopamine-induced contraction was significant. The data obtained suggested that tacrine 1.10(-4) mol/l inhibited the dopamine effects on gastric corpus smooth muscles. The effect was probably not dependent on its anticholinesterase activity or not realized through direct influence on D(2)-dopamine receptors. PMID:15071608

  16. Dopamine induces an optimism bias in rats-Pharmacological proof for the translational validity of the ambiguous-cue interpretation test.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, J; Golebiowska, J; Popik, P; Rygula, R

    2016-01-15

    Recent findings have revealed that pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic (DA) function by the administration of a dopaminergic precursor (dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine; l-DOPA) increases an optimism bias in humans. This effect is due to l-DOPA's impairment of the ability to update beliefs in response to undesirable information about the future. To test whether an 'optimistic' bias is also mediated by dopamine in animals, first, two groups of rats received either a dopaminergic precursor, l-DOPA, or a D2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol, and were subsequently tested using the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm. To test whether similar effects might be observed when manipulating another neurotransmitter implicated in learning about reward and punishment, we administered the serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor escitalopram to a third group of animals and the selective and irreversible tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) to a fourth group. The results of our study demonstrated that prolonged (2 weeks), but not acute, l-DOPA administration induced optimistic bias in rats. Neither acute nor chronic treatment with the other tested compounds had significant effects on the cognitive judgment bias of rats. The convergence of these results with human studies suggests the translational validity of the ambiguous-cue interpretation paradigm in testing the effects of pharmacological manipulations on cognitive judgment bias (optimism/pessimism) in rats. PMID:26462571

  17. HPLC analysis of serotonin, tryptamine, tyramine, and the hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin and tyramine in food vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ly, Dalin; Kang, Kiyoon; Choi, Jang-Yeol; Ishihara, Atsushi; Back, Kyoungwhan; Lee, Seong-Gene

    2008-06-01

    Biogenic monoamines such as serotonin, tryptamine, and tyramine function as neurotransmitters and mitogenic factors in animals and are involved in flowering, morphogenesis, and protection from and adaptation to environmental changes in plants. In plants, serotonin and tyramine are conjugated to form phenolic compounds via thioester linkages during the synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides, including p-coumaroylserotonin (CS), feruloylserotonin (FS), p-coumaroyltyramine (CT), and feruloyltyramine (FT). In this study, we determined the amounts of the biogenic monoamines CS, FS, CT, and FT in commonly consumed vegetables using high-performance liquid chromatography. Serotonin, tryptamine, and tyramine were detected in all vegetables tested. The serotonin levels ranged from 1.8 to 294 microg/g of dry weight, the tryptamine levels ranged from 0.8 to 372 microg/g of dry weight, and the tyramine levels ranged from 1.4 to 286 microg/g of dry weight. The highest serotonin and tryptamine contents were found in tomato and cherry tomato (140.3-222 microg/g of dry weight), while paprika and green pepper had higher tyramine contents than the other vegetables (286 and 141.5 microg/g of dry weight, respectively). Overall, the levels of CS, FS, CT, and FT ranged from 0.03 to 13.8 microg/g of dry weight, with green onion possessing the highest levels of CS (0.69 microg/g of dry weight), FT (1.99 microg/g of dry weight), and CT (13.85 microg/g of dry weight). PMID:18598185

  18. Evidence for striatal dopamine release during a video game.

    PubMed

    Koepp, M J; Gunn, R N; Lawrence, A D; Cunningham, V J; Dagher, A; Jones, T; Brooks, D J; Bench, C J; Grasby, P M

    1998-05-21

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved in learning, reinforcement of behaviour, attention, and sensorimotor integration. Binding of the radioligand 11C-labelled raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors is sensitive to levels of endogenous dopamine, which can be released by pharmacological challenge. Here we use 11C-labelled raclopride and positron emission tomography scans to provide evidence that endogenous dopamine is released in the human striatum during a goal-directed motor task, namely a video game. Binding of raclopride to dopamine receptors in the striatum was significantly reduced during the video game compared with baseline levels of binding, consistent with increased release and binding of dopamine to its receptors. The reduction in binding of raclopride in the striatum positively correlated with the performance level during the task and was greatest in the ventral striatum. These results show, to our knowledge for the first time, behavioural conditions under which dopamine is released in humans, and illustrate the ability of positron emission tomography to detect neurotransmitter fluxes in vivo during manipulations of behaviour. PMID:9607763

