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Sample records for neurotransmitters serotonin dopamine

  1. The association between the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitters and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, G; Bellani, M; Altamura, A C; Brambilla, P

    2016-04-01

    Evidence from previous studies has reported that complex traits, including psychiatric disorders, are moderately to highly heritable. Moreover, it has also been shown that specific personality traits may increase the risk to develop mental illnesses. Therefore the focus of the research shifted towards the identification of the biological mechanisms underpinning these traits by exploring the effects of a constellation of genetic polymorphisms in healthy subjects. Indeed, studying the effect of genetic variants in normal personality provides a unique means for identifying candidate genes which may increase the risk for psychiatric disorders. In this review, we discuss the impact of two of the most frequently studied genetic polymorphisms on personality in healthy subjects, the 5-HTT polymorphism of the serotonin transporter and the DRD2/DRD4 polymorphisms of the D2/D4 dopamine's receptors. The main aims are: (a) to highlight that the study of candidate genes provides a fruitful ground for the identification of the biological underpinnings of personality without, though, reaching a general consensus about the strength of this relationship; and (b) to outline that the research in personality genetics should be expanded to provide a clearer picture of the heritability of personality traits. PMID:26750396

  2. Modulation of midbrain dopamine neurotransmission by serotonin, a versatile interaction between neurotransmitters and significance for antipsychotic drug action.

    PubMed

    Olijslagers, J E; Werkman, T R; McCreary, A C; Kruse, C G; Wadman, W J

    2006-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with a dysfunction of brain dopamine (DA). This, so called, DA hypothesis has been refined as new insights into the pathophysiology of schizophrenia have emerged. Currently, dysfunction of prefrontocortical glutamatergic and GABAergic projections and dysfunction of serotonin (5-HT) systems are also thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Refinements of the DA hypothesis have lead to the emergence of new pharmacological targets for antipsychotic drug development. It was shown that effective antipsychotic drugs with a low liability for inducing extra-pyramidal side-effects have affinities for a range of neurotransmitter receptors in addition to DA receptors, suggesting that a combination of neurotransmitter receptor affinities may be favorable for treatment outcome.This review focuses on the interaction between DA and 5-HT, as most antipsychotics display affinity for 5-HT receptors. We will discuss DA/5-HT interactions at the level of receptors and G protein-coupled potassium channels and consequences for induction of depolarization blockade with specific attention to DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the substantia nigra zona compacta (SN), neurons implicated in treatment efficacy and the side-effects of schizophrenia, respectively. Moreover, it has been reported that electrophysiological interactions between DA and 5-HT show subtle, but important, differences between the SN and the VTA which could explain (in part) the effectiveness and lower propensity to induce side-effects of the newer atypical antipsychotic drugs. In that respect the functional implications of DA/5-HT interactions for schizophrenia will be discussed. PMID:18615139

  3. Theoretical study of electron transfer process between fullerenes and neurotransmitters; acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin and epinephrine in nanostructures [neurotransmitters].C n complexes.

    PubMed

    Taherpour, Avat Arman; Rizehbandi, Mohammad; Jahanian, Fatemeh; Naghibi, Ehsan; Mahdizadeh, Nosrat-Allah

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are the compounds which allow the transmission of signals from one neuron to the next across synapses. They are the brain chemicals that communicate information throughout brain and body. Fullerenes are a family of carbonallotropes, molecules composed entirely of carbon, that take the forms of spheres, ellipsoids, and cylinders. Various empty carbon fullerenes (Cn) with different carbon atoms have been obtained and investigated. Topological indices have been successfully used to construct effective and useful mathematical methods to establish clear relationships between structural data and the physical properties of these materials. In this study, the number of carbon atoms in the fullerenes was used as an index to establish a relationship between the structures of neurotransmitters (NTs) acetylcholine (AC) 1, dopamine (DP) 2, serotonin (SE) 3, and epinephrine (EP) 4 as the well-known redox systems and fullerenes C n (n?=?60, 70, 76, 82, and 86) which create [NT].Cn; A-1 to A-5 up to D-1 to D-5. The relationship between the number of carbon atoms and the free energy of electron transfer (?G et(n); n?=?1-4) is assessed using the Rehm-Weller equation for A-1 to A-5 up to D-1 to D-5 supramolecular [NT].Cn complexes. The calculations are presented for the four reduction potentials ( (Red.) E 1 to (Red.) E 4 ) of fullerenes C n . The results were used to calculate the four free energy values of electron transfer (?G et(1) to ?G et(4)) of the supramolecular complexes A-1 to A-8 up to D-1 to D-8 for fullerenes C60 to C120. The first to fourth free activation energy values of electron transfer and the maximum wavelength of the electron transfers, ?G (#) et(n) and ? et (n?=?1-4), respectively, were also calculated in this study for A-1 to A-8 up to D-1 to D-8 in accordance with the Marcus theory. PMID:26855678

  4. Inhibition potential of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolites on the in vitro monoamine oxidase (MAO)-catalyzed deamination of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Andrea E; Boxler, Martina I; Stock, Lorena; Kraemer, Thomas

    2016-01-22

    Neurotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is still controversially discussed. Formation of reactive oxygen species e.g. based on elevated dopamine (DA) concentrations and DA quinone formation is discussed among others. Inhibition potential of MDMA metabolites regarding neurotransmitter degradation by catechol-O-methyltransferase and sulfotransferase was described previously. Their influence on monoamine oxidase (MAO) - the major DA degradation pathway-has not yet been studied in humans. Therefore the inhibition potential of MDMA and its metabolites on the deamination of the neurotransmitters DA and serotonin (5-HT) by MAO-A and B using recombinant human enzymes in vitro should be investigated. In initial studies, MDMA and MDA showed relevant inhibition (>30%) toward MAO A for 5-HT and DA. No relevant effects toward MAO B were observed. Further investigation on MAO-A revealed MDMA as a competitive inhibitor of 5-HT and DA deamination with Ki 24.5±7.1μM and 18.6±4.3μM respectively and MDA as a mixed-type inhibitor with Ki 7.8±2.6μM and 8.4±3.2μM respectively. Although prediction of in vivo relevance needs to be done with care, relevant inhibitory effects at expected plasma concentrations after recreational MDMA consumption seems unlikely based on the obtained data. PMID:26721607

  5. A common uptake system for serotonin and dopamine in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Omenn, G S; Smith, L T

    1978-08-01

    Kinetic and pharmacologic properties of uptake of serotonin and dopamine by normal human platelets have been investigated to test whether platelets can be employed as a model system for the reuptake of serotonin and dopamine in brain. Uptake of serotonin into platelets closely resembles reuptake of serotonin into serotonergic neurons. In contrast, uptake of dopamine into platelets appears to be mediated inefficiently via the specific serotonin uptake mechanism, based upon several lines of evidence. Serotonin and dopamine compete with each other, Antidepressant drugs, which are competitive inhibitors of uptake of both of these neurotransmitters, act at the same concentration of drug despite large differences in the Km values. Serotonin antagonists inhibit both serotonin and dopamine uptake. Finally, a serotonin-specific uptake inhibitor (fluoxetine) blocks dopamine, as well as serotonin, uptake. PMID:670392

  6. Dissociable effects of dopamine and serotonin on reversal learning.

    PubMed

    den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Daw, Nathaniel D; Fernandez, Guilln; Elshout, Joris A; Rijpkema, Mark; Hoogman, Martine; Franke, Barbara; Cools, Roshan

    2013-11-20

    Serotonin and dopamine are speculated to subserve motivationally opponent functions, but this hypothesis has not been directly tested. We studied the role of these neurotransmitters in probabilistic reversal learning in nearly 700 individuals as a function of two polymorphisms in the genes encoding the serotonin and dopamine transporters (SERT: 5HTTLPR plus rs25531; DAT1 3'UTR VNTR). A double dissociation was observed. The SERT polymorphism altered behavioral adaptation after losses, with increased lose-shift associated with L' homozygosity, while leaving unaffected perseveration after reversal. In contrast, the DAT1 genotype affected the influence of prior choices on perseveration, while leaving lose-shifting unaltered. A model of reinforcement learning captured the dose-dependent effect of DAT1 genotype, such that an increasing number of 9R-alleles resulted in a stronger reliance on previous experience and therefore reluctance to update learned associations. These data provide direct evidence for doubly dissociable effects of serotonin and dopamine systems. PMID:24267657

  7. Alpha-Ethyltryptamines as Dual Dopamine-Serotonin Releasers

    PubMed Central

    Blough, Bruce E.; Landavazo, Antonio; Partilla, John S.; Decker, Ann M.; Page, Kevin M.; Baumann, Michael H.; Rothman, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) transporter releasing activity and serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor agonist activity of a series of substituted tryptamines are reported. Three compounds, 7b, (+)-7d and 7f, were found to be potent dual DA/5-HT releasers and were >10-fold less potent as NE releasers. Additionally, these compounds had different activity profiles at the 5-HT2A receptor. The unique combination of dual DA/5-HT releasing activity and 5-HT2A receptor activity suggests that these compounds could represent a new class of neurotransmitter releasers with therapeutic potential. PMID:25193229

  8. Optogenetic Control of Serotonin and Dopamine Release in Drosophila Larvae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic control of neurotransmitter release is an elegant method to investigate neurobiological mechanisms with millisecond precision and cell type-specific resolution. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) can be expressed in specific neurons, and blue light used to activate those neurons. Previously, in Drosophila, neurotransmitter release and uptake have been studied after continuous optical illumination. In this study, we investigated the effects of pulsed optical stimulation trains on serotonin or dopamine release in larval ventral nerve cords. In larvae with ChR2 expressed in serotonergic neurons, low-frequency stimulations produced a distinct, steady-state response while high-frequency patterns were peak shaped. Evoked serotonin release increased with increasing stimulation frequency and then plateaued. The steady-state response and the frequency dependence disappeared after administering the uptake inhibitor fluoxetine, indicating that uptake plays a significant role in regulating the extracellular serotonin concentration. Pulsed stimulations were also used to evoke dopamine release in flies expressing ChR2 in dopaminergic neurons and similar frequency dependence was observed. Release due to pulsed optical stimulations was modeled to determine the uptake kinetics. For serotonin, Vmax was 0.54 ± 0.07 μM/s and Km was 0.61 ± 0.04 μM; and for dopamine, Vmax was 0.12 ± 0.03 μM/s and Km was 0.45 ± 0.13 μM. The amount of serotonin released per stimulation pulse was 4.4 ± 1.0 nM, and the amount of dopamine was 1.6 ± 0.3 nM. Thus, pulsed optical stimulations can be used to mimic neuronal firing patterns and will allow Drosophila to be used as a model system for studying mechanisms underlying neurotransmission. PMID:24849718

  9. A calcium-channel homologue required for adaptation to dopamine and serotonin in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, William R.; Kenyon, Cynthia J.

    1995-05-01

    PROCESSING and storage of information by the nervous system requires the ability to modulate the response of excitable cells to neurotransmitter. A simple process of this type, known as adaptation or desensitization, occurs when prolonged stimulation triggers processes that attenuate the response to neurotransmitter. Here we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene unc-2 is required for adaptation to two neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. A loss-of-function mutation in unc-2 resulted in failure to adapt either to paralysis by dopamine or to stimulation of egg laying by serotonin. In addition, unc-2 mutants displayed behaviours similar to those induced by serotonin treatment. We found that unc-2 encodes a homologue of a voltage-sensitive calcium-channel ?-1 subunit. Expression of unc-2 occurs in two types of neurons implicated in the control of egg laying, a behaviour regulated by serotonin. Unc-2 appears to be required in modulatory neurons to downregulate the response of the egg-laying muscles to serotonin. We propose that adaptation to serotonin occurs through activation of an Unc-2-dependent calcium influx, which modulates the post-synaptic response to serotonin, perhaps by inhibiting the release of a potentiating neuropeptide.

  10. Organization of monosynaptic inputs to the serotonin and dopamine neuromodulatorysystems

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Sachie K.; Cohen, Jeremiah Y.; Hwang, Dabin; Uchida, Naoshige; Watabe-Uchida, Mitsuko

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Serotonin and dopamine are major neuromodulators. Here we used a modified rabies virus to identify monosynaptic inputs to serotonin neurons in the dorsal and median raphe (DR and MR). We found that inputs to DR and MR serotonin neurons are spatially shiftedin the forebrain, with MRserotonin neurons receiving inputs from more medial structures. We then compared these data with inputs to dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantianigra pars compacta (SNc). We found that DR serotonin neurons receive inputs from a remarkably similar set of areas as VTA dopamine neurons, apart from the striatum, which preferentially targets dopamine neurons. Ourresults suggest three majorinput streams: amedial stream regulates MR serotonin neurons, anintermediate stream regulatesDR serotonin and VTA dopamine neurons, and alateral stream regulatesSNc dopamine neurons. These results providefundamental organizational principlesofafferent control forserotonin and dopamine. PMID:25108805

  11. Antihistamine effect on synaptosomal uptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J.

    1980-01-01

    A study on the effects of five H1 and H2 antihistamines on the synaptosomal uptake of serotonin (5HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) is presented. Brain homogenates from female rats were incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer solution in the presence of one of three radioactive neurotransmitters, and one of the five antihistamines. Low concentrations of pyrilamine competitively inhibited 5HT uptake, had little effect on NE uptake, and no effect on DA uptake. Promethazine, diphenhydramine, metiamide, and cimetidine had no effect on 5HT or DA uptake at the same concentration. Diphenhydramine had a small inhibitory effect on NE uptake. It is concluded that pyrilamine is a selective and potent competitive inhibitor of 5HT uptake at concentrations between .05 and .5 micromolars.

  12. Serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors are the same size in membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Brann, M.R.

    1985-12-31

    Target size analysis was used to compare the sizes of serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors in rat brain membranes. The sizes of these receptors were standardized by comparison with the muscarinic receptor, a receptor of known size. The number of serotonin-S2 receptors labeled with (3H)ketanserin or (3H)spiperone in frontal cortex decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and receptor affinity was not affected. The number of dopamine-D2 receptors labeled with (3H)spiperone in striatum also decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and D2 and S2 receptors were equally sensitive to radiation. In both striatum and frontal cortex, the number of muscarinic receptors labeled with (3H)QNB decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and were much less sensitive to radiation than S2 and D2 receptors. These data indicate that in rat brain membranes, S2 and D2 receptors are of similar size, and both molecules are much larger than the muscarinic receptor.

  13. The Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Mixed Serotonin, Norepinephrine and Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Skolnick, Phil

    The evolution of antidepressants over the past four decades has involved the replacement of drugs with a multiplicity of effects (e.g., TCAs) by those with selective actions (i.e., SSRIs). This strategy was employed to reduce the adverse effects of TCAs, largely by eliminating interactions with certain neurotransmitters or receptors. Although these more selective compounds may be better tolerated by patients, selective drugs, specifically SSRIs, are not superior to older drugs in treating depressed patients as measured by response and remission rates. It may be an advantage to increase synaptic levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine, as in the case of dual uptake inhibitors like duloxetine and venlafaxine. An important recent development has been the emergence of the triple-uptake inhibitors (TUIs/SNDRIs), which inhibit the uptake of the three neurotransmitters most closely linked to depression: serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that a drug inhibiting the reuptake of all three of these neurotransmitters could produce more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of mixed serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporter uptake inhibitors.

  14. Label-Free SERS Selective Detection of Dopamine and Serotonin Using Graphene-Au Nanopyramid Heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pu; Xia, Ming; Liang, Owen; Sun, Ke; Cipriano, Aaron F; Schroeder, Thomas; Liu, Huinan; Xie, Ya-Hong

    2015-10-20

    Ultrasensitive detection and spatially resolved mapping of neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, are critical to facilitate understanding brain functions and investigate the information processing in neural networks. In this work, we demonstrated single molecule detection of dopamine and serotonin using a graphene-Au nanopyramid heterostructure platform. The quasi-periodic Au structure boosts high-density and high-homogeneity hotspots resulting in ultrahigh sensitivity with a surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) enhancement factor ?10(10). A single layer graphene superimposed on a Au structure not only can locate SERS hot spots but also modify the surface chemistry to realize selective enhancement Raman yield. Dopamine and serotonin could be detected and distinguished from each other at 10(-10) M level in 1 s data acquisition time without any pretreatment and labeling process. Moreover, the heterostructure realized nanomolar detection of neurotransmitters in the presence of simulated body fluids. These findings represent a step forward in enabling in-depth studies of neurological processes including those closely related to brain activity mapping (BAM). PMID:26382549

  15. Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: an example on serotonin and opioid systems.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Lauri; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Keltikangas-Jrvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Hietala, Jarmo

    2014-05-01

    All functions of the human brain are consequences of altered activity of specific neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. Although the knowledge of "system level" connectivity in the brain is increasing rapidly, we lack "molecular level" information on brain networks and connectivity patterns. We introduce novel voxel-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods for studying internal neurotransmitter network structure and intercorrelations of different neurotransmitter systems in the human brain. We chose serotonin transporter and ?-opioid receptor for this analysis because of their functional interaction at the cellular level and similar regional distribution in the brain. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two consecutive PET scans using [(11)C]MADAM, a serotonin transporter tracer, and [(11)C]carfentanil, a ?-opioid receptor tracer. First, voxel-by-voxel "intracorrelations" (hub and seed analyses) were used to study the internal structure of opioid and serotonin systems. Second, voxel-level opioid-serotonin intercorrelations (between neurotransmitters) were computed. Regional ?-opioid receptor binding potentials were uniformly correlated throughout the brain. However, our analyses revealed nonuniformity in the serotonin transporter intracorrelations and identified a highly connected local network (midbrain-striatum-thalamus-amygdala). Regionally specific intercorrelations between the opioid and serotonin tracers were found in anteromedial thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parietal cortex, i.e., in areas relevant for several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders. This methodology enables in vivo mapping of connectivity patterns within and between neurotransmitter systems. Quantification of functional neurotransmitter balances may be a useful approach in etiological studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in drug development as a biomarker-based rationale for targeted modulation of neurotransmitter networks. PMID:23671038

  16. Brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease presenting as a severe infantile hypotonic parkinsonian disorder.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jessie C; Wilson, Callum; Cunningham, Vicki; Glamuzina, Emma; Prosser, Debra O; Love, Donald R; Burgess, Trent; Taylor, Juliet; Swan, Brendan; Hill, Rosamund; Robertson, Stephen P; Snell, Russell G; Lehnert, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two male siblings from a consanguineous union presented in early infancy with marked truncal hypotonia, a general paucity of movement, extrapyramidal signs and cognitive delay. By mid-childhood they had made little developmental progress and remained severely hypotonic and bradykinetic. They developed epilepsy and had problems with autonomic dysfunction and oculogyric crises. They had a number of orthopaedic problems secondary to their hypotonia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurotransmitters were initially normal, apart from mildly elevated 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and the children did not respond favourably to a trial of levodopa-carbidopa. The youngest died from respiratory complications at 10 years of age. Repeat CSF neurotransmitters in the older sibling at eight years of age showed slightly low homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a novel mutation homozygous in both children in the monoamine transporter gene SLC18A2 (p.Pro237His), resulting in brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease. This is the second family to be described with a mutation in this gene. Treatment with the dopamine agonist pramipexole in the surviving child resulted in mild improvements in alertness, communication, and eye movements. This case supports the identification of the causal mutation in the original case, expands the clinical phenotype of brain dopamine-serotonin vesicular transport disease and confirms that pramipexole treatment may lead to symptomatic improvement in affected individuals. PMID:26497564

  17. The neurotransmitters serotonin and glutamate accelerate the heart rate of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Julin F; Estvez-Lao, Tania Y; Mirzai, Homa E

    2015-10-01

    Serotonin and glutamate are neurotransmitters that in insects are involved in diverse physiological processes. Both serotonin and glutamate have been shown to modulate the physiology of the dorsal vessel of some insects, yet until the present study, their activity in mosquitoes remained unknown. To test whether serotonin or glutamate regulate dorsal vessel physiology in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, live mosquitoes were restrained, and a video of the contracting heart (the abdominal portion of the dorsal vessel) was acquired. These adult female mosquitoes were then injected with various amounts of serotonin, glutamate, or a control vehicle solution, and additional videos were acquired at 2 and 10 min post-treatment. Comparison of the videos taken before and after treatment revealed that serotonin accelerates the frequency of heart contractions, with the cardioacceleration being significantly more pronounced when the wave-like contractions of cardiac muscle propagate in the anterograde direction (toward the head). Comparison of the videos taken before and after treatment with glutamate revealed that this molecule is also cardioacceleratory. However, unlike serotonin, the activity of glutamate does not depend on whether the contractions propagate in the anterograde or the retrograde (toward the posterior of the abdomen) directions. Serotonin or glutamate induces a minor change or no change in the percentage of contractions and the percentage of the time that the heart contracts in the anterograde or the retrograde directions. In summary, this study shows that the neurotransmitters serotonin and glutamate increase the heart contraction rate of mosquitoes. PMID:26099947

  18. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  19. Chemical sensing of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Tuhin; Jung, Hyo Sung; Jang, Joo Hee; Kim, Tae Woo; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Jong Seung

    2014-07-01

    In the past few decades, the development of chemosensors for neurotransmitters has emerged as a research area of significant importance, which attracted a tremendous amount of attention due to its high sensitivity and rapid response. This current review focuses on various neurotransmitter detection based on fluorescent or colorimetric spectrophotometry published for the last 12 years, covering biogenic amines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine and acetylcholine), amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glycine and tyrosine), and adenosine. PMID:24736802

  20. Opponency Revisited: Competition and Cooperation Between Dopamine and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Boureau, Y-Lan; Dayan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Affective valence lies on a spectrum ranging from punishment to reward. The coding of such spectra in the brain almost always involves opponency between pairs of systems or structures. There is ample evidence for the role of dopamine in the appetitive half of this spectrum, but little agreement about the existence, nature, or role of putative aversive opponents such as serotonin. In this review, we consider the structure of opponency in terms of previous biases about the nature of the decision problems that animals face, the conflicts that may thus arise between Pavlovian and instrumental responses, and an additional spectrum joining invigoration to inhibition. We use this analysis to shed light on aspects of the role of serotonin and its interactions with dopamine. PMID:20881948

  1. Involvement of central noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine system in the antidepressant activity of fruits of Solanum torvum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Momin, Rehan; Mohan, Mahalaxmi

    2012-01-01

    The methanolic extract (ME) of Solanum torvum seeds and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) were investigated for their antidepressant activity using behavioral (forced swim test, FST and tail suspension test, TST) and biochemical (monoamine oxidase, MAO reduced activity) tests. ME (10, 30 and 100?mg?kg(-1)) and EAF (10 and 30?mg?kg(-1)) dose dependently inhibited the immobility period, increased noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine levels and inhibited the MAO enzymes in FST and TST using mice. Furthermore, we have observed antagonism between the threshold dose of ME (30 and 100?mg?kg(-1)) and EAF (10 and 30?mg?kg(-1)) with antagonists on behaviour mediated by neurotransmitters noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. MAO-A inhibition was more prominent as compared to MAO-B inhibition. The study provides evidence for antidepressant actions of S. torvum. PMID:21660842

  2. [Autoantibodies to glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin in the dynamics of development of chronic brain epileptization in mice C578l/6].

    PubMed

    Vetril, L A; Kuznetsova, L V; Klishina, N Iu; Karpova, M N

    2010-01-01

    In experiments on mice C57Bl/6 was studied the possibility of production of glutamate, GABA, dopamine and serotonin autoantibodies in the dynamics of development of chronic brain epileptization--pharmacological kindling, induced by daily administration of pentylenetetrazol in subconvulsive dose (30 mg/kg) during 24 days. 14 days after the start of the kindling autoantibodies to glutamate was detected in all experimental animals, to CABA--in 60% of mice, to serotonine--in 70%, and to dopamine--in 90%. After 24 days--the number of animals with autoantibodies to glutamate and dopamine was decreased, to serotonin--increased, and to GABA--was not altered. It was shown the relationship between detection neurotransmitters autoantibodies and severity of the convulsive reaction. PMID:20804068

  3. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell increases impulsive behavior and tissue levels of dopamine and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Sesia, Thibaut; Bulthuis, Vincent; Tan, Sonny; Lim, Lee Wei; Vlamings, Rinske; Blokland, Arjan; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Sharp, Trevor; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Temel, Yasin

    2010-10-01

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is gaining interest as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in refractory neuropsychiatric disorders with impulsivity as core symptom. The nucleus accumbens is composed of two subterritories, core and shell, which have different anatomical connections. In animal models, it has been shown that DBS of the NAc changes impulsive action. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a change in impulsive action by DBS of the NAc is associated with changes in dopamine levels. Rats received stimulating electrodes either in the NAc core or shell, and underwent behavioral testing in a reaction time task. In addition, in a second experiment, the effect of DBS of the NAc core and shell on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels was assessed in the NAc and medial prefrontal cortex. Control subjects received sham surgery. We have found that DBS of the NAc shell stimulation induced more impulsive action but less perseverative checking. These effects were associated with increased levels of dopamine and serotonin in the NAc, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex. DBS of the NAc core had no effect on impulsive action, but decreased perseverative responses indicative of a better impulse control. In these subjects, no effects were found on neurotransmitter levels. Our data point out that DBS of the NAc shell has negative effects on impulsive action which is accompanied by increases of dopamine and serotonin levels in the NAc, whereas DBS of the NAc core has beneficial behavioral effects. PMID:20615406

  4. Neurotransmitter and psychostimulant recognition by the dopamine transporter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kevin H.; Penmatsa, Aravind; Gouaux, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Na+/Cl−-coupled biogenic amine transporters are the primary targets of therapeutic and abused drugs, ranging from antidepressants to the psychostimulants cocaine and amphetamines, and to their cognate substrates. Here we determine x-ray crystal structures of the Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter (dDAT) bound to its substrate dopamine (DA), a substrate analogue 3,4-dichlorophenethylamine, the psychostimulants D-amphetamine, methamphetamine, or to cocaine and cocaine analogues. All ligands bind to the central binding site, located approximately halfway across the membrane bilayer, in close proximity to bound sodium and chloride ions. The central binding site recognizes three chemically distinct classes of ligands via conformational changes that accommodate varying sizes and shapes, thus illustrating molecular principles that distinguish substrates from inhibitors in biogenic amine transporters. PMID:25970245

  5. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  6. Analysis of Glutamate, GABA, Noradrenaline, Dopamine, Serotonin, and Metabolites Using Microbore UHPLC with Electrochemical Detection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The applicability of microbore ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with electrochemical detection for offline analysis of a number of well-known neurotransmitters in less than 10 μL microdialysis fractions is described. Two methods are presented for the analysis of monoamine or amino acid neurotransmitters, using the same UHPLC instrument. Speed of analysis of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and the metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindole aceticacid (5-HIAA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was predominated by the retention behavior of NA, the nonideal behavior of matrix components, and the loss in signal of 5-HT. This method was optimized to meet the requirements for detection sensitivity and minimizing the size of collected fractions, which determines temporal resolution in microdialysis. The amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were analyzed after an automated derivatization procedure. Under optimized conditions, Glu was resolved from a number of early eluting system peaks, while the total runtime was decreased to 15 min by a 4-fold increase of the flow rate under UHPLC conditions. The detection limit for Glu and GABA was 10 nmol/L (15 fmol in 1.5 μL); the monoamine neurotransmitters had a detection limit between 32 and 83 pmol/L (0.16–0.42 fmol in 5 μL) in standard solutions. Using UHPLC, the analysis times varied from 15 min to less than 2 min depending on the complexity of the samples and the substances to be analyzed. PMID:23642417

  7. Dopamine and serotonin release in the nucleus accumbens during starvation-induced hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Linda A W; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Korte, S Mechiel; Adan, Roger A H

    2009-05-01

    Activity-based anorexia (ABA) is considered an animal model for anorexia nervosa (AN). By scheduled feeding and voluntary wheel running, it mimics severe body weight loss and increased physical activity in AN. Pharmacological, genetic and imaging studies implicate dopamine and serotonin in the regulation of feeding behavior, food-anticipatory activity, and food reward. Previous studies propose that the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays an important role in these food-related processes. Here we determined dopamine and serotonin levels in the NAc upon exposure to the ABA model. Surprisingly, the release of dopamine and serotonin in the NAc were not increased during the initiation of food-anticipatory behavior in ABA rats. Dopamine release in the NAc was increased during feeding behavior in ABA rats. During ABA, levels of serotonin were low and circadian activity is blunted. We conclude that during the early stages of development of food-anticipatory activity, increased dopamine does not trigger hyperactivity. PMID:19181487

  8. Interaction Between Brain Histamine and Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Dopamine Systems: In Vivo Microdialysis and Electrophysiology Study.

    PubMed

    Flik, Gunnar; Folgering, Joost H A; Cremers, Thomas I H F; Westerink, Ben H C; Dremencov, Eliyahu

    2015-06-01

    Brain monoamines (serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and histamine) play an important role in emotions, cognition, and pathophysiology and treatment of mental disorders. The interactions between serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine were studied in numerous works; however, histamine system received less attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between histamine and other monoamines, using in vivo microdialysis and electrophysiology. It was found that the inverse agonist of histamine-3 receptors, thioperamide, increased the firing activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. Selective agonist of histamine-3 receptors, immepip, reversed thiperamide-induced stimulation of firing activity of dopamine neurons. The firing rates of serotonin and norpeinephrine neurons were not attenuated by immepip or thioperamide. Thioperamide robustly and significantly increased extracellular concentrations of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine in the rat prefrontal cortex and slightly increased norepinephrine and dopamine levels in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. It can be concluded that histamine stimulates serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine transmission in the brain. Modulation of firing of dopamine neurons is a key element in functional interactions between histamine and other monoamines. Antagonists of histamine-3 receptors, because of their potential ability to stimulate monoamine neurotransmission, might be beneficial in the treatment of mental disorders. PMID:25820671

  9. Comonitoring of adenosine and dopamine using the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System: proof of principle

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Young-Min; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Object The authors of previous studies have demonstrated that local adenosine efflux may contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of action of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor. Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of DBS-targeted regions may thus advance functional neurosurgical procedures by identifying candidate neurotransmitters and neuromodulators involved in the physiological effects of DBS. This would in turn permit the development of a method of chemically guided placement of DBS electrodes in vivo. Designed in compliance with FDA-recognized standards for medical electrical device safety, the authors report on the utility of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for real-time comonitoring of electrical stimulationevoked adenosine and dopamine efflux in vivo, utilizing fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a polyacrylonitrile-based (T-650) carbon fiber microelectrode (CFM). Methods The WINCS was used for FSCV, which consisted of a triangle wave scanned between ?0.4 and +1.5 V at a rate of 400 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages applied to the CFM were with respect to an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single T-650 carbon fiber (r = 2.5 ?m) into a glass capillary and pulling to a microscopic tip using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ? 50 ?m. Proof of principle tests included in vitro measurements of adenosine and dopamine, as well as in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring adenosine and dopamine efflux in the dorsomedial caudate putamen evoked by high-frequency electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Results The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of adenosine efflux. Peak oxidative currents appeared at +1.5 V and at +1.0 V for adenosine, separate from the peak oxidative current at +0.6 V for dopamine. The WINCS detected subsecond adenosine and dopamine efflux in the caudate putamen at an implanted CFM during high-frequency stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Both in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated that WINCS can detect adenosine in the presence of other easily oxidizable neurochemicals such as dopamine comparable to the detection abilities of a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Conclusions Altogether, these results demonstrate that WINCS is well suited for wireless monitoring of high-frequency stimulation-evoked changes in brain extracellular concentrations of adenosine. Clinical applications of selective adenosine measurements may prove important to the future development of DBS technology. PMID:19731995

  10. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2015-07-01

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements.

  11. Variations of dopamine, serotonin, and amino acid concentrations in Noda epileptic rat (NER) retina.

    PubMed

    Chanut, Evelyne; Labarthe, Benot; Lacroix, Brigitte; Noda, Atsuhi; Gasdeblay, Sylvie; Bondier, Jean-Robert; Versaux-Botteri, Claudine

    2006-01-27

    Noda epileptic rats (NER) exhibit frequent spontaneous tonic-clonic convulsions which represent a valuable model of human epilepsy. If implication of brain neurotransmitters was largely reported, little is known about retina. However, it has been reported that human epilepsy syndrome varies not only with the location of seizure foci but also according to rhythmic patterns, for which retina has a major role in the transmission of external light-dark cycle information. The purpose of this work was to evaluate dopamine (DA), DA metabolites, serotonin (5-HT), and amino acid [glutamate, aspartate, glycine, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), and taurine] level variations in retina from NER, at two different nycthemeral periods (11 a.m. and 11 p.m.) and at different ages (2, 6, and 12 months). In NER, retinal dopaminergic function was decreased as soon as 2 months, whereas GABA levels were increased, even if no differences among the different ages could be distinguished. These variations were associated to a slight increase in 5-HT. Other amino acids tested were not affected by epilepsy, whereas taurine decreased with aging in NER as well as in control rats. Retinal 5-HT occurs principally as a precursor of melatonin (MEL). A triangular interaction may be hypothesized: MEL could decrease DA synthesis or release by enhancing GABA activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the retinal physiology is affected by the epileptic status and that information transmitted from retina to the brain should be affected by epilepsy in NER. PMID:16403472

  12. Understanding the redox coupling between quantum dots and the neurotransmitter dopamine in hybrid self-assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xin; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Wang, Wentao; Palui, Goutam; Robel, Istvan; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2015-03-01

    Interactions between luminescent fluorophores and redox active molecules often involve complex charge transfer processes, and have great ramifications in biology. Dopamine is a redox active neurotransmitter involved in a range of brain activities. We used steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence along with transient absorption bleach measurements, to probe the effects of changing the QD size and valence on the rate of photoluminescence quenching in QD-dopamine conjugates, when the pH of the medium was varied. In particular, we measured substantially larger quenching efficiencies, combined with more pronounced shortening in the PL lifetime decay when smaller size QDs and/or alkaline pH were used. Moreover, we found that changes in the nanocrystal size alter both the electron and hole relaxation of photoexcited QDs but with very different extents. For instance, a more pronounced change in the hole relaxation was recorded in alkaline buffers and for green-emitting QDs compared to their red-emitting counterparts. We attributed these results to the more favorable electron transfer pathway from the reduced form of the complex to the valence band of the QD. This process benefits from the combination of lower oxidation potential and larger energy mismatch in alkaline buffers and for green-emitting QDs. In comparison, the effects on the rate of electron transfer from excited QDs to dopamine are less affected by QD size. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that drive charge transfer interactions and the ensuing quenching of QD emission in such assemblies.

  13. Serotonin/Dopamine Interactions in a Hyperactive Mouse: Reduced Serotonin Receptor 1B Activity Reverses Effects of Dopamine Transporter Knockout

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Frank Scott; Sora, Ichiro; Hen, René; Uhl, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Knockout (KO) mice that lack the dopamine transporter (SL6A3; DAT) display increased locomotion that can be attenuated, under some circumstances, by administration of drugs that normally produce psychostimulant-like effects, such as amphetamine and methylphenidate. These results have led to suggestions that DAT KO mice may model features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and that these drugs may act upon serotonin (5-HT) systems to produce these unusual locomotor decreasing effects. Evidence from patterns of brain expression and initial pharmacologic studies led us to use genetic and pharmacologic approaches to examine the influence of altered 5-HT1B receptor activity on hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Heterozygous 5-HT1B KO and pharmacologic 5-HT1B antagonism both attenuated locomotor hyperactivity in DAT KO mice. Furthermore, DAT KO mice with reduced, but not eliminated, 5-HT1B receptor expression regained cocaine-stimulated locomotion, which was absent in DAT KO mice with normal levels of 5-HT1B receptor expression. Further experiments demonstrated that the degree of habituation to the testing apparatus determined whether cocaine had no effect on locomotion in DAT KO or reduced locomotion, helping to resolve differences among prior reports. These findings of complementation of the locomotor effects of DAT KO by reducing 5-HT1B receptor activity underscore roles for interactions between specific 5-HT receptors and dopamine (DA) systems in basal and cocaine-stimulated locomotion and support evaluation of 5-HT1B antagonists as potential, non-stimulant ADHD therapeutics. PMID:25514162

  14. Binding of mazindol and analogs to the human serotonin and dopamine transporters.

    PubMed

    Severinsen, Kasper; Kolds, Heidi; Thorup, Katrine Almind Vinberg; Schjth-Eskesen, Christina; Mller, Pernille Thornild; Wiborg, Ove; Jensen, Henrik Helligs; Sinning, Steffen; Schitt, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    Mazindol has been explored as a possible agent in cocaine addiction pharmacotherapy. The tetracyclic compound inhibits both the dopamine transporter and the serotonin transporter, and simple chemical modifications considerably alter target selectivity. Mazindol, therefore, is an attractive scaffold for both understanding the molecular determinants of serotonin/dopamine transporter selectivity and for the development of novel drug abuse treatments. Using molecular modeling and pharmacologic profiling of rationally chosen serotonin and dopamine transporter mutants with respect to a series of mazindol analogs has allowed us to determine the orientation of mazindol within the central binding site. We find that mazindol binds in the central substrate binding site, and that the transporter selectivity can be modulated through mutations of a few residues in the binding pocket. Mazindol is most likely to bind as the R-enantiomer. Tyrosines 95 and 175 in the human serotonin transporter and the corresponding phenylalanines 75 and 155 in the human dopamine transporter are the primary determinants of mazindol selectivity. Manipulating the interaction of substituents on the 7-position with the human serotonin transporter Tyr175 versus dopamine transporter Phe155 is found to be a strong tool in tuning the selectivity of mazindol analogs and may be used in future drug design of cocaine abuse pharmacotherapies. PMID:24214825

  15. The antipsychotic aripiprazole induces antinociceptive effects: Possible role of peripheral dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Santos, Ana F; Ferreira, Renata C M; Duarte, Igor D; Aguiar, Daniele C; Romero, Thiago R L; Moreira, Fabricio A

    2015-10-15

    Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic that acts by multiple mechanisms, including partial agonism at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. Since these neurotransmitters also modulate pain and analgesia, we tested the hypothesis that systemic or local administration of aripiprazole induces antinociceptive responses. Systemic aripiprazole (0.1-10mg/kg; i.p.) injection in mice inhibited formalin-induced paw licking and PGE2-induced hyperalgesia in the paw pressure test. This effect was mimicked by intra-plantar administration (12.5-100g/paw) in the ipsi, but not contralateral, paw. The peripheral action of aripiprazole (100g/paw) was reversed by haloperidol (0.1-10g/paw), suggesting the activation of dopamine receptors as a possible mechanism. Accordingly, quinpirole (25-100g/paw), a full agonist at D2/D3 receptors, also reduced nociceptive responses.. In line with the partial agoniztic activity of aripiprazole, low dose of this compound inhibited the effect of quinpirole (both at 25g/paw). Finally, peripheral administration of NAN-190 (0.1-10?g/paw), a 5-HT1A antagonist, also prevented aripiprazole-induced antinociception. In conclusion, systemic or local administration of aripiprazole induces antinociceptive effects. Similar to its antipsychotic activity, the possible peripheral mechanism involves dopamine D2 and serotoninergic 5-HT1A receptors. Aripiprazole and other dopaminergic modulators should be further investigated as new treatments for certain types of pain. PMID:26325094

  16. Genetics of monoamine neurotransmitter disorders

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are a heterogeneous group of inherited neurological disorders involving defects in the metabolism of dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin. The inheritance of these disorders is mostly autosomal recessive. The neurological symptoms are primarily attributable to cerebral deficiency of dopamine, serotonin or both. The clinical presentations were highly variable and substantial overlaps exist. Evidently, laboratory investigations are crucial for accurate diagnosis. Measurement of neurotransmitter metabolites in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) is the key to delineate the metabolic defects. Adjuvant investigations including plasma phenylalanine, urine pterins, urine 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD) and serum prolactin are also helpful to establish the diagnosis. Genetic analyses are pivotally important to confirm the diagnosis which allows specific treatments, proper genetic counselling, prognosis prediction, assessment of recurrent risk in the family as well as prenatal diagnosis. Early diagnosis with appropriate treatment is associated with remarkable response and favourable clinical outcome in several disorders in this group.

  17. Sexual side effects of serotonergic antidepressants: mediated by inhibition of serotonin on central dopamine release?

