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A common uptake system for serotonin and dopamine in human platelets.  

PubMed Central

Kinetic and pharmacologic properties of uptake of serotonin and dopamine by normal human platelets have been investigated to test whether platelets can be employed as a model system for the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine in brain. Uptake of serotonin into platelets closely resembles reuptake of serotonin into serotonergic neurons. In contrast, uptake of dopamine into platelets appears to be mediated inefficiently via the specific serotonin uptake mechanism, based upon several lines of evidence. Serotonin and dopamine compete with each other, Antidepressant drugs, which are competitive inhibitors of uptake of both of these neurotransmitters, act at the same concentration of drug despite large differences in the Km values. Serotonin antagonists inhibit both serotonin and dopamine uptake. Finally, a serotonin-specific uptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) blocks dopamine, as well as serotonin, uptake. PMID:670392

Omenn, G S; Smith, L T



Lymphocytes transport serotonin and dopamine: agony or ecstasy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes apparently carry active transport systems for the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. Meanwhile, pharmacological substrates for the transporters have been claimed to impinge on immune function: these include, commonly used antidepressants [such as fluoxetine (Prozac®)], appetite suppressants and the recreational drugs MDMA [3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘Ecstasy’)] and cocaine. Data on these issues can be patchy. Given the widespread use – or, abuse

John Gordon; Nicholas M. Barnes



Opponent interactions between serotonin and dopamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical and pharmacological evidence suggests that the dorsal raphe serotonin system and the ventral tegmental and substantia nigra dopamine system may act as mutual opponents. In the light of the temporal difference model of the involvement of the dopamine system in reward learning, we consider three aspects of motivational opponency involving dopamine and serotonin. We suggest that a tonic serotonergic

Nathaniel D. Daw; Sham Kakade; Peter Dayan



Alpha-ethyltryptamines as dual dopamine-serotonin releasers.  


The dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) transporter releasing activity and serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor agonist activity of a series of substituted tryptamines are reported. Three compounds, 7b, (+)-7d and 7f, were found to be potent dual DA/5-HT releasers and were >10-fold less potent as NE releasers. Additionally, these compounds had different activity profiles at the 5-HT2A receptor. The unique combination of dual DA/5-HT releasing activity and 5-HT2A receptor activity suggests that these compounds could represent a new class of neurotransmitter releasers with therapeutic potential. PMID:25193229

Blough, Bruce E; Landavazo, Antonio; Partilla, John S; Decker, Ann M; Page, Kevin M; Baumann, Michael H; Rothman, Richard B



A calcium-channel homologue required for adaptation to dopamine and serotonin in Caenorhabditis elegans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PROCESSING and storage of information by the nervous system requires the ability to modulate the response of excitable cells to neurotransmitter. A simple process of this type, known as adaptation or desensitization, occurs when prolonged stimulation triggers processes that attenuate the response to neurotransmitter. Here we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene unc-2 is required for adaptation to two neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. A loss-of-function mutation in unc-2 resulted in failure to adapt either to paralysis by dopamine or to stimulation of egg laying by serotonin. In addition, unc-2 mutants displayed behaviours similar to those induced by serotonin treatment. We found that unc-2 encodes a homologue of a voltage-sensitive calcium-channel ?-1 subunit. Expression of unc-2 occurs in two types of neurons implicated in the control of egg laying, a behaviour regulated by serotonin. Unc-2 appears to be required in modulatory neurons to downregulate the response of the egg-laying muscles to serotonin. We propose that adaptation to serotonin occurs through activation of an Unc-2-dependent calcium influx, which modulates the post-synaptic response to serotonin, perhaps by inhibiting the release of a potentiating neuropeptide.

Schafer, William R.; Kenyon, Cynthia J.



Loss of MeCP2 in aminergic neurons causes cell-autonomous defects in neurotransmitter  

E-print Network

for the regulation of aminergic neurotransmitter synthe- sis contributing to unique behavioral phenotypes. dopamine, we analyzed the levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin


Effect of neurotransmitters on the system that transports Tyr-MIF-1 and the enkephalins across the blood-brain barrier: a dominant role for serotonin.  


Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides interact in several ways. We studied a new type of interaction: the effect of neurotransmitters on the saturable system that transports Tyr-MIF-1 and the enkephalins out of the central nervous system (CNS). The neurotransmitters were introduced into the lateral ventricle of the brain with radioiodinated peptide, using an established method previously shown to accurately quantify the amount of peptide being transported from the CNS to the blood. Serotonin inhibited transport, histamine stimulated transport, and dopamine, acetylcholine, epinephrine, GABA, kainic acid, cAMP and cGMP were without effect. Cyproheptadine, a serotonin antagonist, stimulated transport. Of several psychotropic agents tested, only tranylcypromine had a statistically significant effect and stimulated transport. Of the serotonin receptor specific agents tested, those with 5HT1 activity most consistently affected transport. We conclude that serotonin, and perhaps histamine, are important modulators of the system that transports Tyr-MIF-1 and the enkephalins out of the CNS. PMID:2568658

Banks, W A; Kastin, A J



Antihistamine effect on synaptosomal uptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study on the effects of five H1 and H2 antihistamines on the synaptosomal uptake of serotonin (5HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) is presented. Brain homogenates from female rats were incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer solution in the presence of one of three radioactive neurotransmitters, and one of the five antihistamines. Low concentrations of pyrilamine competitively inhibited 5HT uptake, had little effect on NE uptake, and no effect on DA uptake. Promethazine, diphenhydramine, metiamide, and cimetidine had no effect on 5HT or DA uptake at the same concentration. Diphenhydramine had a small inhibitory effect on NE uptake. It is concluded that pyrilamine is a selective and potent competitive inhibitor of 5HT uptake at concentrations between .05 and .5 micromolars.

Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J.



Dopamine as a possible neurotransmitter in gastric relaxation.  


In dogs with gastric fistulas, intragastric pressure was measured with a flaccid ballon containing 500 ml of water. Graded doses of dopamine caused graded decreases in intragastric pressure. The effect was blocked by pimozide or by metoclopramide but was not significantly affected by phenoxybenzamine, propranolol, guanethidine, or FLA-63 (a beta-hydroxylase inhibitor). Pretreatment with metoclopramide or with pimozide shifted the volume-pressure diagram of the stomach to the left; that is, at any given volume the pressure was greater after than before these drugs. In dogs with vagally innervated gastric pouches and gastric fistulas, feeding for 1 min (while allowing the food to leave the stomach through the gastric fistula) caused a prompt decrease in pressure in the pouch that lasted for about 5 min. Pretreatment with metoclopramide decreased the magnitude and duration of this receptive relaxation. It is concluded that these findings are consistent with (but do not establish) the hypothesis that dopamine is the neurotransmitter for receptive relaxation of the stomach, because dopamine mimics receptive relaxation, and dopamine antagonists partially block reflexly induced receptive relaxation. PMID:11140

Valenzuela, J E



Modulation for emergent networks: serotonin and dopamine.  


In autonomous learning, value-sensitive experiences can improve the efficiency of learning. A learning network needs be motivated so that the limited computational resources and the limited lifetime are devoted to events that are of high value for the agent to compete in its environment. The neuromodulatory system of the brain is mainly responsible for developing such a motivation system. Although reinforcement learning has been extensively studied, many existing models are symbolic whose internal nodes or modules have preset meanings. Neural networks have been used to automatically generate internal emergent representations. However, modeling an emergent motivational system for neural networks is still a great challenge. By emergent, we mean that the internal representations emerge autonomously through interactions with the external environments. This work proposes a generic emergent modulatory system for emergent networks, which includes two subsystems - the serotonin system and the dopamine system. The former signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically aversive (e.g., stress or pain). The latter signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically appetitive (e.g., pleasure or sweet). We experimented with this motivational system for two settings. The first is a visual recognition setting to investigate how such a system can learn through interactions with a teacher, who does not directly give answers, but only punishments and rewards. The second is a setting for wandering in the presence of a friend and a foe. PMID:23294763

Weng, Juyang; Paslaski, Stephen; Daly, James; VanDam, Courtland; Brown, Jacob



Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems.  


All functions of the human brain are consequences of altered activity of specific neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. Although the knowledge of "system level" connectivity in the brain is increasing rapidly, we lack "molecular level" information on brain networks and connectivity patterns. We introduce novel voxel-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods for studying internal neurotransmitter network structure and intercorrelations of different neurotransmitter systems in the human brain. We chose serotonin transporter and ?-opioid receptor for this analysis because of their functional interaction at the cellular level and similar regional distribution in the brain. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two consecutive PET scans using [(11)C]MADAM, a serotonin transporter tracer, and [(11)C]carfentanil, a ?-opioid receptor tracer. First, voxel-by-voxel "intracorrelations" (hub and seed analyses) were used to study the internal structure of opioid and serotonin systems. Second, voxel-level opioid-serotonin intercorrelations (between neurotransmitters) were computed. Regional ?-opioid receptor binding potentials were uniformly correlated throughout the brain. However, our analyses revealed nonuniformity in the serotonin transporter intracorrelations and identified a highly connected local network (midbrain-striatum-thalamus-amygdala). Regionally specific intercorrelations between the opioid and serotonin tracers were found in anteromedial thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parietal cortex, i.e., in areas relevant for several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders. This methodology enables in vivo mapping of connectivity patterns within and between neurotransmitter systems. Quantification of functional neurotransmitter balances may be a useful approach in etiological studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in drug development as a biomarker-based rationale for targeted modulation of neurotransmitter networks. PMID:23671038

Tuominen, Lauri; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Hietala, Jarmo



Using the neurotransmitter serotonin to target imaging agents to glioblastoma cells.  


The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in numerous bodily functions via seven different serotonin receptor subfamilies. Serotonin plays a role in gastrointestinal functions like intestinal secretion or peristalsis and neuropsychiatric events like depression or migraine. One of these subtypes has been found on glioblastoma cells, inducing growth promotion. In our study we attempted to target imaging agents to glioblastoma cells via the serotonin receptor. For this we coupled serotonin to the fluorescent dye rhodamine and the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium (Gd)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and detection sensitivity of the conjugates were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), cell growth analysis, flow cytometry and magnetic resonance relaxometry on U373 human glioblastoma cells. Receptor-dependency of the uptake was confirmed by competition experiments with excess of unmarked serotonin. Cellular uptake of the conjugates was found in CLSM, magnetic resonance relaxometry and flow cytometry experiments.CLSM revealed the cytoplasmic character of the uptake. In cell growth analysis experiments no adverse effect of either conjugate on the cells was observed. Competition experiments performed with the conjugates and unmarked serotonin showed decreased conjugate uptake compared to the experiments without competition. In conclusion the neurotransmitter serotonin could be successfully used to target imaging agents into human glioblastoma cells. This makes it of interest for future glioblastoma imaging methods. PMID:22212740

Sturzu, Alexander; Sheikh, Sumbla; Klose, Uwe; Echner, Hartmut; Kalbacher, Hubert; Deeg, Martin; Nägele, Thomas; Horger, Marius; Ernemann, Ulrike; Heckl, Stefan



Interaction between the dopamine D4 receptor and the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms in alcohol and tobacco use among 15-year-olds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early onset of alcohol and tobacco use during adolescence increases the risk for establishing a substance use disorder in adulthood. Both alcohol and nicotine stimulate the dopamine (DA) and the serotonin (5-HT) systems. The DA system has been implicated in the mediation of the rewarding effects of self-administered drugs of abuse. A possible role of an interaction between these neurotransmitter

M. H. Skowronek; M. Laucht; E. Hohm; K. Becker; M. H. Schmidt



2002 Special issue Opponent interactions between serotonin and dopamine  

E-print Network

learning, we consider three aspects of motivational opponency involving dopamine and serotonin. We suggest, including impulsivity, obsessionality, aggression, psychomotor inhibition, latent inhibition, analgesia to the sort of significant stimuli that might be expected to control some of the behaviors described earlier

Dayan, Peter



NASA Video Gallery

Our nerve cells (neurons) communicate with each other using little chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters are transferred from one neuron to the next within a space c...


Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.



Chemical sensing of neurotransmitters.  


In the past few decades, the development of chemosensors for neurotransmitters has emerged as a research area of significant importance, which attracted a tremendous amount of attention due to its high sensitivity and rapid response. This current review focuses on various neurotransmitter detection based on fluorescent or colorimetric spectrophotometry published for the last 12 years, covering biogenic amines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine and acetylcholine), amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glycine and tyrosine), and adenosine. PMID:24736802

Pradhan, Tuhin; Jung, Hyo Sung; Jang, Joo Hee; Kim, Tae Woo; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Jong Seung



MDMA induced dopamine release in vivo: role of endogenous serotonin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Acting as a substrate at the serotonin (5-HT) transporter, (+)-MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), is a potent releaser of 5-HT and causes toxicity to 5-HT neurons after repeated exposure. (+)-MDMA also releases dopamine (DA), although with less potency. Since we have shown previously that the intrastriatal application of 5-HT facilitates DA release, it was hypothesized that increased release of striatal 5-HT after

S. Koch; M. P. Galloway



A Conserved Asparagine Residue in Transmembrane Segment 1 (TM1) of Serotonin Transporter Dictates Chloride-coupled Neurotransmitter Transport*  

PubMed Central

Na+- and Cl?-dependent uptake of neurotransmitters via transporters of the SLC6 family, including the human serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), is critical for efficient synaptic transmission. Although residues in the human serotonin transporter involved in direct Cl? coordination of human serotonin transport have been identified, the role of Cl? in the transport mechanism remains unclear. Through a combination of mutagenesis, chemical modification, substrate and charge flux measurements, and molecular modeling studies, we reveal an unexpected role for the highly conserved transmembrane segment 1 residue Asn-101 in coupling Cl? binding to concentrative neurotransmitter uptake. PMID:21730057

Henry, L. Keith; Iwamoto, Hideki; Field, Julie R.; Kaufmann, Kristian; Dawson, Eric S.; Jacobs, Miriam T.; Adams, Chelsea; Felts, Bruce; Zdravkovic, Igor; Armstrong, Vanessa; Combs, Steven; Solis, Ernesto; Rudnick, Gary; Noskov, Sergei Y.; DeFelice, Louis J.; Meiler, Jens; Blakely, Randy D.



Dispensable, Redundant, Complementary, and Cooperative Roles of Dopamine, Octopamine, and Serotonin in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

To investigate the regulation of Drosophila melanogaster behavior by biogenic amines, we have exploited the broad requirement of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) for the vesicular storage and exocytotic release of all monoamine neurotransmitters. We used the Drosophila VMAT (dVMAT) null mutant to globally ablate exocytotic amine release and then restored DVMAT activity in either individual or multiple aminergic systems, using transgenic rescue techniques. We find that larval survival, larval locomotion, and female fertility rely predominantly on octopaminergic circuits with little apparent input from the vesicular release of serotonin or dopamine. In contrast, male courtship and fertility can be rescued by expressing DVMAT in octopaminergic or dopaminergic neurons, suggesting potentially redundant circuits. Rescue of major aspects of adult locomotion and startle behavior required octopamine, but a complementary role was observed for serotonin. Interestingly, adult circadian behavior could not be rescued by expression of DVMAT in a single subtype of aminergic neurons, but required at least two systems, suggesting the possibility of unexpected cooperative interactions. Further experiments using this model will help determine how multiple aminergic systems may contribute to the regulation of other behaviors. Our data also highlight potential differences between behaviors regulated by standard exocytotic release and those regulated by other mechanisms. PMID:23086220

Chen, Audrey; Ng, Fanny; Lebestky, Tim; Grygoruk, Anna; Djapri, Christine; Lawal, Hakeem O.; Zaveri, Harshul A.; Mehanzel, Filmon; Najibi, Rod; Seidman, Gabriel; Murphy, Niall P.; Kelly, Rachel L.; Ackerson, Larry C.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Jackson, F. Rob; Krantz, David E.



Depression and antidepressants: insights from knockout of dopamine, serotonin or noradrenaline re-uptake transporters.  


Major depressive disorder (MDD) which is supposed to result from a complex interaction of genetic and epigenetic, environmental and developmental factors is one of the most common debilitating public health problems. The molecular mechanisms underlying this disease are still largely unclear. Identifying common pathways for diverse antidepressants (ADs) as well as new drug targets and thereby developing more effective treatments are primary goals of research in this field. Major targets of ADs are the serotonin transporter (SERT), the noradrenaline transporter (NAT) and also the dopamine transporter (DAT) located in the plasma membrane of corresponding neurons. These monoamine transporters (MATs) are important regulators of the extracellular neurotransmitter concentration. Among the clinically important ADs are tricyclic ADs (e.g. imipramine), selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs, e.g. fluoxetine), selective noradrenaline (NA) re-uptake inhibitors (SNRIs, e.g. reboxetine) and NAT/DAT inhibitors like bupropion. This review is focussing on brain changes in monoamine neurotransmitter systems, downstream targets of monoaminergic neurotransmission as well as of behaviours of mice with a conventional knockout (KO) of either the SERT, DAT or NAT. MAT knockout induces changes in behaviour and brain neurochemistry. Although at least NATKO and SERTKO mice were expected to show a phenotype like AD-treated wild-type mice, this holds true only for the NATKO mice whereas SERTKO mice show an anxiety-like phenotype. Chronic social or restraint stress-induced depression-like behaviour and concomitant changes in brain neurotrophins are prevented by pharmacologically diverse ADs and by NATKO. Thus, NATKO mice are an interesting tool to investigate the mechanisms beyond monoamines responsible for depression as well as for AD actions. PMID:21147164

Haenisch, Britta; Bönisch, Heinz



Ca 2+ channel blockade prevents lysergic acid diethylamide-induced changes in dopamine and serotonin metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of a single and multiple administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on cerebral metabolism of dopamine and serotonin, male Wistar rats were treated with low and high doses (0.1 and 2.0 mg\\/kg i.p.) of LSD and the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were assayed by HPLC in the nucleus

Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk; Irena Roma?ska; Jerzy Vetulani



Modulatory functions of neurotransmitters in the striatum: ACh/dopamine/NMDA interactions.  


The striatum is viewed as a structure performing fast neurotransmitter-mediated operations through somatotopically organized projections to medium-size spiny neurons. This view is contrasted with another view that depicts the striatum as a site of diffuse modulatory influences mediated by cholinergic interneurons and by dopamine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. These two operational and organizational modes both contribute, through their mutual interaction, to the function of basal ganglia. Detailed knowledge of the neural mechanisms by which such interactions take place and are expressed into behaviour, can provide new insight into the physiopathology and new clues for therapy of disorders of basal ganglia. PMID:7521083

Di Chiara, G; Morelli, M; Consolo, S



Clinical studies on the mechanism of action of clozapine: the dopamine-serotonin hypothesis of schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clozapine administration to schizophrenic patients was found to produce dopamine2 (D-2) and serotonin2 (5-HT2) receptor blockade, as evidenced by the ability to block the increases in growth hormone and cortisol secretion produced by apomorphine and MK-212, respectively, direct acting dopamine (DA) and 5-HT2 agonists. Clozapine did not increase plasma prolactin (PRL) levels nor did it block the apomorphine-induced decrease in

Herbert Y. Meltzer



Differential involvement of the norepinephrine, serotonin and dopamine reuptake transporter proteins in cocaine-induced taste aversion  

PubMed Central

Despite the impact of cocaine's aversive effects on its abuse potential, the neurochemical basis of these aversive effects remains poorly understood. By blocking the reuptake of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) into the presynaptic terminal, cocaine acts as a potent indirect agonist of each of these systems. The following studies attempted to assess the extent of monoaminergic mediation of cocaine's aversive effects using conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning (Garcia, 1955). Specifically, Experiment 1 assessed the ability of selective monoamine transporter inhibitors, e.g., DAT (vanoxerine), NET (nisoxetine) and SERT (fluoxetine), to induce taste aversions (relative to cocaine). Only the NET inhibitor approximated the aversive strength of cocaine. Experiment 2 compared the effects of pretreatment of each of these transport inhibitors on the development of a cocaine-induced CTA. Pretreatment with nisoxetine and fluoxetine both attenuated cocaine-induced aversions in a manner comparable to that produced by cocaine itself. The DAT inhibitor was without effect. Combined, the results of these investigations indicate little or no involvement of dopaminergic systems in cocaine's aversive effects while NE appears to contribute most substantially, with a possible modulatory involvement by serotonin. PMID:19376154

Jones, Jermaine D.; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Rice, Kenner; Riley, Anthony L.



Radioenzymatic analysis of neurotransmitters  

SciTech Connect

Since the late 1960's, radioenzymatic assays have gradually come to replace the less sensitive and less specific spectrofluorometric and bioassay procedures previously used to determine many of the neurotransmitters. These assays provide the means to measure picogram quantities of most of these substances, and have enabled determinations to be made in very small volumes of body fluids, in brain perfusates and individual brain nuclei, and in large individual cells of some simple animals. This paper reviews briefly some of the radioenzymatic techniques presently available for assaying norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), dopamine (DA), serotonin, and the trace amines octopamine (OA), phenylethanolamine (PEOHA), phenylethylamine (PEA), tyramine (TA) and tryptamine (T).

Philips, S.R.



Serotonin1B receptor stimulation enhances dopamine-mediated reinforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 5-HT1B receptor stimulation on dopamine-mediated reinforcement in rats was investigated using intravenous self-administration of\\u000a the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor GBR-12909 on an FR5 schedule of reinforcement. Pretreatment with the 5-HT1A\\/1B receptor agonist CGS-12066B (1–10?mg\\/kg, IP) dose-dependently reduced the self-administration of GBR-12909 (83??g\\/injection)\\u000a by increasing the interval between drug injections, consistent with a enhancement of the reinforcing effects

Loren H. Parsons; Friedbert Weiss; George F. Koob



Modification of behavioral effects of cocaine by selective serotonin and dopamine uptake inhibitors in squirrel monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modification of the behavioral effects of cocaine by the selective serotonin (5-HT) uptake inhibitors citalopram and fluoxetine and the selective dopamine (DA) uptake inhibitor GBR 12909 was investigated in squirrel monkeys trained under a fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement or a two-lever cocaine-discrimination procedure. Under the fixed-interval schedule cocaine (0.03–1.78 mg\\/kg) produced dose-related increases in response rate, reaching an average maximum

R. D. Spealman



Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Binding in Children with Autism Determined by SPECT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disturbances in the serotonergic system have been recognized in autism. To investigate the association between serotonin and dopamine transporters and autism, we studied 15 children (14 males, one female; mean age 8y 8mo [SD 3y 10mo]) with autism and 10 non-autistic comparison children (five males, five females; mean age 9y 10mo [SD 2y 8mo]) using…

Makkonen, Ismo; Riikonen, Raili; Kokki, Hannu; Airaksinen, Mauno M.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.



Effect of dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonists on fencamfamine-induced abolition of latent inhibition.  


The purpose of this investigation was to verify the role of dopamine and serotonin receptors in the effect of fencamfamine (FCF) on latent inhibition. FCF is a psychomotor stimulant with an indirect dopaminergic action. Latent inhibition is a model of attention. Latent inhibition is blocked by dopaminergic agents and facilitated by dopamine receptor agonists. FCF has been shown to abolish latent inhibition. The serotonergic system may also participate in the neurochemical mediation of latent inhibition. The selective dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol), D(2) receptor antagonists pimozide (PIM) and methoclopramide (METH), and serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist ritanserin (RIT) were used in the present study. Latent inhibition was evaluated using a conditioned emotional response procedure. Male Wistar rats that were water-restricted were subjected to a three-phase procedure: preexposure to a tone, tone-shock conditioning, and a test of the effect of the tone on licking frequency. All of the drugs were administered before the preexposure and conditioning phases. The results showed that FCF abolished latent inhibition, and this effect was clearly antagonized by PIM and METH and moderately attenuated by SCH 23390. At the doses used in the present study, RIT pretreatment did not affect latent inhibition and did not eliminate the effect of FCF, suggesting that the FCF-induced abolition of latent inhibition is not mediated by serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptors. These results suggest that the effect of FCF on latent inhibition is predominantly related to dopamine D(2) receptors and that dopamine D(2) receptors participate in attention processes. PMID:23123352

de Aguiar, Cilene Rejane Ramos Alves; de Aguiar, Marlison José Lima; DeLucia, Roberto; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo



Effects of chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration on neurotransmitter concentrations and receptor binding in the rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

THC is the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana and is also known as an hallucinogenic compound. Numerous reports have shown that large doses of THC produce significant alterations in various neurotransmitter systems. The present study was designed to determine whether chronic exposure to THC produces significant alterations in selected neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, GABAergic, benzodiazepine, and opiate) in the

S. F. Ali; G. D. Newport; A. C. Scallet; K. W. Gee; M. G. Paule; R. M. Brown; W. Jr. Slikker



Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System-based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring  

PubMed Central

Object In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. Methods The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal model, the pig. Results The WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA. Conclusions By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425899

Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.



What is new for monoamine neurotransmitter disorders?  


The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are increasingly recognized as an expanding group of inherited neurometabolic syndromes caused by disturbances in the synthesis, transport and metabolism of the biogenic amines, including the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and serotonin. Disturbances in monoamine metabolism lead to neurological syndromes that frequently mimic other conditions, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, parkinsonism-dystonia syndromes, primary genetic dystonia and paroxysmal disorders. As a consequence, neurotransmitter disorders are frequently misdiagnosed. Early and accurate diagnosis of these neurotransmitter disorders is important, as many are highly amenable to, and some even cured by, therapeutic intervention. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the field, particularly the recent extensive characterization of known neurotransmitter disorders and identification of novel neurotransmitter disorders. We also provide an overview of current and future research in the field focused on developing novel treatment strategies. PMID:24696406

Marecos, Clara; Ng, Joanne; Kurian, Manju A



Analysis of microdialysate monoamines, including noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, using capillary ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.  


Electrochemical methods are very often used to detect catecholamine and indolamine neurotransmitters separated by conventional reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The present paper presents the development of a chromatographic method to detect monoamines present in low-volume brain dialysis samples using a capillary column filled with sub-2?m particles. Several parameters (repeatability, linearity, accuracy, limit of detection) for this new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with electrochemical detection were examined after optimization of the analytical conditions. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine were separated in 1?L of injected sample volume; they were detected above concentrations of 0.5-1nmol/L, with 2.1-9.5% accuracy and intra-assay repeatability equal to or less than 6%. The final method was applied to very low volume dialysates from rat brain containing monoamine traces. The study demonstrates that capillary UHPLC with electrochemical detection is suitable for monitoring dialysate monoamines collected at high sampling rate. PMID:24508677

Ferry, Barbara; Gifu, Elena-Patricia; Sandu, Ioana; Denoroy, Luc; Parrot, Sandrine



Altered Neurocircuitry in the Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mouse Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO) mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a

Xiaowei Zhang; Elaine L. Bearer; Benoit Boulat; F. Scott Hall; George R. Uhl; Russell E. Jacobs; Olivier Jacques Manzoni



Clinical features and pharmacotherapy of childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders.  


Childhood neurotransmitter disorders are increasingly recognised as an expanding group of inherited neurometabolic syndromes. They are caused by disturbance in synthesis, metabolism, and homeostasis of the monoamine neurotransmitters, including the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and serotonin. Disturbances in monoamine neurotransmission will lead to neurological symptoms that often overlap with clinical features of other childhood neurological disorders (such as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, other movement disorders, and paroxysmal conditions); consequently, neurotransmitter disorders are frequently misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is made through detailed clinical assessment, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, and further supportive diagnostic investigations. Early and accurate diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is important, as many are amenable to therapeutic intervention. The principles of treatment for monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are mainly directly derived from understanding these metabolic pathways. In disorders characterized by enzyme deficiency, we aim to increase monoamine substrate availability, boost enzyme co-factor levels, reduce monoamine breakdown, and replace depleted levels of monoamines with pharmacological analogs as clinically indicated. Most monoamine neurotransmitter disorders lead to reduced levels of central dopamine and/or serotonin. Complete amelioration of motor symptoms is achievable in some disorders, such as Segawa's syndrome, and, in other conditions, significant improvement in quality of life can be attained with pharmacotherapy. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical features and current treatment strategies for childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders. PMID:25011953

Ng, J; Heales, S J R; Kurian, M A



Induction of depressive-like behavior by intranigral 6-OHDA is directly correlated with deficits in striatal dopamine and hippocampal serotonin.  


Among the non-motor phenomena of Parkinson's disease (PD) are depressive symptoms, with a prevalence of 40-70%. The reason for this high prevalence is not yet clear. The basal ganglia receives dopamine (DA) inputs from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc), which is known to be impaired in PD patients. The neurotransmitter deficiency hypothesis of PD considers that low serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) activity in the brain in PD patients is a risk factor for depression. We investigated whether DA depletion promoted by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is able to induce depressive-like behavior and neurotransmitter alterations that are similar to those observed in PD. To test this hypothesis, we performed intranigral injections of 6-OHDA in male Wistar rats and conducted motor behavior, depressive-like behavior, histological, and neurochemical tests. After the motor recovery period, 6-OHDA was able to produce anhedonia and behavioral despair 7, 14, and 21 days after neurotoxin infusion. These altered behavioral responses were accompanied by reductions of striatal DA. Additionally, decreases in hippocampal 5-HT content were detected in the 6-OHDA group. Notably, correlations were found between 5-HT and DA levels and swimming, immobility, and sucrose preference. Our results indicate that 6-OHDA produced depressive-like behavior accompanied by striatal DA and hippocampal 5-HT reductions. Moreover, DA and 5-HT levels were strongly correlated with "emotional" impairments, suggesting the important participation of these neurotransmitters in anhedonia and behavioral despair after 6-OHDA-induced nigral lesions. PMID:24183944

Santiago, Ronise M; Barbiero, Janaína; Gradowski, Raisa W; Bochen, Suelen; Lima, Marcelo M S; Da Cunha, Cláudio; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F



Modulation of Drosophila heartbeat by neurotransmitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heart of Drosophila melanogaster is a simple muscular tube with a posterior pulsatile portion and a thoracic-cranial vessel. The pacemaker, located caudally,\\u000a is myogenic. Its rate of firing is modulated by neurotransmitters. Serotonin, octopamine, norepineph-rine, dopamine, and acetylcholine\\u000a accelerate the heart, in that order of potency. Dihydroxyphenylalanine, ?-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and glycine have no\\u000a effect. Generally, the regularity of

E. Johnson; J. Ringo; H. Dowse



The mechanistic basis for noncompetitive ibogaine inhibition of serotonin and dopamine transporters.  


Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study. PMID:22451652

Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H; Sandtner, Walter



The Mechanistic Basis for Noncompetitive Ibogaine Inhibition of Serotonin and Dopamine Transporters*  

PubMed Central

Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study. PMID:22451652

Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W.; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H.; Sandtner, Walter



Fluorine-18 Radiolabeled PET Tracers for Imaging Monoamine Transporters: Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine  

PubMed Central

Synopsis This review focuses on the development of fluorine-18 radiolabeled PET tracers for imaging the dopamine transporter (DAT), serotonin transporter (SERT), and norepinephrine transporter (NET). All successful DAT PET tracers reported to date are members of the 3?-phenyl tropane class and are synthesized from cocaine. Currently available carbon-11 SERT PET tracers come from both the diphenylsulfide and 3?-phenyl nortropane class, but so far only the nortropanes have found success with fluorine-18 derivatives. NET imaging has so far employed carbon-11 and fluorine-18 derivatives of reboxetine but due to defluorination of the fluorine-18 derivatives further research is still necessary. PMID:20216936

Stehouwer, Jeffrey S.; Goodman, Mark M.



Recognition Properties and Competitive Assays of a Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Selective Molecularly Imprinted Polymer  

PubMed Central

A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with dual dopamine/serotonin-like binding sites (DS-MIP) was synthesized for use as a receptor model of study the drug-interaction of biological mixed receptors at a molecular level. The polymer material was produced using methacrylic acid (MAA) and acrylamide (ACM) as functional monomers, N,N?-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as cross-linker, methanol/water mixture (4:1, v/v) as porogen and a mixture of dopamine (D) and serotonin (S) as templates. The prepared DS-MIP exhibited the greatest rebinding of the template(s) in aqueous methanol solution with decreased recognition in acetonitrile, water and methanol solvent. The binding affinity and binding capacity of DS-MIP with S were found to be higher than those of DS-MIP with D. The selectivity profiles of DS-MIP suggest that the D binding site of DS-MIP has sufficient integrity to discriminate between species of non-optimal functional group orientation, whilst the S binding site of DS-MIP is less selective toward species having structural features and functional group orientations different from S. The ligand binding activities of a series of ergot derivatives (ergocryptine, ergocornine, ergocristine, ergonovine, agroclavine, pergolide and terguride) have been studied with the DS-MIP using a competitive ligand binding assay protocol. The binding affinities of DS-MIP were demonstrated in the micro- or submicro-molar range for a series of ergot derivatives, whereas the binding affinities were considerably greater to natural receptors derived from the rat hypothalamus. The DS-MIP afforded the same pattern of differentiation as the natural receptors, i.e. affinity for the clavines > lysergic acid derivatives > ergopeptines. The results suggest that the discrimination for the ergot derivatives by the dopamine and serotonin sites of DS-MIP is due to the structural features and functional orientation of the phenylethylamine and indolylethylamine entities at the binding sites, and the fidelity of the dopamine and serotonin imprinted cavities. PMID:19330079

Suedee, Roongnapa; Seechamnanturakit, Vatcharee; Suksuwan, Acharee; Canyuk, Bhutorn



Striatal dopamine release and genetic variation of the serotonin 2C receptor in humans  

PubMed Central

Mesoaccumbal and nigrostriatal projections are sensitive to stress, and heightened stress sensitivity is thought to confer risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Serotonin 2C (5-HT2C) receptors mediate the inhibitory effects of serotonin on dopaminergic circuitry in experimental animals, and preclinical findings have implicated 5-HT2C receptors in motivated behaviors and psychotropic drug mechanisms. In humans, a common missense single-nucleotide change (rs6318, Cys23Ser) in the 5-HT2C receptor gene (HTR2C) has been associated with altered activity in vitro and with clinical mood disorders. We hypothesized that dopaminergic circuitry would be more sensitive to stress in humans carrying the Ser23 variant. To test this hypothesis, we studied 54 healthy humans using positron emission tomography and the displaceable D2/D3 receptor radiotracer [11C]raclopride. Binding potential (BPND) was quantified before and after a standardized stress challenge consisting of 20 minutes of moderate deep muscular pain, and reduction in BPND served as an index of dopamine release. The Cys23Ser variant was genotyped on a custom array, and ancestry informative markers were used to control for population stratification. We found greater dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen among Ser23 carriers, after controlling for sex, age, and ancestry. Genotype accounted for 12% of the variance in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. There was no association of Cys23Ser with baseline BPND. These findings indicate that a putatively functional HTR2C variant (Ser23) is associated with greater striatal dopamine release during pain in healthy humans. Mesoaccumbal stress sensitivity may mediate the effects of HTR2C variation on risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22764241

Mickey, Brian J; Sanford, Benjamin J; Love, Tiffany M; Shen, Pei-Hong; Hodgkinson, Colin; Stohler, Christian S; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar



Effect of ibogaine on cocaine-induced efflux of [ 3H]dopamine and [ 3H]serotonin from mouse striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ibogaine, an indole alkaloid with proposed antiaddictive properties, has structural similarity to serotonin and has been shown to have affinity to the k-opioid binding site. In addition to the dopamine system, the serotonin system is a major target for cocaine action and the opioid system can affect the serotonin system. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of ibogaine on

Sershen Henry; Hashim Audrey; Lajtha Abel



Functional crosstalk and heteromerization of serotonin 5-HT2A and dopamine D2 receptors  

PubMed Central

The serotonin 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) are high-affinity G protein-coupled receptor targets for two different classes of antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia. Interestingly, the antipsychotic effects are not based on the regulation of same signaling mediators since activation of the 5-HT2AR and of the D2R regulate Gq/11 protein and Gi/o protein, respectively. Here we use radioligand binding and second messenger production assays to provide evidence for a functional crosstalk between 5-HT2AR and D2R in brain and in HEK293 cells. D2R activation increases the hallucinogenic agonist affinity for 5-HT2AR and decreases the 5-HT2AR induced inositol phosphate production. In vivo, 5-HT2AR expression is necessary for the full effects of D2R antagonist on MK-801-induced locomotor activity. Co-immunoprecipitation studies show that the two receptors can physically interact in HEK293 cells and raise the possibility that a receptor heterocomplex mediates the crosstalk observed. The existence of this 5-HT2AR-D2R heteromer and crosstalk may have implications for diseases involving alterations of serotonin and dopamine systems and for the development of new classes of therapeutic drugs. PMID:21645528

Albizu, Laura; Holloway, Terrell; Gonzalez-Maeso, Javier; Sealfon, Stuart C.



Brexpiprazole I: in vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator.  


Brexpiprazole (OPC-34712, 7-{4-[4-(1-benzothiophen-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}quinolin-2(1H)-one) is a novel drug candidate in clinical development for psychiatric disorders with high affinity for serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline receptors. In particular, it bound with high affinity (Ki < 1 nM) to human serotonin 1A (h5-HT1A)-, h5-HT2A-, long form of human D2 (hD2L)-, h?1B-, and h?2C-adrenergic receptors. It displayed partial agonism at h5-HT1A and hD2 receptors in cloned receptor systems and potent antagonism of h5-HT2A receptors and h?1B/2C-adrenoceptors. Brexpiprazole also had affinity (Ki < 5 nM) for hD3-, h5-HT2B-, h5-HT7-, h?1A-, and h?1D-adrenergic receptors, moderate affinity for hH1 (Ki = 19 nM), and low affinity for hM1 receptors (Ki > 1000 nM). Brexpiprazole potently bound to rat 5-HT2A and D2 receptors in vivo, and ex vivo binding studies further confirmed high 5-HT1A receptor binding potency. Brexpiprazole inhibited DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine)-induced head twitches in rats, suggestive of 5-HT2A antagonism. Furthermore, in vivo D2 partial agonist activity of brexpiprazole was confirmed by its inhibitory effect on reserpine-induced DOPA accumulation in rats. In rat microdialysis studies, brexpiprazole slightly reduced extracellular dopamine in nucleus accumbens but not in prefrontal cortex, whereas moderate increases of the dopamine metabolites, homovanillic acid and DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl-acetic acid), in these areas also suggested in vivo D2 partial agonist activity. In particular, based on a lower intrinsic activity at D2 receptors and higher binding affinities for 5-HT1A/2A receptors than aripiprazole, brexpiprazole would have a favorable antipsychotic potential without D2 receptor agonist- and antagonist-related adverse effects. In conclusion, brexpiprazole is a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator with a unique pharmacology, which may offer novel treatment options across a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders. PMID:24947465

Maeda, Kenji; Sugino, Haruhiko; Akazawa, Hitomi; Amada, Naoki; Shimada, Jun; Futamura, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Ito, Nobuaki; McQuade, Robert D; Mørk, Arne; Pehrson, Alan L; Hentzer, Morten; Nielsen, Vibeke; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Arnt, Jørn; Stensbøl, Tine Bryan; Kikuchi, Tetsuro



The serotonin-dopamine interaction measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and C-11 raclopride in normal human subjects  

SciTech Connect

Our previous studies have shown that the interaction between serotonin and dopamine can be measured with C-11 raclopride and PET in the baboon brain. A series of studies was undertaken to extend dim findings to the normal human brain. PET studies were conducted in male control subjects (n=8) using the CTI 931 tomograph. Two C-11 raclopride scans were performed, prior to and 180 minutes following administration of the selective serotonin releasing agent, fenfluramine (60mg/PO). The neuroendocrine response to fenfluramine challenge is commonly used in psychiatric research as an index of serotonin activity. The C-11 raclopride data were analyzed with the distribution volume method. For the group of subjects, an increase was observed in the striatum to cerebellum ratio (specific to non-specific binding ratio), in excess of the test-retest variability of the ligand. Variability in response was observed across subjects. These results are consistent with our previous findings in the baboon that citalopram administration increased C-11 raclopride binding, consistent with a decrease in endogenous dopamine. In vivo microdialysis studies in freely moving rats confirmed that citalopram produces a time-dependent decrease in extracellular dopamine levels, consistent with the PET results. In vivo PET studies of the serotonin-dopamine interaction are relevant to the evaluation of etiologic and therapeutic mechanisms in schizophrenia and affective disorder.

Smith, G.S.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others



Selective serotonin 2A receptor antagonism attenuates the effects of amphetamine on arousal and dopamine overflow in nonhuman primates  

PubMed Central

Summary The objective of the present study was to further elucidate the mechanisms involved in the wake-promoting effects of psychomotor stimulants. Many previous studies have tightly linked the effects of stimulants to dopamine neurotransmission, and some studies indicate that serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptors modulate these effects. However, the role of dopamine in arousal is controversial, most notably because dopamine neurons do not change firing rates across arousal states. In the present study, we examined the wake-promoting effects of the dopamine releaser amphetamine using noninvasive telemetric monitoring. These effects were evaluated in rhesus monkeys as a laboratory animal model with high translational relevance for human disorders of sleep and arousal. To evaluate the role of dopamine in the wake-promoting effects of amphetamine, we used in vivo microdialysis targeting the caudate nucleus, as this approach provides clearly interpretable measures of presynaptic dopamine release. This is beneficial in the present context because some of the inconsistencies between previous studies examining the role of dopamine in arousal may be related to differences between postsynaptic dopamine receptors. We found that amphetamine significantly and dose-dependently increased arousal at doses that engendered higher extracellular-dopamine levels. Moreover, antagonism of 5-HT2A receptors attenuated the effects of amphetamine on both wakefulness and dopamine overflow. These findings further elucidate the role of dopamine and 5-HT2A receptors in arousal, and they suggest that increased dopamine neurotransmission may be necessary for the wake-promoting effects of amphetamine, and possibly other stimulants. PMID:23879373

Murnane, K.S.; Andersen, M.L.; Rice, K.C.; Howell, L.L.



Dopamine transport by the serotonin transporter: a mechanistically distinct mode of substrate translocation  

PubMed Central

The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the principal mechanism for terminating serotonin (5HT) signals in the nervous system and is a site of action for a variety of psychoactive drugs including antidepressants, amphetamines, and cocaine. Here we show that human SERTs (hSERTs) and rat SERTs are capable of robust dopamine (DA) uptake through a process that differs mechanistically from 5HT transport in several unanticipated ways. DA transport by hSERT has a higher maximum velocity than 5HT transport, requires significantly higher Na+ and Cl? concentrations to sustain transport, is inhibited non-competitively by 5HT and is more sensitive to SERT inhibitors, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We use a thiol reactive methane thiosulfonate (MTS) reagent to modify a conformationally-sensitive cysteine residue to demonstrate that hSERT spends more time in an outward facing conformation when transporting DA than when transporting 5HT. Co-transfection of an inactive or an MTS-sensitive SERT with wild type SERT subunits reveals an absence of cooperative interactions between subunits during DA, but not 5HT transport. To establish the physiological relevance of this mechanism for DA clearance, we show using in vivo high-speed chronoamperometry that SERT has the capacity to clear extracellularly applied DA in the hippocampal CA3 region of anesthetized rats. Together, these observations suggest the possibility that SERT serves as a DA transporter in vivo and highlight the idea that there can be distinct modes of transport of alternative physiological substrates by SERT. PMID:21525301

Larsen, Mads Breum; Sonders, Mark S.; Mortensen, Ole Valente; Larson, Gaynor A.; Zahniser, Nancy R.; Amara, Susan G.



Carbon nanofiber multiplexed array and Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor for simultaneous detection of dissolved oxygen and dopamine  

PubMed Central

Purpose While the mechanism of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) remains poorly understood, previous studies have shown that it evokes release of neurochemicals and induces activation of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) blood oxygen level-dependent signal in distinct areas of the brain. Therefore, the main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capabilities of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor system (WINCS) in conjunction with a carbon nanofiber (CNF) multiplexed array electrode as a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanism of DBS through the simultaneous detection of multiple bioactive-molecules. Methods Patterned CNF nanoelectrode arrays were prepared on a 4-inch silicon wafer where each device consists of 3 × 3 electrode pads, 200 ?m square, that contain CNFs spaced at 1?m intervals. The multiplexed carbon nanofiber CNF electrodes were integrated with WINCS to detect mixtures of dopamine (DA) and oxygen (O2) using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in vitro. Results First, simultaneous detection of O2 at two spatially different locations, 200 um apart, was demonstrated. Second, simultaneous detection of both O2 and DA at two spatially different locations, using two different decoupled waveforms was demonstrated. Third, controlled studies demonstrated that the waveform must be interleaved to avoid electrode crosstalk artifacts in the acquired data. Conclusions Multiplexed CNF nanoelectrode arrays for electrochemical detection of neurotransmitters show promise for the detection of multiple analytes with the application of time independent decoupled waveforms. Electrochemistry on CNF electrodes may be helpful in elucidating the mechanism of DBS, and may also provide the precision and sensitivity required for future applications in feedback modulated DBS neural control systems. PMID:24688800

Marsh, Michael P.; Koehne, Jessica E.; Andrews, Russell J.; Meyyappan, M.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.



Effects of cocaethylene on dopamine and serotonin synthesis in Long–Evans and Sprague–Dawley brains  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the behavioral and neurochemical effects of cocaethylene treatment in Long–Evans (LE) and Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Cocaethylene-induced behaviors were significantly less in LE rats. Cocaethylene caused an inhibition of dopamine synthesis in the caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens that was equivalent in both rat lines. Serotonin synthesis was also suppressed by cocaethylene treatment, however this phenomenon was less pronounced

Michael H Baumann; Judith M Horowitz; Mark B Kristal; German Torres



Novel aza-analogous ergoline derived scaffolds as potent serotonin 5-HT? and dopamine D? receptor ligands.  


By introducing distal substituents on a tetracyclic scaffold resembling the ergoline structure, two series of analogues were achieved exhibiting subnanomolar receptor binding affinities for the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT6 receptor subtype, respectively. While the 5-HT6 ligands were antagonists, the D2 ligands displayed intrinsic activities ranging from full agonism to partial agonism with low intrinsic activity. These structures could potentially be interesting for treatment of neurological diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and cognitive deficits. PMID:24878269

Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Jensen, Anders A; Schrøder, Tenna J; Christoffersen, Claus T; Kehler, Jan



Effects of Age on Dopamine and Serotonin Receptors Measured by Positron Tomography in the Living Human Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

D2 dopamine and S2 serotonin receptors were imaged and measured in healthy human subjects by positron emission tomography after intravenous injection of 11C-labeled 3-N-methylspiperone. Levels of receptor in the caudate nucleus, putamen, and frontal cerebral cortex declined over the age span studied (19 to 73 years). The decline in D2 receptor in males was different from that in females.