  19. Serotonin selectively influences moral judgment and behavior through effects on harm aversion.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Molly J; Clark, Luke; Hauser, Marc D; Robbins, Trevor W

    2010-10-01

    Aversive emotional reactions to real or imagined social harms infuse moral judgment and motivate prosocial behavior. Here, we show that the neurotransmitter serotonin directly alters both moral judgment and behavior through increasing subjects' aversion to personally harming others. We enhanced serotonin in healthy volunteers with citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and contrasted its effects with both a pharmacological control treatment and a placebo on tests of moral judgment and behavior. We measured the drugs' effects on moral judgment in a set of moral 'dilemmas' pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person). Enhancing serotonin made subjects more likely to judge harmful actions as forbidden, but only in cases where harms were emotionally salient. This harm-avoidant bias after citalopram was also evident in behavior during the ultimatum game, in which subjects decide to accept or reject fair or unfair monetary offers from another player. Rejecting unfair offers enforces a fairness norm but also harms the other player financially. Enhancing serotonin made subjects less likely to reject unfair offers. Furthermore, the prosocial effects of citalopram varied as a function of trait empathy. Individuals high in trait empathy showed stronger effects of citalopram on moral judgment and behavior than individuals low in trait empathy. Together, these findings provide unique evidence that serotonin could promote prosocial behavior by enhancing harm aversion, a prosocial sentiment that directly affects both moral judgment and moral behavior. PMID:20876101

  20. Rapid, sensitive detection of neurotransmitters at microelectrodes modified with self-assembled SWCNT forests.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ning; Venton, B Jill

    2012-09-18

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modification of microelectrodes can result in increased sensitivity without compromising time response. However, dip coating CNTs is not very reproducible and the CNTs tend to lay flat on the electrode surface which limits access to the electroactive sites on the ends. In this study, aligned CNT forests were formed using a chemical self-assembly method, which resulted in more exposed CNT ends to the analyte. Shortened, carboxylic acid functionalized single-walled CNTs were assembled from a dimethylformamide (DMF) suspension onto a carbon-fiber disk microelectrode modified with a thin iron hydroxide-decorated Nafion film. The modified electrodes were highly sensitive, with 36-fold higher oxidation currents for dopamine using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry than bare electrodes and 34-fold more current than electrodes dipped in CNTs. The limit of detection (LOD) for dopamine was 17 ± 3 nM at a 10 Hz repetition rate and 65 ± 7 nM at 90 Hz. The LOD at 90 Hz was the same as a bare electrode at 10 Hz, allowing a 9-fold increase in temporal resolution without a decrease in sensitivity. Similar increases were observed for other cationic catecholamine neurotransmitters, and the increases in current were greater than for anionic interferents such as ascorbic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). The CNT forest electrodes had high sensitivity at 90 Hz repetition rate when stimulated dopamine release was measured in Drosophila . The sensitivity, temporal resolution, and spatial resolution of these CNT forest modified disk electrodes facilitate enhanced electrochemical measurements of neurotransmitter release in vivo. PMID:22823497

  1. Adenosine decreases neurotransmitter release at central synapses.

    PubMed Central

    Prince, D A; Stevens, C F

    1992-01-01

    Adenosine, at concentrations ranging from 5 to 100 microM, decreases the efficacy of transmission at the perforant path synapses on dentate granule cells. We have used whole cell recording from these cells in slices to determine the mechanism of the reduced synaptic strength. We find that size of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mepscs) is unaffected by adenosine at concentrations up to 100 microM, an observation that indicates adenosine's mode of action is not through a decreased postsynaptic sensitivity to neurotransmitter. A quantal analysis indicates, however, that the quantity of neurotransmitter released is sufficiently diminished by adenosine to account entirely for the adenosine-produced decrease in synaptic strength. Application of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a drug that antagonizes the effects of endogenous adenosine, produces an increase in synaptic strength. This observation suggests that the resting level of adenosine in our slices is appreciable, and an analysis of the adenosine dose-response relation is consistent with endogenous adenosine levels of about 10 microM. IBMX application produces only slight changes in the amplitude of mepscs, whereas a quantal analysis demonstrates that the drug significantly increases the amount of neurotransmitter released. Thus IBMX acts as an "anti-adenosine" in our experiments. In some experiments we have been able to record excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents produced by the same perforant path stimulus. In these instances we find that inhibitory transmission is unaffected by concentrations of adenosine that produce a marked decrease in the strength of excitatory synapses. PMID:1382294