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Chan, Johnny S W; Olivier, Berend; Veening, Jan G; Millan, Mark J; Waldinger, Marcel D; Oosting, Ronald S

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction adversely affects the quality of life of antidepressant users and reduces compliance with treatment. Animal models provide an instructive approach for examining potential sexual side effects of novel drugs. This review discusses the stability and reproducibility of our standardized test procedure that assesses the acute, subchronic and chronic effects of psychoactive compounds in a 30 minute mating test. In addition, we present an overview of the effects of several different (putative) antidepressants on male rat sexual behavior, as tested in our standardized test procedure. By comparing the effects of these mechanistically distinct antidepressants (paroxetine, venlafaxine, bupropion, buspirone, DOV 216,303 and S32006), this review discusses the putative mechanism underlying sexual side effects of antidepressants and their normalization. This review shows that sexual behavior is mainly inhibited by antidepressants that increase serotonin neurotransmission via blockade of serotonin transporters, while those that mainly increase the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline are devoid of sexual side effects. Those sexual disturbances cannot be normalized by simultaneously increasing noradrenaline neurotransmission, but are normalized by increasing both noradrenaline and dopamine neurotransmission. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be mediated by their inhibitory effects on dopamine signaling in sex brain circuits. Clinical development of novel antidepressants should therefore focus on compounds that simultaneously increase both serotonin and dopamine signaling. PMID:24128918

  18. Structure-Guided Directed Evolution of Highly Selective P450-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sensors for Dopamine and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Brustad, Eric M.; Lelyveld, Victor S.; Snow, Christopher D.; Crook, Nathan; Jung, Sang Taek; Martinez, Francisco M.; Scholl, Timothy J.; Jasanoff, Alan; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-01-01

    New tools that allow dynamic visualization of molecular neural events are important for studying the basis of brain activity and disease. Sensors that permit ligand-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful reagents due to the non-invasive nature and good temporal and spatial resolution of MR methods. Paramagnetic metalloproteins can be effective MRI sensors due to the selectivity imparted by the protein active site and the ability to tune protein properties using techniques such as directed evolution. Here we show that structure-guided directed evolution of the active site of the cytochrome P450 BM3 heme domain (BM3h) produces highly selective MRI probes with sub-micromolar affinities for small molecules. We report a new, high affinity dopamine sensor as well as the first MRI reporter for serotonin, with which we demonstrate quantification of neurotransmitter release in vitro. We also present a detailed structural analysis of evolved BM3h lineages to systematically dissect the molecular basis of neurotransmitter binding affinity, selectivity, and enhanced MRI contrast activity in these engineered proteins. PMID:22659321

  19. Distribution of serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system of the female mud crab, Scylla olivacea (Herbst).

    PubMed

    Khornchatri, Kanjana; Kornthong, Napamanee; Saetan, Jirawat; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Cummins, Scott F; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2015-03-01

    In crustaceans serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters that play roles in the modulation of numerous physiological functions, including reproduction. However, in the mud crab, Scylla olivacea, the distributions of 5-HT and DA in the CNS have not yet been investigated. The aim of our study was to map the distributions of these two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS) of the female of this crab during the late stage of ovarian development. We found 5-HT immunoreactivity (-ir) and DA-ir in many parts of the CNS, including the eyestalk, brain, and thoracic ganglia. In the eyestalk, 5-HT-ir was localized in the medulla terminalis (MT), hemi-ellipsoid body (HB), and protocerebral tract (PT), whereas DA-ir was present in neuronal cluster 1, the LG neuropils, and PT. In the brain, 5-HT-ir and DA-ir were detected in cells and fibers of neuronal clusters 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, and 15. In the ventral nerve cord, 5-HT-ir was present in neurons of the abdominal ganglia, whereas DA was only present in fibers. These spatial distributions of 5-HT and DA suggest that they may be involved in the neuromodulation of important physiological functions, including ovarian maturation, as shown in other non-crab decapods. PMID:25618422

  20. Differential regulation of MeCP2 phosphorylation in the CNS by dopamine and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Ashley N; Deng, Jie V; Aryal, Dipendra K; Wetsel, William C; West, Anne E

    2012-01-01

    Systemic administration of amphetamine (AMPH) induces phosphorylation of MeCP2 at Ser421 (pMeCP2) in select populations of neurons in the mesolimbocortical brain regions. Because AMPH simultaneously activates multiple monoamine neurotransmitter systems, here we examined the ability of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and norepinephrine (NE) to induce pMeCP2. Selective blockade of the DA transporter (DAT) or the 5-HT transporter (SERT), but not the NE transporter (NET), was sufficient to induce pMeCP2 in the CNS. DAT blockade induced pMeCP2 in the prelimbic cortex (PLC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), whereas SERT blockade induced pMeCP2 only in the NAc. Administration of selective DA and 5-HT receptor agonists was also sufficient to induce pMeCP2; however, the specific combination of DA and 5-HT receptors activated determined the regional- and cell-type specificity of pMeCP2 induction. The D(1)-class DA receptor agonist SKF81297 induced pMeCP2 widely; however, coadministration of the D(2)-class agonist quinpirole restricted the induction of pMeCP2 to GABAergic interneurons of the NAc. Intra-striatal injection of the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin was sufficient to induce pMeCP2 in medium-spiny neurons, suggesting that the combinatorial regulation of cAMP by different classes of DA and 5-HT receptors may contribute to the cell-type specificity of pMeCP2 induction. Consistent with the regulation of pMeCP2 by multiple monoamine neurotransmitters, genetic disruption of any single monoamine transporter in DAT-, SERT-, and NET-knockout mice failed to eliminate AMPH-induced pMeCP2 in the NAc. Together, these studies indicate that combinatorial signaling through DA and 5-HT receptors can regulate the brain region- and cell-type specific pMeCP2 in the CNS. PMID:21956448

  1. Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C. elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Daniel L; Koelle, Michael R

    2007-01-01

    Four biogenic amines: octopamine, tyramine, dopamine and serotonin act in C. elegans to modulate behavior in response to changing environmental cues. These neurotransmitters act at both neurons and muscles to affect egg laying, pharyngeal pumping, locomotion and learning. A variety of experimental approaches including genetic, imaging, biochemical and pharmacological analyses have been used to identify the enzymes and cells that make and release the amines and the cells and receptors that bind them. Dopamine and serotonin act through receptors and downstream signaling mechanisms similar to those that operate in the mammalian brain suggesting that C. elegans will provide a valuable model for understanding biogenic amine signaling in the brain. PMID:18050501

  2. Dopamine and γ-aminobutyric acid are colocalized in restricted groups of neurons in the sea lamprey brain: insights into the early evolution of neurotransmitter colocalization in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery, the possible corelease of classic neurotransmitters from neurons has received much attention. Colocalization of monoamines and amino acidergic neurotransmitters [mainly glutamate and dopamine (DA) or serotonin] in mammalian neurons has been reported. However, few studies have dealt with the colocalization of DA and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in neurons. With the aim of providing some insight into the colocalization of neurotransmitters during early vertebrate phylogeny, we studied GABA expression in dopaminergic neurons in the sea lamprey brain by using double-immunofluorescence methods with anti-DA and anti-GABA antibodies. Different degrees of colocalization of DA and GABA were observed in different dopaminergic brain nuclei. A high degree of colocalization (GABA in at least 25% of DA-immunoreactive neurons) was observed in populations of the caudal rhombencephalon, ventral isthmus, postoptic commissure nucleus, preoptic nucleus and in granule-like cells of the olfactory bulb. A new DA-immunoreactive striatal population that showed colocalization with GABA in about a quarter of its neurons was observed. In the periventricular hypothalamus, colocalization was observed in only a few cells, despite the abundance of DA- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons, and no double-labelled cells were observed in the paratubercular nucleus. The frequent colocalization of DA and GABA reveals that the dopaminergic populations of lampreys are more complex than previously reported. Double-labelled fibres or terminals were observed in different brain regions, suggesting possible corelease of DA and GABA by these lamprey neurons. The present results suggest that colocalization of DA and GABA in neurons appeared early in vertebrate evolution. PMID:19840024

  3. Radioenzymatic analysis of neurotransmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Philips, S.R.

    1987-08-17

    Since the late 1960's, radioenzymatic assays have gradually come to replace the less sensitive and less specific spectrofluorometric and bioassay procedures previously used to determine many of the neurotransmitters. These assays provide the means to measure picogram quantities of most of these substances, and have enabled determinations to be made in very small volumes of body fluids, in brain perfusates and individual brain nuclei, and in large individual cells of some simple animals. This paper reviews briefly some of the radioenzymatic techniques presently available for assaying norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), dopamine (DA), serotonin, and the trace amines octopamine (OA), phenylethanolamine (PEOHA), phenylethylamine (PEA), tyramine (TA) and tryptamine (T).

  4. Enhanced serotonin and mesolimbic dopamine transmissions in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Aroni, Sonia; De Felice, Marta; Lecca, Salvatore; Luchicchi, Antonio; Melis, Miriam; Muntoni, Anna Lisa; Romano, Rosaria; Palazzo, Enza; Guida, Francesca; Maione, Sabatino; Pistis, Marco

    2015-10-01

    In humans, affective consequences of neuropathic pain, ranging from depression to anxiety and anhedonia, severely impair quality of life and are a major disease burden, often requiring specific medications. Depressive- and anxiety-like behaviors have also been observed in animal models of peripheral nerve injury. Dysfunctions in central nervous system monoamine transmission have been hypothesized to underlie depressive and anxiety disorders in neuropathic pain. To assess whether these neurons display early changes in their activity that in the long-term might lead to chronicization, maladaptive plasticity and affective consequences, we carried out invivo extracellular single unit recordings from serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and from dopamine neurons in ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. Extracellular dopamine levels and the expression of dopamine D1, D2 receptors and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were measured in the nucleus accumbens. We report that, two weeks following peripheral nerve injury, discharge rate of serotonin DRN neurons and burst firing of VTA dopamine cells are enhanced, when compared with sham-operated animals. We also observed higher extracellular dopamine levels and reduced expression of D2, but not D1, receptors and TH in the nucleus accumbens. Our study confirms that peripheral neuropathy induces changes in the serotonin and dopamine systems that might be the early result of chronic maladaptation to persistent pain. The allostatic activation of these neural systems, which mirrors that already described as a consequence of stress, might lead to depression and anxiety previously observed in neuropathic animals but also an attempt to cope positively with the negative experience. PMID:26113399

  5. Dramatically decreased cocaine self-administration in dopamine but not serotonin transporter knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Morgane; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Caine, S. Barak

    2009-01-01

    There has been much interest in the relative importance of dopamine and serotonin transporters in the abuse-related-effects of cocaine. We tested the hypotheses that mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT?/?), the serotonin transporter (SERT?/?), or both (DAT?/?SERT?/?) exhibit decreased reinforcing effects of cocaine. We also assessed whether observed effects on self-administration are specific to cocaine or if operant behavior maintained by food or a direct dopamine agonist are similarly affected. We used a broad range of experimental conditions that included acquisition without prior training, behavior established with food training and subsequent testing with food, cocaine or a direct dopamine agonist as reinforcers, fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, and a reversal procedure. Wild-type mice readily acquired cocaine self-administration and showed dose-response curves characteristic of the schedule of reinforcement that was employed. While some DAT?/? mice appeared to acquire cocaine self-administration transiently, almost all DAT?/? mice failed to self-administer cocaine reliably. Food-maintained behaviors were not decreased by the DAT mutation, and IV self-administration of a direct dopamine agonist was robust in the DAT?/? mice. In contrast to those mice, cocaine's reinforcing effects were not diminished in SERT?/? mice under any of the conditions tested, except for impaired initial acquisition of both food- and cocaine-maintained behavior. These findings support the notion that the DAT, but not the SERT, is critical in mediating the reinforcing effects of cocaine. PMID:19176817

  6. Dramatically decreased cocaine self-administration in dopamine but not serotonin transporter knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morgane; Hall, F Scott; Uhl, George R; Caine, S Barak

    2009-01-28

    There has been much interest in the relative importance of dopamine and serotonin transporters in the abuse-related-effects of cocaine. We tested the hypotheses that mice lacking the dopamine transporter (DAT(-/-)), the serotonin transporter (SERT(-/-)), or both (DAT(-/-)SERT(-/-)) exhibit decreased reinforcing effects of cocaine. We also assessed whether observed effects on self-administration are specific to cocaine or if operant behavior maintained by food or a direct dopamine agonist are similarly affected. We used a broad range of experimental conditions that included acquisition without previous training, behavior established with food training and subsequent testing with food, cocaine or a direct dopamine agonist as reinforcers, fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement, and a reversal procedure. Wild-type mice readily acquired cocaine self-administration and showed dose-response curves characteristic of the schedule of reinforcement that was used. While some DAT(-/-) mice appeared to acquire cocaine self-administration transiently, almost all DAT(-/-) mice failed to self-administer cocaine reliably. Food-maintained behaviors were not decreased by the DAT mutation, and IV self-administration of a direct dopamine agonist was robust in the DAT(-/-) mice. In contrast to those mice, cocaine's reinforcing effects were not diminished in SERT(-/-) mice under any of the conditions tested, except for impaired initial acquisition of both food- and cocaine-maintained behavior. These findings support the notion that the DAT, but not the SERT, is critical in mediating the reinforcing effects of cocaine. PMID:19176817

  7. Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Binding in Children with Autism Determined by SPECT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makkonen, Ismo; Riikonen, Raili; Kokki, Hannu; Airaksinen, Mauno M.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbances in the serotonergic system have been recognized in autism. To investigate the association between serotonin and dopamine transporters and autism, we studied 15 children (14 males, one female; mean age 8y 8mo [SD 3y 10mo]) with autism and 10 non-autistic comparison children (five males, five females; mean age 9y 10mo [SD 2y 8mo]) using

  8. Subminute and sensitive determination of the neurotransmitter serotonin in urine by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Román, David Arráez; Carretero, Antonio Segura; Blanco, Carmen Cruces; Gutiérrez, Alberto Fernández

    2004-09-01

    In this work, a sub-minute and sensitive capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) method was developed for the analysis and quantitation of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or serotonin in urine. The method involves precolumn derivatization with fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC) using an excitation light from an argon ion laser of 488 nm and a 520 nm band pass emission filter. Different variables that affect derivatization (pH, FITC concentration, reaction time and temperature) and separation (buffer concentration, pH, applied voltage and injection time) were studied. The linear dynamic range obtained was between 0 and 188 nM with a detection limit of 16 nm with a RSD between 2 and 9%. The applicability of the proposed method was demonstrated by analysis of 5-HT in human urine, establishing a concentration of 57 nM in control urine. The method was validated by standard-addition methodology. PMID:15340966

  9. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Systembased amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    Object In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. Methods The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal model, the pig. Results The WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA. Conclusions By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425899

  10. Dissociable Effects of Serotonin and Dopamine on the Valuation of Harm in Moral Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Molly J; Siegel, Jenifer Z; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Ousdal, Olga T; Story, Giles; Frieband, Carolyn; Grosse-Rueskamp, Johanna M; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-20

    An aversion to harming others is a core component of human morality and is disturbed in antisocial behavior. Deficient harm aversion may underlie instrumental and reactive aggression, which both feature in psychopathy. Past work has highlighted monoaminergic influences on aggression, but a mechanistic account of how monoamines regulate antisocial motives remains elusive. We previously observed that most people show a greater aversion to inflicting pain on others than themselves. Here, we investigated whether this hyperaltruistic disposition is susceptible to monoaminergic control. We observed dissociable effects of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the dopamine precursor levodopa on decisions to inflict pain on oneself and others for financial gain. Computational models of choice behavior showed that citalopram increased harm aversion for both self and others, while levodopa reduced hyperaltruism. The effects of citalopram were stronger than those of levodopa. Crucially, neither drug influenced the physical perception of pain or other components of choice such as motor impulsivity or loss aversion, suggesting a direct and specific influence of serotonin and dopamine on the valuation of harm. We also found evidence for dose dependency of these effects. Finally, the drugs had dissociable effects on response times, with citalopram enhancing behavioral inhibition and levodopa reducing slowing related to being responsible for another's fate. These distinct roles of serotonin and dopamine in modulating moral behavior have implications for potential treatments of social dysfunction that is a common feature as well as a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. PMID:26144968

  11. Analysis of microdialysate monoamines, including noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, using capillary ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Barbara; Gifu, Elena-Patricia; Sandu, Ioana; Denoroy, Luc; Parrot, Sandrine

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical methods are very often used to detect catecholamine and indolamine neurotransmitters separated by conventional reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The present paper presents the development of a chromatographic method to detect monoamines present in low-volume brain dialysis samples using a capillary column filled with sub-2?m particles. Several parameters (repeatability, linearity, accuracy, limit of detection) for this new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with electrochemical detection were examined after optimization of the analytical conditions. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine were separated in 1?L of injected sample volume; they were detected above concentrations of 0.5-1nmol/L, with 2.1-9.5% accuracy and intra-assay repeatability equal to or less than 6%. The final method was applied to very low volume dialysates from rat brain containing monoamine traces. The study demonstrates that capillary UHPLC with electrochemical detection is suitable for monitoring dialysate monoamines collected at high sampling rate. PMID:24508677

  12. In vivo assessment of dopamine D-2 and serotonin S-2 receptors measured by C-11 N-methylspiperone (NMSP) in manic-depressive illness

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Pearlson, G.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.; Suneja, S.; Bjorgvinsson, E.; Links, J.M.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Schaerf, F.

    1985-05-01

    The hypothesis has been suggested that either the dopaminergic or serotonergic neurotransmitter systems may be involved in manic-depressive illness (MD). The authors have studied 16 subjects with C-11 NMSP PET imaging. Two had never received neuroleptics; 4 were drug free for 1 month at the time of scanning; of these 3 were acutely manic; the rest were on stable lithium treatment. The dopamine and serotonin binding was estimated by the 43 min. caudate/cerebellum (Ca/Cb) and frontal/cerebellum (FC/Cb) ratios, respectively. No statistically significant difference was detected when compared to 44 age and sex matched controls. Based upon the variance in the normal data and the average age of the patient group studied, the probability of detecting a difference of >30% between patients and normals is >0.8. Hence, identification of receptor abnormalities if present will be improved with increased sample size of both normals and patients.

  13. Flow-injection analysis systems with different detection devices and other related techniques for the in vitro and in vivo determination of dopamine as neurotransmitter. A review.

    PubMed

    van Staden, Jacobus F; van Staden, Raluca I Stefan

    2012-12-15

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the most important catecholamine neurotransmitters in the human central nervous system in the brain and plays a key role in the functioning of the renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular systems. Abnormal levels of dopamine are related to neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease and the control and fluctuations of the amount of dopamine are extremely important in monitoring with analytical systems in the human brain. This review covers the attributes of flow-injection analysis systems with different detection devices and other related techniques for the in vitro and in vivo determination of dopamine as neurotransmitter and points out the advantages and disadvantages in the implementation thereof. PMID:23182572

  14. The mechanistic basis for noncompetitive ibogaine inhibition of serotonin and dopamine transporters.

    PubMed

    Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-05-25

    Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study. PMID:22451652

  15. The Mechanistic Basis for Noncompetitive Ibogaine Inhibition of Serotonin and Dopamine Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W.; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H.; Sandtner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study. PMID:22451652

  16. In vivo binding of /sup 3/H-N-methylspiperone to dopamine and serotonin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, J.J.; Smith, A.C.; Kuhar, M.J.; Dannals, R.F.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1987-03-09

    /sup 3/H-N-methylspiperone (/sup 3/H-NMSP) was used to label dopamine-2 and serotonin-2 in vivo in the mouse. The striatum/cerebellum binding ratio reached a maximum of 80 eight hours after intravenous administration of /sup 3/H-NMSP. The frontal cortex/cerebellum ratio was 5 one hour after injection. The binding of /sup 3/H-NMSP was saturable in the frontal cortex and cerebellum between doses of 10 and 1000 ..mu..g/kg. Between 0.01 and 10 ..mu..g/kg the ratio total/nonspecific binding increased from 14 to 21. Inhibition of /sup 3/H-NMSP binding in the frontal cortex and striatum by ketanserin, a selective serotonin-2 antagonist, demonstrated that 20% of the total binding in the striatum was to serotonin-2 rectors and 91% of the total binding in the frontal cortex was to serotonin-2 receptors. Compared to /sup 3/H-spiperone, /sup 3/H-NMSP 1) results in a much higher specific/nonspecific binding ratio in the striatum and frontal cortex and 2) displays more than a two-fold higher brain uptake. 18 references, 4 figures.

  17. Dissociable Effects of Serotonin and Dopamine on the Valuation of Harm in Moral Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Molly J.; Siegel, Jenifer Z.; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Ousdal, Olga T.; Story, Giles; Frieband, Carolyn; Grosse-Rueskamp, Johanna M.; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary An aversion to harming others is a core component of human morality and is disturbed in antisocial behavior [1–4]. Deficient harm aversion may underlie instrumental and reactive aggression, which both feature in psychopathy [5]. Past work has highlighted monoaminergic influences on aggression [6–11], but a mechanistic account of how monoamines regulate antisocial motives remains elusive. We previously observed that most people show a greater aversion to inflicting pain on others than themselves [12]. Here, we investigated whether this hyperaltruistic disposition is susceptible to monoaminergic control. We observed dissociable effects of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the dopamine precursor levodopa on decisions to inflict pain on oneself and others for financial gain. Computational models of choice behavior showed that citalopram increased harm aversion for both self and others, while levodopa reduced hyperaltruism. The effects of citalopram were stronger than those of levodopa. Crucially, neither drug influenced the physical perception of pain or other components of choice such as motor impulsivity or loss aversion [13, 14], suggesting a direct and specific influence of serotonin and dopamine on the valuation of harm. We also found evidence for dose dependency of these effects. Finally, the drugs had dissociable effects on response times, with citalopram enhancing behavioral inhibition and levodopa reducing slowing related to being responsible for another’s fate. These distinct roles of serotonin and dopamine in modulating moral behavior have implications for potential treatments of social dysfunction that is a common feature as well as a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. PMID:26144968

  18. Recognition Properties and Competitive Assays of a Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Selective Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Suedee, Roongnapa; Seechamnanturakit, Vatcharee; Suksuwan, Acharee; Canyuk, Bhutorn

    2008-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with dual dopamine/serotonin-like binding sites (DS-MIP) was synthesized for use as a receptor model of study the drug-interaction of biological mixed receptors at a molecular level. The polymer material was produced using methacrylic acid (MAA) and acrylamide (ACM) as functional monomers, N,N?-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as cross-linker, methanol/water mixture (4:1, v/v) as porogen and a mixture of dopamine (D) and serotonin (S) as templates. The prepared DS-MIP exhibited the greatest rebinding of the template(s) in aqueous methanol solution with decreased recognition in acetonitrile, water and methanol solvent. The binding affinity and binding capacity of DS-MIP with S were found to be higher than those of DS-MIP with D. The selectivity profiles of DS-MIP suggest that the D binding site of DS-MIP has sufficient integrity to discriminate between species of non-optimal functional group orientation, whilst the S binding site of DS-MIP is less selective toward species having structural features and functional group orientations different from S. The ligand binding activities of a series of ergot derivatives (ergocryptine, ergocornine, ergocristine, ergonovine, agroclavine, pergolide and terguride) have been studied with the DS-MIP using a competitive ligand binding assay protocol. The binding affinities of DS-MIP were demonstrated in the micro- or submicro-molar range for a series of ergot derivatives, whereas the binding affinities were considerably greater to natural receptors derived from the rat hypothalamus. The DS-MIP afforded the same pattern of differentiation as the natural receptors, i.e. affinity for the clavines > lysergic acid derivatives > ergopeptines. The results suggest that the discrimination for the ergot derivatives by the dopamine and serotonin sites of DS-MIP is due to the structural features and functional orientation of the phenylethylamine and indolylethylamine entities at the binding sites, and the fidelity of the dopamine and serotonin imprinted cavities. PMID:19330079

  19. Changes in sensitivity of brain dopamine and serotonin receptors during long-term treatment with carbidine

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Allikmets, L.K.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The authors study the state of the dopamine and serotonin receptors of the brain during chronic administration of carbidine to animals. Parts of the brain from two rats were pooled and binding of tritium-spiperone and tritium-LSD was determined. Statistical analysis of the data for apomorphine sterotypy was carried out and the Student's test was used for analysis of the remaining data. It is shown that after discontinuation of carbidine binding of tritium-spiperone and tritium-LSD in the cortex was reduced.

  20. Distribution of serotonin- and dopamine-immunoreactivity in the brain of the teleost Clarias gariepinus.

    PubMed

    Corio, M; Peute, J; Steinbusch, H W

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of serotonergic and dopaminergic cell bodies and varicose fibres in the brain of the teleost Clarias gariepinus was studied immunohistochemically using antisera against formaldehyde-conjugated serotonin and dopamine. Many serotonergic and dopaminergic fibres innervated the areas dorsalis telencephali pars medialis and pars lateralis dorsalis, as well as the area ventralis telencephali pars ventralis. In the diencephalon, a large number of serotonergic and some dopaminergic fibres were found in the preoptic nucleus, innervating the cells of this nucleus. In addition, serotonergic and dopaminergic fibres were observed in the pituitary stalk and in all regions of the pituitary gland. Moreover, the diencephalon contained the highest number of serotonin- or dopamine-immunoreactive cell bodies. These cells were confined to the same periventricular nuclei as the nucleus ventromedialis thalami, the nucleus posterior periventricularis, the nucleus lateralis tuberis, the nuclei recessus lateralis and recessus posterioris. Most cells of these nuclei were in contact with the cerebrospinal fluid of the third ventricle. The brainstem contained serotonergic cell bodies in the raphe nuclei and a few serotonergic and dopaminergic fibres. The torus semicircularis was densely innervated by serotonergic fibres and, to a lesser extent, dopaminergic fibres. In the midbrain of Clarias gariepinus, no dopaminergic homologue of the substantia nigra was observed. The results are discussed both in a comparative and a physiological context. In this regard, special attention has been paid to the contribution of hypothalamic monoamines in the regulation of gonadotropin secretion as an essential step in the neuro-endocrine control of reproduction. PMID:2059346

  1. Evidence for Noncanonical Neurotransmitter Activation: Norepinephrine as a Dopamine D2-Like Receptor Agonist.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Bonifazi, Alessandro; Cai, Ning Sheng; Ellenberger, Michael P; Newman, Amy Hauck; Ferré, Sergi; Yano, Hideaki

    2016-04-01

    The Gαi/o-coupled dopamine D2-like receptor family comprises three subtypes: the D2 receptor (D2R), with short and long isoform variants (D2SR and D2LR), D3 receptor (D3R), and D4 receptor (D4R), with several polymorphic variants. The common overlap of norepinephrine innervation and D2-like receptor expression patterns prompts the question of a possible noncanonical action by norepinephrine. In fact, previous studies have suggested that norepinephrine can functionally interact with D4R. To our knowledge, significant interactions between norepinephrine and D2R or D3R receptors have not been demonstrated. By using radioligand binding and bioluminescent resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays in transfected cells, the present study attempted a careful comparison between dopamine and norepinephrine in their possible activation of all D2-like receptors, including the two D2R isoforms and the most common D4R polymorphic variants. Functional BRET assays included activation of G proteins with all Gαi/o subunits, adenylyl cyclase inhibition, and β arrestin recruitment. Norepinephrine acted as a potent agonist for all D2-like receptor subtypes, with the general rank order of potency of D3R > D4R ≥ D2SR ≥ D2L. However, for both dopamine and norepinephrine, differences depended on the Gαi/o protein subunit involved. The most striking differences were observed with Gαi2, where the rank order of potencies for both dopamine and norepinephrine were D4R > D2SR = D2LR > D3R. Furthermore the results do not support the existence of differences in the ability of dopamine and norepinephrine to activate different human D4R variants. The potency of norepinephrine for adrenergic α2A receptor was only about 20-fold higher compared with D3R and D4R across the three functional assays. PMID:26843180

  2. Genetic Susceptibility and Neurotransmitters in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paschou, Peristera; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Sharp, Frank; Heiman, Gary A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Family studies have consistently shown that Tourette syndrome (TS) is a familial disorder and twin studies have clearly indicated a genetic contribution in the etiology of TS. Whereas early segregation studies of TS suggested a single-gene autosomal dominant disorder, later studies have pointed to more complex models including additive and multifactorial inheritance and likely interaction with genetic factors. While the exact cellular and molecular base of TS is as yet elusive, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have pointed to the involvement of cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuits and abnormalities in dopamine, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and serotonin neurotransmitter systems, with the most consistent evidence being available for involvement of dopamine-related abnormalities, that is, a reduction in tonic extracellular dopamine levels along with hyperresponsive spike-dependent dopamine release, following stimulation. Genetic and gene expression findings are very much supportive of involvement of these neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, intriguingly, genetic work on a two-generation pedigree has opened new research pointing to a role for histamine, a so far rather neglected neurotransmitter, with the potential of the development of new treatment options. Future studies should be aimed at directly linking neurotransmitter-related genetic and gene expression findings to imaging studies (imaging genetics), which enables a better understanding of the pathways and mechanisms through which the dynamic interplay of genes, brain, and environment shapes the TS phenotype. PMID:24295621

  3. Dopamine transport by the serotonin transporter: a mechanistically distinct mode of substrate translocation.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads Breum; Sonders, Mark S; Mortensen, Ole Valente; Larson, Gaynor A; Zahniser, Nancy R; Amara, Susan G

    2011-04-27

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the principal mechanism for terminating serotonin (5-HT) signals in the nervous system and is a site of action for a variety of psychoactive drugs including antidepressants, amphetamines, and cocaine. Here we show that human SERTs (hSERTs) and rat SERTs are capable of robust dopamine (DA) uptake through a process that differs mechanistically from 5-HT transport in several unanticipated ways. DA transport by hSERT has a higher maximum velocity than 5-HT transport, requires significantly higher Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations to sustain transport, is inhibited noncompetitively by 5-HT, and is more sensitive to SERT inhibitors, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. We use a thiol-reactive methane thiosulfonate (MTS) reagent to modify a conformationally sensitive cysteine residue to demonstrate that hSERT spends more time in an outward facing conformation when transporting DA than when transporting 5-HT. Cotransfection of an inactive or an MTS-sensitive SERT with wild-type SERT subunits reveals an absence of cooperative interactions between subunits during DA but not 5-HT transport. To establish the physiological relevance of this mechanism for DA clearance, we show using in vivo high-speed chronoamperometry that SERT has the capacity to clear extracellularly applied DA in the hippocampal CA3 region of anesthetized rats. Together, these observations suggest the possibility that SERT serves as a DA transporter in vivo and highlight the idea that there can be distinct modes of transport of alternative physiological substrates by SERT. PMID:21525301

  4. The serotonin-dopamine interaction measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and C-11 raclopride in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.S.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J.

    1994-05-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the interaction between serotonin and dopamine can be measured with C-11 raclopride and PET in the baboon brain. A series of studies was undertaken to extend dim findings to the normal human brain. PET studies were conducted in male control subjects (n=8) using the CTI 931 tomograph. Two C-11 raclopride scans were performed, prior to and 180 minutes following administration of the selective serotonin releasing agent, fenfluramine (60mg/PO). The neuroendocrine response to fenfluramine challenge is commonly used in psychiatric research as an index of serotonin activity. The C-11 raclopride data were analyzed with the distribution volume method. For the group of subjects, an increase was observed in the striatum to cerebellum ratio (specific to non-specific binding ratio), in excess of the test-retest variability of the ligand. Variability in response was observed across subjects. These results are consistent with our previous findings in the baboon that citalopram administration increased C-11 raclopride binding, consistent with a decrease in endogenous dopamine. In vivo microdialysis studies in freely moving rats confirmed that citalopram produces a time-dependent decrease in extracellular dopamine levels, consistent with the PET results. In vivo PET studies of the serotonin-dopamine interaction are relevant to the evaluation of etiologic and therapeutic mechanisms in schizophrenia and affective disorder.

  5. [The role of antibodies to neurotransmitters of antinociceptive system in mechanisms of neuropathic pain].

    PubMed

    Igonkina, S I; Vetrile, L A; Kukushkin, M L

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken in order to study the role of the antibodies to neurotransmitters of antinociceptive system in pathogenesis of neuropathic pain on models of neuropathic pain. It was shown that the development of experimental neuropathic pain syndrome is accompanied with induction of autoantibodies to CABA, serotonin, noradrenalin and dopamine. It was established that the antibodies to neurotransmitters of antinociceptive system have a pronociceptive effect. PMID:24340616

  6. Caenorhabditis elegans selects distinct crawling and swimming gaits via dopamine and serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Gadea, Andrs; Topper, Stephen; Young, Layla; Crisp, Ashley; Kressin, Leah; Elbel, Erin; Maples, Thomas; Brauner, Martin; Erbguth, Karen; Axelrod, Abram; Gottschalk, Alexander; Siegel, Dionicio; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T.

    2011-01-01

    Many animals, including humans, select alternate forms of motion (gaits) to move efficiently in different environments. However, it is unclear whether primitive animals, such as nematodes, also use this strategy. We used a multifaceted approach to study how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans freely moves into and out of water. We demonstrate that C. elegans uses biogenic amines to switch between distinct crawling and swimming gaits. Dopamine is necessary and sufficient to initiate and maintain crawling after swimming. Serotonin is necessary and sufficient to transition from crawling to swimming and to inhibit a set of crawl-specific behaviors. Further study of locomotory switching in C. elegans and its dependence on biogenic amines may provide insight into how gait transitions are performed in other animals. PMID:21969584

  7. Serotonin and dopamine interactions in rodents and primates: implications for psychosis and antipsychotic drug development.

    PubMed

    Marek, Gerard J

    2007-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, appreciation of dopamine receptor blockade has played a primary role in understanding the mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic drugs in schizophrenic patients in treating the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (e.g., delusions and hallucinations). Development of the second generation of antipsychotic drugs, otherwise known as atypical antipsychotic drugs, has resulted in treatments with improved subjective tolerability but relatively modest improvements in the negative symptoms of schizophrenia such as avolition, flat affect, and anhedonia. The major current challenge is to develop medications which can further improve negative symptoms treatment and also tackle the intractable clinical problems of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia. Further advances along these lines with respect to the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurostransmitter systems will be aided by an appreciation of the interaction between dopamine and serotonin receptor subtypes in a range of key brain structures, such as the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the brain stem nuclei, from which the cell bodies of monoaminergic-containing neurons originate. Increasing emphasis on the use of animal models which are homologous to critical aspects of the pathophysiology in the brains of schizophrenic patients will also be required, especially as negative symptoms and cognitive impairment become an important focus for generating novel therapeutics. PMID:17349861

  8. Oxidatively generated DNA damage after Cu(II) catalysis of dopamine and related catecholamine neurotransmitters and neurotoxins: Role of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Wendy A; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Kichambre, Sunita; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence supporting a causal role for oxidatively damaged DNA in neurodegeneration during the natural aging process and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer. The presence of redox-active catecholamine neurotransmitters coupled with the localization of catalytic copper to DNA suggests a plausible role for these agents in the induction of oxidatively generated DNA damage. In this study we have investigated the role of Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of several catecholamine neurotransmitters and related neurotoxins in inducing oxidatively generated DNA damage. Autoxidation of all catechol neurotransmitters and related congeners tested resulted in the formation of nearly a dozen oxidation DNA products resulting in a decomposition pattern that was essentially identical for all agents tested. The presence of Cu(II), and to a lesser extent Fe(III), had no effect on the decomposition pattern but substantially enhanced the DNA product levels by up to 75-fold, with dopamine producing the highest levels of unidentified oxidation DNA products (38346 adducts/10(6) nucleotides), nearly 3-fold greater than 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (12219 adducts/10(6) nucleotides) under the same conditions. The addition of sodium azide, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone, tiron, catalase, bathocuproine, or methional to the dopamine/Cu(II) reaction mixture resulted in a substantial decrease (>90%) in oxidation DNA product levels, indicating a role for singlet oxygen, superoxide, H(2)O(2), Cu(I), and Cu(I)OOH in their formation. Whereas the addition of N-tert-butyl-?-phenylnitrone significantly decreased (67%) dopamine-mediated oxidatively damaged DNA, three other hydroxyl radical scavengers, ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate, and mannitol, had little to no effect on these oxidation DNA product levels, suggesting that free hydroxyl radicals may have limited involvement in this dopamine/Cu(II)-mediated oxidatively generated DNA damage. These studies suggest a possible contributory role of oxidatively generated DNA damage by dopamine and related catechol neurotransmitters/neurotoxins in neurodegeneration and cell death. We also found that a naturally occurring broad-spectrum antioxidant, ellagic acid, was substantially effective (nearly 50% inhibition) at low doses (1?M) at preventing this dopamine/Cu(II)-mediated oxidatively generated DNA damage. Because dietary ellagic acid has been found to reduce oxidative stress in rat brains, a neuroprotective role of this polyphenol is plausible. PMID:21075203

  9. [Spatial memory and regulation of brain adenylyl cyclase by serotonin and dopamine in rat with streptozotocin diabetes].