Dean F. Wong; Henry N. Wagner; Robert F. Dannals; Jonathan M. Links; J. James Frost; Hayden T. Ravert; Alan A. Wilson; Arthur E. Rosenbaum; Albert Gjedde; Kenneth H. Douglass; John D. Petronis; Marshal F. Folstein; J. K. Thomas Toung; H. Donald Burns; Michael J. Kuhar



The effects of serotonin, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and corazonin, on the androgenic gland of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  


Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are agents that control gonad maturation in decapod crustaceans. Of these, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters with known antagonist roles in female reproduction, whilst gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz) are neurohormones that exercise both positive and negative controls in some invertebrates. However, the effects of these agents on the androgenic gland (AG), which controls testicular maturation and male sex development in decapods, via insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG), are unknown. Therefore, we set out to assay the effects of 5-HT, DA, l-GnRH-III, oct-GnRH and Crz, on the AG of small male Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr), using histological studies, a BrdU proliferative cell assay, immunofluorescence of Mr-IAG, and ELISA of Mr-IAG. The results showed stimulatory effects by 5-HT and l-GnRH-III through significant increases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). In contrast, DA and Crz caused inhibitory effects on the AG through significant decreases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). Moreover, the prawns treated with Crz died before day 16 of the experimental period. We propose that 5-HT and certain GnRHs can be now used to stimulate reproduction in male M. rosenbergii, as they induce increases in AG and testicular size, IAG production, and spermatogenesis. The mechanisms by which these occur are part of our on-going research. PMID:23867230

Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Kankuan, Wilairat; Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert



Altered Serotonin, Dopamine and Norepinepherine Levels in 15q Duplication and Angelman Syndrome Mouse Models  

PubMed Central

Childhood neurodevelopmental disorders like Angelman syndrome and autism may be the result of underlying defects in neuronal plasticity and ongoing problems with synaptic signaling. Some of these defects may be due to abnormal monoamine levels in different regions of the brain. Ube3a, a gene that causes Angelman syndrome (AS) when maternally deleted and is associated with autism when maternally duplicated has recently been shown to regulate monoamine synthesis in the Drosophila brain. Therefore, we examined monoamine levels in striatum, ventral midbrain, frontal cerebral cortex, cerebellar cortex and hippocampus in Ube3a deficient and Ube3a duplication animals. We found that serotonin (5HT), a monoamine affected in autism, was elevated in the striatum and cortex of AS mice. Dopamine levels were almost uniformly elevated compared to control littermates in the striatum, midbrain and frontal cortex regardless of genotype in Ube3a deficient and Ube3a duplication animals. In the duplication 15q autism mouse model, paternal but not maternal duplication animals showed a decrease in 5HT levels when compared to their wild type littermates, in accordance with previously published data. However, maternal duplication animals show no significant changes in 5HT levels throughout the brain. These abnormal monoamine levels could be responsible for many of the behavioral abnormalities observed in both AS and autism, but further investigation is required to determine if any of these changes are purely dependent on Ube3a levels in the brain. PMID:22916201

Farook, M. Febin; DeCuypere, Michael; Hyland, Keith; Takumi, Toru; LeDoux, Mark S.; Reiter, Lawrence T.



A Comparison of the Subsecond Dynamics of Neurotransmission of Dopamine and Serotonin  

PubMed Central

The neuromodulators dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) are similar in a number of ways. Both monoamines can act by volume transmission at metabotropic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission in brain circuits. Presynaptic regulation of 5-HT and DA is governed by parallel processes, and behaviorally, both exert control over emotional processing. However, differences are also apparent: more than twice as many 5-HT receptor subtypes mediate postsynaptic effects than DA receptors and different presynaptic regulation is also emerging. Monoamines are amenable to real-time electrochemical detection using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), which allows resolution of the subsecond dynamics of release and reuptake in response to a single action potential. This approach has greatly enriched understanding of DA transmission and has facilitated an integrated view of how DA mediates behavioral control. However, technical challenges are associated with FSCV measurement of 5-HT and understanding of 5-HT transmission at subsecond resolution has not advanced at the same rate. As a result, how the actions of 5-HT at the level of the synapse translate into behavior is poorly understood. Recent technical advances may aid the study of 5-HT in real-time. It is timely, therefore, to compare and contrast what is currently understood of the subsecond characteristics of transmission for DA and 5-HT. In doing so, a number of areas are highlighted as being worthy of exploration for 5-HT. PMID:23627553



Dual dopamine/serotonin releasers: potential treatment agents for stimulant addiction.  


"Agonist therapy" for cocaine and methamphetamine addiction involves administration of stimulant-like medications (e.g., monoamine releasers) to reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. A significant problem with this strategy is that many candidate medications possess abuse liability because of activation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons in the brain. One way to reduce DA-mediated abuse liability of candidate drugs is to add in serotonin (5-HT) releasing properties, since substantial evidence shows that 5-HT neurons provide an inhibitory influence over mesolimbic DA neurons. This article addresses several key issues related to the development of dual DA/5-HT releasers for the treatment of substance use disorders. First, the authors briefly summarize the evidence supporting a dual deficit in DA and 5-HT function during withdrawal from chronic cocaine or alcohol abuse. Second, the authors discuss data demonstrating that 5HT release can dampen DA-mediated stimulant effects, and the "antistimulant" role of 5-HT-sub(2C) receptors is considered. Next, the mechanisms underlying potential adverse effects of 5-HT releasers are described. Finally, the authors discuss recently published data with PAL-287, a novel nonamphetamine DA/5-HT releasing agent that suppresses cocaine self-administration but lacks positive reinforcing properties. It is concluded that DA/5-HT releasers could be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of cocaine and alcohol addictions, as well as for obesity, attention-deficit disorder, and depression. PMID:19086767

Rothman, Richard B; Blough, Bruce E; Baumann, Michael H



Anticonvulsant action of hippocampal dopamine and serotonin is independently mediated by D and 5-HT receptors.  


The present microdialysis study evaluated the anticonvulsant activity of extracellular hippocampal dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) with concomitant assessment of the possible mutual interactions between these monoamines. The anticonvulsant effects of intrahippocampally applied DA and 5-HT concentrations were evaluated against pilocarpine-induced seizures in conscious rats. DA or 5-HT perfusions protected the rats from limbic seizures as long as extracellular DA or 5-HT concentrations ranged, respectively, between 70-400% and 80-350% increases compared with the baseline levels. Co-perfusion with the selective D(2) blocker remoxipride or the selective 5-HT(1A) blocker WAY-100635 clearly abolished all anticonvulsant effects. These anticonvulsant effects were mediated independently since no mutual 5-HT and DA interactions were observed as long as extracellular DA and 5-HT levels remained within these protective ranges. Simultaneous D(2) and 5-HT(1A) receptor blockade significantly aggravated pilocarpine-induced seizures. High extracellular DA (> 1000% increases) or 5-HT (> 900% increases) concentrations also worsened seizure outcome. The latter proconvulsive effects were associated with significant increases in extracellular glutamate (Glu) and mutual increases in extracellular monoamines. Our results suggest that, within a certain concentration range, DA and 5-HT contribute independently to the prevention of hippocampal epileptogenesis via, respectively, D(2) and 5-HT(1A) receptor activation. PMID:15140183

Clinckers, Ralph; Smolders, Ilse; Meurs, Alfred; Ebinger, Guy; Michotte, Yvette



Recent developments in the discovery of novel antipsychotic agents modualating dopamine and serotonin receptors.  


Currently, schizophrenia, as a serious psychiatric disorder, continues affecting the quality of life in the psychotics. This disease is often debilitating and chronic, showing broad symptoms at one end by hallucinations, delusions, thought disorder and the other end by affective flattening, catatonia, social isolation. In order to combat this disease, many antipsychotic drugs have been developed and introduced into clinical practice in the past half century. However, only a small minority of them can treat effectively schizophrenia without side effects. In view of this situation, high attention has been given to the exploration of desired antipsychotic agents influential especially through the modulation of dopamine and serotonin receptors with substantial strides made in recent years, leading to the discovery of many novel chemical entities with intriguing profiles. In this review, we summarize novel structural antipsychotics in development and discuss the future direction of ideal antipsychotic drug candiates. In particular, the promising atypical antipsychotic profiles of new molecules and the inspirations for their design are highlighted. PMID:23701299

Li, Xin; Ma, Shutao



Reduced noradrenaline, but not dopamine and serotonin in motor thalamus of the MPTP primate: relation to severity of parkinsonism.  


We recently found severe noradrenaline deficits throughout the thalamus of patients with Parkinson's disease [C. Pifl, S. J. Kish and O. Hornykiewicz Mov Disord. 27, 2012, 1618.]. As this noradrenaline loss was especially severe in nuclei of the motor thalamus normally transmitting basal ganglia motor output to the cortex, we hypothesized that this noradrenaline loss aggravates the motor disorder of Parkinson's disease. Here, we analysed noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin in motor (ventrolateral and ventroanterior) and non-motor (mediodorsal, centromedian, ventroposterior lateral and reticular) thalamic nuclei in MPTP-treated monkeys who were always asymptomatic; who recovered from mild parkinsonism; and monkeys with stable, either moderate or severe parkinsonism. We found that only the symptomatic parkinsonian animals had significant noradrenaline losses specifically in the motor thalamus, with the ventroanterior motor nucleus being affected only in the severe parkinsonian animals. In contrast, the striatal dopamine loss was identical in both the mild and severe symptom groups. MPTP-treatment had no significant effect on noradrenaline in non-motor thalamic nuclei or dopamine and serotonin in any thalamic subregion. We conclude that in the MPTP primate model, loss of noradrenaline in the motor thalamus may also contribute to the clinical expression of the parkinsonian motor disorder, corroborating experimentally our hypothesis on the role of thalamic noradrenaline deficit in Parkinson's disease. PMID:23331162

Pifl, Christian; Hornykiewicz, Oleh; Blesa, Javier; Adánez, Rebeca; Cavada, Carmen; Obeso, José A



A Bacoside containing Bacopa monnieri extract reduces both morphine hyperactivity plus the elevated striatal dopamine and serotonin turnover.  


Bacopa monnieri (BM) has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a nootropic, anxiolytic, antiepileptic and antidepressant. An n-butanol extract of the plant (nBt-ext BM) was analysed and found to contain Bacoside A (Bacoside A3, Bacopaside II and Bacopasaponin C). The effects of the BM extract were then studied on morphine-induced hyperactivity as well as dopamine and serotonin turnover in the striatum since these parameters have a role in opioid sensitivity and dependence. Mice were pretreated with saline or nBt-ext BM (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg, orally), 60 min before morphine administration and locomotor activity was subsequently recorded. Immediately after testing, striatal tissues were analysed for dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT) and their metabolites using HPLC coupled with electrochemical detection. The results indicated that nBt-ext BM significantly (p < 0.001) decreased locomotor activity in both the saline and morphine treated groups. Additionally, nBt-ext BM significantly lowered morphine-induced dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-H1AA) upsurges in the striatum but failed to affect DA, 5-HT and their metabolites in the saline treated group. These findings suggest that nBt-ext BM has an antidopaminergic/serotonergic effect and may have potential beneficial effects in the treatment of morphine dependence. PMID:22105846

Rauf, Khalid; Subhan, Fazal; Sewell, Robert D E



Brexpiprazole II: antipsychotic-like and procognitive effects of a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator.  


Brexpiprazole (OPC-34712, 7-{4-[4-(1-benzothiophen-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}quinolin-2(1H)-one) is a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator with partial agonist activity at serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) and D2/3 receptors, combined with potent antagonist effects on 5-HT2A, ?1B-, and ?2C-adrenergic receptors. Brexpiprazole inhibited conditioned avoidance response (ED50 = 6.0 mg/kg), apomorphine- or d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity (ED50 = 2.3 and 0.90, respectively), and apomorphine-induced stereotypy (ED50 = 2.9) in rats at clinically relevant D2 receptor occupancies. Brexpiprazole also potently inhibited apomorphine-induced eye blinking in monkeys. The results suggest that brexpiprazole has antipsychotic potential. Brexpiprazole induced catalepsy (ED50 = 20) well above clinically relevant D2 receptor occupancies, suggesting a low risk for extrapyramidal side effects. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) induced cognitive impairment in both novel object recognition (NOR) and attentional set-shifting (ID-ED) tests in rats. Brexpiprazole reversed the PCP-induced cognitive impairment in the NOR test at 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, and in the ID-ED test at 1.0 mg/kg. However, aripiprazole (10 mg/kg) was ineffective in both tests, despite achieving relevant D2 occupancies. In the NOR test, the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 [(R)-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)[1-(4-fluorophenethyl)piperidin-4-yl]methanol] partially but significantly reversed PCP-induced impairment. Furthermore, the effect of brexpiprazole was reversed by cotreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide maleate). The results indicate that brexpiprazole has antipsychotic-like activity and robust efficacy in relevant models of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia. The effects of brexpiprazole in the cognitive tests are superior to those of aripiprazole. We propose that the pharmacologic profile of brexpiprazole be based on its balanced effects on 5-HT1A, D2, and 5-HT2A receptors, with possible modulating activity through additional monoamine receptors. PMID:24947464

Maeda, Kenji; Lerdrup, Linda; Sugino, Haruhiko; Akazawa, Hitomi; Amada, Naoki; McQuade, Robert D; Stensbøl, Tine Bryan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Arnt, Jørn; Kikuchi, Tetsuro



Cloning of the cocaine-sensitive bovine dopamine transporter.  

PubMed Central

A cDNA encoding the dopamine transporter from bovine brain substantia nigra was identified on the basis of its structural homology to other, recently cloned, neurotransmitter transporters. The sequence of the 693-amino acid protein is quite similar to those of the rat gamma-aminobutyric acid, human norepinephrine, and rat serotonin transporters. Dopamine transporter mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra but not in the locus coeruleus, raphe, caudate, or other brain areas. [3H]Dopamine accumulation in tissue culture cells transfected with the cDNA was inhibited by amphetamine, cocaine, and specific inhibitors of dopamine transport, including GBR12909. Images PMID:1722321

Usdin, T B; Mezey, E; Chen, C; Brownstein, M J; Hoffman, B J



Cloning of the cocaine-sensitive bovine dopamine transporter  

SciTech Connect

A cDNA encoding the dopamine transporter from bovine brain substantia nigra was identified on the basis of its structural homology to other, recently cloned, neurotransmitter transporters. The sequence of the 693-amino acid protein is quite similar to those of the rat {gamma}-aminobutyric acid, human norepinephrine, and rat serotonin transporters. Dopamine transporter mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra but not in the locus coeruleus, raphe, caudate, or other brain areas. ({sup 3}H)Dopamine accumulation in tissue culture cells transfected with the cDNA was inhibited by amphetamine, cocaine, and specific inhibitors of dopamine transports, including GBR12909.

Usdin, T.B.; Chen, C.; Brownstein, M.J.; Hoffman, B.J. (National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Mezey, E. (Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary))



Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine.  


Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, which in turn may be modulated by DA and 5HT transmission. We analyzed long-term, off-drug changes in learning from positive and negative feedback and associated striatal DA transporter (DAT) and frontocortical 5HT transporter (SERT) binding in rats pretreated with methamphetamine (mAMPH). Specifically, we assessed the reversal phase of pairwise visual discrimination learning in rats receiving single dose- (mAMPHsingle) vs. escalating-dose exposure (mAMPHescal). Using fine-grained trial-by-trial analyses, we found increased sensitivity to and reliance on positive feedback in mAMPH-pretreated animals, with the mAMPHsingle group showing more pronounced use of this type of feedback. In contrast, overall negative feedback sensitivity was not altered following any mAMPH treatment. In addition to validating the enduring effects of mAMPH on early reversal learning, we found more consecutive error commissions before the first correct response in mAMPH-pretreated rats. This behavioral rigidity was negatively correlated with subregional frontocortical SERT whereas positive feedback sensitivity negatively correlated with striatal DAT binding. These results provide new evidence for the overlapping, yet dissociable roles of DA and 5HT systems in overcoming perseveration and in learning new reward rules. PMID:24959862

Stolyarova, Alexandra; O'Dell, Steve J; Marshall, John F; Izquierdo, Alicia



Lack of evidence for reduced prefrontal cortical serotonin and dopamine efflux after acute tryptophan depletion  

PubMed Central

Rationale Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a widely used method to study the role of serotonin (5-HT) in affect and cognition. ATD results in a strong but transient decrease in plasma tryptophan and central 5-HT synthesis and availability. Although its use is widespread, the evidence that the numerous functional effects of ATD are caused by actual changes in 5-HT neuronal release is not very strong. Thus far, decreases in 5-HT efflux (thought to reflect synaptic release) were only reported after chronic tryptophan depletion or when ATD was combined with blockade of 5-HT reuptake. Objective With the current experiment, we aimed to study the validity of the method of ATD by measuring the extent to which it reduces the efflux of 5-HT (and dopamine) in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of reuptake blockage. Materials and methods We simultaneously measured in freely moving animals plasma tryptophan via a catheter in the jugular vein and 5-HT and DA efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex through microdialysis after ATD treatment. Results ATD reduced plasma tryptophan to less than 30% of control, without affecting 5-HT or DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex, indicating that even strong reductions of plasma tryptophan do not necessarily result in decreases in central 5-HT efflux. Conclusion The present experiment showed that reductions in plasma tryptophan, similar to values associated with behavioural effects, do not necessarily reduce 5-HT efflux and suggest that the cognitive and behavioural effects of ATD may not be (exclusively) due to alterations in 5-HT release. PMID:17713760

Meerkerk, Dorie (T). J.; Lieben, Cindy K. J.; Blokland, Arjan; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.



Acute effects of brexpiprazole on serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine systems: an in vivo electrophysiologic characterization.  


Brexpiprazole, a compound sharing structural molecular characteristics with aripiprazole, is currently under investigation for the treatment of schizophrenia and depression. Using electrophysiologic techniques, the present study assessed the in vivo action of brexpiprazole on serotonin (5-HT) receptor subtypes 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT2A; dopamine (DA) D2 autoreceptors, and ?1- and ?2-adrenergic receptors. In addition, the effects on 5-HT1A autoreceptors in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and D2 autoreceptors in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were compared with those of aripiprazole, an agent in wide clinical use. In the DRN, brexpiprazole completely inhibited the firing of 5-HT neurons via 5-HT1A agonism and was more potent than aripiprazole (ED50 = 230 and 700 ?g/kg, respectively). In the locus coeruleus, brexpiprazole reversed the inhibitory effect of the preferential 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine) on norepinephrine neuronal firing (ED50 = 110 ?g/kg), demonstrating 5-HT2A antagonistic action. Brexpiprazole reversed the inhibitory effect of the DA agonist apomorphine on VTA DA neurons (ED50 = 61 ?g/kg), whereas it was ineffective when administered alone, indicating partial agonistic action on D2 receptors. Compared with aripiprazole, which significantly inhibited the firing activity of VTA DA neurons, brexpiprazole displayed less efficacy at D2 receptors. In the hippocampus, brexpiprazole acted as a full agonist at 5-HT1A receptors on pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, it increased 5-HT release by terminal ?2-adrenergic heteroceptor but not 5-HT1B autoreceptor antagonism. In the lateral geniculate nucleus, brexpiprazole displayed ?1B-adrenoceptor antagonistic action. Taken together, these results provide insight into the in vivo action of brexpiprazole on monoamine targets relevant in the treatment of depression and schizophrenia. PMID:25225185

Oosterhof, Chris A; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre



Impact of Serotonin 2C Receptor Null Mutation on Physiology and Behavior Associated with Nigrostriatal Dopamine Pathway Function  

PubMed Central

The impact of serotonergic neurotransmission on brain dopaminergic pathways has substantial relevance to many neuropsychiatric disorders. A particularly prominent role has been ascribed to the inhibitory effects of serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) activation on physiology and behavior mediated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, particularly in the terminal region of the nucleus accumbens. The influence of this receptor subtype on functions mediated by the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is less clear. Here we report that a null mutation eliminating expression of 5-HT2CRs produces marked alterations in the activity and functional output of this pathway. 5-HT2CR mutant mice displayed increased activity of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons, elevated baseline extracellular dopamine concentrations in the dorsal striatum (DSt), alterations in grooming behavior, and enhanced sensitivity to the stereotypic behavioral effects of D-amphetamine and GBR 12909. These psychostimulant responses occurred in the absence of phenotypic differences in drug-induced extracellular dopamine concentration, suggesting a phenotypic alteration in behavioral responses to released dopamine. This was further suggested by enhanced behavioral responses of mutant mice to the D1 receptor agonist SKF 81297. Differences in DSt D1 or D2 receptor expression were not found, nor were differences in medium spiny neuron firing patterns or intrinsic membrane properties following dopamine stimulation. We conclude that 5-HT2CRs regulate nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity and function both at SNc dopaminergic neurons and at a locus downstream of the DSt. PMID:19553455

Abdallah, Luna; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Hopf, F. Woodward; O'Dell, Laura; Giorgetti, Marco; Jongsma, Minke; Carra, Scott; Pierucci, Massimo; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Esposito, Ennio; Parsons, Loren H.; Bonci, Antonello; Tecott, Laurence H.



Role of prenatal undernutrition in the expression of serotonin, dopamine and leptin receptors in adult mice: implications of food intake.  


Perturbations in the levels of serotonin expression have a significant impact on behavior and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety, mood and appetite. Fetal programming is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases during adulthood. Moreover, previous studies have shown that serotonin (5?HT), dopamine and leptin are important in energy balance. In the present study, the impact of maternal malnutrition?induced prenatal undernutrition (UN) was investigated in mice and the expression of 5?HT1A, dopamine (D)1, D2 and Ob?Rb receptors was analyzed in the hypothalamus during adulthood. The UN group showed a low birth weight compared with the control group. With regard to receptor expression, 5?HT1A in the UN group was increased in the hypothalamus and D1 was reduced, whereas D2 showed an increase from postnatal day (P)14 in the arcuate nucleus. Ob?Rb receptor expression was increased in the hypothalamus at P14 and P90. These observations indicated that maternal caloric restriction programs a postnatal body weight gain in offspring with an increased food intake in early postnatal life which continues into adulthood. In addition, UN in mice was found to be affected by Ob?Rb, 5?HT1A and D1/2 receptor expression, indicating that these observations may be associated with hyperphagia and obesity. PMID:24337628

Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Rocha, Luisa; Damasio, Leticia; Tesoro-Cruz, Emiliano; Zarate, Arturo



Differential expression of neuronal dopamine and serotonin transporters DAT and SERT in megakaryocytes and platelets generated from human MEG-01 megakaryoblasts.  


In the central nervous system, serotonergic and dopaminergic signaling is terminated by the activity of specialized transporter proteins for serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT). These transporter proteins are found both on the cell surface and in intracellular transport vesicles. Trafficking between these subcellular domains regulates the efficiency of removal of extracellular neurotransmitters and hence the efficacy of neuronal signaling. Therefore, it is of high interest to gain more insight into the regulatory mechanisms of the human DAT and SERT cell surface expression in their natural surroundings, i.e., in human cells. Because it is not possible to cultivate human neuronal cells expressing these transporter proteins, there is a need to find other human cells expressing these neuronal proteins. Here, we have investigated the expression of human SERT and DAT on developing megakaryocytes and platelet-like particles derived from the megakaryocyte progenitor cell line MEG-01 upon differentiation by valproic acid (VPA) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Our results show that MEG-01 cells express SERT and DAT and that VPA and ATRA induce a significant increase of transporter expression on developing megakaryocytes and platelets. As compared to ATRA, VPA more efficiently induced SERT expression but not DAT expression. Comparable to naïve platelets and neurons, SERT was localized to both the cell surface and intracellular compartments. Hence, VPA and ATRA-treated MEG-01 cells provide a model well-suited to studying neuronal monoamine transporter expression, not only during transcription and translation but also with respect to protein trafficking to and from the cell surface. PMID:22006250

Hohmann, Sarah; Schweinfurth, Nina; Lau, Thorsten; Deuschle, Michael; Lederbogen, Florian; Banaschewski, Tobias; Schloss, Patrick



The role of neurotransmitters in alcohol dependence: animal research.  


Animal studies have demonstrated that alcohol changes neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. These changes in levels of dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), endogenous opioid peptides, and noradrenaline are associated with activation of reward centres in the brain. It is this property of alcohol that is believed to be responsible for the reinforcing effect of alcohol consumption in rats. One class of neurotransmitters, the endogenous opioid peptides, are believed to play an important role in alcohol reinforcement. This view is supported by the reduced preference for alcohol consumption found in rats given an opiate agonist. The widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is also believed to play a fundamental role in mediating the effects of alcohol. A better understanding of the mechanisms that support alcohol dependence in animals offers hope for the development of pharmacological interventions to block these mechanisms, an approach that is now being explored in humans. PMID:8736996

De Witte, P



The role of neurotransmitters in alcohol dependence: animal research.  


Animal studies have demonstrated that alcohol changes neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. These changes in levels of dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), endogenous opioid peptides, and noradrenaline are associated with activation of reward centres in the brain. It is this property of alcohol that is believed to be responsible for the reinforcing effect of alcohol consumption in rats. One class of neurotransmitters, the endogenous opioid peptides, are believed to play an important role in alcohol reinforcement. This view is supported by the reduced preference for alcohol consumption found in rats given an opiate agonist. The widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is also believed to play a fundamental role in mediating the effects of alcohol. A better understanding of the mechanisms that support alcohol dependence in animals offers hope for the development of pharmacological interventions to block these mechanisms, an approach that is now being explored in humans. PMID:9845033

De Witte, P



Acute and subacute effects of risperidone and cocaine on accumbens dopamine and serotonin release using in vivo microvoltammetry on line with open-field behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vivo microvoltammetry was used to detect dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) release from nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of freely moving, male, Sprague–Dawley laboratory rats, while animals' locomotor (forward ambulations) and stereotypic behavior (fine movements of sniffing and grooming) were monitored at the same time with infrared photobeams. Monoamine release mechanisms were determined by using a depolarization blocker (?-butyrolactone, ?BL). Miniature

Patricia A Broderick; David N Rahni; Yueping Zhou



Polyethylenimine carbon nanotube fiber electrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters.  


Carbon nanotube (CNT)-based microelectrodes have been investigated as alternatives to carbon-fiber microelectrodes for the detection of neurotransmitters because they are sensitive, exhibit fast electron transfer kinetics, and are more resistant to surface fouling. Wet spinning CNTs into fibers using a coagulating polymer produces a thin, uniform fiber that can be fabricated into an electrode. CNT fibers formed in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) have been used as microelectrodes to detect dopamine, serotonin, and hydrogen peroxide. In this study, we characterize microelectrodes with CNT fibers made in polyethylenimine (PEI), which have much higher conductivity than PVA-CNT fibers. PEI-CNT fibers have lower overpotentials and higher sensitivities than PVA-CNT fiber microelectrodes, with a limit of detection of 5 nM for dopamine. The currents for dopamine were adsorption controlled at PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes, independent of scan repetition frequency, and stable for over 10 h. PEI-CNT fiber microelectrodes were resistant to surface fouling by serotonin and the metabolite interferant 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No change in sensitivity was observed for detection of serotonin after 30 flow injection experiments or after 2 h in 5-HIAA for PEI-CNT electrodes. The antifouling properties were maintained in brain slices when serotonin was exogenously applied multiple times or after bathing the slice in 5-HIAA. Thus, PEI-CNT fiber electrodes could be useful for the in vivo monitoring of neurochemicals. PMID:25117550

Zestos, Alexander G; Jacobs, Christopher B; Trikantzopoulos, Elefterios; Ross, Ashley E; Venton, B Jill



Treatment of schizophrenia in the 21st Century: beyond the neurotransmitter hypothesis.  


Over the last six decades, the treatment of schizophrenia has focused primarily on interactions at monoamine neurotransmitter receptor sites, including those for dopamine and serotonin. While first-generation antipsychotics demonstrate antagonism at the dopamine 2 receptor, newer atypical agents involve multiple receptors at various neurotransmitter sites. Despite the advent of these newer agents, the treatment of schizophrenia continues to elude clinicians, perhaps owing to a lack of information about the factors contributing to the development of the disease. While the etiology is complex and not yet fully delineated, we suggest that treating clinicians be willing to look beyond neurotransmitters and entertain other potential factors involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. One such factor that is often overlooked is the possible contribution of autoimmunity to disease development in at least a subset of patients. In this article we make an argument for consideration of immune dysfunction in the development of schizophrenia and suggest future directions for the field. PMID:19102668

Rogers, Donald P; Goldsmith, Carroll-Ann W



Neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, neurosteroids, and the onset of puberty.  


Puberty results from withdrawal of the "gonadostat" mechanisms and from increased gonadotropin sensitivity to GnRH. It has been hypothesized that GnRH release may be modulated by a non-steroid-mediated mechanism. Modifications of neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and neurosteroids may underlie the onset of pubertal processes. Neuropeptides mainly involved in the control of GnRH release are opioids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), galanin, and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), whereas neurotransmitters are noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, melatonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine stimulate GnRH, whereas the effect of serotonin on hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis seems to be norepinephrine-mediated. Neurosteroids are steroid hormones that bind to the GABA-A receptor, synthesized in the brain de novo or from blood-borne precursors. DHEA, a GABA-A antagonistic neurosteroid, and allopregnanolone, a GABA-A agonistic neurosteroid, may be important in the onset of gonadarche. In conclusion, the onset of puberty derives from the complex interplay among neuropeptides, neurotransmitters, and neurosteroids that occurs in the awakening of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. PMID:10818386

Genazzani, A R; Bernardi, F; Monteleone, P; Luisi, S; Luisi, M



A carbon nanofiber based biosensor for simultaneous detection of dopamine and serotonin in the presence of ascorbic acid.  


A biosensor based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is found to be effective for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the presence of excess ascorbic acid (AA). The CNF electrode outperforms the conventional glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for both selectivity and sensitivity. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), three distinct peaks are seen for the CNF electrode at 0.13 V, 0.45 V, and 0.70 V for the ternary mixture of AA, DA, and 5-HT. In contrast, the analytes are indistinguishable in a mixture using a GCE. For the CNF electrode, the detection limits are 50 nM for DA and 250 nM for 5-HT. PMID:23228495

Rand, Emily; Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Tanaka, Zuki; Zhang, David A; Marsh, Michael P; Andrews, Russell J; Lee, Kendall H; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M; Koehne, Jessica E



Recreational Ecstasy\\/MDMA, the serotonin syndrome, and serotonergic neurotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ring-substituted amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or “Ecstasy” is widely used a recreational drug. It stimulates the release and inhibits the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and other neurotransmitters such as dopamine to a lesser extent. The acute boost in monoamine activity can generate feelings of elation, emotional closeness, and sensory pleasure. In the hot and crowded conditions of raves\\/dances, mild

A. C. Parrott



Radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems  

SciTech Connect

The study of neurotransmitter systems is one of the major thrusts in emission tomography today. The current generation of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radiotracers examines neurotransmitter properties from a number of different perspectives including their pre and post synaptic sites and the activity of the enzymes which regulate their concentration. Although the dopamine system has been the most extensively investigated, other neurotransmitter systems including the acetylcholine muscarine, serotonin, benzodiazepine, opiate, NMDA and others are also under intensive development. Enzymes involved in the synthesis and regulation of neurotransmitter concentration, for example monoamine oxidase and amino acid decarboxylase has also been probed in vivo. Medical applications range from the study of normal function and the characterization of neurotransmitter activity in neurological and psychiatric diseases and in heart disease and cancer to the study of the binding of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse. This chapter will provide an overview of the current generation of radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems including radiotracer design, synthesis localization mechanisms and applications in emission tomography. 60 refs., 1 tab.

Fowler, J.S.



Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin



Species-specific effects on hemolymph glucose control by serotonin, dopamine, and L-enkephalin and their inhibitors in Squilla mantis and Astacus leptodactylus (crustacea).  


Hemolymph glucose level is controlled by crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) released from the eyestalk neuroendocrine centers under conditions of both physiological and environmental stress. Biogenic amines and enkephalin have been found to mediate the release of several neurohormones from crustacean neuroendocrine tissue. We investigated the effect of serotonin, dopamine, and Leucine-enkephalin in vivo--injected into the stomatopod Squilla mantis and the decapod Astacus leptodactylus--whether increasing or depressing glycemia. Serotonin had a marked effect in elevating glucose level compared with initial values in both species. 5-HT1-like receptors are more involved in mediating serotonin action as co-injected cyproheptadine was a more effective antagonist than ketanserin (5-HT2-like receptor inhibitor). Dopamine injection in intact animals produced a decrease below initial levels of hemolymph glucose. This effect was significantly antagonized by domperidone. No significant effect of both amines occurred in eyestalkless animals. L-enkephalin shows a differential effect: in S. mantis it induced hypoglycemia while in A. leptodactylus it caused an increase of glucose level. Co-injected antagonist naloxone affected the direction of the response. Serotonin appears to provide a major control on glucose mobilization, whereas dopamine and L-enkephalin act as modulators whose plasticity in use or action varies among species. PMID:15559934

Lorenzon, Simonetta; Brezovec, Sara; Ferrero, Enrico A



Neurotransmitters in the Gas Phase: La-Mb Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy combines laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets overcoming the problems of thermal decomposition associated with conventional heating methods. We present here the results on LA-MB-FTMW studies of some neurotransmitters. Six conformers of dopamine, four of adrenaline, five of noradrenaline and three conformers of serotonin have been characterized in the gas phase. The rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants extracted from the analysis of the rotational spectrum are directly compared with those predicted by ab initio methods to achieve the conclusive identification of different conformers and the experimental characterization of the intramolecular forces at play which control conformational preferences.

Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.



Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.



Opponent Interactions between Serotonin and Dopamine Nathaniel D Daw Sham Kakade Peter Dayan  

E-print Network

of the involvement of the dopamine system in reward learning, we consider three aspects of motivational opponency variety of phe­ nomena, including impulsivity, obsessionality, aggression, psychomotor inhibition, latent to the sort of significant stimuli that might be expected to control some of the the behaviors described above

Dayan, Peter



PubMed Central

Object We previously reported the development of a Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for measuring dopamine and suggested that this technology may be useful for evaluating deep brain stimulation (DBS)-related neuromodulatory effects on neurotransmitter systems. WINCS supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially resolved neurotransmitter measurements. The FSCV parameters used to establish WINCS dopamine measurements are not suitable for serotonin, a neurotransmitter implicated in depression, because they lead to CFM fouling and a loss of sensitivity. Here, we incorporate into WINCS a previously described N-shaped waveform applied at a high scan rate to establish wireless serotonin monitoring. Methods FSCV optimized for the detection of serotonin consisted of an N-shaped waveform scanned linearly from a resting potential of, in V, +0.2 to +1.0, then to ?0.1 and back to +0.2 at a rate of 1000 V/s. Proof of principle tests included flow injection analysis and electrically evoked serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rat brain slices. Results Flow cell injection analysis demonstrated that the N waveform applied at a scan rate of 1000 V/s significantly reduced serotonin fouling of the CFM, relative to that observed with FSCV parameters for dopamine. In brain slices, WINCS reliably detected sub-second serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus evoked by local high-frequency stimulation. Conclusion WINCS supported high-fidelity wireless serotonin monitoring by FSCV at a CFM. In the future such measurements of serotonin in large animal models and in humans may help to establish the mechanism of DBS for psychiatric disease. PMID:20415521

Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.



Neurotransmitters in the cerebral cortex.  


This article surveys the conventional neurotransmitters and modulatory neuropeptides that are found in the cerebral cortex and attempts to place them into the perspective of both intracortical circuitry and cortical disease. The distribution of these substances is related, where possible, to particular types of cortical neuron or to afferent or efferent fibers. Their physiological actions, where known, on cortical neurons are surveyed, and their potential roles in disease states such as the dementias, epilepsy, and stroke are assessed. Conventional transmitters that occur in afferent fibers to the cortex from brain-stem and basal forebrain sites are: serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine, and acetylcholine. All of these except dopamine are distributed to all cortical areas: dopamine is distributed to frontal and cingulate areas only. The transmitter in thalamic afferent systems is unknown. Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the transmitter used by the majority of cortical interneurons and has a profound effect upon the shaping of receptive field properties. The vast majority of the known cortical peptides are found in GABAergic neurons, and the possibility exists that they may act as trophic substances for other neurons. Levels of certain neuropeptides decline in cases of dementia of cortical origin. Acetylcholine is the only other known transmitter of cortical neurons. It, too, is contained in neurons that also contain a neuropeptide. The transmitter(s) used by excitatory cortical interneurons and by the efferent pyramidal cells is unknown, but it may be glutamate or aspartate. It is possible that excitotoxins released in anoxic disease of the cortex may produce damage by acting on receptors for these or related transmitter agents. PMID:2873211

Jones, E G



Serotonin-immunoreactive and dopamine-immunoreactive neurones in the terminal ganglion of the cricket, Acheta domestica: Light and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The distribution and ultrastructure of serotonin- and dopamine-immunoreactive (5-HTi and DAi) neurones have been investigated\\u000a in the terminal ganglion of the cricket, Acheta domestica, using a pre-embedding chopper technique. Special attention has been paid to the immunoreactive structures in the neuropil.\\u000a 5-HTi structures are extensively distributed and densely packed throughout the 5 neuromeres of the terminal ganglion and originate\\u000a from

Károly Elekes; Reinhold Hustert; Michel Geffard



Positron emission tomographic studies of brain dopamine and serotonin transporters in abstinent (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“ecstasy”) users: relationship to cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  (±)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) is a recreational drug and brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin. Under\\u000a certain conditions, MDMA can also damage brain dopamine (DA) neurons, at least in rodents. Human MDMA users have been found\\u000a to have reduced brain 5-HT transporter (SERT) density and cognitive deficits, although it is not known whether these are related.\\u000a This study sought to determine whether MDMA

Una D. McCann; Zsolt Szabo; Melin Vranesic; Michael Palermo; William B. Mathews; Hayden T. Ravert; Robert F. Dannals; George A. Ricaurte



[The action of neurotransmitters and their antagonists on oocyte maturation. The action of serotonin antagonists on the in-vitro maturation of amphibian oocytes].  


Serotonin antagonists (inmecarb hydrochloride and inmecarb methiodide) stimulate in vitro maturation of Bufo viridis and Xenopus laevis oocytes or potentiate the action of progesterone. In contrast to that, serotonin inhibits or blocks oocyte maturation stimulated by progesterone or serotonin antagonists. Sensitivity of B. viridis oocytes to serotonin, its agonists and antagonists is subject to seasonal changes. A maximum sensitivity of intact oocytes is observed in February-March, and that of denuded ones in May-June. We suggest that endogenous serotonin is involved in maintenance of the block of meiosis and in the oocyte maturation control in amphibians. PMID:8371904

Nikitina, L A; Trubnikova, O B; Buznikov, G A



Serotonin 2A receptor antagonist treatment reduces dopamine D1 receptor-mediated rotational behavior but not l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements in the unilateral dopamine-depleted rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous experiments have demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) 2A receptor antagonists suppress hyperkinetic behaviors associated with dopamine (DA) D1 receptor supersensitivity in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions. Since l-DOPA induced dyskinesia (LID) may be mediated by oversensitive D1-mediated signaling, the present study examined the effects of the selective 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 on LID behaviors in DA-depleted rats. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats

Jennifer L. Taylor; Christopher Bishop; Thomas Ullrich; Kenner C. Rice; Paul D. Walker



Brain neurotransmitters in food and drug reward.  


The discovery of brain peptides as neurotransmitters opens a new chapter in the study of feeding from a neural point of view. This article reviews current studies suggesting a limbic system framework of chemical neuroanatomy in which peptides play an important role in the control of eating and behavior reinforcement. In this framework, food intake and a variety of anorectic drugs (amphetamine, phenylpropanolamine, and fenfluramine) act on dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin systems that ascend from the hindbrain and midbrain to modulate feeding and satiety systems in the hypothalamus. Opiate peptides (enkephalin), and brain-gut peptides (neurotensin and CCK) influence feeding and satiety when injected in the hypothalamus and reinforce behavior when injected in the midbrain. Locomotor stimulants (amphetamine and phencyclidine) reinforce behavior by an action in the nucleus accumbens. Thus the behavioral effects of foods and drugs can now be partially understood in the context of functional neuroanatomy. PMID:2865893

Hoebel, B G



The Role of Dopamine in Schizophrenia from a Neurobiological and Evolutionary Perspective: Old Fashioned, but Still in Vogue  

PubMed Central

Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. The revised dopamine hypothesis states that dopamine abnormalities in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions exist in schizophrenia. However, recent research has indicated that glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin alterations are also involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This review provides an in-depth analysis of dopamine in animal models of schizophrenia and also focuses on dopamine and cognition. Furthermore, this review provides not only an overview of dopamine receptors and the antipsychotic effects of treatments targeting them but also an outline of dopamine and its interaction with other neurochemical models of schizophrenia. The roles of dopamine in the evolution of the human brain and human mental abilities, which are affected in schizophrenia patients, are also discussed. PMID:24904434

Brisch, Ralf; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bielau, Hendrik; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Braun, Katharina; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej; Gos, Tomasz



Immunohistochemical localization of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters in the nucleus solitarius.  


The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), which receives visceral afferent information from the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal and taste systems, contains multiple neurotransmitters and neuropeptides throughout its rostral to caudal extent. The neurotransmitters and neuropeptides immunoreactivity is located predominately in varicose fibers and small puncta throughout the neuropil. In addition, immunoreactive NTS neurons for a variety of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are present in subnuclear regions. The neuroactive substances localized immunohistochemically in the NTS include acetylcholine, the neuropeptides, substance P, methionine- and leucine-enkephalin, beta-endorphin, cholecystokinin, neurotensin, galanin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, somatostatin, FMRMamide, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, vasopressin, oxytocin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide, the catecholamines, dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, histamine and the amino acids, GABA and glutamate. The pattern of innervation for each neurotransmitter and neuropeptide is not homogeneously distributed throughout the NTS. Each substance has a unique pattern within the NTS as each subnuclear region contains different immunohistochemical staining patterns and densities of fibers. At the ultrastructural level both neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are present in synaptic terminals that are in contact with different parts of the neuronal membranes. Typically, the labeled terminals contain both small, clear vesicles and large, dense core vesicles with the exception of synaptic terminals containing acetylcholine, GABA and glutamate which do not typically have the large, dense core vesicles. The most frequent post-synaptic target are dendrites and spinous processes. Less frequently, synaptic contacts are present on the cell soma. PMID:8670716

Maley, B E



Striatal serotonin 2C receptors decrease nigrostriatal dopamine release by increasing GABA-A receptor tone in the substantia nigra.  


Drugs acting at the serotonin-2C (5-HT2C) receptor subtype have shown promise as therapeutics in multiple syndromes including obesity, depression, and Parkinson's disease. While it is established that 5-HT2C receptor stimulation inhibits DA release, the neural circuits and the localization of the relevant 5-HT2C receptors remain unknown. This study used dual-probe in vivo microdialysis to investigate the relative contributions of 5-HT2C receptors localized in the rat substantia nigra (SN) and caudate-putamen (CP) in the control of nigrostriatal DA release. Systemic administration (3.0 mg/kg) of the 5-HT2C receptor selective agonist Ro 60-0175 [(?S)-6-Chloro-5-fluoro-?-methyl-1H-indole-1-ethanamine fumarate] decreased, whereas intrastriatal infusions of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242084 [6-Chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide; 1.0 ?M] increased, basal DA in the CP. Depending on the site within the SN pars reticulata (SNpr), infusions of SB 242084 had more modest but significant effects. Moreover, infusions of the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (10 ?M) into the SNpr completely reversed the increases in striatal DA release produced by intrastriatal infusions of SB 242084. These findings suggest a role for 5-HT2C receptors regulating striatal DA release that is highly localized. 5-HT2C receptors localized in the striatum may represent a primary site of action that is mediated by the actions on GABAergic activity in the SN. Dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) project to the caudate-putamen (CP; striatum). This circuitry is implicated in numerous pathologies including Parkinson's disease. Using in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrated that blockade of serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptors in the CP increased nigrostriatal DA release. Infusions of a GABA-A agonist into the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) blocked this increase. This work indicates that striatal serotonin 2C receptors regulate GABAergic tone in the SNpr, which in turn regulates nigrostriatal DA release. PMID:25073477

Burke, Mary V; Nocjar, Christine; Sonneborn, Alex J; McCreary, Andrew C; Pehek, Elizabeth A



Effects of chronic consumption of metanil yellow by developing and adult rats on brain regional levels of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, on acetylcholine esterase activity and on operant conditioning.  


Metanil yellow is the principal non-permitted food colour used extensively in India. The effects of long-term consumption of metanil yellow on the developing and adult brain were studied using Wistar rats. Regional levels of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE), and operant conditioning with food reward were assessed in rats fed, metanil yellow and in controls. In the treated rats the amine levels in the hypothalamus, striatum and brain stem were significantly affected, and the changes were not generally reversible even after withdrawal of metanil yellow in developing rats. The striatum showed an early reduction of AChE activity, whereas the hippocampus showed a delayed but persistent effect of reduced AChE activity. Treated rats also took more sessions to learn the operant conditioning behaviour. These effects on these major neurotransmitter systems and on learning, indicate that chronic consumption of metanil yellow can predispose both the developing and the adult central nervous system (CNS) of the rat to neurotoxicity. PMID:8095244

Nagaraja, T N; Desiraju, T



Brain serotonin and dopamine modulators, perceptual responses and endurance performance during exercise in the heat following creatine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The present experiment examined the responses of peripheral modulators and indices of brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function and their association with perception of effort during prolonged exercise in the heat after creatine (Cr) supplementation. METHODS: Twenty one endurance-trained males performed, in a double-blind fashion, two constant-load exercise tests to exhaustion at 63 ± 5% V?\\u000a MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGafeOvayLbaiaaaaa@2D11@O2 max

Marios Hadjicharalambous; Liam P Kilduff; Yannis P Pitsiladis



Simultaneous Determination of Dopamine, Serotonin and Ascorbic Acid at a Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with Carbon-Spheres  

PubMed Central

A novel glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with carbon-spheres has been fabricated through a simple casting procedure. The modified GCE displays high selectivity and excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and ascorbic acid (AA). In the co-existence system, the peak separations between AA and DA, DA and 5-HT, and AA and 5-HT are large up to 230, 180, and 410 mV, respectively. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) has been employed to simultaneously detect DA, 5-HT, and AA, and the linear calibration curves for DA, 5-HT, and AA are obtained in the range of 20.0–150.0 ?M, 40.0–750.0 ?M and 300.0–2,000.0 ?M with detection limits (S/N = 3) of 2.0 ?M, 0.7 ?M and 0.6 ?M, respectively. The proposed electrode has been applied to detect DA, 5-HT, and AA in real samples using standard addition method with satisfactory results. PMID:24135993

Zhou, Jianqing; Sheng, Meili; Jiang, Xueyue; Wu, Guozhi; Gao, Feng



In vivo assessment of dopamine and serotonin receptors measured by C-11 n-methylspiperone (NMSP) in patients with schizophrenia  

SciTech Connect

The authors carried out PET imaging with C-11 NMSP in 13 pts. diagnosed as chronic schizophrenic by (DSM 3) criteria. They had no detectable serum neuroleptics by radioassay at the time of the scan. No pt. had received a neuroleptic for at least 1 week before study, with an avg. abstinence of 7 mo. One had never been on neuroleptics. During the time of scanning, 8/13 had delusions and hallucinations. There was no statistically significant difference from 44 age and sex matched control subjects for the 43 min. Caudate/cerebellar ratio, or the Frontal/Cerebellar ratio, both measures of relative dopamine D2, and serotonin S2 binding. These preliminary studies suggest that these drug free pts. show no large differences in the receptor levels compared to normal data. Differences from in vitro data could be due to: differences in duration of illness (the avg. 10.3) yrs.; difference in age (our pts. vg. 32.7 are much younger than those dying with schizophrenia); drug induced effects at death or persistent neuroleptic effect in our pts.; or difference in method.