  2. Intrahippocampal Infusions of Anisomycin Produce Amnesia: Contribution of Increased Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and…

  3. Intrahippocampal Infusions of Anisomycin Produce Amnesia: Contribution of Increased Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and

  4. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding biologically distinct neurochemical systems that interact to produce a variety of behaviors and disorders. Neurotransmitters are neither static nor isolated in their distribution. In fact, it is through interactions with other neurochemically distinct systems that the central nervous system (CNS) performs its vital role in sustaining life. Exclusive quantitative capabilities intrinsic to PET make this technology a suitable experimental tool to measure not only the regional distribution of specific receptors and their subtypes, but also the dynamic properties of neuroreceptors and their inherent influence on related neurotransmitter pathways. The ability to investigate dynamic properties in a non-invasive and reproducible manner provides a powerful tool that can extend our current knowledge of these interactions. Coupled with innovative paradigms including pharmacologic manipulations, physiologic models and reconstruction theories, knowledge derived from PET studies can greatly advance our understanding of normal and abnormal brain function.

  5. Dopamine D3 and 5-HT1B receptor dysregulation as a result of psychostimulant intake and forced abstinence: Implications for medications development

    PubMed Central

    Neisewander, Janet L.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants, including cocaine and amphetamine, is associated with dysregulation of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Neuroadaptations in these systems vary depending on the stage of the drug taking-abstinence-relapse cycle. Consequently, the effects of potential treatments that target these systems may vary depending on whether they are given during abstinence or relapse. In this review, we discuss evidence that dopamine D3 receptors (D3Rs) and 5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) are dysregulated in response to both chronic psychostimulant use and subsequent abstinence. We then review findings from preclinical self-administration models which support targeting D3Rs and 5-HT1BRs as potential medications for psychostimulant dependence. Potential side effects of the treatments are discussed and attention is given to studies reporting positive treatment outcomes that depend on: 1) whether testing occurs during abstinence versus relapse, 2) whether escalation of drug self-administration has occurred, 3) whether the treatments are given repeatedly, and 4) whether social factors influence treatment outcomes. We conclude that D3/D2 agonists may decrease psychostimulant intake; however, side effects of D3/D2R full agonists may limit their therapeutic potential, whereas D3/D2R partial agonists likely have fewer undesirable side effects. D3-selective antagonists may not reduce psychostimulant intake during relapse, but nonetheless, may decrease motivation for seeking psychostimulants with relatively few side-effects. 5-HT1BR agonists provide a striking example of treatment outcomes that are dependent on the stage of the addiction cycle. Specifically, these agonists initially increase cocaine’s reinforcing effects during maintenance of self-administration, but after a period of abstinence they reduce psychostimulant seeking and the resumption of self-administration. In conclusion, we suggest that factors contributing to dysregulation of monoamine systems, including drug history, abstinence, and social context, should be considered when evaluating potential treatments to better model treatment effects in humans. PMID:23973315