    PubMed

    Sukhov, I B; Chistyakova, O V; Shipilov, V N; Doilnitsyn, A M; Shpakov, A O

    2015-03-01

    The most common complication of diabetes mellitus of the type 1 (DM1) is a cognitive deficiency, which develops as a result of neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The aim of this work was to study the learning and spatial memory in rats with streptozotocin DM1 with different duration (1.5 and 6 months), as well as the activity of adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS) sensitive to agonists of the serotonin and the dopamine receptors in the brain of diabetic rats. Our experiments demonstrated that rats with 1.5-months DM1 has no changes in spatial memory which were evaluated in a Morris water maze whereas in rats with 6-months DM1 the spatial memory and learning ability were decreased. The alterations of the regulation of adenylyl cyclase by agonists of types 1 and 6 serotonin receptors and type 2 dopamine receptors were found in both the 1.5- and 6-months DM1 which indicates their importance in the development of cognitive deficiency. Abnormalities in the. brain ACSS can be considered as key factors in the etiology and pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunctions in DM1. Hypothesized that cognitive deficiency occurs only in the later stages of DM1 due to alterations in the serotonin and dopamine signaling systems of the brain. PMID:26016322

  10. A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shah R.; Parajuli, Rishi R.; Balogun, Yetunde; Ma, Yufeng; He, Huixin

    2008-01-01

    Most of the current techniques for in vivo detection of dopamine exploit the ease of oxidation of this compound. The major problem during the detection is the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid that is oxidized at nearly the same potential as dopamine on bare electrodes. Furthermore, the oxidation product of dopamine reacts with ascorbic acid present in samples and regenerates dopamine again, which severely limits the accuracy of the detection. Meanwhile, the product could also form a melanin-like insulating film on the electrode surface, which decreases the sensitivity of the electrode. Various surface modifications on the electrode, new materials for making the electrodes, and new electrochemical techniques have been exploited to solve these problems. Recently we developed a new electrochemical detection method that did not rely on direct oxidation of dopamine on electrodes, which may naturally solve these problems. This approach takes advantage of the high performance of our newly developed poly(anilineboronic acid)/carbon nanotube composite and the excellent permselectivity of the ion-exchange polymer Nafion. The high affinity binding of dopamine to the boronic acid groups of the polymer affects the electrochemical properties of the polyaniline backbone, which act as the basis for the transduction mechanism of this non-oxidative dopamine sensor. The unique reduction capability and high conductivity of single-stranded DNA functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrochemical activity of the polymer in a physiologically-relevant buffer, and the large surface area of the carbon nanotubes increased the density of the boronic acid receptors. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor show excellent promise toward molecular diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of this novel detection approach, the new interferences in this detection approach, and how to eliminate these interferences toward in vivo and in vitro detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

  11. Depressive-like behaviors alterations induced by intranigral MPTP, 6-OHDA, LPS and rotenone models of Parkinson's disease are predominantly associated with serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Ronise M; Barbieiro, Janaína; Lima, Marcelo M S; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Andreatini, Roberto; Vital, Maria A B F

    2010-08-16

    Depression is a frequently encountered non-motor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and it can have a significant impact on patient's quality of life. Considering the differential pathophysiology of depression in PD, it prompts the idea that a degenerated nigrostriatal system plays a role in depressive-like behaviors, whilst animal models of PD are employed. Therefore, we addressed the question of whether dopamine (DA) depletion, promoted by the neurotoxins 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and rotenone are able to induce depressive-like behaviors and neurotransmitters alterations similarly that encountered in PD. To test this rationale, we performed intranigral injections of each neurotoxin, followed by motor behavior, depressive-like behaviors, histological and neurochemical tests. After the motor recovery period, MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone were able to produce anhedonia and behavioral despair. These altered behavioral responses were accompanied by reductions of striatal DA, homovanillic acid (HVA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) restricted to the 6-OHDA group. Additionally, decreases on the hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) content were detected for the MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone groups. Notably, strong correlations were detected among the groups when 5-HT and DA were correlated with swimming (r=+0.97; P=0.001) and immobility (r=-0.90; P=0.012), respectively. Our data indicate that MPTP, 6-OHDA and rotenone, but not LPS were able to produce depressive-like behaviors accompanied primarily by hippocampal 5-HT reductions. Moreover, DA and 5-HT strongly correlated with "emotional" impairments suggesting an important participation of these neurotransmitters in anhedonia and behavioral despair after nigral lesions promoted by the neurotoxins. PMID:20547199

  12. Aniracetam enhances cortical dopamine and serotonin release via cholinergic and glutamatergic mechanisms in SHRSP.

    PubMed

    Shirane, M; Nakamura, K

    2001-10-19

    Aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, has been recently found to preferentially increase extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus of the mesocorticolimbic system in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the present study, we aimed to identify actually active substances among aniracetam and its major metabolites and to clarify the mode of action in DA and 5-HT release in the PFC. Local perfusion of mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) completely blocked DA and 5-HT release, respectively, in the PFC elicited by orally administered aniracetam. The effects of aniracetam were mimicked by local perfusion of N-anisoyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid [corrected] (N-anisoyl-GABA), one of the major metabolites of aniracetam, into the VTA and DRN. The cortical DA release induced by N-anisoyl-GABA applied to the VTA was also completely abolished by co-perfusion of mecamylamine. Additionally, when p-anisic acid, another metabolite of aniracetam, and N-anisoyl-GABA were locally perfused into the PFC, they induced DA and 5-HT release in the same region, respectively. These results indicate that aniracetam enhances DA and 5-HT release by mainly mediating the action of N-anisoyl-GABA that targets not only somatodendritic nACh and NMDA receptors but also presynaptic nACh receptors. PMID:11597608

  13. Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Interactions with Dopamine Function: Implications for Therapeutics in Cocaine Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine exhibits prominent abuse liability, and chronic abuse can result in cocaine use disorder with significant morbidity. Major advances have been made in delineating neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine abuse; however, effective medications to treat cocaine use disorder remain to be discovered. The present review will focus on the role of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission in the neuropharmacology of cocaine and related abused stimulants. Extensive research suggests that the primary contribution of 5-HT to cocaine addiction is a consequence of interactions with dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The literature on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of cocaine is well developed, so the focus of the review will be on cocaine with inferences made about other monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers based on mechanistic considerations. 5-HT receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain, and several different 5-HT receptor subtypes have been implicated in mediating the effects of endogenous 5-HT on DA. However, the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in particular have been implicated as likely candidates for mediating the influence of 5-HT in cocaine abuse as well as to traits (e.g., impulsivity) that contribute to the development of cocaine use disorder and relapse in humans. Lastly, new approaches are proposed to guide targeted development of serotonergic ligands for the treatment of cocaine use disorder. PMID:25505168

  14. Neural control of olfaction and tentacle movements by serotonin and dopamine in terrestrial snail.

    PubMed

    Roshchin, Matvey; Balaban, Pavel M

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the role of serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) in the regulation of olfactory system function and odor-evoked tentacle movements in the snail Helix. Preparations of the posterior tentacle (including sensory pad, tentacular ganglion and olfactory nerve) or central ganglia with attached posterior tentacles were exposed to cineole odorant and the evoked responses were affected by prior application of 5HT or DA or their precursors 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) and L: -DOPA, respectively. 5HT applications decreased cineole-evoked responses recorded in the olfactory nerve and hyperpolarized the identified tentacle retractor muscle motoneuron MtC3, while DA applications led to the opposite changes. 5HTP and L: -DOPA modified MtC3 activity comparable to 5HT and DA action. DA was also found to decrease the amplitude of spontaneous local field potential oscillations in the procerebrum, a central olfactory structure. In vivo studies demonstrated that injection of 5HTP in freely moving snails reduced the tentacle withdrawal response to aversive ethyl acetate odorant, whereas the injection of L: -DOPA increased responses to "neutral" cineole and aversive ethyl acetate odorants. Our data suggest that 5HT and DA affect the peripheral (sensory epithelium and tentacular ganglion), the central (procerebrum), and the single motor neuron (withdrawal motoneuron MtC3) level of the snail's nervous system. PMID:22076462

  15. Risk neurogenes for long-term spaceflight: dopamine and serotonin brain system.

    PubMed

    Popova, N K; Kulikov, A V; Kondaurova, E M; Tsybko, A S; Kulikova, E A; Krasnov, I B; Shenkman, B S; Bazhenova, E Yu; Sinyakova, N A; Naumenko, V S

    2015-06-01

    Mice were exposed to 1month of spaceflight on Russian biosatellite BION-M1 to determine its effect on the expression of key genes in the brain dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems. Spaceflight decreased the expression of crucial genes involved in DA synthesis and degradation, as well as the D1 receptor. However, spaceflight failed to alter the expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-2, 5-HT transporter, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT3 receptor genes, though it reduced 5-HT2A receptor gene expression in the hypothalamus. We revealed risk DA and 5-HT neurogenes for long-term spaceflight for the first time, as well as microgravity-responsive genes (tyrosine hydroxylase, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and D1 receptor in the nigrostriatal system; D1 and 5-HT2A receptors in the hypothalamus; and monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) in the frontal cortex). Decreased genetic control of the DA system may contribute to the spaceflight-induced locomotor impairment and dyskinesia described for both humans and rats. PMID:25084757

  16. Ligand Selectivity among the Dopamine and Serotonin Transporters Specified by the Forward Binding Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hasenhuetl, Peter S; Schicker, Klaus; Koenig, Xaver; Li, Yang; Sarker, Subhodeep; Stockner, Thomas; Sucic, Sonja; Sitte, Harald H; Freissmuth, Michael; Sandtner, Walter

    2015-07-01

    The membrane transporters for the monoamines serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) are prominent targets of various psychoactive substances, including competitive inhibitors, such as tricyclic antidepressants, methylphenidate, and cocaine. Upon rapid application of a substrate, SERT and DAT display an inwardly directed current comprised of a peak and a steady-state component. Binding of a competitive inhibitor to the transporter leads to reduction of the peak current amplitude because occupancy of the transporter by an inhibitor prevents the induction of the peak current by the substrate. We show that the inhibitory effect on the peak current can be used to study the association rate constant (k(on)), dissociation rate constant (k(off)), and equilibrium dissociation constant (K(D)) of chemically distinct SERT and DAT inhibitors, with high temporal precision and without the need of high-affinity radioligands as surrogates. We exemplify our approach by measuring the kinetics of cocaine, methylphenidate, and desipramine binding to SERT and DAT. Our analysis revealed that the selectivity of methylphenidate and desipramine for DAT and SERT, respectively, can be accounted for by their rate of association and not by the residence time in their respective binding sites. PMID:25873594

  17. Highly sensitive isotope-dilution liquid-chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem-mass spectrometry approach to study the drug-mediated modulation of dopamine and serotonin levels in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Fabian; Chakraborty, Sudipta; Kleuser, Burkhard; Gulbins, Erich; Schwerdtle, Tanja; Aschner, Michael; Bornhorst, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (SRT) are monoamine neurotransmitters that play a key role in regulating the central and peripheral nervous system. Their impaired metabolism has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease and depression. Consequently, it is imperative to monitor changes in levels of these low-abundant neurotransmitters and their role in mediating disease. For the first time, a rapid, specific and sensitive isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantification of DA and SRT in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). This model organism offers a unique approach for studying the effect of various drugs and environmental conditions on neurotransmitter levels, given by the conserved DA and SRT biology, including synaptic release, trafficking and formation. We introduce a novel sample preparation protocol incorporating the usage of sodium thiosulfate in perchloric acid as extraction medium that assures high recovery of the relatively unstable neurotransmitters monitored. Moreover, the use of both deuterated internal standards and the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) technique allows for unequivocal quantification. Thereby, to the best of our knowledge, we achieve a detection sensitivity that clearly exceeds those of published DA and SRT quantification methods in various matrices. We are the first to show that exposure of C. elegans to the monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor selegiline or the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor tolcapone, in order to block DA and SRT degradation, resulted in accumulation of the respective neurotransmitter. Assessment of a behavioral output of the dopaminergic system (basal slowing response) corroborated the analytical LC-MS/MS data. Thus, utilization of the C. elegans model system in conjunction with our analytical method is well-suited to investigate drug-mediated modulation of the DA and SRT system in order to identify compounds with neuroprotective or regenerative properties. PMID:26452793

  18. Effect of psilocin on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the mesoaccumbens and mesocortical pathway in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Yuichi; Abe, Kenji; Katagiri, Nobuyuki; Kambe, Toshie; Saitoh, Toshiaki; Utsunomiya, Iku; Horiguchi, Yoshie; Taguchi, Kyoji

    2015-01-01

    Psilocin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol) is a hallucinogenic component of the Mexican mushroom Psilocybe mexicana and a skeletal serotonin (5-HT) analogue. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-yl dihydrogen phosphate). In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered psilocin on extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex of the dopaminergic pathway in awake rats using in vivo microdialysis. Intraperitoneal administration of psilocin (5, 10 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Psilocin did not affect the extracellular 5-HT level in the nucleus accumbens. Conversely, systemic administration of psilocin (10 mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular 5-HT levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, but dopamine was decreased in this region. However, neither extracellular dopamine nor 5-HT levels in the VTA were altered by administration of psilocin. Behaviorally, psilocin significantly increased the number of head twitches. Thus, psilocin affects the dopaminergic system in the nucleus accumbens. In the serotonergic system, psilocin contribute to a crucial effect in the medial prefrontal cortex. The present data suggest that psilocin increased both the extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the mesoaccumbens and/or mesocortical pathway. PMID:25342005

  19. Characterization of the effects of serotonin on the release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Nurse, B.; Russell, V.A.; Taljaard, J.J.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of serotonin agonists on the depolarization (K+)-induced, calcium-dependent, release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine (DA) from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices was investigated. Serotonin enhanced basal /sup 3/H overflow and reduced K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA from nucleus accumbens slices. The effect of serotonin on basal /sup 3/H overflow was not altered by the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, or the serotonin re-uptake blocker, chlorimipramine, but was reversed by the DA re-uptake carrier inhibitors nomifensine and benztropine. With the effect on basal overflow blocked, serotonin did not modulate K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens or striatum. The serotonin agonists, quipazine (in the presence of nomifensine) and 5-methoxytryptamine, did not significantly affect K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens. This study does not support suggestions that serotonin receptors inhibit the depolarization-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens or striatum of the rat brain. The present results do not preclude the possibility that serotonin may affect the mesolimbic reward system at a site which is post-synaptic to dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens.

  20. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Zahavi, Arielle Y.; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Washburn, Dustin; Mazurka, Raegan; Bagby, R. Michael; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L.; Ravindran, Arun; Harkness, Kate L.

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind–the ability to decode and reason about others’ mental states–is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed) completed the ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes task’ and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression. PMID:26974654

  1. Serotonin and Dopamine Gene Variation and Theory of Mind Decoding Accuracy in Major Depression: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Zahavi, Arielle Y; Sabbagh, Mark A; Washburn, Dustin; Mazurka, Raegan; Bagby, R Michael; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L; Ravindran, Arun; Harkness, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    Theory of mind-the ability to decode and reason about others' mental states-is a universal human skill and forms the basis of social cognition. Theory of mind accuracy is impaired in clinical conditions evidencing social impairment, including major depressive disorder. The current study is a preliminary investigation of the association of polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), and catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) genes with theory of mind decoding in a sample of adults with major depression. Ninety-six young adults (38 depressed, 58 non-depressed) completed the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes task' and a non-mentalistic control task. Genetic associations were only found for the depressed group. Specifically, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a positive valence was seen in those homozygous for the long allele of the serotonin transporter gene, 9-allele carriers of DAT1, and long-allele carriers of DRD4. In contrast, superior accuracy in decoding mental states of a negative valence was seen in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter gene and 10/10 homozygotes of DAT1. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for integrating social cognitive and neurobiological models of etiology in major depression. PMID:26974654

  2. Role of Serotonin and Dopamine System Interactions in the Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression and its Comorbidity with other Clinical Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Patrick, Christopher J.; Kennealy, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Impulsive aggression is characterized by an inability to regulate affect as well as aggressive impulses, and is highly comorbid with other mental disorders including depression, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse. In an effort to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsive aggression and to help account for its connections with these other disorders, this paper reviews relevant biochemical, brain imaging, and genetic studies. The review suggests that dysfunctional interactions between serotonin and dopamine systems in the prefrontal cortex may be an important mechanism underlying the link between impulsive aggression and its comorbid disorders. Specifically, serotonin hypofunction may represent a biochemical trait that predisposes individuals to impulsive aggression, with dopamine hyperfunction contributing in an additive fashion to the serotonergic deficit. The current paper proposes a modified diathesis-stress model of impulsive aggression in which the underlying biological diathesis may be deficient serotonergic function in the ventral prefrontal cortex. This underlying disposition can be manifested behaviorally as impulsive aggression towards oneself and others, and as depression under precipitating life stressors. Substance abuse associated with impulsive aggression is understood in the context of dopamine dysregulation resulting from serotonergic deficiency. Also discussed are future research directions in the neurobiology of impulsive aggression and its comorbid disorders. PMID:19802333

  3. Brexpiprazole for the Treatment of Schizophrenia: A Review of this Novel Serotonin-Dopamine Activity Modulator.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Joseph; Citrome, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Brexpiprazole is an antipsychotic medication and received approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in July 2015. Brexpiprazole acts as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors, and as an antagonist at serotonin 5-HT2A and at adrenergic alpha1B and alpha2C receptors. Compared with aripiprazole, brexpiprazole is more potent at 5-HT1A receptors and displays less intrinsic activity at D2 receptors. The recommended dose range of brexpiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia is 2-4 mg/day; the recommended titration schedule is to start with 1 mg/day and increase to 2 mg/day on Day 5 to Day 7, then to 4 mg/day on Day 8. Two positive, 6-week, Phase 3 randomized controlled trials in acute schizophrenia demonstrated superiority of brexpiprazole over placebo. Pooled responder rates were 46% for brexpiprazole 2-4 mg/day vs. 31% for placebo, resulting in a number needed to treat (NNT) of 7. In a 52-week, randomized withdrawal study, significantly fewer patients relapsed in the brexpiprazole group compared with placebo (13.5% vs. 38.5%), resulting in an NNT of 4. The most commonly encountered adverse event (incidence ?4% and at least twice the rate of placebo) is increased weight. Short-term weight gain appears modest (approximately 10% of patients receiving brexpiprazole 1-4 mg/day gained ?7% body weight from baseline, compared with 4% for those randomized to placebo, resulting in a number needed to harm [NNH] of 17); however, more outliers with an increase of ?7% of body weight were evident in open-label, 52-week safety studies. Effects on glucose and lipids were small. Rates of akathisia as an adverse event were 5.5% for the pooled doses of brexpiprazole 1-4 mg/day vs. 4.6% for placebo, yielding an NNH of 112. Minimal effects on prolactin were observed, and no clinically relevant effects on the ECG QTc interval were evident. Brexpiprazole is also approved as an adjunct medication for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Phase 3 trials are ongoing in patients with agitation associated with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26757416

  4. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Manciu, Felicia S.; Lee, Kendall H.; Durrer, William G.; Bennet, Kevin E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We demonstrate that confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy provides rapid, detailed and accurate neurotransmitter analysis, enabling millisecond time resolution monitoring of biochemical dynamics. As a prototypical demonstration of the power of the method, we present real-time in vitro serotonin, adenosine, and dopamine detection, and dopamine diffusion in an inhomogeneous organic gel, which was used as a substitute for neurologic tissue. Materials and Methods Dopamine, adenosine and serotonin were used to prepare neurotransmitter solutions in DI water. The solutions were applied to the surfaces of glass slides, where they inter-diffused. Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping spectral signatures characteristic of the neurotransmitters with an alpha 300 WITec confocal Raman system, using 532 nm Nd:YAG laser excitation. Every local Raman spectrum was recorded in milliseconds and complete Raman mapping in a few seconds. Results Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where changes in composition can influence neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method. Conclusions Accurate nondestructive characterization for real-time detection of neurotransmitters in inhomogeneous environments without the requirement of sample labeling is a key issue in neuroscience. Our work demonstrates the capabilities of Raman spectroscopy in biological applications, possibly providing a new tool for elucidating the mechanism and kinetics of deep brain stimulation. PMID:22989218

  5. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Analysis of Serotonin, Adrenergic, Muscarinic, and Dopamine Receptor Dimerization: The Oligomer Number Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Grinde, Ellinor; Cowan, Ann; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of G proteincoupled receptor (GPCR) oligomer status has not been resolved. Although many studies have provided evidence in favor of receptor-receptor interactions, there is no consensus as to the exact oligomer size of class A GPCRs. Previous studies have reported monomers, dimers, tetramers, and higher-order oligomers. In the present study, this issue was examined using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis, a sensitive method for monitoring diffusion and oligomer size of plasma membrane proteins. Six different class A GPCRs were selected from the serotonin (5-HT2A), adrenergic (?1b-AR and ?2-AR), muscarinic (M1 and M2), and dopamine (D1) receptor families. Each GPCR was C-terminally labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. FCS provided plasma membrane diffusion coefficients on the order of 7.5 10?9 cm2/s. PCH molecular brightness analysis was used to determine the GPCR oligomer size. Known monomeric (CD-86) and dimeric (CD-28) receptors with GFP and YFP tags were used as controls to determine the molecular brightness of monomers and dimers. PCH analysis of fluorescence-tagged GPCRs revealed molecular brightness values that were twice the monomeric controls and similar to the dimeric controls. Reduced ?2 analyses of the PCH data best fit a model for a homogeneous population of homodimers, without tetramers or higher-order oligomers. The homodimer configuration was unaltered by agonist treatment and was stable over a 10-fold range of receptor expression level. The results of this study demonstrate that biogenic amine receptors freely diffusing within the plasma membrane are predominantly homodimers. PMID:23907214

  6. Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; ODell, Steve J.; Marshall, John F.; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, which in turn may be modulated by DA and 5HT transmission. We analyzed long-term, off-drug changes in learning from positive and negative feedback and associated striatal DA transporter (DAT) and frontocortical 5HT transporter (SERT) binding in rats pretreated with methamphetamine (mAMPH). Specifically, we assessed the reversal phase of pairwise visual discrimination learning in rats receiving single dose- (mAMPHsingle) vs. escalating-dose exposure (mAMPHescal). Using fine-grained trial-by-trial analyses, we found increased sensitivity to and reliance on positive feedback in mAMPH-pretreated animals, with the mAMPHsingle group showing more pronounced use of this type of feedback. In contrast, overall negative feedback sensitivity was not altered following any mAMPH treatment. In addition to validating the enduring effects of mAMPH on early reversal learning, we found more consecutive error commissions before the first correct response in mAMPH-pretreated rats. This behavioral rigidity was negatively correlated with subregional frontocortical SERT whereas positive feedback sensitivity negatively correlated with striatal DAT binding. These results provide new evidence for the overlapping, yet dissociable roles of DA and 5HT systems in overcoming perseveration and in learning new reward rules. PMID:24959862

  7. Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; O'Dell, Steve J; Marshall, John F; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2014-09-01

    Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, which in turn may be modulated by DA and 5HT transmission. We analyzed long-term, off-drug changes in learning from positive and negative feedback and associated striatal DA transporter (DAT) and frontocortical 5HT transporter (SERT) binding in rats pretreated with methamphetamine (mAMPH). Specifically, we assessed the reversal phase of pairwise visual discrimination learning in rats receiving single dose- (mAMPHsingle) vs. escalating-dose exposure (mAMPHescal). Using fine-grained trial-by-trial analyses, we found increased sensitivity to and reliance on positive feedback in mAMPH-pretreated animals, with the mAMPHsingle group showing more pronounced use of this type of feedback. In contrast, overall negative feedback sensitivity was not altered following any mAMPH treatment. In addition to validating the enduring effects of mAMPH on early reversal learning, we found more consecutive error commissions before the first correct response in mAMPH-pretreated rats. This behavioral rigidity was negatively correlated with subregional frontocortical SERT whereas positive feedback sensitivity negatively correlated with striatal DAT binding. These results provide new evidence for the overlapping, yet dissociable roles of DA and 5HT systems in overcoming perseveration and in learning new reward rules. PMID:24959862

  8. Lack of evidence for reduced prefrontal cortical serotonin and dopamine efflux after acute tryptophan depletion

    PubMed Central

    Meerkerk, Dorie (T). J.; Lieben, Cindy K. J.; Blokland, Arjan; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a widely used method to study the role of serotonin (5-HT) in affect and cognition. ATD results in a strong but transient decrease in plasma tryptophan and central 5-HT synthesis and availability. Although its use is widespread, the evidence that the numerous functional effects of ATD are caused by actual changes in 5-HT neuronal release is not very strong. Thus far, decreases in 5-HT efflux (thought to reflect synaptic release) were only reported after chronic tryptophan depletion or when ATD was combined with blockade of 5-HT reuptake. Objective With the current experiment, we aimed to study the validity of the method of ATD by measuring the extent to which it reduces the efflux of 5-HT (and dopamine) in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of reuptake blockage. Materials and methods We simultaneously measured in freely moving animals plasma tryptophan via a catheter in the jugular vein and 5-HT and DA efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex through microdialysis after ATD treatment. Results ATD reduced plasma tryptophan to less than 30% of control, without affecting 5-HT or DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex, indicating that even strong reductions of plasma tryptophan do not necessarily result in decreases in central 5-HT efflux. Conclusion The present experiment showed that reductions in plasma tryptophan, similar to values associated with behavioural effects, do not necessarily reduce 5-HT efflux and suggest that the cognitive and behavioural effects of ATD may not be (exclusively) due to alterations in 5-HT release. PMID:17713760

  9. Work aversion and associated changes in dopamine and serotonin transporter after methamphetamine exposure in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kosheleff, Alisa R.; Grimes, Millie; ODell, Steve J.; Marshall, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Methamphetamine (mAMPH) administration in animals can lead to a variety of cognitive and behavioral deficits. We previously reported non-acute reversal learning impairments after a single-day administration of mAMPH, providing evidence of this drugs selective effects on inhibitory control. Effortful decision-making (i.e., how much effort to invest in rewards) is an aspect of cognition that has not yet been explored after mAMPH. Objectives Given that frontostriatal circuitry mediating this type of choice is vulnerable to the effects of mAMPH, we tested the hypothesis that mAMPH may also affect decision-making involving effort, another form of cognitive flexibility. Methods We examined the non-acute effects of an experimenter-administered single day of mAMPH on effort discounting. In this task, rats previously treated with mAMPH or saline (SAL) could select a high reward at the cost of climbing over a tall barrier or a low reward with no barrier impeding its procurement. Results Following treatment, mAMPH rats were more work-averse than SAL rats. A control task showed there were no treatment group differences when the high and low rewards involved equal work: all rats chose the high reward preferentially. There were no significant treatment group differences in [125I]RTI-55 binding to dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT, SERT) in any of the regions assayed; however, there were significant correlations of accumbens DAT and cingulate SERT with post-treatment performance. Conclusions These findings suggest that even modest dose mAMPH exposure has long-lasting effects on effortful decision-making and may do so through influences on forebrain monoaminergic systems. PMID:21643674

  10. Methylone-induced hyperthermia and lethal toxicity: role of the dopamine and serotonin transporters.

    PubMed

    Piao, Ying-Shan; Hall, Frank Scott; Moriya, Yuki; Ito, Miki; Ohara, Arihisa; Kikura-Hanajiri, Ruri; Goda, Yukihiro; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Murphy, Dennis L; Uhl, George R; Sora, Ichiro

    2015-06-01

    Methylone (2-methylamino-1-[3,4-methylenedioxy-phenyl]propan-1-one), an amphetamine analog, has emerged as a popular drug of abuse worldwide. Methylone induces hyperthermia, which is thought to contribute toward the lethal consequences of methylone overdose. Methylone has been assumed to induce hyperthermic effects through inhibition of serotonin and/or dopamine transporters (SERT and DAT, respectively). To examine the roles of each of these proteins in methylone-induced toxic effects, we used SERT and DAT knockout (KO) mice and assessed the hyperthermic and lethal effects caused by a single administration of methylone. Methylone produced higher rates of lethal toxicity compared with other amphetamine analogs in wild-type mice. Compared with wild-type mice, lethality was significantly lower in DAT KO mice, but not in SERT KO mice. By contrast, only a slight diminution in the hyperthermic effects of methylone was observed in DAT KO mice, whereas a slight enhancement of these effects was observed in SERT KO mice. Administration of the selective D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 and the D2 receptor antagonist raclopride reduced methylone-induced hyperthermia, but these drugs also had hypothermic effects in saline-treated mice, albeit to a smaller extent than the effects observed in methylone-treated mice. In contradistinction to 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, which induces its toxicity through SERT and DAT, these data indicate that DAT, but not SERT, is strongly associated with the lethal toxicity produced by methylone, which did not seem to be dependent on the hyperthermic effects of methylone. DAT is therefore a strong candidate molecule for interventions aimed at preventing acute neurotoxic and lethal effects of methylone. PMID:25794333

  11. Cloning of the cocaine-sensitive bovine dopamine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Usdin, T.B.; Chen, C.; Brownstein, M.J.; Hoffman, B.J. ); Mezey, E. )

    1991-12-15

    A cDNA encoding the dopamine transporter from bovine brain substantia nigra was identified on the basis of its structural homology to other, recently cloned, neurotransmitter transporters. The sequence of the 693-amino acid protein is quite similar to those of the rat {gamma}-aminobutyric acid, human norepinephrine, and rat serotonin transporters. Dopamine transporter mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra but not in the locus coeruleus, raphe, caudate, or other brain areas. ({sup 3}H)Dopamine accumulation in tissue culture cells transfected with the cDNA was inhibited by amphetamine, cocaine, and specific inhibitors of dopamine transports, including GBR12909.

  12. Impact of Serotonin 2C Receptor Null Mutation on Physiology and Behavior Associated with Nigrostriatal Dopamine Pathway Function

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Luna; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Hopf, F. Woodward; ODell, Laura; Giorgetti, Marco; Jongsma, Minke; Carra, Scott; Pierucci, Massimo; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Esposito, Ennio; Parsons, Loren H.; Bonci, Antonello; Tecott, Laurence H.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of serotonergic neurotransmission on brain dopaminergic pathways has substantial relevance to many neuropsychiatric disorders. A particularly prominent role has been ascribed to the inhibitory effects of serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) activation on physiology and behavior mediated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, particularly in the terminal region of the nucleus accumbens. The influence of this receptor subtype on functions mediated by the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is less clear. Here we report that a null mutation eliminating expression of 5-HT2CRs produces marked alterations in the activity and functional output of this pathway. 5-HT2CR mutant mice displayed increased activity of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons, elevated baseline extracellular dopamine concentrations in the dorsal striatum (DSt), alterations in grooming behavior, and enhanced sensitivity to the stereotypic behavioral effects of D-amphetamine and GBR 12909. These psychostimulant responses occurred in the absence of phenotypic differences in drug-induced extracellular dopamine concentration, suggesting a phenotypic alteration in behavioral responses to released dopamine. This was further suggested by enhanced behavioral responses of mutant mice to the D1 receptor agonist SKF 81297. Differences in DSt D1 or D2 receptor expression were not found, nor were differences in medium spiny neuron firing patterns or intrinsic membrane properties following dopamine stimulation. We conclude that 5-HT2CRs regulate nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity and function both at SNc dopaminergic neurons and at a locus downstream of the DSt. PMID:19553455

  13. High dose sapropterin dihydrochloride therapy improves monoamine neurotransmitter turnover in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Winn, Shelley R; Scherer, Tanja; Thöny, Beat; Harding, Cary O

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in phenylketonuria (PKU). Increased brain phenylalanine concentration likely competitively inhibits the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for TH and TPH activity. Our hypothesis was that treatment of hyperphenylalaninemic Pah(enu2/enu2) mice, a model of human PKU, with sapropterin dihydrochloride, a synthetic form of BH4, would stimulate TH and TPH activities leading to improved dopamine and serotonin synthesis despite persistently elevated brain phenylalanine. Sapropterin (20, 40, or 100mg/kg body weight in 1% ascorbic acid) was administered daily for 4days by oral gavage to Pah(enu2/enu2) mice followed by measurement of brain biopterin, phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan and monoamine neurotransmitter content. A significant increase in brain biopterin content was detected only in mice that had received the highest sapropterin dose, 100mg/kg. Blood and brain phenylalanine concentrations were unchanged by sapropterin therapy. Sapropterin therapy also did not alter the absolute amounts of dopamine and serotonin in brain but was associated with increased homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), dopamine and serotonin metabolites respectively, in both wild type and Pah(enu2/enu2) mice. Oral sapropterin therapy likely does not directly affect central nervous system monoamine synthesis in either wild type or hyperphenylalaninemic mice but may stimulate synaptic neurotransmitter release and subsequent metabolism. PMID:26653793

  14. Dopamine and serotonin receptors measured in vivo in Huntington's Disease with C-11 n-methylspiperone PET imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Links, J.M.; Wanger, H.N. Jr.; Folstein, S.E.; Suneja, S.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Tune, L.E.; Pearlson, G.

    1985-05-01

    Thirteen patients with the clinical diagnosis of Huntington's Disease (HD) and nine persons at risk to develop the disease were studied by positron emission tomography (PET) after administration of /sup 11/C-n-methylspiperone (NMSP), a tracer with a high affinity for D2 dopamine and, to a lesser degree, for S2 serotonin receptors. All subjects had an X-ray CT scan for positioning and to assess caudate size. Dopamine and serotonin receptor binding (D2 and S2) were estimated by the caudate/cerebellum activity ratio at 43 min. post injection (CA/CB), and frontal cortex/cerebellum (FR/CB), respectively. CA/CB's of HD pts. were lower than age and sex matched controls. However, when corrected by recovery coefficients (RC) for our PET using CT dimensions of the caudate, CA/CB's were higher than normal. The relative total number of D2 receptors (estimated by CA/CB x CT caudate volume) was lower than the controls without or with RC correction.

  15. Reelin influences the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Varela, M J; Lage, S; Caruncho, H J; Cadavid, M I; Loza, M I; Brea, J

    2015-04-01

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a critical role in neuronal guidance during brain neurodevelopment and in synaptic plasticity in adults and has been associated with schizophrenia. Reelin mRNA and protein levels are reduced in various structures of post-mortem schizophrenic brains, in a similar way to those found in heterozygous reeler mice (HRM). Reelin is involved in protein expression in dendritic spines that are the major location where synaptic connections are established. Thus, we hypothesized that a genetic deficit in reelin would affect the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors that are associated with the action of current antipsychotic drugs. In this study, D2 and 5-HT2A receptor expression and function were quantitated by using radioligand binding studies in the frontal cortex and striatum of HRM and wild-type mice (WTM). We observed increased expression (p<0.05) in striatum membranes and decreased expression (p<0.05) in frontal cortex membranes for both dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors from HRM compared to WTM. Our results show parallel alterations of D2 and 5-HT2A receptors that are compatible with a possible hetero-oligomeric nature of these receptors. These changes are similar to changes described in schizophrenic patients and provide further support for the suitability of using HRM as a model for studying this disease and the effects of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25637489

  16. Role of prenatal undernutrition in the expression of serotonin, dopamine and leptin receptors in adult mice: Implications of food intake

    PubMed Central

    MANUEL-APOLINAR, LETICIA; ROCHA, LUISA; DAMASIO, LETICIA; TESORO-CRUZ, EMILIANO; ZARATE, ARTURO

    2014-01-01

    Perturbations in the levels of serotonin expression have a significant impact on behavior and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety, mood and appetite. Fetal programming is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases during adulthood. Moreover, previous studies have shown that serotonin (5-HT), dopamine and leptin are important in energy balance. In the present study, the impact of maternal malnutrition-induced prenatal undernutrition (UN) was investigated in mice and the expression of 5-HT1A, dopamine (D)1, D2 and Ob-Rb receptors was analyzed in the hypothalamus during adulthood. The UN group showed a low birth weight compared with the control group. With regard to receptor expression, 5-HT1A in the UN group was increased in the hypothalamus and D1 was reduced, whereas D2 showed an increase from postnatal day (P)14 in the arcuate nucleus. Ob-Rb receptor expression was increased in the hypothalamus at P14 and P90. These observations indicated that maternal caloric restriction programs a postnatal body weight gain in offspring with an increased food intake in early postnatal life which continues into adulthood. In addition, UN in mice was found to be affected by Ob-Rb, 5-HT1A and D1/2 receptor expression, indicating that these observations may be associated with hyperphagia and obesity. PMID:24337628

  17. Role of prenatal undernutrition in the expression of serotonin, dopamine and leptin receptors in adult mice: implications of food intake.

    PubMed

    Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia; Rocha, Luisa; Damasio, Leticia; Tesoro-Cruz, Emiliano; Zarate, Arturo

    2014-02-01

    Perturbations in the levels of serotonin expression have a significant impact on behavior and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety, mood and appetite. Fetal programming is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases during adulthood. Moreover, previous studies have shown that serotonin (5?HT), dopamine and leptin are important in energy balance. In the present study, the impact of maternal malnutrition?induced prenatal undernutrition (UN) was investigated in mice and the expression of 5?HT1A, dopamine (D)1, D2 and Ob?Rb receptors was analyzed in the hypothalamus during adulthood. The UN group showed a low birth weight compared with the control group. With regard to receptor expression, 5?HT1A in the UN group was increased in the hypothalamus and D1 was reduced, whereas D2 showed an increase from postnatal day (P)14 in the arcuate nucleus. Ob?Rb receptor expression was increased in the hypothalamus at P14 and P90. These observations indicated that maternal caloric restriction programs a postnatal body weight gain in offspring with an increased food intake in early postnatal life which continues into adulthood. In addition, UN in mice was found to be affected by Ob?Rb, 5?HT1A and D1/2 receptor expression, indicating that these observations may be associated with hyperphagia and obesity. PMID:24337628

  18. Dual ligands targeting dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors as new antipsychotical or anti-Parkinsonian agents.

    PubMed

    Ye, Na; Song, Zilan; Zhang, Ao

    2014-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease are associated with poly-factorial pathogenic mechanisms, with several neurotransmitter systems closely involved. In addition to the cerebral dopaminergic (DA) system, the serotoninergic (5-HT) system also plays a crucial role in regulating psychoemotional, cognitive and motor functions in the central nervous system (CNS). Among the large 5-HT receptor family, accumulating data have revealed new insights into the therapeutic benefit of the 5-HT1A receptor in treating various CNS disorders, especially schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. The present review discusses the advance of dual agents with mixed actions at the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in the treatment of these diseases. Aripiprazole was the only marketed drug with dual D2 and 5-HT1A profile. It is a partial D2 and 5-HT1A receptor agonist and has been prescribed as an atypical antipsychotical drug. Two other drugs Cariprazine and Pardoprunox are being investigated in clinic. Most of the other candidate compounds, including Bifeprunox, Sarizotan, Mazapertine succinate, PF-217830, and Adoprazine were discontinued due to either non-optimal pharmacokinetic properties or insufficient therapeutical efficacy. Although much effort has been done to highlight the advantages of the 5-HT1A and D2 dual approach, it has to be pointed out that many of these drugs showed poly-pharmacological profile by targeting many other receptors and/or transporters besides the D2 and 5-HT1A receptors. In this regard, 'pure' compounds exclusively acting on the D2 and 5-HT1A receptors are highly needed to further validate this approach. Meanwhile, safety concerns and in vivo pharmacokinetic alerts should also be implanted to the drug design art early. PMID:24164194

  19. MPTP-induced hippocampal effects on serotonin, dopamine, neurotrophins, adult neurogenesis and depression-like behavior are partially influenced by fluoxetine in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lesemann, Anne; Reinel, Claudia; Hhnchen, Petra; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Hellweg, Rainer; Klaissle, Philipp; Winter, Christine; Steiner, Barbara

    2012-05-31

    In Parkinson's disease the loss of dopamine induces motor impairment but also leads to non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, anxiety and depression. Selective serotonine reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are so far first line therapy for mood alterations in PD and have also been shown to influence cognition, however with often insufficient results due to yet not fully understood underlying pathomechanisms of the symptoms. Deficits in the generation and maturation of new neurons in the adult hippocampus seem to be key mechanisms of major depression and cognitive decline and are robustly influenced by serotonergic pharmacotherapy. In this study we analyzed the effects of a short- and long-term treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine on changes of hippocampal precursor maturation, neurotransmitter-receptor mRNA-expression, neurotrophin levels and clinical symptoms in the MPTP-mouse model for PD. The generation of neuronal precursors as well as the absolute numbers of endogenous immature neurons increased following MPTP and were further elevated by fluoxetine. Net neurogenesis however, impaired after MPTP, remained unchanged by fluoxetine treatment. Fluoxetine induced microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus that might be involved in enhanced precursor generation involved increased contents of the neurotrophins VEGF and BDNF and decreased hippocampal expression of the 5HT1a receptor mRNA and the D2 receptor mRNA. Clinically, we were not able to detect any differences in anxiety or depressive behavior in MPTP animals compared to controls which is in line with previous studies indicating that neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD are difficult to assess in rodents due to their clinical characteristics and involvement of several brain regions. Taken together, we show that fluoxetine partially enhances brain's capacity to counteract MPTP-induced neurodegeneration by increasing the endogenous pool of immature neurons and upregulating neural precursor cell generation. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and the link to the clinical use of fluoxetine in PD remain to be further elucidated. PMID:22520437

  20. Effects of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Brain Serotonin Function and Concentrations of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Biskup, Caroline Sarah; Snchez, Cristina L.; Arrant, Andrew; Van Swearingen, Amanda E. D.; Kuhn, Cynthia; Zepf, Florian Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a method of lowering brain serotonin (5-HT). Administration of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) limits the transport of endogenous tryptophan (TRP) across the blood brain barrier by competition with other LNAAs and subsequently decreases serotonergic neurotransmission. A recent discussion on the specificity and efficacy of the ATD paradigm for inhibition of central nervous 5-HT has arisen. Moreover, side effects such as vomiting and nausea after intake of amino acids (AA) still limit its use. ATD Moja-De is a revised mixture of AAs which is less nauseating than conventional protocols. It has been used in preliminary clinical studies but its effects on central 5-HT mechanisms and other neurotransmitter systems have not been validated in an animal model. We tested ATD Moja-De (TRP?) in two strains of mice: C57BL/6J, and BALB/cJ, which are reported to have impaired 5-HT synthesis and a more anxious phenotype relative to other strains of mice. ATD Moja-De lowered brain TRP, significantly decreased 5-HT synthesis as indexed by 5-HTP levels after decarboxlyase inhibition, and lowered 5-HT and 5-HIAA in both strains of mice, however more so in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ. Dopamine and its metabolites as well as norepinephrine were not affected. A balanced (TRP+) control mixture did not raise 5-HT or 5-HIAA. The present findings suggest that ATD Moja-De effectively and specifically suppresses central serotonergic function. These results also demonstrate a strain- specific effect of ATD Moja-De on anxiety-like behavior. PMID:22629305

  1. Zn2+ modulation of neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Nørgaard-Nielsen, K; Gether, U

    2006-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters located at the presynaptic or glial cell membrane are responsible for the stringent and rapid clearance of the transmitter from the synapse, and hence they terminate signaling and control the duration of synaptic inputs in the brain. Two distinct families of neurotransmitter transporters have been identified based on sequence homology: (1) the neurotransmitter sodium symporter family (NSS), which includes the Na+/C1(-)-dependent transporters for dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin; and (2) the dicarboxylate/amino acid cation symporter family (DAACS), which includes the Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters (excitatory amino acid transporters; EAAT). In this chapter, we describe how the identification of endogenous Zn2(+)-binding sites, as well as engineering of artificial Zn2(+)-binding sites both in the Na+/Cl(-)-dependent transporters and in the EAATs, have proved to be an important tool for studying the molecular function of these proteins. We also interpret the current available data on Zn2(+)-binding sites in the context of the recently published crystal structures. Moreover, we review how the identification of endogenous Zn2(+)-binding sites has indirectly suggested the possibility that several of the transporters are modulated by Zn2+ in vivo, and thus that Zn2+ can play a role as a neuromodulator by affecting the function of neurotransmitter transporters. PMID:16722228

  2. The antidepressant-like pharmacological profile of Yuanzhi-1, a novel serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zeng-liang; Gao, Nana; Li, Xiao-rong; Tang, Yu; Xiong, Jie; Chen, Hong-xia; Xue, Rui; Li, Yun-Feng

    2015-04-01

    Triple reuptake inhibitors that block dopamine transporters (DATs), norepinephrine transporters (NETs), and serotonin transporters (SERTs) are being developed as a new class of antidepressants that might have better efficacy and fewer side effects than traditional antidepressants. In this study, we performed in vitro binding and uptake assays as well as in vivo behavioural tests to assess the pharmacological properties and antidepressant-like efficacy of Yuanzhi-1. In vitro, Yuanzhi-1 had a high affinity for SERTs, NETs, and DATs prepared from rat brain tissue (Ki=3.95, 4.52 and 0.87nM, respectively) and recombinant cells (Ki=2.87, 6.86 and 1.03nM, respectively). Moreover, Yuanzhi-1 potently inhibited the uptake of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) into rat brain synaptosomes (Ki=2.12, 4.85 and 1.08nM, respectively) and recombinant cells (Ki=1.65, 5.32 and 0.68nM, respectively). In vivo, Yuanzhi-1 decreased immobility in a dose-dependent manner, which was shown among rats via the forced-swim test (FST) and mice via the tail-suspension test (TST). The results observed in the behavioural tests did not appear to result from the stimulation of locomotor activity. Repeated Yuanzhi-1 treatment (2.5, 5 or 10mg/kg) significantly reversed depression-like behaviours in chronically stressed rats, including reduced sucrose preference, decreased locomotor activity, and prolonged time to begin eating. Furthermore, in vivo microdialysis studies showed that 5- and 10-mg/kg administrations of Yuanzhi-1 significantly increased the extracellular concentrations of 5-HT, NE and DA in the frontal cortices of freely moving rats. Therefore, Yuanzhi-1 might represent a novel triple reuptake inhibitor and possess antidepressant-like activity. PMID:25638027

  3. The role of endogenous serotonin in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Angoa Prez, Mariana; Francescutti-Verbeem, Dina M; Shah, Mrudang M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2010-11-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic drug of abuse that damages the dopamine (DA) neuronal system in a highly delimited manner. The brain structure most affected by METH is the striatum where long-term DA depletion and microglial activation are maximal. Endogenous DA has been implicated as a critical participant in METH-induced neurotoxicity, most likely as a substrate for non-enzymatic oxidation by METH-generated reactive oxygen species. The striatum is also extensively innervated by serotonin (5HT) nerve endings and this neurochemical system is modified by METH in much the same manner as seen in DA nerve endings (i.e., increased release of 5HT, loss of function in tryptophan hydroxylase and the serotonin transporter, long-term depletion of 5HT stores). 5HT can also be modified by reactive oxygen species to form highly reactive species that damage neurons but its role in METH neurotoxicity has not been assessed. Increases in 5HT levels with 5-hydroxytryptophan do not change METH-induced neurotoxicity to the DA nerve endings as revealed by reductions in DA, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels. Partial reductions in 5HT with p-chlorophenylalanine are without effect on METH toxicity, despite the fact that p-chlorophenylalanine largely prevents METH-induced hyperthermia. Mice lacking the gene for brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 are devoid of brain 5HT and respond to METH in the same manner as wild-type controls, despite showing enhanced drug-induced hyperthermia. Taken together, the present results indicate that endogenous 5HT does not appear to play a role in METH-induced damage to DA nerve endings of the striatum. PMID:20722968

  4. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

  5. Multiple functions of neuronal plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Raiteri, Luca; Raiteri, Maurizio

    2015-11-01

    Removal from receptors of neurotransmitters just released into synapses is one of the major steps in neurotransmission. Transporters situated on the plasma membrane of nerve endings and glial cells perform the process of neurotransmitter (re)uptake. Because the density of transporters in the membranes can fluctuate, transporters can determine the transmitter concentrations at receptors, thus modulating indirectly the excitability of neighboring neurons. Evidence is accumulating that neurotransmitter transporters can exhibit multiple functions. Being bidirectional, neurotransmitter transporters can mediate transmitter release by working in reverse, most often under pathological conditions that cause ionic gradient dysregulations. Some transporters reverse to release transmitters, like dopamine or serotonin, when activated by 'indirectly acting' substrates, like the amphetamines. Some transporters exhibit as one major function the ability to capture transmitters into nerve terminals that perform insufficient synthesis. Transporter activation can generate conductances that regulate directly neuronal excitability. Synaptic and non-synaptic transporters play different roles. Cytosolic Na(+) elevations accompanying transport can interact with plasmalemmal or/and mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers thus generating calcium signals. Finally, neurotransmitter transporters can behave as receptors mediating releasing stimuli able to cause transmitter efflux through multiple mechanisms. Neurotransmitter transporters are therefore likely to play hitherto unknown roles in multiple therapeutic treatments. PMID:26300320

  6. Radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The study of neurotransmitter systems is one of the major thrusts in emission tomography today. The current generation of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radiotracers examines neurotransmitter properties from a number of different perspectives including their pre and post synaptic sites and the activity of the enzymes which regulate their concentration. Although the dopamine system has been the most extensively investigated, other neurotransmitter systems including the acetylcholine muscarine, serotonin, benzodiazepine, opiate, NMDA and others are also under intensive development. Enzymes involved in the synthesis and regulation of neurotransmitter concentration, for example monoamine oxidase and amino acid decarboxylase has also been probed in vivo. Medical applications range from the study of normal function and the characterization of neurotransmitter activity in neurological and psychiatric diseases and in heart disease and cancer to the study of the binding of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse. This chapter will provide an overview of the current generation of radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems including radiotracer design, synthesis localization mechanisms and applications in emission tomography. 60 refs., 1 tab.