Wong, D.F.; Tune, L.E.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Suneja, S.; Bjorvinsson, E.; Pearlson, G.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Links, J.M.



Long-term administration of the dopamine D3/2 receptor agonist pramipexole increases dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission in the male rat forebrain  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term administration of the dopamine (DA) D2-like (D3/2) receptor agonist pramipexole (PPX) has been previously found to desensitize D2 autoreceptors, thereby allowing a normalization of the firing of DA neurons and serotonin (5-HT)1A autoreceptors, permitting an enhancement of the spontaneous firing of 5-HT neurons. We hypothesized that PPX would increase overall DA and 5-HT neurotransmission in the forebrain as a result of these changes at the presynaptic level. Methods Osmotic minipumps were implanted subcutaneously in male Sprague-Dawley rats, delivering PPX at a dose of 1 mg/kg/d for 14 days. The in vivo electrophysiologic microiontophoretic experiments were carried out in anesthetized rats. Results The sensitivity of postsynaptic D2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remained unaltered following PPX administration, as indicated by the unchanged responsiveness to the microiontophoretic application of DA. Their tonic activation was, however, significantly increased by 104% compared with the control level. The sensitivity of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors was not altered, as indicated by the unchanged responsiveness to the microiontophoretic application of 5-HT. Similar to other antidepressant treatments, long-term PPX administration enhanced the tonic activation of 5-HT1A receptors on CA3 pyramidal neurons by 142% compared with the control level. Limitations The assessment of DA and 5-HT neuronal tone was restricted to the PFC and the hippocampus, respectively. Conclusion Chronic PPX administration led to a net enhancement in DA and 5-HT neurotransmission, as indicated by the increased tonic activation of postsynaptic D2 and 5-HT1A receptors in forebrain structures. PMID:22023785

Chernoloz, Olga; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre



Synthesis and evaluation of dopamine and serotonin transporter inhibition by oxacyclic and carbacyclic analogues of methylphenidate.  


Methylphenidate (Ritalin) binds stereoselectively and enantioselectively to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and inhibits dopamine reuptake with in vitro and in vivo potency similar to that of cocaine. Unlike cocaine, it manifests little, if any, tolerance or addiction liability. Since this compound has a substantial clinical history, it provides an excellent template from which to design potential medications for cocaine abuse. It has long been assumed that a nitrogen, such as exists in cocaine and methylphenidate, is essential for interaction with monoamine transporters. We previously demonstrated that an amine nitrogen in phenyltropane analogues of cocaine is not necessary for conferring high DAT binding affinity. We now report the synthesis of oxacyclic and carbacyclic analogues of methylphenidate, including the four enantiomerically pure isomers of 2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)acetic acid methyl ester. The threo isomers are potent and selective inhibitors of the DAT. This is the first generalization of the principle that the presence of nitrogen is not a necessity for DAT inhibition. PMID:12672255

Meltzer, Peter C; Wang, Pinglang; Blundell, Paul; Madras, Bertha K



Serotonin-GABA interactions modulate MDMA-induced mesolimbic dopamine release.  


3,4,-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') acts at monoamine nerve terminals to alter the release and re-uptake of dopamine and 5-HT. The present study used microdialysis in awake rats to measure MDMA-induced changes in extracellular GABA in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), simultaneous with measures of extracellular dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) shell. (+)-MDMA (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) increased GABA efflux in the VTA with a bell-shaped dose-response. This increase was blocked by application of TTX through the VTA probe. MDMA (5 mg/kg) increased 5-HT efflux in VTA by 1037% (p < 0.05). The local perfusion of the 5-HT(2B/2C) antagonist SB 206553 into the VTA reduced VTA GABA efflux after MDMA from a maximum of 229% to a maximum of 126% of basal values (p < 0.05), while having no effect on basal extracellular GABA concentrations. DA concentrations measured simultaneously in the NAC shell were increased from a maximum of 486% to 1320% (p < 0.05). The selective DA releaser d-amphetamine (AMPH) (4 mg/kg) also increased VTA GABA efflux (180%), did not alter 5-HT and increased NAC DA (875%) (p < 0.05), but the perfusion of SB 206553 into the VTA failed to alter these effects. These results suggest that MDMA-mediated increases in DA within the NAC shell are dampened by increases in VTA GABA subsequent to activation of 5-HT(2B/2C) receptors in the VTA. PMID:15525339

Bankson, Michael G; Yamamoto, Bryan K



Role of serotonin 2A receptors in the D-amphetamine-induced release of dopamine: comparison with previous data on alpha1b-adrenergic receptors.  


D-amphetamine is known to induce an increase in dopamine release in subcortical structures, thus inducing locomotor hyperactivity in rodents. Previous data have indicated that only 15% of the D-amphetamine-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens is related to locomotor activity and that this 'functional' dopamine release is controlled by alpha1b-adrenergic receptors located in the prefrontal cortex. We show here that SR46349B (0.5 mg/kg, 30 min before D-amphetamine), a specific serotonin2A (5-HT(2A)) antagonist, can completely block 0.75 mg/kg D-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity without decreasing D-amphetamine-induced extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Using the same experimental paradigm as before, i.e. a systemic injection of D-amphetamine accompanied by a continuous local perfusion of 3 microM D-amphetamine, we find that SR46349B (0.5 mg/kg) blocks completely the systemic (0.75 mg/kg) D-amphetamine-induced functional dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Finally, the bilateral injection of SR46349B (500 pmol/side) into the ventral tegmental area blocked both the D-amphetamine-induced locomotor activity and functional dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, whereas bilateral injection of SR46349B into the medial prefrontal cortex was ineffective. We propose that 5-HT(2A) and alpha1b-adrenergic receptors control a common neural pathway responsible for the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens by psychostimulants. PMID:15447665

Auclair, Agnès; Blanc, Gérard; Glowinski, Jacques; Tassin, Jean-Pol



Modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters in fighting fish Betta splendens exposed to waterborne phytoestrogens.  


Endogenous estrogens are known to affect the activity of monoamine neurotransmitters in vertebrate animals, but the effects of exogenous estrogens on neurotransmitters are relatively poorly understood. We exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses of three phytoestrogens that are potential endocrine disruptors in wild fish populations: genistein, equol, and ?-sitosterol. We also exposed fish to two doses of the endogenous estrogen 17?-estradiol, which we selected as a positive control because phytoestrogens are putative estrogen mimics. Our results were variable, but the effects were generally modest. Genistein increased dopamine levels in the forebrains of B. splendens at both environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses. The environmentally relevant dose of equol increased dopamine levels in B. splendens forebrains, and the pharmacological dose decreased norepinephrine (forebrain), dopamine (hindbrain), and serotonin (forebrain) levels. The environmentally relevant dose of ?-sitosterol decreased norepinephrine and dopamine in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively. Our results suggest that sources of environmental phytoestrogens, such as runoff or effluent from agricultural fields, wood pulp mills, and sewage treatment plants, have the potential to modulate neurotransmitter activity in free-living fishes in a way that could interfere with normal behavioral processes. PMID:20012186

Clotfelter, Ethan D; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H



[Preliminary research on multi-neurotransmitters' change regulation in 120 depression patients' brains].  


In view of the effective traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of clinical depression, the mechanism is not clear, this study attempts to research the cause of depression in a complex situation to lay the foundation for the next step of TCM curative effect evaluation. Based on the brain wave of 120 depression patients and 40 ordinary person, the change regulation of acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, depression neurotransmitters and excited neurotransmitters in the whole and various encephalic regions' multi-neurotransmitters of depression patients-serotonin are analysed by search of encephalo-telex (SET) system, which lays the foundation for the diagnosis of depression. The result showed that: contrased with the normal person group, the mean value of the six neurotransmitters in depression patients group are: (1) in the whole encephalic region of depression patients group the dopamine fall (P < 0.05), and in the double centralregions, right temporal region and right parietal region distinct fall (P < 0.01); (2) in the right temporal region of depression patients group the serotonin rise (P < 0.05); (3) in the right central region, left parietal region of depression patients group the acetylcholine fall (P < 0.05), left rear temporal region fall obviously (P < 0.01). The correlation research between antagonizing pairs of neurotransmitters and neurotransmitters: (1) the three antagonizing pairs of neurotransmitters-serotonin and dopamine, acetylcholine and norepinephrine, depression neurotransmitters and excited neurotransmitters, in ordinary person group and depression patients group are characterizeed by middle or strong negative correlation. Serotonin and dopamine, which are characterized by weak negative correlation in the right rear temporal region of ordinary person group, are characterized by strong negative correlation in the other encephalic regions and the whole encephalic (ordinary person group except the right rear temporal region: the range of [r] is [0.82, 0.92], P < 0.01)/(depression patients group:the range of [r] is [0.88, 0.94], P < 0.01); acetylcholine and norepinephrine, in the whole and various encephalic region are characterized by middle negative correlation(ordinary person group:the range of [r] is [0.39, 0.76], P < 0.01 or P < 0.05)/(depression patients group: the range of [Ir] is [0.56, 0.64], P < 0.01); depression neurotransmitters and excited neurotransmitters are characterized by middle strong negative correlation (ordinary person group: the range of [r] is [0.57, 0.80], P < 0.01)/(depression patients group: the range of [r] is [0.68, 0.78], P < 0.01). (2) The two neurotransmitters which are not antagonizing pairs of neurotransmitters, serotonin and excited neurotransmitters, or acetylcholine and depression neurotra-nsmitters, or dopamine and depression neurotransmitters in the various encephalic regions are characterized by weak negative correlation. Serotonin and excited neurotransmitters are characterizeed by weak negative correlation (ordinary person group: in the right central region, left parietal region, double front temporal regions, right rear temporal region, the range of [r] is [0.25, 0.50], P < 0.01 or P < 0.05)/(depression patients group: in the whole encephalic regions, double parietal regions, double occipital regions, right front temporal region, left central region, left frontal region, the range of [r] is [0.18, 0.37], P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); acetylcholine and depression, neurotransmitters are characterized by weak negative correlation (ordinary person group: in the double frontal regions, left parietal region, left front temporal region, right rear temporal region, the range of [r] is [0.31, 0.46], P < 0.01 or P < 0.05)/(depression patients group: in double rear temporal regions, right front temporal region, double occipital regions, left central region, the range of [r] is [0.20, 0.32] , P < 0.01 or P < 0.05); do-pamine and depression neurotransmitters are characterized by weak middle negative co

Chi, Ming; Qing, Xue-Mei; Pan, Yan-Shu; Xu, Feng-Quan; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Cheng; Xu, Zhen-Hua



Serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline adjust actions of myelinated afferents via modulation of presynaptic inhibition in the mouse spinal cord.  


Gain control of primary afferent neurotransmission at their intraspinal terminals occurs by several mechanisms including primary afferent depolarization (PAD). PAD produces presynaptic inhibition via a reduction in transmitter release. While it is known that descending monoaminergic pathways complexly regulate sensory processing, the extent these actions include modulation of afferent-evoked PAD remains uncertain. We investigated the effects of serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) on afferent transmission and PAD. Responses were evoked by stimulation of myelinated hindlimb cutaneous and muscle afferents in the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord. Monosynaptic responses were examined in the deep dorsal horn either as population excitatory synaptic responses (recorded as extracellular field potentials; EFPs) or intracellular excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The magnitude of PAD generated intraspinally was estimated from electrotonically back-propagating dorsal root potentials (DRPs) recorded on lumbar dorsal roots. 5HT depressed the DRP by 76%. Monosynaptic actions were similarly depressed by 5HT (EFPs 54%; EPSCs 75%) but with a slower time course. This suggests that depression of monosynaptic EFPs and DRPs occurs by independent mechanisms. DA and NA had similar depressant actions on DRPs but weaker effects on EFPs. IC50 values for DRP depression were 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 µM for 5HT, DA and NA, respectively. Depression of DRPs by monoamines was nearly-identical in both muscle and cutaneous afferent-evoked responses, supporting a global modulation of the multimodal afferents stimulated. 5HT, DA and NA produced no change in the compound antidromic potentials evoked by intraspinal microstimulation indicating that depression of the DRP is unrelated to direct changes in the excitability of intraspinal afferent fibers, but due to metabotropic receptor activation. In summary, both myelinated afferent-evoked DRPs and monosynaptic transmission in the dorsal horn are broadly reduced by descending monoamine transmitters. These actions likely integrate with modulatory actions elsewhere to reconfigure spinal circuits during motor behaviors. PMID:24587177

García-Ramírez, David L; Calvo, Jorge R; Hochman, Shawn; Quevedo, Jorge N



Electrophysiological Effects of Repeated Administration of Agomelatine on the Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Serotonin Systems in the Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Agomelatine is a melatonergic MT1/MT2 agonist and a serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C antagonist. The effects of 2-day and 14-day administration of agomelatine were investigated on the activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA), locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE), and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons using in vivo electrophysiology in rats. The 5-HT1A transmission was assessed at hippocampus CA3 pyramidal neurons. After a 2-day regimen of agomelatine (40?mg/kg/day, i.p.), an increase in the number of spontaneously active VTA-DA neurons (p<0.001) and in the firing rate of LC-NE neurons (p<0.001) was observed. After 14 days, the administration of agomelatine induced an increase in: (1) the number of spontaneously active DA neurons (p<0.05), (2) the bursting activity of DA neurons (bursts/min, p<0.01 and percentage of spikes occurring in bursts, p<0.05), (3) the firing rate of DRN-5-HT neurons (p<0.05), and (4) the tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors located in the hippocampus. The increase in 5-HT firing rate was D2 dependent, as it was antagonized by the D2 receptor antagonist paliperidone. The enhancement of NE firing was restored by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL-100,907 after the 14-day regimen. All the effects of agomelatine were antagonized by a single administration of the melatonergic antagonist S22153 (except for the increase in the percentage of spikes occurring in burst for DA neurons). The present results suggest that (1) agomelatine exerts direct (2 days) and indirect (14 days) modulations of monoaminergic neuronal activity and (2) the melatonergic agonistic activity of agomelatine contributes to the enhancement of DA and 5-HT neurotransmission. PMID:22871919

Chenu, Franck; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre



Immune changes and neurotransmitters: possible interactions in depression?  


A disturbed metabolism of catecholamines and other neurotransmitters appears to play a major role in the pathogenesis of neurospychiatric symptoms, such as changes in mood and depression. This symptomatology is common in patients with chronic inflammatory disorders such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer. The pathogenesis of these symptoms is still unclear. Pro-inflammatory stimuli interfere not only with the neural circuits and neurotransmitters of the serotonergic system but also with those of the adrenergic system. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-? stimulates the biosynthesis of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), which is a co-factor for several aromatic amino acid mono-oxygenases and is rate-limiting for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin and the catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Interferon-? triggers the high output of reactive oxygen species in macrophages, which can destroy the oxidation-labile BH4. Recent data suggests that oxidative loss of BH4 in chronic inflammatory conditions can reduce the biosynthesis of catecholamines, which may relate to disturbed adrenergic neurotransmitter pathways in patients. PMID:23085509

Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Kohl, Claudia; Fuchs, Dietmar



Pituitary gland: neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and growth factors.  


The hypothalamus receives neuronal afferents from numerous sources including inputs from limbic structures, such as the amygdala and hippocampus, and from brainstem regions involved in the regulation of the cardiovascular system and other autonomic functions. These afferents using a vast array of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides influence the activity of the hypothalamic neurons which synthesize and secrete the hypothalamic releasing and release-inhibiting factors into the hypophyseal portal circulatory system. The afferents can modulate the activity of the hypothalamic neurons by forming synapses on the neuronal cell body, on the nerve terminals in the median eminence or both. The chemicals most frequently used as neurotransmitters are the biogenic amines, including the catecholamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and epinephrine), serotonin, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The stimulatory influence of norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine on the secretion of corticotropin (ACTH) in rodents and man will be discussed, whereas GABA exerts an inhibitory effect on the secretion of ACTH in both man and rodents. These effects appear to be mediated by changes in the secretion of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and vasopressin into the hypophyseal portal circulation. Numerous neuropeptides appear to alter the secretion of ACTH in the rat. We will discuss the stimulatory actions of neuropeptide Y (NPY), angiotensin II, and peptides of immune cell origin on the secretion of ACTH and CRH. The opioid peptides inhibit the secretion of CRH into the portal blood, however, they exert a potent stimulatory effect on prolactin secretion in the rat and man.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2571183

Koenig, J I



Effect of bupropion on hippocampal neurotransmitters and on peripheral hormonal concentrations in the rat.  


The purpose of the present study was to administer an acute dose of the dual dopamine norepinephrine reuptake blocker bupropion in freely moving rats and to monitor the extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations in the hippocampus via in vivo microdialysis and the peripheral hormonal concentrations via catheterization. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the hippocampus, and samples for serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine were collected every 20 min before and after the injection of 17 mg/kg of bupropion, for a total sampling time of 180 min. A catheter was placed in the vena femoralis of the second group of rats, and blood samples were collected before and after bupropion injection for quantification of growth hormone, prolactin, corticosterone, adrenocorticotropin hormone, and beta-endorphins. All neurotransmitter levels (dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin) significantly increased after bupropion injection. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in prolactin concentrations, whereas the other hormones showed no statistically significant variation. It can, therefore, be concluded that, although bupropion has dual reuptake proprieties, the observed effects both at the central and at the peripheral level seem to be ruled by the dopaminergic system. PMID:12692144

Piacentini, M F; Clinckers, R; Meeusen, R; Sarre, S; Ebinger, G; Michotte, Y



Seasonal changes in circadian peripheral plasma concentrations of melatonin, serotonin, dopamine and cortisol in aged horses with Cushing's disease under natural photoperiod.  


Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a common and serious condition that gives rise to Cushing's disease. In the older horse, it results in hyperadrenocorticism and disrupted energy metabolism, the severity of which varies with the time of year. To gain insight into the mechanism of its pathogenesis, 24-h profiles for peripheral plasma melatonin, serotonin, dopamine and cortisol concentrations were determined at the winter and summer solstices, and the autumn and spring equinoxes in six horses diagnosed with Cushing's disease and six matched controls. The nocturnal rises in plasma melatonin concentrations, although different across seasons, were broadly of the same duration and similar amplitude in both groups of animals (P > 0.05). The plasma concentrations of cortisol did not show seasonal variation and were different in diseased horses only in the summer when they were higher across the entire 24-h period (P < 0.05). Serotonin concentrations were not significantly affected by time of year but tended to be lower in Cushingoid horses (P = 0.07). By contrast, dopamine output showed seasonal variation and was significantly lower in the Cushing's group in the summer and autumn (P < 0.05). The finding that the profiles of circulating melatonin are similar in Cushingoid and control horses reveals that the inability to read time of year by animals suffering from Cushing's syndrome is an unlikely reason for the disease. In addition, the results provide evidence that alterations in the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems may participate in the pathogenesis of PPID. PMID:18540997

Haritou, S J A; Zylstra, R; Ralli, C; Turner, S; Tortonese, D J



Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne



Low platelet-poor plasma concentrations of serotonin in patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (CR-PTSD) is associated with a dysregulation of various neurotransmitter systems.Methods: We assessed levels of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT), and 24-hour urinary excretion of NE, dopamine (DA), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in 17 male outpatients with untreated chronic CR-PTSD (age, 33.1 ± 7.4 years) and 10 normal control subjects (age, 35.8 ±

Baruch Spivak; Yaffa Vered; Eran Graff; Ilana Blum; Roberto Mester; Abraham Weizman



Inhibition of apomorphine-induced conditioned place preference in rats co-injected with buspirone: Relationship with serotonin and dopamine in the striatum.  


Apomorphine is a non-narcotic derivative of morphine, which acts as a dopamine agonist to produce psychostimulant like effects. Currently, apomorphine is used in patients with advanced Parkinson?s disease, for the treatment of persistent and disabling motor fluctuations, but a constellation of addictive syndromes such as excessive over use of medication, compulsive behaviors, and disturbances of impulse control are noticed in certain patients. Research on rodent models using conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm also shows that the drug is rewarding. Previously we have shown that repeated administration of apomorphine produces behavioral sensitization which is prevented in rats co-injected with a low (1.0mg/kg) but not higher (2.0mg/kg) dose of buspirone. The present study shows that rewarding effects of apomorphine (1.0mg/kg) in a CPP paradigm are also blocked in rats co-injected with a low (1.0mg/kg) but not higher (2.0mg/kg) dose of buspirone. The levels of serotonin and its metabolite are decreased in the caudate as well as nucleus accumbens of rats exhibiting CPP and the decreases do not occur in animals co-injected with low or higher dose of buspirone. The levels of dopamine and its metabolites are not affected in animals exhibiting CPP; administration as well as co-administration of higher dose of buspirone decreased dopamine metabolism in the caudate as well as nucleus accumbens. The findings suggest a critical role of serotonin in the rewarding effects of apomorphine and imply that co-use of buspirone at low doses can help to control addictive syndromes in Parkinson?s disease patients on apomorphine therapy. PMID:25160128

Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul



The Selective Serotonin2A Receptor Antagonist M100907 Reverses Behavioral Deficits in Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hyperdopaminergic state in humans has been hypothesized to contribute to the pathology of a number of psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Mice that display elevated synaptic levels of dopamine due to a genetically engineered deletion of the dopamine transporter (DAT) model behavioral deficits that simulate the above conditions. As novel treatment strategies for

Alasdair M Barr; Virginia Lehmann-Masten; Martin Paulus; Raul R Gainetdinov; Marc G Caron; Mark A Geyer



Dopamine deficiency in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine is the principal neurotransmitter that mediates a wide range of brain functions, including locomotion, emotion, learning, and neuroendocrine modulation. To clarify the role of dopamine during postnatal development, it is useful to have mutant mice genetically deleting dopamine. In this paper, we describe the mice lacking expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosynthetic

Kazuto Kobayashi; Hiromi Sano



Neurotransmitter Transporters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Doctor Randy Blakely explains that all neurotransmitters have transporters supporting their activity, which are typically involved in assisting and modulating. Genetic changes in transporters can lead to psychiatric problems.



Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).  


Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

Harding, Cary O; Winn, Shelley R; Gibson, K Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus



LeuT-Desipramine Structure Reveals How Antidepressants Block Neurotransmitter Reuptake  

SciTech Connect

Tricyclic antidepressants exert their pharmacological effect -- inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine -- by directly blocking neurotransmitter transporters (SERT, NET, and DAT, respectively) in the presynaptic membrane. The drug-binding site and the mechanism of this inhibition are poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure at 2.9 angstroms of the bacterial leucine transporter (LeuT), a homolog of SERT, NET, and DAT, in complex with leucine and the antidepressant desipramine. Desipramine binds at the inner end of the extracellular cavity of the transporter and is held in place by a hairpin loop and by a salt bridge. This binding site is separated from the leucine-binding site by the extracellular gate of the transporter. By directly locking the gate, desipramine prevents conformational changes and blocks substrate transport. Mutagenesis experiments on human SERT and DAT indicate that both the desipramine-binding site and its inhibition mechanism are probably conserved in the human neurotransmitter transporters.

Zhou,Z.; Zhen, J.; Karpowich, N.; Goetz, R.; Law, C.; Reith, M.; Wang, D.



Seasonal Changes in Circadian Peripheral Plasma Concentrations of Melatonin, Serotonin, Dopamine and Cortisol in Aged Horses with Cushing's Disease under Natural Photoperiod  

PubMed Central

Equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is a common and serious condition that gives rise to Cushing’s disease. In the older horse, it results in hyperadrenocorticism and disrupted energy metabolism, the severity of which varies with the time of year. To gain insight into the mechanism of its pathogenesis, 24-h profiles for peripheral plasma melatonin, serotonin, dopamine and cortisol concentrations were determined at the winter and summer solstices, and the autumn and spring equinoxes in six horses diagnosed with Cushing’s disease and six matched controls. The nocturnal rises in plasma melatonin concentrations, although different across seasons, were broadly of the same duration and similar amplitude in both groups of animals (P > 0.05). The plasma concentrations of cortisol did not show seasonal variation and were different in diseased horses only in the summer when they were higher across the entire 24-h period (P < 0.05). Serotonin concentrations were not significantly affected by time of year but tended to be lower in Cushingoid horses (P = 0.07). By contrast, dopamine output showed seasonal variation and was significantly lower in the Cushing’s group in the summer and autumn (P < 0.05). The finding that the profiles of circulating melatonin are similar in Cushingoid and control horses reveals that the inability to read time of year by animals suffering from Cushing’s syndrome is an unlikely reason for the disease. In addition, the results provide evidence that alterations in the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems may participate in the pathogenesis of PPID. PMID:18540997

Haritou, S J A; Zylstra, R; Ralli, C; Turner, S; Tortonese, D J



Loss of Ahi1 Impairs Neurotransmitter Release and Causes Depressive Behaviors in Mice  

PubMed Central

Major depression is becoming one of the most prevalent forms of psychiatric disorders. However, the mechanisms of major depression are still not well-understood. Most antidepressants are only effective in some patients and produce some serious side effects. Animal models of depression are therefore essential to unravel the mechanisms of depression and to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Our previous studies showed that Abelson helper integration site-1 (Ahi1) deficiency causes depression-like behaviors in mice. In this study, we characterized the biochemical and behavioral changes in Ahi1 knockout (KO) mice. In Ahi1 KO mice, neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine were significantly decreased in different brain regions. However, glutamate and GABA levels were not affected by Ahi1 deficiency. The antidepressant imipramine attenuated depressive behaviors and partially restored brain serotonin level in Ahi1 KO mice. Our findings suggest that Ahi1 KO mice can be used for studying the mechanisms of depression and screening therapeutic targets. PMID:24691070

Zhai, Lijing; Sun, Miao; Miao, Zhigang; Li, Jizhen; Xu, Xingshun



Imaging Neurotransmitter Release by Drugs of Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Previous studies have shown that imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography\\u000a (SPECT) radiotracers that are specific for brain dopamine receptors can be used to indirectly image the change in the levels\\u000a of neurotransmitters within the brain. Most of the studies in addiction have focused on dopamine, since the dopamine neurons\\u000a that project to the

Diana Martinez; Rajesh Narendran


An extended reinforcement learning model of basal ganglia to understand the contributions of serotonin and dopamine in risk-based decision making, reward prediction, and punishment learning  

PubMed Central

Although empirical and neural studies show that serotonin (5HT) plays many functional roles in the brain, prior computational models mostly focus on its role in behavioral inhibition. In this study, we present a model of risk based decision making in a modified Reinforcement Learning (RL)-framework. The model depicts the roles of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in Basal Ganglia (BG). In this model, the DA signal is represented by the temporal difference error (?), while the 5HT signal is represented by a parameter (?) that controls risk prediction error. This formulation that accommodates both 5HT and DA reconciles some of the diverse roles of 5HT particularly in connection with the BG system. We apply the model to different experimental paradigms used to study the role of 5HT: (1) Risk-sensitive decision making, where 5HT controls risk assessment, (2) Temporal reward prediction, where 5HT controls time-scale of reward prediction, and (3) Reward/Punishment sensitivity, in which the punishment prediction error depends on 5HT levels. Thus the proposed integrated RL model reconciles several existing theories of 5HT and DA in the BG. PMID:24795614

Balasubramani, Pragathi P.; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.



Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a negligible change to the signal. Chapter 3 is devoted to the development and characterization of new CNT-Yarn Microelectrodes (CNTYME) which display a beneficial enhancement in sensitivity and reduction in both electron transfer kinetics and overpotential. Chapter 4 introduces the high-speed dopamine detection capabilities of CNTYMEs, almost two orders of magnitude faster than at CFMEs without any compromise in electrochemical sensitivity, and discusses how adsorption and desorption relate to this phenomenon.

Jacobs, Christopher B.


Dopamine elicits feeding motor program in Limax maximus.  


A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in vivo and in vitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells in and the neuropil of the cerebral ganglia at a concentration of 62 pmol/ganglion; a large proportion of such dopamine-containing cells projected to the lips. The buccal ganglia contained several small dopaminergic cells and large amounts of dopamine in the neuropil; the measured concentration was 10 pmol/ganglion. Exogenous dopamine applied to the cerebral and buccal ganglia in vitro between 10(-7) M and 3 X 10(-6) M excited an autoactive salivary duct motor neuron (FB) and inhibited an autoactive secretomotor neuron (BSN). Concentrations of dopamine between 3 X 10(-6) M and 3 X 10(-5) M triggered FMP output, with an increased probability of triggering at higher concentrations of dopamine. ADTN and SK&F38393 were potent agonists in this system, whereas ergonovine was the only potent antagonist found; none of the neuroleptics tested was effective. Thus, the Limax system shows agonist responses similar to the vertebrate D1 receptors, but its antagonist-binding properties appear to have requirements quite different from vertebrate receptors. The effects of exogenous serotonin differed from dopamine's effects; serotonin excited BSN and several buccal motor neurons, could not elicit synchronized motor program cycling, and was not efficiently blocked by ergonovine. These data suggest that dopamine is a good candidate as an endogenous triggering and sustaining transmitter for the Limax feeding motor program. PMID:6886743

Wieland, S J; Gelperin, A



Optimization of solid phase microextraction coatings for liquid chromatography mass spectrometry determination of neurotransmitters.  


A simple solid phase microextraction method coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is introduced for the analysis of neurotransmitter compounds with a wide range of polarities in biological matrices. A novel "reversed" reverse-phase chromatographic method was developed without pre-column derivatization for the analysis of dopamine, serotonin, gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate. New solid phase microextraction "in house" coatings using mixed-mode solid phase extraction particles were prepared, and used for the extraction of polar neurotransmitters. The polymer-support base reverse phase mixed-mode sorbents with strong ion exchange properties generally had higher extraction efficiencies compared to similar sorbents with weak ion exchange properties. The linear range was determined to be between 0.01 and 150ng/mL for all the analytes, except for GABA, which was from 0.1 to 100ng/mL. The limit of detection range was from 6 to 10pg/mL for all the neurotransmitters, and the limits of quantitation were in the range of 20-35pg/mL. The results demonstrate the potential of the SPME-LC-MS/MS technique for bioanalysis of small polar endogenous compounds, such as neurotransmitters, from various biological matrices using the mixed-mode sorbents as the extraction phase. PMID:24685167

Cudjoe, Erasmus; Pawliszyn, Janusz



Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus  

PubMed Central

Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a functional network that uses several serotonin receptors to regulate their roles in this particular part of the limbic system. PMID:22629209

Berumen, Laura Cristina; Rodriguez, Angelina; Miledi, Ricardo; Garcia-Alcocer, Guadalupe



[Central neurotransmitters and control of specific appetite for the macronutrients].  


Studies of brain monoamines and neuropeptides have provided extensive evidence in support of their role in the control of food intake, meal patterns and appetite for specific macronutrients. In this process, the medial and lateral portions of the hypothalamus have a critical responsibility in balancing signals for hunger and satiety. Via its rich and biologically active neurotransmitter substances, the hypothalamus monitors and integrates the complex sensory and metabolic input concerning the nutritional status of the organism and transduces this information into appropriate quantitative and qualitative adjustments in food intake. The specific neurotransmitters for which there is the most extensive evidence for a physiological function include the eating-stimulatory substances norepinephrine, opioid peptides, pancreatic polypeptides, galanin and gamma-aminobutyric acid; and the eating-inhibitory substances dopamine, epinephrine, serotonin and several gut-brain peptides. From biochemical, pharmacological and anatomical studies, hypotheses have been generated to explain the role of these various monoamines and neuropeptides in controlling total energy intake, in determining the amount and pattern of macronutrient selection, and in maintaining normal energy and nutrient stores under dynamic conditions within the external environment. PMID:2901820

Leibowitz, S F



Neurotransmitter receptor alterations in hepatic encephalopathy: a review.  


Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome with symptoms ranging from subtle neuropsychiatric and motor disturbances to deep coma and death, is thought to be a clinical manifestation of a low-grade cerebral oedema associated with an altered neuron-astrocyte crosstalk and exacerbated by hyperammonemia and oxidative stress. These events are tightly coupled with alterations in neurotransmission, either in a causal or a causative manner, resulting in a net increase of inhibitory neurotransmission. Therefore, research focussed mainly on the potential role of ?-aminobutyric acid-(GABA) or glutamate-mediated neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of HE, though roles for other neurotransmitters (e.g. serotonin, dopamine, adenosine and histamine) or for neurosteroids or endogenous benzodiazepines have also been suggested. Therefore, we here review HE-related alterations in neurotransmission, focussing on changes in the levels of classical neurotransmitters and the neuromodulator adenosine, variations in the activity and/or concentrations of key enzymes involved in their metabolism, as well as in the densities of their receptors. PMID:23466244

Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Zilles, Karl



Imaging neurotransmitter release by drugs of abuse.  


Previous studies have shown that imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radiotracers that are specific for brain dopamine receptors can be used to indirectly image the change in the levels of neurotransmitters within the brain. Most of the studies in addiction have focused on dopamine, since the dopamine neurons that project to the striatum have been shown to play a critical role in mediating addictive behavior. These imaging studies have shown that increased extracellular dopamine produced by psychostimulants can be measured with PET and SPECT. However, there are some technical issues associated with imaging changes in dopamine, and these are reviewed in this chapter. Among these are the loss of sensitivity, the time course of dopamine pulse relative to PET and SPECT imaging, and the question of affinity state of the receptor. In addition, animal studies have shown that most drugs of abuse increase extracellular dopamine in the striatum, yet not all produce a change in neurotransmitter that can be measured. As a result, imaging with a psychostimulant has become the preferred method for imaging presynaptic dopamine transmission, and this method has been used in studies of addiction. The results of these studies suggest that cocaine and alcohol addiction are associated with a loss of dopamine transmission, and a number of studies show that this loss correlates with severity of disease. PMID:21161755

Martinez, Diana; Narendran, Rajesh



GABA Neurotransmitter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GABA occurs in 30-40% of all synapses-only glutamate is more widely distributed. Neurons in every region of the brain use GABA to fine-tune neurotransmission. Increasing GABA at the neuronal synapse inhibits the generation of the action potential of the neuron, thereby making it less likely to excite nearby neurons. A single neuron may have thousands of other neurons synapsing onto it. Some of these release activating (or depolarizing) neurotransmitters; others release inhibitory (or hyperpolarizing) neurotransmitters. GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, which means it decreases the neuron's action potential. When the action potential drops below a certain level, known as the threshold potential, the neuron will not generate action potentials and thus not excite nearby neurons. The nucleus of a neuron is located in the cell body. Extending out from the cell body are dendrites and axons. Dendrites conduct impulses toward the cell body, Axons conducting impulses away from the cell body. A recording electrode has been attached to a voltmeter to record the charge across the cell membrane, the thin layer that controls movement in and out of the neuron. The resting potential in excitable neurons is usually around -65 to -70 millivolts (mV), which can be seen on the voltmeter. Excitatory synapses reduce the membrane potential: The synapses labeled A, B, and C are excitatory (e.g. glutamate ACH). These synapses release activating neurotransmitters, which reduce the resting potential of the neuron. If the voltage reaches the threshold potential, typically around -50 mv, an action potential is generated, which will travel down the axon, where it will communicate with a nearby cell. The strength of the stimuli that produce an action potential is important only insomuch as it reaches threshold potential. The resultant action potential is always the same, whether it was created by relatively strong or relatively weak stimuli. action potential is a constant. Decreasing the action potential: GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, which means it decreases the neuronâÃÂÃÂs action potential. When the action potential drops below the threshold potential, the neuron will not excite nearby neurons. Exitatory PostSynaptic Potential (EPSP): The Exitatory PostSynaptic Potential (EPSP) of a single excitatory synapse is not sufficient to reach the threshold of the neuron. Rather, when a number of EPSPs are created in quick succession, their charges sum together. It is the combined sum of these EPSPs that creates an action potential Activation of inhibitory synapses such as GABA, on the other hand, makes resting potential more negative. This hyperpolarization is called an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). Activation of inhibitory synapses (D and E) makes the resting potential of the neuron more negative. The resulting IPSP may also prevent what would otherwise have been effective EPSPs from triggering an action potential. It is the total summation of the EPSPs and IPSPs that determines whether a neuronâÃÂÃÂs charge is sufficient to cross the potential threshold.



Impact of High Fat Diet-induced Obesity on the Plasma Levels of Monoamine Neurotransmitters in C57BL/6 Mice  

PubMed Central

Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in developed countries. It negatively affects diverse aspects of human wellbeing. Of these, a relationship between obesity and depression is widely recognized but biomarkers for assessment of obesityassociated mood changes in animal obesity models are rarely known. Here we explored the link between obesity and the plasma levels of monoamine neurotransmitters involved in mood control using a sensitive UPLC/MSMS technique in high fat diet (HFD)- induced obesity model in male C57BL/6 mice to explore the potential utility of plasma tests for obesity-associated mood change. HFD (60% of total calories, 8 weeks) induced significantly higher weight gains in body (+37.8%) and fat tissue (+306%) in male C57BL/6 mice. Bioanalysis of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine in plasma at 8 weeks of HFD revealed that serotonin decreased significantly in the obese mice when compared to normal diet-fed mice (2.7 ± 0.6 vs 4.3 ± 2.0 ng/ml, N=8). Notably, a negative correlation was found between the levels of serotonin and body weight gains. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) with the individual levels of neurotransmitters revealed that plasma levels of dopamine and serotonin could apparently differentiate the obese mice from lean ones. Our study demonstrated that blood plasma levels of neurotransmitters can be employed to evaluate the mood changes associated with obesity and more importantly, provided an important clue for understanding of the relationship between obesity and mood disorders. PMID:24404339

Kim, Minjeong; Bae, SeungJin; Lim, Kyung-Min



[Neurotransmitter disorders in children--special reference to Segawa disease].  


Aminergic neurotransmitter disorders occurring in childhood include metabolic disorders of pteridine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Pteridine metabolic disorders cause a deficiency of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) and TH disorder causes a deficiency of noradrenaline (NA) and DA in the terminals of each aminergic neuron. The activities of TH or DA in the terminals are marked in early childhood, and then they show an exponential age-dependent decrement and achieve stationary or minimal levels in the twenties. As observed in Segawa disease, TH or DA activities in these disorders follow this age-related decrease with levels around 20% of normal, and patients develop symptoms age-dependently, with onset in childhood, progression by the late teens, and a stationary period after the twenties, but this does not cause morphological changes. These phenomena may occur with other neurotransmitters. So replacement therapies are effective irrespective of the clinical course. However, early-onset cases in infancy or early childhood showing a marked decrement of 5-HT or NA activities show postural hypotonia and failed locomotion. These cause failure in atonia restriction in the REM stage and induce dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus, and, consequently induce dysfunction or failure in the development of DA neurons in the sutbstantia nigra and ventrotegmental area. These relate to failure in the development of higher cortical functions. Thus, assessing of ages at onset and activities of antigravity muscles and locomotion in infancy is cardinal for the treatment the neurotransmitter disorders occurring in infancy and early childhood. PARK2 with deficiency of DA in the substantia nigra leads to dystonia in the teens and Parkinson disease after 20 years, although these respond to 1-Dopa favorably but induce D2 receptor upregulation and intractable dyskinesia. A decrease of DA in the perikaryon leads to symptoms after 10 years and causes dysfunction of the target structures. PMID:21941841

Segawa, Masaya



Sonochemical synthesis of Ag nanoclusters: electrogenerated chemiluminescence determination of dopamine.  


We report a facile one-pot sonochemical approach to preparing highly water-soluble Ag nanoclusters (NCs) using bovine serum albumin as a stabilizing agent and reducing agent in aqueous solution. Intensive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) was observed from the as-prepared Ag (NCs) and successfully applied for the ECL detection of dopamine with high sensitivity and a wide detection range. A possible ECL mechanism is proposed for the preparation of Ag NCs. With this method, the dopamine concentration was determined in the range of 8.3 × 10(-9) to 8.3 × 10(-7) mol/L without the obvious interference of uric acid, ascorbic acid and some other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the detection limit was 9.2 × 10(-10) mol/L at a signal/noise ratio of 3. PMID:23418144

Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lichun; Song, Hongjie; Wang, Zhonghui; Lv, Yi



Synthesis of 8-thiabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes and Their Binding Affinity for the Dopamine and Serotonin Transporters  

PubMed Central

Cocaine is a potent stimulant of the central nervous system. Its reinforcing and stimulant properties have been associated with inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT) on presynaptic neurons. In the search for medications for cocaine abuse, we have prepared 2-carbomethoxy-3-aryl-8-thiabicyclo[3.2.1]octane analogues of cocaine. We report that this class of compounds provides potent and selective inhibitors of the DAT and SERT. The selectivity resulted from reduced activity at the SERT. The 3?-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) analogue inhibits the DAT and SERT with a potency of IC50 = 5.7 nM and 8.0 nM respectively. The 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2,3-unsaturated analogue inhibits the DAT potently (IC50 = 4.5 nM) and selectively (>800-fold vs. SERT). Biological enantioselectivity of DAT inhibition was limited for both the 3-aryl-2,3-unsaturated and the 3?-aryl analogues (2-fold), but more robust (> 10-fold) for the 3?-aryl analogues. The (1R)-configuration provided the eutomers. PMID:17070057

Pham-Huu, Duy-Phong; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Liu, Shanghao; Madras, Bertha K.; Meltzer, Peter C.



Polymorphisms in genes implicated in dopamine, serotonin and noradrenalin metabolism suggest association with cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolite concentrations in psychosis  

PubMed Central

Background Homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) are the major monoamine metabolites in the central nervous system (CNS). Their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations, reflecting the monoamine turnover rates in CNS, are partially under genetic influence and have been associated with schizophrenia. We have hypothesized that CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations represent intermediate steps between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes implicated in monoaminergic pathways and psychosis. Methods We have searched for association between 119 SNPs in genes implicated in monoaminergic pathways [tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), TPH2, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and MAOB] and monoamine metabolite concentrations in CSF in 74 patients with psychotic disorder. Results There were 42 nominally significant associations between SNPs and CSF monoamine metabolite concentrations, which exceeded the expected number (20) of nominal associations given the total number of tests performed. The strongest association (p =?0.0004) was found between MAOB rs5905512, a SNP previously reported to be associated with schizophrenia in men, and MHPG concentrations in men with psychotic disorder. Further analyses in 111 healthy individuals revealed that 41 of the 42 nominal associations were restricted to patients with psychosis and were absent in healthy controls. Conclusions The present study suggests that altered monoamine turnover rates in CNS reflect intermediate steps in the associations between SNPs and psychosis. PMID:25073638



Effect of long-term actual spaceflight on the expression of key genes encoding serotonin and dopamine system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of long-term spaceflight on the central nervous system represents important but yet undeveloped problem. The aim of our work was to study the effect of 30-days spaceflight of mice on Russian biosatellite BION-M1 on the expression in the brain regions of key genes of a) serotonin (5-HT) system (main enzymes in 5-HT metabolism - tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2), monoamine oxydase A (MAO A), 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors); b) pivotal enzymes in DA metabolism (tyrosine hydroxylase, COMT, MAO A, MAO B) and D1, D2 receptors. Decreased expression of genes encoding the 5-HT catabolism (MAO A) and 5-HT2A receptor in some brain regions was shown. There were no differences between “spaceflight” and control mice in the expression of TPH-2 and 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 receptor genes. Significant changes were found in genetic control of DA system. Long-term spaceflight decreased the expression of genes encoding the enzyme in DA synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase in s.nigra), DA metabolism (MAO B in the midbrain and COMT in the striatum), and D1 receptor in hypothalamus. These data suggested that 1) microgravity affected genetic control of 5-HT and especially the nigrostriatal DA system implicated in the central regulation of muscular tonus and movement, 2) the decrease in the expression of genes encoding key enzyme in DA synthesis, DA degradation and D1 receptor contributes to the movement impairment and dyskinesia produced by the spaceflight. The study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant ? 14-04-00173.

Popova, Nina; Shenkman, Boris; Naumenko, Vladimir; Kulikov, Alexander; Kondaurova, Elena; Tsybko, Anton; Kulikova, Elisabeth; Krasnov, I. B.; Bazhenova, Ekaterina; Sinyakova, Nadezhda


L-DOPA-induced dyregulation of extrastriatal dopamine and serotonin and affective symptoms in a bilateral rat model of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Convergent evidence indicates that raphestriatal serotonin (5-HT) neurons can convert and release dopamine (DA) derived from exogenous administration of the pharmacotherapeutic L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine(L-DOPA) as a treatment for Parkinson’s disease (PD). While aspects of such neuroplasticity may be beneficial, chronic L-DOPA may also modify native 5-HT function, precipitating the appearance prevalent non-motor PD symptoms such as anxiety and depression. To examine this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered parkinsonian with bilateral medial forebrain bundle 6-OHDA infusions and treated for at least 28 days with vehicle or L-DOPA. In the first experiment, striatal, hippocampal, amygdalar, and prefrontal cortex DA and 5-HT levels were examined at various post-treatment time-points. In experiment 2, L-DOPA’s effects on DA and 5-HT cell bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta and dorsal raphe, respectively, were examined. Finally, the effects of L-DOPA on affective behaviors were assessed in locomotor chambers, social interaction, forced swim, and elevated plus maze behavioral tests. Bilateral 6-OHDA lesion induced approximately 80% DA and 30% 5-HT depletion in the striatum compared to sham-lesioned controls, while monoamine levels remained largely unchanged in extrastriatal regions. Tissue levels of DA were increased at the expense of 5-HT levels in parkinsonian rats subjected to chronic L-DOPA injections in all regions sampled, though DA or 5-HT cell bodies were unaffected. Behaviorally, rats could only be tested 24 hours after their last L-DOPA injection due to severe dyskinesia. Despite this, prior exposure to chronic L-DOPA treatment exerted a pronounced anxiogenic phenotype. Collectively, these results suggest that chronic L-DOPA treatment may interfere with the balance of DA and 5-HT function in affect-related brain regions and could induce and/or exacerbate non-motor symptoms in PD. PMID:22659568

Jaunarajs, Karen L. Eskow; George, Jessica A.; Bishop, Christopher



Interaction between serotonin transporter and dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand measures is associated with harm avoidant symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.  


Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have alterations of measures of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function, which persist after long-term recovery and are associated with elevated harm avoidance (HA), a measure of anxiety and behavioral inhibition. Based on theories that 5-HT is an aversive motivational system that may oppose a DA-related appetitive system, we explored interactions of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand measures that reflect portions of these systems. Twenty-seven individuals recovered (REC) from eating disorders (EDs) (7 AN-BN, 11 AN, 9 BN) and nine control women (CW) were analyzed for correlations between [(11)C]McN5652 and [(11)C]raclopride binding. There was a significant positive correlation between [(11)C]McN5652 binding potential (BP(non displaceable(ND))) and [(11)C]Raclopride BP(ND) for the dorsal caudate, antero-ventral striatum (AVS), middle caudate, and ventral and dorsal putamen. No significant correlations were found in CW. [(11)C]Raclopride BP(ND), but not [(11)C]McN5652 BP(ND), was significantly related to HA in REC EDs. A linear regression analysis showed that the interaction between [(11)C]McN5652 BP(ND) and [(11)C]raclopride BP(ND) in the dorsal putamen significantly predicted HA. This is the first study using PET and the radioligands [(11)C]McN5652 and [(11)C]raclopride to show a direct relationship between 5-HT transporter and striatal DA D2/D3 receptor binding in humans, supporting the possibility that 5-HT and DA interactions contribute to HA behaviors in EDs. PMID:23154100

Bailer, Ursula F; Frank, Guido K; Price, Julie C; Meltzer, Carolyn C; Becker, Carl; Mathis, Chester A; Wagner, Angela; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Putnam, Karen; Schork, Nicholas J; Gamst, Anthony; Kaye, Walter H



Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Graphical Kinetic Data Analysis of the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System: An Exercise for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course.  


Neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), are widely used in clinical settings and in basic neuroscience research. Education in these methods and their applications may be incorporated into curricula to keep pace with this expanding field. Here, we have developed pedagogical materials on the fundamental principles of PET that incorporate a hands-on laboratory activity to view and analyze human brain scans. In this activity, students will use authentic PET brain scans generated from original research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Volkow et al., 2009) to explore the neurobiological effects of a drug on the dopamine system. We provide lecture and assignment materials (including a 50-minute PowerPoint presentation introducing PET concepts), written background information for students and instructors, and explicit instructions for a 4-hour, computer-based laboratory to interested educators. Also, we discuss our experience implementing this exercise as part of an advanced undergraduate laboratory course at Stony Brook University in 2010 and 2011. Observing the living human brain is intriguing, and this laboratory is designed to illustrate how PET neuroimaging techniques are used to directly probe biological processes occurring in the living brain. Laboratory course modules on imaging techniques such as PET can pique the interest of students potentially interested in neuroscience careers, by exposing them to current research methods. This activity provides practical experience analyzing PET data using a graphical analysis method known as the Logan plot, and applies core neuropharmacology concepts. We hope that this manuscript inspires college instructors to incorporate education in PET neuroimaging into their courses. PMID:24693258

Mirrione, Martine M; Ruth, Nora; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna; Kernan, Maurice



The appetite regulatory effect of guggulsterones in rats: a repertoire of plasma hormones and neurotransmitters.  


Guggulsterone or guggulipid is a steroidal constituent present in the neutral fraction of gum resin of Commiphora mukul, commonly known as guggul. The traditional uses of guggul-resin extract are well documented in the Ayurveda-where it is prescribed to treat a variety of ailments including lipid-related disorders such as obesity and arteriosclerosis. The hypolipidemic activity of the extracts known since ancient times can be traced to the two closely related steroidal ketones, E-guggulsterone and Z-guggulsterone. In this study, we have investigated the dose dependent (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight) effect of guggulsterones on appetite regulating hormones [ghrelin, leptin, cholecystokinin (CCK)] and neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine), which play a major role in the energy homeostasis and thus influence obesity related factors. We have also studied its effect on food intake, body weight and plasma triglycerides and glucose in rats. Guggulsterones at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight was able to significantly reduce food intake and limit body weight gain over a period of 15 days. It also significantly decreased the plasma ghrelin, glucose, triglyceride levels and increased plasma leptin, serotonin, dopamine levels, but did not show much effect on CCK levels. PMID:25025986

Mithila, M V; Khanum, Farhath



4-Ethoxyamphetamine: effects on intracranial self-stimulation and in vitro uptake and release of 3H-dopamine and 3H-serotonin in the brains of rats.  

PubMed Central

Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of 4-ethoxyamphetamine, a novel "designer" amphetamine, with (+)-amphetamine and an earlier "designer" amphetamine, 4-methoxyamphetamine, on rats. (+)-Amphetamine significantly decreased frequency threshold measures in an intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure using medial forebrain bundle electrodes, while 4-methoxyamphetamine and 4-ethoxyamphetamine increased these ICSS frequency thresholds. 4-Methoxyamphetamine and 4-ethoxyamphetamine had more potent effects on inhibition of uptake and stimulation of spontaneous release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) than of dopamine. It is concluded that the neuropsychopharmacological profile of 4-ethoxyamphetamine is unlike that of (+)-amphetamine, but similar to that of 4-methoxyamphetamine, a potent hallucinogen in humans. PMID:8148367

Hegadoren, K M; Greenshaw, A J; Baker, G B; Martin-Iverson, M T; Lodge, B; Soin, S



Dopamine visualized in the basal ganglia of living man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotransmitter dopamine has biological attributes that make it amenable to study by positron emission tomography, unlike many of the 40 or so neurotransmitters that have been identified in the brain. Dopamine deficiency in the nigrostriatal system is a characteristic of Parkinson's disease1, and a disturbance of dopamine metabolism is still widely held to be responsible for the syndrome of

E. S. Garnett; G. Firnau; C. Nahmias



Dopamine: the rewarding years  

PubMed Central

Dopamine has moved from being an insignificant intermediary in the formation of noradrenaline in 1957 to its present-day position as a major neurotransmitter in the brain. This neurotransmitter is involved in the control of movement and Parkinson's disease, the neurobiology and symptoms of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also considered an essential element in the brain reward system and in the action of many drugs of abuse. This evolution reflects the ability of several famous names in neuropharmacology, neurology and psychiatry to apply new techniques to ask and answer the right questions. There is now excellent knowledge about the metabolism of dopamine, dopamine receptor systems and the structural organisation of dopamine pathways in the brain. Less is known about the function of the different receptors and how the various dopamine pathways are organised to produce normal behaviour, which exhibits disruption in the disease states mentioned. In particular, we have very limited information as to why and how the dopamine system dies or becomes abnormal in Parkinson's disease or a neurodevelopmental disorder such as schizophrenia. Dopamine neurones account for less than 1% of the total neuronal population of the brain, but have a profound effect on function. The future challenge is to understand how dopamine is involved in the integration of information to produce a relevant response rather than to study dopamine in isolation from other transmission systems. This integrated approach should lead to greater understanding and improved treatment of diseases involving dopamine. PMID:16402097

Marsden, Charles A



Biochemical and Neurotransmitters Changes Associated with Tramadol in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats  

PubMed Central

The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Chronic neuropathic pain occurs in approximately 25% of diabetic patients. Tramadol, an atypical analgesic with a unique dual mechanism of action, is used in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. It acts on monoamine transporters to inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes on the brain neurotransmitter alterations induced by tramadol in rats, and to study the hepatic and renal toxicities of the drug. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two sets: the normal set and the diabetic set. Diabetes was induced in rats. Tramadol was administered orally once daily for 28 days. The levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in cerebral cortex, thalamus/hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem were evaluated in rats. In addition, the renal toxicity and histopathological effects of the drug were assessed. The induction of diabetes altered neurotransmitter levels. Oral administration of tramadol significantly decreased the neurotransmitter levels. Diabetes significantly altered the effects of tramadol in all brain regions. Tramadol affected function and histology of the liver and kidney. The clinical effects of tramadol in diabetic patients should be stressed. PMID:24971322

Ezzeldin, Essam; Souror, Wafaa A. H.; El-Nahhas, Toqa; Soudi, Abdel Nasser M. M.; Shahat, Abdelaaty A.



The Sea Urchin Embryo, an Invertebrate Model for Mammalian Developmental Neurotoxicity, Reveals Multiple Neurotransmitter Mechanisms for Effects of Chlorpyrifos: Therapeutic Interventions and a Comparison with the Monoamine Depleter, Reserpine  

PubMed Central

Lower organisms show promise for the screening of neurotoxicants that might target mammalian brain development. Sea urchins use neurotransmitters as embryonic growth regulatory signals, so that adverse effects on neural substrates for mammalian brain development can be studied in this simple organism. We compared the effects of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos in sea urchin embryos with those of the monoamine depleter, reserpine, so as to investigate multiple neurotransmitter mechanisms involved in developmental toxicity and to evaluate different therapeutic interventions corresponding to each neurotransmitter system. Whereas reserpine interfered with all stages of embryonic development, the effects of chlorpyrifos did not emerge until the mid-blastula stage. After that point, the effects of the two agents were similar. Treatment with membrane permeable analogs of the monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin and dopamine, prevented the adverse effects of either chlorpyrifos or reserpine, despite the fact that chlorpyrifos works simultaneously through actions on acetylcholine, monoamines and other neurotransmitter pathways. This suggests that different neurotransmitters, converging on the same downstream signaling events, could work together or in parallel to offset the developmental disruption caused by exposure to disparate agents. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating membrane permeable analogs of acetylcholine and cannabinoids, both of which proved effective against chlorpyrifos- or reserpine-induced teratogenesis. Invertebrate test systems can provide both a screening procedure for mammalian neuroteratogenesis and may uncover novel mechanisms underlying developmental vulnerability as well as possible therapeutic approaches to prevent teratogenesis. PMID:17720543

Buznikov, Gennady A.; Nikitina, Lyudmila A.; Rakic, Ljubisa M.; Milosevi, Ivan; Bezuglov, Vladimir V.; Lauder, Jean M.; Slotkin, Theodore A.



[C-11]{beta}CNT: A new monoamine uptake ligand for studying serotonin and dopamine transporter sites in the living brain with PET  

SciTech Connect

There is considerable interest in measuring serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) function in the human brain. Altered levels of 5HT and DA are recognized in drug abuse, neurotoxicities, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease. Several phenyltropane analogs of cocaine bind tightly to both DA and 5HT uptake proteins. We have made a new agent from this class called {beta}CNT, 2{beta}-carboxymethyl-3{beta}-(2-naphthyl)-tropane, the isosteric O-for-CH{sub 2} analog of a compound reported to have among the highest measured affinities for DA and 5HT transporters and studied its in vivo brain distributions in animals for the first time. Optically pure {beta}CNT was made from cocaine, and labeled at the O-methyl position by esterification of {beta}CNT-acid with [C-11]CH{sub 3}OTfl under conditions similar to Wilson`s. HPLC-purified (99+%) final products (15-50% eob yield from CO{sub 2}, 40 min synth) had specific activities 0.1-1.2 Ci/{mu}mol at the time of injection. Preliminary [C-11]{beta}{beta}CNT rodent distribution showed very high brain uptake (3% ID at 60 min) and localization (striat: fr cort: hypo: cer: blood, 11: 5: 4: 1: 06). {beta}CNT-PET studies in juvenile pigs (5-20 mCi, 20-35 kg) found rapid brain uptake, and prominent retention (85 min) in midbrain, anterior brainstem and striatum, followed by cortex and olfactory bulb. Paroxetine pretreatment (5HT uptake blocker, 2mg/kg), diminished retention in most brain areas; nomifensine (DA/NE uptake blocker, 6 mg/kg) reduced striatum selectively. Direct comparisons of [C-11]{beta}CNT with other PET transporter radioligands {beta}CFT, {beta}CIT, and {beta}CTT (RTI-32) in the same pig found {beta}CNT had highest overall brain uptake among the agents. These initial results suggest {beta}CNT has favorable properties for imaging both 5HT and DA transporters in vivo, and further evaluation of its potential as a human PET agent is warranted.

Mulholland, G.K.; Zheng, Q.H.; Zhou, F.C. [Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)] [and others



Receptors and Other Signaling Proteins Required for Serotonin Control of Locomotion in Caenorhabditis elegans  

E-print Network

A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of signaling by the neurotransmitter serotonin is required to assess the hypothesis that defects in serotonin signaling underlie depression in humans. Caenorhabditis elegans ...

Gustafson, Megan A.


Transcranial electrostimulation effects on rat opioid and neurotransmitter levels.  


A specific form of Transcranial Electrostimulation Treatment (TCET) has been shown to induce analgesia, alleviate symptoms of opiate withdrawal and alter nociceptive responses in neurons in the midbrain and hypothalamus of rats. TCET consists of a 10Hz, charge balanced, 10 mu A current passed for 30 minutes between electrodes placed in the ears. Both serotonin (5HT) and endogenous opioids have been strongly implicated in TCET responses. This study directly measured brain levels of several neurotransmitters and their metabolites in anesthetized rats stimulated with either 10 mu A TCET or 0 mu A (Sham). Neurotransmitters measured in selected homogenized brain areas by high performance liquid chromatography were 5HT and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA); norepinephrine (NE) and its metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethyleneglycol (MHPG); and dopamine (DA). Levels of NE and DA were significantly higher in the hypothalamic region of TCET rats than of control rats. The midbrains of TCET rats contained significantly elevated levels of DA, MHPG, 5HT and 5HIAA. In the hindbrain no significant differences were observed. Thus, TCET appears to cause an increase in the synthesis or release of 5HT, DA and NE in the midbrain and DA and 5HT in the hypothalamus. In a separate experiment, beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity was measured in blood plasma taken from rats at intervals before, during and after a 30 minute TCET treatment, but no demonstrable TCET effect was observed. The lack of change in serum endorphin levels suggests that TCET-induced opioid activity may be confined to the central nervous system, a reasonable theory because the current passes only through the head. PMID:7906003

Warner, R L; Johnston, C; Hamilton, R; Skolnick, M H; Wilson, O B



Dopamine and adaptive memory Daphna Shohamy1*  

E-print Network

dopamine, which signals motivationally important events, also modulates the hippocampus, a crucial brain dopamine biases memo- ry towards events that are of motivational significance. These effects take place- cate that the neurotransmitter dopamine, known to play a key role in motivated behavior, has a direct

Adcock, R. Alison


Synaptic Neurotransmitter-Gated Receptors  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors in the brain, many have deliberated over their likely structures and how these may relate to function. This was initially satisfied by the determination of the first amino acid sequences of the Cys-loop receptors that recognized acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and glycine, followed later by similar determinations for the glutamate receptors, comprising non-NMDA and NMDA subtypes. The last decade has seen a rapid advance resulting in the first structures of Cys-loop receptors, related bacterial and molluscan homologs, and glutamate receptors, determined down to atomic resolution. This now provides a basis for determining not just the complete structures of these important receptor classes, but also for understanding how various domains and residues interact during agonist binding, receptor activation, and channel opening, including allosteric modulation. This article reviews our current understanding of these mechanisms for the Cys-loop and glutamate receptor families. PMID:22233560

Smart, Trevor G.; Paoletti, Pierre



Polymelamine modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite sensor for the electrochemical assay of serotonin.  


A sensitive and novel electrochemical method has been developed for the determination of an important neurotransmitter, serotonin, using a polymelamine modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite sensor (EPPGS). Melamine was used for the modification of sensor by electropolymerizing it at the surface of EPPGS in acidic medium to form a layer of conducting polymer. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the characterization of the surface of polymer modified sensor. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The polymelamine modified sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of serotonin, exhibiting a larger peak current and shift of peak potential to less positive potentials as compared to the unmodified sensor. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was found between 1-100 µm and 0.1-100 µm with detection limit of 492 nM and 30 nM for unmodified and polymer modified sensors, respectively. The determination of serotonin in human blood serum and urine has been carried out. The common metabolites such as ascorbic acid, dopamine, xanthine and hypoxanthine do not interfere in the determination up to 10-fold concentration, revealing good selectivity of the proposed sensor. PMID:24468336

Gupta, Pankaj; Goyal, Rajendra N



Abnormalities of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems in human neuroepithelioma cells infected by three Toxoplasma strains  

PubMed Central

Since Toxoplasma gondii can establish a persistent infection in the central nervous system in humans, we studied its effects on a host's neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems (NNS). Using microarray technology we have screened the expression of genes coding for NNS in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to representative strains of Toxoplasma to identify potential target genes. Transcripts that displayed expression levels distinct from uninfected controls were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Our results indicate the presence of disturbed NNS upon Toxoplasma infection and the extent of this disturbance varies considerably among the three strains. In cells infected by type I strain, three neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, glutamate and serotonin) and two neuropeptides (PROK2 and TAC1) displayed abnormalities relative to controls. Type III infection led to the change of a critical enzyme, TDO2, in the kynurenine pathway. No significant effects of type II infection were found in the NNS. These data may have implications for understanding the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of neurologic disturbances in toxoplasmosis. PMID:23821371

Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Jones-Brando, Lorraine; Yolken, Robert H.



Simple and rapid determination of serotonin and catecholamines in biological tissue using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.  


Using the CNS of Lymnaea stagnalis a method is described for the rapid analysis of neurotransmitters and their metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. Tissue samples were homogenised in ice-cold 0.1 M perchloric acid and centrifuged. Using a C(18) microbore column the mobile phase was maintained at a flow rate of 100 microl/min and consisted of sodium citrate buffer (pH 3.2)-acetonitrile (82.5:17.5, v/v) with 2 mM decane-sulfonic acid sodium salt. The potential was set at +750 mV versus Ag|AgCl reference electrode at a sensitivity of 50 nA full scale deflection. The detection limit for serotonin was 11.86 ng ml(-1) for a 5 microl injection. Preparation of tissue samples in mobile phase reduced the response to dopamine and serotonin compared with perchloric acid. In addition it was found that the storage of tissue samples at -20 degrees C caused losses of dopamine and serotonin. As a result of optimising the sample preparation and mobile phase the total time of analysis was substantially reduced resulting in a sample preparation and assay time of 15-20 min. PMID:15734169

Patel, Bhavik Anil; Arundell, Martin; Parker, Kim H; Yeoman, Mark S; O'Hare, Danny



Treatment with Tyrosine, a Neurotransmitter Precursor, Reduces Environmental Stress in Humans,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Acutely stressful situations can disrupt behavior and deplete brain norepinephrine and dopamine, catecholaminergic neurotransmitters. In animals, administration of tyrosine, a food constituent and precursor of the catecholamines, reduces these behavioral ...

H. R. Lieberman, L. E. Banderet



Serotonin: multiphoton imaging and relevant spectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling three-photon microscopy with automated stage movement can now produce a live high resolution map of the neurotransmitter serotonin in a single cross section of the whole rat brain. Accurate quantification of these serotonin images demands appropriate spectral filtering. This requires one to consider that the spectral characteristics of serotonin show a remarkable variation as it non-covalently associates with different molecules, as we discuss here. Also it is known that serotonin emission changes when it forms a covalent adduct with para-formaldehyde. This provides a potential route for producing a whole brain serotonin map using multiphoton microscopy in a fixed rat brain. Here we take the initial step showing that multiphoton microscopy of this adduct can quantitatively image chemically induced changes in serotonin distribution.

Kaushalya, S. K.; Nag, Suman; Balaji, J.; Maiti, S.



Disorders of consciousness and pharmaceuticals that act on oxygen based amino acid and monoamine neurotransmitter pathways of the brain.  


Oxygen based neurotransmitters in the synapses of the brain are proposed to play an important role in the generation of consciousness. They include the amino acids glutamate and GABA which use Krebs cycle precursors for their synthesis, and the monoamines dopamine, noradrenalin, adrenalin and serotonin, which are derived from tyrosine and tryptophan. During ischemia after an acute brain injury, a GABA surge often initiates brain suppression. It has been proposed that with chronic ischemia, a secondary, possibly epigenetic response occurs when neurotransmitters deplete, a glucose and oxygen saving mechanism termed neurodormancy that may invoke alternative long term low energy metabolic pathways in the brain, encountered in Disorders of Consciousness. Some medications can reverse Disorders of Consciousness in some patients. Virtually all of them act on neurotransmitter systems that use oxygen as a building block or as an energy source within the brain. Pharmaceuticals that act in the oxygen based amino acid systems of the brain include the GABAergic medications zolpidem and baclofen, while those that act in the monoamine axes include the dopaminergic medications L Dopa, amantadine, bromocriptine, apomorphine and methylphenidate, and the noradrenergic and serotonergic medications desipramine, amitriptyline, protriptyline and fluoxetine. Another group are the cholinesterase inhibitors, responsible for increasing acetylcholine, which is synthesized from the Krebs cycle initiator, acetyl CoA. It appears that pharmaceuticals that are active in the oxygen based neurotransmitter pathways of the brain are successful to arouse to consciousness patients that suffer from its disorders. Research needs to be supported as foundation to understand the biochemical mechanisms that are involved in consciousness disorders and to explore further the pharmacological treatment possibilities for these devastating neurological conditions. PMID:24025056

Clauss, Ralf



Chronic hyperprolactinemia and changes in dopamine neurons.  


The tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) system is known to inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion. In young animals this system responds to acute elevations in serum PRL by increasing its activity. However, this responsiveness is lost in aging rats with chronically high serum PRL levels. The purpose of this study was to induce hyperprolactinemia in rats for extended periods of time and examine its effects on dopaminergic systems in the brain. Hyperprolactinemia was induced by treatment with haloperidol, a dopamine receptor antagonist, and Palkovits' microdissection technique in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure neurotransmitter concentrations in several areas of the brain. After 6 months of hyperprolactinemia, dopamine (DA) concentrations in the median eminence (ME) increased by 84% over the control group. Nine months of hyperprolactinemia produced a 50% increase in DA concentrations in the ME over the control group. However, DA response was lost if a 9-month long haloperidol-induced hyperprolactinemia was followed by a 1 1/2 month-long extremely high increase in serum PRL levels produced by implantation of MMQ cells under the kidney capsule. There was no change in the levels of DA, norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), or their metabolites in the arcuate nucleus (AN), medial preoptic area (MPA), caudate putamen (CP), substantia nigra (SN), and zona incerta (ZI), except for a decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the AN after 6-months of hyperprolactinemia and an increase in DA concentrations in the AN after 9-months of hyperprolactinemia. These results demonstrate that hyperprolactinemia specifically affects TIDA neurons and these effects vary, depending on the duration and intensity of hyperprolactinemia. The age-related decrease in hypothalamic dopamine function may be associated with increases in PRL secretion. PMID:9128918

Mohankumar, P S; Mohankumar, S M; Quadri, S K; Voogt, J L



Dopamine may be ‘hyper’ with respect to noradrenaline metabolism, but ‘hypo’ with respect to serotonin metabolism in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noradrenaline: Hechtman (J Psychiat Neurosci 1994;19:193) argued for a role for frontal dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in ADHD, where Oades (Prog Neurobiol 1987;29:365) has described lateralised functional impairments. Mechanisms (e.g. via alpha-2 sites) for stimulating low NA activity in ADHD children (J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;36:1688) in order to promote interactions with mesocortical DA have been discussed

Robert D Oades



The role of neurotransmitters and opioids in polycystic ovarian syndrome.  


In this article, the characteristic gonadotropin dysfunction of PCOD is discussed. The potential role of modulators such as the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine as well as the role of endogenous opiates are considered. A review of the effect of these neuromodulators is followed by speculation as to whether disordered secretion of these substances may be operative in the pathophysiology of PCOD. PMID:2904366

Lobo, R A



Serotonin and brain development: role in human developmental diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin is known to play a role in brain development prior to the time it assumes its role as a neurotransmitter in the mature brain. Serotonin regulates both the development of serotonergic neurons (termed autoregulation of development) and the development of target tissues. In both cases, the astroglial-derived protein, S-100? plays a role. Disruption of serotonergic development can leave permanent

Patricia M. Whitaker-Azmitia



Predator exposure/psychosocial stress animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder modulates neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.  


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can develop in response to a traumatic event involving a threat to life. To date, no diagnostic biomarkers have been identified for PTSD. Recent research points toward physiological abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, sympathoadrenal medullary and immune system that may be implicated in the disorder. The modulation of neurotransmitters is another possible mechanism, but their role in the progression of PTSD is poorly understood. Low serotonin (5-HT) may be a factor, but it may not be the only neurotransmitter affected as modulation affects levels of other neurotransmitters. In this study, we hypothesized the predator exposure/psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD may alter levels of 5-HT and other neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. We induced PTSD via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress model, whereby rats were placed in a cage with a cat for 1 hour on days 1 and 11 of the 31-day experiment. Rats also received psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. On day 32, the rats were sacrificed and the brains dissected to remove the hippocampus and PFC. Norepinephrine (NE), 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dopamine (DA), and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-HT levels in the hippocampus and PFC were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the hippocampus, 5-HT and HVA were lower, while NE and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. In the PFC, only 5-HT was lower, while NE, DA, and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also examined and confirmed our findings. These results demonstrate that the predator exposure/psychosocial stress model of PTSD produces neurotransmitter changes similar to those seen in human patients and may cause a heightened noradrenergic response. PMID:24551226

Wilson, C Brad; Ebenezer, Philip J; McLaughlin, Leslie D; Francis, Joseph



78 FR 21818 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in the...tests. Methylone is an inhibitor of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine uptake...which leads to increased serotonin and dopamine levels in the brain that could...




Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract — Animal studies have demonstrated,that alcohol changes neurotransrrutter concentrations in the brain. These changes in levels of dopamine, serotonin, ^aminobutync acid (GABA), endogenous opioid peptides, and noradrcnaline are associated with activation of reward centres in the brain. It is this property of alcohol that is believed to be responsible for the reinforcing effect of alcohol consumption in rats. One

Philippe De Witte


Serotonin (5HT) 2C receptors tonically inhibit dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA), but not 5HT, release in the frontal cortex in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The novel, preferential 5-HT2C receptor agonist, Ro 60-0175 ((S)-2-(6-chloro-5-fluoroindol-1-yl)-1-methylethylamine) (2.5 mg\\/kg, s.c.), markedly suppressed dialysate levels of dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) levels in the frontal cortex of freely-moving rats without affecting levels of 5-HT. In contrast, the novel and selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist, SB-242084 (6-chloro-5-methyl-1-[6-(2-methylpyridin-3-yloxy) pyridin-3-yl carbamoyl] indoline) (10.0 mg\\/kg, i.p.), markedly increased dialysate levels of DA and NA

M. J Millan; A Dekeyne; A Gobert



Photophysics of dopamine-modified quantum dots and effects on biological  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Photophysics of dopamine-modified quantum dots and effects on biological systems SAMUEL J between a small molecule (the neurotransmitter dopamine) and CdSe/ZnS QDs. QD­dopamine conjugates label of its occurrence5,6 . In this work, we find that electron transfer between a small molecule (dopamine

Minarik, William


Electrical coupling between the human serotonin transporter and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.  


Monoamine transporters have been implicated in dopamine or serotonin release in response to abused drugs such as methamphetamine or ecstasy (MDMA). In addition, monoamine transporters show substrate-induced inward currents that may modulate excitability and Ca(2+) mobilization, which could also contribute to neurotransmitter release. How monoamine transporters modulate Ca(2+) permeability is currently unknown. We investigate the functional interaction between the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaV). We introduce an excitable expression system consisting of cultured muscle cells genetically engineered to express hSERT. Both 5HT and S(+)MDMA depolarize these cells and activate the excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanism. However, hSERT substrates fail to activate EC-coupling in CaV1.1-null muscle cells, thus implicating Ca(2+) channels. CaV1.3 and CaV2.2 channels are natively expressed in neurons. When these channels are co-expressed with hSERT in HEK293T cells, only cells expressing the lower-threshold L-type CaV1.3 channel show Ca(2+) transients evoked by 5HT or S(+)MDMA. In addition, the electrical coupling between hSERT and CaV1.3 takes place at physiological 5HT concentrations. The electrical coupling between monoamine neurotransmitter transporters and Ca(2+) channels such as CaV1.3 is a novel mechanism by which endogenous substrates (neurotransmitters) or exogenous substrates (like ecstasy) could modulate Ca(2+)-driven signals in excitable cells. PMID:24854234

Ruchala, Iwona; Cabra, Vanessa; Solis, Ernesto; Glennon, Richard A; De Felice, Louis J; Eltit, Jose M



Social stress and the polymorphic region of the serotonin reuptake transporter gene modify estradiol-induced changes on central monoamine concentrations in female rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Psychosocial stress exposure is linked to a disruption of emotional regulation that can manifest as anxiety and depression. Women are more likely to suffer from such psychopathologies than men, indicating that gender-based differences in gonadal steroids may be a key factor in the etiology of stress-induced adverse health outcomes. Estradiol (E2) positively influences mood and cognition in females, an effect likely related to E2’s ability to modulate the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, genetic variation due to the polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene (SLC6A4) encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) also can influence E2’s ability to modulate behavior and physiology. However, it remains uncertain whether exposure to social stress interacts with the 5HTTLPR to influence E2-induced changes in behavior and physiology. The present study used ovariectomized adult female rhesus monkeys to investigate acute and chronic effects of E2 on central monoamine metabolite concentrations using CSF sampling. We further assessed how E2-induced changes in monoamine metabolite levels are modified by the unpredictable stress of social subordination and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. Levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) decreased significantly during chronic E2 treatment only in dominant females with the long promoter length of SLC6A4. Chronic administration of E2 decreased levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in a manner independent of the social status, 5HTTLPR genotype, or their interactions. Overall levels of dopamine and serotonin metabolites were increased in subordinate females but this effect of social stress was not influenced by 5HTTLPR genotype. Together, these data emphasize how E2 can modulate central neurotransmitter systems and indicate that social subordination in female monkeys is a valid model for examining how chronic psychosocial stress alters sensitivity to E2. Future studies are necessary to elaborate how changes in central neurotransmitter metabolism due to E2 and prolonged exposure to stress affect behavior and physiology. PMID:23253112

Asher, Jennifer; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Reding, Katherine M; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna



Measuring the serotonin uptake site using (/sup 3/H)paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand.

Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.



[Contribution to the study of nervous system in larval and adult forms of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 (Trematoda Digenea). II. Role of serotonine and dopamine (author's transl)].  


This study provides details concerning the localization and role of 5-HT and DA in Schistosoma: 1) 3H-5HT is incorporated selectively by the nerve fibers containing dense granules measuring 820 +/- 20 A (type 2 granules), combined at times with other structures; the presence of "cold" dopamine in the environment does not alter the incorporation; 2) 3H-DA is also incorporated in vitro by the nerve fibers and occasionally by the muscle fibers of the adult Schistosoma; 3) neither the intraovular miracidium, the first and second generation sporocystes, nor the intrasporocystic cercariae appear to incorporate the 3H-5-HT or the 3H-DA, under our working conditions. The two amines are, however, incorporated by the hepatopancreas of Biomphalaria glabrata and the 3H-5-HT produced marking on certain neuromuscular zones of the tentacle. PMID:7316398

Dei-Cas, E; Dhainaut-Courtois, N; Biguet, J



RNA Editing of Neurotransmitter Receptors in the Mammalian Brain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

RNA editing refers to various posttranscriptional mechanisms that alter the nucleotide sequence of RNA. In the mammalian brain, RNA editing results in significant changes in the functional properties of receptors for the important neurotransmitters glutamate and serotonin. These changes result from site-specific deamination of single adenosines in the pre-messenger RNA encoding these receptors. Here, we review what is known about the mechanisms underlying this editing, the consequences of RNA editing for glutamate and serotonin receptor function, and recent studies on transgenic mice and human post-mortem tissue that have begun to elucidate the role of RNA editing in the intact mammalian brain.

Claudia Schmauss (Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons and New York State Psychiatric Institute;Department of Psychiatry REV); James R. Howe (Yale University School of Medicine;Department of Pharmacology REV)



Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.  


Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low ?g/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 ?g/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 ?g/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24486880

Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J



Reprint of: Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.  


Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low ?g/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 ?g/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 ?g/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24679646

Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J



Transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at the mouse blood-retina and blood-brain barriers by uptake1 and uptake2  

PubMed Central

Uptake1 and uptake2 transporters are involved in the extracellular clearance of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at synaptic clefts. We looked for them at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and blood–retina barriers (BRB), where they could be involved in regulating the neurotransmitter concentration and modulate/terminate receptor-mediated effects within the neurovascular unit (NVU). Uptake2 (Oct1-3/Slc22a1-3, Pmat/Slc29a4) and Mate1/Slc47a1 transporters are also involved in the transport of xenobiotics. We used in situ carotid perfusion of prototypic substrates like [3H]-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ([3H]-MPP+), [3H]-histamine, [3H]-serotonin, and [3H]-dopamine, changes in ionic composition and genetic deletion of Oct1-3 carriers to detect uptake1 and uptake2 at the BBB and BRB. We showed that uptake1 and uptake2 are involved in the transport of [3H]-dopamine and [3H]-MPP+ at the blood luminal BRB, but not at the BBB. These functional studies, together with quantitative RT-PCR and confocal imaging, suggest that the mouse BBB lacks uptake1 (Net/Slc6a2, Dat/Slc6a3, Sert/Slc6a4), uptake2, and Mate1 on both the luminal and abluminal sides. However, we found evidence for functional Net and Oct1 transporters at the luminal BRB. These heterogeneous transport properties of the brain and retina NVUs suggest that the BBB helps protect the brain against biogenic amine neurotransmitters in the plasma while the BRB has more of a metabolic/endocrine role. PMID:22850405

Andre, Pascal; Saubamea, Bruno; Cochois-Guegan, Veronique; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Cattelotte, Julie; Smirnova, Maria; Schinkel, Alfred H; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore



Intrahippocampal infusions of anisomycin produce amnesia: Contribution of increased release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine  

PubMed Central

Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and injections of NE alone produce amnesia. These findings suggest that abnormal neurotransmitter responses may be the basis for amnesia produced by inhibition of protein synthesis. The present experiment extends these findings to the hippocampus and adds acetylcholine (ACh) to the list of neurotransmitters affected by anisomycin. Using in vivo microdialysis at the site of injection, release of NE, DA, and ACh was measured before and after injections of anisomycin into the hippocampus. Anisomycin impaired inhibitory avoidance memory when rats were tested 48 h after training and also produced substantial increases in local release of NE, DA, and ACh. In an additional experiment, pretreatment with intrahippocampal injections of propranolol prior to anisomycin and training significantly attenuated anisomycin-induced amnesia. The disruption of neurotransmitter release patterns at the site of injection appears to contribute significantly to the mechanisms underlying amnesia produced by protein synthesis inhibitors, calling into question the dominant interpretation that the amnesia reflects loss of training-initiated protein synthesis necessary for memory formation. Instead, the findings suggest that proteins needed for memory formation are available prior to an experience, and that post-translational modifications of these proteins may be sufficient to enable the formation of new memories. PMID:19403793

Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.



Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Serotonin Selectively Modulates Reward Value in Human  

E-print Network

the impact of decreased brain serotonin induced by acute dietary trypto- phan depletion. Depletion complex and multifarious effects. Introduction The function of serotonin in motivation and choice remains reward and punishment, with serotonin acting as an opponent to the neuromodulator dopamine, whose

Dayan, Peter


Effects of exposure to amitraz on noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine levels in brain regions of 30 and 60 days old male rats.  


The effects of amitraz oral exposure (20, 50 and 80mg/kg bw, 5 days) on brain region monoamine levels of male rats at 30 and 60 days of age were examined. The amitraz-treated rats at the oral doses of 20 and 50mg/kg bw had no visible injury, i.e., any clinical signs of dysfunction observed in any of the animals. However, rats treated with amitraz at the highest dose (80mg/kg bw, 5 days) showed a slight motor incoordination after 1-2h of treatment. These signs were reversible approximately at 6h after dose. After the last dose of amitraz, NE, DA and 5-HT and its metabolites levels were determined in the brain regions hypothalamus, midbrain, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus by HPLC. Amitraz caused changes in the NE, DA and 5-HT and their metabolite levels in a brain regional-, dose- and age-related manner. In the brain regions studied, amitraz induced a statistically significant increase in 5-HT, NE and DA content with age interaction, but the NE increases in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was without age interaction. Moreover, in the brain regions studied, amitraz induced a statistically significant decrease in the metabolite 5-HIAA, MHPG, DOPAC and HVA levels displaying an age interaction, excepting the 5-HIAA decrease in midbrain and the DOPAC decrease in hypothalamus and striatum which were without age interaction. Furthermore, amitraz evoked a statistically significant decrease in 5-HT, NE and DA turnover in the brain regions studied. The present findings indicate that amitraz significantly altered CNS monoaminergic neurotransmitters in a brain regional-, dose- and age-related manner. PMID:23541472

Del Pino, J; Martínez, M A; Castellano, V; Ramos, E; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A



Body Mass Index in Multiple Sclerosis: Associations with CSF Neurotransmitter Metabolite Levels  

PubMed Central

Body weight and height of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome suggesting MS (CIS) in the age range 18 to 60 years (154 males and 315 females) were compared with those of subjects (146 males and 212 females) free of any major neurological disease. In drug-free patients, CSF levels of the metabolites of noradrenaline (MHPG), serotonin (5-HIAA), and dopamine (HVA), neurotransmitters involved in eating behavior, were estimated in searching for associations with body mass index (BMI). Statistical evaluations were done separately for males and females. Lower BMI was found in female MS patients compared to female controls, more pronounced in RRMS. BMI was not associated with duration of illness, smoking, present or previous drug treatment, or disability score. Body height showed a shift towards greater values in MS patients compared to controls. Patients in the lower BMI quartile (limits defined from control subjects) had lower 5-HIAA and HVA compared to patients in the upper quartile. The results provide evidence for weight reduction during disease process in MS, possibly related to deficits in serotoninergic and dopaminergic activities that develop during disease course, resulting in impairments in food reward capacity and in motivation to eat. PMID:24205443

Evangelopoulos, Maria-Eleftheria; Davaki, Panagiota; Sfagos, Constantinos



Polyphosphoinositide metabolism in rat brain: effects of neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cyclic nucleotides.  


This study describes effects of various peptides, neurotransmitters and cyclic nucleotides on brain polyphosphoinositide metabolism in vitro. The interconversion of the polyanionic inositol phospholipids was studied by incubation of a lysed crude mitochondrial/synaptosomal fraction with [gamma-32P]-ATP. The reference peptide ACTH1-24 stimulated the formation of radiolabelled phosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate (TPI) and inhibited that of phosphatidic acid (PA). Substance P inhibited both TPI and PA labelling, whereas beta-endorphin inhibited that of PA without any effect on TPI. Morphine had no effect at any concentration tested, whereas high concentrations of naloxone inhibited the labelling of both PA and TPI. Naloxone did not counteract the effects of ACTH1-24. The other peptides tested (lysine 8-vasopressin and angiotensin II) were without any effect. Under the conditions used, adrenaline, noradrenaline and acetylcholine did not affect the labelling of the (poly)phosphoinositides. Both dopamine and serotonin, however, dose-dependently inhibited the formation of radiolabelled TPI and PA. Low concentrations of cAMP stimulated TPI, but higher concentrations had an overall inhibitory effect on the labelling of TPI, PA and especially phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (DPI). The cyclic nucleotide did not mediate or counteract the effects of ACTH, and cGMP was without any effect. These results are discussed in the light of current ideas on the mechanism of action of neuropeptides. PMID:6129617

Jolles, J; van Dongen, C J; ten Haaf, J; Gispen, W H



Role of MAO A and B in neurotransmitter metabolism and behavior.  


MAO (monoamine oxidase) A and B are key isoenzymes that degrade biogenic and dietary amines. MAO A preferentially oxidizes serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE), whereas MAO B preferentially oxidizes phenylethylamine (PEA). Both forms can oxidize dopamine (DA). However, the substrate specificity overlap and the in vivo function of these two isoenzymes is not clear. Recently, we have shown that MAO A and B knock-out (KO) mice exhibit distinct differences in neurotransmitter metabolism and behavior. MAO A KO mice have elevated brain levels of 5-HT, NE and DA and manifest aggressive behavior similar to men with a deletion of MAO A. In contrast, MAO B KO mice do not exhibit aggression and only levels of PEA are increased. Both MAO A and B KO mice show increased reactivity to stress. Taken together, these results suggest that MAO A and B have distinctly different roles in monoamine metabolism. Further, these mice are valuable models for investigating the role of monoamines in psychoses and neurodegenerative and stress-related disorders. PMID:10389141

Shih, J C; Chen, K; Ridd, M J



Diagnosis and treatment of neurotransmitter disorders.  


The neurotransmitter disorders represent an enigmatic and enlarging group of neurometabolic conditions caused by abnormal neurotransmitter metabolism or transport. A high index of clinical suspicion is important, given the availability of therapeutic strategies. This article covers disorders of monoamine (catecholamine and serotonin) synthesis, glycine catabolism, pyridoxine dependency, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism. The technological aspects of appropriate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection, shipment, study, and interpretation merit special consideration. Diagnosis of disorders of monoamines requires analysis of CSF homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, ortho-methyldopa, BH4, and neopterin. The delineation of new disorders with important therapeutic implications, such as cerebral folate deficiency and PNPO deficiency, serves to highlight the value of measuring CSF neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites. The impressive responsiveness of Segawa fluctuating dystonia to levodopa is a hallmark feature of previously unrecognized neurologic morbidity becoming treatable at any age. Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency have more severe phenotypes and show variable responsiveness to levodopa. Glycine encephalopathy usually has a poor outcome; benzoate therapy may be helpful in less affected cases. Pyridoxine-dependent seizures are a refractory but treatable group of neonatal and infantile seizures; rare cases require pyridoxal-5-phosphate. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency is relatively common in comparison to the remainder of this group of disorders. Treatment directed at the metabolic defect with vigabatrin has been disappointing, and multiple therapies are targeted toward specific but protean symptoms. Other disorders of GABA metabolism, as is true of the wide spectrum of neurotransmitter disorders, will require increasing use of CSF analysis for diagnosis, and ultimately, treatment. PMID:17032564

Pearl, Phillip L; Hartka, Thomas R; Taylor, Jacob



The synthesis of bivalent 2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-8-heterobicyclo[3.2.1]octanes as probes for proximal binding sites on the dopamine and serotonin transporters  

PubMed Central

3-Aryltropanes have been widely explored for potential medications for remediation of cocaine abuse. Research has focused predominantly on 8-azatropanes and it is now well recognized that these compounds can be designed to manifest varied selectivity and potency for inhibition of the dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine uptake systems. We had reported that the 8-nitrogen atom present in the 3-aryltropanes is not essential for tropanes to bind to monoamine uptake systems. We demonstrated that compounds in which the amine had been exchanged for an ether or a thioether retained binding potency and selectivity. We have now designed bivalent compounds in which two tropane moieties are linked by an intervening chain. These 8-homo- and 8-heterotropane bivalent compounds allowed a search for adjacent tropane binding sites on the DAT as well as a further exploration of whether the binding sites for 8-azatropanes are the same as those for other 8-heterotropanes. A comparison of these compounds with their progenitor tropanes cast into doubt the existence of proximal binding sites on the DAT, and offered support for the existence of different binding sites for the 8-azatropanes compared with 8-oxa- and 8-thiatropanes. Indeed, 8-aza bivalent tropanes inhibited DAT with potency about 10-fold lower (DAT: IC50 = 31 nM) than their monovalent counterparts. Furthermore, bivalent ligands in which one or both of the tropanes was devoid of an amine suffered a further loss of inhibitory potency. We conclude that it is unlikely that there exist two tropane binding sites in close proximity to one another on either the DAT or SERT. PMID:18053732

Meltzer, Peter C.; Kryatova, Olga; Pham-Huu, Duy-Phong; Donovan, Patrick; Janowsky, Aaron



Behavioral mechanisms underlying the extinction of cocaine self-administration  

E-print Network

Neurotransmitters.................................................................................. 11 Dopamine.................................................................................. 11 Serotonin... nervous system (CNS), cocaine will target the transport reuptake mechanisms of 3 neurotransmitter systems: dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE). This occurs in various loci throughout the brain. Of these, the most pertinent...

Valles, Rodrigo, Jr.



Tritium-3-N-methylspiperone labels D2 dopamine receptors in basal ganglia and S2 serotonin receptors in cerebral cortex  

SciTech Connect

Detailed studies of the properties of /sup 3/H-3-N-methylspiperone (NMSP) binding in rat and human brain homogenates were performed at 37/sup 0/C. In homogenates of rat striatum and frontal cortex and human caudate and frontal cortex tissues, the specific binding was found to be saturable. Rat caudate contained 33.2 pmol/gm wet-weight tissue and displayed an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) of 8.7 X 10(-11) M; rat frontal cortex contained 18.5 pmol/gm wet-weight tissue and displayed a Kd of 1.5 X 10(-10) M. Human caudate contained 8.96 pmol/gm wet-weight tissue and displayed a Kd of 1.1 X 10(-10) M; human frontal cortex possessed 9.8 pmol/gm wet-weight tissue and a Kd of 4.4 X 10(-10) M. Kinetic studies revealed a very rapid rate of association in all the tissues studied. The rate of dissociation was relatively slow in all 4 tissue preparations; the dissociation rate was somewhat slower in rat striatum and human caudate relative to rat and human frontal cortex. This was consistent with the somewhat higher affinity, relative to frontal cortex, displayed by /sup 3/H-NMSP in rat striatal and human caudate tissue. The pharmacological properties of the specific binding in rat striatal and human caudate tissues were very similar and indicated the presence of brain D2 dopamine receptors. In rat and human frontal cortex tissue homogenates, the pharmacological characteristics of the specific binding indicated the presence of 5-HT2 receptors.

Lyon, R.A.; Titeler, M.; Frost, J.J.; Whitehouse, P.J.; Wong, D.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.; Links, J.M.; Kuhar, M.J.



Rotifer neuropharmacology IV. Involvement of aminergic neurotransmitters in the abnormal sessile behavior of Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera, Aschelminthes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Involvement of nine classical neurotransmitters in the abnormal sessile behavior of the rotiferBrachionus plicatilis was investigated. Only norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and octopamine (OA) induced sessility. NE and DA behaved as a full, OA as a partial agonist; NE was more potent than DA. Catecholamines may be involved as neurotransmitters in the pedal gland secretory mechanism.

Jalal Keshmirian; Thomas Nogrady



Serotonin syndrome  


... medicine). Drugs of abuse, such as ecstasy and LSD have also been associated with serotonin syndrome. ... Always tell all of your healthcare providers what medicines you take. ... especially right after starting a medicine or increasing ...


Serotonin-Labeled CdSe Nanocrystals: Applications for Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter which has been linked to the regulation of critical behaviors including sleep, appetite, and mood. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a 12-transmembrane domain protein responsible for clearance of serotonin from extracellular spaces following release. In order to assess the potential for use of ligand-conjugated nanocrystals to target cell surface receptors, ion channels, and transporters we have measured the ability of serotonin-labeled CdSe nanocrystals (SNACs) to block the uptake of tritiated serotonin by the human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT and dSERT). Estimated Ki values, the SNAC concentration at which half of the serotonin transport activity is blocked, were determined by nonlinear regression to be Ki (hSERT ) = 74uM and Ki (dSERT ) = 29uM. These values and our inability to detect free serotonin indicate that SNACs selectively interact with the serotonin recognition site of the transporter. We have also exposed the SNACs to cells containing ionotropic serotonin receptors and have measured the electrical response of the cell using a two microelectrode voltage clamp. We find that serotonin receptors do respond to the SNACs and we measure currents similar to the free serotonin response. These results indicate that ligand-conjugated nanocrystals can be used to label both receptor and transporter proteins. Initial fluorescence labeling experiments will be discussed.