  6. Neuroanatomical dichotomy of sexual behaviors in rodents: a special emphasis on brain serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the social behavior in which rodents engage is related to reproduction, such as maintaining a breeding territory, seeking mates, mating, and caring for young. Rodents belong to the internally fertilizing species that require sexual behavior for reproduction. The dyadic, heterosexual patterns of most mammalian species are sexually dimorphic, but they also share mutual components in both sexes: sexual attraction is reciprocal, sexual initiative is assumed, appetitive behavior is engaged in and mating involves consummatory and postconsummatory phases in females as well as in males. Serotonin, a phylogenetically ancient molecule, is the most widely distributed neurotransmitter in the brain and its signaling pathways are essential for numerous functions including sexual behavior. Since the late 1960’s, brain serotonergic neurotransmission has been considered to exert an inhibitory influence on the neural mechanisms mediating sexual behavior. This contention was based mainly on the observations that a decrease in central serotonergic activity facilitated the elicitation of sexual behavior while an increase in central serotonergic activity attenuated it. However, the discovery of over 14 types of serotonin receptors has added numerous layers of complexity to the study of serotonin and sexual behavior. Evidence shows that upon activation, certain receptor subtypes facilitate while some others suppress sexual behavior as well as sexual arousal and motivation. Furthermore, the role of these receptors has been shown to be differential in males versus females. The use of serotonergic pharmacological interventions, mouse strains with genetic polymorphisms causing alterations in the levels of brain serotonin as well as animal models with genetic manipulations of various serotonin effectors has helped delineate the fundamental role of this neurotransmitter in the regulation of sexual behavior. This review aims to examine the basics of the components of female and male sexual behavior and the participation of the serotonin system in the modulation of these behaviors with emphasis on rodents. PMID:26110223

  7. Optogenetic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons enhances patience for future rewards.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Kayoko W; Miyazaki, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Takahashi, Aki; Tabuchi, Sawako; Doya, Kenji

    2014-09-01

    Serotonin is a neuromodulator that is involved extensively in behavioral, affective, and cognitive functions in the brain. Previous recording studies of the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) revealed that the activation of putative serotonin neurons correlates with the levels of behavioral arousal [1], rhythmic motor outputs [2], salient sensory stimuli [3-6], reward, and conditioned cues [5-8]. The classic theory on serotonin states that it opposes dopamine and inhibits behaviors when aversive events are predicted [9-14]. However, the therapeutic effects of serotonin signal-enhancing medications have been difficult to reconcile with this theory [15, 16]. In contrast, a more recent theory states that serotonin facilitates long-term optimal behaviors and suppresses impulsive behaviors [17-21]. To test these theories, we developed optogenetic mice that selectively express channelrhodopsin in serotonin neurons and tested how the activation of serotonergic neurons in the DRN affects animal behavior during a delayed reward task. The activation of serotonin neurons reduced the premature cessation of waiting for conditioned cues and food rewards. In reward omission trials, serotonin neuron stimulation prolonged the time animals spent waiting. This effect was observed specifically when the animal was engaged in deciding whether to keep waiting and was not due to motor inhibition. Control experiments showed that the prolonged waiting times observed with optogenetic stimulation were not due to behavioral inhibition or the reinforcing effects of serotonergic activation. These results show, for the first time, that the timed activation of serotonin neurons during waiting promotes animals' patience to wait for a delayed reward. PMID:25155504

  8. Species variation in dopamine receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Creese, I; Stewart, K; Snyder, S H

    1979-11-23

    Binding of 3H-spiroperidol, 3H-apomorphine and 3H-ADTN (2-amino-6,7-dihydroxytetrahydronaphthalene) associated with dopamine receptors has been evaluated in corpus striatal membranes of calf, rat and human brains. Substantial species differences are apparent for numberous agonists and antagonists in competing for receptor binding. In general, dopamine receptor antagonists are more potent in rat and agonists more potent in calf. In competing for 3H-spiroperidol binding sulpiride, molindone and metaclopramide show the most pronounced species differences, being 3--10 times more potent in rat and human than in calf. In all three species agonists compete for 3H-spiroperidol binding with Hill coefficients less than one while antagonists inhibit 3H-spiroperidol binding with Hill coefficients of about 1.0. Conversely, 3H-apomorphine and 3H-ADTN binding in all three species is inhibited by antagonists with Hill coefficients less than 1.0 while agonists display Hill coefficients of about 1.0. In general agonists are more potent in competing for binding of 3H-apomorphine and 3H-ADTN than 3H-spiroperidol. However, a small component of dopamine, apomorphine and ADTN inhibition of 3H-spiroperidol binding displays very high affinity (IC50 about 1 nM). In human amygdala 3H-spiroperidol appears to label serotonin receptors predominantly. PMID:520417