  7. Species-specific effects on hemolymph glucose control by serotonin, dopamine, and L-enkephalin and their inhibitors in Squilla mantis and Astacus leptodactylus (crustacea).

    PubMed

    Lorenzon, Simonetta; Brezovec, Sara; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2004-09-01

    Hemolymph glucose level is controlled by crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) released from the eyestalk neuroendocrine centers under conditions of both physiological and environmental stress. Biogenic amines and enkephalin have been found to mediate the release of several neurohormones from crustacean neuroendocrine tissue. We investigated the effect of serotonin, dopamine, and Leucine-enkephalin in vivo--injected into the stomatopod Squilla mantis and the decapod Astacus leptodactylus--whether increasing or depressing glycemia. Serotonin had a marked effect in elevating glucose level compared with initial values in both species. 5-HT1-like receptors are more involved in mediating serotonin action as co-injected cyproheptadine was a more effective antagonist than ketanserin (5-HT2-like receptor inhibitor). Dopamine injection in intact animals produced a decrease below initial levels of hemolymph glucose. This effect was significantly antagonized by domperidone. No significant effect of both amines occurred in eyestalkless animals. L-enkephalin shows a differential effect: in S. mantis it induced hypoglycemia while in A. leptodactylus it caused an increase of glucose level. Co-injected antagonist naloxone affected the direction of the response. Serotonin appears to provide a major control on glucose mobilization, whereas dopamine and L-enkephalin act as modulators whose plasticity in use or action varies among species. PMID:15559934

  8. Neurotransmitters in the Gas Phase: La-Mb Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; Lpez, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy combines laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets overcoming the problems of thermal decomposition associated with conventional heating methods. We present here the results on LA-MB-FTMW studies of some neurotransmitters. Six conformers of dopamine, four of adrenaline, five of noradrenaline and three conformers of serotonin have been characterized in the gas phase. The rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants extracted from the analysis of the rotational spectrum are directly compared with those predicted by ab initio methods to achieve the conclusive identification of different conformers and the experimental characterization of the intramolecular forces at play which control conformational preferences.

  9. Methamphetamine-induced dopamine and serotonin reductions in neostriatum are not gender specific in rats with comparable hyperthermic responses.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, M; Cappon, G D; Broening, H W; Vorhees, C V

    1998-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA)-induced monoamine depletions in male and female Sprague-Dawley CD rats were studied under conditions in which the magnitude of MA-induced hyperthermia was comparable between the sexes. MA (5 or 10 mg/kg) or saline (3 ml/kg) was administered SC four times at 2-h intervals. Animals were sacrificed 3 days posttreatment for the determination of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and metabolites. MA induced significant monoamine reductions but the magnitude of these reductions was not significantly different between males and females. In the MA 5 mg/kg groups, neostriatal DA content was reduced by 51.2% and 44.8%, whereas 5-HT content was reduced by 30.6% and 23.9% of controls for males and females, respectively. In the MA 10 mg/kg groups, neostriatal DA content was reduced by 72.9% and 65.8%, whereas striatal 5-HT content was reduced by 77.4% and 73.6% of controls for males and females, respectively. No significant differences in thermal responses to MA were observed between genders. Unlike reports in mice, gender does not play a role in MA-induced monoamine reductions in rat neostriatum when MA-induced hyperthermia is comparable across sexes. The data also showed a threshold effect in which dopamine depletions were not correlated with hyperthermia at core body temperatures above approximately 41 degrees C. PMID:9697970

  10. Pharmacological and Behavioral Characterization of D-473, an Orally Active Triple Reuptake Inhibitor Targeting Dopamine, Serotonin and Norepinephrine Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Aloke K.; Santra, Soumava; Sharma, Horrick; Voshavar, Chandrashekhar; Xu, Liping; Mabrouk, Omar; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E. A.

    2014-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease affecting a wide cross section of people around the world. The current therapy for depression is less than adequate and there is a considerable unmet need for more efficacious treatment. Dopamine has been shown to play a significant role in depression including production of anhedonia which has been one of the untreated symptoms in MDD. It has been hypothesized that drugs acting at all three monoamine transporters including dopamine transporter should provide more efficacious antidepressants activity. This has led to the development of triple reuptake inhibitor D-473 which is a novel pyran based molecule and interacts with all three monoamine transporters. The monoamine uptake inhibition activity in the cloned human transporters expressed in HEK-293 cells (70.4, 9.18 and 39.7 for DAT, SERT and NET, respectively) indicates a serotonin preferring triple reuptake inhibition profile for this drug. The drug D-473 exhibited good brain penetration and produced efficacious activity in rat forced swim test under oral administration. The optimal efficacy dose did not produce any locomotor activation. Microdialysis experiment demonstrated that systemic administration of D-473 elevated extracellular level of the three monoamines DA, 5-HT, and NE efficaciously in the dorsal lateral striatum (DLS) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) area, indicating in vivo blockade of all three monoamine transporters by D-473. Thus, the current biological data from D-473 indicate potent antidepressant activity of the molecule. PMID:25427177

  11. Behaviorally active doses of the CB1 receptor antagonist SR 141716A increase brain serotonin and dopamine levels and turnover.

    PubMed

    Darmani, N A; Janoyan, J J; Kumar, N; Crim, J L

    2003-07-01

    Large doses (10-40 mg/kg) of the selective cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist, SR 141716A, produce the head-twitch response (HTR) and scratching in rodents and vomiting in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva). Agents that increase brain serotonin (5-HT) levels induce the HTR in rodents, whereas enhancements in either brain 5-HT or dopamine concentrations can lead to production of emesis in vomiting species. The present study was undertaken to demonstrate whether large doses of SR 141716A can (1) induce the HTR and scratching in the least shrew and (2) cause concurrent biochemical changes in brain 5-HT and dopamine concentrations. SR 141716A (0, 1, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg i.p.) administration induced the HTR, scratching and vomiting. The HTR effect was bell shaped with a maximum frequency occurring at the 20 mg/kg SR 141716A dose, whereas the scratching and vomiting behaviors displayed dose-dependent effects. The selective 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist, SR 46349B (0, 0.1, 0.25, 1, 3 and 6 mg/kg i.p.), differentially attenuated all SR 141716A (20 mg/kg)-induced behaviors because the HTR was relatively more potently and completely blocked. In the shrew forebrain, SR 141716A (20 and 40 mg/kg ip) caused dose- and time-dependent increases in the levels of 5-HT and dopamine and the concentrations of their major metabolites [5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA)] and the turnover of both monoamines. Although the effects of SR 141716A on brainstem concentrations of both monoamines and their metabolites were not always consistent, the CB(1) antagonist did increase the turnover of both 5-HT and dopamine. The present findings suggest that the mechanism and the neurochemical substrate for SR 141716A-induced HTR and scratching behaviors is enhancement of 5-HT release, whereas increased release of 5-HT and dopamine probably contributes to the production of emesis. PMID:12957219

  12. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR

  13. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  14. WINCS-BASED WIRELESS ELECTROCHEMICAL MONITORING OF SEROTONIN (5-HT) USING FAST-SCAN CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY: PROOF OF PRINCIPLE

    PubMed Central

    Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Object We previously reported the development of a Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for measuring dopamine and suggested that this technology may be useful for evaluating deep brain stimulation (DBS)-related neuromodulatory effects on neurotransmitter systems. WINCS supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially resolved neurotransmitter measurements. The FSCV parameters used to establish WINCS dopamine measurements are not suitable for serotonin, a neurotransmitter implicated in depression, because they lead to CFM fouling and a loss of sensitivity. Here, we incorporate into WINCS a previously described N-shaped waveform applied at a high scan rate to establish wireless serotonin monitoring. Methods FSCV optimized for the detection of serotonin consisted of an N-shaped waveform scanned linearly from a resting potential of, in V, +0.2 to +1.0, then to ?0.1 and back to +0.2 at a rate of 1000 V/s. Proof of principle tests included flow injection analysis and electrically evoked serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rat brain slices. Results Flow cell injection analysis demonstrated that the N waveform applied at a scan rate of 1000 V/s significantly reduced serotonin fouling of the CFM, relative to that observed with FSCV parameters for dopamine. In brain slices, WINCS reliably detected sub-second serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus evoked by local high-frequency stimulation. Conclusion WINCS supported high-fidelity wireless serotonin monitoring by FSCV at a CFM. In the future such measurements of serotonin in large animal models and in humans may help to establish the mechanism of DBS for psychiatric disease. PMID:20415521

  15. Identification and developmental expression of the enzymes responsible for dopamine, histamine, octopamine and serotonin biosynthesis in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Fontanilla, Tiana M.; Roncalli, Vittoria; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2013-01-01

    Neurochemicals are likely to play key roles in physiological/behavioral control in the copepod crustacean Calanus finmarchicus, the biomass dominant zooplankton for much of the North Atlantic Ocean. Previously, a de novo assembled transcriptome consisting of 206,041 unique sequences was used to characterize the peptidergic signaling systems of Calanus. Here, this assembly was mined for transcripts encoding enzymes involved in amine biosynthesis. Using known Drosophila melanogaster proteins as templates, transcripts encoding putative Calanus homologs of tryptophan-phenylalanine hydroxylase (dopamine, octopamine and serotonin biosynthesis), tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine biosynthesis), DOPA decarboxylase (dopamine and serotonin biosynthesis), histidine decarboxylase (histamine biosynthesis), tyrosine decarboxylase (octopamine biosynthesis), tyramine ?-hydroxylase (octopamine biosynthesis) and tryptophan hydroxylase (serotonin biosynthesis) were identified. Reverse BLAST and domain analyses show that the proteins deduced from these transcripts possess sequence homology to and the structural hallmarks of their respective enzyme families. Developmental profiling revealed a remarkably consistent pattern of expression for all transcripts, with the highest levels of expression typically seen in the early nauplius and early copepodite. These expression patterns suggest roles for amines during development, particularly in the metamorphic transitions from embryo to nauplius and from nauplius to copepodite. Taken collectively, the data presented here lay a strong foundation for future gene-based studies of aminergic signaling in this and other copepod species, in particular assessment of the roles they may play in developmental control. PMID:24148657

  16. Neurotransmitter-Specific Synaptosomes in Rat Corpus Striatum: Morphological Variations*

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Eduard; Kuhar, Michael J.; Snyder, Solomon H.

    1971-01-01

    This communication describes ultrastructural variations among synaptosomal fractions isolated from the corpus striatum of the rat by incomplete equilibrium sedimentation in sucrose density gradients, and attempts to relate the variations to neurotransmitter-specific synaptosomes. The concentration of synaptosomes in each fraction of the density gradient was found to be correlated with the concentration of potassium, a marker for cytoplasm occluded within synaptosomes. Monoamine oxidase activity was found to be correlated with the incidence of free mitochondria in the gradients. Synaptosomes from denser gradient fractions showed a markedly increased frequency of adherent postsynaptic elements and intraterminal mitochondria. These denser gradient fractions were rich in synaptosomes containing norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and acetylcholine, while synaptosomes in lighter portions of the gradients were rich in ?-aminobutyric acid and other amino acids. These data suggest that significant morphological variations may exist among different neurotransmitter-specific nerve terminals in the brain. Images PMID:4395685

  17. Striatal serotonin 2C receptors decrease nigrostriatal dopamine release by increasing GABA-A receptor tone in the substantia nigra.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mary V; Nocjar, Christine; Sonneborn, Alex J; McCreary, Andrew C; Pehek, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-01

    Drugs acting at the serotonin-2C (5-HT2C) receptor subtype have shown promise as therapeutics in multiple syndromes including obesity, depression, and Parkinson's disease. While it is established that 5-HT2C receptor stimulation inhibits DA release, the neural circuits and the localization of the relevant 5-HT2C receptors remain unknown. This study used dual-probe in vivo microdialysis to investigate the relative contributions of 5-HT2C receptors localized in the rat substantia nigra (SN) and caudate-putamen (CP) in the control of nigrostriatal DA release. Systemic administration (3.0mg/kg) of the 5-HT2C receptor selective agonist Ro 60-0175 [(?S)-6-Chloro-5-fluoro-?-methyl-1H-indole-1-ethanamine fumarate] decreased, whereas intrastriatal infusions of the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242084 [6-Chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-N-[6-[(2-methyl-3-pyridinyl)oxy]-3-pyridinyl]-1H-indole-1-carboxyamide; 1.0?M] increased, basal DA in the CP. Depending on the site within the SN pars reticulata (SNpr), infusions of SB 242084 had more modest but significant effects. Moreover, infusions of the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (10?M) into the SNpr completely reversed the increases in striatal DA release produced by intrastriatal infusions of SB 242084. These findings suggest a role for 5-HT2C receptors regulating striatal DA release that is highly localized. 5-HT2C receptors localized in the striatum may represent a primary site of action that is mediated by the actions on GABAergic activity in the SN. Dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) project to the caudate-putamen (CP; striatum). This circuitry is implicated in numerous pathologies including Parkinson's disease. Using in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrated that blockade of serotonin (5-HT) 2C receptors in the CP increased nigrostriatal DA release. Infusions of a GABA-A agonist into the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) blocked this increase. This work indicates that striatal serotonin 2C receptors regulate GABAergic tone in the SNpr, which in turn regulates nigrostriatal DA release. PMID:25073477

  18. The Role of Dopamine in Schizophrenia from a Neurobiological and Evolutionary Perspective: Old Fashioned, but Still in Vogue

    PubMed Central

    Brisch, Ralf; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bielau, Hendrik; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Braun, Katharina; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej; Gos, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. The revised dopamine hypothesis states that dopamine abnormalities in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions exist in schizophrenia. However, recent research has indicated that glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin alterations are also involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This review provides an in-depth analysis of dopamine in animal models of schizophrenia and also focuses on dopamine and cognition. Furthermore, this review provides not only an overview of dopamine receptors and the antipsychotic effects of treatments targeting them but also an outline of dopamine and its interaction with other neurochemical models of schizophrenia. The roles of dopamine in the evolution of the human brain and human mental abilities, which are affected in schizophrenia patients, are also discussed. PMID:24904434

  19. Effects of AT1 receptor antagonism on kainate-induced seizures and concomitant changes in hippocampal extracellular noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine levels in Wistar-Kyoto and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, Jana; Loyens, Ellen; Smolders, Ilse

    2015-05-01

    In the management of epilepsy, AT1 receptor antagonists have been suggested as an additional treatment strategy. A hyperactive brain angiotensin (Ang) II system and upregulated AT1 receptors are implicated in the cerebrovascular alterations in a genetic form of hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension could also, in turn, be a risk factor for a seizure threshold decrease and development of epileptogenesis. The present study aimed to assess the effects of the selective AT1 receptor antagonist ZD7155 on kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) development and accompanying changes in the hippocampal extracellular (EC) neurotransmitter levels of noradrenaline (NAD), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and their parent strain Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, since monoamines are well-known neurotransmitters involved in mechanisms of both epilepsy and hypertension. Status epilepticus was evoked in freely moving rats by a repetitive intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of KA in subconvulsant doses. In the treatment group, ZD7155 (5mg/kg i.p.) was coadministered with the first KA injection. Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibited higher susceptibility to SE than WKY rats, but the AT1 receptor antagonist did not alter the development of SE in SHRs or in WKY rats. In vivo microdialysis demonstrated significant KA-induced increases of the hippocampal NAD and DA levels in SHRs and of NAD, 5-HT, and DA in WKY rats. Although SHRs developed more severe seizures while receiving a lower dose of KA compared to WKY rats, AT1 receptor antagonism completely prevented all KA-induced increases of hippocampal monoamine levels in both rat strains without affecting seizure development per se. These results suggest a lack of direct relationship between KA-induced seizure susceptibility and adaptive changes of hippocampal NAD, 5-HT, and DA levels in the effects of ZD7155 in WKY rats and SHRs. PMID:25922088

  20. MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots exposure causes neurotoxic effects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine at the genetic level, or by increasing ROS, or both.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Zhan, Qinglin; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-12-28

    As quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in biomedical applications, the number of studies focusing on their biological properties is increasing. While several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs towards neural cells, the in vivo toxic effects on the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects and the underlying mechanisms of water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that exposure to MPA-capped CdTe QDs induced behavioral defects, including alterations to body bending, head thrashing, pharyngeal pumping and defecation intervals, as well as impaired learning and memory behavior plasticity, based on chemotaxis or thermotaxis, in a dose-, time- and size-dependent manner. Further investigations suggested that MPA-capped CdTe QDs exposure inhibited the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine in C. elegans at the genetic level within 24 h, while opposite results were observed after 72 h. Additionally, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in the CdTe QD-treated worms, which confirmed the common nanotoxicity mechanism of oxidative stress damage, and might overcome the increased gene expression of neurotransmitter transporters and receptors in C. elegans induced by long-term QD exposure, resulting in more severe behavioral impairments. PMID:26583374

  1. MPA-capped CdTe quantum dots exposure causes neurotoxic effects in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by affecting the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine at the genetic level, or by increasing ROS, or both

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tianshu; He, Keyu; Zhan, Qinglin; Ang, Shengjun; Ying, Jiali; Zhang, Shihan; Zhang, Ting; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-12-01

    As quantum dots (QDs) are widely used in biomedical applications, the number of studies focusing on their biological properties is increasing. While several studies have attempted to evaluate the toxicity of QDs towards neural cells, the in vivo toxic effects on the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neurotoxic effects and the underlying mechanisms of water-soluble cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). Our results showed that exposure to MPA-capped CdTe QDs induced behavioral defects, including alterations to body bending, head thrashing, pharyngeal pumping and defecation intervals, as well as impaired learning and memory behavior plasticity, based on chemotaxis or thermotaxis, in a dose-, time- and size-dependent manner. Further investigations suggested that MPA-capped CdTe QDs exposure inhibited the transporters and receptors of glutamate, serotonin and dopamine in C. elegans at the genetic level within 24 h, while opposite results were observed after 72 h. Additionally, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was observed in the CdTe QD-treated worms, which confirmed the common nanotoxicity mechanism of oxidative stress damage, and might overcome the increased gene expression of neurotransmitter transporters and receptors in C. elegans induced by long-term QD exposure, resulting in more severe behavioral impairments.

  2. Site-specific activation of dopamine and serotonin transmission by aniracetam in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rats.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, K; Shirane, M; Koshikawa, N

    2001-04-01

    The effects of aniracetam on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites were examined in five brain regions in freely moving stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) using in vivo microdialysis. Basal DA release in SHRSP was uniformly lower in all regions tested than that in age-matched control Wistar Kyoto rats. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels were altered in the basolateral amygdala, dorsal hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of SHRSP. While basal 5-HT release decreased in the striatum and increased in the basolateral amygdala, there was no associated change in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. Systemic administration of aniracetam to SHRSP enhanced both DA and 5-HT release with partly associated change in their metabolite levels in the prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus, but not in the striatum and nucleus accumbens shell, in a dose-dependent manner (30 and/or 100 mg/kg p.o.). Microinjection (1 and 10 ng) of aniracetam or its metabolites (N-anisoyl-GABA and 2-pyrrolidinone) into the nucleus accumbens shell produced no turning behavior. These findings indicate that SHRSP have a dopaminergic hypofunction throughout the brain and that aniracetam elicits a site-specific activation in mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways in SHRSP, possibly via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the ventral tegmental area and raphe nuclei. The physiological roles in the aniracetam-sensitive brain regions may closely link with their clinical efficacy towards emotional disturbances appearing after cerebral infarction. PMID:11282361

  3. Identification of dopamine- and serotonin-related genes modulated by bisphenol A in the prefrontal cortex of male rats.

    PubMed

    Castro, Beatriz; Snchez, Pilar; Miranda, Mara T; Torres, Jess M; Ortega, Esperanza

    2015-11-01

    There is concern that exposure of embryos and/or infants to bisphenol A (BPA) may lead to neurological and behavioral disorders with unknown prefrontal cortex (PFC) involvement. Critical PFC functions are modulated by dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems, whose alterations have been associated with psychopathologies that may appear in youth and/or adulthood. This study aims to determine in the PFC of male rats exposed to a low dose of BPA (10?gkg(-1)d(-1)) from gestational day 12 (GD12) to postnatal day 21 (PND21): (i) DA- and 5-HT-related genes modulated by BPA at the juvenile stage (PND21); (ii) reversible and irreversible transcriptional effects; (iii) long-term consequences (effects in adult rats, PND90). In juvenile rats, BPA altered significantly the transcription of 12 out of the 84 genes analyzed using PCR-array techniques. Interestingly, transcript levels of the neurotrophic factor Gdnf were decrease by BPA in both juvenile and adult rats. At adulthood, disruptions in genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes for DA and 5-HT synthesis emerged. Overall, the results indicate that early-life exposure to BPA has consequences on DA and 5-HT systems in both juvenile- and adult-life stages. Additionally, we reveal molecular targets that could provide the foundation for future BPA neurotoxicity studies. PMID:26141625

  4. In vivo assessment of dopamine and serotonin receptors measured by C-11 n-methylspiperone (NMSP) in patients with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Tune, L.E.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Suneja, S.; Bjorvinsson, E.; Pearlson, G.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Links, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The authors carried out PET imaging with C-11 NMSP in 13 pts. diagnosed as chronic schizophrenic by (DSM 3) criteria. They had no detectable serum neuroleptics by radioassay at the time of the scan. No pt. had received a neuroleptic for at least 1 week before study, with an avg. abstinence of 7 mo. One had never been on neuroleptics. During the time of scanning, 8/13 had delusions and hallucinations. There was no statistically significant difference from 44 age and sex matched control subjects for the 43 min. Caudate/cerebellar ratio, or the Frontal/Cerebellar ratio, both measures of relative dopamine D2, and serotonin S2 binding. These preliminary studies suggest that these drug free pts. show no large differences in the receptor levels compared to normal data. Differences from in vitro data could be due to: differences in duration of illness (the avg. 10.3) yrs.; difference in age (our pts. vg. 32.7 are much younger than those dying with schizophrenia); drug induced effects at death or persistent neuroleptic effect in our pts.; or difference in method.

  5. Orquestic regulation of neurotransmitters on reward-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area is strongly associated with the reward system. Dopamine is released in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex as a result of rewarding experiences such as food, sex, and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. Electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area or its output pathways can itself serve as a potent reward. Different drugs that increase dopamine levels are intrinsically rewarding. Although the dopaminergic system represent the cornerstone of the reward system, other neurotransmitters such as endogenous opioids, glutamate, γ-Aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, serotonin, adenosine, endocannabinoids, orexins, galanin and histamine all affect this mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Consequently, genetic variations of neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. Here, we discuss current evidence on the orquestic regulation of different neurotranmitters on reward-seeking behavior and its potential effect on drug addiction. PMID:25061480

  6. [Dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin content in various parts of the hypothalamus in alloxan diabetes].

    PubMed

    Baranov, V G; Propp, M V; Sokoloverova, I M; Savchenko, O N; Onegova, R F

    1980-01-01

    In male rats with various forms of alloxan diabetes ("prediabetes", latent and manifest diabetes) there was revealed an increase in noradrenaline level in the anterior and the medial-basal hypothalamus. A rise of dophamine content was noted in the hypothalamus of these animals. Serotonin level fell in all the parts of the hypothalamus of males with "prediabetes". The level of immunoreactive insulin on fasting stomach was diminished in manifest alloxan diabetes, particularly in its severe forms. The data obtained suggest the importance of the feedback mechanism between the metabolic disturbances as a result of insulin insufficiency and the changes in the monoamines level in the hypothalamus. The role of certain parts of the hypothalamus in the regulation of insulin secretion is stressed. PMID:7403031

  7. Analysis of Neurotransmitter Tissue Content of Drosophila melanogaster in Different Life Stages

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a widely used model organism for studying neurological diseases with similar neurotransmission to mammals. While both larva and adult Drosophila have central nervous systems, not much is known about how neurotransmitter tissue content changes through development. In this study, we quantified tyramine, serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in larval, pupal, and adult fly brains using capillary electrophoresis coupled to fast-scan cyclic voltammetry. Tyramine and octopamine content varied between life stages, with almost no octopamine being present in the pupa, while tyramine levels in the pupa were very high. Adult females had significantly higher dopamine content than males, but no other neurotransmitters were dependent on sex in the adult. Understanding the tissue content of different life stages will be beneficial for future work comparing the effects of diseases on tissue content throughout development. PMID:25437353

  8. Hyperfunctionality of serotonin-2C receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release in an animal model of depression is reversed by antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Dremencov, Eliyahu; Newman, Michael E; Kinor, Noa; Blatman-Jan, Gitit; Schindler, Cheryl J; Overstreet, David H; Yadid, Gal

    2005-01-01

    Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens mediates motivation and reward, making it a likely candidate to be involved in anhedonia, one of the major symptoms of depression. In the current study, alterations in basal extracellular dopamine levels and 5HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, an animal model of depression, were investigated. We found that FSL rats have decreased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and an increased inhibitory-like effect of 5HT2C receptors on accumbal dopamine release. However, neither basal 5HT levels nor the accumbal 5HT response to the local 5HT2C receptor antagonist (RS 102221) differed between Sprague-Dawley and FSL rats. Seven-day treatment with the nefazodone (a serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and 5HT2C antagonist) as well as 7-day and 14-day treatments with a tricyclic antidepressant desipramine increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of FSL rats. However, only 14-day treatment with desipramine or 7-day treatment with nefazodone, but not 7-day treatment with desipramine, decreased 5HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release. Based on a possible correlation between the onset of 5HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition and the behavioral effects of desipramine and nefazodone treatment that was described in our previous studies, we suggest that 5HT2C receptor activation may be important for the onset of the behavioral effects of antidepressant treatment. PMID:15617725

  9. Modulation of monoamine neurotransmitters in fighting fish Betta splendens exposed to waterborne phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; McNitt, Meredith M; Carpenter, Russ E; Summers, Cliff H

    2010-12-01

    Endogenous estrogens are known to affect the activity of monoamine neurotransmitters in vertebrate animals, but the effects of exogenous estrogens on neurotransmitters are relatively poorly understood. We exposed sexually mature male fighting fish Betta splendens to environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses of three phytoestrogens that are potential endocrine disruptors in wild fish populations: genistein, equol, and β-sitosterol. We also exposed fish to two doses of the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol, which we selected as a positive control because phytoestrogens are putative estrogen mimics. Our results were variable, but the effects were generally modest. Genistein increased dopamine levels in the forebrains of B. splendens at both environmentally relevant and pharmacological doses. The environmentally relevant dose of equol increased dopamine levels in B. splendens forebrains, and the pharmacological dose decreased norepinephrine (forebrain), dopamine (hindbrain), and serotonin (forebrain) levels. The environmentally relevant dose of β-sitosterol decreased norepinephrine and dopamine in the forebrain and hindbrain, respectively. Our results suggest that sources of environmental phytoestrogens, such as runoff or effluent from agricultural fields, wood pulp mills, and sewage treatment plants, have the potential to modulate neurotransmitter activity in free-living fishes in a way that could interfere with normal behavioral processes. PMID:20012186

  10. Behavioral deficits in rats following acute administration of glimepiride: Relationship with brain serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Shehnaz Abdul; Ikram, Huma; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2015-07-01

    A considerable body of literature suggests that depression and diabetes mellitus are co-morbid. The present study was designed to test any possible behavioral deficits and/or neurochemical changes in the brain as induced by the anti-diabetic drugs. Twenty-four rats were divided into four groups: (i) saline (ii) glimepiride (2.5mg/kg)- (iii) glimepiride (5.0mg/kg)- and (iv) glimepiride (10 mg/kg) injected animals. Behavioral activities in Skinner's box, open field and elevated plus maze were monitored 20, 35 and 45 minutes post injection respectively. Animals were decapitated 60 minutes post injection to collect brain samples. Samples were kept at -70C until neurochemical analysis by HPLC-EC. Results from the present study show decreased time spent in the open arm of the elevated plus maze (p<0.05) at all the three doses. A decrease in the HVA (Homovanillic acid) levels at all three doses (p<0.01) was also observed along with decreased 5-HT (5-Hydroxytryptamine) (p<0.05 at 5.0 and 10mg/kg) and 5-HIAA (5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid) (p<0.05 at all three doses) levels. Since a decrease in 5-HT metabolism can induce depression-like effects, the present study therefore suggests that the occurrence of depression in diabetic patients is due to the use of glimipride. Effects of long-term administration of smaller doses of glimipride are to be explored further to monitor tolerance in glimipride-induced deficits of serotonin. The finding may help to explore the cause of depression in diabetics for improving pharmacotherapy in diabetes. PMID:26142509

  11. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter J; Amat, Jose; McConnell, Sara O; Ghasem, Parsa R; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Maier, Steven F; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress). Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN) and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA) levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS) and lateral (DLS) dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress. PMID:26555633

  12. Serotonin, but not dopamine, controls the stress response and anxiety-like behavior in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Fossat, Pascal; Bacqu-Cazenave, Julien; De Deurwaerdre, Philippe; Cattaert, Daniel; Delbecque, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-01

    In the animal kingdom, biogenic amines are widespread modulators of the nervous system that frequently interact to control mood. Our previous investigations in crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) have established that stress induces changes in brain serotonin (5-HT) concentrations that are responsible for the appearance of anxiety-like behavior (ALB). Here, we further analyze the roles of 5-HT and another biogenic amine, dopamine (DA), on the crayfish response to stress. We show that the intensity of crayfish ALB depends on the intensity of stressful stimulation and is associated with increased concentrations of 5-HT in the brain. These 5-HT levels were significantly correlated, before, as well as after stress, with those of DA, which were approximately 3- to 5-times less abundant. However, whereas the degree of ALB was clearly correlated with brain 5-HT concentrations, it was not significantly correlated with DA. Moreover, in contrast to injections of 5-HT, DA injections were not able to elicit a stress response or ALB. In addition, 5-HT and DA levels were not modified by treatment with the anxiolytic chlordiazepoxide, confirming that suppression of ALB by this GABA-A receptor ligand acts downstream and is independent of changes in crayfish bioamine levels. Our study also provides evidence that the anxiogenic effect of 5-HT injections can be prevented by a preliminary injection of 5-HT antagonists. Altogether, our results emphasize that the rises in brain concentrations of 5-HT, but not DA, play a role in controlling the induction and the intensity of crayfish ALB. PMID:26139659

  13. Ethanol and acetaldehyde differentially alter extracellular dopamine and serotonin in Aldh2-knockout mouse dorsal striatum: A reverse microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Mostofa; Ameno, Kiyoshi; Miki, Takanori; Tanaka, Naoko; Ito, Asuka; Ono, Junichiro; Takakura, Ayaka; Kumihashi, Mitsuru; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) seem to be involved in several of the effects of ethanol (EtOH). Acetaldehyde (AcH), especially in the brain, induces effects that mimic those of EtOH. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of local perfusion of EtOH and AcH on extracellular DA and 5-HT in the dorsal striatum of Aldh2-knockout (Aldh2-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Aldh2-KO mice were used as a model of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency in humans to examine the effects of AcH. Mice were perfused with Ringer's solution (control), EtOH (100, 200, or 500mM) and AcH (100, 200, or 500?M) into the dorsal striatum. Dialysate samples were collected every 5min, and then analyzed with HPLC coupled to an ECD. We found that local perfusion with 500mM EtOH increased extracellular levels of DA (p<0.05) in both Aldh2-KO and WT mice, while 5-HT levels remain unchanged. EtOH at a dose of 200mM also increased DA in WT mice, but this was limited to a 30-40-min time-point. In contrast, perfusion with 200 and 500?M AcH decreased both DA and 5-HT (p<0.05) in Aldh2-KO mice, but this decrease was not found in WT mice at any AcH dose, indicating an effect of AcH on DA and 5-HT levels. There were no genotype effects on the basal levels of DA and 5-HT. These results indicate that high EtOH can stimulate DA, whereas high AcH can depress both DA and 5-HT in the dorsal striatum of mice. PMID:26711020

  14. Effects of exposure to pyrethroid cyfluthrin on serotonin and dopamine levels in brain regions of male rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, J L; Ares, I; Castellano, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A

    2016-04-01

    The effects of cyfluthrin oral exposure (1, 5, 10 and 20mg/kg bw, 6 days) on brain region monoamine levels of male rats were examined. Cyfluthrin-treated rats (1, 5 and 10mg/kg bw, orally 6 days), had no visible injury, i.e., no clinical signs of dysfunction were observed. However, rats treated with cyfluthrin at the highest dose (20mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) showed skeletal muscle contraction in the hind limbs, slight movement incoordination without any signs of dyskinesia and tremor after 1-2h of treatment. These signs were reversible at 6h after dose. After last dose of cyfluthrin, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolites levels were determined in brain regions hypothalamus, midbrain, hippocampus, striatum and prefrontal cortex by HPLC. Cyfluthrin (1mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) did not affect the DA, 5-HT and metabolites levels in the brain regions studied. Cyfluthrin (5, 10 and 20mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) caused a statistically significant decrease in DA and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA levels and in 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA levels in a brain region- and dose-related manner. Moreover, cyfluthrin (20mg/kg bw, orally 6 days) evoked a statistically significant increase in 5-HT turnover in striatum and midbrain, and in DA turnover in striatum and prefrontal cortex. These findings indicate that serotoninergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission is affected by exposure to cyfluthrin and may contribute to the overall spectrum of neurotoxicity caused by this pyrethroid. PMID:26826775

  15. Molecular modeling and docking study on dopamine D2-like and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xinli; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Fang; Lei, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression, are paid more and more attention by human due to their upward tendency in modern society. D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors have been proposed as targets of antipsychotic drugs. Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been deemed to improve the treatment of positive, negative and extrapyramidal symptoms. Unfortunately, no experimental structures for these receptors are available except D3 receptor (D3R). Therefore, it is necessary to construct structures of D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors to investigate the interaction between these receptors and their antagonists. Accordingly, homology models of dopamine D2, D3, D4 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors have been built on the high-resolution crystal structure of the ?2-adrenergic receptor, and refined by molecular dynamics simulations. The backbone root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of D3R model relative to crystal structure is 1.3?, which proves the reliability of homology modeling. Docking studies reveal that the binding modes of four homology models and their antagonists are consistent with experimental site-directed mutagenesis data. The calculated pKi values agree well with the experimental pKi ones. Antagonists with linear structures such as butyrophenones and benzisoxazolyl piperidines are easily docked into D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors. Polycyclic aromatic compounds have weaker affinity with four receptors. Homology models of D2-like and 5-HT2A receptors will be helpful for predicting the affinity of novel ligands, and could be used as three-dimensional (3D) templates for antipsychotic virtual screening and further drug discovery. PMID:25728902

  16. Running Reduces Uncontrollable Stress-Evoked Serotonin and Potentiates Stress-Evoked Dopamine Concentrations in the Rat Dorsal Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter J.; Amat, Jose; McConnell, Sara O.; Ghasem, Parsa R.; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Maier, Steven F.; Fleshner, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from both the human and animal literature indicates that exercise reduces the negative consequences of stress. The neurobiological etiology for this stress protection, however, is not completely understood. Our lab reported that voluntary wheel running protects rats from expressing depression-like instrumental learning deficits on the shuttle box escape task after exposure to unpredictable and inescapable tail shocks (uncontrollable stress). Impaired escape behavior is a result of stress-sensitized serotonin (5-HT) neuron activity in the dorsal raphe (DRN) and subsequent excessive release of 5-HT into the dorsal striatum following exposure to a comparatively mild stressor. However, the possible mechanisms by which exercise prevents stress-induced escape deficits are not well characterized. The purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that exercise blunts the stress-evoked release of 5-HT in the dorsal striatum. Changes to dopamine (DA) levels were also examined, since striatal DA signaling is critical for instrumental learning and can be influenced by changes to 5-HT activity. Adult male F344 rats, housed with or without running wheels for 6 weeks, were either exposed to tail shock or remained undisturbed in laboratory cages. Twenty-four hours later, microdialysis was performed in the medial (DMS) and lateral (DLS) dorsal striatum to collect extracellular 5-HT and DA before, during, and following 2 mild foot shocks. We report wheel running prevents foot shock-induced elevation of extracellular 5-HT and potentiates DA concentrations in both the DMS and DLS approximately 24 h following exposure to uncontrollable stress. These data may provide a possible mechanism by which exercise prevents depression-like instrumental learning deficits following exposure to acute stress. PMID:26555633

  17. Central serotonin(2B) receptor blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical dopamine outflow.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Cline; Cathala, Adeline; Di Marco, Barbara; Caraci, Filippo; Drago, Filippo; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    The central serotonin2B receptor (5-HT2BR) is currently considered as an interesting pharmacological target for improved treatment of drug addiction. In the present study, we assessed the effect of two selective 5-HT2BR antagonists, RS 127445 and LY 266097, on cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and dopamine (DA) outflow in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the dorsal striatum of freely moving rats. The peripheral administration of RS 127445 (0.16mg/kg, i.p.) or LY 266097 (0.63mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced basal DA outflow in the NAc shell, but had no effect on cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.)-induced DA outflow in this brain region. Also, RS 127445 failed to modify both basal and cocaine-induced DA outflow in the NAc core and the dorsal striatum. Conversely, both 5-HT2BR antagonists reduced cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. Furthermore, RS 127445 as well as the DA-R antagonist haloperidol (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) reduced significantly the late-onset hyperlocomotion induced by the DA-R agonist quinpirole (0.5mg/kg, s.c.). Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5-HT2BR blockade inhibits cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion independently of changes of subcortical DA outflow. This interaction takes place downstream to DA neurons and could involve an action at the level of dorsostriatal and/or NAc DA transmission, in keeping with the importance of these brain regions in the behavioural responses of cocaine. Overall, this study affords additional knowledge into the regulatory control exerted by the 5-HT2BR on ascending DA pathways, and provides additional support to the proposed role of 5-HT2BRs as a new pharmacological target in drug addiction. PMID:26116760

  18. Quantitative mapping shows that serotonin rather than dopamine receptor mRNA expressions are affected after repeated intermittent administration of MDMA in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kindlundh-Hgberg, Anna M S; Svenningsson, Per; Schith, Helgi B

    2006-09-01

    Ecstasy, (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxy-metamphetamine (MDMA), is a popular recreational drug among young people. The present study aims to mimic MDMA intake among adolescents at dance clubs, taking repeated doses in the same evening on an intermittent basis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received either 3x1 or 3x5 mg/kg/day (3 h apart) every seventh day during 4 weeks. We used real-time RT-PCR to determine the gene expression of serotonin 5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT2A, 5HT2C, 5HT3, 5HT6 receptors and dopamine D1, D2, D3 receptors in seven brain nuclei. The highest dose of MDMA extensively increased the 5HT1B-receptor mRNA in the cortex, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. The 5HT2A-receptor mRNA was reduced at the highest MDMA dose in the cortex. The 5HT2C mRNA was significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner in the cortex and the hypothalamus, as well as the 5HT3-receptor mRNA was in the hypothalamus. The 5HT6 mRNA level was increased in the forebrain cortex and the amygdala. Dopamine receptor mRNAs were only affected in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for a unique implication of serotonin rather than dopamine receptor mRNA levels, in response to repeated intermittent MDMA administration. We therefore suggest that serotonin regulated functions also primarily underlie repeated MDMA intake at rave parties. PMID:16820177

  19. Discovery of a new class of potential multifunctional atypical antipsychotic agents targeting dopamine D3 and serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors: design, synthesis, and effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Butini, Stefania; Gemma, Sandra; Campiani, Giuseppe; Franceschini, Silvia; Trotta, Francesco; Borriello, Marianna; Ceres, Nicoletta; Ros, Sindu; Coccone, Salvatore Sanna; Bernetti, Matteo; De Angelis, Meri; Brindisi, Margherita; Nacci, Vito; Fiorini, Isabella; Novellino, Ettore; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Mennini, Tiziana; Sandager-Nielsen, Karin; Andreasen, Jesper Tobias; Scheel-Kruger, Jorgen; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Fattorusso, Caterina

    2009-01-01

    Dopamine D(3) antagonism combined with serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptor occupancy may represent a novel paradigm for developing innovative antipsychotics. The unique pharmacological features of 5i are a high affinity for dopamine D(3), serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors, together with a low affinity for dopamine D(2) receptors (to minimize extrapyramidal side effects), serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptors (to reduce the risk of obesity under chronic treatment), and for hERG channels (to reduce incidence of torsade des pointes). Pharmacological and biochemical data, including specific c-fos expression in mesocorticolimbic areas, confirmed an atypical antipsychotic profile of 5i in vivo, characterized by the absence of catalepsy at antipsychotic dose. PMID:19072656

  20. Neurotransmitters and Novelty: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Meeter, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Our brains are highly responsive to novelty. However, how novelty is processed in the brain, and what neurotransmitter systems play a role therein, remains elusive. Here, we systematically review studies on human participants that have looked at the neuromodulatory basis of novelty detection and processing. While theoretical models and studies on nonhuman animals have pointed to a role of the dopaminergic, cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic systems, the human literature has focused almost exclusively on the first two. Dopamine was found to affect electrophysiological responses to novelty early in time after stimulus presentation, but evidence on its effects on later processing was found to be contradictory: While neuropharmacological studies mostly yielded null effects, gene studies did point to an important role for dopamine. Acetylcholine seems to dampen novelty signals in the medial temporal lobe, but boost them in frontal cortex. Findings on 5-HT (serotonin) were found to be mostly contradictory. Two large gaps were identified in the literature. First, few studies have looked at neuromodulatory influences on behavioral effects of novelty. Second, no study has looked at the involvement of the noradrenergic system in novelty processing. PMID:26601905

  1. The Effects of LPM570065, a Novel Triple Reuptake Inhibitor, on Extracellular Serotonin, Dopamine and Norepinephrine Levels in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renyu; Li, Xiang; Shi, Yanan; Shao, Yufeng; Sun, Kaoxiang; Wang, Aiping; Sun, Fengying; Liu, Wanhui; Wang, Di; Jin, Jingji; Li, Youxin

    2014-01-01

    Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) are currently being developed as a new class of promising antidepressants that block serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) transporters, thereby increasing extracellular monoamine concentrations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of LPM570065, a novel TRI and a desvenlafaxine prodrug, on extracellular 5-HT, DA and NE levels in the rat striatum after acute and chronic administration relative to desvenlafaxine, using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and microdialysis. Acute administration was performed by providing rodents with oral solutions (0.06 mmolkg?1 p.o.), oral suspensions (0.06 mmolkg?1 p.o.) and intravenous solutions (0.04 mmolkg?1 i.v.) of LPM570065 and desvenlafaxine. Oral suspensions (0.06 mmolkg?1day?1) of the two drugs were also administered for a 14-day chronic period. HPLC analysis revealed that LPM570065 rapidly penetrated the rat striatum, converted into desvenlafaxine and exhibited larger total exposure compared with the administration of desvenlafaxine. Microdialysis revealed that acute and chronic administration of oral suspension of LPM570065 increased the 5-HT, DA and NE levels more than the relative administration of desvenlafaxine. Unlike desvenlafaxine, acute administration of an intravenous LPM570065 solution did not induce the undesirable 90% decrease in extracellular 5-HT levels. In contrast to the fully dose-dependent elevation of 5-HT induced by desvenlafaxine, the acute administration of LPM570065 showed a capped increase in extracellular 5-HT levels when combined with WAY-100635. Additionally, forced swim test demonstrated that acute and chronic administration of LPM570065 reduced the immobility time more than the relative administration of desvenlafaxine. These data suggest that LPM570065 may have greater efficacy and/or a more rapid onset of antidepressant action than desvenlafaxine and also counterbalance the harmful effects of desvenlafaxine on 5-HT neurotransmission related to 5-HT1A autoreceptors. Thus, this new class of drugs, TRIs has the potential to provide a new therapeutic mechanism for treating depression. PMID:24614602

  2. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jnis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  3. Could Dopamine Agonists Aid in Drug Development for Anorexia Nervosa?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K. W.