Kippeny, Tadd; Adkins, Erika; Adams, Scott; Thomlinson, Ian; Schroeter, Sally; Defelice, Louis; Blakely, Randy; Rosenthal, Sandra



Serotonin Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening syndrome that is precipitated by the use of serotonergic drugs and overactivation of both the peripheral and central postsynaptic 5HT-1A and, most notably, 5HT-2A receptors. This syndrome consists of a combination of mental status changes, neuromuscular hyperactivity, and autonomic hyperactivity. Serotonin syndrome can occur via the therapeutic use of serotonergic drugs alone, an intentional overdose of serotonergic drugs, or classically, as a result of a complex drug interaction between two serotonergic drugs that work by different mechanisms. A multitude of drug combinations can result in serotonin syndrome. Methods This review describes the presentation and management of serotonin syndrome and discusses the drugs and interactions that can precipitate this syndrome with the goal of making physicians more alert and aware of this potentially fatal yet preventable syndrome. Conclusion Many commonly used medications have proven to be the culprits of serotonin syndrome. Proper education and awareness about serotonin syndrome will improve the accuracy of diagnosis and promote the institution of the appropriate treatment that may prevent significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:24358002

Volpi-Abadie, Jacqueline; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David



Chromosome 11: gene for dopamine receptors, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spots>Dopamine receptor Location: chromosome 11 gene name: D4DR (dopamine receptor) This gene on chromosome 11 appears to influence personality. The protein produced from this gene is a receptor for the neurotransmitter dopamine. Dopamine pathways control many aspects of the brain, including blood flow. If this gene contains many repeated sequences the person is less responsive to dopamine and more likely to seek external "thrills" in their lives.



Cellular mechanisms governing neuronal plasticity during serotonin-induced neuromodulation and regeneration  

E-print Network

and neural networks underlying an animals behavior. In this thesis, electrophysiological modifications of identified buccal neuron 5.(B5) induced by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) and axonal crush were examined using intracellular...

Achee, Nicole Louise



APP+, a Fluorescent Analogue of the Neurotoxin MPP+, Is a Marker of Catecholamine Neurons in Brain Tissue, but Not a Fluorescent False Neurotransmitter  

PubMed Central

We have previously introduced fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFNs) as optical reporters that enable visualization of individual dopaminergic presynaptic terminals and their activity in the brain. In this context, we examined the fluorescent pyridinium dye 4-(4-dimethylamino)phenyl-1-methylpyridinium (APP+), a fluorescent analogue of the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPP+, in acute mouse brain tissue. APP+ is a substrate for the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and serotonin transporter (SERT), and as such represented a candidate for the development of new FFN probes. Here we report that APP+ labels cell bodies of catecholaminergic neurons in the midbrain in a DAT- and NET-dependent manner, as well as fine dopaminergic axonal processes in the dorsal striatum. APP+ destaining from presynaptic terminals in the dorsal striatum was also examined under the conditions inducing depolarization and exocytotic neurotransmitter release. Application of KCl led to a small but significant degree of destaining (approximately 15% compared to control), which stands in contrast to a nearly complete destaining of the new generation FFN agent, FFN102. Electrical stimulation of brain slices at 10 Hz afforded no significant change in the APP+ signal. These results indicate that the majority of the APP+ signal in axonal processes originates from labeled organelles including mitochondria, whereas only a minor component of the APP+ signal represents the releasable synaptic vesicular pool. These results also show that APP+ may serve as a useful probe for identifying catecholaminergic innervations in the brain, although it is a poor candidate for the development of FFNs. PMID:23647019



Salvinorin A regulates dopamine transporter function via a kappa opioid receptor and ERK1/2-dependent mechanism.  


Salvinorin A (SalA), a selective ?-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist, produces dysphoria and pro-depressant like effects. These actions have been attributed to inhibition of striatal dopamine release. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine transmission via uptake of released neurotransmitter. KORs are apposed to DAT in dopamine nerve terminals suggesting an additional target by which SalA modulates dopamine transmission. SalA produced a concentration-dependent, nor-binaltorphimine (BNI)- and pertussis toxin-sensitive increase of ASP(+) accumulation in EM4 cells coexpressing myc-KOR and YFP-DAT, using live cell imaging and the fluorescent monoamine transporter substrate, trans 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium) (ASP(+)). Other KOR agonists also increased DAT activity that was abolished by BNI pretreatment. While SalA increased DAT activity, SalA treatment decreased serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and had no effect on norepinephrine transporter (NET) activity. In striatum, SalA increased the Vmax for DAT mediated DA transport and DAT surface expression. SalA up-regulation of DAT function is mediated by KOR activation and the KOR-linked extracellular signal regulated kinase-½ (ERK1/2) pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and BRET studies revealed that DAT and KOR exist in a complex. In live cells, DAT and KOR exhibited robust FRET signals under basal conditions. SalA exposure caused a rapid and significant increase of the FRET signal. This suggests that the formation of KOR and DAT complexes is promoted in response to KOR activation. Together, these data suggest that enhanced DA transport and decreased DA release resulting in decreased dopamine signalling may contribute to the dysphoric and pro-depressant like effects of SalA and other KOR agonists. PMID:25107591

Kivell, Bronwyn; Uzelac, Zeljko; Sundaramurthy, Santhanalakshmi; Rajamanickam, Jeyaganesh; Ewald, Amy; Chefer, Vladimir; Jaligam, Vanaja; Bolan, Elizabeth; Simonson, Bridget; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D; Sitte, Harald H; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Shippenberg, Toni S



The antimalarial drug quinine interferes with serotonin biosynthesis and action  

PubMed Central

The major antimalarial drug quinine perturbs uptake of the essential amino acid tryptophan, and patients with low plasma tryptophan are predisposed to adverse quinine reactions; symptoms of which are similar to indications of tryptophan depletion. As tryptophan is a precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), here we test the hypothesis that quinine disrupts serotonin function. Quinine inhibited serotonin-induced proliferation of yeast as well as human (SHSY5Y) cells. One possible cause of this effect is through inhibition of 5-HT receptor activation by quinine, as we observed here. Furthermore, cells exhibited marked decreases in serotonin production during incubation with quinine. By assaying activity and kinetics of the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), we showed that quinine competitively inhibits TPH2 in the presence of the substrate tryptophan. The study shows that quinine disrupts both serotonin biosynthesis and function, giving important new insight to the action of quinine on mammalian cells. PMID:24402577

Islahudin, Farida; Tindall, Sarah M.; Mellor, Ian R.; Swift, Karen; Christensen, Hans E. M.; Fone, Kevin C. F.; Pleass, Richard J.; Ting, Kang-Nee; Avery, Simon V.



Development of a simple and rapid solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the analysis of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in human urine.  


The work aims at developing a simple and rapid method for the quantification of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in human urine. The urinary levels of these biogenic amines can be correlated with several pathological conditions concerning heart disease, stress, neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. The proposed analytical approach is based on the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) after a fast derivatization of both aliphatic amino and phenolic moieties by propyl chloroformate. The variables influencing the derivatization reaction were reliably optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design". The optimal conditions were obtained by performing derivatization with 100?L of propyl chloroformate and 100?L of pyridine. The extraction ability of five commercially available SPME fibers was evaluated in univariate mode and the best results were obtained using the polyacrylate fiber. The variables affecting the efficiency of SPME analysis were again optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design" and, in particular, a central composite design (CCD) was applied. The optimal values were extraction in 45min at room temperature, desorption temperature at 300°C, no addition of NaCl. Assay of derivatized analytes was performed by using a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) system in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. An evaluation of all analytical parameters demonstrates that the developed method provides satisfactory results. Indeed, very good linearities were achieved in the tested calibration range with correlation coefficient values of 0.9995, 0.9999 and 0.9997 for DA, 5-HT and NE, respectively. Accuracies and RSDs calculated for between-run and tested at concentrations of 30, 200, and 800?g L(-1) were in the range from 92.8% to 103.0%, and from 0.67 to 4.5%, respectively. Finally, the LOD values obtained can be considered very good (0.587, 0.381 and 1.23?g L(-1) for DA, 5-HT and NE, respectively). PMID:24439500

Naccarato, Attilio; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio



UWA-121, a mixed dopamine and serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, enhances L-DOPA anti-parkinsonian action without worsening dyskinesia or psychosis-like behaviours in the MPTP-lesioned common marmoset.  


L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its long-term administration is complicated by wearing-off and dyskinesia. UWA-101, a dual, equipotent inhibitor of dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) transporters, has previously been shown to successfully extend duration of anti-parkinsonian benefit of L-DOPA (ON-time), without exacerbating dyskinesia, in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned marmoset. However, UWA-101 is racemic and it is unclear whether one or both enantiomers contribute to its actions, and whether a better therapeutic effect might be attained by using a single antipode. In the current study, we synthesised the two enantiomers of UWA-101, R-101 (UWA-121) and S-101 (UWA-122), characterised their pharmacological profiles and administered them to MPTP-lesioned marmosets. Parkinsonism, dyskinesia, psychosis-like behaviours and duration of ON-time were evaluated. UWA-121 is a dual DAT > SERT inhibitor, with an approximate 10:1 DAT:SERT affinity ratio (inhibitory constants (Ki) of 307 and 3830 nM, respectively). In combination with L-DOPA, UWA-121 extended duration of ON-time when compared to L-DOPA/vehicle treatment (by 40%, P < 0.01). UWA-121 also extended duration of ON-time without dyskinesia (by 215%, P < 0.05) and ON-time without psychosis-like behaviours when compared to L-DOPA/vehicle treatment (by 345%, P < 0.01). UWA-121 did not worsen the severity of dyskinesia or psychosis-like behaviours (P > 0.05). UWA-122 is a selective SERT inhibitor (Ki 120 nM, Ki at DAT > 50 ?M) and, in combination with L-DOPA, had no effect on ON-time, dyskinesia or psychosis-like behaviours (P > 0.05). These data indicate that dual DAT and SERT inhibitors effectively enhance L-DOPA anti-parkinsonian action without worsening dyskinesia and that compounds with such a pharmacological profile represent promising agents against wearing-off in PD. PMID:24447715

Huot, Philippe; Johnston, Tom H; Lewis, Katie D; Koprich, James B; Reyes, M Gabriela; Fox, Susan H; Piggott, Matthew J; Brotchie, Jonathan M



Modulation of dopamine receptors in the Tapes clam by dextroamphetamine and phenylethanolamine.  


The mechanism underlying the modulation, by dextroamphetamine and compounds related to phenylethanolamine, of responses to dopamine and serotonin has been studied in the isolated ventricle and aortic bulb of the clam Tapes watlingi. Dextroamphetamine and phenylethanolamine but not cocaine and benztropine have the ability to unmask inhibitory responses to both dopamine and serotonin in the ventricle. Chlordimeform but not clozapine attenuates the inhibitory response to both dextroamphetamine and phenylethanolamine in concentrations which have little or no effect on the inhibitory response to dopamine in the ventricle. Phenylethanolamine, dextroamphetamine, phenylpropylolamine and p-chloro-phenylethanolamine but not octopamine or noradrenaline attenuate the contractile responses to both dopamine and serotonin in preparations of the quiescent aortic bulb. These data show that there are specific receptors for phenylethanolamine in the Tapes heart capable of modulating responses to dopamine and serotonin, and suggests that this biogenic phenethylamine can act as an environmental and physiological factor which may determine how the mollusc heart responds to dopamine. PMID:2882924

Dougan, D F; Duffield, P; Wade, D N



Wide-range, picoampere-sensitivity multichannel VLSI potentiostat for neurotransmitter sensing.  


Neurotransmitter sensing is critical in studying nervous pathways and neurological disorders. A 16-channel current-measuring VLSI potentiostat with multiple ranges from picoamperes to microamperes is presented for electrochemical detection of electroactive neurotransmitters like dopamine, nitric oxide etc. The analog-to-digital converter design employs a current-mode, first-order single-bit delta-sigma modulator architecture with a two-stage, digitally reconfigurable oversampling ratio for ranging the conversion scale. An integrated prototype is fabricated in CMOS technology, and experimentally characterized. Real-time multi-channel acquisition of dopamine concentration in vitro is performed with a microfabricated sensor array. PMID:17271192

Murari, Kartikeya; Thakor, Nitish; Stanacevic, Milutin; Cauwenberghs, Gert



Dopey dopamine: high tonic results in ironic performance.  


Financial incentives are commonly used as motivational tools to enhance performance. Decades of research have established that the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is the fuel that propels reward-motivated behavior, yet a new PET study questions whether dopamine is beneficial to performance, showing that tonic DA synthesis predicts performance decrements when incentives are high. PMID:24793397

Silston, Brian; Mobbs, Dean



Imaging Dopamine Receptors in the Human Brain by Positron Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotransmitter receptors may be involved in a number of neuropsychiatric disease states. The ligand 3-N-[11C]methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans. This technique holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptors in humans.

Henry N. Wagner; H. Donald Burns; Robert F. Dannals; Dean F. Wong; Bengt Langstrom; Timothy Duelfer; J. James Frost; Hayden T. Ravert; Jonathan M. Links; Shelley B. Rosenbloom; Scott E. Lukas; Alfred V. Kramer; Michael J. Kuhar



Sensing small neurotransmitter-enzyme interaction with nanoporous gated ion-sensitive field effect transistors.  


Ion-sensitive field effect transistors with gates having a high density of nanopores were fabricated and employed to sense the neurotransmitter dopamine with high selectivity and detectability at micromolar range. The nanoporous structure of the gates was produced by applying a relatively simple anodizing process, which yielded a porous alumina layer with pores exhibiting a mean diameter ranging from 20 to 35 nm. Gate-source voltages of the transistors demonstrated a pH-dependence that was linear over a wide range and could be understood as changes in surface charges during protonation and deprotonation. The large surface area provided by the pores allowed the physical immobilization of tyrosinase, which is an enzyme that oxidizes dopamine, on the gates of the transistors, and thus, changes the acid-base behavior on their surfaces. Concentration-dependent dopamine interacting with immobilized tyrosinase showed a linear dependence into a physiological range of interest for dopamine concentration in the changes of gate-source voltages. In comparison with previous approaches, a response time relatively fast for detecting dopamine was obtained. Additionally, selectivity assays for other neurotransmitters that are abundantly found in the brain were examined. These results demonstrate that the nanoporous structure of ion-sensitive field effect transistors can easily be used to immobilize specific enzyme that can readily and selectively detect small neurotransmitter molecule based on its acid-base interaction with the receptor. Therefore, it could serve as a technology platform for molecular studies of neurotransmitter-enzyme binding and drugs screening. PMID:22040747

Kisner, Alexandre; Stockmann, Regina; Jansen, Michael; Yegin, Ugur; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo; Mourzina, Yulia



Activity-dependent neurotransmitter respecification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years it has been assumed that the identity of the transmitters expressed by neurons is stable and unchanging. Recent work, however, shows that electrical activity can respecify neurotransmitter expression during development and in the mature nervous system, and an understanding is emerging of the molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent transmitter respecification. Changes in postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor expression accompany and

Nicholas C. Spitzer



Serotonin, reserpine, and motility in Mesocestoides tetrathyridia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between serotonin (5-HT) and motility in tetrathyridia ofMesocestoides vogae (syn.M. corti) was studied with the aid of reserpine. Reserpine decreases the content of 5-HT as measured spectrofluorometrically and immunocytochemically and, furthermore, inhibits the motility, thus indicating a connection between the two. The results support the hypothesis about 5-HT being an excitatory neurotransmitter of motor activity inM. vogae. New

Nadezhda B. Terenina; Margaretha K. S. Gustafsson; Maria Reuter



Androgens coordinate neurotransmitter-related gene expression in male whiptail lizards  

PubMed Central

Sex steroid hormones coordinate neurotransmitter systems in the male brain to facilitate sexual behavior. Although neurotransmitter release in the male brain has been well documented, little is known about how androgens orchestrate changes in gene expression of neurotransmitter receptors. We used male whiptail lizards (Cnemidophorus inornatus) to investigate how androgens alter neurotransmitter-related gene expression in brain regions involved in social decision-making. We focused on three neurotransmitter systems involved in male-typical sexual behavior, including the NMDA glutamate receptor, nitric oxide, and dopamine receptors. Here we show that in androgen-treated males, there are coordinated changes in neurotransmitter-related gene expression. In androgen-implanted castrates compared to blank-implanted castrates (control group), we found associated increases in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) gene expression in the nucleus accumbens, preoptic area and ventromedial hypothalamus, a decrease of NR1 gene expression (obligate subunit of NMDA receptors) in the medial amygdaloid area and nucleus accumbens, and a decrease in D1 and D2 dopamine receptor gene expression in the nucleus accumbens. Our results support and expand the current model of androgen-mediated gene expression changes of neurotransmitter-related systems that facilitate sexual behavior in males. This also suggests that the proposed evolutionarily ancient reward system that reinforces sexual behavior in amniote vertebrates extends to reptiles. PMID:22862958

O'Connell, Lauren A.; Mitchell, Maggie M.; Hofmann, Hans A.; Crews, David



Relationship between serotonin and mast cells: inhibitory effect of anti-serotonin.  


Serotonin (5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter that acts in both central and peripheral nervous system, and has an impact on cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. 5HT exerts its effects via several receptors. Treatment with anti-5-HT receptors diminish the severity of contact allergy in experimental animals, an effect mediated by mast cells; while an agonist reduces the stress level and relieves pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. Mast cells are important for both innate and adaptive immunity and they are activated by cross-linking of FceRI molecules, which are involved in the binding of multivalent antigens to the attached IgE molecules, resulting in a variety of responses including the immediate release of potent inflammatory mediators. Serotonin is present in murine mucosal mast cells and some authors reported that human mast cells may also contain serotonin, especially in subjects with mastocytosis. Here we report the interrelationship between mast cells, serotonin and its receptor inhibitor. PMID:25316126

Kritas, S K; Saggini, A; Cerulli, G; Caraffa, A; Antinolfi, P; Pantalone, A; Rosati, M; Tei, M; Speziali, A; Saggini, R; Conti, P



Dirty electricity, chronic stress, neurotransmitters and disease.  


Dirty electricity, also called electrical pollution, is high-frequency voltage transients riding along the 50 or 60 Hz electricity provided by the electric utilities. It is generated by arcing, by sparking and by any device that interrupts current flow, especially switching power supplies. It has been associated with cancer, diabetes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in humans. Epidemiological evidence also links dirty electricity to most of the diseases of civilization including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and suicide, beginning at the turn of the twentieth century. The dirty electricity level in a public library was reduced from over 10 000 Graham/Stetzer (G/S) units to below 50 G/S units by installing plug-in capacitive filters. Before cleanup, the urinary dopamine level of only one of seven volunteers was within normal levels, while four of seven phenylethylamine levels were normal. After an initial decline, over the next 18 weeks the dopamine levels gradually increased to an average of over 215 ?g/g creatinine, which is well above 170 ?g/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Average phenylethylamine levels also rose gradually to slightly above 70 ?g/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Neurotransmitters may be biomarkers for dirty electricity and other electromagnetic field exposures. We believe that dirty electricity is a chronic stressor of electrified populations and is responsible for many of their disease patterns. PMID:23323864

Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, David



Quantitative pharmacologic MRI: Mapping the cerebral blood volume response to cocaine in dopamine transporter knockout mice  

E-print Network

Quantitative pharmacologic MRI: Mapping the cerebral blood volume response to cocaine in dopamine employed CBV-weighted phMRI to compare cocaine-modulated neuronal activity in dopamine transporter (DAT) knockout (KO) and wild-type mice. Cocaine acts to block the dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin

Reber, Paul J.


Serotonin enhances solitariness in phase transition of the migratory locust  

PubMed Central

The behavioral plasticity of locusts is a striking trait presented during the reversible phase transition between solitary and gregarious individuals. However, the results of serotonin as a neurotransmitter from the migratory locust Locusta migratoria in phase transition showed an alternative profile compared to the results from the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria. In this study, we investigated the roles of serotonin in the brain during the phase change of the migratory locust. During the isolation of gregarious nymphs, the concentration of serotonin in the brain increased significantly, whereas serotonin receptors (i.e., 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT7) we identified here showed invariable expression patterns. Pharmacological intervention showed that serotonin injection in the brain of gregarious nymphs did not induced the behavioral change toward solitariness, but injection of this chemical in isolated gregarious nymphs accelerated the behavioral change from gregarious to solitary phase. During the crowding of solitary nymphs, the concentration of serotonin in the brain remained unchanged, whereas 5-HT2 increased after 1 h of crowding and maintained stable expression level thereafter. Activation of serotonin-5-HT2 signaling with a pharmaceutical agonist inhibited the gregariousness of solitary nymphs in crowding treatment. These results indicate that the fluctuations of serotonin content and 5-HT2 expression are results of locust phase change. Overall, this study demonstrates that serotonin enhances the solitariness of the gregarious locusts. Serotonin may regulate the withdrawal-like behavioral pattern displayed during locust phase change and this mechanism is conserved in different locust species. PMID:24109441

Guo, Xiaojiao; Ma, Zongyuan; Kang, Le



Cognitive effects of genetic variation in monoamine neurotransmitter systems: A population-based study of COMT, MAOA, and 5HTTLPR  

PubMed Central

Individual differences in cognitive function are highly heritable and most likely driven by multiple genes of small effect. Well-characterized common functional polymorphisms in the genes MAOA, COMT, and 5HTTLPR each have predictable effects on the availability of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. We hypothesized that 5HTTLPR genotype would show little association with prefrontal cognitive performance, but that COMT and MAOA would have interacting effects on cognition through their shared influence on prefrontal catecholamine availability. We assessed the individual and epistatic effects of functional polymorphisms in COMT, MAOA, and 5HTTLPR on children's prefrontal cognitive function in nearly 6,000 children from the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Neither MAOA nor 5HTTLPR polymorphisms showed significant effects on cognitive function. In boys but not girls, there was a modest but statistically significant interaction between MAOA and COMT genotypes such that increased prefrontal catecholamine availability was associated with better working memory. These results suggest that assessment of multiple genes within functionally related systems may improve our understanding of the genetic basis of cognition. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21302344

Barnett, Jennifer H; Xu, Ke; Heron, Jon; Goldman, David; Jones, Peter B



Head-to-head comparisons of carbon fiber microelectrode coatings for sensitive and selective neurotransmitter detection by voltammetry.  


Voltammetry is widely used to investigate neurotransmission and other biological processes but is limited by poor chemical selectivity and fouling of commonly used carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs). We performed direct comparisons of three key coating materials purported to impart selectivity and fouling resistance to electrodes: Nafion, base-hydrolyzed cellulose acetate (BCA), and fibronectin. We systematically evaluated the impact on a range of electrode parameters. Fouling due to exposure to brain tissue was investigated using an approach that minimizes the use of animals while enabling evaluation of statistically significant populations of electrodes. We find that BCA is relatively fouling-resistant. Moreover, detection at BCA-coated CFMs can be tuned by altering hydrolysis times to minimize the impact on sensitivity losses while maintaining fouling resistance. Fibronectin coating is associated with moderate losses in sensitivity after coating and fouling. Nafion imparts increased sensitivity for dopamine and norepinephrine but not serotonin, as well as the anticipated selectivity for cationic neurotransmitters over anionic metabolites. Although Nafion has been suggested to resist fouling, both dip-coating and electrodeposition of Nafion are associated with substantial fouling, similar to levels observed at bare electrodes after exposure to brain tissue. Direct comparisons of these coatings identified unique electroanalytical properties of each that can be used to guide selection tailored to the goals and environment of specific studies. PMID:21770471

Singh, Yogesh S; Sawarynski, Lauren E; Dabiri, Pasha D; Choi, Wonwoo R; Andrews, Anne M



Head-to-Head Comparisons of Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Coatings for Sensitive and Selective Neurotransmitter Detection by Voltammetry  

PubMed Central

Voltammetry is widely used to investigate neurotransmission and other biological processes but is limited by poor chemical selectivity and fouling of commonly used carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs). We performed direct comparisons of three key coating materials purported to impart selectivity and fouling resistance to electrodes: Nafion, base-hydrolyzed cellulose acetate (BCA), and fibronectin. We systematically evaluated the impact on a range of electrode parameters. Fouling due to exposure to brain tissue was investigated using an approach that minimizes the use of animals while enabling evaluation of statistically significant populations of electrodes. We find that BCA is relatively fouling resistant. Moreover, detection at BCA-coated CFMs can be tuned by altering hydrolysis times to minimize the impact on sensitivity losses while maintaining fouling resistance. Fibronectin coating is associated with moderate losses in sensitivity after coating and fouling. Nafion imparts increased sensitivity for dopamine and norepinephrine but not serotonin, as well as the anticipated selectivity for cationic neurotransmitters over anionic metabolites. However, while Nafion has been suggested to resist fouling, both dip-coating and electro-deposition of Nafion are associated with substantial fouling, similar to levels observed at bare electrodes after exposure to brain tissue. Direct comparisons of these coatings identified unique electroanalytical properties of each that can be used to guide selection tailored to the goals and environment of specific studies. PMID:21770471

Singh, Yogesh S.; Sawarynski, Lauren E.; Dabiri, Pasha D.; Choi, Wonwoo R.; Andrews, Anne M.



Dopamine and the Origins of Human Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general theory is proposed that attributes the origins of human intelligence to an expansion of dopaminergic systems in human cognition. Dopamine is postulated to be the key neurotransmitter regulating six predominantly left-hemispheric cognitive skills critical to human language and thought: motor planning, working memory, cognitive flexibility, abstract reasoning, temporal analysis\\/sequencing, and generativity. A dopaminergic expansion during early hominid evolution

Fred H. Previc



Arginine vasopressin antinociception in the rat nucleus raphe magnus is involved in the endogenous opiate peptide and serotonin system.  


Arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) has been implicated in antinociception. This communication was designed to investigate which neuropeptide and neurotransmitter are involved in AVP antinociception in the rat NRM. The results showed that (1) in the NRM perfuse liquid, pain stimulation could increase the concentrations of AVP, leucine-enkephalin (L-Ek), methionine-enkephalin (M-Ek), beta-endorphin (beta-Ep), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), but not change the concentrations of dynorphinA(1-13) (DynA(1-13)), oxytocin, achetylcholine, choline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanilic acid, norepinephrine and epinephrine; (2) in the NRM perfuse liquid, AVP increased the concentrations of L-Ek, M-Ek, beta-Ep, DynA(1-13), 5-HT and 5-HIAA, but did not change the concentrations of oxytocin and the other studied neurotransmitters; (3) AVP antinociception in the NRM was attenuated by cypoheptadine (a 5-HT-receptor antagonist) or naloxone (an opiate receptor antagonist), but was not influenced by the other studied receptor antagonists. The data suggested that AVP antinociception in the NRM might be involved in endogenous opiate peptide and 5-HT system. PMID:19540433

Yang, Jun; Yuan, Huifeng; Chu, Jiegen; Yang, Yu; Xu, Hongtao; Wang, Gen; Liu, Wen-Yan; Lin, Bao-Cheng



Neurotransmitter signaling in white matter.  


White matter (WM) tracts are bundles of myelinated axons that provide for rapid communication throughout the CNS and integration in grey matter (GM). The main cells in myelinated tracts are oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, with small populations of microglia and oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The prominence of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, which largely exclude neuronal cell bodies, indicates it must have physiological functions other than neuron-to-neuron communication. A surprising aspect is the diversity of neurotransmitter signaling in WM, with evidence for glutamatergic, purinergic (ATP and adenosine), GABAergic, glycinergic, adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic signaling, acting via a wide range of ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Both axons and glia are potential sources of neurotransmitters and may express the respective receptors. The physiological functions of neurotransmitter signaling in WM are subject to debate, but glutamate and ATP-mediated signaling have been shown to evoke Ca(2+) signals in glia and modulate axonal conduction. Experimental findings support a model of neurotransmitters being released from axons during action potential propagation acting on glial receptors to regulate the homeostatic functions of astrocytes and myelination by oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes also release neurotransmitters, which act on axonal receptors to strengthen action potential propagation, maintaining signaling along potentially long axon tracts. The co-existence of multiple neurotransmitters in WM tracts suggests they may have diverse functions that are important for information processing. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter signaling phenomena described in WM most likely apply to myelinated axons of the cerebral cortex and GM areas, where they are doubtless important for higher cognitive function. GLIA 2014;62:1762-1779. PMID:24753049

Butt, Arthur M; Fern, Robert F; Matute, Carlos



Convergent Pathways for Steroid Hormone-and Neurotransmitter-Induced Rat Sexual Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D_1 receptor agonist, but not a D_2 receptor agonist, mimicked the effects of progesterone in facilitating sexual behavior in female rats. The facilitatory effect of the neurotransmitter was blocked by progesterone receptor antagonists, a D_1 receptor antagonist, or antisense oligonucleotides to the progesterone receptor. The results suggest that in rodents neurotransmitters may regulate in vivo gene expression and behavior by means of cross-talk with steroid receptors in the brain.

Mani, S. K.; Allen, J. M. C.; Clark, J. H.; Blaustein, J. D.; O'Malley, B. W.



Autoantibodies against four kinds of neurotransmitter receptors in psychiatric disorders.  


There is a hypothesis that autoimmune abnormalities in neurotransmitter receptors might cause some psychiatric disorders. Using a sensitive radioligand assay, we detected serum autoantibodies to recombinant human muscarinic cholinergic receptor 1 (CHRM1, 34.4%), mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1, 13.1%), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (HTR1A, 7.4%), and dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2, 4.9%) in 122 psychiatric patients. Positive antibodies to CHRM1 were found in 34.1%, 34.9%, 33.3%, and 9.1% of patients with schizophrenic disorders (n=44), mood disorders (n=63), other psychiatric disorders (n=15) and autoimmune diseases (n=33), respectively. All three patients with neuroleptic maliganant syndrome had high activities of autoantibodies to CHRM1, OPRM1, and/or HTR1A. Our data suggest that autoimmunity to neurotransmitter receptors might be associated with the induction of psychiatric symptoms and have some relation to neuroleptic malignant syndrome. PMID:12965267

Tanaka, Susumu; Matsunaga, Hidenori; Kimura, Masahiro; Tatsumi, Ke ita; Hidaka, Yoh; Takano, Toru; Uema, Takeshi; Takeda, Masatoshi; Amino, Nobuyuki



The effect of certain neurotransmitters on the analgesic action of enkephalinamide.  


The effect of noradrenaline, dopamine, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine on the analgesic action of enkephalinamide was studied and it was demonstrated that catecholamines and acetylcholine potentiated the analgesic action of enkephalinamide, while the effect of serotonin varied depending on the dose used. These results suggest that catecholamines, acetylcholine and 5-hydroxytryptamine can modulate the analgesic action of enkephalins. PMID:6137932

Laskawiec, G; Herman, Z S



The Effects of Cholinergic and Dopaminergic Antagonists on Nicotine-Induced Cerebral Neurotransmitter Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a continuing study of nicotine-induced mechanisms in brain areas associated with cognitive processes, the effects of cholinergic and dopaminergic antagonists on nicotine-induced changes in dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin were examined. These effects were measured via in vivo microdialysis in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and in the prefrontal and medial temporal cortex of conscious, freely moving, adult male rats.

S. Rossi; S. Singer; E. Shearman; H. Sershen; A. Lajtha



Chemical analysis of neurotransmitter candidates in clonal cell lines from Drosophila central nervous system. I. ACh and L-dopa.  


To characterize neuronal phenotypes, aminergic neurotransmitters, i.e. acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamine (CA)s and other biogenic amines (serotonin, octopamine), were surveyed in 10 colonial clones from one cell line of Drosophila larval CNS using HPLC-ECD system. ACh, which is a neurotransmitter in Drosophila, was found in 7 out of 10 clones. CAs, their metabolites, and other amines were not detected in any clones. However, all the 10 clones expressed L-dopa, a precursor of CAs. Consequently, seven clones expressed ACh and L-dopa. L-dopa as a novel neurotransmitter candidate was discussed. PMID:7970162

Ui-Tei, K; Nishihara, S; Sakuma, M; Matsuda, K; Miyake, T; Miyata, Y



Mimicking subsecond neurotransmitter dynamics with femtosecond laser stimulated nanosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing nanoscale chemical delivery systems target diseased cells over long, sustained periods of time, typically through one-time, destructive triggering. Future directions lie in the development of fast and robust techniques capable of reproducing the pulsatile chemical activity of living organisms, thereby allowing us to mimic biofunctionality. Here, we demonstrate that by applying programmed femtosecond laser pulses to robust, nanoscale liposome structures containing dopamine, we achieve sub-second, controlled release of dopamine - a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system - thereby replicating its release profile in the brain. The fast delivery system provides a powerful new interface with neural circuits, and to the larger range of biological functions that operate on this short timescale.

Nakano, Takashi; Chin, Catherine; Myint, David Mo Aung; Tan, Eng Wui; Hale, Peter John; Krishna M., Bala Murali; Reynolds, John N. J.; Wickens, Jeff; Dani, Keshav M.



The Cytoplasmic Permeation Pathway of Neurotransmitter Transporters†  

PubMed Central

Ion-coupled solute transporters are responsible for transporting nutrients, ions and signaling molecules across a variety of biological membranes. Recent high-resolution crystal structures of several transporters from protein families that were previously thought to be unrelated show common structural features indicating a large structural family representing transporters from all kingdoms of life. This review describes studies that led to an understanding of the conformational changes required for solute transport in this family. The first structure in this family showed the bacterial amino acid transporter LeuT, which is homologous to neurotransmitter transporters, in an extracellularly-oriented conformation with a molecule of leucine occluded at the substrate site. Studies with the mammalian serotonin transporter identified positions, buried in the LeuT structure, that defined a potential pathway leading from the cytoplasm to the substrate binding site. Modeling studies utilized an inverted structural repeat within the LeuT crystal structure to predict the conformation of LeuT in which the cytoplasmic permeation pathway, consisting of positions identified in SERT, was open for substrate diffusion to the cytoplasm. From the difference between the model and the crystal structures, a simple “rocking bundle” mechanism was proposed, in which a 4-helix bundle changed its orientation with respect to the rest of the protein to close the extracellular pathway and open the cytoplasmic one. Subsequent crystal structures from structurally related proteins provide evidence supporting this model for transport. PMID:21774491

Rudnick, Gary



Pharmacology of serotonin as related to anesthesia.  


Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is an important biogenic amine that fulfills the role of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. It has been a focus of interest during the last decade. Its diversity of pharmacologic actions is related to a wide variety of receptors and effector mechanisms. Seven serotonin receptor families have been identified thus far. They are genetically different transmembrane proteins composed of several hundred amino acids. The majority of these are G-protein-coupled, except the 5-HT3 receptors, which are directly ligand gated to fast ion channels. Serotonin is widely distributed in the body within the central and peripheral nervous systems, smooth muscles, and platelets, in particular. Consequently, its effects manifest mainly in these organs and influence a wide variety of neural, vascular, smooth muscle, and platelet functions. (Melatonin, a physiologically active metabolite of serotonin, is also instrumental in affecting many neural and hormonal functions.) Several selective agonists and particularly many selective antagonists have been developed for serotonin, which helped the serotonin receptor subtype classification. Some of these drugs are also used therapeutically in the treatment of migraine (eg, sumatriptan, which is a 5-HT1 receptor agonist), vascular disorders (5-HT2 antagonists), and nausea and vomiting (5-HT3 antagonists, eg, dolasetron, granisetron, ondansetron, and tropisetron), and have been investigated in gastrointestinal motility disorders (5-HT4 antagonists) and behavioral psychopathologies (5-HT1 agonists and 5-HT2-4 antagonists). Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are of particular clinical importance in the treatment of psychological illness. Future use of these drugs is also envisioned in the treatment of certain types of pain syndromes. Awareness of the serotonergic drugs and the recognition of possible drug interactions among drugs that influence serotonergic mechanisms in humans are becoming increasingly important in the practice of anesthesiology. PMID:8832453

Gyermek, L



Dopamine Transporter Blockade Increases LTP in the CA1 Region of the Rat Hippocampus via Activation of the D3 Dopamine Receptor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dopamine has been demonstrated to be involved in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. As monoamine transporter blockade will increase the actions of endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters, the effect of a dopamine transporter (DAT) antagonist on LTP was assessed using field excitatory postsynaptic…

Swant, Jarod; Wagner, John J.



Contributions to the field of neurotransmitters by Japanese scientists, and reflections on my own research  

PubMed Central

Part I describes important contributions made by some Japanese pioneers in the field of neurotransmitters: (their achievements in parentheses) J. Takamine (isolation and crystallization of adrenaline); K. Shimidzu (early hint for acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter); F. Kanematsu (donation of the Kanematsu Memorial Institute in Sydney); T. Hayashi (discovery of the excitatory action of glutamate and the inhibitory action of GABA); and I. Sano (discovery of a high concentration of dopamine in striatum, its reduction in a patient with Parkinson’s disease and the treatment with DOPA). In Part II, I present some of my reflections on my research on neurotransmitters. The work of my colleagues and myself has made some significant contributions to the establishment of neurotransmitter roles played by GABA and substance P, the first amino acid and the first peptide neurotransmitters, respectively. By the early 1960s, 3 substances, i.e., acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, had been established as neurotransmitters. Now the number of neurotransmitters is believed to be as many as 50 or even more mainly due to the inclusion of several amino acids and a large number of peptide transmitters. PMID:24019584

Otsuka, Masanori



Profiling neurotransmitter receptor expression in the Ambystoma mexicanum brain.  


Ability to regenerate limbs and central nervous system (CNS) is unique to few vertebrates, most notably the axolotl (Ambystoma sp.). However, despite the fact the neurotransmitter receptors are involved in axonal regeneration, little is known regarding its expression profile. In this project, RT-PCR and qPCR were performed to gain insight into the neurotransmitter receptors present in Ambystoma. Its functional ability was studied by expressing axolotl receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes by either injection of mRNA or by direct microtransplantation of brain membranes. Oocytes injected with axolotl mRNA expressed ionotropic receptors activated by GABA, aspartate+glycine and kainate, as well as metabotropic receptors activated by acetylcholine and glutamate. Interestingly, we did not see responses following the application of serotonin. Membranes from the axolotl brain were efficiently microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes and two types of native GABA receptors that differed in the temporal course of their responses and affinities to GABA were observed. Results of this study are necessary for further characterization of axolotl neurotransmitter receptors and may be useful for guiding experiments aimed at understanding activity-dependant limb and CNS regeneration. PMID:23353105

Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Limon, Agenor; Korn, Matthew J; Nakamura, Paul A; Shirkey, Nicole J; Wong, Jamie K; Miledi, Ricardo



Dopamine is a monoamine oxidase B substrate in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING the past decade, the central neurotransmitter, dopamine (DA), has been much studied for it is known to be involved in certain human disease states, Parkinsonism1 preeminently, and rather more inferentially, schizophrenia2. DA is metabolised by monoamine oxidase (MAO)3, which catalyses the oxidative deamination of a wide range of monoamines4,5, including the neurotransmitters noradrenaline (NA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and other

Vivette Glover; M. Sandler; F. OWEN; G. J. RILEY



Circulating serotonin in vertebrates.  


The role of circulating serotonin is unclear and whether or not serotonin is present in the blood of non-mammalian species is not known. This study provides the first evidence for the presence of serotonin in thrombocytes of birds and three reptilian species, the endothermic leatherback sea turtle, the green sea turtle and the partially endothermic American alligator. Thrombocytes from a fresh water turtle, American bullfrog, Yellowfin tuna, and Chinook salmon did not contain serotonin. Serotonin is a vasoactive substance that regulates skin blood flow, a major mechanism for endothermic body temperature regulation, which could explain why circulating serotonin is present in warm-blooded species. The temperature sensitivity of human blood platelets with concomitant changes in serotonin content further supports a link between circulating serotonin and thermoregulation. Phylogenetic comparison of the presence of circulating serotonin indicated an evolutionary divergence within reptilian species that might coincide with the emergence of endothermy. PMID:16041566

Maurer-Spurej, E



ntPET: A New Application of PET Imaging for Characterizing the Kinetics of Endogenous Neurotransmitter Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new application of Positron Emission Tomography ( 'ntPET' or 'neurotransm itter PET') designed to recover temporal patterns of neurotransmitter release from dynamic data. Our approach employs an enhanced tracer kinetic model that describes uptake of a labeled dopamine D2\\/D3 receptor ligand in the presence of a time-varying rise and fall in endogenous dopamine. Data must be acquired

Evan D Morris; Karmen K Yoder; Chunzhi Wang; Marc D Normandin; Qi-Huang Zheng; Bruce Mock; Raymond F Muzic Jr; Janice C Froehlich


77 FR 63766 - Schedules of Controlled Substances: Placement of Methylone Into Schedule I  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...substances, affects the concentrations of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in the CNS. In drug discrimination...conditioned place preference tests. Methylone is an inhibitor of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine uptake and also causes the...



Improved amino acid, bioenergetic metabolite and neurotransmitter profiles following human amnion epithelial cell transplant in intermediate maple syrup urine disease mice.  


Orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) significantly improves patient outcomes in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; OMIM: 248600), yet organ shortages point to the need for alternative therapies. Hepatocyte transplantation has shown both clinical and preclinical efficacy as an intervention for metabolic liver diseases, yet the availability of suitable livers for hepatocyte isolation is also limited. Conversely, human amnion epithelial cells (hAEC) may have utility as a hepatocyte substitute, and they share many of the characteristics of pluripotent embryonic stem cells while lacking their safety and ethical concerns. We reported that like hepatocytes, transplantation of hAEC significantly improved survival and lifespan, normalized body weight, and significantly improved branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) levels in sera and brain in a transgenic murine model of intermediate maple syrup urine disease (imsud). In the current report, we detail the neural and peripheral metabolic improvements associated with hAEC transplant in imsud mice, including amino acids associated with bioenergetics, the urea cycle, as well as the neurotransmitter systems for serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This stem cell therapy results in significant global correction of the metabolic profile that characterizes the disease, both in the periphery and the central nervous system, the target organ for toxicity in iMSUD. The significant correction of the disease phenotype, coupled with the theoretical benefits of hAEC, particularly their lack of immunogenicity and tumorigenicity, suggests that human amnion epithelial cells deserve serious consideration for clinical application to treat metabolic liver diseases. PMID:23566440

Skvorak, Kristen J; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc C; Gramignoli, Roberto; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Gibson, K Michael; Strom, Stephen C



Dopamine neurons derived from embryonic stem cells function in an animal model of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease is a widespread condition caused by the loss of midbrain neurons that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine. Cells derived from the fetal midbrain can modify the course of the disease, but they are an inadequate source of dopamine-synthesizing neurons because their ability to generate these neurons is unstable. In contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells proliferate extensively and can generate

Jong-Hoon Kim; Jonathan M. Auerbach; José A. Rodríguez-Gómez; Iván Velasco; Denise Gavin; Nadya Lumelsky; Sang-Hun Lee; John Nguyen; Rosario Sánchez-Pernaute; Krys Bankiewicz; Ron McKay



The predicted 3D structure of the human D2 dopamine receptor and the binding site and binding affinities for agonists and antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in the cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the 3D structure for the dopamine receptors and of the binding site for dopamine and

M. Yashar S. Kalani; Nagarajan Vaidehi; Spencer E. Hall; Rene J. Trabanino; Peter L. Freddolino; Maziyar A. Kalani; Wely B. Floriano; Victor Wai Tak Kam; William A. Goddard III



Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.



Effect of Serotonin Inhibition on Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Expression in Various Brain Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have shown the existence of functional interactions between central neurotransmitter systems and the hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) are regulated by multiple factors including glucocorticoids themselves. Neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) can regulate brain corticosteroid receptors in a complex way. The present study examined the short-term (48 h) effects of parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA),

Alexandra Semont; Marie-Pierre Fache; L’Houcine Ouafik; Micheline Hery; Maxime Faudon; Francis Hery



Expression of serotonin (5HT) during CNS development of the cephalopod mollusk, Idiosepius notoides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cephalopods are unique among mollusks in exhibiting an elaborate central nervous system (CNS) and remarkable cognitive abilities.\\u000a Despite a profound knowledge of the neuroanatomy and neurotransmitter distribution in their adult CNS, little is known about\\u000a the expression of neurotransmitters during cephalopod development. Here, we identify the first serotonin-immunoreactive (5-HT-ir)\\u000a neurons during ontogeny and describe the establishment of the 5-HT system

Tim Wollesen; Bernard M. Degnan; Andreas Wanninger



Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR-SERS) of neurotransmitters in colloidal silver solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIR-SERS spectra are measured for the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine at concentrations as low as 5 × 10?9 M in colloidal silver solutions with accumulation times as short as 25 ms. The detection range and acquisition time are on the order of physiologically relevant concentrations and the time scale of neuronal processes, respectively. The spectra are obtained using a CCD

Katrin Kneipp; Yang Wang; Ramachandra R. Dasari; Michael S. Feld



Phylogenetic Analysis and Selection Pressures of 5HT Receptors in Human and Non-human Primates: Receptor of an Ancient Neurotransmitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) an ancient neurotransmitter, involved in several neurophysiological and behavioral functions, acts by interacting with multiple receptors (5-HT1-5-HT7). Alterations in serotonergic signalling have also been implicated in various psychiatric disorders. The availability of the genome data of nonhuman primates permits comparative analysis of human 5-HT receptors with sequences of non-human primates to understand evolutionary divergence. We compared

Padmanabhan Anbazhagan; Meera Purushottam; H. B. Kiran Kumar; Odity Mukherjee; Sanjeev Jain; Ramanathan Sowdhamini



PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain  

SciTech Connect

Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it an important topic in research in the neurosciences and an important molecular target in drug development. PET enables the direct measurement of components of the dopamine system in the living human brain. It relies on radiotracers which label dopamine receptors, dopamine transporters, precursors of dopamine or compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade dopamine. Additionally, by using tracers that provide information on regional brain metabolism or blood flow as well as neurochemically specific pharmacological interventions, PET can be used to assess the functional consequences of change in brain dopamine activity. PET dopamine measurements have been used to investigate the normal human brain and its involvement in psychiatric and neurological diseases. It has also been used in psychopharmacological research to investigate dopamine drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease and of schizophrenia as well as to investigate the effects of drugs of abuse on the dopamine system. Since various functional and neurochemical parameters can be studied in the same subject, PET enables investigation of the functional integrity of the dopamine system in the human brain and investigation of the interactions of dopamine with other neurotransmitters. This paper summarizes the different tracers and experimental strategies developed to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and their applications to clinical research. 254 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)]|[SUNY-Stony Brook, NY (United States)] [and others



Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome: phenotypic spectrum from infancy to adulthood  

PubMed Central

Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome due to SLC6A3 mutations is the first inherited dopamine ‘transportopathy’ to be described, with a classical presentation of early infantile-onset progressive parkinsonism dystonia. In this study we have identified a new cohort of patients with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome, including, most significantly, atypical presentation later in childhood with a milder disease course. We report the detailed clinical features, molecular genetic findings and in vitro functional investigations undertaken for adult and paediatric cases. Patients presenting with parkinsonism dystonia or a neurotransmitter profile characteristic of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome were recruited for study. SLC6A3 mutational analysis was undertaken in all patients. The functional consequences of missense variants on the dopamine transporter were evaluated by determining the effect of mutant dopamine transporter on dopamine uptake, protein expression and amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux using an in vitro cellular heterologous expression system. We identified eight new patients from five unrelated families with dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome. The median age at diagnosis was 13 years (range 1.5–34 years). Most significantly, the case series included three adolescent males with atypical dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome of juvenile onset (outside infancy) and progressive parkinsonism dystonia. The other five patients in the cohort presented with classical infantile-onset parkinsonism dystonia, with one surviving into adulthood (currently aged 34 years) and labelled as having ‘juvenile parkinsonism’. All eight patients harboured homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in SLC6A3, of which the majority are previously unreported variants. In vitro studies of mutant dopamine transporter demonstrated multifaceted loss of dopamine transporter function. Impaired dopamine uptake was universally present, and more severely impacted in dopamine transporter mutants causing infantile-onset rather than juvenile-onset disease. Dopamine transporter mutants also showed diminished dopamine binding affinity, reduced cell surface transporter, loss of post-translational dopamine transporter glycosylation and failure of amphetamine-mediated dopamine efflux. Our data series expands the clinical phenotypic continuum of dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome and indicates that there is a phenotypic spectrum from infancy (early onset, rapidly progressive disease) to childhood/adolescence and adulthood (later onset, slower disease progression). Genotype–phenotype analysis in this cohort suggests that higher residual dopamine transporter activity is likely to contribute to postponing disease presentation in these later-onset adult cases. Dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome remains under-recognized and our data highlights that dopamine transporter deficiency syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis for both infantile- and juvenile-onset movement disorders, including cerebral palsy and juvenile parkinsonism. PMID:24613933

Ng, Joanne; Zhen, Juan; Meyer, Esther; Erreger, Kevin; Li, Yan; Kakar, Naseebullah; Ahmad, Jamil; Thiele, Holger; Kubisch, Christian; Rider, Nicholas L.; Holmes Morton, D.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; D’Agnano, Daniela; Anikster, Yair; Carducci, Claudia; Hyland, Keith; Rotstein, Michael; Leuzzi, Vincenzo; Borck, Guntram; Reith, Maarten E. A.