  9. Selective detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid via fluorescence quenching of InP/ZnS quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Ankireddy, Seshadri Reddy; Kim, Jongsung

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter of the catecholamine family and has many important roles, especially in human brain. Several diseases of the nervous system, such as Parkinsons disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, restless legs syndrome, are believed to be related to deficiency of dopamine. Several studies have been performed to detect dopamine by using electrochemical analysis. In this study, quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensing media for the detection of dopamine. The surface of the QDs was modified with l-cysteine by coupling reaction to increase the selectivity of dopamine. The fluorescence of cysteine-capped indium phosphide/zinc sulfide QDs was quenched by dopamine with various concentrations in the presence of ascorbic acid. This method shows good selectivity for dopamine detection, and the detection limit was 5 nM. PMID:26347250

  10. Pharmacology of neurotransmitter release: measuring exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Khvotchev, Mikhail; Kavalali, Ege T

    2008-01-01

    Neurotransmission in the nervous system is initiated at presynaptic terminals by fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane and subsequent exocytic release of chemical transmitters. Currently, there are multiple methods to detect neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals, each with their own particular advantages and disadvantages. For instance, most commonly employed methods monitor actions of released chemical substances on postsynaptic receptors or artificial substrates such as carbon fibers. These methods are closest to the physiological setting because they have a rapid time resolution and they measure the action of the endogenous neurotransmitters rather than the signals emitted by exogenous probes. However, postsynaptic receptors only indirectly report neurotransmitter release in a form modified by the properties of receptors themselves, which are often nonlinear detectors of released substances. Alternatively, released chemical substances can be detected biochemically, albeit on a time scale slower than electrophysiological methods. In addition, in certain preparations, where presynaptic terminals are accessible to whole cell recording electrodes, fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane can be monitored using capacitance measurements. In the last decade, in addition to electrophysiological and biochemical methods, several fluorescence imaging modalities have been introduced which report synaptic vesicle fusion, endocytosis, and recycling. These methods either take advantage of styryl dyes that can be loaded into recycling vesicles or exogenous expression of synaptic vesicle proteins tagged with a pH-sensitive GFP variant at regions facing the vesicle lumen. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of these methods with particular emphasis on their relative strengths and weaknesses and discuss the types of information one can obtain from them. PMID:18064410

  11. Effects of their nutrient precursors on the synthesis and release of serotonin, the catecholamines, and acetylcholine - Implications for behavioral disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Authentic foods affect brain serotonin synthesis by modifying brain tryptophan levels, carbohydrates increasing and proteins decreasing these levels. The carbohydrate-induced rise in brain serotonin tends to diminish the likelihood that one carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor meal or snack will be followed by another. This mechanism is apparently disturbed in carbohydrate-craving obesity, which may explain why this syndrome responds well to d-fenfluramine, a serotoninergic drug. Pure nutrients like tyrosine or choline can also affect the rates at which their neurotransmitter products, the catecholamines and acetylcholine, are synthesized in and released from nerve terminals, suggesting that these compounds may find uses as drugs.

  12. Serotonin System Implication in l-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia: From Animal Models to Clinical Investigations

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Manolo; Tronci, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In the recent years, the serotonin system has emerged as a key player in the induction of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. In fact, serotonin neurons possess the enzymatic machinery able to convert exogenous l-DOPA to dopamine (DA), and mediate its vesicular storage and release. However, serotonin neurons lack a feedback control mechanism able to regulate synaptic DA levels. While in a situation of partial DA depletion spared DA terminals can buffer DA released from serotonin neurons, the progression of DA neuron degeneration impairs this protective mechanism, causing swings in synaptic DA levels and pulsatile stimulation of post-synaptic DA receptors. In line with this view, removal of serotonin neurons by selective toxin, or pharmacological silencing of their activity, produced complete suppression of LID in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. In this article, we will revise the experimental evidence pointing to the important role of serotonin neurons in dyskinesia, and we will discuss the clinical implications. PMID:24904522