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  4. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase-immunoreactive neurons in and around the cerebrospinal fluid-contacting neurons of the central canal do not contain dopamine or serotonin in the mouse and rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Nagatsu, I; Sakai, M; Yoshida, M; Nagatsu, T

    1988-12-13

    Using a specific antibody against each of the 4 catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes, dopamine or serotonin, we compared the localization of these substances in rat and mouse spinal cord with two kinds of fixative, such as paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and two types of sectioning technique, i.e. cryostat and microslicer. In this study, we demonstrated aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC)-like immunoreactivity (LI) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons for the first time in the mouse. These cells and some AADC-immunoreactive cells localized outside the subependymal layer of mouse and rat spinal cord did not show tyrosine hydroxylase-, serotonin- and dopamine-LI with and without colchicine treatment. PMID:3214730

  5. SLC18: Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters for monoamines and acetylcholine ?

    PubMed Central

    Lawal, Hakeem O.; Krantz, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The exocytotic release of neurotransmitters requires active transport into synaptic vesicles and other types of secretory vesicles. Members of the SLC18 family perform this function for acetylcholine (SLC18A3, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter or VAChT) and monoamines such as dopamine and serotonin (SLC18A1 and 2, the vesicular monoamine transporters VMAT1 and 2, respectively). To date, no specific diseases have been attributed to a mutation in an SLC18 family member; however, polymorphisms in SLC18A1 and SLC18A2 may confer risk for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Additional members of this family include SLC18A4, expressed in insects, and SLC18B1, the function of which is not known. SLC18 is part of the Drug:H+ Antiporter-1 Family (DHA1, TCID 2.A.1.2) within the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS, TCID 2.A.1). PMID:23506877

  6. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU)

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Cary O.; Winn, Shelley R.; Gibson, K. Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Summary Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

  7. Ethylenedioxy homologs of N-methyl-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (MDMA) and its corresponding cathinone analog methylenedioxymethcathinone: Interactions with transporters for serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Del Bello, Fabio; Sakloth, Farhana; Partilla, John S; Baumann, Michael H; Glennon, Richard A

    2015-09-01

    N-Methyl-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (MDMA; 'Ecstasy'; 1) and its ?-keto analog methylone (MDMC; 2) are popular drugs of abuse. Little is known about their ring-expanded ethylenedioxy homologs. Here, we prepared N-methyl-(3,4-ethylenedioxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane (EDMA; 3), both of its optical isomers, and ?-keto EDMA (i.e., EDMC; 4) to examine their effects at transporters for serotonin (SERT), dopamine (DAT), and norepinephrine (NET). In general, ring-expansion of the methylenedioxy group led to a several-fold reduction in potency at all three transporters. With respect to EDMA (3), S(+)3 was 6-fold, 50-fold, and 8-fold more potent than its R(-) enantiomer at SERT, DAT, and NET, respectively. Overall, in the absence of a ?-carbonyl group, the ethylenedioxy (i.e., 1,4-dioxane) substituent seems better accommodated at SERT than at DAT and NET. PMID:26233799

  8. Simultaneous measurement of serotonin, dopamine and their metabolites in mouse brain extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry following derivatization with ethyl chloroformate.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Young; Myung, Seung-Woon; Kim, In-Soo; Choi, Dong-Kug; Kwon, Soon-Jung; Yoon, Sung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    In order to measure the levels of serotonin (5-hydroxyltryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA), 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) and homovanillic acid (HVA) simultaneously, an effective derivatization method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrochemical ionization mass spectrometry was used. The derivatization reaction of biological samples with ethyl chloroformate occurred rapidly at room temperature in aqueous conditions, and the resulting derivatives were isocratically separated with good selectivity using a C18 reversed-phase column within 30 min. The study results showed that the new derivatization procedure offers an excellent means of simultaneous determination of 5-HT, DA and their metabolites in mouse brain homogenates, which are important in a number of physiological and behavioral functions. PMID:23196426

  9. Functional mechanisms of neurotransmitter transporters regulated by lipid-protein interactions of their terminal loops.

    PubMed

    Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2015-09-01

    The physiological functions of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) in reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synapse into the presynaptic nerve have been shown to be complemented by their involvement, together with non-plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters, in the reverse transport of substrate (efflux) in response to psychostimulants. Recent experimental evidence implicates highly anionic phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP(2)) lipids in such functions of the serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) transporters. Thus, for both SERT and DAT, neurotransmitter efflux has been shown to be strongly regulated by the presence of PIP(2) lipids in the plasma membrane, and the electrostatic interaction of the N-terminal region of DAT with the negatively charged PIP(2) lipids. We examine the experimentally established phenotypes in a structural context obtained from computational modeling based on recent crystallographic data. The results are shown to set the stage for a mechanistic understanding of physiological actions of neurotransmitter transporters in the NSS family of membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25847498

  10. LeuT-Desipramine Structure Reveals How Antidepressants Block Neurotransmitter Reuptake

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,Z.; Zhen, J.; Karpowich, N.; Goetz, R.; Law, C.; Reith, M.; Wang, D.

    2007-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants exert their pharmacological effect -- inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine -- by directly blocking neurotransmitter transporters (SERT, NET, and DAT, respectively) in the presynaptic membrane. The drug-binding site and the mechanism of this inhibition are poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure at 2.9 angstroms of the bacterial leucine transporter (LeuT), a homolog of SERT, NET, and DAT, in complex with leucine and the antidepressant desipramine. Desipramine binds at the inner end of the extracellular cavity of the transporter and is held in place by a hairpin loop and by a salt bridge. This binding site is separated from the leucine-binding site by the extracellular gate of the transporter. By directly locking the gate, desipramine prevents conformational changes and blocks substrate transport. Mutagenesis experiments on human SERT and DAT indicate that both the desipramine-binding site and its inhibition mechanism are probably conserved in the human neurotransmitter transporters.

  11. Chronic Effect of Aspartame on Ionic Homeostasis and Monoamine Neurotransmitters in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Abhilash, M; Alex, Manju; Mathews, Varghese V; Nair, R Harikumaran

    2014-05-28

    Aspartame is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners globally. Data concerning acute neurotoxicity of aspartame is controversial, and knowledge on its chronic effect is limited. In the current study, we investigated the chronic effects of aspartame on ionic homeostasis and regional monoamine neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. Our results showed that aspartame at high dose caused a disturbance in ionic homeostasis and induced apoptosis in the brain. We also investigated the effects of aspartame on brain regional monoamine synthesis, and the results revealed that there was a significant decrease of dopamine in corpus striatum and cerebral cortex and of serotonin in corpus striatum. Moreover, aspartame treatment significantly alters the tyrosine hydroxylase activity and amino acids levels in the brain. Our data suggest that chronic use of aspartame may affect electrolyte homeostasis and monoamine neurotransmitter synthesis dose dependently, and this might have a possible effect on cognitive functions. PMID:24872471

  12. Neurotransmitter properties of the newborn human retina

    SciTech Connect

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Frederick, J.M.; Rayborn, M.E.

    1983-07-01

    Human retinal tissue from a newborn was examined autoradiographically for the presence of high-affinity uptake and localization of the following putative neurotransmitters: dopamine, glycine, GABA, aspartate, and glutamate. In addition, the dopamine content of this newborn retina was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Our study reveals that specific uptake mechanisms for /sup 3/H-glycine, /sup 3/H-dopamine, and /sup 3/H-GABA are present at birth. However, the number and distribution of cells labeled with each of these /sup 3/H-transmitters are not identical to those observed in adult human retinas. Furthermore, the amount of endogenous dopamine in the newborn retina is approximately 1/20 the adult level. Photoreceptor-specific uptake of /sup 3/H-glutamate and /sup 3/H-aspartate are not observed. These findings indicate that, while some neurotransmitter-specific properties are present at birth, significant maturation of neurotransmitter systems occurs postnatally.

  13. An extended reinforcement learning model of basal ganglia to understand the contributions of serotonin and dopamine in risk-based decision making, reward prediction, and punishment learning

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Pragathi P.; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Although empirical and neural studies show that serotonin (5HT) plays many functional roles in the brain, prior computational models mostly focus on its role in behavioral inhibition. In this study, we present a model of risk based decision making in a modified Reinforcement Learning (RL)-framework. The model depicts the roles of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in Basal Ganglia (BG). In this model, the DA signal is represented by the temporal difference error (?), while the 5HT signal is represented by a parameter (?) that controls risk prediction error. This formulation that accommodates both 5HT and DA reconciles some of the diverse roles of 5HT particularly in connection with the BG system. We apply the model to different experimental paradigms used to study the role of 5HT: (1) Risk-sensitive decision making, where 5HT controls risk assessment, (2) Temporal reward prediction, where 5HT controls time-scale of reward prediction, and (3) Reward/Punishment sensitivity, in which the punishment prediction error depends on 5HT levels. Thus the proposed integrated RL model reconciles several existing theories of 5HT and DA in the BG. PMID:24795614

  14. Potentiation of neurite outgrowth by brexpiprazole, a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator: a role for serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors.

    PubMed

    Ishima, Tamaki; Futamura, Takashi; Ohgi, Yuta; Yoshimi, Noriko; Kikuchi, Tetsuro; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    Brexpiprazole, a novel atypical antipsychotic drug, is currently being tested in clinical trials for treatment of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. The drug is known to act through a combination of partial agonistic activity at 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A, and dopamine D2 receptors, and antagonistic activity at 5-HT2A receptors. Accumulating evidence suggests that antipsychotic drugs act by promoting neurite outgrowth. In this study, we examined whether brexpiprazole affected neurite outgrowth in cell culture. We found that brexpiprazole significantly potentiated nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, in a concentration dependent manner. The selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100,635, was able to block the effects of brexpiprazole on neurite outgrowth, unlike the selective dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, raclopride. Furthermore, the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907, but not DOI (5-HT2A receptor agonist), significantly potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Moreover, xestospongin C and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), both specific inhibitors of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors, significantly blocked the effects of brexpiprazole. These findings suggest that brexpiprazole-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated through 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, and subsequent Ca(2+) signaling via IP3 receptors. PMID:25687838

  15. Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive–compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Moya, Pablo R.; Fox, Meredith A.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Wendland, Jens R.; Timpano, Kiara R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders. PMID:23440468

  16. Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a negligible change to the signal. Chapter 3 is devoted to the development and characterization of new CNT-Yarn Microelectrodes (CNTYME) which display a beneficial enhancement in sensitivity and reduction in both electron transfer kinetics and overpotential. Chapter 4 introduces the high-speed dopamine detection capabilities of CNTYMEs, almost two orders of magnitude faster than at CFMEs without any compromise in electrochemical sensitivity, and discusses how adsorption and desorption relate to this phenomenon.

  17. The presence of both serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene variants increase the risk of borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Peter R.; Stephenson, John; Kennedy, Martin; Mulder, Roger T.; McHugh, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction in the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems has been demonstrated to be important in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We investigated the relationship of two BPD risk factors, the HTR1A promoter polymorphism -1019C > G (rs6295) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) repeat allele, with BPD in a major depressive disorder cohort of 367 patients. Out-patients with major depressive disorder were recruited for two treatment trials and assessed for personality disorders, including BPD. DNA samples were collected and the rs6295 polymorphism was detected with a TaqMan® assay. The DAT1 repeat allele was genotyped using a modified PCR method. The impact of polymorphisms on BPD was statistically analyzed using uncontrolled logistic and multiple logistic regression models. BPD patients had higher frequencies of the DAT1 9,9 (OR = 2.67) and 9,10 (OR = 3.67) genotypes and also those homozygous HTR1A G allele (OR = 2.03). No significant interactions between HTR1A and DAT1 genotypes, were observed; however, an increased risk of BPD was observed for those patients who were either 9,10; G,G (OR = 6.64) and 9,9; C,G (OR = 5.42). Furthermore, the odds of BPD in patients exhibiting high-risk variants of these two genes differed from those of patients in low-risk groups by up to a factor of 9. Our study provides evidence implicating the importance of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in BPD and that the interaction between genes from different neurotransmitters may play a role in the susceptibility to BPD. PMID:24432029

  18. Effect of metyrapone on the fluoxetine-induced change in extracellular dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in the rat frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rog?, Zofia; Go?embiowska, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    Major depression is frequently associated with the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, and glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitors have been shown to exert antidepressant action. Metyrapone (an inhibitor of the enzyme 11-?-hydroxylase) has been found to be effective as an adjunctive therapy in combination with other antidepressants (ADs) in both treatment-resistant depression and animal models. To understand the mechanism of the clinical efficacy of a combination of an AD and metyrapone in treatment-resistant depression, the present study was aimed at determining the influence of fluoxetine (FLU; a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and metyrapone, given separately or jointly, on the extracellular level of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in rat frontal cortex of freely moving rats using microdialysis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. FLU (10 mg/kg) given alone increased the extracellular level of DA and 5-HT in the rat frontal cortex. Metyrapone (100 mg/kg) alone did not change the level of monoamines. A combination of FLU and metyrapone produced the same change in the efflux of both DA and 5-HT as did FLU alone. However, the latter combination (FLU and metyrapone) produced significantly bigger increases in the levels of extracellular DA metabolites (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid) and a 5-HT metabolite (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) than did FLU alone. The above findings suggest that--among other mechanisms--increases in the levels of extracellular DA and 5-HT metabolites may play a role in the enhancement of FLU efficacy by metyrapone, and may be of crucial importance to the pharmacotherapy of drug-resistant depression. PMID:21273658

  19. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kimble, Christopher J; Johnson, David M; Winter, Bruce A; Whitlock, Sidney V; Kressin, Kenneth R; Horne, April E; Robinson, Justin C; Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Tye, Susannah J; Chang, Su-Youne; Agnesi, Filippo; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Covey, Daniel; Shon, Young-Min; Bennet, Kevin E; Garris, Paul A; Lee, Kendall H

    2009-01-01

    The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter concentrations at an electrochemical sensor, typically a carbon-fiber microelectrode. WINCS comprises a battery-powered patient module and a custom software application (WINCSware) running on a nearby personal computer. The patient module impresses upon the electrochemical sensor either a constant potential (for FPA) or a time-varying waveform (for FSCV). A transimpedance amplifier converts the resulting current to a signal that is digitized and transmitted to the base station via a Bluetooth radio link. WINCSware controls the operational parameters for FPA or FSCV, and records the transmitted data stream. Filtered data is displayed in various formats, including a background-subtracted plot of sequential FSCV scans - a representation that enables users to distinguish the signatures of various analytes with considerable specificity. Dopamine, glutamate, adenosine and serotonin were selected as analytes for test trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow-injection measurements and in vivo measurements in rat and pig. Further testing demonstrated basic functionality in a 3-Tesla MRI unit. WINCS was designed in compliance with consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, and it is anticipated that its capability for real-time intraoperative monitoring of neurotransmitter release at an implanted sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery. PMID:19963865

  20. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) for Intraoperative Neurochemical Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kimble, Christopher J.; Johnson, David M.; Winter, Bruce A.; Whitlock, Sidney V.; Kressin, Kenneth R.; Horne, April E.; Robinson, Justin C.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Tye, Susannah J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Agnesi, Filippo; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Covey, Daniel; Shon, Young-Min; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter concentrations at an electrochemical sensor, typically a carbon-fiber microelectrode. WINCS comprises a battery-powered patient module and a custom software application (WINCSware) running on a nearby personal computer. The patient module impresses upon the electrochemical sensor either a constant potential (for FPA) or a time-varying waveform (for FSCV). A transimpedance amplifier converts the resulting current to a signal that is digitized and transmitted to the base station via a Bluetooth radio link. WINCSware controls the operational parameters for FPA or FSCV, and records the transmitted data stream. Filtered data is displayed in various formats, including a background-subtracted plot of sequential FSCV scansa representation that enables users to distinguish the signatures of various analytes with considerable specificity. Dopamine, glutamate, adenosine and serotonin were selected as analytes for test trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow-injection measurements and in vivo measurements in rat and pig. Further testing demonstrated basic functionality in a 3-Tesla MRI unit. WINCS was designed in compliance with consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, and it is anticipated that its capability for real-time intraoperative monitoring of neurotransmitter release at an implanted sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery. PMID:19963865

  1. Neuronal responses of the globus pallidus to systemic administration of d-amphetamine: investigation of the involvement of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, D A; Walters, J R

    1981-03-01

    Systemic administration of d-amphetamine (d-AMP) caused significant increases in the unit activity of spontaneously firing neurons in the rat globus pallidus. Intravenous injection of 0.2 mg/kg of d-AMP produced an average increase of 32% while a cumulative dose of 6.4 mg/kg of d-AMP increased cell firing 81% above base line control. The excitatory effects of d-AMP on pallidal cells were effectively blocked and reversed by haloperidol. Increasing intravenous doses of l-amphetamine (l-AMP), totaling 12.8 mg/kg, caused a slight excitation of pallidal neurons. The average maximum increase was 18.3%. Minor rate-elevating effects were also observed after systemic administration of desmethylimipramine and clonidine. The serotonin uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine, produced varied changes in firing frequencies. Pretreatment with reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine significantly attenuated the d-AMP-induced increase in pallidal activity. These results suggest that dopamine plays a prominent role in mediating the stimulatory effects of d-AMP on the firing rates of a population of globus pallidus cells in gallamine-paralyzed rats. PMID:6114996

  2. Stimulation of glutamate receptors in the ventral tegmental area is necessary for serotonin-2 receptor-induced increases in mesocortical dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Pehek, E A; Hernan, A E

    2015-04-01

    Modulation of dopamine (DA) released by serotonin-2 (5-HT2) receptors has been implicated in the mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs. The mesocortical DA system has been implicated particularly in the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Agonism at 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is associated with increases in cortical DA release. Evidence indicates that 5-HT2A receptors in the cortex regulate mesocortical DA release through stimulation of a "long-loop" feedback system from the PFC to the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and back. However, a causal role for VTA glutamate in the 5-HT2-induced increases in PFC DA has not been established. The present study does so by measuring 5-HT2 agonist-induced DA release in the cortex after infusions of glutamate antagonists into the VTA of the rat. Infusions of a combination of a N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) (AP-5: 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid) and an AMPA/kainate (CNQX: 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione) receptor antagonist into the VTA blocked the increases in cortical DA produced by administration of the 5-HT2 agonist DOI [()-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine] (2.5mg/kg s.c.). These results demonstrate that stimulation of glutamate receptors in the VTA is necessary for 5-HT2 agonist-induced increases in cortical DA. PMID:25637799

  3. Coordinated Recruitment of Cortical-Subcortical Circuits and Ascending Dopamine and Serotonin Neurons During Inhibitory Control of Cocaine Seeking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Navailles, Sylvia; Guillem, Karine; Vouillac-Mendoza, Caroline; Ahmed, Serge H

    2015-09-01

    People with cocaine addiction retain some degree of prefrontal cortex (PFC) inhibitory control of cocaine craving, a brain capacity that may underlie the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy for addiction. Similar findings were recently found in rats after extended access to and escalation of cocaine self-administration. Rats' inhibitory control of cocaine seeking was flexible, sufficiently strong to suppress cocaine-primed reinstatement and depended, at least in part, on neuronal activity within the prelimbic (PL) PFC. Here, we used a large-scale and high-resolution Fos mapping approach to identify, beyond the PL PFC, how top-down and/or bottom-up PFC-subcortical circuits are recruited during inhibition of cocaine seeking. Overall, we found that effective inhibitory control of cocaine seeking is associated with the coordinated recruitment of different top-down cortical-striatal circuits originating from different PFC territories, and of different bottom-up dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) midbrain subsystems that normally modulate activity in these circuits. This integrated brain response suggests that rats concomitantly engage and experience intricate cognitive and affective processes when they have to inhibit intense cocaine seeking. Thus, even after extended drug use, rats can be successfully trained to engage whole-brain inhibitory control mechanisms to suppress cocaine seeking. PMID:24872521

  4. Changes in the levels, expression, and possible roles of serotonin and dopamine during embryonic development in the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Tinikul, Ruchanok; Sobhon, Prasert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), and their possible roles during embryonic development of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The 5-HT and DA concentrations were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). The levels of 5-HT and DA gradually increased from early developing embryos to late developing embryos. The 5-HT concentrations gradually increased from the pale yellow egg to orange egg stages, and reaching a maximum at the black egg stage. DA concentrations were much lower in the early embryos than those of 5-HT (P<0.05), and gradually increased to reach the highest level at the black egg stage. Immunohistochemically, 5-HT was firstly detected in the early embryonic stages, whereas DA developed later than 5-HT. Functionally, 5-HT-treated female prawns at doses of 2.5×10(-5), 2.5×10(-6) and 2.5×10(-7)mol/prawn, produced embryos with significantly shortened lengths of early embryonic stages, whereas DA-treated prawns at all three doses, exerted its effects by significantly lengthening the period of mid-embryonic stage onwards. These results suggest significant involvement of 5-HT and DA in embryonic developmental processes of this species. PMID:26393313

  5. In vivo occupation of dopamine D1, D2 and serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors by sertindole in the rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Y; Kusumi, I; Ishikane, T; Matsubara, S; Koyama, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the in vivo occupation of dopamine D1, D2 and serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors by novel antipsychotic agent sertindole using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ), an irreversible antagonist at these receptor sites. DESIGN: Animal study. INTERVENTIONS: Intraperitoneal administration to Wistar rats of 1 of 4 test compounds: a control compound of 0.15% tartaric acid, or a compound of either sertindole (0.5 mg/kg or 2.0 mg/kg) or clozapine (20 mg/kg) dissolved in 0.15% tartaric acid 1 hour before intraperitoneal administration of EEDQ (8 mg/kg) or ethanol/water solution. RESULTS: Sertindole exhibited little or no effect on D1 and D2 binding sites in vivo. On the other hand, sertindole occupied 5-HT2A receptors more extensively and firmly than EEDQ. This study indicates that sertindole is characterized by high occupancy of 5-HT2A receptors and by low or minimum occupancy of D1 and D2 receptors. CONCLUSIONS: These characteristics are very similar to atypical antipsychotic agents such as clozapine. Sertindole's low liability to cause extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) may be related to greater long-term binding for 5-HT2A receptors relative to D2 receptors. PMID:9595889

  6. Effects of monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for releasing dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin on choice between cocaine and food in rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Monoamine releasers constitute one class of candidate medications for treatment of cocaine abuse, and concurrent cocaine-versus-food choice procedures are potentially valuable as experimental tools to evaluate the efficacy and safety of candidate medications. This study assessed choice between cocaine and food by rhesus monkeys during treatment with five monoamine releasers that varied in selectivity to promote release of dopamine and norepinephrine (DA/NE) vs. serotonin (5HT) [m-fluoroamphetamine, (+)-phenmetrazine, (+)-methamphetamine, napthylisopropylamine and ()-fenfluramine]. Rhesus monkeys (n=8) responded under a concurrent-choice schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0 0.1 mg/kg/inj, fixed-ratio 10 schedule). Cocaine choice dose-effect curves were determined daily during continuous seven-day treatment with saline or each test compound dose. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice, and the highest cocaine doses (0.032 0.1 mg/kg/inj) maintained almost exclusive cocaine choice. Efficacy of monoamine releasers to decrease cocaine choice corresponded to their pharmacological selectivity to release DA/NE vs. 5HT. None of the releasers reduced cocaine choice or promoted reallocation of responding to food choice to the same extent as substituting saline for cocaine. These results extend the range of conditions across which DA/NE-selective releasers have been shown to reduce cocaine self-administration. PMID:22015808

  7. Simultaneous quantification of neuroactive dopamine serotonin and kynurenine pathway metabolites in gender-specific youth urine by ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haihua; Yu, Jing; Wang, Jun; Wu, Linlin; Xiao, Hang; Gao, Rong

    2016-04-15

    Neuroactive metabolites in dopamine, serotonin and kynurenine metabolic pathways play key roles in several physiological processes and their imbalances have been implicated in the pathophysiology of a wide range of disorders. The association of these metabolites' alterations with various pathologies has raised interest in analytical methods for accurate quantification in biological fluids. However, simultaneous measurement of various neuroactive metabolites represents great challenges due to their trace level, high polarity and instability. In this study, an analytical method was developed and validated for accurately quantifying 12 neuroactive metabolites covering three metabolic pathways in youth urine by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS). The strategy of dansyl chloride derivatization followed by solid phase extraction on C18 cartridges were employed to reduce matrix interference and improve the extraction efficiency. The reverse phase chromatographic separation was achieved with a gradient elution program in 20min. The high resolution mass spectrometer (Q Exactive) was employed, with confirmation and quantification by Target-MS/MS scan mode. Youth urine samples collected from 100 healthy volunteers (Female:Male=1:1) were analyzed to explore the differences in metabolite profile and their turnover between genders. The results demonstrated that the UPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS method is sensitive and robust, suitable for monitoring a large panel of metabolites and for discovering new biomarkers in the medical fields. PMID:26845201

  8. Does chronic nicotine alter neurotransmitter receptors involved in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.A.; Lapin, E.P.; Lajtha, A.; Maker, H.S.

    1986-03-05

    Cigarette smokers are fewer in number among Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients than among groups of persons who do not have PD. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. One which must be tested is the possibility that some pharmacologic agent present in cigarette smoke may interact with some central nervous system component involved in PD. To this end, they have investigated the effect of chronic nicotine administration on receptors for some of the neurotransmitters that are affected in PD. Rats were injected for six weeks with saline or nicotine 0.8 mg/kg S.C., then killed and brains removed and dissected. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-ketanserin to serotonin receptors in frontal cortex and of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone to dopamine receptors in caudate was not affected. However, the binding of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone in nucleus accumbens was altered: the K/sub d/ increased from 0.16 +/- 0.02 nM to 0.61 +/- 0.07 nM, and the B/sub max/ increased from 507 +/- 47 fmol/mg protein to 910 +/- 43 fmol/mg (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). These values are based on three ligand concentrations. Additional studies are in progress to substantiate the data. It is concluded that chronic nicotine administration may alter dopamine receptors in nucleus accumbens.

  9. Dopamine transporters govern diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J.; Espaa, Rodrigo A.; Locke, Jason L.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Rose, Jamie H.; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of neurotransmitter systems shows variations in state-dependent cell firing rates that are mechanistically linked to variations in extracellular levels, or tone, of their respective neurotransmitter. Diurnal variation in dopamine tone has also been demonstrated within the striatum, but this neurotransmitter is unique, in that variation in dopamine tone is likely not related to dopamine cell firing; this is largely because of the observation that midbrain dopamine neurons do not display diurnal fluctuations in firing rates. Therefore, we conducted a systematic investigation of possible mechanisms for the variation in extracellular dopamine tone. Using microdialysis and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rats, as well as wild-type and dopamine transporter (DAT) knock-out mice, we demonstrate that dopamine uptake through the DAT and the magnitude of subsecond dopamine release is inversely related to the magnitude of extracellular dopamine tone. We investigated dopamine metabolism, uptake, release, D2 autoreceptor sensitivity, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression and activity as mechanisms for this variation. Using this approach, we have pinpointed the DAT as a critical governor of diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone and, as a consequence, influencing the magnitude of electrically stimulated dopamine release. Understanding diurnal variation in dopamine tone is critical for understanding and treating the multitude of psychiatric disorders that originate from perturbations of the dopamine system. PMID:24979798

  10. Developmental Exposure to Fluoxetine Modulates the Serotonin System in Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Cecilia; Backström, Tobias; Winberg, Svante; Lindberg, Richard; Brandt, Ingvar

    2013-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine (FLU, Prozac®) is commonly prescribed for depression in pregnant women. This results in SSRI exposure of the developing fetus. However, there are knowledge gaps regarding the impact of SSRI exposure during development. Given the role of serotonin in brain development and its cross-talk with sex hormone function, we investigated effects of developmental exposure to pharmacologically relevant concentrations of FLU (3 and 30 nM (measured)) on brain neurotransmitter levels, gonadal differentiation, aromatase activity in brain and gonads, and the thyroid system, using the Xenopus tropicalis model. Tadpoles were chronically exposed (8 weeks) until metamorphosis. At metamorphosis brains were cryosectioned and levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and their metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid were measured in discrete regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus and the reticular formation) of the cryosections using high-performance liquid chromatography. Exposure to 30 nM FLU increased the concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in hypothalamus compared with controls. FLU exposure did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis, thyroid histology, gonadal sex differentiation, or aromatase activity implying that the effect on the serotonergic neurotransmitter system in the hypothalamus region was specific. The FLU concentration that impacted the serotonin system is lower than the concentration measured in umbilical cord serum, suggesting that the serotonin system of the developing brain is highly sensitive to in utero exposure to FLU. To our knowledge this is the first study showing effects of developmental FLU exposure on brain neurochemistry. Given that SSRIs are present in the aquatic environment the current results warrant further investigation into the neurobehavioral effects of SSRIs in aquatic wildlife. PMID:23383055

  11. Why are neurotransmitters neurotoxic? An evolutionary perspective

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Keith D.; Weiss, Meital; Zahavi, Amotz

    2014-01-01

    In the CNS, minor changes in the concentration of neurotransmitters such as glutamate or dopamine can lead to neurodegenerative diseases. We present an evolutionary perspective on the function of neurotransmitter toxicity in the CNS. We hypothesize that neurotransmitters are selected because of their toxicity, which serves as a test of neuron quality and facilitates the selection of neuronal pathways. This perspective may offer additional explanations for the reduction of neurotransmitter concentration in the CNS with age, and suggest an additional role for the blood-brain barrier. It may also suggest a connection between the specific toxicity of the neurotransmitters released in a specific region of the CNS, and elucidate their role as chemicals that are optimal for testing the quality of cells in that region. PMID:25580225

  12. [Neurotransmitter disorders in children--special reference to Segawa disease].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2011-09-01

    Aminergic neurotransmitter disorders occurring in childhood include metabolic disorders of pteridine and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Pteridine metabolic disorders cause a deficiency of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) and TH disorder causes a deficiency of noradrenaline (NA) and DA in the terminals of each aminergic neuron. The activities of TH or DA in the terminals are marked in early childhood, and then they show an exponential age-dependent decrement and achieve stationary or minimal levels in the twenties. As observed in Segawa disease, TH or DA activities in these disorders follow this age-related decrease with levels around 20% of normal, and patients develop symptoms age-dependently, with onset in childhood, progression by the late teens, and a stationary period after the twenties, but this does not cause morphological changes. These phenomena may occur with other neurotransmitters. So replacement therapies are effective irrespective of the clinical course. However, early-onset cases in infancy or early childhood showing a marked decrement of 5-HT or NA activities show postural hypotonia and failed locomotion. These cause failure in atonia restriction in the REM stage and induce dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus, and, consequently induce dysfunction or failure in the development of DA neurons in the sutbstantia nigra and ventrotegmental area. These relate to failure in the development of higher cortical functions. Thus, assessing of ages at onset and activities of antigravity muscles and locomotion in infancy is cardinal for the treatment the neurotransmitter disorders occurring in infancy and early childhood. PARK2 with deficiency of DA in the substantia nigra leads to dystonia in the teens and Parkinson disease after 20 years, although these respond to 1-Dopa favorably but induce D2 receptor upregulation and intractable dyskinesia. A decrease of DA in the perikaryon leads to symptoms after 10 years and causes dysfunction of the target structures. PMID:21941841

  13. Neurotransmitters - Duration: 20 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Our nerve cells (neurons) communicate with each other using little chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters are transferred from one neuron to the next within a space c...

  14. Lack of involvement of dopamine and serotonin during the orphanin FQ/Nociceptin (OFQ/N)-induced prolactin secretory response.

    PubMed

    Kraska, Amy; Bryant, Winnifred; Murphree, Emily; Callahan, Phyllis; Janik, James

    2005-08-12

    The purpose of these studies was to examine possible mechanisms of Orphanin FQ/Nociceptin (OFQ/N)-induced prolactin release. We investigated the involvement of the dopaminergic neurons by quantifying DOPAC:DA levels in the median eminence and neurointermediate lobe following central administration of OFQ/N to female Sprague-Dawley rats. To specifically determine the involvement of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons, immunocytochemical studies were conducted to visualize c-fos protein expression in the arcuate nucleus following central administration of OFQ/N. In addition, the role of serotonergic activation was examined in dose response studies using the selective serotonin antagonist ritansarin and the nonselective antagonist metergoline. Finally, the pharmacological specificity of the prolactin response was examined by pretreating animals with [Nphe1] NC (1-13)NH2, a drug reported to antagonize OFQ/N effects. The results of these studies indicate that the increase in prolactin release following central administration of OFQ/N does not inhibit tuberoinfundibular, tuberohypophyseal or periventricular hypophysial dopaminergic neuronal activity at 10 min after drug administration, a time when prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Furthermore, serotonergic activation is not involved since pharmacological blockade of serotonergic receptors did not alter the prolactin secretory response to OFQ/N. NC (1-13)NH2 did not antagonize the stimulatory effects of OFQ/N on prolactin secretion. The neural effects of OFQ/N on dopaminergic neuronal activity may occur following a different time course than that of the prolactin increase. PMID:15996688

  15. Sleep and Rhythm Consequences of a Genetically Induced Loss of Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Decaix, Caroline; Moussa, Fathi; Clot, Fabienne; Boniol, Camille; Touitou, Yvan; Levy, Richard; Vidailhet, Marie; Roze, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Background: A genetic deficiency in sepiapterin reductase leads to a combined deficit of serotonin and dopamine. The motor phenotype is characterized by a dopa–responsive fluctuating generalized dystonia–parkinsonism. The non–motor symptoms are poorly recognized. In particular, the effects of brain serotonin deficiency on sleep have not been thoroughly studied. Objective: We examine the sleep, sleep–wake rhythms, CSF neurotransmitters, and melatonin profile in a patient with sepiapterin reductase deficiency. Patient: The patient was a 28–year–old man with fluctuating generalized dystonia–parkinsonism caused by sepiapterin reductase deficiency. Methods: A sleep interview, wrist actigraphy, sleep log over 14 days, 48–h continuous sleep and core temperature monitoring, and measurement of CSF neurotransmitters and circadian serum melatonin and cortisol levels before and after treatment with 5–hydroxytryptophan (the precursor of serotonin) and levodopa were performed. Results: Before treatment, the patient had mild hypersomnia with long sleep time (704 min), ultradian sleep–wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 11.8 ± 5.3 h), organic hyperphagia, attention/executive dysfunction, and no depression. The serotonin metabolism in the CSF was reduced, and the serum melatonin profile was flat, while cortisol and core temperature profiles were normal. Supplementation with 5–hydroxytryptophan, but not with levodopa, normalized serotonin metabolism in the CSF, reduced sleep time to 540 min, normalized the eating disorder and the melatonin profile, restored a circadian sleep–wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 24±1.7 h, P < 0.0001), and improved cognition. Conclusion: In this unique genetic paradigm, the melatonin deficiency (caused by a lack of its substrate, serotonin) may cause the ultradian sleep–wake rhythm. Citation: Leu–Semenescu S; Arnulf I; Dicaix C; Moussa F; Clot F; Boniol C; Touitou Y; Levy R; Vidailhet M; Roze E. Sleep and rhythm consequences of a genetically induced loss of serotonin. SLEEP 2010;33(3):307–314. PMID:20337188

  16. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Graphical Kinetic Data Analysis of the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System: An Exercise for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course.