Interaction of curcumin with manganese may compromise metal and neurotransmitter homeostasis in the hippocampus of young mice.  


Manganese (Mn) exposure is related to industrial activities, where absorption by inhalation has high relevance. Manganism, a syndrome caused as a result of excessive accumulation of Mn in the central nervous system, has numerous symptoms similar to those seen in idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD). Some of these symptoms, such as learning, memory, sensorial, and neurochemical changes, appear before the onset of motor deficits in both manganism and IPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effects of curcumin against behavioral deficits induced by Mn toxicity in young (2 months old) Swiss mice. We evaluated the effect of chronic inhalation of a Mn mixture [Mn(OAc)3 and MnCl2 (20:40 mM)], 1 h/session, three times a week, over a 14-week period on behavioral and neurochemical parameters. Curcumin was supplemented in the diet (500 or 1,500 ppm in food pellets). The Mn disrupted the motor performance evaluated in the single-pellet reach task, as well as the short- and long-term spatial memory evaluated in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Surprisingly, curcumin also produced similar deleterious effects in such behavioral tests. Moreover, the association of Mn plus curcumin significantly increased the levels of Mn and iron, and decreased the levels of dopamine and serotonin in the hippocampus. These alterations were not observed in the striatum. In conclusion, the current Mn treatment protocol resulted in mild deficits in motor and memory functions, resembling the early phases of IPD. Additionally, curcumin showed no beneficial effects against Mn-induced disruption of hippocampal metal and neurotransmitter homeostasis. PMID:24723215

Schmitz, Ariana Ern; de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; de Souza, Luiz F; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Danielski, Samara; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Fisher, Andrew; Farina, Marcelo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz



Effects of novel monoamine oxidases and cholinesterases targeting compounds on brain neurotransmitters and behavior in rat model of vascular dementia.  


Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with different neurochemical and morphological alterations in the brain leading to cognitive and behavioural impairments. New therapeutic strategies comprise multifunctional drugs. The aim of the presented studies is to evaluate in vivo the novel compounds - ASS188 and ASS234 - which combine the benzylpiperidine moiety of the acetylcholinesteras (AChE) inhibitor donepezil and the indolyl propargylamino moiety of the monoaminooxidase (MAO) inhibitor, N-[(5-benzyloxy-1- methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl]-N-methylprop-2-yn-1-amine, with respect to their influence on cerebral amine neurotransmitters systems and neuroprotective activity. The presumed therapeutic potential of these compounds has been evaluated following their administration to rats with experimental vascular dementia. A rat model of the permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCCAO) and the holeboard memory test were employed for this purpose. Wistar rats were used, either intact or 1 day after BCCAO. ASS188 (1 mg/kg) and ASS234 (5 mg/kg) were given s.c. for 5 consecutive days. Working and reference memory in rats was evaluated by holeboard tests before- and 7 and 12 days after BCCAO. The activities of MAOs, AChE and histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT), as well as cerebral amines concentrations were assayed. A significant inhibition of brain MAO A (>95%) and weaker MAO B (ca 60%) and HMT (<30%) and reduced AChE activities were recorded with a pronounced (2 - 10 fold) increase in the cerebral concentrations of serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline and smaller rises (up to 30%) of histamine. The BCCAO rats treated with ASS188 or ASS234 tended to perform holeboard tests better than the BCCAO untreated group, indicating a beneficial effect of the administered therapeutics. PMID:23701539

Stasiak, Anna; Mussur, Miros?aw; Unzeta, Mercedes; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Marco-Contelles, José L; Fogel, W Agnieszka



[Correction by nicotinamide and nicotinoyl-GABA of dopamine metabolism in rat brain in experimental Parkinson's disease].  


It was established, that serotonin and dopamine content and dopamine uptake by brain nerve endings under experimental parkinsonism are decreased. Nicotinamide nicotinoyl-GABA administration leads to normalization these parameters. It was shown that NAm was more effective on serotonin content while nicotinoyl-GABA on dopamine one. Dopamine uptake was impaired at experimental parkinsonism and partially was normalized by incubation with NAD (10(-6) M). Thus, NAm, nicotinoyl-GABA and NAD are involved in the regulation of brain neurotransmission under experimental parkinsonism and can be useful in treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:12199067

Kuchmerovs'ka, T M; Donchenko, H V; Fomenko, H I; Chichkovs'ka, H V; Pakirbaieva, L V; Klymenko, A N



Different functions for homologous serotonergic interneurons and serotonin in species-specific rhythmic behaviours  

PubMed Central

Closely related species can exhibit different behaviours despite homologous neural substrates. The nudibranch molluscs Tritonia diomedea and Melibe leonina swim differently, yet their nervous systems contain homologous serotonergic neurons. In Tritonia, the dorsal swim interneurons (DSIs) are members of the swim central pattern generator (CPG) and their neurotransmitter serotonin is both necessary and sufficient to elicit a swim motor pattern. Here it is shown that the DSI homologues in Melibe, the cerebral serotonergic posterior-A neurons (CeSP-As), are extrinsic to the swim CPG, and that neither the CeSP-As nor their neurotransmitter serotonin is necessary for swim motor pattern initiation, which occurred when the CeSP-As were inactive. Furthermore, the serotonin antagonist methysergide blocked the effects of both the serotonin and CeSP-As but did not prevent the production of a swim motor pattern. However, the CeSP-As and serotonin could influence the Melibe swim circuit; depolarization of a cerebral serotonergic posterior-A was sufficient to initiate a swim motor pattern and hyperpolarization of a CeSP-A temporarily halted an ongoing swim motor pattern. Serotonin itself was sufficient to initiate a swim motor pattern or make an ongoing swim motor pattern more regular. Thus, evolution of species-specific behaviour involved alterations in the functions of identified homologous neurons and their neurotransmitter. PMID:18782747

Newcomb, James M; Katz, Paul S



Wide-Range, Picoampere-Sensitivity Multichannel VLSI Potentiostat for Neurotransmitter Sensing  

E-print Network

-mode, first-order single-bit delta-sigma modulator architecture with a two-stage, digitally reconfigurable neurotransmitters like dopamine, nitric oxide etc. The analog-to-digital converter design employs a current of the probe). #12;1-bit + - Iin Counter + - D/A Analog Digital fs N fs fs NM {-1,0,+1} {-1,+1} {0,1} Shift reg

Stanacevic, Milutin


The effect of brominated flame retardants on neurotransmitter uptake into rat brain synaptosomes and vesicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental levels of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are increasing, but little is known about their toxic effects. In this paper, we show that some of the most important BFRs in commercial use today, have a neurotoxicological potential. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) inhibit plasma membrane uptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine, glutamate and ?-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) at a concentration level

Espen Mariussen; Frode Fonnum



Serotonin Receptor cDNA Cloned From Lymnaea stagnalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin (5-HT) is a major neurotransmitter that influences various behaviors, neuronal plasticity, learning, and memory in molluscs. Although the physiology of 5-HT transmission in molluscs is well studied, little is known about the pharmacology and diversity of the 5-HT receptor system. Based on the high homology of genes coding for guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors, we have cloned a

Kim S. Sugamori; Roger K. Sunahara; Hong-Chang Guan; Andrew G. M. Bulloch; Cees P. Tensen; Philip Seeman; Hyman B. Niznik; Hubert H. M. van Tol



Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.



Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages.  


Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

Gaskill, Peter J; Yano, Hideaki H; Kalpana, Ganjam V; Javitch, Jonathan A; Berman, Joan W



Piribedil Could Modify Dopamine Turnover in Cochleas Under Noise Stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine (DA) is one of the putative neurotransmitters of the lateral efferent olivocochlear fibers. The cochlear DA content after noise exposure was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. Animals were exposed for 1 h to white noise at 70, 90 or 110 dB SPL or were kept in conditions of silence. Half of the animals were pretreated

M. A. Vicente-Torres; P. Gil-Loyzaga; P. Fernández; A. Arce; A. Esquifino




Microsoft Academic Search

A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in uiuo and in uitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells and in the



Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in vivo demonstration of an association between endogenous neurotransmitter release and conscious experience. Using 11C-raclopride PET we demonstrated increased endogenous dopamine release in the ventral striatum during Yoga Nidra meditation. Yoga Nidra is characterized by a depressed level of desire for action, associated with decreased blood flow in prefrontal, cerebellar and subcortical regions, structures thought to

Troels W Kjaer; Camilla Bertelsen; Paola Piccini; David Brooks; Jørgen Alving; Hans C Lou



Decreased vigilance and neurotransmitter synthesis after discontinuation of dietary treatment for phenylketonuria in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four adolescent or young adult patients with phenylketonuria were examined before and after discontinuation of dietary treatment. Plasma and CSF phenylalanine concentrations increased about two-fold in three patients. In these patients the CSF concentration of the dopamine and serotonin metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) decreased markedly; 5-HIAA to extremely low values. The reaction time variability increased in

H. C. Lou; F. Giittler; C. Lykkelund; P. Bruhn; A. Niederwieser



Ratio of antibodies to neurotransmitters in the serum of students, occasional drug users.  


The survey included volunteer students of secondary and higher educational institutions. Two groups have been formed based on the results of clinical and laboratory studies. Group 1 comprised students occasionally using cannabinoids and amphetamines (risk group for psychoactive substances addiction) and group 2 included students who do not use drugs. The serum level of autoantibodies to norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin was reduced in the risk group. PMID:25070161

Davydova, T V; Vetrile, L A; Nevidimova, T I; Vetlugina, T P; Fomina, V G; Zakharova, I A; Batukhtina, E I; Bokhan, N A



Basal ganglia dopamine loss due to defect in purine recycling.  


Several rare inherited disorders have provided valuable experiments of nature highlighting specific biological processes of particular importance to the survival or function of midbrain dopamine neurons. In both humans and mice, deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) is associated with profound loss of striatal dopamine, with relative preservation of other neurotransmitters. In the current studies of knockout mice, no morphological signs of abnormal development or degeneration were found in an exhaustive battery that included stereological and morphometric measures of midbrain dopamine neurons, electron microscopic studies of striatal axons and terminals, and stains for degeneration or gliosis. A novel culture model involving HPRT-deficient dopaminergic neurons also exhibited significant loss of dopamine without a morphological correlate. These results suggest that dopamine loss in HPRT deficiency has a biochemical rather than anatomical basis and imply that purine recycling to be a biochemical process of particular importance to the function of dopaminergic neurons. PMID:17374562

Egami, Kiyoshi; Yitta, Silaja; Kasim, Suhail; Lewers, J Chris; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Lehar, Mohamed; Jinnah, H A



Chemical stimulants of leaf-trenching by cabbage loopers: natural products, neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs.  


Larvae of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), often transect leaves with a narrow trench before eating the distal section. The trench reduces larval exposure to exudates, such as latex, during feeding. Plant species that do not emit exudate, such as Plantago lanceolata, are not trenched. However, if exudate is applied to a looper's mouth during feeding on P. lanceolata, the larva will often stop and cut a trench. Dissolved chemicals can be similarly applied and tested for effectiveness at triggering trenching. With this assay, I have documented that lactucin from lettuce latex (Lactuca sativa), myristicin from parsley oil (Petroselinum crispum), and lobeline from cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) elicit trenching. These compounds are the first trenching stimulants reported. Several other constituents of lettuce and parsley, including some phenylpropanoids, monoterpenes, and furanocoumarins had little or no activity. Cucurbitacin E glycoside found in cucurbits, another plant family trenched by cabbage loopers, also was inactive. Lactucin, myristicin, and lobeline all affect the nervous system of mammals, with lobeline acting specifically as an antagonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. To determine if cabbage loopers respond selectively to compounds active at acetylcholine synapses, I tested several neurotransmitters, insecticides, and drugs with known neurological activity, many of which triggered trenching. Active compounds included dopamine, serotonin, the insecticide imidacloprid, and various drugs such as ipratropium, apomorphine, buspirone, and metoclopramide. These results document that noxious plant chemicals trigger trenching, that loopers respond to different trenching stimulants in different plants, that diverse neuroactive chemicals elicit the behavior, and that feeding deterrents are not all trenching stimulants. The trenching assay offers a novel approach for identifying defensive plant compounds with potential uses in agriculture or medicine. Cabbage loopers in the lab and field routinely trench and feed on plants in the Asteraceae and Apiaceae. However, first and third instar larvae enclosed on Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) failed to develop, even though the third instar larvae attempted to trench. Trenching ability does not guarantee effective feeding on plants with canal-borne exudates. Cabbage loopers must not only recognize and respond to trenching stimulants, they must also tolerate exudates during the trenching procedure to disable canalicular defenses. PMID:14584674

Dussourd, David E



Role of calcium in neurotransmitter release evoked by alpha-latrotoxin or hypertonic sucrose.  


At the synapse, neurotransmitter release is triggered physiologically by Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Non-physiologically, release can be evoked by a potent neurotoxin, alpha-latrotoxin, and by hypertonic sucrose. Controversy has arisen on whether release evoked by alpha-latrotoxin and hypertonic sucrose requires extracellular Ca(2+) or Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. Using synaptosomes, we have studied the Ca(2+) dependence of alpha-latrotoxin and sucrose action in different neurotransmitter systems. In agreement with previous data, no requirement for extracellular Ca(2+) in sucrose-induced secretion of norepinephrine, dopamine, glutamate or GABA was detected. Unexpectedly, we observed large differences between these neurotransmitters in the Ca(2+) dependence of alpha-latrotoxin-stimulated release: norepinephrine release required Ca(2+), dopamine release was only partially Ca(2+) dependent, and glutamate and GABA release did not require Ca(2+). To test if Ca(2+) derived from intracellular Ca(2+) stores participates in neurotransmitter release triggered by alpha-latrotoxin or hypertonic sucrose, we employed thapsigargin, a Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor that empties Ca(2+) stores. Thapsigargin did not induce neurotransmitter release, nor did it inhibit subsequent release stimulated by KCl depolarization, hypertonic sucrose or alpha-latrotoxin. However, intracellular Ca(2+) performs an important regulatory function, since thapsigargin increased the size of the readily releasable pool as measured by stimulation with hypertonic sucrose. This effect required extracellular Ca(2+) and protein kinase C, suggesting that depletion of internal Ca(2+) stores leads to store-operated Ca(2+) entry. The resulting Ca(2+) influx does not trigger release by itself, but activates protein kinase C that increases the readily releasable pool of neurotransmitters. Our data show that internal and external Ca(2+) is not acutely involved in hypertonic sucrose-evoked neurotransmitter release, while alpha-latrotoxin-triggered release requires external Ca(2+) for a subset of neurotransmitters. Although internal Ca(2+) is not essential for release, it modulates its extent, implying that the emptying of intracellular stores by activation of presynaptic receptors plays an important regulatory role in neurotransmitter release. PMID:11113328

Khvotchev, M; Lonart, G; Südhof, T C



Serotonin Modulates Olfactory Processing in the Antennal Lobe of Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems must be able to extract features of environmental cues within the context of the different physiological states of the organism and often temper their activity in a state-dependent manner via the process of neuromodulation. We examined the effects of the neuromodulator serotonin on a well-characterized sensory circuit, the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster, using two-photon microscopy and the genetically expressed calcium indicator, G-CaMP. Serotonin enhances sensitivity of the antennal lobe output projection neurons in an odor-specific manner. For odorants that sparsely activate the antennal lobe, serotonin enhances projection neuron responses and causes an offset of the projection neuron tuning curve, most likely by increasing projection neuron sensitivity. However, for an odorant that evokes a broad activation pattern, serotonin enhances projection neuron responses in some, but not all, glomeruli. Further, serotonin enhances the responses of inhibitory local interneurons, resulting in a reduction of neurotransmitter release from the olfactory sensory neurons via GABAB receptor-dependent presynaptic inhibition, which may be a mechanism underlying the odorant-specific modulation of projection neuron responses. Our data suggest that the complexity of serotonin modulation in the antennal lobe accommodates coding stability in a glomerular pattern and flexible projection neuron sensitivity under different physiological conditions. PMID:19863268

Dacks, Andrew M.; Green, David S.; Root, Cory M.; Nighorn, Alan J.; Wang, Jing W.



Monitoring serotonin signaling on a subsecond time scale  

PubMed Central

Serotonin modulates a variety of processes throughout the brain, but it is perhaps best known for its involvement in the etiology and treatment of depressive disorders. Microdialysis studies have provided a clear picture of how ambient serotonin levels fluctuate with regard to behavioral states and pharmacological manipulation, and anatomical and electrophysiological studies describe the location and activity of serotonin and its targets. However, few techniques combine the temporal resolution, spatial precision, and chemical selectivity to directly evaluate serotonin release and uptake. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical method that can detect minute changes in neurotransmitter concentration on the same temporal and spatial dimensions as extrasynaptic neurotransmission. Subsecond measurements both in vivo and in brain slice preparations enable us to tease apart the processes of release and uptake. These studies have particularly highlighted the significance of regulatory mechanisms to proper functioning of the serotonin system. This article will review the findings of FSCV investigations of serotonergic neurotransmission and discuss this technique's potential in future studies of the serotonin system. PMID:23760548

Dankoski, Elyse C.; Wightman, R. Mark



Biosensors for Brain Trauma and Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry: Enoxaparin Simultaneously Reduces Stroke-Induced Dopamine and Blood Flow while Enhancing Serotonin and Blood Flow in Motor Neurons of Brain, In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) based on adsorptive electrochemistry, combined with Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is presented herein to investigate the brain neurochemistry affected by enoxaparin (Lovenox®), an antiplatelet/antithrombotic medication for stroke victims. NMI with miniature biosensors enables neurotransmitter and neuropeptide (NT) imaging; each NT is imaged with a response time in milliseconds. A semiderivative electronic reduction circuit images several NT’s selectively and separately within a response time of minutes. Spatial resolution of NMI biosensors is in the range of nanomicrons and electrochemically-induced current ranges are in pico- and nano-amperes. Simultaneously with NMI, the LDF technology presented herein operates on line by illuminating the living brain, in this example, in dorso-striatal neuroanatomic substrates via a laser sensor with low power laser light containing optical fiber light guides. NMI biotechnology with BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors has a distinct advantage over conventional electrochemical methodologies both in novelty of biosensor formulations and on-line imaging capabilities in the biosensor field. NMI with unique biocompatible biosensors precisely images NT in the body, blood and brain of animals and humans using characteristic experimentally derived half-wave potentials driven by oxidative electron transfer. Enoxaparin is a first line clinical treatment prescribed to halt the progression of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In the present studies, BRODERICK PROBE® laurate biosensors and LDF laser sensors are placed in dorsal striatum (DStr) dopaminergic motor neurons in basal ganglia of brain in living animals; basal ganglia influence movement disorders such as those correlated with AIS. The purpose of these studies is to understand what is happening in brain neurochemistry and cerebral blood perfusion after causal AIS by middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo as well as to understand consequent enoxaparin and reperfusion effects actually while enoxaparin is inhibiting blood clots to alleviate AIS symptomatology. This research is directly correlated with the medical and clinical needs of stroke victims. The data are clinically relevant, not only to movement dysfunction but also to the depressive mood that stroke patients often endure. These are the first studies to image brain neurotransmitters while any stroke medications, such as anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic and/or anti-glycoprotein are working in organ systems to alleviate the debilitating consequences of brain trauma and stroke/brain attacks. PMID:22346571

Broderick, Patricia A.; Kolodny, Edwin H.



(/sup 3/H)Spiroxatrine labels a serotonin/sub 1A/-like site in the rat hippocampus  

SciTech Connect

(/sup 3/H)Spiroxatrine was examined as a potential ligand for the labeling of 5-HT/sub 1A/ sites in the rat hippocampus. Analysis o the binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine in the absence and presence of varying concentrations of three monoamine neurotransmitters revealed that serotonin (5-HT) had high affinity for the (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine binding sites, consistent with the labeling of 5-HT/sub 1/ sites, while dopamine and norepinephrine had very low affinity. Saturation studies of the binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine revealed a single population of sites with a K/sub d/ = 2.21 nM. Further pharmacologic characterization with the 5-HT/sub 1A/ ligands 8-hydroxy-2-(di-ni-propylamino)tetralin, ipsapirone, and WB4101 and the butyrophenone compounds spiperone and haloperidol gave results that were consistent with (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine labeling 5-HT/sub 1A/ sites. This ligand produced stable, reproducible binding with a good ratio of specific to nonspecific binding. The binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine was sensitive to GTP, suggesting that this ligand may act as an agonist. 21 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

Nelson, D.L.; Monroe, P.J.; Lambert, G.; Yamamura, H.I.



Plasma HVA in Adults with Mental Retardation and Stereotyped Behavior: Biochemical Evidence for a Dopamine Deficiency Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of the neurotransmitter dopamine through measurement of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in adult subjects with mental retardation and with high rates of body stereotypy (n=12), compulsive behaviors (n=9), or neither (n=12) found lowest HVA concentrations in the stereotypy group and highest in the compulsive group. (DB)

Lewis, Mark H.; And Others



In utero cocaine exposure decreases dopamine D1 receptor modulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation in the rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cocaine increases the synaptic concentration of neurotransmitters by inhibiting catecholamine transporters. Disturbances of behavior and cellular physiology have been associated with prenatal cocaine exposure and are related to changes in dopamine transmission. Recently we found the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) was greater in hippocampal slices from cocaine exposed offspring. In the hippocampus, D1 dopamine receptor antagonists inhibit the expression

J. Z. Little; T. J. Teyler



Sustained N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor hypofunction remodels the dopamine system and impairs phasic signaling.  


Chronic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has been proposed as a contributing factor to symptoms of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear how sustained NMDAR hypofunction throughout development affects other neurotransmitter systems that have been implicated in the disease. Dopamine neuron biochemistry and activity were examined to determine whether sustained NMDAR hypofunction causes a state of hyperdopaminergia. We report that a global, genetic reduction in NMDARs led to a remodeling of dopamine neurons, substantially affecting two key regulators of dopamine homeostasis, i.e., tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. In NR1 knockdown mice, dopamine synthesis and release were attenuated, and dopamine clearance was increased. Although these changes would have the effect of reducing dopamine transmission, we demonstrated that a state of hyperdopaminergia existed in these mice because dopamine D2 autoreceptors were desensitized. In support of this conclusion, NR1 knockdown dopamine neurons have higher tonic firing rates. Although the tonic firing rates are higher, phasic signaling is impaired, and dopamine overflow cannot be achieved with exogenous high-frequency stimulation that models phasic firing. Through the examination of several parameters of dopamine neurotransmission, we provide evidence that chronic NMDAR hypofunction leads to a state of elevated synaptic dopamine. Compensatory mechanisms to attenuate hyperdopaminergia also impact the ability to generate dopamine surges through phasic firing. PMID:24754704

Ferris, Mark J; Milenkovic, Marija; Liu, Shuai; Mielnik, Catharine A; Beerepoot, Pieter; John, Carrie E; España, Rodrigo A; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Borgland, Stephanie L; Jones, Sara R; Ramsey, Amy J



Characterization of Three Putative Monoamine Oxidase Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

E-print Network

??Monoamine neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin regulate neuronal function and behavior in animals. In vertebrates, monoamine oxidase (MAO) degrades monoamines. We investigated the function of… (more)

Kaushal, Setu



Signaling Pathways Take Aim at Neurotransmitter Transporters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neurotransmitter transporters are the target of various pharmacological agents used to treat psychological or cognitive conditions, such as depression and attention-deficit disorder. In addition, some of the effects of stimulant-type drugs of abuse result from inhibition of neurotransmitter transporters. Robinson describes the intersection between neurotransmitter transporters and signaling pathways. Neurotransmitter transporters can be regulated by altering the rate of internalization and insertion into the plasma membrane to control cell surface expression or by altering the activity of the transporters within the membrane. As the mechanisms governing regulation of these transporters become elucidated, new potential therapeutic targets may be revealed, given the many processes affected by the activity of neurotransmitter transporters.

Michael B. Robinson (University of Pennsylvania;Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia REV)



Title : Involvement of D1 dopamine receptor in MDMA-induced locomotor activity and striatal gene expression in mice.  

E-print Network

Title : Involvement of D1 dopamine receptor in MDMA-induced locomotor activity and striatal gene, France Abstract 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a widely used recreational drug with psychoactive properties, induces both serotonin and dopamine release in the brain. In rats and mice MDMA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Atypical Neuroleptics Have Low Affinity for Dopamine D2 Receptors or Are Selective for D4 Receptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the possible receptor basis of the atypical action of those atypical antipsychotic drugs that elicit low levels of Parkinsonism. Such an examination requires consistent and accurate dissociation constants for the antipsychotic drugs at the relevant dopamine and serotonin receptors. It has long been known, however, that the dissociation constant of a given antipsychotic drug at the dopamine

Philip Seeman; Roy Corbett; Hubert H M Van Tol



The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike



The Role of Serotonin in Antipsychotic Drug Action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent interest in the role of serotonin (5-HT) in antipsychotic drug action is based mainly upon the fact that antipsychotic drugs such as clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, sertindole, and ziprasidone are potent 5-HT2a receptor antagonists and relatively weaker dopamine D2 antagonists. These agents share in common low extrapyramidal side effects at clinically effective doses and possibly greater efficacy to reduce

Herbert Y Meltzer



X-ray structure of dopamine transporter elucidates antidepressant mechanism.  


Antidepressants targeting Na(+)/Cl(-)-coupled neurotransmitter uptake define a key therapeutic strategy to treat clinical depression and neuropathic pain. However, identifying the molecular interactions that underlie the pharmacological activity of these transport inhibitors, and thus the mechanism by which the inhibitors lead to increased synaptic neurotransmitter levels, has proven elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of the Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter at 3.0?Å resolution bound to the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline. The transporter is locked in an outward-open conformation with nortriptyline wedged between transmembrane helices 1, 3, 6 and 8, blocking the transporter from binding substrate and from isomerizing to an inward-facing conformation. Although the overall structure of the dopamine transporter is similar to that of its prokaryotic relative LeuT, there are multiple distinctions, including a kink in transmembrane helix 12 halfway across the membrane bilayer, a latch-like carboxy-terminal helix that caps the cytoplasmic gate, and a cholesterol molecule wedged within a groove formed by transmembrane helices 1a, 5 and 7. Taken together, the dopamine transporter structure reveals the molecular basis for antidepressant action on sodium-coupled neurotransmitter symporters and elucidates critical elements of eukaryotic transporter structure and modulation by lipids, thus expanding our understanding of the mechanism and regulation of neurotransmitter uptake at chemical synapses. PMID:24037379

Penmatsa, Aravind; Wang, Kevin H; Gouaux, Eric



Octopamine as a putative neurotransmitter.  


Octopamine is a normally occurring amine in nervous tissues in many species of animals. In mammals, octopamine is formed from tyramine through beta-hydroxylation by DBH in the sympathetic nerves, and it is partially stored in nerve endings with a subcellular distribution similar to that of NE. It is capable of replacing NE in its storage sites, and it is released by sympathetic nerve stimulation. High concentrations are found in the crustacean central nerve cord. Specific octopamine-containing cells have been identified in Aplysia and other lower animals. On the basis of neurophysiological evidence, the existence of specific octopamine receptors in Aplysia has been postulated. In insects, octopamine produces specific biochemical responses such as increased synthesis of cyclic AMP and phosphorylase activation. The present evidence strongly suggests that octopamine may function as a neurotransmitter in lower animals. Although the physiological role of this amine has not been established in mammals, it appears likely that octopamine may function as a cotransmitter together with NE in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. PMID:799466

Saavedra, J M; Axelrod, J



The serotonin 5-HT7 receptors: two decades of research.  


Like most neurotransmitters, serotonin possesses a simple structure. However, the pharmacological consequences are more complex and diverse. Serotonin is involved in numerous functions in the human body including the control of appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature regulation, mood, behavior, cardiovascular function, muscle contraction, endocrine regulation, and depression. Low levels of serotonin may be associated with several disorders, namely increase in aggressive and angry behaviors, clinical depression, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, tinnitus, and bipolar disease. These effects are mediated via different serotonin (5-HT) receptors. In this review, we will focus on the last discovered member of this serotonin receptor family, the 5-HT7 receptor. This receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and was cloned two decades ago. Later, different splice variants were described but no major functional differences have been described so far. All 5-HT7 receptor variants are coupled to G?s proteins and stimulate cAMP formation. Recently, several interacting proteins have been reported, which can influence receptor signaling and trafficking. PMID:24042216

Gellynck, Evelien; Heyninck, Karen; Andressen, Kjetil W; Haegeman, Guy; Levy, Finn Olav; Vanhoenacker, Peter; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen



Fast phasic release properties of dopamine studied with a channel biosensor.  


Few other neurotransmitters are of as intense interest to neuropsychiatry and neurology as dopamine, yet existing techniques to monitor dopamine release leave an important spatiotemporal gap in our understanding. Electrochemistry and fluorescence imaging tools have been developed to fill the gap, but these methods have important limitations. We circumvent these limitations by introducing a dopamine-gated chloride channel into rat dorsal striatal medium spiny neurons, targets of strong dopamine innervation, thereby transforming dopamine from a slow transmitter into a fast transmitter and revealing new opportunities for studying moment-to-moment regulation of dopamine release. We demonstrate pharmacological and biophysical properties of the channel that make it suitable for fast, local dopamine measurements, and we demonstrate for the first time spontaneous and evoked responses to vesicular dopamine release in the dorsal striatum. Evoked dopamine currents were separated into a fast, monosynaptic component and a slower-rising and decaying disynaptic component mediated by nicotinic receptor activation. In summary, LGC-53 represents a dopamine biosensor with properties suitable for temporal separation of distinct dopamine signals in targets of dopamine innervation. PMID:25164674

Kress, Geraldine J; Shu, Hong-Jin; Yu, Andrew; Taylor, Amanda; Benz, Ann; Harmon, Steve; Mennerick, Steven



Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity  

PubMed Central

Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramírez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.



Glutamate Receptor Subtypes Mediate Excitatory Synaptic Currents of Dopamine Neurons in Midbrain Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although dopamine (DA)-containing neurons participate in a number of important cerebral functions, the physiology of their synaptic connections is poorly understood. By using whole-cell patch-clamp recording in thin slices of rat mes- encephalon, we have investigated the biophysical properties of synaptic events and the nature of neurotransmitter(s) and receptors involved in the synaptic input to DA neurons in substantia nigra.

Giampaolo Mereu; Erminio Costa; David M. Armstrong; Stefano Vicini



Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates, and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of a meal to increase or decrease brain neurotransmitter synthesis has been studied. It is concluded that brain serotonin synthesis is directly controlled by the proportions of carbohydrate to protein in meals and snacks that increase or decrease brain tryptophan levels, thereby changing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase and the rate of serotonin synthesis. The ability of serotoninergic neurons to have their output coupled to dietary macronutrients enables them to function as sensors of peripheral metabolism, and to subserve an important role in the control of appetite. The robust and selective responses of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons to supplemental tyrosine and choline suggest that these compounds may become useful as a new type of drug for treating deseases or conditions in which adequate quantities of the transmitter would otherwise be unavailable.

Wurtman, Richard J.



[Effect of domestication of the silver fox on the main enzymes of serotonin metabolism and serotonin receptors].  


In silver foxes significant alterations in the activities of basic enzymes of neurotransmitter serotonin metabolism as well as in the densities of receptors caused by selection for the absence of the aggressive defensive reaction to man were demonstrated. In the midbrain and hypothalamus of animals selected for the absence of aggressive behavior, the activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the key enzyme of serotonin biosynthesis, was found to be remarkably higher than in animals selected for highly aggressive behavior. Domesticated animals were characterized by low activity of the main enzyme of serotonin catabolism, monoamine oxidase type A, increased Michaelis constant km, and an unchanged maximum reaction rate (Vmax). No changes in the specific binding of [3H]-ketanserin and [3H]-8-OH-DPAT in the frontal cortex of domesticated foxes were revealed; however, in the hypothalamus, the low values of Bmax for the [3H]-8-OH-DPAT specific binding were observed, indicating the decreased density of the 5-HT1A receptors. It is assumed that the transformation of a wild aggressive animal into a domesticated one taking place during directional selection is caused by hereditary alterations favored by artificial selection in the activity of the main enzymes of serotonin metabolism and serotonin receptors. PMID:9244768

Popova, N K; Kulikov, A V; Avgustinovich, D F; Vo?tenko, N N; Trut, L N



The neurobiology of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis: a model for regulation of GTP cyclohydrolase I gene transcription within nigrostriatal dopamine neurons.  


Within the brain, the reduced pteridine cofactor 6R-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is absolutely required for the synthesis of the monoamine (MA) neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine, epinephrine (E), and serotonin (5-HT), the novel gaseous neurotransmitter nitric oxide and the production of yet to be identified 1-O-alkylglycerol-derived lipids. GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) catalyzes the first and limiting step in the BH4 biosynthetic pathway, which is now thought to involve up to eight different proteins supporting six alternate de novo and two alternate salvage pathways. Gene expression analysis across different regions of the human brain shows the abundance of transcripts coding for all eight of these proteins to be highly correlated with each other and to be enriched within human MA neurons. The potential for multiple routes for BH4 synthesis therefore exists within the human brain. GTPCH expression is particularly heterogeneous across different populations of human and rodent MA-containing neurons, with low expression levels and therefore BH4 being a characteristic of nigrostriatal DA (NSDA) neurons. Basic knowledge of how GCH1 gene transcription is controlled within NSDA neurons may explain the distinctive susceptibility of these neurons to human genetic mutations that result in BH4 deficiency. A model for cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent GCH1 transcription is described that involves a unique combination of DNA regulatory sequences and transcription factors. This model proposes that low levels of GCH1 transcription within NSDA neurons are driven by their distinctive physiology, suggesting that pharmacological manipulation of GCH1 gene transcription can be used to modify BH4 levels and therefore DA synthesis in the basal ganglia. PMID:23457032

Kapatos, Gregory



Central actions of a novel and selective dopamine antagonist  

SciTech Connect

Receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine traditionally have been divided into two subgroups: the D/sub 1/ class, which is linked to the stimulation of adenylate cyclase-activity, and the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ dopamine receptor that mediates the physiological and behavioral actions of dopamine in the intact animal. However, the benzazepine SCH23390 is a dopamine antagonist which has potent behavioral actions while displaying apparent neurochemical selectivity for the D/sub 1/ class of dopamine receptors. The purpose of this dissertation was to (1) confirm and characterize this selectivity, and (2) test certain hypothesis related to possible modes of action of SCH233390. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase by SCH23390 occurred via an action at the dopamine receptor only. A radiolabeled analog of SCH23390 displayed the receptor binding properties of a specific high-affinity ligand, and regional receptor densities were highly correlated with dopamine levels. The subcellular distribution of (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding did not correspond completely with that of dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase. The neurochemical potency of SCH23390 as a D/sub 1/ receptor antagonist was preserved following parental administration. A variety of dopamine agonists and antagonists displayed a high correlation between their abilities to compete for (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding in vitro and to act at an adenylate cyclase-linked receptor. Finally, the relative affinities of dopamine and SCH23390 for both D/sub 1/ receptors and (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding sites were comparable. It is concluded that the behavioral effects of SCH23390 are mediated by actions at D/sub 1/ dopamine receptors only, and that the physiological importance of this class of receptors should be reevaluated.

Schulz, D.W.



Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters.  


Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 A above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational design of new inhibitors. PMID:17687333

Singh, Satinder K; Yamashita, Atsuko; Gouaux, Eric



Waterborne lead affects circadian variations of brain neurotransmitters in fathead minnows  

SciTech Connect

Lead is a potent neurotoxin affecting brain levels of a number of vertebrate neurotransmitters. Reports on these effects are, however, not consistent either among or within species. For example, with lead-intoxicated rats there are reports of decreased acetylcholine (ACh) release and decreased ACh brain levels as well as reports of increased levels or no change in levels. Also, with rats there are reports of increased levels, decreased levels, or no change in brain catecholamines, with lead producing similar changes in both norephinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in some cases and differences in response between the two in others. Although most early reports dealt with whole brain levels, reports on neurotransmitter levels in specific brain regions can be equally conflicting. Similar sorts of discrepancies exist among studies with fishes. Much of the variation among studies on lead effects on neurotransmitters is, no doubt, due to differences among the studies in variables such as: species, age, dosage and duration, route of administration. However, lead can apparently affect circadian locomotor rhythms of both rats and fishes. Therefore, another possible cause for the variation among studies is that there is an interaction among dosage, sampling time and endogenous rhythms. A lead-produced phase shift or disruption in endogenous neurotransmitter rhythms could in turn elicit a host of varying results and interpretations depending on the circadian time of sampling. We elected to examine this possibility in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a freshwater species widely used for toxicity studies. 15 refs., 3 figs.

Spieler, R.E. [Nova Southeastern Univ., Dania, FL (United States); Russo, A.C. [California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States); Weber, D.N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)



A linear model for estimation of neurotransmitter response profiles from dynamic PET data  

PubMed Central

The parametric ntPET model (p-ntPET) estimates the kinetics of neurotransmitter release from dynamic PET data with receptor-ligand radiotracers. Here we introduce a linearization (lp-ntPET) that is computationally efficient and can be applied to single-scan data. lp-ntPET employs a non-invasive reference region input function and extends the LSRRM of Alpert et al. (2003) using basis functions to characterize the time course of neurotransmitter activation. In simulation studies, the temporal precision of neurotransmitter profiles estimated by lp-ntPET was similar to that of p-ntPET (standard deviation ~3 min for responses early in the scan) while computation time was reduced by several orders of magnitude. Violations of model assumptions such as activation-induced changes in regional blood flow or specific binding in the reference tissue have negligible effects on lp-ntPET performance. Application of the lp-ntPET method is demonstrated on [11C]raclopride data acquired in rats receiving methamphetamine, which yielded estimated response functions that were in good agreement with simultaneous microdialysis measurements of extracellular dopamine concentration. These results demonstrate that lp-ntPET is a computationally efficient, linear variant of ntPET that can be applied to PET data from single or multiple scan designs to estimate the time course of neurotransmitter activation. PMID:21767654

Normandin, M.D.; Schiffer, W.K.; Morris, E.D.



Homeostatic mechanisms in dopamine synthesis and release: a mathematical model  

PubMed Central

Background Dopamine is a catecholamine that is used as a neurotransmitter both in the periphery and in the central nervous system. Dysfunction in various dopaminergic systems is known to be associated with various disorders, including schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Tourette's syndrome. Furthermore, microdialysis studies have shown that addictive drugs increase extracellular dopamine and brain imaging has shown a correlation between euphoria and psycho-stimulant-induced increases in extracellular dopamine [1]. These consequences of dopamine dysfunction indicate the importance of maintaining dopamine functionality through homeostatic mechanisms that have been attributed to the delicate balance between synthesis, storage, release, metabolism, and reuptake. Methods We construct a mathematical model of dopamine synthesis, release, and reuptake and use it to study homeostasis in single dopaminergic neuron terminals. We investigate the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine, the consequences of the rapid uptake of extracellular dopamine by the dopamine transporters, and the effects of the autoreceoptors on dopaminergic function. The main focus is to understand the regulation and control of synthesis and release and to explicate and interpret experimental findings. Results We show that the substrate inhibition of tyrosine hydroxylase by tyrosine stabilizes cytosolic and vesicular dopamine against changes in tyrosine availability due to meals. We find that the autoreceptors dampen the fluctuations in extracellular dopamine caused by changes in tyrosine hydroxylase expression and changes in the rate of firing. We show that short bursts of action potentials create significant dopamine signals against the background of tonic firing. We explain the observed time courses of extracellular dopamine responses to stimulation in wild type mice and mice that have genetically altered dopamine transporter densities and the observed half-lives of extracellular dopamine under various treatment protocols. Conclusion Dopaminergic systems must respond robustly to important biological signals such as bursts, while at the same time maintaining homeostasis in the face of normal biological fluctuations in inputs, expression levels, and firing rates. This is accomplished through the cooperative effect of many different homeostatic mechanisms including special properties of tyrosine hydroxylase, the dopamine transporters, and the dopamine autoreceptors. PMID:19740446

Best, Janet A; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C



Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR-SERS) of neurotransmitters in colloidal silver solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NIR-SERS spectra are measured for the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine at concentrations as low as 5 × 10 -9 M in colloidal silver solutions with accumulation times as short as 25 ms. The detection range and acquisition time are on the order of physiologically relevant concentrations and the time scale of neuronal processes, respectively. The spectra are obtained using a CCD detection system, dye laser at 830 nm for excitation, fiber optic probe and high throughput spectrograph. Mixtures containing the two neurotransmitters are used to demonstrate the capability of extracting quantitative information from SERS spectra. Albumin added to the sample up to 0.5% concentration does not show any influence on the SERS spectra of the neurotransmitters in the silver colloidal solutions. The results demonstrate the potential of NIR-SERS in probing dopamine and norepinephrine with high sensitivity and specificity. They also suggest that NIR-SERS from colloidal silver solution can be a powerful tool for the study of neurotransmitters in brain extracts and dialysates.

Kneipp, Katrin; Wang, Yang; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.



A reverse-phase HPLC and fluorescence detection method for measurement of 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) in Planaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction:Planaria have proven to be a good model system in which to investigate mammalian behaviors and responses to drugs. We have recently studied the response of planarians to dopaminergic ligands and to the effects of cocaine and opioids. To correlate behavior (specifically, drug withdrawal) with neurotransmitter levels, we developed a method to quantify 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) in planarians. Methods: Following

Sumiyo Umeda; Gregory W. Stagliano; Michael R. Borenstein; Robert B. Raffa



Subclinical effects of groundwater contaminants. II. Alteration of regional brain monoamine neurotransmitters by benzene in CD1 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene, a common groundwater contaminant, possesses neurotoxic and behavioral effects. Male, adult CD-1 mice were continuously fed drinking waterad libitum containing 0, 31, 166 and 790 mg\\/L benzene for four weeks. Endogenous levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), the catecholamine metabolites 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3,4-di-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), and the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT) and

Gin C. Hsieh; Robert D. R. Parker; Raghubir P. Sharma



Chlorophenylpiperazine analogues as high affinity dopamine transporter ligands.  


Selective ?2 ligands continue to be an active target for medications to attenuate the effects of psychostimulants. In the course of our studies to determine the optimal substituents in the ?2-selective phenyl piperazines analogues with reduced activity at other neurotransmitter systems, we discovered that 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-4-phenethylpiperazine actually had preferentially increased affinity for dopamine transporters (DAT), yielding a highly selective DAT ligand. PMID:24211020

Motel, William C; Healy, Jason R; Viard, Eddy; Pouw, Buddy; Martin, Kelly E; Matsumoto, Rae R; Coop, Andrew



Neurotransmitter control of islet hormone pulsatility.  


Pulsatile secretion is an inherent property of hormone-releasing pancreatic islet cells. This secretory pattern is physiologically important and compromised in diabetes. Neurotransmitters released from islet cells may shape the pulses in auto/paracrine feedback loops. Within islets, glucose-stimulated ?-cells couple via gap junctions to generate synchronized insulin pulses. In contrast, ?- and ?-cells lack gap junctions, and glucagon release from islets stimulated by lack of glucose is non-pulsatile. Increasing glucose concentrations gradually inhibit glucagon secretion by ?-cell-intrinsic mechanism/s. Further glucose elevation will stimulate pulsatile insulin release and co-secretion of neurotransmitters. Excitatory ATP may synchronize ?-cells with ?-cells to generate coinciding pulses of insulin and somatostatin. Inhibitory neurotransmitters from ?- and ?-cells can then generate antiphase pulses of glucagon release. Neurotransmitters released from intrapancreatic ganglia are required to synchronize ?-cells between islets to coordinate insulin pulsatility from the entire pancreas, whereas paracrine intra-islet effects still suffice to explain coordinated pulsatile release of glucagon and somatostatin. The present review discusses how neurotransmitters contribute to the pulsatility at different levels of integration. PMID:25200303

Gylfe, E; Tengholm, A



Serotonin and Social Norms  

PubMed Central

How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.



Electrocoating carbon fiber microelectrodes with Nafion improves selectivity for electroactive neurotransmitters.  


A method which improves carbon fiber microelectrode selectivity for cationic amines by electrocoating the fiber with a thin film of the ionic polymer, Nafion, is described. The selectivity and response speed of these electrodes for the detection of electroactive cationic and anionic species found in brain extracellular fluid was evaluated using differential pulse voltammetry and chronoamperometry and compared to uncoated fibers. Carbon fiber microelectrodes electrocoated with Nafion are highly sensitive to cationic amines such as dopamine and serotonin and have minimal sensitivity to anions such as ascorbic acid and uric acid at physiological concentrations. PMID:2893860

Brazell, M P; Kasser, R J; Renner, K J; Feng, J; Moghaddam, B; Adams, R N



Influence of di-butyltin dilaurate on brain neurotransmitter systems and behavior in rats.  


Exposure to DBTL (20, 40 or 80 mg/kg body weight) caused a decrease in levels of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) at all treatment levels. Hypothalamus and frontal cortex appeared to be most affected, since levels of all the three amines examined showed changes in these areas. Maximum decrease of DA was found in corpus striatum, NA in pons medulla and of 5-HT in frontal cortex. These animals also showed a decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity and learning at all the doses. The data indicates involvement of hypothalamus and frontal cortical regions of the brain in the neurotoxicity of DBTL. PMID:2899427

Alam, M S; Husain, R; Srivastava, S P; Seth, P K



Nociceptin/orphanin FQ and neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system.  