  13. The role of serotonin in antipsychotic drug action.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, H Y

    1999-08-01

    Recent interest in the role of serotonin (5-HT) in antipsychotic drug action is based mainly upon the fact that antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, and ziprasidone are potent 5-HT2a receptor antagonists and relatively weaker dopamine D2 antagonists. These agents share in common low extrapyramidal side effects at clinically effective doses and possibly greater efficacy to reduce negative symptoms. As a group, they also have a superior effect on cognitive function and greater ability to treat mood symptoms in both patients with schizophrenia or affective disorders than typical antipsychotic drugs. The atypical antipsychotic agents vary in their affinities for other types of 5-HT as well as dopamine, muscarinic, adrenergic, and histaminic receptors, some, or all of which, may contribute to their differences in efficacy and side effect profile. Of the other 5-HT receptor which these drugs directly, the 5-HT1a and 5-HT2c receptors are the strongest candidates for contributing to their antipsychotic action and low EPS profile. The 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors may also be of some importance. Stimulation of the 5-HT1a receptor appears to produce many of the same effects as antagonism of the 5-HT2a receptor while antagonism of the 5-HT2c receptor appears to diminish some of the actions of 5-HT2a receptor antagonism. Future antipsychotic drug development can include targeting multiple serotonin receptor subtypes. PMID:10432496

  14. Plasma serotonin levels in Italian Fresian dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bruschetta, G; Di Pietro, P; Sanzarello, L; Giacoppo, E; Ferlazzo, A M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the metabolism of plasma serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), an important neurotransmitter, in Fresian dairy cows, a breed of zootechnical interest, using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The subjects under study were at the stage of early lactation (n = 10; mean body weight 375 +/- 50 kg; average age of 3 years; body condition score 2.5), bred in a farm at an altitude of 150 m a.s.l. To evaluate animal welfare on this farm, which is closely connected to an animal's physiological status, tryptophan and cortisol levels (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), together with levels of certain blood components [total proteins (TP), albumin, creatinine, glucose (Glu), triglycerides, phospholipids, total cholesterol, and aspartate transaminase, measured by spectrophotometry] were analyzed. The results obtained are discussed in comparison with reference values, taking into account the environmental living conditions. Measured plasma serotonin concentrations, which were lower than values reported for Brown Swiss dairy cows of a comparable age and diet, appeared to be affected by breed, temperature, blood sampling season, and altitude. Additional differences between the levels of plasma tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin, of the two breeds were comparable. Negative correlations between plasma tryptophan and plasma cortisol levels (r = -0.83, P < 0.005), plasma serotonin and plasma TP levels (r = -0.72, P < 0.05), or Glu levels (r = -0.77, P < 0.05) highlight the existence of a stress condition, which is connected to an energetic deficit related to lactation. PMID:20449652

  15. Parallel Recording of Neurotransmitters Release from Chromaffin Cells Using a 10 × 10 CMOS IC Potentiostat Array with On-Chip Working Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Brian Namghi; Herbst, Adam D.; Kim, Sung June; Minch, Bradley A.; Lindau, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release is modulated by many drugs and molecular manipulations. We present an active CMOS-based electrochemical biosensor array with high throughput capability (100 electrodes) for on-chip amperometric measurement of neurotransmitter release. The high-throughput of the biosensor array will accelerate the data collection needed to determine statistical significance of changes produced under varying conditions, from several weeks to a few hours. The biosensor is designed and fabricated using a combination of CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology and a photolithography process to incorporate platinum working electrodes on-chip. We demonstrate the operation of an electrode array with integrated high-gain potentiostats and output time-division multiplexing with minimum dead time for readout. The on-chip working electrodes are patterned by conformal deposition of Pt and lift-off photolithography. The conformal deposition method protects the underlying electronic circuits from contact with the electrolyte that covers the electrode array during measurement. The biosensor was validated by simultaneous measurement of amperometric currents from 100 electrodes in response to dopamine injection, which revealed the time course of dopamine diffusion along the surface of the biosensor array. The biosensor simultaneously recorded neurotransmitter release successfully from multiple individual living chromaffin cells. The biosensor was capable of resolving small and fast amperometric spikes reporting release from individual vesicle secretions. We anticipate that this device will accelerate the characterization of the modulation of neurotransmitter secretion from neuronal and endocrine cells by pharmacological and molecular manipulations of the cells. PMID:23084756