    PubMed

    Mirrione, Martine M; Ruth, Nora; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna; Kernan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), are widely used in clinical settings and in basic neuroscience research. Education in these methods and their applications may be incorporated into curricula to keep pace with this expanding field. Here, we have developed pedagogical materials on the fundamental principles of PET that incorporate a hands-on laboratory activity to view and analyze human brain scans. In this activity, students will use authentic PET brain scans generated from original research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Volkow et al., 2009) to explore the neurobiological effects of a drug on the dopamine system. We provide lecture and assignment materials (including a 50-minute PowerPoint presentation introducing PET concepts), written background information for students and instructors, and explicit instructions for a 4-hour, computer-based laboratory to interested educators. Also, we discuss our experience implementing this exercise as part of an advanced undergraduate laboratory course at Stony Brook University in 2010 and 2011. Observing the living human brain is intriguing, and this laboratory is designed to illustrate how PET neuroimaging techniques are used to directly probe biological processes occurring in the living brain. Laboratory course modules on imaging techniques such as PET can pique the interest of students potentially interested in neuroscience careers, by exposing them to current research methods. This activity provides practical experience analyzing PET data using a graphical analysis method known as the Logan plot, and applies core neuropharmacology concepts. We hope that this manuscript inspires college instructors to incorporate education in PET neuroimaging into their courses. PMID:24693258

  17. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Graphical Kinetic Data Analysis of the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System: An Exercise for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Mirrione, Martine M.; Ruth, Nora; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna; Kernan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), are widely used in clinical settings and in basic neuroscience research. Education in these methods and their applications may be incorporated into curricula to keep pace with this expanding field. Here, we have developed pedagogical materials on the fundamental principles of PET that incorporate a hands-on laboratory activity to view and analyze human brain scans. In this activity, students will use authentic PET brain scans generated from original research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Volkow et al., 2009) to explore the neurobiological effects of a drug on the dopamine system. We provide lecture and assignment materials (including a 50-minute PowerPoint presentation introducing PET concepts), written background information for students and instructors, and explicit instructions for a 4-hour, computer-based laboratory to interested educators. Also, we discuss our experience implementing this exercise as part of an advanced undergraduate laboratory course at Stony Brook University in 2010 and 2011. Observing the living human brain is intriguing, and this laboratory is designed to illustrate how PET neuroimaging techniques are used to directly probe biological processes occurring in the living brain. Laboratory course modules on imaging techniques such as PET can pique the interest of students potentially interested in neuroscience careers, by exposing them to current research methods. This activity provides practical experience analyzing PET data using a graphical analysis method known as the Logan plot, and applies core neuropharmacology concepts. We hope that this manuscript inspires college instructors to incorporate education in PET neuroimaging into their courses. PMID:24693258

  18. Catecholamine and serotonin concentrations in fetal guinea-pig brain: relation to regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen delivery in the growth-restricted fetus.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A; Klnne, H J; Detmer, A; Carter, A M

    1996-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) would lead to altered neurotransmitter metabolism in the brain because of poorer oxygenation, blood flows and tissue concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites were measured in 14 parts of the brain of guinea-pig fetuses at 61-64 days' gestation. Eight fetuses with IUGR induced by uterine artery ligation were compared with 8 controls. Regional brain blood flows were determined by the microsphere method and tissue concentrations of monoamines by HPLC with electrochemical detection. The oxygen content of preductal arterial blood was significantly lower in IUGR fetuses than in controls (2.3 +/- 0.6 v. 3.5 +/- 0.5 mM; P < 0.001). Although this was compensated by increases in blood flow to many areas of the brain, significant decreases occurred in oxygen delivery to the temporal and occipital cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of IUGR fetuses. In contrast, oxygen delivery to brainstem areas was maintained. Noradrenaline concentrations were closely similar in brains from the two groups, except for an increase in the caudate nucleus of IUGR fetuses. Dopamine concentrations were significantly elevated in brainstem areas. Concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG), a noradrenaline metabolite, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), a dopamine metabolite, showed a similar pattern of increase in brains of IUGR fetuses, possibly resulting from increased synthesis of noradrenaline and dopamine rather than from decreased degradation. Concentrations of serotonin were significantly higher in frontal and temporal cortex of IUGR fetuses, and the serotonin metabolite 5-HIAA increased significantly in cortical areas. Changes in neurotransmitter metabolism could not be related to oxygen supply, since serotonin concentrations increased in the forebrain, despite reduced oxygen delivery and the known dependence of tryptophan-5-hydroxylase on tissue PO2, and dopamine levels were elevated in the brainstem, where the oxygen supply was maintained. PMID:8795097

  19. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlashen, Michael L.; Davis, Kevin L.; Morris, Michael D.

    1989-10-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of neurotransmitters in biological matrices and synthetic solutions are described. The effects of protein adsorption on cathecholamine SERS intensity are discussed. Techniques for obtaining dopamine SERS spectra in cerebrospinal fluid and rat brain dialysate are demonstrated. Preliminary SERS of histamine and tel-methylhistamine are presented.

  20. Classical Neurotransmitters and their Significance within the Nervous System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veca, A.; Dreisbach, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the chemical compounds involved in the nervous system and their roles in transmitting nerve signals. Discusses acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine, glycine, glutemate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and their effects within the nervous system. (CW)

  1. Effect of long-term actual spaceflight on the expression of key genes encoding serotonin and dopamine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, Nina; Shenkman, Boris; Naumenko, Vladimir; Kulikov, Alexander; Kondaurova, Elena; Tsybko, Anton; Kulikova, Elisabeth; Krasnov, I. B.; Bazhenova, Ekaterina; Sinyakova, Nadezhda

    The effect of long-term spaceflight on the central nervous system represents important but yet undeveloped problem. The aim of our work was to study the effect of 30-days spaceflight of mice on Russian biosatellite BION-M1 on the expression in the brain regions of key genes of a) serotonin (5-HT) system (main enzymes in 5-HT metabolism - tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH-2), monoamine oxydase A (MAO A), 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors); b) pivotal enzymes in DA metabolism (tyrosine hydroxylase, COMT, MAO A, MAO B) and D1, D2 receptors. Decreased expression of genes encoding the 5-HT catabolism (MAO A) and 5-HT2A receptor in some brain regions was shown. There were no differences between spaceflight and control mice in the expression of TPH-2 and 5-HT1A, 5-HT3 receptor genes. Significant changes were found in genetic control of DA system. Long-term spaceflight decreased the expression of genes encoding the enzyme in DA synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase in s.nigra), DA metabolism (MAO B in the midbrain and COMT in the striatum), and D1 receptor in hypothalamus. These data suggested that 1) microgravity affected genetic control of 5-HT and especially the nigrostriatal DA system implicated in the central regulation of muscular tonus and movement, 2) the decrease in the expression of genes encoding key enzyme in DA synthesis, DA degradation and D1 receptor contributes to the movement impairment and dyskinesia produced by the spaceflight. The study was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant ? 14-04-00173.

  2. Abuse-Related Neurochemical Effects of Para-Substituted Methcathinone Analogs in Rats: Microdialysis Studies of Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine and Serotonin.

    PubMed

    Suyama, Julie A; Sakloth, Farhana; Kolanos, Renata; Glennon, Richard A; Lazenka, Matthew F; Negus, S Stevens; Banks, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Methcathinone (MCAT) is a monoamine releaser and parent compound to a new class of designer drugs that includes the synthetic cathinones mephedrone and flephedrone. Using MCAT and a series of para-substituted (or 4-substituted) MCAT analogs, it has been previously shown that expression of abuse-related behavioral effects in rats correlates both with the volume of the para substituent and in vitro neurochemical selectivity to promote monoamine release via the dopamine (DA) versus serotonin (5-HT) transporters in rat brain synaptosomes. The present study used in vivo microdialysis to determine the relationship between these previous measures and the in vivo neurochemical selectivity of these compounds to alter nucleus accumbens (NAc) DA and 5-HT levels. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with bilateral guide cannulae targeting the NAc. MCAT and five para-substituted analogs (4-F, 4-Cl, 4-Br, 4-CH3, and 4-OCH3) produced dose- and time-dependent increases in NAc DA and/or 5-HT levels. Selectivity was determined as the dose required to increase peak 5-HT levels by 250% divided by the dose required to increase peak DA levels by 250%. This measure of in vivo neurochemical selectivity varied across compounds and correlated with 1) in vivo expression of abuse-related behavioral effects (r = 0.89, P = 0.02); 2) in vitro selectivity to promote monoamine release via DA and 5-HT transporters (r = 0.95, P < 0.01); and 3) molecular volume of the para substituent (r = -0.85, P = 0.03). These results support a relationship between these molecular, neurochemical, and behavioral measures and support a role for molecular structure as a determinant of abuse-related neurochemical and behavioral effects of MCAT analogs. PMID:26645638

  3. Serotonin2C receptor stimulation inhibits cocaine-induced Fos expression and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in the rat striatum independently of dopamine outflow.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Cline; Cathala, Adeline; Maitre, Marlne; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Revest, Jean-Michel; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-02-01

    The serotonin(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) is known to control dopamine (DA) neuron function by modulating DA neuronal firing and DA exocytosis at terminals. Recent studies assessing the influence of 5-HT(2C)Rs on cocaine-induced neurochemical and behavioral responses have shown that 5-HT2CRs can also modulate mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by controlling DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), independently of DA release itself. A similar mechanism has been proposed to occur at the level of the nigrostriatal DA system. Here, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats and molecular approaches, we assessed this hypothesis by studying the influence of the 5-HT(2C)R agonist Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced responses in the striatum. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1 mg/kg Ro 60-0175 had no effect on the increase in striatal DA outflow induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, Ro 60-0175 inhibited cocaine-induced Fos immunoreactivity and phosphorylation of the DA and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at threonine 75 residue in the striatum. Finally, the suppressant effect of Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced DARPP-32 phosphorylation was reversed by the selective 5-HT(2C)R antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). In keeping with the key role of DARPP-32 in DA neurotransmission, our results demonstrate that 5-HT(2C)Rs are capable of modulating nigrostriatal DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by specifically controlling DA signaling in the striatum. PMID:25446572

  4. Bifeprunox: a partial agonist at dopamine D2 and serotonin 1A receptors, influences nicotine-seeking behaviour in response to drug-associated stimuli in rats.

    PubMed

    Di Clemente, Angelo; Franchi, Carlotta; Orr, Alessandro; Arnt, Jorn; Cervo, Luigi

    2012-03-01

    Environmental stimuli repeatedly associated with the self-administered drugs may acquire motivational importance. Because dopamine (DA) D(2) /D(3) partial agonists and D(3) antagonists interfere with the ability of drug-associated cues to induce drug-seeking behaviour, the present study investigated whether bifeprunox, 7-[4-([1,1'biphenyl]-3-ylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-2(3H)-benzoxazolone mesylate), a high-affinity partial agonist of the D(2) subfamily of DA receptors and of serotonin(1A) receptors, influences reinstatement of drug-associated cue-induced nicotine-seeking behaviour. The study also explored whether bifeprunox reduced motivated behaviour by evaluating its effects on reinstatement induced by stimuli conditioned to sucrose. To verify whether bifeprunox interferes with the primary reinforcing properties of either drug or sucrose, we compared its effects on nicotine self-administration and on sucrose-reinforced behaviour. Different groups of experimentally nave, food-restricted Wistar rats were trained to associate a discriminative stimulus with response-contingent availability of nicotine or sucrose and tested for reinstatement after extinction of nicotine or sucrose-reinforced behaviour. Bifeprunox (4-16?g/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently attenuated the response-reinstating effects of nicotine-associated cues. Higher doses (64-250?g/kg, s.c.) reduced spontaneous locomotor activity and suppressed operant responding induced by sucrose-associated cues and by the primary reinforcing properties of nicotine or sucrose. Provided they can be extrapolated to abstinent human addicts, these results suggest the potential therapeutic use of partial DA D(2) receptor agonist to prevent cue-controlled nicotine-seeking and relapse. The profile of action of high doses of bifeprunox remains to be examined for potential sedation or anhedonia effects. PMID:21521422

  5. Effect of long-term administration of stobadine on exploratory behaviour and on striatal levels of dopamine and serotonin in rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Dubovick, M; Ujhzy, E; Kovacovsk, P; Rychlk, I; Kalnovicov, T; Navarov, J; Turcni, P; Durisov, M; Gajdosk, A

    1997-01-01

    Stobadine (STB), a cardioprotective drug, was evaluated for its effect on the intensity and habituation of exploratory behaviour in open field testing and on the levels of striatal dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites (3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid) in rats and their offspring. Dams were treated by oral gavage with STB (50 mg kg-1) for a total of 56 days from 14 days before mating to day 21 postpartum (pp). The first open field measurements of the dams were performed over 4 days at the beginning of the experiment, the second on days 21-24 pp and the third on days 49-52 pp (recovery period). Their offspring were tested on postnatal (pn) days 30-33 and 60-63. The biochemical analysis (HPLC with electrochemical detection) in the dams was performed at the same time schedule as given for the open field testing, but in their offspring only on pn day 60. Motor activity of the dams was decreased on days 21-24 pp. The increase of motor activity in female offspring was observed on pn days 30-33. Neurochemical analysis of the striatum of the dams revealed a significant increase of the levels of DA, 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid. In male offspring the levels of DA were significantly decreased, whereas in females the levels were increased. These results suggest that maternal administration of STB resulted both in dams and their offspring in minor alterations in spontaneous behaviour components and changes in the dopaminergic and serotonergic system, but without inducing overtly detectable toxicity. PMID:9048229

  6. Variation in Dopamine D2 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Genes is Associated with Working Memory Processing and Response to Treatment with Antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Pierluigi; Fazio, Leonardo; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Taurisano, Paolo; Masellis, Rita; Romano, Raffaella; Mancini, Marina; Zhang, Fengyu; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Apud, Jose; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors contribute to modulate prefrontal cortical physiology and response to treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Similarly, functional variation in the genes encoding these receptors is also associated with these phenotypes. In particular, the DRD2 rs1076560 T allele predicts a lower ratio of expression of D2 short/long isoforms, suboptimal working memory processing, and better response to antipsychotic treatment compared with the G allele. Furthermore, the HTR2A T allele is associated with lower 5-HT2A expression, impaired working memory processing, and poorer response to antipsychotics compared with the C allele. Here, we investigated in healthy subjects whether these functional polymorphisms have a combined effect on prefrontal cortical physiology and related cognitive behavior linked to schizophrenia as well as on response to treatment with second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. In a total sample of 620 healthy subjects, we found that subjects with the rs1076560 T and rs6314 T alleles have greater fMRI prefrontal activity during working memory. Similar results were obtained within the attentional domain. Also, the concomitant presence of the rs1076560 T/rs6314 T alleles also predicted lower behavioral accuracy during working memory. Moreover, we found that rs1076560 T carrier/rs6314 CC individuals had better responses to antipsychotic treatment in two independent samples of patients with schizophrenia (n=63 and n=54, respectively), consistent with the previously reported separate effects of these genotypes. These results indicate that DRD2 and HTR2A genetic variants together modulate physiological prefrontal efficiency during working memory and also modulate the response to antipsychotics. Therefore, these results suggest that further exploration is needed to better understand the clinical consequences of these genotype-phenotype relationships. PMID:25563748

  7. Interaction between serotonin transporter and dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand measures is associated with harm avoidant symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Bailer, Ursula F.; Frank, Guido K.; Price, Julie C.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Becker, Carl; Mathis, Chester A.; Wagner, Angela; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Putnam, Karen; Schork, Nicholas J.; Gamst, Anthony; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have alterations of measures of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function, which persist after long-term recovery and are associated with elevated harm avoidance (HA), a measure of anxiety and behavioral inhibition. Objective Based on theories that 5-HT is an aversive motivational system that may oppose a DA-related appetitive system, we explored interactions of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand measures that reflect portions of these systems. Methods Twenty-seven individuals recovered (REC) from eating disorders (EDs) (7 AN-BN, 11 AN, 9 BN) and 9 control women (CW) were analyzed for correlations between [11C]McN5652 and [11C]raclopride binding. Results There was a positive correlation between [11C]McN5652 binding potential BPnon displaceable(ND)) and [11C]raclopride BPND for the dorsal caudate (r(27) = .62; p < .001), antero-ventral striatum (r(27) = .55, p = .003), middle caudate (r(27) = .68; p < .001), ventral (r(27) = .64; p < .001) and dorsal putamen (r(27) = .42; p = .03). No significant correlations were found in CW. [11C]raclopride BPND, but not [11C]McN5652 BPND, was significantly related to HA in REC EDs. A linear regression analysis showed that the interaction between [11C]McN5652 BPND and [11C]raclopride BPND in the dorsal putamen significantly (b = 140.04; t (22) = 2.21; p = .04) predicted HA. Conclusions This is the first study using PET and the radioligands [11C]McN5652 and [11C]raclopride to show a direct relationship between 5-HT transporter and striatal DA D2/D3 receptor binding in humans, supporting the possibility that 5-HT and DA interactions contribute to HA behaviors in EDs. PMID:23154100

  8. Selective transport of monoamine neurotransmitters by human plasma membrane monoamine transporter and organic cation transporter 3.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haichuan; Wang, Joanne

    2010-12-01

    The plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) and organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) are the two most prominent low-affinity, high-capacity (i.e., uptake(2)) transporters for endogenous biogenic amines. Using the Flp-in system, we expressed human PMAT (hPMAT) and human OCT3 (hOCT3) at similar levels in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Parallel and detailed kinetics analysis revealed distinct and seemingly complementary patterns for the two transporters in transporting monoamine neurotransmitters. hPMAT is highly selective toward serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine, with the rank order of transport efficiency (V(max)/K(m)) being: dopamine, 5-HT ? histamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine. The substrate preference of hPMAT toward these amines is substantially driven by large (up to 15-fold) distinctions in its apparent binding affinities (K(m)). In contrast, hOCT3 is less selective than hPMAT toward the monoamines, and the V(max)/K(m) rank order for hOCT3 is: histamine > norepinephrine, epinephrine > dopamine >5-HT. It is noteworthy that hOCT3 demonstrated comparable (?2-fold difference) K(m) toward all amines, and distinctions in V(max) played an important role in determining its differential transport efficiency toward the monoamines. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that hPMAT is expressed at much higher levels than hOCT3 in most human brain areas, whereas hOCT3 is selectively and highly expressed in adrenal gland and skeletal muscle. Our results suggest that hOCT3 represents a major uptake(2) transporter for histamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. hPMAT, on the other hand, is a major uptake(2) transporter for 5-HT and dopamine and may play a more important role in transporting these two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. PMID:20858707

  9. Simultaneous analysis of multiple neurotransmitters by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tufi, Sara; Lamoree, Marja; de Boer, Jacob; Leonards, Pim

    2015-05-22

    Neurotransmitters are endogenous metabolites that allow the signal transmission across neuronal synapses. Their biological role is crucial for many physiological functions and their levels can be changed by several diseases. Because of their high polarity, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) is a promising tool for neurotransmitter analysis. Due to the large number of HILIC stationary phases available, an evaluation of the column performances and retention behaviors has been performed on five different commercial HILIC packing materials (silica, amino, amide and two zwitterionic stationary phases). Several parameters like the linear correlation between retention and the distribution coefficient (logD), the separation factor k and the column resolution Rs have been investigated and the column performances have been visualized with a heat map and hierarchical clustering analysis. An optimized and validated HILIC-MS/MS method based on the ZIC-cHILIC column is proposed for the simultaneous detection and quantification of twenty compounds consisting of neurotransmitters, precursors and metabolites: 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 5-hydroxy-L-tripthophan, acetylcholine, choline, L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), dopamine, epinephrine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate, glutamine, histamine, histidine, L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, norepinephrine, normetanephrine, phenylalanine, serotonin and tyramine. The method was applied to neuronal metabolite profiling of the central nervous system of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis. This method is suitable to explore neuronal metabolism and its alteration in different biological matrices. PMID:25869798

  10. Biochemical and neurotransmitters changes associated with tramadol in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.

    PubMed

    Ezzeldin, Essam; Souror, Wafaa A H; El-Nahhas, Toqa; Soudi, Abdel Nasser M M; Shahat, Abdelaaty A

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Chronic neuropathic pain occurs in approximately 25% of diabetic patients. Tramadol, an atypical analgesic with a unique dual mechanism of action, is used in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. It acts on monoamine transporters to inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes on the brain neurotransmitter alterations induced by tramadol in rats, and to study the hepatic and renal toxicities of the drug. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two sets: the normal set and the diabetic set. Diabetes was induced in rats. Tramadol was administered orally once daily for 28 days. The levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in cerebral cortex, thalamus/hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem were evaluated in rats. In addition, the renal toxicity and histopathological effects of the drug were assessed. The induction of diabetes altered neurotransmitter levels. Oral administration of tramadol significantly decreased the neurotransmitter levels. Diabetes significantly altered the effects of tramadol in all brain regions. Tramadol affected function and histology of the liver and kidney. The clinical effects of tramadol in diabetic patients should be stressed. PMID:24971322

  11. Biochemical and Neurotransmitters Changes Associated with Tramadol in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ezzeldin, Essam; Souror, Wafaa A. H.; El-Nahhas, Toqa; Soudi, Abdel Nasser M. M.; Shahat, Abdelaaty A.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Chronic neuropathic pain occurs in approximately 25% of diabetic patients. Tramadol, an atypical analgesic with a unique dual mechanism of action, is used in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. It acts on monoamine transporters to inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes on the brain neurotransmitter alterations induced by tramadol in rats, and to study the hepatic and renal toxicities of the drug. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two sets: the normal set and the diabetic set. Diabetes was induced in rats. Tramadol was administered orally once daily for 28 days. The levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in cerebral cortex, thalamus/hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem were evaluated in rats. In addition, the renal toxicity and histopathological effects of the drug were assessed. The induction of diabetes altered neurotransmitter levels. Oral administration of tramadol significantly decreased the neurotransmitter levels. Diabetes significantly altered the effects of tramadol in all brain regions. Tramadol affected function and histology of the liver and kidney. The clinical effects of tramadol in diabetic patients should be stressed. PMID:24971322

  12. Imaging neurotransmitter release kinetics in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Weihong; Yeung, E.S.; Haydon, P.G.

    1996-12-31

    A new UV-laser based optical microscope and CCD detection system has been developed to image neurotransmitter in living biological cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. The detection methodology has high sensitivity, low limit of detection and does not require coupling to fluorescence dyes. We have studied serotonin uptake kinetics and its release dynamics in single glial cells. Different regions of a glial cell have taken up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of kinetics. Similarly, different serotonin release mechanisms have been observed in different astrocyte cell regions. The temporal resolution of this detection system is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. We will also report on single enzyme molecule reaction studies and single metal ion detection based on CCD imaging of pL reaction vials formed by micromachining on fused silica.

  13. Dopamine: 50 years in perspective.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Susan D; Iversen, Leslie L

    2007-05-01

    The discovery of dopamine as a neurotransmitter in brain by Arvid Carlsson approximately 50 years ago, and the subsequent insight provided by Paul Greengard into the cellular signalling mechanisms triggered by dopamine, gained these researchers the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2000. Dopamine research has had a greater impact on the development of biological psychiatry and psychopharmacology than work on any other neurotransmitter. Neuropsychological views of the role of dopamine in the CNS have evolved from that of a simple reward signal to a more complex situation in which dopamine encodes the importance or 'salience' of events in the external world. Hypofunctional dopamine states underlie Parkinson's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and there is increasing evidence for dopamine hyperactivity in schizophrenia. Some of the medicines that are most widely used in psychiatry, such as L-DOPA, methylphenidate and neuroleptic drugs, act on dopaminergic mechanisms. PMID:17368565

  14. Sleep and rhythm consequences of a genetically induced loss of serotonin.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Leu-Semenescu S; Arnulf I; Decaix C; Moussa F; Clot F; Boniol C; Touitou Y; Levy R; Vidailhet M; Roze E

    2010-03-01

    BACKGROUND: A genetic deficiency in sepiapterin reductase leads to a combined deficit of serotonin and dopamine. The motor phenotype is characterized by a dopa-responsive fluctuating generalized dystonia-parkinsonism. The non-motor symptoms are poorly recognized. In particular, the effects of brain serotonin deficiency on sleep have not been thoroughly studied.OBJECTIVE: We examine the sleep, sleep-wake rhythms, CSF neurotransmitters, and melatonin profile in a patient with sepiapterin reductase deficiency.PATIENT: The patient was a 28-year-old man with fluctuating generalized dystonia-parkinsonism caused by sepiapterin reductase deficiency.METHODS: A sleep interview, wrist actigraphy, sleep log over 14 days, 48-h continuous sleep and core temperature monitoring, and measurement of CSF neurotransmitters and circadian serum melatonin and cortisol levels before and after treatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan (the precursor of serotonin) and levodopa were performed.RESULTS: Before treatment, the patient had mild hypersomnia with long sleep time (704 min), ultradian sleep-wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 11.8 +/- 5.3 h), organic hyperphagia, attentionlexecutive dysfunction, and no depression. The serotonin metabolism in the CSF was reduced, and the serum melatonin profile was flat, while cortisol and core temperature profiles were normal. Supplementation with 5-hydroxytryptophan, but not with levodopa, normalized serotonin metabolism in the CSF, reduced sleep time to 540 min, normalized the eating disorder and the melatonin profile, restored a circadian sleep-wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 24 +/- 1.7 h, P < 0.0001), and improved cognition.CONCLUSION: In this unique genetic paradigm, the melatonin deficiency (caused by a lack of its substrate, serotonin) may cause the ultradian sleep-wake rhythm.

  15. Abuse-Related Effects of Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Releasers with Varying Potency to Release Norepinephrine in Male Rats and Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Blough, Bruce E.; Rothman, Richard B.; Partilla, John S.; Baumann, Michael H; Negus, S. Stevens

    2014-01-01

    d-Amphetamine selectively promotes release of both dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) vs. serotonin (5HT), and chronic d-amphetamine treatment decreases cocaine-taking behavior in rats, nonhuman primates, and humans. However, abuse liability limits the clinical utility of amphetamine maintenance for treating cocaine abuse. One strategy to improve safety and efficacy of monoamine releasers as candidate anti-cocaine medications has been to develop dual DA/5HT releasers like 1-napthyl-2-aminopropane (PAL-287), but the pharmacology of this class of compounds has not been extensively examined. In particular, PAL-287 has similar potencies to release DA, 5HT and NE, and the role of manipulating NE release potency on abuse-related or anti-cocaine effects of dual DA/5HT releasers is not known. To address this issue, the present study compared effects of four novel DA/5HT releasers that varied >800-fold in their selectivities to release DA/5HT vs NE: [1-(5-chloro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-542), 1-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-544), 1-(1H-indol-5-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-571), and (R)-1-(1H-indol-1-yl)propain-2-amine (PAL-569). Abuse-related effects of all four compounds were evaluated in assays of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats and cocaine discrimination in rats and monkeys, and none of the compounds reliably facilitated ICSS or substituted for cocaine. Anti-cocaine effects of the compound with highest selectivity to release DA/5HT vs. NE (PAL-542) were tested in an assay of cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys, and PAL-542 failed to reduce cocaine choice. These results suggesst that potency to release NE has minimal influence on abuse liability of dual DA/5HT releasers, and reducing relative potency to release NE vs. DA/5HT does not improve anti-cocaine efficacy. PMID:24796848

  16. [C-11]{beta}CNT: A new monoamine uptake ligand for studying serotonin and dopamine transporter sites in the living brain with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.K.; Zheng, Q.H.; Zhou, F.C.

    1996-05-01

    There is considerable interest in measuring serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) function in the human brain. Altered levels of 5HT and DA are recognized in drug abuse, neurotoxicities, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease. Several phenyltropane analogs of cocaine bind tightly to both DA and 5HT uptake proteins. We have made a new agent from this class called {beta}CNT, 2{beta}-carboxymethyl-3{beta}-(2-naphthyl)-tropane, the isosteric O-for-CH{sub 2} analog of a compound reported to have among the highest measured affinities for DA and 5HT transporters and studied its in vivo brain distributions in animals for the first time. Optically pure {beta}CNT was made from cocaine, and labeled at the O-methyl position by esterification of {beta}CNT-acid with [C-11]CH{sub 3}OTfl under conditions similar to Wilson`s. HPLC-purified (99+%) final products (15-50% eob yield from CO{sub 2}, 40 min synth) had specific activities 0.1-1.2 Ci/{mu}mol at the time of injection. Preliminary [C-11]{beta}{beta}CNT rodent distribution showed very high brain uptake (3% ID at 60 min) and localization (striat: fr cort: hypo: cer: blood, 11: 5: 4: 1: 06). {beta}CNT-PET studies in juvenile pigs (5-20 mCi, 20-35 kg) found rapid brain uptake, and prominent retention (85 min) in midbrain, anterior brainstem and striatum, followed by cortex and olfactory bulb. Paroxetine pretreatment (5HT uptake blocker, 2mg/kg), diminished retention in most brain areas; nomifensine (DA/NE uptake blocker, 6 mg/kg) reduced striatum selectively. Direct comparisons of [C-11]{beta}CNT with other PET transporter radioligands {beta}CFT, {beta}CIT, and {beta}CTT (RTI-32) in the same pig found {beta}CNT had highest overall brain uptake among the agents. These initial results suggest {beta}CNT has favorable properties for imaging both 5HT and DA transporters in vivo, and further evaluation of its potential as a human PET agent is warranted.

  17. A network model of basal ganglia for understanding the roles of dopamine and serotonin in reward-punishment-risk based decision making

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Pragathi P.; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    There is significant evidence that in addition to reward-punishment based decision making, the Basal Ganglia (BG) contributes to risk-based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Despite this evidence, little is known about the computational principles and neural correlates of risk computation in this subcortical system. We have previously proposed a reinforcement learning (RL)-based model of the BG that simulates the interactions between dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in a diverse set of experimental studies including reward, punishment and risk based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Starting with the classical idea that the activity of mesencephalic DA represents reward prediction error, the model posits that serotoninergic activity in the striatum controls risk-prediction error. Our prior model of the BG was an abstract model that did not incorporate anatomical and cellular-level data. In this work, we expand the earlier model into a detailed network model of the BG and demonstrate the joint contributions of DA-5HT in risk and reward-punishment sensitivity. At the core of the proposed network model is the following insight regarding cellular correlates of value and risk computation. Just as DA D1 receptor (D1R) expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum were thought to be the neural substrates for value computation, we propose that DA D1R and D2R co-expressing MSNs are capable of computing risk. Though the existence of MSNs that co-express D1R and D2R are reported by various experimental studies, prior existing computational models did not include them. Ours is the first model that accounts for the computational possibilities of these co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs, and describes how DA and 5HT mediate activity in these classes of neurons (D1R-, D2R-, D1R-D2R- MSNs). Starting from the assumption that 5HT modulates all MSNs, our study predicts significant modulatory effects of 5HT on D2R and co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs which in turn explains the multifarious functions of 5HT in the BG. The experiments simulated in the present study relates 5HT to risk sensitivity and reward-punishment learning. Furthermore, our model is shown to capture reward-punishment and risk based decision making impairment in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The model predicts that optimizing 5HT levels along with DA medications might be essential for improving the patients' reward-punishment learning deficits. PMID:26136679

  18. A network model of basal ganglia for understanding the roles of dopamine and serotonin in reward-punishment-risk based decision making.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Pragathi P; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2015-01-01

    There is significant evidence that in addition to reward-punishment based decision making, the Basal Ganglia (BG) contributes to risk-based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Despite this evidence, little is known about the computational principles and neural correlates of risk computation in this subcortical system. We have previously proposed a reinforcement learning (RL)-based model of the BG that simulates the interactions between dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in a diverse set of experimental studies including reward, punishment and risk based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Starting with the classical idea that the activity of mesencephalic DA represents reward prediction error, the model posits that serotoninergic activity in the striatum controls risk-prediction error. Our prior model of the BG was an abstract model that did not incorporate anatomical and cellular-level data. In this work, we expand the earlier model into a detailed network model of the BG and demonstrate the joint contributions of DA-5HT in risk and reward-punishment sensitivity. At the core of the proposed network model is the following insight regarding cellular correlates of value and risk computation. Just as DA D1 receptor (D1R) expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum were thought to be the neural substrates for value computation, we propose that DA D1R and D2R co-expressing MSNs are capable of computing risk. Though the existence of MSNs that co-express D1R and D2R are reported by various experimental studies, prior existing computational models did not include them. Ours is the first model that accounts for the computational possibilities of these co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs, and describes how DA and 5HT mediate activity in these classes of neurons (D1R-, D2R-, D1R-D2R- MSNs). Starting from the assumption that 5HT modulates all MSNs, our study predicts significant modulatory effects of 5HT on D2R and co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs which in turn explains the multifarious functions of 5HT in the BG. The experiments simulated in the present study relates 5HT to risk sensitivity and reward-punishment learning. Furthermore, our model is shown to capture reward-punishment and risk based decision making impairment in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The model predicts that optimizing 5HT levels along with DA medications might be essential for improving the patients' reward-punishment learning deficits. PMID:26136679

  19. Treatment with the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline elevates monoamine neurotransmitter levels and improves affective phenotypes in a mouse model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Miralles, Marta; Ooi, Jolene; Ferrari Bardile, Costanza; Tan, Liang Juin; George, Maya; Drum, Chester L; Lin, Rachel Yanping; Hayden, Michael R; Pouladi, Mahmoud A

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO-A/B) activity and an imbalance in monoamine neurotransmitters have been suggested to underlie the pathobiology of depression, a major psychiatric symptom observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington disease (HD). Increased MAO-A/B activity has been observed in brain tissue from patients with HD and in human and rodent HD neural cells. Using the YAC128 mouse model of HD, we studied the effect of an irreversible MAO-A inhibitor, clorgyline, on the levels of select monoamine neurotransmitters associated with affective function. We observed a decrease in striatal levels of the MAO-A/B substrates, dopamine and norepinephrine, in YAC128 HD mice compared with wild-type mice, which was accompanied by increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour at five months of age. Treatment for 26days with clorgyline restored dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine neurotransmitter levels in the striatum and reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in YAC128 HD mice. This study supports a potential therapeutic use for MAO-A inhibitors in the treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with HD. PMID:26825854

  20. Vanillin-induced amelioration of depression-like behaviors in rats by modulating monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinyong; Xu, Hui; Liu, Yang; He, Haihui; Li, Guangwu

    2015-02-28

    Olfaction plays an important role in emotions in our daily life. Pleasant odors are known to evoke positive emotions, inducing relaxation and calmness. The beneficial effects of vanillin on depressive model rats were investigated using a combination of behavioral assessments and neurotransmitter measurements. Before and after chronic stress condition (or olfactory bulbectomy), and at the end of vanillin or fluoxetine treatment, body weight, immobility time on the forced swimming test and sucrose consumption in the sucrose consumption test were measured. Changes in these assessments revealed the characteristic phenotypes of depression in rats. Neurotransmitters were measured using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. Our results indicated that vanillin could alleviate depressive symptoms in the rat model of chronic depression via the olfactory pathway. Preliminary analysis of the monoamine neurotransmitters revealed that vanillin elevated both serotonin and dopamine levels in brain tissue. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effect of vanillin against chronic depressive disorder via olfactory pathway. This suggests that vanillin may be a potential pharmacological agent for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:25595338

  1. The subpopulation of microglia sensitive to neurotransmitters/neurohormones is modulated by stimulation with LPS, interferon-γ, and IL-4.

    PubMed

    Pannell, Maria; Szulzewsky, Frank; Matyash, Vitali; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Recently, neurotransmitters/neurohormones have been identified as factors controlling the function of microglia, the immune competent cells of the central nervous system. In this study, we compared the responsiveness of microglia to neurotransmitters/neurohormones. We freshly isolated microglia from healthy adult C57Bl/6 mice and found that only a small fraction (1-20%) responded to the application of endothelin, histamine, substance P, serotonin, galanin, somatostatin, angiotensin II, vasopressin, neurotensin, dopamine, or nicotine. In cultured microglia from neonatal and adult mice, a similarly small population of cells responded to these neurotransmitters/neurohormones. To induce a proinflammatory phenotype, we applied lipopolysaccaride (LPS) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) to the cultures for 24 h. Several of the responding populations increased; however, there was no uniform pattern when comparing adult with neonatal microglia or LPS with IFN-γ treatment. IL-4 as an anti-inflammatory substance increased the histamine-, substance P-, and somatostatin-sensitive populations only in microglia from adult, but not in neonatal cells. We also found that the expression of different receptors was not strongly correlated, indicating that there are many different populations of microglia with a distinct set of receptors. Our results demonstrate that microglial cells are a heterogeneous population with respect to their sensitivity to neurotransmitters/neurohormones and that they are more responsive in defined activation states. PMID:24504982

  2. Abnormalities of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems in human neuroepithelioma cells infected by three Toxoplasma strains

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Jones-Brando, Lorraine; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Since Toxoplasma gondii can establish a persistent infection in the central nervous system in humans, we studied its effects on a host's neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems (NNS). Using microarray technology we have screened the expression of genes coding for NNS in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to representative strains of Toxoplasma to identify potential target genes. Transcripts that displayed expression levels distinct from uninfected controls were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Our results indicate the presence of disturbed NNS upon Toxoplasma infection and the extent of this disturbance varies considerably among the three strains. In cells infected by type I strain, three neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, glutamate and serotonin) and two neuropeptides (PROK2 and TAC1) displayed abnormalities relative to controls. Type III infection led to the change of a critical enzyme, TDO2, in the kynurenine pathway. No significant effects of type II infection were found in the NNS. These data may have implications for understanding the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of neurologic disturbances in toxoplasmosis. PMID:23821371

  3. Abnormalities of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems in human neuroepithelioma cells infected by three Toxoplasma strains.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Jones-Brando, Lorraine; Yolken, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    Since Toxoplasma gondii can establish a persistent infection in the central nervous system in humans, we studied its effects on a host's neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems (NNS). Using microarray technology, we have screened the expression of genes coding for NNS in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to representative strains of Toxoplasma to identify potential target genes. Transcripts that displayed expression levels distinct from uninfected controls were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Our results indicate the presence of disturbed NNS upon Toxoplasma infection and the extent of this disturbance varies considerably among the three strains. In cells infected by type I strain, three neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, glutamate and serotonin) and two neuropeptides (PROK2 and TAC1) displayed abnormalities relative to controls. Type III infection led to the change of a critical enzyme, TDO2, in the kynurenine pathway. No significant effects of type II infection were found in the NNS. These data may have implications for understanding the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of neurologic disturbances in toxoplasmosis. PMID:23821371

  4. The conditioning of intervention effects on early adolescent alcohol use by maternal involvement and dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) and serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genetic variants.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, H Harrington; Schlomer, Gabriel L; Vandenbergh, David J; Feinberg, Mark; Greenberg, Mark; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve; Shriver, Mark D; Zaidi, Arslan A; Hair, Kerry L

    2015-02-01

    Data drawn from the in-home subsample of the PROSPER intervention dissemination trial were used to investigate the moderation of intervention effects on underage alcohol use by maternal involvement and candidate genes. The primary gene examined was dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4). Variation in this gene and maternal involvement were hypothesized to moderate the influence of intervention status on alcohol use. The PROSPER data used were drawn from 28 communities randomly assigned to intervention or comparison conditions. Participating youth were assessed in five in-home interviews from sixth to ninth grades. A main effect of sixth-grade pretest maternal involvement on ninth-grade alcohol use was found. Neither intervention status nor DRD4 variation was unconditionally linked to ninth-grade drinking. However, moderation analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction among DRD4 status, maternal involvement, and intervention condition. Follow-up analyses revealed that prevention reduced drinking risk, but only for youth with at least one DRD4 seven-repeat allele who reported average or greater pretest levels of maternal involvement. To determine if this conditional pattern was limited to the DRD4 gene, we repeated analyses using the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region site near the serotonin transporter gene. The results for this supplemental analysis revealed a significant three-way interaction similar but not identical to that found for DRD4. PMID:25640830

  5. Role of serotonin in fish reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Parvathy; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2015-01-01

    The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviors, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may also play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction. PMID:26097446

  6. Role of serotonin in fish reproduction.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Parvathy; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S

    2015-01-01

    The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviors, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may also play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction. PMID:26097446

  7. HPLC Neurotransmitter Analysis.

    PubMed

    Holm, Thomas Hellese; Isaksen, Toke Jost; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin

    2016-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a powerful tool to measure neurotransmitter levels in specific tissue samples and dialysates from patients and animals. In this chapter, we list the current protocols used to measure neurotransmitters in the form of biogenic amines from murine brain samples. PMID:26695044

  8. Voltammetric and microdialysis monitoring of brain monoamine neurotransmitter release during sociosexual interactions.