In this article, the effect of nociceptin (orphanin FQ) on transmitter release in the central nervous system in vitro and in vivo is reviewed. Nociceptin inhibits the electrically or K(+)-evoked noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate release in brain slices from guinea-pig, rat, and mouse. This effect is usually naloxone-resistant but antagonized by OP(4) receptor antagonists like [Phe(1)psi(CH(2)-NH)Gly(2)]-nociceptin(1-13)NH(2). In the rat in vivo, nociceptin diminishes acetylcholine release in the striatum, reduces dopamine release, and prevents the stimulatory effect of morphine on this transmitter in the nucleus accumbens and also elevates extracellular glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in mesencephalic dopaminergic areas. The effect of nociceptin on the mesencephalic dopaminergic system might explain its actions on motor behavior. PMID:10998536

Schlicker, E; Morari, M



Dopamine, Dopamine D2 Receptor Short Isoform, Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-?1, and TGF-? Type II Receptor Interact to Inhibit the Growth of Pituitary Lactotropes  

PubMed Central

The neurotransmitter dopamine is known to inhibit prolactin secretion and the proliferation of lactotropes in the pituitary gland. In this study, we determined whether dopamine and TGF?1 interact to regulate lactotropic cell proliferation. We found that dopamine and the dopamine agonist bromocriptine stimulated TGF?1 secretion and TGF?1 mRNA expression but inhibited lactotropic cell proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. The dopamine’s inhibitory action on lactotropic cell proliferation was blocked by a TGF?1-neutralizing antibody. We also found that PR1 cells, which express low amounts of the dopamine D2 receptor, demonstrated reduced expression of TGF?1 type II receptor and TGF?1 mRNA levels and had undetectable levels of TGF?1 protein. These cells showed a reduced TGF?1 growth-inhibitory response. Constitutive expression of the D2 receptor short isoform, but not the D2 receptor long isoform, induced TGF?1 and TGF?1 type II receptor gene expression and recovered dopamine- and TGF?1-induced growth inhibition in PR1 cells. The constitutive expression of D2 receptor short isoform also reduced the tumor cell growth rate. These data suggest that a TGF?1 system may mediate, in part, the growth-inhibitory action of dopamine on lactotropes. PMID:15961557

Sarkar, D. K.; Chaturvedi, K.; Oomizu, S.; Boyadjieva, N. I.; Chen, C. P.



DAMB, a Novel Dopamine Receptor Expressed Specifically in Drosophila Mushroom Bodies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulatory neurotransmitters that trigger biochemical cascades underlying olfactory learning in Drosophila mushroom bodies have remained unknown. To identify molecules that may perform this role, putative biogenic amine receptors were cloned using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. One new receptor, DAMB, was identified as a dopamine D1 receptor by sequence analysis and pharmacological characterization. In

Kyung-An Han; Neil S Millar; Michael S Grotewiel; Ronald L Davis



Low Extracellular Dopamine Levels Are Maintained in the Anoxic Turtle (Trachemys scripta) Striatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uncontrolled increase of extracellular dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic\\/ischemic damage in the mammalian brain. But unlike the harmful release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate and aspartate, which occurs on brain depolarization, excessive extracellular DA levels occur even with mild hypoxia in the mammalian brain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether

Sarah L. Milton; Peter L. Lutz



Dopamine Regulation of Human Speech and Bird Song: A Critical Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To understand the neural basis of human speech control, extensive research has been done using a variety of methodologies in a range of experimental models. Nevertheless, several critical questions about learned vocal motor control still remain open. One of them is the mechanism(s) by which neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, modulate speech and…

Simonyan, Kristina; Horwitz, Barry; Jarvis, Erich D.



Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in…

Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica



Dopamine, learning and motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that dopamine is important for reward has been proposed in a number of forms, each of which has been challenged. Normally, rewarding stimuli such as food, water, lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation and several drugs of abuse become ineffective as rewards in animals given performance-sparing doses of dopamine antagonists. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens has been linked to

Roy A. Wise



MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)  


... of Addiction Frontiers 2010 A Fresh Look at Dopamine Release and Uptake Connectivity of the Human Brain ... by increasing the activity of three neurotransmitters, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. The emotional and pro-social effects ...


Serotonin and beyond: therapeutics for major depression  

PubMed Central

The serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). The case for its contribution to the therapeutic efficacy of a wide variety of antidepressant treatments is, however, much stronger. All antidepressant strategies have been shown to enhance 5-HT transmission in the brain of laboratory animals. Catecholamines, norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) can also play a pivotal role in the mechanism of action of certain antidepressant strategies. The enhancement of 5-HT transmission by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which leads to a dampening of the activity of NE and DA neurons, may account in part for the low remission rate achieved with these medications and/or the residuals symptoms after remission is achieved. The functional connectivity between the 5-HT, NE and DA systems can be used to understand the mechanism of action of a wide variety of augmentation strategies in treatment-resistant MDD. Proof-of-concept studies have shown that antidepressant medications with complementary mechanisms of action on monoaminergic systems can double the remission rate achieved in a trial of standard duration. Novel approaches are also being used to treat MDD, which also appear to involve the monoaminergic system(s) to a varying extent. PMID:23440470

Blier, Pierre; El Mansari, Mostafa



Synthesis on accumulation of putative neurotransmitters by cultured neural crest cells  

SciTech Connect

The events mediating the differentiation of embryonic neural crest cells into several types of neurons are incompletely understood. In order to probe one aspect of this differentiation, we have examined the capacity of cultured quail trunk neural crest cells to synthesize, from radioactive precursors, and store several putative neurotransmitter compounds. These neural crest cultures develop the capacity to synthesize and accumulate acetylcholine and the catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine. In contrast, detectable but relatively little synthesis and accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine gamma-aminobutyric acid, or octopamine from the appropriate radiolabeled precursors were observed. The capacity for synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines is very low or absent at 2 days in vitro. Between 3 and 7 days in vitro, there is a marked rise in both catecholamine and acetylcholine accumulation in the cultures. These findings suggest that, under the particular conditions used in these experiments, the development of neurotransmitter biosynthesis in trunk neural crest cells ijs restricted and resembles, at least partially, the pattern observed in vivo. The development of this capacity to synthesize and store radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines from the appropriate radioactive precursors coincides closely with the development of the activities of the synthetic enzymes choline acetyltransferase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase reported by others.

Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.; Rafford, C.E.



Developmental origins of brain disorders: roles for dopamine  

PubMed Central

Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as dopamine, participate in a wide range of behavioral and cognitive functions in the adult brain, including movement, cognition, and reward. Dopamine-mediated signaling plays a fundamental neurodevelopmental role in forebrain differentiation and circuit formation. These developmental effects, such as modulation of neuronal migration and dendritic growth, occur before synaptogenesis and demonstrate novel roles for dopaminergic signaling beyond neuromodulation at the synapse. Pharmacologic and genetic disruptions demonstrate that these effects are brain region- and receptor subtype-specific. For example, the striatum and frontal cortex exhibit abnormal neuronal structure and function following prenatal disruption of dopamine receptor signaling. Alterations in these processes are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and emerging studies of neurodevelopmental disruptions may shed light on the pathophysiology of abnormal neuronal circuitry in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24391541

Money, Kelli M.; Stanwood, Gregg D.



Regulation of serotonin-2C receptor G-protein coupling by RNA editing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) elicits a wide array of physiological effects by binding to several receptor subtypes. The 5-HT2 family of receptors belongs to a large group of seven-transmembrane-spanning G-protein-coupled receptors and includes three receptor subtypes (5-HT2A, 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C) which are linked to phospholipase C, promoting the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids and a subsequent increase in the intracellular

Colleen M. Burns; Hsin Chu; Susan M. Rueter; Linda K. Hutchinson; Hervé Canton; Elaine Sanders-Bush; Ronald B. Emeson



Cloning, Expression, and Localization of a Chloride-Facilitated, Cocaine Sensitive Serotonin Transporter from Drosophila Melanogaster  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here on the isolation and characterization of a serotonin (5HT) transporter from Drosophila melanogaster. A 3.1-kb complementary DNA clone (dSERT) was found to encode a protein of 622 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of ≈69 kDa and a putative transmembrane topology characteristic of cloned members of the mammalian Na^+\\/Cl^- neurotransmitter cotransporter gene family. dSERT displays

Lidia L. Demchyshyn; Zdenek B. Pristupa; Kim S. Sugamori; Eric L. Barker; Randy D. Blakely; William J. Wolfgang; Michael A. Forte; Hyman B. Niznik



Hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of food intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because daily food intake is the product of the size of a meal and the frequency of meals ingested, the characteristic of meal size to meal number during a 24-h light–dark cycle constitutes an identifiable pattern specific to normal states and obesity and that occurs during early cancer anorexia. An understanding of simultaneous changes in meal size and meal number

Michael M Meguid; Serguei O Fetissov; Madhu Varma; Tomoi Sato; Lihua Zhang; Alessandro Laviano; Filippo Rossi-Fanelli



Opponency Revisited: Competition and Cooperation Between Dopamine and Serotonin  

E-print Network

from punishment to reward. The coding of such spectra in the brain almost always involves opponency and minimize punish- ments, in both cases over the long run. Optimal control is mathematically straightforward in optimal control theory, such as the notion of a single utility function reporting negative and positive

Dayan, Peter


Modeling Dopamine and Serotonin Systems in a Visual Recognition Network  

E-print Network

would like to thank Majtoba Solgi for his aid in providing the facial images used for both testing. The development consists of three stages: prenatal, birth, and development. During the prenatal stage, the agent


Disease-specific expression of the serotonin-receptor 5-HT(2C) in natural killer cells in Alzheimer's dementia.  


Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is a degenerative brain disorder characterized mainly by cholinergic failure, but other neuro-transmitters are also deficient especially at late stages of the disease. Misfolded ?-amyloid peptide has been identified as a causative agent, however inflammatory changes also play a pivotal role. Even though the most prominent pathology is seen in the cognitive functions, specific abnormalities of the central nervous system (CNS) are also reflected in the periphery, particularly in the immune responses of the body. The aim of this study was to characterize the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in AD, which are also markedly disrupted along with the hallmark acetyl-choline dysfunction. Peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) from demented patients were judged against comparison groups including individuals with late-onset depression (LOD), as well as non-demented and non-depressed subjects. Cellular sub-populations were evaluated by mono-clonal antibodies against various cell surface receptors: CD4/CD8 (T-lymphocytes), CD19 (B-lymphocytes), CD14 (monocytes), and CD56 (natural-killer (NK)-cells). The expressions of dopamine D(3) and D(4), as well as serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) were also assessed. There were no significant differences among the study groups with respect to the frequency of the cellular sub-types, however a unique profound increase in 5-HT(2C) receptor exclusively in NK-cells was observed in AD. The disease-specific expression of 5-HT(2C), as well as the NK-cell cyto-toxicity, has been linked with cognitive derangement in dementia. These changes not only corroborate the existence of bi-directional communication between the immune system and the CNS, but also elucidate the role of inflammatory activity in AD pathology, and may serve as potential biomarkers for less invasive and early diagnostic purposes as well. PMID:22766135

Martins, Luiza Conceição Amorim; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Torres, Karen Cecília Lima; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Ribeiro; França, Giselle Sabrina; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Mukhamedyarov, Marat Alexandrovich; Zefirov, Andrey Lvovich; Rizvanov, Albert Anatolyevich; Kiyasov, Andrey Pavlovich; Vieira, Luciene Bruno; Guimarães, Melissa Monteiro; Yalvaç, Mehmet Emir; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargo; Janka, Zoltán; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Palotás, András; Reis, Helton José



Imaging neurotransmitter uptake and depletion in astrocytes  

SciTech Connect

An ultraviolet (UV) laser-based optical microscope and charge-coupled device (CCD) detection system was used to obtain chemical images of biological cells. Subcellular structures can be easily seen in both optical and fluorescence images. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection provides high sensitivity and low limits of detection, and it does not require coupling to fluorescent dyes. We were able to quantitatively monitor serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual astrocytes on the basis of its native fluorescence. Different regions of the cells took up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of uptake kinetics. Similarly, we observed different serotonin depletion dynamics in different astrocyte regions. There were also some astrocyte areas where no serotonin uptake or depletion was observed. Potential applications include the mapping of other biogenic species in cells as well as the ability to image their release from specific regions of cells in response to external stimuli. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

Tan, W. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7200 (United States); Haydon, P.G. [Department of Zoology and Genetics, Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Department of Zoology and Genetics, Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)



Serotonin transporter and serotonin receptor 2A gene polymorphisms in Alzheimer's disease.  


Genetic variants of the serotonergic neurotransmitter system are potential contributing factors in the pathological processes underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and serotonin receptor 2A (HTR2A) genes for possible association with AD, and therefore genotyped 5-HTTLPR, STin2-VNTR and HTR2A T102C polymorphisms in 252 Hungarian AD patients and 234 ethnically matched control individuals. We did not detect statistically significant differences in genotype distribution comparing the AD and the control group when the polymorphisms were investigated separately. Logistic regression analyses, however, revealed an interaction effect between 5-HTTLPR and HTR2A T102C (p=0.019), but not between 5-HTTLPR and STin2-VNTR (p=0.494) or STin2-VNTR and HTR2A T102C (p=0.310) polymorphisms. Our study suggests no individual influence of the investigated polymorphisms but a potential combined effect of the 5-HTTLPR L/L and HTR2A T102C C/C genotypes on AD risk. However, the results need to be treated with considerable caution, and further analyses in larger samples are required. PMID:23274704

Fehér, Agnes; Juhász, Anna; László, Anna; Pákáski, Magdolna; Kálmán, János; Janka, Zoltán



Immunocytochemical analysis of noradrenaline, substance P and enkephalin axonal contacts on serotonin neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei of the cat.  


The present study investigates the anatomical basis for interactions between serotonin immunoreactive neurons in nuclei raphe magnus and pallidus, and either noradrenaline, substance P (SP) or enkephalin immunoreactive axonal varicosities. Using a double-label immunocytochemical method, we found that each of these neurochemicals could be localized to axons which contacted serotonin immunoreactive neurons. The frequency and location of these inputs differed in nuclei raphe magnus and pallidus. SP immunoreactive varicosities formed the greatest number of contacts. These findings suggest that serotonin-containing neurons in the caudal raphe nuclei receive input from multiple putative neurotransmitters. PMID:2456495

Pretel, S; Ruda, M A



Exaggerated aggression and decreased anxiety in mice deficient in brain serotonin  

PubMed Central

Serotonin is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Dysregulation of serotonin transmission in the CNS is reported to be related to different psychiatric disorders in humans including depression, impulsive aggression and anxiety disorders. The most frequently prescribed antidepressants and anxiolytics target the serotonergic system. However, these drugs are not effective in 20–30% of cases. The causes of this failure as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the origin of psychological disorders are poorly understood. Biosynthesis of serotonin in the CNS is initiated by tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2). In this study, we used Tph2-deficient (Tph2?/?) mice to evaluate the impact of serotonin depletion in the brain on mouse behavior. Tph2?/? mice exhibited increased depression-like behavior in the forced swim test but not in the tail suspension test. In addition, they showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in three different paradigms: elevated plus maze, marble burying and novelty-suppressed feeding tests. These phenotypes were accompanied by strong aggressiveness observed in the resident–intruder paradigm. Despite carrying only one copy of the gene, heterozygous Tph2+/? mice showed only 10% reduction in brain serotonin, which was not sufficient to modulate behavior in the tested paradigms. Our findings provide unequivocal evidence on the pivotal role of central serotonin in anxiety and aggression. PMID:22832966

Mosienko, V; Bert, B; Beis, D; Matthes, S; Fink, H; Bader, M; Alenina, N



Role of Serotonin via 5-HT2B Receptors in the Reinforcing Effects of MDMA in Mice  

E-print Network

Role of Serotonin via 5-HT2B Receptors in the Reinforcing Effects of MDMA in Mice Ste´phane Doly1942, Paris, France Abstract The amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA/dopamine interactions in the behavioral effects of MDMA remains unclear. We previously showed that MDMA

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Neurobeachin regulates neurotransmitter receptor trafficking to synapses  

PubMed Central

The surface density of neurotransmitter receptors at synapses is a key determinant of synaptic efficacy. Synaptic receptor accumulation is regulated by the transport, postsynaptic anchoring, and turnover of receptors, involving multiple trafficking, sorting, motor, and scaffold proteins. We found that neurons lacking the BEACH (beige-Chediak/Higashi) domain protein Neurobeachin (Nbea) had strongly reduced synaptic responses caused by a reduction in surface levels of glutamate and GABAA receptors. In the absence of Nbea, immature AMPA receptors accumulated early in the biosynthetic pathway, and mature N-methyl-d-aspartate, kainate, and GABAA receptors did not reach the synapse, whereas maturation and surface expression of other membrane proteins, synapse formation, and presynaptic function were unaffected. These data show that Nbea regulates synaptic transmission under basal conditions by targeting neurotransmitter receptors to synapses. PMID:23277425

Nair, Ramya; Lauks, Juliane; Jung, SangYong; Cooke, Nancy E.; de Wit, Heidi; Brose, Nils; Kilimann, Manfred W.



Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET  

SciTech Connect

Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding biologically distinct neurochemical systems that interact to produce a variety of behaviors and disorders. Neurotransmitters are neither static nor isolated in their distribution. In fact, it is through interactions with other neurochemically distinct systems that the central nervous system (CNS) performs its vital role in sustaining life. Exclusive quantitative capabilities intrinsic to PET make this technology a suitable experimental tool to measure not only the regional distribution of specific receptors and their subtypes, but also the dynamic properties of neuroreceptors and their inherent influence on related neurotransmitter pathways. The ability to investigate dynamic properties in a non-invasive and reproducible manner provides a powerful tool that can extend our current knowledge of these interactions. Coupled with innovative paradigms including pharmacologic manipulations, physiologic models and reconstruction theories, knowledge derived from PET studies can greatly advance our understanding of normal and abnormal brain function.

Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.



Optogenetic activation of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons enhances patience for future rewards.  


Serotonin is a neuromodulator that is involved extensively in behavioral, affective, and cognitive functions in the brain. Previous recording studies of the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) revealed that the activation of putative serotonin neurons correlates with the levels of behavioral arousal [1], rhythmic motor outputs [2], salient sensory stimuli [3-6], reward, and conditioned cues [5-8]. The classic theory on serotonin states that it opposes dopamine and inhibits behaviors when aversive events are predicted [9-14]. However, the therapeutic effects of serotonin signal-enhancing medications have been difficult to reconcile with this theory [15, 16]. In contrast, a more recent theory states that serotonin facilitates long-term optimal behaviors and suppresses impulsive behaviors [17-21]. To test these theories, we developed optogenetic mice that selectively express channelrhodopsin in serotonin neurons and tested how the activation of serotonergic neurons in the DRN affects animal behavior during a delayed reward task. The activation of serotonin neurons reduced the premature cessation of waiting for conditioned cues and food rewards. In reward omission trials, serotonin neuron stimulation prolonged the time animals spent waiting. This effect was observed specifically when the animal was engaged in deciding whether to keep waiting and was not due to motor inhibition. Control experiments showed that the prolonged waiting times observed with optogenetic stimulation were not due to behavioral inhibition or the reinforcing effects of serotonergic activation. These results show, for the first time, that the timed activation of serotonin neurons during waiting promotes animals' patience to wait for a delayed reward. PMID:25155504

Miyazaki, Kayoko W; Miyazaki, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Kenji F; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Takahashi, Aki; Tabuchi, Sawako; Doya, Kenji



Human iPSC Neurons Display Activity-Dependent Neurotransmitter Secretion: Aberrant Catecholamine Levels in Schizophrenia Neurons  

PubMed Central

Summary This study investigated human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) -derived neurons for their ability to secrete neurotransmitters in an activity-dependent manner, the fundamental property required for chemical neurotransmission. Cultured hiPSC neurons showed KCl stimulation of activity-dependent secretion of catecholamines—dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (Epi)—and the peptide neurotransmitters dynorphin and enkephlain. hiPSC neurons express the biosynthetic enzymes for catecholamines and neuropeptides. Because altered neurotransmission contributes to schizophrenia (SZ), we compared SZ to control cultures of hiPSC neurons and found that SZ cases showed elevated levels of secreted DA, NE, and Epi. Consistent with increased catecholamines, the SZ neuronal cultures showed a higher percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons, the first enzymatic step for catecholamine biosynthesis. These findings show that hiPSC neurons possess the fundamental property of activity-dependent neurotransmitter secretion and can be advantageously utilized to examine regulation of neurotransmitter release related to brain disorders. PMID:25358781

Hook, Vivian; Brennand, Kristen J.; Kim, Yongsung; Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Lee, Kelly C.; Ziegler, Michael; Gage, Fred H.



Human iPSC Neurons Display Activity-Dependent Neurotransmitter Secretion: Aberrant Catecholamine Levels in Schizophrenia Neurons.  


This study investigated human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) -derived neurons for their ability to secrete neurotransmitters in an activity-dependent manner, the fundamental property required for chemical neurotransmission. Cultured hiPSC neurons showed KCl stimulation of activity-dependent secretion of catecholamines-dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (Epi)-and the peptide neurotransmitters dynorphin and enkephlain. hiPSC neurons express the biosynthetic enzymes for catecholamines and neuropeptides. Because altered neurotransmission contributes to schizophrenia (SZ), we compared SZ to control cultures of hiPSC neurons and found that SZ cases showed elevated levels of secreted DA, NE, and Epi. Consistent with increased catecholamines, the SZ neuronal cultures showed a higher percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons, the first enzymatic step for catecholamine biosynthesis. These findings show that hiPSC neurons possess the fundamental property of activity-dependent neurotransmitter secretion and can be advantageously utilized to examine regulation of neurotransmitter release related to brain disorders. PMID:25358781

Hook, Vivian; Brennand, Kristen J; Kim, Yongsung; Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Lee, Kelly C; Ziegler, Michael; Gage, Fred H



Distribution of serotonin and FMRF-amide in the brain of Lymnaea stagnalis with respect to the visual system.  


Despite serotonin's and FMRF-amide's wide distribution in the nervous system of invertebrates and their importance as neurotransmitters, the exact roles they play in neuronal networks leaves many questions. We mapped the presence of serotonin and FMRF-amide-immunoreactivity in the central nervous system and eyes of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and interpreted the results in connection with our earlier findings on the central projections of different peripheral nerves. Since the chemical nature of the intercellular connections in the retina of L. stagnalis is still largely unknown, we paid special attention to clarifying the role of serotonin and FMRF-amide in the visual system of this snail and compared our findings with those reported from other species. At least one serotonin- and one FMRF-amidergic fibre were labeled in each optic nerve, and since no cell bodies in the eye showed immunoreactivity to these neurotransmitters, we believe that efferent fibres with somata located in the central ganglia branch at the base of the eye and probably release 5HT and FMRF-amide as neuro-hormones. Double labelling revealed retrograde transport of neurobiotin through the optic nerve, allowing us to conclude that the central pathways and serotonin- and FMRF-amide-immunoreactive cells and fibres have different locations in the CNS in L. stagnalis. The chemical nature of the fibres, which connect the two eyes in L. stagnalis, is neither serotoninergic nor FMRF-amidergic. PMID:22653864

Tuchina, Oksana P; Zhukov, Valery V; Meyer-Rochow, Victor B



Effects of their nutrient precursors on the synthesis and release of serotonin, the catecholamines, and acetylcholine - Implications for behavioral disorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Authentic foods affect brain serotonin synthesis by modifying brain tryptophan levels, carbohydrates increasing and proteins decreasing these levels. The carbohydrate-induced rise in brain serotonin tends to diminish the likelihood that one carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor meal or snack will be followed by another. This mechanism is apparently disturbed in carbohydrate-craving obesity, which may explain why this syndrome responds well to d-fenfluramine, a serotoninergic drug. Pure nutrients like tyrosine or choline can also affect the rates at which their neurotransmitter products, the catecholamines and acetylcholine, are synthesized in and released from nerve terminals, suggesting that these compounds may find uses as drugs.

Wurtman, Richard J.



Cerebral serotonin transporter asymmetry in females, males and male-to-female transsexuals measured by PET in vivo.  


The serotonergic system modulates brain functions that are considered to underlie affective states, emotion and cognition. Several lines of evidence point towards a strong lateralization of these mental processes, which indicates similar asymmetries in associated neurotransmitter systems. Here, our aim was to investigate a potential asymmetry of the serotonin transporter distribution using positron emission tomography and the radioligand [(11)C]DASB in vivo. As brain asymmetries may differ between sexes, we further aimed to compare serotonin transporter asymmetry between females, males and male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals whose brains are considered to be partly feminized. Voxel-wise analysis of serotonin transporter binding in all groups showed both strong left and rightward asymmetries in several cortical and subcortical structures including temporal and frontal cortices, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, caudate and thalamus. Further, male controls showed a rightward asymmetry in the midcingulate cortex, which was absent in females and MtF transsexuals. The present data support the notion of a lateralized serotonergic system, which is in line with previous findings of asymmetric serotonin-1A receptor distributions, extracellular serotonin concentrations, serotonin turnover and uptake. The absence of serotonin transporter asymmetry in the midcingulate in MtF transsexuals may be attributed to an absence of brain masculinization in this region. PMID:23224294

Kranz, Georg S; Hahn, Andreas; Baldinger, Pia; Haeusler, Daniela; Philippe, Cecile; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Savli, Markus; Hoeflich, Anna; Kraus, Christoph; Vanicek, Thomas; Mitterhauser, Markus; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert



Parallel recording of neurotransmitters release from chromaffin cells using a 10×10 CMOS IC potentiostat array with on-chip working electrodes.  


Neurotransmitter release is modulated by many drugs and molecular manipulations. We present an active CMOS-based electrochemical biosensor array with high throughput capability (100 electrodes) for on-chip amperometric measurement of neurotransmitter release. The high-throughput of the biosensor array will accelerate the data collection needed to determine statistical significance of changes produced under varying conditions, from several weeks to a few hours. The biosensor is designed and fabricated using a combination of CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology and a photolithography process to incorporate platinum working electrodes on-chip. We demonstrate the operation of an electrode array with integrated high-gain potentiostats and output time-division multiplexing with minimum dead time for readout. The on-chip working electrodes are patterned by conformal deposition of Pt and lift-off photolithography. The conformal deposition method protects the underlying electronic circuits from contact with the electrolyte that covers the electrode array during measurement. The biosensor was validated by simultaneous measurement of amperometric currents from 100 electrodes in response to dopamine injection, which revealed the time course of dopamine diffusion along the surface of the biosensor array. The biosensor simultaneously recorded neurotransmitter release successfully from multiple individual living chromaffin cells. The biosensor was capable of resolving small and fast amperometric spikes reporting release from individual vesicle secretions. We anticipate that this device will accelerate the characterization of the modulation of neurotransmitter secretion from neuronal and endocrine cells by pharmacological and molecular manipulations of the cells. PMID:23084756

Kim, Brian N; Herbst, Adam D; Kim, Sung J; Minch, Bradley A; Lindau, Manfred



Parallel Recording of Neurotransmitters Release from Chromaffin Cells Using a 10 x 10 CMOS IC Potentiostat Array with On-Chip Working Electrodes  

PubMed Central

Neurotransmitter release is modulated by many drugs and molecular manipulations. We present an active CMOS-based electrochemical biosensor array with high throughput capability (100 electrodes) for on-chip amperometric measurement of neurotransmitter release. The high-throughput of the biosensor array will accelerate the data collection needed to determine statistical significance of changes produced under varying conditions, from several weeks to a few hours. The biosensor is designed and fabricated using a combination of CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology and a photolithography process to incorporate platinum working electrodes on-chip. We demonstrate the operation of an electrode array with integrated high-gain potentiostats and output time-division multiplexing with minimum dead time for readout. The on-chip working electrodes are patterned by conformal deposition of Pt and lift-off photolithography. The conformal deposition method protects the underlying electronic circuits from contact with the electrolyte that covers the electrode array during measurement. The biosensor was validated by simultaneous measurement of amperometric currents from 100 electrodes in response to dopamine injection, which revealed the time course of dopamine diffusion along the surface of the biosensor array. The biosensor simultaneously recorded neurotransmitter release successfully from multiple individual living chromaffin cells. The biosensor was capable of resolving small and fast amperometric spikes reporting release from individual vesicle secretions. We anticipate that this device will accelerate the characterization of the modulation of neurotransmitter secretion from neuronal and endocrine cells by pharmacological and molecular manipulations of the cells. PMID:23084756

Kim, Brian Namghi; Herbst, Adam D.; Kim, Sung June; Minch, Bradley A.; Lindau, Manfred



Influence of age on neurotransmitter function.  


Regulation by neurotransmitters of anterior pituitary hormone secretion is complex and a thorough understanding of their normal role in hormone secretion is a prerequisite to understanding their involvement in age-related changes in endocrine function. To date, uncertainties far out-number demonstrated causative relationships between alterations in neurotransmitter release and resulting age-associated changes in hormone secretion. The best demonstrated relationships are the following. First, a decline in function of the TIDA system is responsible, in part, for the age-related elevation in prolactin secretion and may be involved in the decline in LH secretion. Second, the age-related decrease in hypothalamic norepinephrine turnover plays a role in the decline in LH and GH secretion and may be involved in alterations in TSH secretion during aging. Third, the decline in circadian activity of suprachiasmatic nucleus serotoninergic neurons may account for the blunting of circadian rhythms in the secretions of several anterior pituitary hormones in old animals. Fourth, evidence exists for an age-related decline in function of LHRH neurons, which may contribute to the observation of blunted LH secretion in old animals. Finally, somatostatin release may be increased in old animals, which likely contributes to the age-related decline in GH secretion. Other hypothalamic-releasing hormones have only recently been isolated and characterized; thus, little research on their age-related alterations has been done. Research on these neuropeptides will contribute further to our understanding of the role of neurotransmitters in age-related alterations in hormone secretion. PMID:2892672

Simpkins, J W; Millard, W J



The (B)link Between Creativity and Dopamine: Spontaneous Eye Blink Rates Predict and Dissociate Divergent and Convergent Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human creativity has been claimed to rely on the neurotransmitter dopamine, but evidence is still sparse. We studied whether individual performance (N=117) in divergent thinking (alternative uses task) and convergent thinking (remote association task) can be predicted by the individual spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), a clinical marker of…

Chermahini, Soghra Akbari; Hommel, Bernhard



Dopamine in gastrointestinal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine is an important enteric neuromodulator. Herein we review the data that support a role for dopaminergic involvement in experimental duodenal and gastric ulceration; gastric, pancreatic, and duodenal secretion; gastrointestinal motility; and gastric and intestinal submucosal blood flow regulation. There also is support for a role for dopamine and dopamimetic agents in the treatment of certain experimental gastrointestinal diseases because

Gary B. Glavin; Sandor Szabo



Reward-based hypertension control by a synthetic brain-dopamine interface  

PubMed Central

Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic trigger-controlled devices that can reprogram mammalian cells to interface with complex metabolic activities. In the brain, the neurotransmitter dopamine coordinates communication with target neurons via a set of dopamine receptors that control behavior associated with reward-driven learning. This dopamine transmission has recently been suggested to increase central sympathetic outflow, resulting in plasma dopamine levels that correlate with corresponding brain activities. By functionally rewiring the human dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) via the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to synthetic promoters containing cAMP response element-binding protein 1(CREB1)-specific cAMP-responsive operator modules, we have designed a synthetic dopamine-sensitive transcription controller that reversibly fine-tunes specific target gene expression at physiologically relevant brain-derived plasma dopamine levels. Following implantation of circuit-transgenic human cell lines insulated by semipermeable immunoprotective microcontainers into mice, the designer device interfaced with dopamine-specific brain activities and produced a systemic expression response when the animal’s reward system was stimulated by food, sexual arousal, or addictive drugs. Reward-triggered brain activities were able to remotely program peripheral therapeutic implants to produce sufficient amounts of the atrial natriuretic peptide, which reduced the blood pressure of hypertensive mice to the normal physiologic range. Seamless control of therapeutic transgenes by subconscious behavior may provide opportunities for treatment strategies of the future. PMID:24127594

Rossger, Katrin; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin



Serotonin depletion after prolonged chlorpromazine treatment in a simpler model system  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. Prolonged exposure of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis to micromolar concentrations of chlorpromazine (CPZ) results in marked changes in the serotonin (5-HT) content of the central nervous system.2.2. High-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection indicates that levels of 5-HT, but not those of dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA), dopamine or norepinephrine, were significantly decreased (e.g., to less than 40% of normal after

Roger P. Croll; Michael W. Baker; Marina Khabarova; Elena E. Voronezhskaya; D. A. Sakharov



Neurotransmitter release mechanisms studied in Caenorhabditis elegans.  


The process of regulated exocytosis has received considerable interest as a key component of synaptic transmission. Fusion of presynaptic vesicles and the subsequent release of their neurotransmitter contents is driven by a series of interactions between evolutionarily conserved proteins. Key insights into the molecular mechanisms of vesicle fusion have come from research using genetic model systems such as the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. We review here the current knowledge regarding regulated exocytosis at the C. elegans synapse and future research directions involving this model organism. PMID:22521667

Barclay, Jeff W; Morgan, Alan; Burgoyne, Robert D



The dopamine system and alcohol dependence  

PubMed Central

summary Alcohol dependence is a common mental disorder that is associated with substantial disease burden. Current efforts at prevention and treatment of alcohol dependence are of very limited effectiveness. A better understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying dependence is essential to improving the outcomes of treatment and prevention initiatives. To date, most of the efforts have focused on the key role of the dopamine system in the complex etiological network of alcohol dependence. This review summarizes current research about the relationships between alcohol consumption and the dopaminergic system. We find that many of the currently available studies have contradictory results, presumably due to differences in methodology, non-linear dosage effects, use of different samples, and the possible confounding effects of other neurotransmitter systems. PMID:25092951

MA, Hui; ZHU, Gang



Dopamine in vivo inhibits VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2, MAPK, and focal adhesion kinase in endothelial cells.  


Vascular permeability factor (VPF)/VEGF is a potent multifunctional cytokine and growth factor that has critical roles in vasculogenesis and in both physiological and pathological angiogenesis. Because it has been recently shown that the neurotransmitter dopamine at pharmacological dose can inhibit VEGF/VPF-mediated microvascular permeability, proliferation, and migration of endothelial cells in vitro, we therefore hypothesized that endogenous dopamine may regulate the actions of VPF/VEGF in vivo. We report that VPF/VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor 2, focal adhesion kinase, and MAPK in the endothelial cells is strikingly increased in both dopamine-depleted and dopamine D(2) receptor knockout mice compared with normal controls, thereby indicating that endogenous dopamine regulate these critical signaling cascades required for the in vivo endothelial functions of VPF/VEGF. Together, these observations provide new mechanistic insight into the dopamine-mediated inhibition of the activities of VPF/VEGF and suggest that endogenous neurotransmitter dopamine might be an important physiological regulator of VPF/VEGF activities in vivo. PMID:15371263

Sarkar, Chandrani; Chakroborty, Debanjan; Mitra, Rita Basu; Banerjee, Samir; Dasgupta, Partha Sarathi; Basu, Sujit



Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.  


The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO?) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO?, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO?, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, p<0.05). The combination of caffeine and exercise increased Tcore, VO?, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain. PMID:24726708

Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi



The effects of scopolamine and the nootropic drug phenotropil on rat brain neurotransmitter receptors during testing of the conditioned passive avoidance task  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of administration of the new nootropic drug phenotropil (N-carbamoylmethyl-4-phenyl-2-pyrrolidone) at a dose of 100 mg\\/kg on the quantitative characteristics of dopamine (DA), serotonin\\u000a (5-HT), glutamate (NMDA), GABA-A (BDZ), and acetylcholine (nACh) receptors in rats using the conditioned passive avoidance\\u000a task (PAT) under normal conditions and during scopolamine-induced amnesia ex vivo. We found that the cholinolytic drug

Yu. Yu. Firstova; D. A. Abaimov; I. G. Kapitsa; T. A. Voronina; G. I. Kovalev



Electrochemical Dopamine Detection: Comparing Gold and Carbon Fiber Microelectrodes using Background Subtracted Fast Scan Cyclic Voltammetry.  


Electrochemical detection is becoming increasingly important for the detection of biological species. Most current biological research with electrochemical detection is done with carbon fiber electrodes due to their many beneficial properties. The ability to build electrochemical sensor from noble metals instead of carbon fibers may be beneficial in developing inexpensive multiplexed electrochemical detection schemes. To advance understanding and to test the feasibility of using noble metal electrochemical sensors the detection of dopamine, a biologically important small molecule was studied here. Specifically, dopamine detection on gold microelectrodes was characterized and compared to P-55 carbon fiber microelectrodes of the same geometry, using background subtracted fast scan cyclic voltammetry. While not as sensitive to dopamine as carbon fibers, it was observed that gold microelectrodes have six times the saturation coverage per area and 40 times the linear working range. Selectivity to dopamine, in comparison to several other neurotransmitters and their derivatives, is also quantitatively described. PMID:19319208

Zachek, Matthew K; Hermans, Andre; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S



Vesicular Glutamate Transport Promotes Dopamine Storage and Glutamate Corelease In Vivo  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play an important role in the motivational systems underlying drug addiction, and recent work has suggested that they also release the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate. To assess a physiological role for glutamate corelease, we disrupted the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter 2 selectively in dopamine neurons. The conditional knockout abolishes glutamate release from midbrain dopamine neurons in culture and severely reduces their excitatory synaptic output in mesoaccumbens slices. Baseline motor behavior is not affected, but stimulation of locomotor activity by cocaine is impaired, apparently through a selective reduction of dopamine stores in the projection of VTA neurons to ventral striatum. Glutamate co-entry promotes monoamine storage by increasing the pH gradient that drives vesicular monoamine transport. Remarkably, low concentrations of glutamate acidify synaptic vesicles more slowly but to a greater extent than equimolar Cl?, indicating a distinct, presynaptic mechanism to regulate quantal size. PMID:20223200

Hnasko, Thomas S.; Chuhma, Nao; Zhang, Hui; Goh, Germaine Y.; Sulzer, David; Palmiter, Richard D.; Rayport, Stephen; Edwards, Robert H.



Tyrosine administration enhances dopamine synthesis and release in light-activated rat retina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Exposure of dark-adapted albino rats to light (350 lux) significantly elevated retinal levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid during the next hour; their return to a dark environment caused dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid levels to fall. Retinal dopamine levels were increased slightly by light exposure, suggesting that the increase in dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid reflected accelerated dopamine synthesis. Administration of tyrosine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) further elevated retinal dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid among light-exposed animals, but failed to affect dopamine release among animals in the dark. These observations show that a physiological stimulus - light exposure - can cause catecholaminergic neurons to become tyrosine-dependent; they also suggest that food consumption may affect neurotransmitter release within the retina.

Gibson, C. J.; Watkins, C. J.; Wurtman, R. J.



Two dimensional array of ZnSe-ferritin for dopamine detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Less toxic zinc selenide (ZnSe) quantum dots were synthesized in the cavity of the apoferritin from horse spleen (HsAFr), and the two-dimensional ZnSe-ferritin nanodots were prepared on modified silicon surface. For utilizing the array as a biosensor, the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum change was investigated by accompanying its conjugation reaction with a neurotransmitter dopamine. When the array was conjugated with dopamine, a significant quenching of the fluorescence occurred and the PL intensity was a linear function of the dopamine concentration in the range of 0-0.6 µM. Accordingly, the ZnSe-ferritin nanodot arrays can be employed as a useful sensing media for tiny concentration of dopamine.

Choi, Eun Ah; Park, Sang Joon



Creating dynamic images of short-lived dopamine fluctuations with lp-ntPET: dopamine movies of cigarette smoking.  


We describe experimental and statistical steps for creating dopamine movies of the brain from dynamic PET data. The movies represent minute-to-minute fluctuations of dopamine induced by smoking a cigarette. The smoker is imaged during a natural smoking experience while other possible confounding effects (such as head motion, expectation, novelty, or aversion to smoking repeatedly) are minimized. We present the details of our unique analysis. Conventional methods for PET analysis estimate time-invariant kinetic model parameters which cannot capture short-term fluctuations in neurotransmitter release. Our analysis--yielding a dopamine movie--is based on our work with kinetic models and other decomposition techniques that allow for time-varying parameters. This aspect of the analysis--temporal-variation--is key to our work. Because our model is also linear in parameters, it is practical, computationally, to apply at the voxel level. The analysis technique is comprised of five main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and visualization. Preprocessing is applied to the PET data with a unique 'HYPR' spatial filter that reduces spatial noise but preserves critical temporal information. Modeling identifies the time-varying function that best describes the dopamine effect on 11C-raclopride uptake. The statistical step compares the fit of our (lp-ntPET) model to a conventional model. Masking restricts treatment to those voxels best described by the new model. Visualization maps the dopamine function at each voxel to a color scale and produces a dopamine movie. Interim results and sample dopamine movies of cigarette smoking are presented. PMID:23963311

Morris, Evan D; Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M; Wang, Shuo; Normandin, Marc D; Constantinescu, Cristian C; Cosgrove, Kelly P



Dopamine in Drosophila: setting arousal thresholds in a miniature brain  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) modulates a variety of behaviours, although DA function is mostly associated with motor control and reward. In insects such as the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, DA also modulates a wide array of behaviours, ranging from sleep and locomotion to courtship and learning. How can a single molecule play so many different roles? Adaptive changes within the DA system, anatomical specificity of action and effects on a variety of behaviours highlight the remarkable versatility of this neurotransmitter. Recent genetic and pharmacological manipulations of DA signalling in Drosophila have launched a surfeit of stories—each arguing for modulation of some aspect of the fly's waking (and sleeping) life. Although these stories often seem distinct and unrelated, there are some unifying themes underlying DA function and arousal states in this insect model. One of the central roles played by DA may involve perceptual suppression, a necessary component of both sleep and selective attention. PMID:21208962

Van Swinderen, Bruno; Andretic, Rozi



Dynamic regulation of neurotransmitter specification: relevance to nervous system homeostasis.  


During nervous system development the neurotransmitter identity changes and coexpression of several neurotransmitters is a rather generalized feature of developing neurons. In the mature nervous system, different physiological and pathological circumstances recreate this phenomenon. The rules of neurotransmitter respecification are multiple. Among them, the goal of assuring balanced excitability appears as an important driving force for the modifications in neurotransmitter phenotype expression. The functional consequences of these dynamic revisions in neurotransmitter identity span a varied range, from fine-tuning the developing neural circuit to modifications in addictive and locomotor behaviors. Current challenges include determining the mechanisms underlying neurotransmitter phenotype respecification and how they intersect with genetic programs of neuronal specialization. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity'. PMID:23270605

Borodinsky, Laura N; Belgacem, Yesser Hadj; Swapna, Immani; Sequerra, Eduardo Bouth



Neurotransmitter signaling in the pathophysiology of microglia  

PubMed Central

Microglial cells are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system. In the resting state, microglia are highly dynamic and control the environment by rapidly extending and retracting motile processes. Microglia are closely associated with astrocytes and neurons, particularly at the synapses, and more recent data indicate that neurotransmission plays a role in regulating the morphology and function of surveying/resting microglia, as they are endowed with receptors for most known neurotransmitters. In particular, microglia express receptors for ATP and glutamate, which regulate microglial motility. After local damage, the release of ATP induces microgliosis and activated microglial cells migrate to the site of injury, proliferate, and phagocytose cells, and cellular compartments. However, excessive activation of microglia could contribute to the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, though the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Microglia have the capacity to release a large number of substances that can be detrimental to the surrounding neurons, including glutamate, ATP, and reactive oxygen species. However, how altered neurotransmission following acute insults or chronic neurodegenerative conditions modulates microglial functions is still poorly understood. This review summarizes the relevant data regarding the role of neurotransmitter receptors in microglial physiology and pathology. PMID:23626522

Domercq, Maria; Vazquez-Villoldo, Nuria; Matute, Carlos



Drosophila 5-HT2 serotonin receptor: coexpression with fushi-tarazu during segmentation.  

PubMed Central

Serotonin, first described as a neurotransmitter in invertebrates, has been investigated mostly for its functions in the mature central nervous system of higher vertebrates. Serotonin receptor diversity has been described in the mammalian brain and in insects. We report the isolation of a cDNA coding for a Drosophila melanogaster serotonin receptor that displays a sequence, a gene organization, and pharmacological properties typical of the mammalian 5-HT2 serotonin receptor subtype. Its mRNA can be detected in the adult fly; moreover, a high level of expression occurs at 3 hr of Drosophila embryogenesis. This early embryonic expression is surprisingly organized in a seven-stripe pattern that appears at the cellular blastoderm stage. In addition, this pattern is in phase with that of the even-parasegment-expressed pair-rule gene fushi-tarazu and is similarly modified by mutations affecting segmentation genes. Simultaneously with this pair-rule expression, the complete machinery of serotonin synthesis is present and leads to a peak of ligand concomitant with a peak of 5-HT2-specific receptor sites in blastoderm embryos. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7777527

Colas, J F; Launay, J M; Kellermann, O; Rosay, P; Maroteaux, L



Native Serotonin Membrane Receptors Recognize 5-Hydroxytryptophan-Functionalized Substrates: Enabling Small-Molecule Recognition  

PubMed Central

Recognition of small diffusible molecules by large biomolecules is ubiquitous in biology. To investigate these interactions, it is important to be able to immobilize small ligands on substrates; however, preserving recognition by biomolecule-binding partners under these circumstances is challenging. We have developed methods to modify substrates with serotonin, a small-molecule neurotransmitter important in brain function and psychiatric disorders. To mimic soluble serotonin, we attached its amino acid precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, via the ancillary carboxyl group to oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated alkanethiols self-assembled on gold. Anti-5-hydroxytryptophan antibodies recognize these substrates, demonstrating bioavailability. Interestingly, 5-hydroxytryptophan-functionalized surfaces capture membrane-associated serotonin receptors enantiospecifically. By contrast, surfaces functionalized with serotonin itself fail to bind serotonin receptors. We infer that recognition by biomolecules evolved to distinguish small-molecule ligands in solution requires tethering of the latter via ectopic moieties. Membrane proteins, which are notoriously difficult to isolate, or other binding partners can be captured for identification, mapping, expression, and other purposes using this generalizable approach. PMID:22778841



Intrinsic vascular dopamine - a key modulator of hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in splanchnic vessels.  


Dopamine not only is a precursor of the catecholamines noradrenaline and adrenaline but also serves as an independent neurotransmitter and paracrine hormone. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and is a potent vasodilator in many mammalian systemic arteries, strongly suggesting an endogenous source of dopamine in the vascular wall. Here we demonstrated dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in rat aorta and superior mesenteric arteries (SMA) by radioimmunoassay. Chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine showed a significant reduction of noradrenaline and adrenaline, while dopamine levels remained unaffected. Isolated endothelial cells were able to synthesize and release dopamine upon cAMP stimulation. Consistent with these data, mRNAs coding for catecholamine synthesizing enzymes, i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, and dopamine-?-hydroxylase were detected by RT-PCR in cultured endothelial cells from SMA. TH protein was detected by immunohistochemisty and Western blot. Exposure of endothelial cells to hypoxia (1% O2) increased TH mRNA. Vascular smooth muscle cells partially expressed catecholaminergic traits. A physiological role of endogenous vascular dopamine was shown in SMA, where D1 dopamine receptor blockade abrogated hypoxic vasodilatation. Experiments on SMA with endothelial denudation revealed a significant contribution of the endothelium, although subendothelial dopamine release dominated. From these results we conclude that endothelial cells and cells of the underlying vascular wall synthesize and release dopamine in an oxygen-regulated manner. In the splanchnic vasculature, this intrinsic non-neuronal dopamine is the dominating vasodilator released upon lowering of oxygen tension. PMID:24535440

Pfeil, Uwe; Kuncova, Jitka; Brüggmann, Doerthe; Paddenberg, Renate; Rafiq, Amir; Henrich, Michael; Weigand, Markus A; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Mewe, Marco; Middendorff, Ralf; Slavikova, Jana; Kummer, Wolfgang



Consideration of gene therapy for paediatric neurotransmitter diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The paediatric neurotransmitter diseases (PNDs) are a group of inborn errors of metabolism characterized by abnormalities\\u000a of neurotransmitter synthesis or metabolism. Although some children may react favourably to neurotransmitter augmentation\\u000a treatment, optimal response is not universal and other modes of treatment should be sought. The genes involved in many of\\u000a the currently known monoamine PNDs have been utilized in pre-clinical

Michael Rotstein; Un Jung Kang



NMDA-mediated release of glutamate and GABA in the subthalamic nucleus is mediated by dopamine: an in vivo microdialysis study in rats.  