  16. Parallel recording of neurotransmitters release from chromaffin cells using a 10×10 CMOS IC potentiostat array with on-chip working electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian N; Herbst, Adam D; Kim, Sung J; Minch, Bradley A; Lindau, Manfred

    2013-03-15

    Neurotransmitter release is modulated by many drugs and molecular manipulations. We present an active CMOS-based electrochemical biosensor array with high throughput capability (100 electrodes) for on-chip amperometric measurement of neurotransmitter release. The high-throughput of the biosensor array will accelerate the data collection needed to determine statistical significance of changes produced under varying conditions, from several weeks to a few hours. The biosensor is designed and fabricated using a combination of CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology and a photolithography process to incorporate platinum working electrodes on-chip. We demonstrate the operation of an electrode array with integrated high-gain potentiostats and output time-division multiplexing with minimum dead time for readout. The on-chip working electrodes are patterned by conformal deposition of Pt and lift-off photolithography. The conformal deposition method protects the underlying electronic circuits from contact with the electrolyte that covers the electrode array during measurement. The biosensor was validated by simultaneous measurement of amperometric currents from 100 electrodes in response to dopamine injection, which revealed the time course of dopamine diffusion along the surface of the biosensor array. The biosensor simultaneously recorded neurotransmitter release successfully from multiple individual living chromaffin cells. The biosensor was capable of resolving small and fast amperometric spikes reporting release from individual vesicle secretions. We anticipate that this device will accelerate the characterization of the modulation of neurotransmitter secretion from neuronal and endocrine cells by pharmacological and molecular manipulations of the cells. PMID:23084756

  17. Neurotransmitter signaling in the pathophysiology of microglia

    PubMed Central

    Domercq, María; Vázquez-Villoldo, Nuria; Matute, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system. In the resting state, microglia are highly dynamic and control the environment by rapidly extending and retracting motile processes. Microglia are closely associated with astrocytes and neurons, particularly at the synapses, and more recent data indicate that neurotransmission plays a role in regulating the morphology and function of surveying/resting microglia, as they are endowed with receptors for most known neurotransmitters. In particular, microglia express receptors for ATP and glutamate, which regulate microglial motility. After local damage, the release of ATP induces microgliosis and activated microglial cells migrate to the site of injury, proliferate, and phagocytose cells, and cellular compartments. However, excessive activation of microglia could contribute to the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, though the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Microglia have the capacity to release a large number of substances that can be detrimental to the surrounding neurons, including glutamate, ATP, and reactive oxygen species. However, how altered neurotransmission following acute insults or chronic neurodegenerative conditions modulates microglial functions is still poorly understood. This review summarizes the relevant data regarding the role of neurotransmitter receptors in microglial physiology and pathology. PMID:23626522

  18. Conformational changes in dopamine transporter intracellular regions upon cocaine binding and dopamine translocation

    PubMed Central

    Dehnes, Yvette; Shan, Jufang; Beuming, Thijs; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT), a member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter family, mediates the reuptake of dopamine at the synaptic cleft. DAT is the primary target for psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. We previously demonstrated that cocaine binding and dopamine transport alter the accessibility of Cys342 in the third intracellular loop (IL3). To study the conformational changes associated with the functional mechanism of the transporter, we made cysteine substitution mutants, one at a time, from Phe332 to Ser351 in IL3 of the background DAT construct, X7C, in which 7 endogenous cysteines were mutated. The accessibility of the 20 engineered cysteines to polar charged sulfhydryl reagents was studied in the absence and presence of cocaine or dopamine. Of the 11 positions that reacted with methanethiosulfonate ethyl ammonium, as evidenced by inhibition of ligand binding, 5 were protected against this inhibition by cocaine and dopamine (S333C, S334C, N336C, M342C and T349C), indicating that reagent accessibility is affected by conformational changes associated with inhibitor and substrate binding. In some of the cysteine mutants, transport activity is disrupted, but can be rescued by the presence of zinc, most likely because the distribution between inward- and outward-facing conformations is restored by zinc binding. The experimental data were interpreted in the context of molecular models of DAT in both the inward- and outward-facing conformations. Differences in the solvent accessible surface area for individual IL3 residues calculated for these states correlate well with the experimental accessibility data, and suggest that protection by ligand binding results from the stabilization of the outward-facing configuration. Changes in the residue interaction networks observed from the molecular dynamics simulations also revealed the critical roles of several positions during the conformational transitions. We conclude that the IL3 region of DAT undergoes significant conformational changes in transitions necessary for both cocaine binding and substrate transport. PMID:24576496