    PubMed

    Mas, M; Fumero, B; Gonzlez-Mora, J L

    1995-11-01

    The monoamine neurotransmitters have long been ascribed important modulatory actions on male sexual behavior by a wealth of pharmacological studies. Methodological developments have now made possible the assessment of the extracellular levels of amine transmitters and their metabolites in discrete brain areas of sexually behaving animals using in vivo voltammetry and microdialysis. Studies in our and other laboratories consistently show increased dopamine release in forebrain structures known to be involved in mating activity, including the nucleus accumbens and the medial preoptic area, during both the appetitive (i.e., non-contact exposure to sexual stimuli) and consummatory phases of this behavior. Serotonin utilization seems to be mainly related to consummatory events. These findings are consistent with the pharmacological evidence as well as previous ex vivo work. The state of sexual inactivity that follows unrestricted mating associates with increased dopamine turnover in the preoptic area. According to the available information, it could reflect some blockade of dopaminergic receptors, possibly involving prolactin. No disturbance of ongoing sexual behavior was observed during the neurochemical monitoring sessions with either methodology. These studies show voltammetry and microdialysis as powerful complementary tools for the assessment of sociosexual interactions. PMID:8747175

  9. Serotonin catabolism in the central and enteric nervous systems of rats upon induction of serotonin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Squires, Leah N; Talbot, Kristen N; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Sweedler, Jonathan V

    2007-10-01

    Serotonin, a well-known neurotransmitter in mammals, has been linked to a number of neurological and gastrointestinal disorders. One of these disorders, serotonin syndrome, is a potentially deadly condition caused by increased levels of serotonin in the extracellular space. Information on the neurochemical effects of serotonin syndrome on serotonin catabolism is lacking, particularly in relation to the enteric system of the gastrointestinal tract. Here the catabolism of serotonin is monitored in rats with pharmacologically induced serotonin syndrome, with the catabolites characterized using a specialized capillary electrophoresis system with laser-induced native fluorescence detection. Animals induced with serotonin syndrome demonstrate striking increases in the levels of serotonin and its metabolites. In the brain, levels of serotonin increased 2- to 3-fold in animals induced with serotonin syndrome. A major serotonin metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, increased 10- to 100-fold in experimental animals. Similar results were observed in the gastrointestinal tissues; in the small intestines, serotonin levels increased 4- to 5-fold. Concentrations of 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid increased 32- to 100-fold in the intestinal tissues of experimental animals. Serotonin sulfate showed surprisingly large increases, marking what may be the first time the compound has been reported in rat intestinal tissues. PMID:17877637

  10. Neurotransmitter sampling and storage for capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Fuller, R R; Dahlgren, R L; Potgieter, K; Gillette, R; Sweedler, J V

    2001-02-01

    Quantitative analysis of signaling molecules from single cells and cellular materials requires careful validation of the analytical methods. Strategies have been investigated that enable single neurons and neuronal tissues to be stored before being assayed for many low-weight, biologically active molecules, such as serotonin, dopamine, and citrulline. Both metacerebral cell and pedal ganglia homogenates isolated from Pleiuohbrain-Chae californica have been studied by capillary electrophoresis with two complimentary laser-induced fluorescence detection methods. For homogenized ganglia samples, several cellular analytes (such as arginine and citrulline) are unaffected by standing at room temperature for days. Many other analytes in the biological matrix, including the catecholamines and indolamines, degrade by 20% within 10 h at room temperature. Rapidly freezing samples or preserving them with ascorbic acid preserves more than 80% of the dopamine and about 70% of the serotonin even after five days. In addition, serotonin and dopamine remain completely stable for at least five days by combining the ascorbic acid preservation and freezing at -20 degrees C. The timing of preservation is critical in maintaining the original composition of the biological samples. Using our optimum storage protocol of freezing the sample within 2 h after isolation, we can store frozen homogenate ganglia samples for more than four weeks before assay while still obtaining losses less than 10% of the original serotonin and dopamine. The nanoliter-volume single cell samples, however, must be analyzed within 4 h to obtain losses of less than 10% for serotonin related metabolites. PMID:11293695

  11. Neurotransmitter imaging in living cells based on native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.; Yeung, E.S. |; Parpura, V.; Haydon, P.G.

    1995-08-01

    A UV laser-based optical microscope and CCD detection system with high sensitivity has been developed to image neurotransmitters in living cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. We found that the fluorescence intensity of astrocytes increased by up to 10 times after serotonin uptake. The temporal resolution of this detection system at 10{sup -4} M serotonin is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. This UV laser microscope imaging system shows promise for studies of spatial-temporal dynamics of neurotransmitter levels in living neurons and glia. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Secondary neurotransmitter deficiencies in epilepsy caused by voltage-gated sodium channelopathies: A potential treatment target?

    PubMed

    Horvath, Gabriella A; Demos, Michelle; Shyr, Casper; Matthews, Allison; Zhang, Linhua; Race, Simone; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia; Van Allen, Margot I; Mancarci, Ogan; Toker, Lilah; Pavlidis, Paul; Ross, Colin J; Wasserman, Wyeth W; Trump, Natalie; Heales, Simon; Pope, Simon; Helen Cross, J; van Karnebeek, Clara D M

    2016-01-01

    We describe neurotransmitter abnormalities in two patients with drug-resistant epilepsy resulting from deleterious de novo mutations in sodium channel genes. Whole exome sequencing identified a de novo SCN2A splice-site mutation (c.2379+1G>A, p.Glu717Gly.fs*30) resulting in deletion of exon 14, in a 10-year old male with early onset global developmental delay, intermittent ataxia, autism, hypotonia, epileptic encephalopathy and cerebral/cerebellar atrophy. In the cerebrospinal fluid both homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased; extensive biochemical and genetic investigations ruled out primary neurotransmitter deficiencies and other known inborn errors of metabolism. In an 8-year old female with an early onset intractable epileptic encephalopathy, developmental regression, and progressive cerebellar atrophy, a previously unreported de novo missense mutation was identified in SCN8A (c.5615G>A; p.Arg1872Gln), affecting a highly conserved residue located in the C-terminal of the Nav1.6 protein. Aside from decreased homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate was also found to be low. We hypothesize that these channelopathies cause abnormal synaptic mono-amine metabolite secretion/uptake via impaired vesicular release and imbalance in electrochemical ion gradients, which in turn aggravate the seizures. Treatment with oral 5-hydroxytryptophan, l-Dopa/Carbidopa, and a dopa agonist resulted in mild improvement of seizure control in the male case, most likely via dopamine and serotonin receptor activated signal transduction and modulation of glutamatergic, GABA-ergic and glycinergic neurotransmission. Neurotransmitter analysis in other sodium channelopathy patients will help validate our findings, potentially yielding novel treatment opportunities. PMID:26647175

  13. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI.

    PubMed

    Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K; Salis, Robbert J; Erbe, Richard W; Faith, Myles S; Allison, David B; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H

    2013-06-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight, and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems, as well as food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314, in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model only influences one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fits the diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity, and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement and BMI. PMID:23544600

  14. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles; Allison, David; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid systems, and food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314 in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model influences only one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fit the dual-risk or diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement on BMI. PMID:23544600

  15. Neurotransmitters and neuronal apoptotic cell death of chronically aluminum intoxicated Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to ascorbic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Samah R; Hussein, Mohamed M A

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out to assess the neurotoxic effect of aluminum (Al) on the aquatic creatures. This study aims to evaluate the neurotoxic effects of long term Al exposure on the Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and the potential ameliorative influence of ascorbic acid (ASA) over a 180 days exposure period. Forty eight Nile catfish were divided into four groups: control group, placed in clean water, ASA exposed group (5mg/l), AlCl3 received group (28.96?g/l; 1/20 LC50), and group received AlCl3 concomitantly with ASA. Brain tissue was examined by using flow cytometry to monitor the apoptotic cell population, HPLC analysis for the quantitative estimation of brain monoamine neurotransmitters [serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE)]. The amino acid neurotransmitters [serum taurine, glycine, aspartate and glutamine and brain gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)] levels were assessed, plus changes in brain tissue structure using light microscopy. The concentration of Al in both brain tissue and serum was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometery. The Al content in serum and brain tissue were both elevated and Al exposure induced an increase in the number of apoptotic cells, a marked reduction of the monoamine and amino acids neurotransmitters levels and changes in tissue morphology. ASA supplementation partially abolished the effects of AL on the reduced neurotransmitter, the degree of apoptosis and restored the morphological changes to the brain. Overall, our results indicate that, ASA is a promising neuroprotective agent against for Al-induced neurotoxicity in the Nile catfish. PMID:26459186

  16. Serotonin and stress coping.

    PubMed

    Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Andolina, Diego

    2015-01-15

    Coping is the necessary outcome of any stressful situation and the major determinant of stress resilience. Coping strategies can be divided into two broad categories, based on the presence (active) or absence (passive) of attempts to act upon the stressor. The role of brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in coping behavior that is emerging from studies in animals and humans is the subject of this article. We have focused attention on studies that consider the coping behavior exhibited when the individual is faced with a new stressful experience. Coping styles characterize different species with different evolutionary histories, from fishes to mammals, and evidence shows that serotonin transmission in the central nervous system, with differences in transporter, receptor types and hormone or neurotransmitter influences is critical in determining coping behavior. Moreover, a major role of environmental challenges throughout the lifespan affects brain systems that control coping outcomes through 5-HT transmission. In particular early experiences, for their long-term effects in adulthood, and social experiences throughout the life span, for the effects on serotonin functioning, received attention in preclinical research because of their parallelism in humans and animals. Based on growing evidence pointing to a medial prefrontal cortex-amygdala system in mediating adaptive and maladaptive stress responses, we propose a brain circuit in which serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe depending on the CRF (corticotropin releasing factor) regulatory action engage a prefrontal cortical-amygdala pathway through 5-HT1A receptors, GABA and Glutamate to moderate coping behavior. PMID:25108244

  17. Stress reactions in rats during immunization to serotonin.

    PubMed

    Umriukhin, A E; Kravtsov, A N; Vetrile, L A; Trekova, N A; Evseev, V A; Sudakov, K V

    2005-12-01

    We studied the effect of immunization with a serotonin-bovine serum albumin conjugate on parameters of stress reaction to immobilization stress in rats. Active immunization was accompanied by changes in parameters reflecting animal resistance to emotional stress. The observed changes can be interpreted as a decrease in individual resistance to emotional stress. Active immunization of rats with a serotonin-bovine serum albumin conjugate was accompanied by production of autoantibodies against serotonin and dopamine. The role of autoantibodies against dopamine in modulation of the effect of immunization with serotonin-bovine serum albumin conjugate on the stress reaction in rats is discussed. PMID:16848216

  18. Predator Exposure/Psychosocial Stress Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Modulates Neurotransmitters in the Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C. Brad; Ebenezer, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Leslie D.; Francis, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can develop in response to a traumatic event involving a threat to life. To date, no diagnostic biomarkers have been identified for PTSD. Recent research points toward physiological abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, sympathoadrenal medullary and immune system that may be implicated in the disorder. The modulation of neurotransmitters is another possible mechanism, but their role in the progression of PTSD is poorly understood. Low serotonin (5-HT) may be a factor, but it may not be the only neurotransmitter affected as modulation affects levels of other neurotransmitters. In this study, we hypothesized the predator exposure/psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD may alter levels of 5-HT and other neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. We induced PTSD via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress model, whereby rats were placed in a cage with a cat for 1 hour on days 1 and 11 of the 31-day experiment. Rats also received psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. On day 32, the rats were sacrificed and the brains dissected to remove the hippocampus and PFC. Norepinephrine (NE), 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dopamine (DA), and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-HT levels in the hippocampus and PFC were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the hippocampus, 5-HT and HVA were lower, while NE and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. In the PFC, only 5-HT was lower, while NE, DA, and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also examined and confirmed our findings. These results demonstrate that the predator exposure/psychosocial stress model of PTSD produces neurotransmitter changes similar to those seen in human patients and may cause a heightened noradrenergic response. PMID:24551226

  19. Effects of low dose endosulfan exposure on brain neurotransmitter levels in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Preud'homme, Valérie; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie; De Pauw, Edwin; Denoël, Mathieu; Kestemont, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of its wide use and known effects, particularly neurotoxic, on a variety of organisms. However, the effect of endosulfan was not yet evaluated on amphibians at levels encompassing simultaneously brain neurotransmitters and behavioural endpoints. In this context, tadpoles of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis were submitted to four treatments during 27 d: one control, one ethanol control, and two low environmental concentrations of endosulfan (0.1 and 1 μg L(-1)). Endosulfan induced a significant increase of brain serotonin level at both concentrations and a significant increase of brain dopamine and GABA levels at the lower exposure but acetylcholinesterase activity was not modified by the treatment. The gene coding for the GABA transporter 1 was up-regulated in endosulfan contaminated tadpoles while the expression of other genes coding for the neurotransmitter receptors or for the enzymes involved in their metabolic pathways was not significantly modified by endosulfan exposure. Endosulfan also affected foraging, and locomotion in links with the results of the physiological assays, but no effects were seen on growth. These results show that low environmental concentrations of endosulfan can induce adverse responses in X. laevis tadpoles. At a broader perspective, this suggests that more research using and linking multiple markers should be used to understand the complex mode of action of pollutants. PMID:25192837

  20. Colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (amphibia; Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Dünker, N

    1998-01-01

    Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, a member of the limbless Gymnophiona, has a specialized subterranean burrowing mode of life and a predominantly olfactory-guided orientation. The only visually guided behavior seems to be negative phototaxis. As these animals possess extremely small eyes (only 540 microm in diameter in adults), functional investigations of single retinal cells by electrophysiological methods have so far failed. Therefore, the content and distribution of retinal transmitters have been investigated as indications of a functioning sense organ in an animal that is supposed to be blind. Previous immunohistochemical investigation of the retinal transmitter system revealed immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthetic pathway. The present studies have been performed in order to determine a possible colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of the caecilian retina. Therefore retinal cryostat sections of various developmental stages have been investigated by the indirect fluorescence method. In single-label preparations, serotonin is localized to cells in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. GABA immunocytochemistry labels a variety of cell types in the inner nuclear layer as well as cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer. In double-label preparations, some of the serotonergic cells are found to express GABA immunoreactivity and some GABAergic neurons also label for serotonin immunocytochemistry. Thus, despite the fact that caecilians mainly rely on olfaction and are believed to have a reduced visual system, their retina exhibits a surprisingly "normal" distribution of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, also typical of other anamniotes with a well-developed visual system, including the partial colocalization of serotonin and GABA at all developmental stages of I. kohtaoensis. These results indicate that a functional system that is under no strong selective pressure obviously has a long evolutionary persistence irrespective of its need for use. PMID:9462859

  1. Carbon nanotubes grown on metal microelectrodes for the detection of dopamine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cheng; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Nguyen, Michael; Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Zestos, Alexander; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-12-07

    Microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are useful for the detection of neurotransmitters because the CNTs enhance sensitivity and have electrocatalytic effects. CNTs can be grown on carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) but the intrinsic electrochemical activity of carbon fibers makes evaluating the effect of CNT enhancement difficult. Metal wires are highly conductive and many metals have no intrinsic electrochemical activity for dopamine, so we investigated CNTs grown on metal wires as microelectrodes for neurotransmitter detection. In this work, we successfully grew CNTs on niobium substrates for the first time. Instead of planar metal surfaces, metal wires with a diameter of only 25 μm were used as CNT substrates; these have potential in tissue applications due to their minimal tissue damage and high spatial resolution. Scanning electron microscopy shows that aligned CNTs are grown on metal wires after chemical vapor deposition. By use of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, CNT-coated niobium (CNT-Nb) microelectrodes exhibit higher sensitivity and lower ΔEp value compared to CNTs grown on carbon fibers or other metal wires. The limit of detection for dopamine at CNT-Nb microelectrodes is 11 ± 1 nM, which is approximately 2-fold lower than that of bare CFMEs. Adsorption processes were modeled with a Langmuir isotherm, and detection of other neurochemicals was also characterized, including ascorbic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, adenosine, and histamine. CNT-Nb microelectrodes were used to monitor stimulated dopamine release in anesthetized rats with high sensitivity. This research demonstrates that CNT-grown metal microelectrodes, especially CNTs grown on Nb microelectrodes, are useful for monitoring neurotransmitters.

  2. Carbon Nanotubes Grown on Metal Microelectrodes for the Detection of Dopamine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng; Jacobs, Christopher B; Nguyen, Michael D; Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Zestos, Alexander G; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Rouleau, Christopher M; Geohegan, David B; Venton, B Jill

    2016-01-01

    Microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are useful for the detection of neurotransmitters because the CNTs enhance sensitivity and have electrocatalytic effects. CNTs can be grown on carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) but the intrinsic electrochemical activity of carbon fibers makes evaluating the effect of CNT enhancement difficult. Metal wires are highly conductive and many metals have no intrinsic electrochemical activity for dopamine, so we investigated CNTs grown on metal wires as microelectrodes for neurotransmitter detection. In this work, we successfully grew CNTs on niobium substrates for the first time. Instead of planar metal surfaces, metal wires with a diameter of only 25 μm were used as CNT substrates; these have potential in tissue applications due to their minimal tissue damage and high spatial resolution. Scanning electron microscopy shows that aligned CNTs are grown on metal wires after chemical vapor deposition. By use of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, CNT-coated niobium (CNT-Nb) microelectrodes exhibit higher sensitivity and lower ΔEp value compared to CNTs grown on carbon fibers or other metal wires. The limit of detection for dopamine at CNT-Nb microelectrodes is 11 ± 1 nM, which is approximately 2-fold lower than that of bare CFMEs. Adsorption processes were modeled with a Langmuir isotherm, and detection of other neurochemicals was also characterized, including ascorbic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, adenosine, and histamine. CNT-Nb microelectrodes were used to monitor stimulated dopamine release in anesthetized rats with high sensitivity. This study demonstrates that CNT-grown metal microelectrodes, especially CNTs grown on Nb microelectrodes, are useful for monitoring neurotransmitters. PMID:26639609

  3. Carbon nanotubes grown on metal microelectrodes for the detection of dopamine

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Cheng; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Nguyen, Michael; Ganesana, Mallikarjunarao; Zestos, Alexander; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Geohegan, David B.; Venton, B. Jill

    2015-12-07

    Microelectrodes modified with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are useful for the detection of neurotransmitters because the CNTs enhance sensitivity and have electrocatalytic effects. CNTs can be grown on carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) but the intrinsic electrochemical activity of carbon fibers makes evaluating the effect of CNT enhancement difficult. Metal wires are highly conductive and many metals have no intrinsic electrochemical activity for dopamine, so we investigated CNTs grown on metal wires as microelectrodes for neurotransmitter detection. In this work, we successfully grew CNTs on niobium substrates for the first time. Instead of planar metal surfaces, metal wires with a diameter ofmore » only 25 μm were used as CNT substrates; these have potential in tissue applications due to their minimal tissue damage and high spatial resolution. Scanning electron microscopy shows that aligned CNTs are grown on metal wires after chemical vapor deposition. By use of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, CNT-coated niobium (CNT-Nb) microelectrodes exhibit higher sensitivity and lower ΔEp value compared to CNTs grown on carbon fibers or other metal wires. The limit of detection for dopamine at CNT-Nb microelectrodes is 11 ± 1 nM, which is approximately 2-fold lower than that of bare CFMEs. Adsorption processes were modeled with a Langmuir isotherm, and detection of other neurochemicals was also characterized, including ascorbic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, serotonin, adenosine, and histamine. CNT-Nb microelectrodes were used to monitor stimulated dopamine release in anesthetized rats with high sensitivity. This research demonstrates that CNT-grown metal microelectrodes, especially CNTs grown on Nb microelectrodes, are useful for monitoring neurotransmitters.« less

  4. Integrated Carbon Nanostructures for Detection of Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Sainio, Sami; Palomki, Tommi; Tujunen, Noora; Protopopova, Vera; Koehne, Jessica; Kordas, Krisztian; Koskinen, Jari; Meyyappan, M; Laurila, Tomi

    2015-10-01

    Carbon-based materials, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are inherently interesting for neurotransmitter detection due to their good biocompatibility, low cost and relatively simple synthesis. In this paper, we report on new carbon-hybrid materials, where either CNTs or CNFs are directly grown on top of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C). We show that these hybrid materials have electrochemical properties that not only combine the best characteristics of the individual "building blocks" but their synergy makes the electrode performance superior compared to conventional carbon based electrodes. By combining ta-C with CNTs, we were able to realize electrode materials that show wide and stable water window, almost reversible electron transfer properties and high sensitivity and selectivity for detecting dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid. Furthermore, the sensitivity of ta-C + CNF hybrids towards dopamine as well as glutamate has been found excellent paving the road for actual in vivo measurements. The wide and stable water window of these sensors enables detection of other neurotransmitters besides DA as well as capability of withstanding higher potentials without suffering from oxygen and hydrogen evolution. PMID:26093378

  5. Electrical coupling between the human Serotonin Transporter and Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ruchala, Iwona; Cabra, Vanessa; Solis, Ernesto; Glennon, Richard A.; De Felice, Louis J.; Eltit, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Monoamine transporters have been implicated in dopamine or serotonin release in response to abused drugs such as methamphetamine or ecstasy (MDMA). In addition, monoamine transporters show substrate-induced inward currents that may modulate excitability and Ca2+ mobilization, which could also contribute to neurotransmitter release. How monoamine transporters modulate Ca2+ permeability is currently unknown. We investigate the functional interaction between the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CaV). We introduce an excitable expression system consisting of cultured muscle cells genetically engineered to express hSERT. Both 5HT and S(+)MDMA depolarize these cells and activate the excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanism. However, hSERT substrates fail to activate EC-coupling in CaV1.1-null muscle cells, thus implicating Ca2+ channels. CaV1.3 and CaV2.2 channels are natively expressed in neurons. When these channels are co-expressed with hSERT in HEK293T cells, only cells expressing the lower-threshold L-type CaV1.3 channel show Ca2+ transients evoked by 5HT or S(+)MDMA. In addition, the electrical coupling between hSERT and CaV1.3 takes place at physiological 5HT concentrations. The electrical coupling between monoamine neurotransmitter transporters and Ca2+ channels such as CaV1.3 is a novel mechanism by which endogenous substrates (neurotransmitters) or exogenous substrates (like ecstasy) could modulate Ca2+-driven signals in excitable cells. PMID:24854234

  6. Disturbances in the Secretion of Neurotransmitters in IA-2/IA-2? Null Mice: Changes in Behavior, Learning and Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takuya; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Ito, Yoichiro; Notkins, Abner L.

    2009-01-01

    Islet-associated protein 2 (IA-2) and IA-2? are major autoantigens in type 1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core secretory vesicles (DCV) of neuroendocrine cells. The deletion of these genes results in a decrease in insulin secretion. The present study was initiated to test the hypothesis that this deletion not only affects the secretion of insulin, but has a more global effect on neuroendocrine secretion that leads to disturbances in behavior and learning. Measurement of neurotransmitters showed that norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin were significantly decreased in the brain of double knockout (DKO) mice (P< 0.05 to <0.001). In tests evaluating anxiety-like behavior and conditioned-learning, the DKO mice showed a highly significant increase in anxiety-like behavior (P<0.01 to <0.001) and impairment of conditioned learning (P<0.01) as compared to WT mice. The DKO mice also displayed an increase in spontaneous and induced seizures (P<0.01) and age-related death. Contrary to the generally held view that IA-2 and IA-2? are expressed exclusively in DCV, subcellular fractionation studies revealed that IA-2?, but not IA-2, co-purifies with fractions rich in synaptic vesicles (SV), and that the secretion of dopamine, GABA and glutamate from the synaptosomes of the DKO mice was significantly decreased as was the number of SV (P<0.01). Taken together, these findings show that IA-2? is present in both DCV and SV, and that the deletion of IA-2/IA-2? has a global effect on the secretion of neurotransmitters. The impairment of secretion leads to behavioral and learning disturbances, seizures and reduced life span. PMID:19361477

  7. Measuring the serotonin uptake site using (/sup 3/H)paroxetine--a new serotonin uptake inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Gleiter, C.H.; Nutt, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that may be involved in ethanol preference and dependence. It is possible to label the serotonin uptake site in brain using the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine, but this also binds to other sites. We have used the new high-affinity uptake blocker paroxetine to define binding to this site and report it to have advantages over imipramine as a ligand.

  8. Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.

    PubMed

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low ?g/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 ?g/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 ?g/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24486880

  9. Reprint of: Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.

    PubMed

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low ?g/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 ?g/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 ?g/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24679646

  10. Transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at the mouse bloodretina and bloodbrain barriers by uptake1 and uptake2

    PubMed Central

    Andr, Pascal; Saubama, Bruno; Cochois-Gugan, Vronique; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Cattelotte, Julie; Smirnova, Maria; Schinkel, Alfred H; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Uptake1 and uptake2 transporters are involved in the extracellular clearance of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at synaptic clefts. We looked for them at the bloodbrain barrier (BBB) and bloodretina barriers (BRB), where they could be involved in regulating the neurotransmitter concentration and modulate/terminate receptor-mediated effects within the neurovascular unit (NVU). Uptake2 (Oct1-3/Slc22a1-3, Pmat/Slc29a4) and Mate1/Slc47a1 transporters are also involved in the transport of xenobiotics. We used in situ carotid perfusion of prototypic substrates like [3H]-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ([3H]-MPP+), [3H]-histamine, [3H]-serotonin, and [3H]-dopamine, changes in ionic composition and genetic deletion of Oct1-3 carriers to detect uptake1 and uptake2 at the BBB and BRB. We showed that uptake1 and uptake2 are involved in the transport of [3H]-dopamine and [3H]-MPP+ at the blood luminal BRB, but not at the BBB. These functional studies, together with quantitative RT-PCR and confocal imaging, suggest that the mouse BBB lacks uptake1 (Net/Slc6a2, Dat/Slc6a3, Sert/Slc6a4), uptake2, and Mate1 on both the luminal and abluminal sides. However, we found evidence for functional Net and Oct1 transporters at the luminal BRB. These heterogeneous transport properties of the brain and retina NVUs suggest that the BBB helps protect the brain against biogenic amine neurotransmitters in the plasma while the BRB has more of a metabolic/endocrine role. PMID:22850405

  11. Developmental fluoxetine and prenatal stress effects on serotonin, dopamine, and synaptophysin density in the PFC and hippocampus of offspring at weaning.

    PubMed

    Gemmel, Mary; Rayen, Ine; Lotus, Tiffany; van Donkelaar, Eva; Steinbusch, Harry W; De Lacalle, Sonsoles; Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2016-04-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication exposure during the perinatal period can have a long term impact in adult offspring on neuroplasticity and the serotonergic system, but the impact of these medications during early development is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of developmental exposure to the SSRI, fluoxetine, on the serotonergic system, dopaminergic system, and synaptophysin density in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as number of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, in juvenile rat offspring at weaning. To model aspects of maternal depression, prenatal restraint stress was used. Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to either prenatal stress and/or fluoxetine. Main findings show that developmental fluoxetine exposure to prenatally stressed offspring decreased 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels and altered the dopaminergic system in the hippocampus. Prenatal stress, regardless of fluoxetine, increased synaptophysin density in the PFC. This work indicates that early exposure to maternal stress and SSRI medication can alter brain monoamine levels and synaptophysin density in offspring at weaning. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 315-327, 2016. PMID:26477449

  12. Protective Effect of Spermidine Against Excitotoxic Neuronal Death Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats: Possible Neurotransmitters and Neuroinflammatory Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Sumit; Singh, Shamsher; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Puneet

    2015-08-01

    Huntington disease is hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by selective and immense degradation of GABAergic medium spiny neurons in striatum. Quinolinic acid (QA)-induced neurotoxicity involves a cascade of events such as excitotoxicity, ATP depletion, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, as well as selective GABAergic neuronal loss. Therefore, we investigated spermidine, an endogenous molecule with free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic properties, for its beneficial potential if any, in QA-induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Rats were administered with QA (200 nmol/2 µl saline) bilaterally on 0 day. Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 21 days once a day. Behavioral parameters (body weight, locomotor activity, grip strength, and narrow beam walk) observations were done on 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after QA treatment. On 21st day, animals were sacrificed and rat striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH, Nitrite), neuroinflammation (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), and neurochemical analysis (GABA, glutamate, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA, adenosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, and inosine). QA treatment significantly altered body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination, oxidative defense (increased LPO, nitrite, and decreased GSH), pro-inflammatory levels (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), GABA, glutamate, catecholamines level (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites), and purines level (adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine). Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated these alterations in body weight, motor impairments, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory markers, GABA, glutamate, catecholamines, adenosine, and their metabolites levels in striatum. The neuroprotective effect of spermidine against QA-induced excitotoxic cell death is attributed to its antioxidant, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic, anti-inflammatory properties, and prevention of neurotransmitters alteration in striatum. PMID:26078029

  13. Beneficial effects of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats: Possible neurotransmitters and neuroinflammation modulation.

    PubMed

    Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet

    2016-01-15

    Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1?, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia. PMID:26712377

  14. Altered Neurocircuitry in the Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Bearer, Elaine L.; Boulat, Benoit; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Jacobs, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO) mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT) KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral mesolimbic structures at 26 hr post-injection. Thus, DAT KO mice appear, at this level of anatomic resolution, to have preserved cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity but diminished robustness of reward-modulating circuitry distal to the thalamus. This is in contradistinction to the state of this circuitry in serotonin transporter KO mice where we observed more robust connectivity in more posterior brain regions using methods identical to those employed here. PMID:20634895

  15. Effect of repeated co-treatment with fluoxetine and amantadine on the behavioral reactivity of the central dopamine and serotonin system in rats.

    PubMed

    Rogz, Zofia; Skuza, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we found that repeated co-treatment with fluoxetine and amantadine for 14 days (but not for 7 days) enhanced the hyperactivity induced by amphetamine or quinpirole (a dopamine D(2/3) agonist), compared to treatment with either drug alone. Whereas repeated co-treatment with fluoxetine and amantadine for 7 days more potently inhibited the behavioral syndrome evoked by the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(1A) receptor agonist (+/-)-8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)-tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), it did not change the action of the 5-HT(2) receptor agonist (+/-)-1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (/+/-/-DOI). The obtained results support the hypothesis that repeated co-treatment with fluoxetine and amantadine may evoke more effective antidepressant activity than treatment with fluoxetine alone. Moreover, our results suggest that 5-HT(1A) receptors are useful targets for the development of more rapidly acting and more effective medication. PMID:19904017

  16. Changes in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice--A quantitative multireceptor study.

    PubMed

    Cremer, J N; Amunts, K; Schleicher, A; Palomero-Gallagher, N; Piel, M; Rsch, F; Zilles, K

    2015-12-17

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a well-characterized neurological disorder with regard to its neuropathological and symptomatic appearance. At the genetic level, mutations of particular genes, e.g. Parkin and DJ-1, were found in human hereditary PD with early onset. Neurotransmitter receptors constitute decisive elements in neural signal transduction. Furthermore, since they are often altered in neurological and psychiatric diseases, receptors have been successful targets for pharmacological agents. However, the consequences of PD-associated gene mutations on the expression of transmitter receptors are largely unknown. Therefore, we studied the expression of 16 different receptor binding sites of the neurotransmitters glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and adenosine by means of quantitative receptor autoradiography in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice. These knockout mice exhibit electrophysiological and behavioral deficits, but do not show the typical dopaminergic cell loss. We demonstrated differential changes of binding site densities in eleven brain regions. Most prominently, we found an up-regulation of GABA(B) and kainate receptor densities in numerous cortical areas of Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice, as well as increased NMDA but decreased AMPA receptor densities in different brain regions of the Parkin knockout mice. The alterations of three different glutamate receptor types may indicate the potential relevance of the glutamatergic system in the pathogenesis of PD. Furthermore, the cholinergic M1, M2 and nicotinic receptors as well as the adrenergic ?2 and the adenosine A(2A) receptors showed differentially increased densities in Parkin and DJ-1 knockout mice. Taken together, knockout of the PD-associated genes Parkin or DJ-1 results in differential changes of neurotransmitter receptor densities, highlighting a possible role of altered non-dopaminergic, and in particular of glutamatergic neurotransmission in PD pathogenesis. PMID:26546471

  17. Effects of exposure to amitraz on noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine levels in brain regions of 30 and 60 days old male rats.

    PubMed

    Del Pino, J; Martnez, M A; Castellano, V; Ramos, E; Martnez-Larraaga, M R; Anadn, A

    2013-06-01

    The effects of amitraz oral exposure (20, 50 and 80mg/kg bw, 5 days) on brain region monoamine levels of male rats at 30 and 60 days of age were examined. The amitraz-treated rats at the oral doses of 20 and 50mg/kg bw had no visible injury, i.e., any clinical signs of dysfunction observed in any of the animals. However, rats treated with amitraz at the highest dose (80mg/kg bw, 5 days) showed a slight motor incoordination after 1-2h of treatment. These signs were reversible approximately at 6h after dose. After the last dose of amitraz, NE, DA and 5-HT and its metabolites levels were determined in the brain regions hypothalamus, midbrain, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus by HPLC. Amitraz caused changes in the NE, DA and 5-HT and their metabolite levels in a brain regional-, dose- and age-related manner. In the brain regions studied, amitraz induced a statistically significant increase in 5-HT, NE and DA content with age interaction, but the NE increases in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was without age interaction. Moreover, in the brain regions studied, amitraz induced a statistically significant decrease in the metabolite 5-HIAA, MHPG, DOPAC and HVA levels displaying an age interaction, excepting the 5-HIAA decrease in midbrain and the DOPAC decrease in hypothalamus and striatum which were without age interaction. Furthermore, amitraz evoked a statistically significant decrease in 5-HT, NE and DA turnover in the brain regions studied. The present findings indicate that amitraz significantly altered CNS monoaminergic neurotransmitters in a brain regional-, dose- and age-related manner. PMID:23541472

  18. Sex hormones affect neurotransmitters and shape the adult female brain during hormonal transition periods

    PubMed Central

    Barth, Claudia; Villringer, Arno; Sacher, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been implicated in neurite outgrowth, synaptogenesis, dendritic branching, myelination and other important mechanisms of neural plasticity. Here we review the evidence from animal experiments and human studies reporting interactions between sex hormones and the dominant neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, dopamine, GABA and glutamate. We provide an overview of accumulating data during physiological and pathological conditions and discuss currently conceptualized theories on how sex hormones potentially trigger neuroplasticity changes through these four neurochemical systems. Many brain regions have been demonstrated to express high densities for estrogen- and progesterone receptors, such as the amygdala, the hypothalamus, and the hippocampus. As the hippocampus is of particular relevance in the context of mediating structural plasticity in the adult brain, we put particular emphasis on what evidence could be gathered thus far that links differences in behavior, neurochemical patterns and hippocampal structure to a changing hormonal environment. Finally, we discuss how physiologically occurring hormonal transition periods in humans can be used to model how changes in sex hormones influence functional connectivity, neurotransmission and brain structure in vivo. PMID:25750611

  19. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations in postmortem brain regions of depressed and aggressive patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-12-01

    Depression and aggression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are 2 of the most severe and prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Altered monoaminergic neurotransmitter system functioning has been implicated in both NPS, although their neurochemical etiology remains to be elucidated. Left frozen hemispheres of 40 neuropathologically confirmed AD patients were regionally dissected. Dichotomization based on depression and aggression scores resulted in depressed/nondepressed (AD+ D/AD- D) and aggressive/nonaggressive (AD+ Agr/AD- Agr) groups. Concentrations of dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), (nor)epinephrine ((N)E), and respective metabolites were determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly lower 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and higher homovanillic acid levels were observed in Brodmann area (BA) 9 and 10 of AD+ D compared with AD- D. In AD+ Agr, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in BA9, 5-HIAA to 5-HT ratios in BA11, and MHPG, NE, and 5-HIAA levels in the hippocampus were significantly decreased compared with AD- Agr. These findings indicate that brain region-specific altered monoamines and metabolites may contribute to the occurrence of depression and aggression in AD. PMID:24997673

  20. Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Covey, Daniel P.; Blaha, Charles D.; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M.; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.; Garris, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Object Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. Methods The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between −0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 μm) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ~ 100 μm. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. Results The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer); 2) Bluetooth transceiver; 3) microprocessor; and 4) direct-current battery. A Windows-XP laptop computer running custom software and equipped with a Universal Serial Bus–connected Bluetooth transceiver served as the base station. Computer software directed wireless data acquisition at 100 kilosamples/second and remote control of FSCV operation and adjustable waveform parameters. The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of dopamine and other neurochemicals such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and ascorbic acid by using FSCV at CFM and by flow injection analysis. In rats, the WINCS detected subsecond striatal dopamine release at the implanted sensor during high-frequency stimulation of ascending dopaminergic fibers. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated comparable signals to a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Importantly, the WINCS reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic noise typically found in an operating room setting. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that the WINCS is well suited for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring. It is anticipated that neurotransmitter measurements at an implanted chemical sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425890

  1. Mefloquine and Psychotomimetics Share Neurotransmitter Receptor and Transporter Interactions In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Janowsky, Aaron; Eshleman, Amy J.; Johnson, Robert A.; Wolfrum, Katherine M.; Hinrichs, David J.; Yang, Jongtae; Zabriskie, T. Mark; Smilkstein, Martin J.; Riscoe, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Mefloquine is used for the prevention and treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria, but its use is associated with nightmares, hallucinations, and exacerbation of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. We hypothesized that potential mechanisms of action for the adverse psychotropic effects of mefloquine resemble those of other known psychotomimetics. Objectives Using in vitro radioligand binding and functional assays, we examined the interaction of (+)- and (−)-mefloquine enantiomers, the non-psychotomimetic anti-malarial agent, chloroquine, and several hallucinogens and psychostimulants with recombinant human neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Results Hallucinogens and mefloquine bound stereoselectively and with relatively high affinity (Ki = 0.71–341 nM) to serotonin (5-HT) 2A but not 5-HT1A or 5-HT2C receptors. Mefloquine but not chloroquine was a partial 5-HT2A agonist and a full 5-HT2C agonist, stimulating inositol phosphate accumulation, with similar potency and efficacy as the hallucinogen dimethyltryptamine (DMT). 5-HT receptor antagonists blocked mefloquine’s effects. Mefloquine had low or no affinity for dopamine D1, D2, D3, and D4.4 receptors, or dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. However, mefloquine was a very low potency antagonist at the D3 receptor and mefloquine but not chloroquine or hallucinogens blocked [3H]5-HT uptake by the 5-HT transporter. Conclusions Mefloquine but not chloroquine shares an in vitro receptor interaction profile with some hallucinogens and this neurochemistry may be relevant to the adverse neuropsychiatric effects associated with mefloquine use by a small percentage of patients. Additionally, evaluating interactions with this panel of receptors and transporters may be useful for characterizing effects of other psychotropic drugs and for avoiding psychotomimetic effects for new pharmacotherapies, including antimalarial quinolines. PMID:24488404

  2. Serotonin, neural markers, and memory

    PubMed Central

    Meneses, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Diverse neuropsychiatric disorders present dysfunctional memory and no effective treatment exits for them; likely as result of the absence of neural markers associated to memory. Neurotransmitter systems and signaling pathways have been implicated in memory and dysfunctional memory; however, their role is poorly understood. Hence, neural markers and cerebral functions and dysfunctions are revised. To our knowledge no previous systematic works have been published addressing these issues. The interactions among behavioral tasks, control groups and molecular changes and/or pharmacological effects are mentioned. Neurotransmitter receptors and signaling pathways, during normal and abnormally functioning memory with an emphasis on the behavioral aspects of memory are revised. With focus on serotonin, since as it is a well characterized neurotransmitter, with multiple pharmacological tools, and well characterized downstream signaling in mammals' species. 5-HT1A, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as SERT (serotonin transporter) seem to be useful neural markers and/or therapeutic targets. Certainly, if the mentioned evidence is replicated, then the translatability from preclinical and clinical studies to neural changes might be confirmed. Hypothesis and theories might provide appropriate limits and perspectives of evidence. PMID:26257650

  3. Serotonin-Labeled CdSe Nanocrystals: Applications for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kippeny, Tadd; Adkins, Erika; Adams, Scott; Thomlinson, Ian; Schroeter, Sally; Defelice, Louis; Blakely, Randy; Rosenthal, Sandra

    2000-03-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter which has been linked to the regulation of critical behaviors including sleep, appetite, and mood. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a 12-transmembrane domain protein responsible for clearance of serotonin from extracellular spaces following release. In order to assess the potential for use of ligand-conjugated nanocrystals to target cell surface receptors, ion channels, and transporters we have measured the ability of serotonin-labeled CdSe nanocrystals (SNACs) to block the uptake of tritiated serotonin by the human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT and dSERT). Estimated Ki values, the SNAC concentration at which half of the serotonin transport activity is blocked, were determined by nonlinear regression to be Ki (hSERT ) = 74uM and Ki (dSERT ) = 29uM. These values and our inability to detect free serotonin indicate that SNACs selectively interact with the serotonin recognition site of the transporter. We have also exposed the SNACs to cells containing ionotropic serotonin receptors and have measured the electrical response of the cell using a two microelectrode voltage clamp. We find that serotonin receptors do respond to the SNACs and we measure currents similar to the free serotonin response. These results indicate that ligand-conjugated nanocrystals can be used to label both receptor and transporter proteins. Initial fluorescence labeling experiments will be discussed.