The present study investigated the effects of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid.H2O (NMDA) on the dopamine, glutamate and GABA release in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) by using in vivo microdialysis in rats. NMDA (100 micromol/L) perfused through the microdialysis probe evoked an increase in extracellular dopamine in the STN of the intact rat of about 170%. This coincided with significant increases in both extracellular glutamate (350%) and GABA (250%). The effect of NMDA perfusion on neurotransmitter release at the level of the STN was completely abolished by co-perfusion of the selective NMDA-receptor antagonist MK-801 (10 micromol/L), whereas subthalamic perfusion of MK-801 alone had no effect on extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations. Furthermore, NMDA induced increases in glutamate were abolished by both SCH23390 (8 micromol/L), a selective D1 antagonist, and remoxipride (4 micromol/L), a selective D2 antagonist. The NMDA induced increase in GABA was abolished by remoxipride but not by SCH23390. Perfusion of the STN with SCH23390 or remoxipride alone had no effect on extracellular neurotransmitter concentrations. The observed effects in intact animals depend on the nigral dopaminergic innervation, as dopamine denervation, by means of 6-hydroxydopamine lesioning of the substantia nigra, clearly abolished the effects of NMDA on neurotransmitter release at the level of the STN. Our work points to a complex interaction between dopamine, glutamate and GABA with a crucial role for dopamine at the level of the STN. PMID:17727638

Ampe, Ben; Massie, Ann; D'Haens, Jean; Ebinger, Guy; Michotte, Yvette; Sarre, Sophie



Two Distinct Central Serotonin Receptors with Different Physiological Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two distinct serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) receptors designated serotonin 1 and serotonin 2 bind tritium-labeled serotonin and tritium-labeled spiroperidol, respectively. Drug potencies at serotonin 2 sites, but not at serotonin 1 sites, predict their effects on the ``serotonin behavioral syndrome,'' indicating that serotonin 2 sites mediate these behaviors. The limited correlation of drug effects with regulation by guanine nucleotides suggests that serotonin 1 sites might be linked to adenylate cyclase. Drug specificities of serotonin-elicited synaptic inhibition and excitation may reflect serotonin 1 and serotonin 2 receptor interactions, respectively.

Peroutka, Stephen J.; Lebovitz, Richard M.; Snyder, Solomon H.



Local infusion of citalopram into the basolateral amygdala decreased conditioned fear of rats through increasing extracellular serotonin levels.  


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used for the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders. The anxiolytic mechanism of SSRIs is currently unclear. To investigate the anxiolytic effects of SSRIs, we measured both freezing behavior and extracellular serotonin and dopamine levels in the basolateral amygdala when rats were given conditioned fear stress under local reverse-dialysis of citalopram, an SSRI, into the basolateral amygdala. Local administration of citalopram into the basolateral amygdala significantly decreased freezing behavior induced by conditioned fear stress, and serotonin levels were simultaneously found to be significantly higher. Furthermore, repeated conditioned fear stress under local infusion of citalopram into the basolateral amygdala induced further increases in extracellular dopamine levels. Further studies investigating the role of dopamine in the amygdala for conditioned fear stress will be necessary. These results suggest that the basolateral amygdala is one of the target areas of the anxiolytic effects of citalopram and the increases of extracellular serotonin levels in the basolateral amygdala may be related to the anxiolytic effects. PMID:24928686

Kitaichi, Yuji; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shin; Omiya, Yuki; Song, Ning; An, Yan; Chen, Chong; Kusumi, Ichiro; Koyama, Tsukasa



GBR12909 attenuates amphetamine?induced striatal dopamine release as measured by [11C]raclopride continuous infusion PET scans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major neurochemical effects of methamphetamine include release of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) via a carrier-mediated exchange mechanism. Preclinical research supports the hypothesis that elevations of mesolimbic DA mediate the addictive and reinforcing effects of methamphetamine and amphetamine. This hypothesis has not been adequately tested in humans. Previous in vivo rodent microdialysis demonstrated that the high affinity DA

Victor L. Villemagne; Dean F. Wong; Fuji Yokoi; Massoud Stephane; Kenner C. Rice; Dorota Matecka; David J. Clough; Robert F. Dannals; Richard B. Rothman



5-Hydroxytryptamine drives apoptosis in biopsylike Burkitt lymphoma cells: reversal by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.  


Serotonin (5-HT), a well-known neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, has been implicated in diverse aspects of immune regulation. Here we show that 5-HT can efficiently drive programmed cell death in established Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lines that remain faithful to the original biopsy phenotype (group 1). Group 1 BL cells cultured in the presence of 5-HT exhibited marked suppression of DNA synthesis that was accompanied by extensive apoptosis-serotonin-driven apoptosis was complete within 24 hours, was preceded by early caspase activation, and was accompanied by a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. BL cells that had drifted to a lymphoblastic group 3 phenotype were relatively resistant to these actions of serotonin, and the forced ectopic expression of either bcl-2 or bcl-x(L) provided substantial protection from 5-HT-induced apoptosis. 5-HT receptor antagonists (SDZ205-557, granisetron, methysergide) failed to inhibit serotonin-induced apoptosis, whereas the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)-fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), and citalopram (Celexa)-substantially blocked the monoamine actions. Western blot analysis showed that BL cells expressed protein for the 5-HT transporter, and transport assays confirmed active uptake of serotonin by the cells. Unlike what was suggested for neuronal cells, there was no evidence that intracellular oxidative metabolites were responsible for the 5-HT-induced programmed death of BL cells. These data indicate that serotonin drives apoptosis in biopsylike BL cells after its entry through an active transport mechanism, and they suggest a novel therapeutic modality for Burkitt lymphoma. PMID:11895792

Serafeim, Adamantios; Grafton, Gillian; Chamba, Anita; Gregory, Christopher D; Blakely, Randy D; Bowery, Norman G; Barnes, Nicholas M; Gordon, John



Concerted action of the cytosolic sulfotransferase, SULT1A3, and catechol- O-methyltransferase in the metabolism of dopamine in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conjugation reactions catalyzed by the cytosolic sulfotransferase, SULT1A3, or catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) are known to be involved in the regulation and homeostasis of dopamine and other monoamine neurotransmitters. Whether different conjugation reactions may act in a concerted manner, however, remains unclear. The current study aimed to investigate the concerted action of SULT1A3 and COMT in dopamine metabolism. Analysis of the medium

Shin Yasuda; Tomoko Yasuda; Ying Hui; Ming-Yih Liu; Masahito Suiko; Yoichi Sakakibara; Ming-Cheh Liu



A mechanism for intracellular release of Na(+) by neurotransmitter/sodium symporters.  


Neurotransmitter/sodium symporters (NSSs) terminate synaptic signal transmission by Na(+)-dependent reuptake of released neurotransmitters. Key conformational states have been reported for the bacterial homolog LeuT and an inhibitor-bound Drosophila dopamine transporter. However, a coherent mechanism of Na(+)-driven transport has not been described. Here, we present two crystal structures of MhsT, an NSS member from Bacillus halodurans, in occluded inward-facing states with bound Na(+) ions and L-tryptophan, providing insight into the cytoplasmic release of Na(+). The switch from outward- to inward-oriented states is centered on the partial unwinding of transmembrane helix 5, facilitated by a conserved GlyX9Pro motif that opens an intracellular pathway for water to access the Na2 site. We propose a mechanism, based on our structural and functional findings, in which solvation through the TM5 pathway facilitates Na(+) release from Na2 and the transition to an inward-open state. PMID:25282149

Malinauskaite, Lina; Quick, Matthias; Reinhard, Linda; Lyons, Joseph A; Yano, Hideaki; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul



Neurotransmitter mechanisms of the action of the antihistamine dimebon on the brain  

SciTech Connect

To discover the possible mechanism of the stimulating effect of dimebon on the CNS, the action of the drug was studied on catecholamine concentrations and turnover and activity of forms of monoamine oxidase (MAO), differing in the substrate metabolized, in brain structures involved in the regulation of the emotional state and in the regulation of motor activity in rats. /sup 3/H-serotonin creatinine-sulfate, /sup 3/H-dopamine hydrochloride, and /sup 14/C- benzylamine hydrochloride were used as substrates. The results show that dimebon can inhibit MAO activity in the basal ganglia and other brain structures both in vitro and in vivo, and can cause changes in DA and NA metabolism and in functional activity of catecholaminergic neuronal structures of the brain.

Shadurskaya, S.K.; Khomenko, A.I.; Pereverzev, V.A.; Balakeevskii, A.I.



The Brainstem and Serotonin in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  

PubMed Central

The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant under one year of age that is typically associated with sleep and that remains unexplained after a complete autopsy and death scene investigation. A leading hypothesis about its pathogenesis is that many cases result from defects in brainstem-mediated protective responses to homeostatic stressors occurring during sleep in a critical developmental period. Here we review the evidence for the brainstem hypothesis in SIDS with a focus upon abnormalities related to the neurotransmitter serotonin in the medulla oblongata, as these are the most robust pathologic findings to date. In this context, we synthesize the human autopsy data with genetic, whole-animal, and cellular data concerning the function and development of the medullary serotonergic system. These emerging data suggest an important underlying mechanism in SIDS that may help lead to identification of infants at risk and specific interventions to prevent death. PMID:19400695

Kinney, Hannah C.; Richerson, George B.; Dymecki, Susan M.; Darnall, Robert A.; Nattie, Eugene E.



Genetic polymorphisms in monoamine neurotransmitter systems show only weak association with acute post-surgical pain in humans  

PubMed Central

Background Candidate gene studies on the basis of biological hypotheses have been a practical approach to identify relevant genetic variation in complex traits. Based on previous reports and the roles in pain pathways, we have examined the effects of variations of loci in the genes of monoamine neurotransmitter systems including metabolizing enzymes, receptors and transporters on acute clinical pain responses in humans. Results Variations in the catecholamine metabolizing enzyme genes (MAOA and COMT) showed significant associations with the maximum post-operative pain rating while the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) showed association with the onset time of post-operative pain. Analgesic onset time after medication was significantly associated with the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2). However, the association between COMT genetic variation and pain sensitivity in our study differ from previous studies with small sample sizes, population stratification and pain phenotype derived from combining different types of pain stimuli. Correcting for multiple comparisons did not sustain these genetic associations between monoamine neurotransmitter systems and pain sensitivity even in this large and homogeneous sample. Conclusion These results suggest that the previously reported associations between genetic polymorphisms in the monoamine neurotransmitter systems and the interindividual variability in pain responses cannot be replicated in a clinically relevant pain phenotype. PMID:16848906

Kim, Hyungsuk; Lee, Hyewon; Rowan, Janet; Brahim, Jaime; Dionne, Raymond A



Serotonin signaling in C. elegans  

E-print Network

Wild-type animals that have been acutely food deprived slow their locomotory rate upon encountering bacteria more than do well-fed animals. This behavior, called the enhanced slowing response, is partly serotonin (5-HT) ...

Gustafson, Megan Alyse



Time course of central nervous dopamine-D2 and 5HT2 receptor blockade and plasma drug concentrations after discontinuation of quetiapine (Seroquel®) in patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quetiapine (Seroquel) is a novel antipsychotic with an atypical profile in animal models and a relatively short plasma half-life\\u000a of 2.5–5?h. In the present study, we used PET to compare the time course of blockade of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5HT2 receptors of quetiapine using C11-raclopride and C11-N-methyl-spiperone as ligands, parallel to monitoring plasma drug concentrations. It was an open

O. Gefvert; M. Bergström; B. Långström; T. Lundberg; L. Lindström; R. Yates



Stimulation of Movement in a Quiescent, Hibernation-like Form of C. elegans by Dopamine Signaling  

PubMed Central

One of the characteristics of animals in hibernation is reduced behavioral activity. The C. elegans dauer state is a hibernation-like state of diapause that displays a dramatic reduction in spontaneous locomotion. A similar dauer-like quiescent state is produced in adults by relatively strong mutations in the insulin/IGF-1 receptor homolog daf-2. In this study, we show that mutations affecting the neurotransmitter dopamine, which regulates voluntary movement in many organisms, can stimulate movement in dauers and dauer-like quiescent adults. Surprisingly, the movement of quiescent animals is stimulated by conditions that reduce dopamine signaling and also by conditions predicted to increase dopamine signaling. Reducing dopamine signaling is likely to stimulate movement by activating a foraging response also seen in non-dauers after withdrawal of food. In contrast, the stimulation of movement by increased dopamine is much more pronounced in quiescent daf-2(?) dauer and dauer-like adult animals than in wild type. This altered response to dopamine is largely due to activity of the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 in neurons. We propose that dauer and dauer-like quiescent adults may have underlying changes in the dopamine system that enable them to respond differently to environmental stimulation. PMID:19494152

Gaglia, Marta Maria; Kenyon, Cynthia



Determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulation using enhanced luminescence from europium complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biologically important compound dopamine plays an important role in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Insufficient dopamine level due to the loss of dopamine producing cells may lead to disease called Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Hence, a simple and fast detection of dopamine is necessary to study in the fields of neurophysiology and clinical medicine. An enhanced fluorimetric determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid is achieved using photoluminescence of europium complex, Eu(III)-dipicolinic acid. In order to obtain better responses, several operational parameters have been investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good stability and reproducibility. The application of this method for the determination of dopamine neurotransmitters was satisfactory. Linear response was found down to 3.0 × 10-7 M with limit of detection 1.0 × 10-8 M. The relative standard deviation was found to be 3.33% from 20 independent measurements for 1.0 × 10-5 M of dopamine.

Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu.


Determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulation using enhanced luminescence from europium complex.  


Biologically important compound dopamine plays an important role in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Insufficient dopamine level due to the loss of dopamine producing cells may lead to disease called Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Hence, a simple and fast detection of dopamine is necessary to study in the fields of neurophysiology and clinical medicine. An enhanced fluorimetric determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid is achieved using photoluminescence of europium complex, Eu(III)-dipicolinic acid. In order to obtain better responses, several operational parameters have been investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good stability and reproducibility. The application of this method for the determination of dopamine neurotransmitters was satisfactory. Linear response was found down to 3.0 × 10(-7)M with limit of detection 1.0 × 10(-8)M. The relative standard deviation was found to be 3.33% from 20 independent measurements for 1.0 × 10(-5)M of dopamine. PMID:22484841

Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu



The Dopamine Metabolite 3-Methoxytyramine Is a Neuromodulator  

PubMed Central

Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) is a well-known catecholamine neurotransmitter involved in multiple physiological functions including movement control. Here we report that the major extracellular metabolite of dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), can induce behavioral effects in a dopamine-independent manner and these effects are partially mediated by the trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Unbiased in vivo screening of putative trace amine receptor ligands for potential effects on the movement control revealed that 3-MT infused in the brain is able to induce a complex set of abnormal involuntary movements in mice acutely depleted of dopamine. In normal mice, the central administration of 3-MT caused a temporary mild hyperactivity with a concomitant set of abnormal movements. Furthermore, 3-MT induced significant ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the mouse striatum, signaling events generally related to PKA-mediated cAMP accumulation. In mice lacking TAAR1, both behavioral and signaling effects of 3-MT were partially attenuated, consistent with the ability of 3-MT to activate TAAR1 receptors and cause cAMP accumulation as well as ERK and CREB phosphorylation in cellular assays. Thus, 3-MT is not just an inactive metabolite of DA, but a novel neuromodulator that in certain situations may be involved in movement control. Further characterization of the physiological functions mediated by 3-MT may advance understanding of the pathophysiology and pharmacology of brain disorders involving abnormal dopaminergic transmission, such as Parkinson's disease, dyskinesia and schizophrenia. PMID:20976142

Sotnikova, Tatyana D.; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Masri, Bernard; Zhang, Xiaodong; Salahpour, Ali; Barak, Larry S.; Caron, Marc G.; Gainetdinov, Raul R.



Inhibition of dopamine transporter activity by G protein ?? subunits.  


Uptake through the Dopamine Transporter (DAT) is the primary mechanism of terminating dopamine signaling within the brain, thus playing an essential role in neuronal homeostasis. Deregulation of DAT function has been linked to several neurological and psychiatric disorders including ADHD, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and drug addiction. Over the last 15 years, several studies have revealed a plethora of mechanisms influencing the activity and cellular distribution of DAT; suggesting that fine-tuning of dopamine homeostasis occurs via an elaborate interplay of multiple pathways. Here, we show for the first time that the ?? subunits of G proteins regulate DAT activity. In heterologous cells and brain tissue, a physical association between G?? subunits and DAT was demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, in vitro pull-down assays using purified proteins established that this association occurs via a direct interaction between the intracellular carboxy-terminus of DAT and G??. Functional assays performed in the presence of the non-hydrolyzable GTP analog GTP-?-S, G?? subunit overexpression, or the G?? activator mSIRK all resulted in rapid inhibition of DAT activity in heterologous systems. G?? activation by mSIRK also inhibited dopamine uptake in brain synaptosomes and dopamine clearance from mouse striatum as measured by high-speed chronoamperometry in vivo. G?? subunits are intracellular signaling molecules that regulate a multitude of physiological processes through interactions with enzymes and ion channels. Our findings add neurotransmitter transporters to the growing list of molecules regulated by G-proteins and suggest a novel role for G?? signaling in the control of dopamine homeostasis. PMID:23555781

Garcia-Olivares, Jennie; Torres-Salazar, Delany; Owens, William A; Baust, Tracy; Siderovski, David P; Amara, Susan G; Zhu, Jun; Daws, Lynette C; Torres, Gonzalo E



Consequences of sleep deprivation on neurotransmitter receptor expression and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several pieces of evidence suggest that sleep deprivation causes marked alterations in neurotransmitter receptor function in diverse neuronal cell types. To date, this has been studied mainly in wake- and sleep-promoting areas of the brain and in the hippocampus, which is implicated in learning and memory. This article reviews findings linking sleep deprivation to modifications in neurotransmitter receptor function, including

Fabio Longordo; Caroline Kopp; Anita Lüthi




E-print Network

CURRENT LITERATURE NEUROTRANSMITTER SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN EPILEPSY Block of Glutamate Contributes to Neurotransmitter GABA Synthesis and Epilepsy Sepkuty JP, Cohen AS, Eccles C, Rafiq A, Behar K and thus could cause epilepsy in rats when inactivated. Reduced ex- pression of EAAC1 by antisense

Huguenard, John R.


Adenosine triphosphate as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator Geoffrey Burnstock  

E-print Network

Adenosine triphosphate as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator Geoffrey Burnstock The first hint that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) might be a neurotransmitter came in 1954 from Holton and Holton, who presented are more responsive to adenosine and adenosine monophosphate (AMP) than to ATP and adenosine diphosphate

Burnstock, Geoffrey


Dopamine triggers Heterosynaptic Plasticity  

PubMed Central

As a classic neuromodulator, dopamine has long been thought to modulate, rather than trigger, synaptic plasticity. In contrast, our present results demonstrate that within the parallel projections of dopaminergic and GABAergic terminals from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to nucleus accumbens core (NAcCo), action potential-activated release of dopamine heterosynaptically triggers LTD at GABAergic synapses, which is likely mediated by activating presynaptically-located dopamine D1 class receptors and expressed by inhibiting presynaptic release of GABA. Moreover, this dopamine-mediated heterosynaptic LTD is abolished after withdrawal from cocaine exposure. These results suggest that action potential-dependent dopamine release triggers very different cellular consequences from those induced by volume release or pharmacological manipulation. Activation of the VTA-to-NAcCo projections is essential for emotional and motivational responses. This dopamine-mediated LTD allows a flexible output of NAcCo neurons, whereas disruption of this LTD may contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in addicts during cocaine withdrawal. PMID:23595734

Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Huang, Yanhua; Neumann, Peter A.; Winters, Bradley D.; Grace, Anthony A.; Schluter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan




PubMed Central

Early-life exposures to brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) lead to neurobehavioral abnormalities later in life. Although these agents are thyroid disruptors, it is not clear whether this mechanism alone accounts for the adverse effects. We evaluated the impact of 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE99) on PC12 cells undergoing neurodifferentiation, contrasting the effects with chlorpyrifos, a known developmental neurotoxicant. BDE99 elicited decrements in the number of cells, evidenced by a reduction in DNA levels, to a lesser extent than did chlorpyrifos. This did not reflect cytotoxicity from oxidative stress, since cell enlargement, monitored by the total protein/DNA ratio, was not only unimpaired by BDE99, but was actually enhanced. Importantly, BDE99 impaired neurodifferentiation into both the dopamine and acetylcholine neurotransmitter phenotypes. The cholinergic phenotype was affected to a greater extent, so that neurotransmitter fate was diverted away from acetylcholine and toward dopamine. Chlorpyrifos produced the same imbalance, but through a different underlying mechanism, promoting dopaminergic development at the expense of cholinergic development. In our earlier work, we did not find these effects with BDE47, a BDE that has greater endocrine disrupting and cytotoxic effects than BDE99. Thus, our results point to interference with neurodifferentiation by specific BDE congeners, distinct from cytotoxic or endocrine mechanisms. PMID:23422510

Slotkin, Theodore A.; Card, Jennifer; Infante, Alice; Seidler, Frederic J.



Influence of intraventricular application of baclofen on arterial blood pressure and neurotransmitter concentrations in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of rats.  


The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a key site for regulating neuroendocrine functions in the magnocellular part and autonomic activities in the parvocellular part. Its anatomical proximity to the third ventricle could be a good target for intrathecal injection of baclofen. We investigated the correlation of intrathecal application of baclofen (a specific GABAB receptor agonist) and the release of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopac, homovanillinic acid (HVA), glutamate and aspartate from the PVN. The decomposition products HVA, dopa and dopac of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine, respectively, were used as parameters for the secretion of dopamine. We implanted a microdialysis probe in the PVN of 25 Wistar rats. In 13 rats, 1.5 ?g baclofen was injected in the lateral ventricle and the equivalent quantity of Ringer's lactate solution injected in the remaining 12 rats as a control group. Neurotransmitters and amino acids were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. There was a conspicuous but not significant effect of baclofen concerning the secretion of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopac, glutamate and aspartate from the PVN. A significant increase in HVA concentration was observed only in rats treated with baclofen compared with the control group. These findings suggest that baclofen influences the secretion of neurotransmitters and amino acids involved in autonomic activities mediated by GABAB receptors. PMID:21984200

Czell, David; Efe, Turgay; Preuss, Matthias; Schofer, Markus D; Becker, Ralf



In vitro evaluation of radioiodinated butyrophenones as radiotracer for dopamine receptor study  

SciTech Connect

Radioiodinated butyrophenone compounds are attracting the interest of those working on dopamine receptor studies; structure-activity relationship study has revealed the ortho position of the p-fluorobutyrophenone moiety as a very plausible iodination site. Various synthesized butyrophenones iodinated at the ortho position of p-fluorobutyrophenone moiety, 2'-iodohaloperidol (2'-IHP), 2'-iodotrifluperidol (2'-ITP) and 2'-iodospiperone (2'-ISP) were tested for their abilities to inhibit /sup 3/H-spiperone (SP) binding for the dopamine (D-2) receptor, together with reference compounds (SP, haloperidol(HP) and 4-iodospiperone (4-ISP)). The order of binding affinity of the tested compounds was SP > 2'-ISP > HP > 4-ISP > 2'-IHP > 2'-ITP. Whereas, the serotonin (S-2) receptor binding affinity of SP and its iodinated analogues were in the order of SP >> 4-ISP > 2'-ISP. These data indicated the 2'-ISP as holding high affinity for dopamine receptors and a low affinity for serotonin receptors. Thus, the /sup 125/I-2'-ISP was a very potent radioligand for in vitro dopamine (D-2) receptor studies, and /sup 123/I-2'-ISP holds very promising characteristics as for in vivo dopamine receptor studies, as well.

Nakatsuka, I.; Saji, H.; Shiba, K.; Shimizu, H.; Okuno, M.; Yoshitake, A.; Yokoyama, A.



Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse  

SciTech Connect

We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others



Alpha7 nicotinic cholinergic neuromodulation may reconcile multiple neurotransmitter hypotheses of schizophrenia.  


The long prevailing hypothesis of schizophrenia pathogenesis implicates dopaminergic systems in the mesolimbic pathways as responsible for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (hallucinations and delusions) and those in the mesocortical pathway as contributing to the negative symptoms (e.g., social disconnection, flattened affect and anhedonia). Several challenges to the dopamine hypothesis and the proposal of an alternative hypothesis implicating glutamate have provided additional support for the development of non-dopaminergic drugs for the management of schizophrenia symptomatology. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical evidence of alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated benefits in the triad of positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, as well as the genetic linkage of this receptor to the disease, have added another level of complexity. Thus schizophrenia is increasingly believed to involve multi-neurotransmitter deficits, all of which may contribute to altered dopaminergic tone in the mesolimbic, mesocortical and other areas of the brain. In this paper we provide a model that reconciles the dopamine, glutamate and alpha7 cholinergic etiopathogenesis and is consistent with the clinical benefit derived from therapies targeted to these individual pathways. PMID:22336089

Bencherif, Merouane; Stachowiak, Michal K; Kucinski, Aaron J; Lippiello, Patrick M



Tributyltin exposure influences predatory behavior, neurotransmitter content and receptor expression in Sebastiscus marmoratus.  


Tributyltin (TBT) is a ubiquitous marine contaminant due to its extensive use as a biocide, fungicide and antifouling agent. However, the neurotoxic effect of TBT has not been extensively studied, especially in marine fish. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of TBT (10, 100 and 1000 ng/L) on the predatory behavior of Sebastiscus marmoratus and to look into the mechanism involved. The results showed that TBT exposure depressed predatory activity after 50 days exposure. Dopamine levels in the fish brains increased in a dose-dependent manner, while 5-hydroxytryptamine and norepinephrine levels decreased significantly in the TBT exposure group compared to the control. The mRNA levels of dopamine receptors, which have functions such as cognition, motor activity, motivation and reward, mood, attention and learning, were significantly down-regulated by TBT exposure. Although the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters, including glutamate, did not show marked alteration, the expression of the glutamatergic signaling pathway such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor, calmodulin, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases-II and cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element binding protein, was significantly reduced by TBT exposure, which indicated that central nerve activities were in a state of depression, thus affecting the predatory activities of the fish. PMID:23314275

Yu, Ang; Wang, Xinli; Zuo, Zhenghong; Cai, Jiali; Wang, Chonggang



[Alcohol dependence mediated by monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system].  


Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing brain disease with the characteristics of drinking alcohol out of control, has become a serious social problem. Monoamine neurotransmitters, mainly including dopamine and 5-hydroxytryp¬tamine, play important roles in the occurrence, development and neural dysfunction of alcohol dependence syndrome. In this review, the roles of key factors of the monoamine system (dopamine receptor genes, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor genes, transporter genes, tyrosine hydroxylase gene, tryptophanhydroxylase gene and monoamine oxidase gene) in alcohol dependence were discussed, and strategies for further studies of molecular mechanisms were proposed based on gene knockout mice models generated in our laboratory. Then, combining with studies on tyrosine hydroxylase activator CaMKII in our lab, therapeutic targets were discussed. Besides, epigenetic strategies for prevention and treatment of alcohol dependence syndrome were proposed. Furthermore, manipulating methylation levels in gene regulatory regions and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs might also have clinical implications. Finally, based on new findings on genetic polymorphism, it is of great potential to carry out individual prevention and treatment for patients suffering from alcohol dependence. PMID:24846914

Yang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huafeng; Lai, Jianghua



Comparison of the performance of different DFT methods in the calculations of the molecular structure and vibration spectra of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter which plays an important role in treating acute or clinical stress. The comparative performance of different density functional theory (DFT) methods at various basis sets in predicting the molecular structure and vibration spectra of serotonin was reported. The calculation results of different methods including mPW1PW91, HCTH, SVWN, PBEPBE, B3PW91 and B3LYP with various basis sets including LANL2DZ, SDD, LANL2MB, 6-31G, 6-311++G and 6-311+G* were compared with the experimental data. It is remarkable that the SVWN/6-311++G and SVWN/6-311+G* levels afford the best quality to predict the structure of serotonin. The results also indicate that PBEPBE/LANL2DZ level show better performance in the vibration spectra prediction of serotonin than other DFT methods.

Yang, Yue; Gao, Hongwei



An association study of dopamine receptors polymorphisms and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine (DA), an important neurotransmitter in prefrontal cortex (PFC), is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to test an association between common polymorphism of genes for DA receptors DRD1, DRD2, DRD3, DRD4, and performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), measuring various functions of PFC, in 138 schizophrenic patients. Patients with G\\/G genotype

J. K. Rybakowski; A. Borkowska; P. M. Czerski; P. Kapelski; M. Dmitrzak-Weglarz; J. Hauser



Developmental changes in dopamine neurotransmission in adolescence: Behavioral implications and issues in assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in terms of a neurobehavioral system that underlies incentive-motivated behavior. Adolescence may be a time of

Dustin Wahlstrom; Paul Collins; Tonya White; Monica Luciana



DARPP-32 Is a Robust Integrator of Dopamine and Glutamate Signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integration of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator signals in the striatum plays a central role in the functions and dysfunctions of the basal ganglia. DARPP-32 is a key actor of this integration in the GABAergic medium-size spiny neurons, in particular in response to dopamine and glutamate. When phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), DARPP-32 inhibits protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), whereas when phosphorylated by

Éric Fernandez; Renaud Schiappa; Jean-Antoine Girault; Nicolas Le Novère



Serotonin receptor 3A controls interneuron migration into the neocortex.  


Neuronal excitability has been shown to control the migration and cortical integration of reelin-expressing cortical interneurons (INs) arising from the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE), supporting the possibility that neurotransmitters could regulate this process. Here we show that the ionotropic serotonin receptor 3A (5-HT3AR) is specifically expressed in CGE-derived migrating interneurons and upregulated while they invade the developing cortex. Functional investigations using calcium imaging, electrophysiological recordings and migration assays indicate that CGE-derived INs increase their response to 5-HT3AR activation during the late phase of cortical plate invasion. Using genetic loss-of-function approaches and in vivo grafts, we further demonstrate that the 5-HT3AR is cell autonomously required for the migration and proper positioning of reelin-expressing CGE-derived INs in the neocortex. Our findings reveal a requirement for a serotonin receptor in controlling the migration and laminar positioning of a specific subtype of cortical IN. PMID:25409778

Murthy, Sahana; Niquille, Mathieu; Hurni, Nicolas; Limoni, Greta; Frazer, Sarah; Chameau, Pascal; van Hooft, Johannes A; Vitalis, Tania; Dayer, Alexandre



Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain  

SciTech Connect

Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin.

De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.



Characterization of [ 3H]LSD binding to a serotonin-sensitive site in honeybee ( Apis mellifera) brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The binding of [3H]lysergic acid diethylamide ([3H]LSD) to a putative serotonin receptor site (S-site) in membrane preparations of honeybee brain was analyzed. All experiments were performed in the presence of 10 ?M dopamine to inhibit [3H]LSD binding to an additional site, which is dopamine-sensitive (D-site). [3H]LSD binds reversibly to the S-site with a KD value of 0.89 nM. The maximal

Wolfgang Blenau; Torsten May; Joachim Erber



Increased serotonin efflux by a partially oxidized serotonin: tryptamine-4,5-dione.  


A partially oxidized serotonin (5-HT) was synthesized electrochemically from 5-HT in an acidic solution. This compound was characterized by its chromatographic and electrochemical properties and identified by mass spectroscopy and NMR as tryptamine-4,5-dione (4,5-DKT). In in vitro superfusion experiments, 10(-5)M 4,5-DKT significantly increased the basal 5-HT efflux from both rat hippocampal and striatal fragments. In contrast, 10(-5) M 4,5-DKT did not change the release of dopamine or its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid from striatal fragments. Continuous perfusion of 4,5-DKT did not modify the effect of KCl on either 5-HT or dopamine release from both brain areas. In in vitro incubation experiments, 10(-8) to 10(-5) M 4,5-DKT evoked 5-HT efflux from rat hippocampus in a dose-dependent fashion. When 10(-4) and 10(-5) M fluoxetine was incubated with 10(-6) M 4,5-DKT, it partially blocked 4,5-DKT-induced 5-HT release. Pargyline, at 10(-5) M inhibited significantly the 5-hydroxyin-doleacetic acid efflux, but did not modify the 4,5-DKT-stimulated 5-HT release. Incubation of 4,5-DKT with glutathione (GSH) and mercaptoethanol indicated that 4,5-DKT binds to sulfhydryl groups. An evidence of GSH-4,5-DKT conjugate was also observed after incubation of 4,5-DKT with a brain homogenate. The interaction of 4,5-DKT with GSH or mercaptoethanol was blocked effectively with N-ethylmaleimide. It is possible that sulfhydryl groups are involved in the mechanism of 4,5-DKT action on 5-HT release. PMID:2473186

Chen, J C; Crino, P B; Schnepper, P W; To, A C; Volicer, L



Neurotransmitter replacement therapy in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed Central

The relative success of symptomatic attenuation of motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease with dopaminomimetics has spurred interest in neurotransmitter replacement therapy for treating Alzheimer's disease. While cholinergic dysfunction has been linked to various clinical parameters in Alzheimer's disease, cholinergic replacement, including precursor therapy, administration of direct-acting agonists and inhibition of enzymatic degradation has had only very modest success. The inhibition of enzymatic degradation has perhaps shown the most interesting results to date. However, conclusions with respect to efficacy continue to be controversial. Discussion continues about whether or not single transmitter replacement for Alzheimer's disease is a viable treatment approach. Deficiencies in central noradrenergic, serotonergic, GABAergic and perhaps dopaminergic neural transmission may also play a critical role in some of the clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. In addition, certain neuropeptides, in particular somatostatin, may be important in this context. Several series of clinical trials are currently attempting to address these issues. Given the complexities of the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, symptomatic relief may require multiple transmitter replacement and necessitate more definitive intercessions at the molecular biological level. PMID:7908537

Mohr, E; Mendis, T; Rusk, I N; Grimes, J D



Microfluidic Systems for Studying Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmission  

PubMed Central

Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are molecules within the nervous system that play key roles in cell-to-cell communication. Upon stimulation, neurons release these signaling molecules, which then act at local or distant locations to elicit a physiological response. Ranging from small molecules, such as diatomic gases and amino acids, to larger peptides, these chemical messengers are involved in many functional processes including growth, reproduction, memory and behavior. Understanding signaling molecules and the conditions that govern their release in healthy or damaged networks promises to deliver insights into neural network formation and function. Microfluidic devices can provide optimal cell culture conditions, reduced volume systems, and precise control over the chemical and physical nature of the extracellular environment, making them well-suited for studying neurotransmission and other forms of cell-to-cell signaling. Here we review selected microfluidic approaches that are suitable for monitoring cell-to-cell signaling molecules. We highlight devices that improve in vivo sample collection as well as compartmentalized devices designed to isolate individual neurons or co-cultures in vitro, including a focus on systems used for studying neural injury and regeneration, and devices that allow selective chemical stimulations and the characterization of released molecules. PMID:23474943

Croushore, Callie A.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.



Dopamine receptor and adrenoceptor agonists inhibit prolactin release from MMQ cells.  


MMQ cells, a prolactin-secreting cell line possessing dopamine receptors, were exposed to the calcium channel activator maitotoxin and dopamine or adrenoceptor agonists or antagonists. Dopamine (500 nM) or the dopamine agonists lisuride (50 nM), terguride (50 nM), and N-0437 (50 nM) decreased maitotoxin-stimulated prolactin release from perifused MMQ cells. In this system, sulpiride (100 nM), a dopamine D2 antagonist, reversed the prolactin inhibition produced by lisuride (20 nM). In static incubations of MMQ cells, lisuride (10-500 nM) inhibited maitotoxin-stimulated prolactin release in a concentration-dependent manner; this inhibition was attenuated in a concentration-related manner by sulpiride (100-500 nM). In addition, sulpiride reversed dopamine (50-500 nM), lisuride (10-500 nM), and terguride (50-500 nM) inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP generation. The alpha 2-adrenergic agonist clonidine inhibited maitotoxin-stimulated prolactin release from perifused MMQ cells; this inhibition was abolished by idazoxan, an alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist. In contrast, serotonin or the serotonin antagonist methysergide had no effect on prolactin release from MMQ cells. These data indicate that activation of dopamine D2 receptors and alpha 2-adrenoceptors by classically defined pharmacological agents inhibits prolactin release and cellular cAMP levels in MMQ cells. Therefore, MMQ cells may provide a valuable model for the development of pharmacological agents and assist in the identification of the mechanisms involved in the dopaminergic inhibition of prolactin release. PMID:1676676

Judd, A M; MacLeod, R M



Preferential deamination of dopamine by an A type monoamine oxidase in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of graded closes of clorgyline, a preferential inhibitor of MAO A, and of deprenil, a preferential inhibitor of MAO B, on the activities of serotonin-deaminating MAO (MAO A) of dopamine-deaminating MAO, and of phenethylamine-deaminating MAO, (MAO B), in rat corpus striatum were compared with the effects of the drugs on striatal levels of homovanillic acid (HVA) and

P. C. Waldmeier; A. Delini-Stula; L. Maître



Restoration of Dopamine Release Deficits during Object Recognition Memory Acquisition Attenuates Cognitive Impairment in a Triple Transgenic Mice Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous findings indicate that the acquisition and consolidation of recognition memory involves dopaminergic activity. Although dopamine deregulation has been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, the dysfunction of this neurotransmitter has not been investigated in animal models of AD. The aim of this study was to assess, by in vivo…

Guzman-Ramos, Kioko; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Castro-Cruz, Monica; McGaugh, James L.; Martinez-Coria, Hilda; LaFerla, Frank M.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico



Serotonin decreases aggression via 5-HT1A receptors in the fighting fish Betta splendens.  


The role of the monoamine neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in the modulation of conspecific aggression in the fighting fish (Betta splendens) was investigated using pharmacological manipulations. We used a fish's response to its mirror image as our index of aggressive behavior. We also investigated the effects of some manipulations on monoamine levels in the B. splendens brain. Acute treatment with 5-HT and with the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT both decreased aggressive behavior; however, treatment with the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY-100635 did not increase aggression. Chronic treatment with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine caused no significant changes in aggressive behavior and a significant decline in 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Treatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor p-chlorophenylalanine resulted in no change in aggression, yet serotonergic activity decreased significantly. Finally, a diet supplemented with L-tryptophan (Trp), the precursor to 5-HT, showed no consistent effects on aggressive behavior or brain monoamine concentrations. These results suggest a complex role for serotonin in the expression of aggression in teleost fishes, and that B. splendens may be a useful model organism in pharmacological and toxicological studies. PMID:17553555

Clotfelter, Ethan D; O'Hare, Erin P; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H



A fatality due to serotonin syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin syndrome is most commonly seen in patients receiving two agents that increase the availability of serotonin by different methods, commonly a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and a monamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). We report a rare fatality in a patient who ingested Isocarboxazid in addition to a SSBI and a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). A 56-year-old woman with a history of

Monique M. van Berkum; Julie M. Thiel; Jerrold B. Leikin; Adrienne Segovia; Paul K. Hanashiro



Serotonin and depression: pathophysiological mechanism or  

E-print Network

Serotonin and depression: pathophysiological mechanism or marketing myth? Philip J. Cowen serotonin (5-HT) function can lead to clinical depression has a long history but is still controversial a simplistic biological model of depression to market selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs

Alford, Simon


Intracellular Injection of Protein Kinase Inhibitor Blocks the Serotonin-Induced Increase in K+ Conductance in Aplysia Neuron R15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work has shown that serotonin induces an increase in membrane K+ conductance in Aplysia neuron R15 and that this response is mediated by cAMP. The present study examines the role of protein phosphorylation in the response to serotonin. A specific inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase was injected intracellularly into neuron R15. The injection blocked the serotonin-induced increase in K+ conductance completely for at least 4 hours. The blockage was selective because the cell's response to dopamine was not inhibited. Furthermore, the blockage was specifically produced by protein kinase inhibitor because injection of other proteins (? -bungarotoxin and bovine serum albumin) did not affect the serotonin response. The serotonin response recovered fully 5-13 hours after the injection, presumably as a result of intracellular proteolysis of the protein kinase inhibitor. The results indicate that protein phosphorylation is a necessary step in the process that leads to activation of K+ channels by serotonin in neuron R15.

Adams, William B.; Levitan, Irwin B.



Effects of mercuric chloride on (/sup 3/H)dopamine release from rat brain striatal synaptosomes  

SciTech Connect

Electrophysiological studies employing amphibian neuromuscular preparations have shown that mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in vitro increases both spontaneous and evoked neurotransmitter release. The present study examines the effect of HgCl2 on the release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine from synaptosomes prepared from mammalian brain tissue. Mercuric chloride (3-10 microM) produces a concentration-dependent increase in spontaneous (/sup 3/H)dopamine release from ''purified'' rat striatal synaptosomes, in both the presence and absence of extra-synaptosomal calcium. The effects of HgCl2 on transmitter release from amphibian neuromuscular junction preparations resemble those produced by the Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain. Experiments were performed to determine whether the HgCl2 effects on mammalian synaptosomal dopamine release are a consequence of Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Na+, K+-ATPase activity in lysed synaptosomal membranes is inhibited by HgCl2 (IC50 = 160 nM). However, mercuric chloride in the presence of 1 mM ouabain still increased (3H)dopamine release. The specific inhibitor of Na+-dependent, high-affinity dopamine transport, RMI81,182 inhibited ouabain-induced (3H)dopamine release whereas it had no effect on HgCl2-induced (/sup 3/H)dopamine release. These data suggest that augmentation of spontaneous (/sup 3/H)dopamine release by HgCl2 probably is not mediated by an inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase and HgCl2 does not act directly on the dopamine transporter.

Hare, M.F.; Minnema, D.J.; Cooper, G.P.; Michaelson, I.A.



Aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibition generates a reactive dopamine metabolite autotoxic to dopamine neurons.  


The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is important for numerous biological functions, including control of movement. Oxidation of DA to highly toxic and reactive species has been hypothesized to contribute to the selective neurodegeneration observed in Parkinson's disease (PD). DA catabolism is initiated by oxidative deamination via monoamine oxidase to yield 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). Such metabolism can be problematic as it greatly increases the toxicity of DA by production of DOPAL, known to be a toxic and reactive intermediate. DOPAL undergoes carbonyl metabolism primarily via aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes to a less toxic acid product. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that cellular ALDH enzymes are sensitive towards products of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, which are thought to be elevated during PD pathogenesis. Inhibition of ALDH and the resulting accumulation of DOPAL are concerning as DOPAL is toxic to dopaminergic cells, readily modifies proteins and causes protein aggregation. In addition, pesticides with association between exposure and PD incidence can interfere with DA metabolism and trafficking and/or ALDH activity, directly or indirectly, yielding elevation of DOPAL. Therefore, impairment of carbonyl metabolism is a potential mechanistic link between cellular insult and generation of a toxic and reactive intermediate endogenous to dopamine neurons. PMID:24262193

Doorn, Jonathan A; Florang, Virginia R; Schamp, Josephine H; Vanle, Brigitte C



Serotonin's role in piglet mortality and thriftiness.  


Improving piglet survivability rates is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin (5-HT) system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortalities, or failure to thrive in human infants. The aim of this research was to determine if a relationship exists between infant mortality and failure to thrive (or unthriftiness), and umbilical 5-HT concentration in piglets. Umbilical blood was collected from a total of 60 piglets from 15 litters for analysis of 5-HT and tryptophan (Trp; the AA precursor to 5-HT) concentrations. Behavior was scan sampled for the first 2 days after birth. Brain samples were also taken at 8 h after birth from healthy and unthrifty piglets (n = 4/group). The raphe nucleus was dissected out and analyzed for 5-HT and dopamine concentrations as well as their major metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Piglets that died within 48 h of birth (n = 14) had significantly lower umbilical blood 5-HT concentrations at the time of their birth compared to their healthy counterparts (n = 46, P = 0.003). However, no difference in Trp was detected (P 0.38). Time spent under the heat lamp and sleeping were positively correlated with umbilical 5-HT levels (P = 0.004 and P = 0.02, respectively), while inactivity had a negative correlation with 5-HT levels (P = 0.04). In the raphe nucleus, the center for brain 5-HT biosynthesis, unthrifty piglets had a greater concentration of 5-HIAA (P = 0.02) and a trend for higher concentrations of 5-HT (P = 0.07) compared with healthy piglets. Dopamine levels did not differ between thrifty and unthrifty piglets (P = 0.45); however, its metabolite HVA tended to be greater in unthrifty piglets (P = 0.05). Our results show evidence of serotonergic dysfunction, at both the central and peripheral levels, accompanying early piglet mortalities. These data suggest a possible route for intervention, via the 5-HT system, to improve piglet survivability. However, further research is required to validate this hypothesis. PMID:25349339

Dennis, R L; McMunn, K A; Cheng, H W; Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C



Synthesis and Structure-Activity Studies of Benzyl Ester Meperidine and Normeperidine Derivatives as Selective Serotonin Transporter Ligands  

PubMed Central

A series of benzyl esters of meperidine and normeperidine were synthesized and evaluated for binding affinity at serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. The 4-methoxybenzyl ester 8b and 4-nitrobenzyl ester 8c in the meperidine series and 4-methoxybenzyl ester 14a in the normeperidine series exhibited low nanomolar binding affinities at the SERT (Ki values < 2 nM) and high SERT selectivity (DAT/SERT >1500 and NET/SERT > 1500). PMID:20980153

Gu, Xiaobo; Izenwasser, Sari; Wade, Dean; Housman, Amy; Gulasey, Gerard; Rhoden, Jill B.; Savoie, Christopher D.; Mobley, David L.; Lomenzo, Stacey A.; Trudell, Mark L.



Acute Psychological Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) are Attenuated by the Serotonin Uptake Inhibitor Citalopram  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”) is a recreational drug that has been shown to release serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in animals. The effect of MDMA on 5-HT release can be blocked by 5-HT uptake inhibitors such as citalopram, suggesting that MDMA interacts with the 5-HT uptake site. It is unknown whether this mechanism is also responsible for the psychological effects of

Matthias E. Liechti; Christine Baumann; Alex Gamma; Franz X. Vollenweider



Amphetamine Paradoxically Augments Exocytotic Dopamine Release and Phasic Dopamine Signals  

PubMed Central

Drugs of abuse hijack brain reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting non-exocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties - which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to two hours. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, non-electrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sucrose reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sucrose-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify up-regulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key