  19. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): enhancing serotonin release by combining serotonin (5HT) transporter inhibition with actions at 5HT receptors (5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT1D, 5HT7 receptors).

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-04-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant that targets multiple pharmacologic modes of action at sites--or nodes--where serotonergic neurons connect to various brain circuits. These multimodal pharmacologic actions of vortioxetine lead to enhanced release of various neurotransmitters, including serotonin, at various nodes within neuronal networks. PMID:25831967

  20. [How do antipsychotics exert their effects on dopamine receptor subtypes?].

    PubMed

    Inoue, A; Nakata, Y

    1998-12-01

    There have been many efforts to develop novel antipsychotic drugs with improved clinical efficacy and reduced side effects such as extrapyramidal side effects and hyperprolactinemia. Recent evidences from studies on the effects of novel antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine on neurotransmitter receptors are prompting reconsideration of the dopaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. This paper gives an overview of the current understanding, including our data, of the effects of several antipsychotics on dopamine receptor subtypes. The recent cloning of dopamine receptors has revealed that multiple dopamine receptor subtypes are generated from at least five distinct dopamine receptor genes. Aripiprazole, a candidate for a novel antipsychotic, has an antagonistic activity against dopamine D2 receptors with a high affinity, but has a weaker potency to up-regulate D2 receptors than haloperidol in the striatum and inhibitory effects on D2-receptor binding activities and mRNA in the pituitary, when it is chronically administrated to rats. Thus the occupancy or influences in D2 receptors in the striatum are involved in the extrapyramidal side effects of typical antipsychotic drugs. These studies provide new leads to understand the pathophysiology and causes of schizophrenia and to develop more effective and safe methods of treatment. PMID:10202760

  1. A microfluidic method for dopamine uptake measurements in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Shamsi, Mohtashim H; Krastev, Dimitar L; Dryden, Michael D M; Leung, Yen; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2016-01-26

    Dopamine (DA) is a classical neurotransmitter and dysfunction in its synaptic handling underlies many neurological disorders, including addiction, depression, and neurodegeneration. A key to understanding DA dysfunction is the accurate measurement of dopamine uptake by dopaminergic neurons. Current methods that allow for the analysis of dopamine uptake rely on standard multiwell-plate based ELISA, or on carbon-fibre microelectrodes used in in vivo recording techniques. The former suffers from challenges associated with automation and analyte degradation, while the latter has low throughput and is not ideal for laboratory screening. In response to these challenges, we introduce a digital microfluidic platform to evaluate dopamine homeostasis in in vitro neuron culture. The method features voltammetric dopamine sensors with limit of detection of 30 nM integrated with cell culture sites for multi-day neuron culture and differentiation. We demonstrate the utility of the new technique for DA uptake assays featuring in-line culture and analysis, with a determination of uptake of approximately ∼32 fmol in 10 min per virtual microwell (each containing ∼200 differentiated SH-SY5Y cells). We propose that future generations of this technique will be useful for drug discovery for neurodegenerative disease as well as for a wide range of applications that would benefit from integrated cell culture and electroanalysis. PMID:26725686

  2. Probing interactions of neurotransmitters with twin tailed anionic surfactant: A detailed physicochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajwinder; Sanan, Reshu; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Keeping in view the role of neurotransmitters (NTs) in central nervous system diseases and in controlling various physiological processes, present study is aimed to study the binding of neurotransmitters (NTs) such as norepinephrine hydrochloride (NE) and serotonin hydrochloride (5-HT) with twin tailed surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT). Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements combined with microcalorimetric measurements were us