  4. Cochlear Damage Affects Neurotransmitter Chemistry in the Central Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Augustine C.; Godfrey, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of a monotonous sound not actually present in the environment, affects nearly 20% of the population of the United States. Although there has been great progress in tinnitus research over the past 25?years, the neurochemical basis of tinnitus is still poorly understood. We review current research about the effects of various types of cochlear damage on the neurotransmitter chemistry in the central auditory system and document evidence that different changes in this chemistry can underlie similar behaviorally measured tinnitus symptoms. Most available data have been obtained from rodents following cochlear damage produced by cochlear ablation, intense sound, or ototoxic drugs. Effects on neurotransmitter systems have been measured as changes in neurotransmitter level, synthesis, release, uptake, and receptors. In this review, magnitudes of changes are presented for neurotransmitter-related amino acids, acetylcholine, and serotonin. A variety of effects have been found in these studies that may be related to animal model, survival time, type and/or magnitude of cochlear damage, or methodology. The overall impression from the evidence presented is that any imbalance of neurotransmitter-related chemistry could disrupt auditory processing in such a way as to produce tinnitus. PMID:25477858

  5. L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels do not modulate aminergic neurotransmitter release induced by transient global cerebral ischaemia: an in vivo microdialysis study in rat.

    PubMed

    Bentu-Ferrer, D; Decombe, R; Saag, B; Allain, H; Van den Driessche, J

    1993-01-01

    Cerebral ischaemia induces considerable neurotransmitter exocytosis, mediated by calcium entry in neurones, essentially via the N-type, voltage-dependent channels, which are insensitive to calcium blockers. Nonetheless, these blockers, by unclear mechanisms, exert a neuroprotective effect when used in experimental ischaemic models. On the other hand, the existence of L-type, voltage-dependent channels, the only ones responding to the action of calcium blockers on synapses, argues in favour of their possible concomitant action in certain highly pathological situations. We studied the action of three calcium blockers, nimodipine, diltiazem and verapamil (administered at a concentration of 100 microM directly into the striatum of rats), on the extracellular release of dopamine and serotonin, and on the level of their main metabolites, in a model of transient global cerebral ischaemia (four-vessel occlusion). The total absence of effect of these molecules on neurotransmitter release induced by ischaemia proves the non-involvement of this mechanism in the protective action of calcium entry blockers on ischaemic lesions, and the absence or very weak action of L-type, voltage-dependent presynaptic channels in the striatum of rats. PMID:8098284

  6. Effect of repeated treatment with tianeptine and fluoxetine on central dopamine D(2) /D(3) receptors.

    PubMed

    Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, M; Rogoz, Z; Skuza, G; Dlaboga, D; Maj, J

    2002-03-01

    Tianeptine (TIA) is an antidepressant drug that has been shown to decrease extracellular serotonin level and reveals no affinity for neurotransmitter receptors. The present study was aimed at determining whether repeated TIA treatment induced any adaptive changes in the central dopamine D(2)/D(3) system (behavioural and biochemical) similar to those reported earlier for tricyclic antidepressants. Experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats. TIA was administered at a dose of 5 and 10 mg/kg once or repeatedly (twice daily for 14 days). Fluoxetine (FLU), used as a reference compound, was also administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg. The results obtained showed that TIA or FLU administered repeatedly increased the hyperlocomotion induced by D-amphetamine and 7-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (7-OH-DPAT). Biochemical study revealed a decrease in the [(3)H]7-OH-DPAT binding sites after acute and repeated treatment with TIA or FLU in the islands of Calleja minor, as well as in the shell part of nucleus accumbens septi. On the other hand, both TIA and FLU administered repeatedly increased the binding of [(3)H]quinpirole (a D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist) in the nucleus caudatus as well as in the core part of the nucleus accumbens septi. Similar effects have been observed when dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors were visualized with the use of [3H]raclopride, a dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor antagonist. However, TIA and FLU induced a decrease in the level of mRNA encoding for dopamine D(2) receptors, not only after repeated but also after acute treatment. These results indicate that repeated TIA and FLU administration induces adaptive changes in the dopaminergic D(2)/D(3) system and especially enhances the functional responsiveness of dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. However, the question of whether this increased responsiveness is important for clinical antidepressant efficacy remains open. PMID:11981225

  7. UWA-121, a mixed dopamine and serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, enhances L-DOPA anti-parkinsonian action without worsening dyskinesia or psychosis-like behaviours in the MPTP-lesioned common marmoset.

    PubMed

    Huot, Philippe; Johnston, Tom H; Lewis, Katie D; Koprich, James B; Reyes, M Gabriela; Fox, Susan H; Piggott, Matthew J; Brotchie, Jonathan M

    2014-07-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its long-term administration is complicated by wearing-off and dyskinesia. UWA-101, a dual, equipotent inhibitor of dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) transporters, has previously been shown to successfully extend duration of anti-parkinsonian benefit of L-DOPA (ON-time), without exacerbating dyskinesia, in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned marmoset. However, UWA-101 is racemic and it is unclear whether one or both enantiomers contribute to its actions, and whether a better therapeutic effect might be attained by using a single antipode. In the current study, we synthesised the two enantiomers of UWA-101, R-101 (UWA-121) and S-101 (UWA-122), characterised their pharmacological profiles and administered them to MPTP-lesioned marmosets. Parkinsonism, dyskinesia, psychosis-like behaviours and duration of ON-time were evaluated. UWA-121 is a dual DAT > SERT inhibitor, with an approximate 10:1 DAT:SERT affinity ratio (inhibitory constants (Ki) of 307 and 3830 nM, respectively). In combination with L-DOPA, UWA-121 extended duration of ON-time when compared to L-DOPA/vehicle treatment (by 40%, P < 0.01). UWA-121 also extended duration of ON-time without dyskinesia (by 215%, P < 0.05) and ON-time without psychosis-like behaviours when compared to L-DOPA/vehicle treatment (by 345%, P < 0.01). UWA-121 did not worsen the severity of dyskinesia or psychosis-like behaviours (P > 0.05). UWA-122 is a selective SERT inhibitor (Ki 120 nM, Ki at DAT > 50 ?M) and, in combination with L-DOPA, had no effect on ON-time, dyskinesia or psychosis-like behaviours (P > 0.05). These data indicate that dual DAT and SERT inhibitors effectively enhance L-DOPA anti-parkinsonian action without worsening dyskinesia and that compounds with such a pharmacological profile represent promising agents against wearing-off in PD. PMID:24447715

  8. Development of a simple and rapid solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the analysis of dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine in human urine.

    PubMed

    Naccarato, Attilio; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio

    2014-01-31

    The work aims at developing a simple and rapid method for the quantification of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) in human urine. The urinary levels of these biogenic amines can be correlated with several pathological conditions concerning heart disease, stress, neurological disorders and cancerous tumors. The proposed analytical approach is based on the use of solid phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) after a fast derivatization of both aliphatic amino and phenolic moieties by propyl chloroformate. The variables influencing the derivatization reaction were reliably optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design". The optimal conditions were obtained by performing derivatization with 100?L of propyl chloroformate and 100?L of pyridine. The extraction ability of five commercially available SPME fibers was evaluated in univariate mode and the best results were obtained using the polyacrylate fiber. The variables affecting the efficiency of SPME analysis were again optimized by the multivariate approach of "Experimental design" and, in particular, a central composite design (CCD) was applied. The optimal values were extraction in 45min at room temperature, desorption temperature at 300C, no addition of NaCl. Assay of derivatized analytes was performed by using a gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS) system in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) acquisition. An evaluation of all analytical parameters demonstrates that the developed method provides satisfactory results. Indeed, very good linearities were achieved in the tested calibration range with correlation coefficient values of 0.9995, 0.9999 and 0.9997 for DA, 5-HT and NE, respectively. Accuracies and RSDs calculated for between-run and tested at concentrations of 30, 200, and 800?g L(-1) were in the range from 92.8% to 103.0%, and from 0.67 to 4.5%, respectively. Finally, the LOD values obtained can be considered very good (0.587, 0.381 and 1.23?g L(-1) for DA, 5-HT and NE, respectively). PMID:24439500

  9. Salvinorin A Regulates Dopamine Transporter Function Via A Kappa Opioid Receptor and ERK1/2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Kivell, Bronwyn; Uzelac, Zeljko; Sundaramurthy, Santhanalakshmi; Rajamanickam, Jeyaganesh; Ewald, Amy; Chefer, Vladimir; Jaligam, Vanaja; Bolan, Elizabeth; Simonson, Bridget; Annamalai, Balasubramaniam; Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; Prisinzano, Thomas; Gomes, Ivone; Devi, Lakshmi A.; Jayanthi, Lankupalle D.; Sitte, Harald H.; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Shippenberg, Toni S.

    2014-01-01

    Salvinorin A (SalA), a selective κ-opioid receptor (KOR) agonist, produces dysphoria and pro-depressant like effects. These actions have been attributed to inhibition of striatal dopamine release. The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates dopamine transmission via uptake of released neurotransmitter. KORs are apposed to DAT in dopamine nerve terminals suggesting an additional target by which SalA modulates dopamine transmission. SalA produced a concentration-dependent, nor-binaltorphimine (BNI)- and pertussis toxin-sensitive increase of ASP+ accumulation in EM4 cells coexpressing myc-KOR and YFP-DAT, using live cell imaging and the fluorescent monoamine transporter substrate, trans 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium) (ASP+). Other KOR agonists also increased DAT activity that was abolished by BNI pretreatment. While SalA increased DAT activity, SalA treatment decreased serotonin transporter (SERT) activity and had no effect on norepinephrine transporter (NET) activity. In striatum, SalA increased the Vmax for DAT mediated DA transport and DAT surface expression. SalA up-regulation of DAT function is mediated by KOR activation and the KOR-linked extracellular signal regulated kinase-½ (ERK1/2) pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and BRET studies revealed that DAT and KOR exist in a complex. In live cells, DAT and KOR exhibited robust FRET signals under basal conditions. SalA exposure caused a rapid and significant increase of the FRET signal. This suggests that the formation of KOR and DAT complexes is promoted in response to KOR activation. Together, these data suggest that enhanced DA transport and decreased DA release resulting in decreased dopamine signaling may contribute to the dysphoric and pro-depressant like effects of SalA and other KOR agonists. PMID:25107591

  10. Peripheral Serotonin: a New Player in Systemic Energy Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Namkung, Jun; Kim, Hail; Park, Sangkyu

    2015-01-01

    Whole body energy balance is achieved through the coordinated regulation of energy intake and energy expenditure in various tissues including liver, muscle and adipose tissues. A positive energy imbalance by excessive energy intake or insufficient energy expenditure results in obesity and related metabolic diseases. Although there have been many obesity treatment trials aimed at the reduction of energy intake, these strategies have achieved only limited success because of their associated adverse effects. An ancient neurotransmitter, serotonin is among those traditional pharmacological targets for anti-obesity treatment because it exhibits strong anorectic effect in the brain. However, recent studies suggest the new functions of peripheral serotonin in energy homeostasis ranging from the endocrine regulation by gut-derived serotonin to the autocrine/paracrine regulation by adipocyte-derived serotonin. Here, we discuss the role of serotonin in the regulation of energy homeostasis and introduce peripheral serotonin as a possible target for anti-obesity treatment. PMID:26628041

  11. The antimalarial drug quinine interferes with serotonin biosynthesis and action

    PubMed Central

    Islahudin, Farida; Tindall, Sarah M.; Mellor, Ian R.; Swift, Karen; Christensen, Hans E. M.; Fone, Kevin C. F.; Pleass, Richard J.; Ting, Kang-Nee; Avery, Simon V.

    2014-01-01

    The major antimalarial drug quinine perturbs uptake of the essential amino acid tryptophan, and patients with low plasma tryptophan are predisposed to adverse quinine reactions; symptoms of which are similar to indications of tryptophan depletion. As tryptophan is a precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), here we test the hypothesis that quinine disrupts serotonin function. Quinine inhibited serotonin-induced proliferation of yeast as well as human (SHSY5Y) cells. One possible cause of this effect is through inhibition of 5-HT receptor activation by quinine, as we observed here. Furthermore, cells exhibited marked decreases in serotonin production during incubation with quinine. By assaying activity and kinetics of the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), we showed that quinine competitively inhibits TPH2 in the presence of the substrate tryptophan. The study shows that quinine disrupts both serotonin biosynthesis and function, giving important new insight to the action of quinine on mammalian cells. PMID:24402577

  12. Modulation of pumping rate by two species of marine bivalve molluscs in response to neurotransmitters: Comparison of in vitro and in vivo results.

    PubMed

    Frank, Dana M; Deaton, Lewis; Shumway, Sandra E; Holohan, Bridget A; Ward, J Evan

    2015-07-01

    Most studies regarding the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of molluscan ctenidia have focused on isolated ctenidial tissue preparations. This study investigated how bivalve molluscs modulate their feeding rates by examining the effects of a variety of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, and the dopamine agonist apomorphine on both isolated ctenidial tissue and in intact members of two commercially important bivalve species: the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis; and the bay scallop Argopecten irradians. In particular, we examined the effect of changes in: 1) beat of the lateral cilia (in vitro), 2) distance between ctenidial filaments and/or plicae (in vivo), and 3) diameter of the siphonal openings (in vivo) on alteration of bulk water flow through the mantle cavity. Important differences were found between isolated tissue and whole animals, and between species. Drugs that stimulated ciliary beat in vitro did not increase water processing rate in vivo. None of the treatments increased water flow through the mantle cavity of intact animals. Results suggest that A. irradians was primarily modulating lateral ciliary activity, while M. edulis appeared to have a number of ways to control water processing activity, signifying that the two species may have different compensatory and regulatory mechanisms controlling feeding activity. PMID:25847101

  13. Connections found between each meridian (heart, stomach, triple burner, etc.) & organ representation area of corresponding internal organs in each side of the cerebral cortex; release of common neurotransmitters and hormones unique to each meridian and corresponding acupuncture point & internal organ after acupuncture, electrical stimulation, mechanical stimulation (including shiatsu), soft laser stimulation or QI Gong.

    PubMed

    Omura, Y

    1989-01-01

    Using the "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Imaging Technique", the author has been able to accurately localize meridians and acupuncture points that correspond to specific internal organs and has found that most general patterns of meridians and the number of acupuncture points on each of the meridians of specific internal organs of the 12 main internal organs described in the literature of ancient Chinese medicine, are more or less correct, with the exception of some variations and inaccuracies. Each meridian of specific internal organs was found to be connected to the organ representation area in the cerebral cortex of specific internal organs. The acupuncture point has an area and occupies 3-dimensional space. It has a circular or slightly oval boundary with diameter in the range of 3 mm to 2.7 cm, although 6-12 mm are the most common diameters in human adults, with the exception of the area outside the corners of the nailbeds of the fingers and toes. Using the "Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Molecular Identification Method", the author also found that within the boundary of most acupuncture points and meridian lines (including Heart, Stomach, and Triple Burner) were high concentrations of neurotransmitters and hormones, including Acetylcholine, Methionine-Enkephalin, Beta-Endorphin, ACTH, Secretin, Cholecystokinin, Norepinephrine, Serotonin, and GABA. On all these meridian lines, in addition to the above neurotransmitters and hormones, Dopamine, Dynorphin 1-13, Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) and VIP were found, but the latter do not usually exist within the boundary of the acupuncture point with the exception of the center midline of the acupuncture point where the meridian line is situated. Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Cholecystokinin appeared in either one of the above 2 patterns, depending on the individual. Usually, no significant amounts of these neurotransmitters and hormones were found at the surrounding area outside of meridian and acupuncture points. However, the essential amino acid L-Tryptophan (which is a precursor of Serotonin), was usually found outside of the boundary of the acupuncture point and the meridian but not within the boundary of the acupuncture point and the meridian. Wherever Serotonin appeared, L-Tryptophan disappeared significantly and when the Serotonin disappeared, L-Tryptophan reappeared. In addition to the above common neurotransmitters and hormones, the Heart meridian had additional Atrial Natriuretic Peptide in both the meridian and its acupuncture points. Similarly, the Stomach meridian had additional Gastrin in both the meridian and its acupuncture points. Likewise,the Triple Burner meridian had additional Testosterone (in the male) and Estrogen (especially Estriol and Estradiol in the female. PMID:2575347

  14. Imaging dopamine receptors in the human brain by position tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Burns, H.D.; Dannals, R.F.; Wong, D.F.; Langstrom, B.; Duelfer, T.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.T.; Links, J.M.; Rosenbloom, S.B.

    1983-01-01

    Neurotransmitter receptors may be involved in a number of neuropsychiatric disease states. The ligand 3-N-(/sup 11/C)methylspiperone, which preferentially binds to dopamine receptors in vivo, was used to image the receptors by positron emission tomography scanning in baboons and in humans. This technique holds promise for noninvasive clinical studies of dopamine receptors in humans.

  15. The Influence of Serotonin on Fear Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hindi Attar, Catherine; Finckh, Barbara; Büchel, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Learning of associations between aversive stimuli and predictive cues is the basis of Pavlovian fear conditioning and is driven by a mismatch between expectation and outcome. To investigate whether serotonin modulates the formation of such aversive cue-outcome associations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dietary tryptophan depletion to reduce brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in healthy human subjects. In a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, 5-HT depleted subjects compared to a non-depleted control group exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to cues indicating the upcoming of an aversive event. These results were closely paralleled by reduced aversive learning signals in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, two prominent structures of the neural fear circuit. In agreement with current theories of serotonin as a motivational opponent system to dopamine in fear learning, our data provide first empirical evidence for a role of serotonin in representing formally derived learning signals for aversive events. PMID:22879964

  16. Harmane: an atypical neurotransmitter?

    PubMed

    Abu Ghazaleh, Haya; Lalies, Maggie D; Nutt, David J; Hudson, Alan L

    2015-03-17

    Harmane is an active component of clonidine displacing substance and a candidate endogenous ligand for imidazoline binding sites. The neurochemistry of tritiated harmane was investigated in the present study examining its uptake and release properties in the rat brain central nervous system (CNS) in vitro. At physiological temperature, [(3)H]harmane was shown to be taken up in rat brain cortex. Further investigations demonstrated that treatment with monoamine uptake blockers (citalopram, nomifensine and nisoxetine) did not alter [(3)H]harmane uptake implicating that the route of [(3)H]harmane transport was distinct from the monoamine uptake systems. Furthermore, imidazoline ligands (rilmenidine, efaroxan, 2-BFI and idazoxan) showed no prominent effect on [(3)H]harmane uptake suggesting the lack of involvement of imidazoline binding sites. Subsequent analyses showed that disruption of the Na(+) gradient using ouabain or choline chloride did not block [(3)H]harmane uptake suggesting a Na(+)-independent transport mechanism. Moreover, higher temperatures (50°C) failed to impede [(3)H]harmane uptake implying a non-physiological transporter. The failure of potassium to evoke the release of preloaded [(3)H]harmane from rat brain cortex indicates that the properties of this putative endogenous ligand for imidazoline binding sites do not resemble that of a conventional neurotransmitter. PMID:25625221

  17. Expression of serotonin receptor genes in cranial ganglia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Naohiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Taste cells release neurotransmitters to gustatory neurons to transmit chemical information they received. Sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells use ATP as a neurotransmitter. However, ATP release from sour taste cells has not been observed so far. Instead, they release serotonin when they are activated by sour/acid stimuli. Thus it is still controversial whether sour taste cells use ATP, serotonin, or both. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses, we revealed that of 14 serotonin receptor genes only 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B showed significant/clear signals in a subset of neurons of cranial sensory ganglia in which gustatory neurons reside. Double-fluorescent labeling analyses of ISH for serotonin receptor genes with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in cranial sensory ganglia of pkd1l3-WGA mice whose sour neural pathway is visualized by the distribution of WGA originating from sour taste cells in the posterior region of the tongue revealed that WGA-positive cranial sensory neurons rarely express either of serotonin receptor gene. These results suggest that serotonin receptors expressed in cranial sensory neurons do not play any role as neurotransmitter receptor from sour taste cells. PMID:26854841

  18. Excitatory and Inhibitory Effects of Serotonin on Sensorimotor Reactivity Measured with Acoustic Startle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael; Astrachan, David I.; Kass, Elizabeth

    1980-07-01

    Serotonin infused into the lateral ventricle in rats produced a dose-dependent depression of the acoustic startle reflex. When infused onto the spinal cord, serotonin produced a dose-dependent increase in startle. Thus the same neurotransmitter can modulate the same behavior in opposite ways, depending on which part of the central nervous system is involved.

  19. Activity-dependent neurotransmitter respecification

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, Nicholas C.

    2015-01-01

    For many years it has been assumed that the identity of the transmitters expressed by neurons is stable and unchanging. Recent work, however, shows that electrical activity can respecify neurotransmitter expression during development and in the mature nervous system, and an understanding is emerging of the molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent transmitter respecification. Changes in postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptor expression accompany and match changes in transmitter specification, thus enabling synaptic transmission. The functional roles of neurotransmitter respecification are beginning to be understood and appear to involve homeostatic synaptic regulation, which in turn influences behaviour. Activation of this novel form of plasticity by sensorimotor stimuli may provide clinical benefits. PMID:22251956

  20. Identification and evolutionary implications of neurotransmitter-ciliary interactions underlying the behavioral response to hypoxia in Lymnaea stagnalis embryos.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Jeffrey I; Rich, Darren R; Muruganathan, Siva P; Liu, Maple B; Pon, Julia R; Tam, Rose; Diefenbach, Thomas J; Kuang, Shihuan

    2011-08-15

    Acceleration of embryonic rotation is a common response to hypoxia among pond snails. It was first characterized in Helisoma trivolvis embryos, which have a pair of sensorimotor neurons that detect hypoxia and release serotonin onto postsynaptic ciliary cells. The objective of the present study was to determine how the hypoxia response is mediated in Lymnaea stagnalis, which differ from H. trivolvis by having both serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, and morphologically distinct ciliated structures at comparative stages of embryonic development. Time-lapse video recordings of the rotational behavior in L. stagnalis revealed similar rotational features to those previously observed in H. trivolvis, including rotational surges and rotational responses to hypoxia. Serotonin and dopamine increased the rate of rotation with similar potency. In contrast, serotonin was more potent than dopamine in stimulating the ciliary beat frequency of isolated pedal cilia. Isolated apical plate cilia displayed an irregular pattern of ciliary beating that precluded the measurement of ciliary beat frequency. A qualitative assessment of ciliary beating revealed that both serotonin and dopamine were able to stimulate apical plate cilia. The ciliary responses to dopamine were reversible in both pedal and apical plate cilia, whereas the responses to serotonin were only reversible at concentrations below 100 ?mol l(-1). Mianserin, a serotonin receptor antagonist, and SKF83566, a dopamine receptor antagonist, effectively blocked the rotational responses to serotonin and dopamine, respectively. The rotational response to hypoxia was only partially blocked by mianserin, but was fully blocked by SKF83566. These data suggest that, despite the ability of serotonin to stimulate ciliary beating in L. stagnalis embryos, the rotational response to hypoxia is primarily mediated by the transient apical catecholaminergic neurons that innervate the ciliated apical plate. PMID:21795561

  1. Analysis of 17 neurotransmitters, metabolites and precursors in zebrafish through the life cycle using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Santos-Fandila, A; Vzquez, E; Barranco, A; Zafra-Gmez, A; Navaln, A; Rueda, R; Ramrez, M

    2015-09-15

    An ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of neurotransmitters, metabolites and precursors at different stages in zebrafish life was developed. Betaine, glutamine, glutamic acid, ?-aminobutyric acid, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine, choline, acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, tyrosine, epinephrine, tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and agmatine were selected as analytes. The method consisted of a simple deproteinization of samples using methanol and formic acid, subsequent injection onto the chromatographic equipment and quantification with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer detector using an electrospray ionization interface in positive mode. Limits of detection ranged from 0.02 to 11ngmL(-1) and limits of quantification from 0.1 to 38ngmL(-1), depending on the analyte. The method was validated according to US Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) guideline for bioanalytical assays. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (%RSD), was lower than 15% in all cases, and the determination coefficient (R(2)) was equal or higher than 99.0% with a residual deviation for each calibration point lower than 25%. Mean recoveries were between 85% and 115%. The method was applied to determine of these compounds in zebrafish from early stages of development to adulthood and showed the time-course of neurotransmitters and others neurocompounds through the life cycle. The possibility of measuring up to 17 compounds related with the main neurotransmitter systems in a simple analytical method will complement and reinforce the use of zebrafish in multiple applications in the field of neurosciences. The proposed method will facilitate future studies related with brain development. PMID:26281771

  2. Moderate exercise and chronic stress produce counteractive effects on different areas of the brain by acting through various neurotransmitter receptor subtypes: A hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Sarbadhikari, Suptendra N; Saha, Asit K

    2006-01-01

    Background Regular, "moderate", physical exercise is an established non-pharmacological form of treatment for depressive disorders. Brain lateralization has a significant role in the progress of depression. External stimuli such as various stressors or exercise influence the higher functions of the brain (cognition and affect). These effects often do not follow a linear course. Therefore, nonlinear dynamics seem best suited for modeling many of the phenomena, and putative global pathways in the brain, attributable to such external influences. Hypothesis The general hypothesis presented here considers only the nonlinear aspects of the effects produced by "moderate" exercise and "chronic" stressors, but does not preclude the possibility of linear responses. In reality, both linear and nonlinear mechanisms may be involved in the final outcomes. The well-known neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (D) and norepinephrine (NE) all have various receptor subtypes. The article hypothesizes that 'Stress' increases the activity/concentration of some particular subtypes of receptors (designated nts) for each of the known (and unknown) neurotransmitters in the right anterior (RA) and left posterior (LP) regions (cortical and subcortical) of the brain, and has the converse effects on a different set of receptor subtypes (designated nth). In contrast, 'Exercise' increases nth activity/concentration and/or reduces nts activity/concentration in the LA and RP areas of the brain. These effects may be initiated by the activation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) (among others) in exercise and its suppression in stress. Conclusion On the basis of this hypothesis, a better understanding of brain neurodynamics might be achieved by considering the oscillations caused by single neurotransmitters acting on their different receptor subtypes, and the temporal pattern of recruitment of these subtypes. Further, appropriately designed and planned experiments will not only corroborate such theoretical models, but also shed more light on the underlying brain dynamics. PMID:16995950

  3. Head-to-Head Comparisons of Carbon Fiber Microelectrode Coatings for Sensitive and Selective Neurotransmitter Detection by Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yogesh S.; Sawarynski, Lauren E.; Dabiri, Pasha D.; Choi, Wonwoo R.; Andrews, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    Voltammetry is widely used to investigate neurotransmission and other biological processes but is limited by poor chemical selectivity and fouling of commonly used carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMs). We performed direct comparisons of three key coating materials purported to impart selectivity and fouling resistance to electrodes: Nafion, base-hydrolyzed cellulose acetate (BCA), and fibronectin. We systematically evaluated the impact on a range of electrode parameters. Fouling due to exposure to brain tissue was investigated using an approach that minimizes the use of animals while enabling evaluation of statistically significant populations of electrodes. We find that BCA is relatively fouling resistant. Moreover, detection at BCA-coated CFMs can be tuned by altering hydrolysis times to minimize the impact on sensitivity losses while maintaining fouling resistance. Fibronectin coating is associated with moderate losses in sensitivity after coating and fouling. Nafion imparts increased sensitivity for dopamine and norepinephrine but not serotonin, as well as the anticipated selectivity for cationic neurotransmitters over anionic metabolites. However, while Nafion has been suggested to resist fouling, both dip-coating and electro-deposition of Nafion are associated with substantial fouling, similar to levels observed at bare electrodes after exposure to brain tissue. Direct comparisons of these coatings identified unique electroanalytical properties of each that can be used to guide selection tailored to the goals and environment of specific studies. PMID:21770471

  4. CENTRAL DOPAMINE AND SEROTONIN TURNOVER IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, R.S.; Rao, B.S.S.; Subash, M.N.; Subba Krishna, D.K.; Srinivas, K.N.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Comparison of C.S. F. H. V. A and 5-HIAA levels of 20 Schizophrenics and 9 non-schizophrenic controls revealed no statistically significant difference between HVA levels but the 5-HIAA levels were significantly less in Schizophrenics (p < 0.05) than in controls. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:21927240

  5. Role of serotonin in the hepato-gastroIntestinal tract: an old molecule for new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lesurtel, M; Soll, C; Graf, R; Clavien, P-A

    2008-03-01

    Beside its role as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, serotonin appears to be a central physiologic mediator of many gastrointestinal (GI) functions and a mediator of the brain-gut connection. By acting directly and via modulation of the enteric nervous system, serotonin has numerous effects on the GI tract. The main gut disturbances in which serotonin is involved are acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, carcinoid syndrome and irritable bowel syndrome. Serotonin also has mitogenic properties. Platelet-derived serotonin is involved in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. In diseased liver, serotonin may play a crucial role in the progression of hepatic fibrosis and the pathogenesis of steatohepatitis. Better understanding of the role of the serotonin receptor subtypes and serotonin mechanisms of action in the liver and gut may open new therapeutic strategies in hepato-gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:18080089

  6. Macrocyclic Gd(3+) complexes with pendant crown ethers designed for binding zwitterionic neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Logothetis, Nikos K; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-07-27

    A series of Gd(3+) complexes exhibiting a relaxometric response to zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters was synthesized. The design concept involves ditopic interactions 1) between a positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated Gd(3+) chelate and the carboxylate group of the neurotransmitters and 2) between an azacrown ether appended to the chelate and the amino group of the neurotransmitters. The chelates differ in the nature and length of the linker connecting the cyclen-type macrocycle that binds the Ln(3+) ion and the crown ether. The complexes are monohydrated, but they exhibit high proton relaxivities (up to 7.7 mM(-1)  s(-1) at 60 MHz, 310 K) due to slow molecular tumbling. The formation of ternary complexes with neurotransmitters was monitored by (1) H relaxometric titrations of the Gd(3+) complexes and by luminescence measurements on the Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) analogues at pH 7.4. The remarkable relaxivity decrease (≈80 %) observed on neurotransmitter binding is related to the decrease in the hydration number, as evidenced by luminescence lifetime measurements on the Eu(3+) complexes. These complexes show affinity for amino acid neurotransmitters in the millimolar range, which can be suited to imaging concentrations of synaptically released neurotransmitters. They display good selectivity over non-amino acid neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, and noradrenaline) and hydrogenphosphate, but selectivity over hydrogencarbonate was not achieved. PMID:26118946

  7. Alterations of serotonin transmission in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2007-01-01

    A role for serotonin alterations in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia has long been suspected because of the psychotogenic effects of serotonergic agonists and the therapeutic effects of 5-HT(2) antagonism. This chapter is a review of the evidence derived from pharmacological studies, postmortem, and imaging studies that have assessed the role of serotonin transmission in schizophrenia. While a clear picture of specific serotonergic alterations in schizophrenia has not emerged despite much research, this review reinforces a modulatory role of serotonergic agents on dopamine transmission in schizophrenia, which may contribute to the therapeutic effects of atypical antipsychotics. PMID:17349860

  8. Neurotransmitters in the CNS control of breathing.

    PubMed

    Bonham, A C

    1995-09-01

    This review summarises our current understanding of the neurotransmitters involved in the generation, transmission and modulation of respiratory rhythm. The principal neurotransmitters involved in generating and transmitting respiratory rhythm include glutamate, GABA, and glycine. Glutamate acts primarily at non-NMDA receptors within the networks to generate respiratory rhythm in neonatal in vitro preparations, but it may also engage NMDA receptors in mature intact animals. Glutamate may likewise act as presynaptic AP-4 metabotropic receptors to fine tune its own release in the transmission of respiratory rhythm to the phrenic motoneurones. The role of other metabotropic receptors in rhythmogenesis is not known. GABA (primarily by acting at GABAA receptors), as well as glycine, transmit phasic waves of inhibition within the primary respiratory network. Neuroactive agents synthesized outside the primary network may shape the final expression of the basic rhythm. The most studied inputs originate in the pons and from the slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SAR). Both of these inputs contribute to the transition from inspiration to expiration. Pontine mechanisms rely on excitatory amino acid activation of NMDA receptors, while SAR pathways utilize non-NMDA receptors. Serotonin has also been implicated in regulating respiratory rhythm, possibly via serotonergic projections originating in the raphe nuclei. The amine has diverse effects on respiratory neuronal activity; the most consistent effect appears to be an augmentation of phrenic motoneuronal at the level of the spinal cord. Substance P regulates respiratory activity by acting in the CNS and on peripheral sensory receptors. Centrally, substance P largely augments respiration, by increasing respiratory rhythm in neonatal in vitro preparations and also by increasing tidal volume in the intact animal. Substance P is also released by carotid chemoreceptor afferents during hypoxia. Opioids are well known to decrease respiration; the central mechanism involves the suppression of baseline inspiratory neuronal activity and possibly the blunting of glutamate-evoked increases in inspiration drive. PMID:8606995

  9. Serotonin receptor signaling and regulation via ?-arrestins

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Laura M.; Schmid, Cullen L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin receptors are the product of 15 distinct genes, 14 of which are G protein-coupled receptors. These receptors are expressed in a wide range of cell types, including distinct neuronal populations, and promote diverse functional responses in multiple organ systems. These receptors are important for mediating the in vivo effects of their cognate neurotransmitter, serotonin, as well as the endogenous tryptamines. In addition, the actions of many drugs are mediated, either directly or indirectly, through serotonin receptors, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, sleep aids, migraine therapies, gastrointestinal therapeutics and hallucinogenic drugs. It is becoming increasingly evident that serotonin receptors can engage in differential signaling that is determined by the chemical nature of the ligand and that ligands that demonstrate a predilection for inducing a particular signaling cascade are considered to have functional selectivity. The elucidation of the cellular signaling pathways that mediate the physiological responses to serotonin and other agonists is an active area of investigation and will be an onward-looking focal point for determining how to effectively and selectively promote beneficial serotonergic mimicry while avoiding unwanted clinical side effects. This review highlights the modulation of serotonin 2A, 2C, and four receptors by ?-arrestins, which may represent a fulcrum for biasing receptor responsiveness in vivo. PMID:20925600

  10. Chitosan coated carbon fiber microelectrode for selective in vivo detection of neurotransmitters in live zebrafish embryos

    PubMed Central

    zel, R?fat Emrah; Wallace, Kenneth N.; Andreescu, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    We report the development of a chitosan modified carbon fiber microelectrode for in vivo detection of serotonin. We find that chitosan has the ability to reject physiological levels of ascorbic acid interferences and facilitate selective and sensitive detection of in vivo levels of serotonin, a common catecholamine neurotransmitter. Presence of chitosan on the microelectrode surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electrode was characterized using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). A detection limit of 1.6 nM serotonin with a sensitivity of 5.12 nA/M, a linear range from 2 to 100 nM and a reproducibility of 6.5 % for n=6 electrodes were obtained. Chitosan modified microelectrodes selectively measure serotonin in presence of physiological levels of ascorbic acid. In vivo measurements were performed to measure concentration of serotonin in the live embryonic zebrafish intestine. The sensor quantifies in vivo intestinal levels of serotonin while successfully rejecting ascorbic acid interferences. We demonstrate that chitosan can be used as an effective coating to reject ascorbic acid interferences at carbon fiber microelectrodes, as an alternative to Nafion, and that chitosan modified microelectrodes are reliable tools for in vivo monitoring of changes in neurotransmitter levels. PMID:21601035

  11. Brain neurotransmitters in fatigue and overtraining.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Romain; Watson, Philip; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria F

    2007-10-01

    Since the publication of the serotonin hypothesis, numerous theories involving the accumulation or depletion of different substances in the brain have been proposed to explain central fatigue. Although the theoretical rationale for the "serotonin-fatigue hypothesis" is clear, several seemingly well-conducted studies have failed to support a significant role for 5-hydroxytryptamine in the development of fatigue. As brain function appears to be dependent upon the interaction of a number of systems, it is unlikely that a single neurotransmitter system is responsible for central fatigue. Several other mechanisms are involved, with evidence supporting a role for the brain catecholamines. Fatigue is therefore probably an integrated phenomenon, with complex interaction among central and peripheral factors. When prolonged and excessive training happens, concurrent with other stressors and insufficient recovery, performance decrements can result in chronic maladaptations that can lead to the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The mechanism of the OTS could be difficult to examine in detail, perhaps because the stress caused by excessive training load, in combination with other stressors, might trigger different "defence mechanisms" such as the immunological, neuroendocrine, and other physiological systems that all interact and probably therefore cannot be pinpointed as the "sole" cause of the OTS. It might be that, as in other syndromes, the psychoneuroimmunology (study of brain-behavior-immune interrelationships) might shed a light on the possible mechanisms of the OTS, but until there is a definite diagnostic tool, it is of utmost importance to standardize measures that are now thought to provide a good inventory of the training status of the athlete. It is very important to emphasize the need to distinguish the OTS from overreaching and other potential causes of temporary underperformance such as anemia, acute infection, muscle damage, and insufficient carbohydrate intake. PMID:18059610

  12. Snapshot of antidepressants at work: the structure of neurotransmitter transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Cuboni, Serena; Hausch, Felix

    2014-05-12

    In the sweet spot: Cocrystal structures of engineered neurotransmitter transporters reveal the binding mode of commonly prescribed antidepressants, providing a basis for a rational drug design for this class of proteins. The picture shows the structure of the dopamine transporter of Drosophila melanogaster in complex with the antidepressant nortriptyline. PMID:24729171

  13. Protein cysteine S-nitrosylation inhibits vesicular uptake of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Zhou, Z; Leylek, T; Tan, H; Sun, Y; Parkinson, F E; Wang, J-F

    2015-12-17

    Previous studies have shown that nitric oxide can induce cysteine S-nitrosylation of total protein in synaptosomes, suggesting that nitric oxide may contribute to the regulation of synaptic protein function. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters pack neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles and play an important role in neurotransmission. In the central nervous system, vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) is responsible for the uptake of monoamines, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) is responsible for the uptake of acetylcholine, while vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1 and VGLUT2) are responsible for the uptake of glutamate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of cysteine S-nitrosylation in the regulation of these vesicular neurotransmitter transporters. Using the biotin switch assay followed by avidin precipitation and immunoblotting we found that the nitric oxide donor nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) not only increased total cysteine S-nitrosylation, but also increased cysteine S-nitrosylation of VMAT2, VAChT, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the mouse brain. Further, GSNO also decreased the vesicular uptake of [(3)H]dopamine, [(3)H]acetylcholine and [(3)H]glutamate. Our studies suggest that the cysteine S-nitrosylation may play an important role in the regulation of vesicular neurotransmitter transport. PMID:26541750

  14. Convergent Pathways for Steroid Hormone-and Neurotransmitter-Induced Rat Sexual Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, S. K.; Allen, J. M. C.; Clark, J. H.; Blaustein, J. D.; O'Malley, B. W.

    1994-08-01

    Estrogen and progesterone modulate gene expression in rodents by activation of intracellular receptors in the hypothalamus, which regulate neuronal networks that control female sexual behavior. However, the neurotransmitter dopamine has been shown to activate certain steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. A dopamine receptor stimulant and a D_1 receptor agonist, but not a D_2 receptor agonist, mimicked the effects of progesterone in facilitating sexual behavior in female rats. The facilitatory effect of the neurotransmitter was blocked by progesterone receptor antagonists, a D_1 receptor antagonist, or antisense oligonucleotides to the progesterone receptor. The results suggest that in rodents neurotransmitters may regulate in vivo gene expression and behavior by means of cross-talk with steroid receptors in the brain.

  15. The roles of peripheral serotonin in metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    El-Merahbi, Rabih; Lffler, Mona; Mayer, Alexander; Sumara, Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic homeostasis in the organism is assured both by the nervous system and by hormones. Among a plethora of hormones regulating metabolism, serotonin presents a number of unique features. Unlike classical hormones serotonin is produced in different anatomical locations. In brain it acts as a neurotransmitter and in the periphery it can act as a hormone, auto- and/or paracrine factor, or intracellular signaling molecule. Serotonin does not cross the blood-brain barrier; therefore the two major pools of this bioamine remain separated. Although 95% of serotonin is produced in the periphery, its functions have been ignored until recently. Here we review the impact of the peripheral serotonin on the regulation of function of the organs involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. PMID:26070423

  16. Effects of Postnatal Serotonin Agonism on Fear Response and Memory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) also acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain. Early administration of a 5-HT agonist could alter the development of the serotonergic circuitry, altering behaviors mediated by 5-HT signaling, such as memory, fear and aggression. White leghorn chicks...

  17. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a preconcentration tool for the simultaneous determination of the panel of underivatized neurotransmitters in human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Konieczna, Lucyna; Roszkowska, Anna; Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Bączek, Tomasz

    2016-01-29

    A simple and sensitive method using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) column was developed for the simultaneous determination of 13 compounds of different polarities, comprising monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine and serotonin) along with their respective precursors and metabolites, in human urine samples. The microextraction procedure was based on the fast injection of a mixture of ethanol (disperser solvent) and dichloromethane (extraction solvent) into a human urine sample, forming a cloudy solution in the Eppendorf tube. After centrifugation, the sedimented phase was collected and subsequently analyzed by LC-HILIC-MS in about 12min without a derivatization step. The separation was performed on an XBridge Amide™ BEH column 3.0×100mm, 3.5mm and the mobile phase consisted of phase A: 10mM ammonium formate buffer in water pH 3.0 and phase B: 10 mM ammonium formate buffer in acetonitrile, under gradient program elution. Tyrosine, tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptophan, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, 3-methoxytyramine, 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine and norvaline (internal standard) were detected in the positive ionization mode. While vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine (internal standard) were detected in the negative ionization mode. Parameters influencing DLLME and LC-HILIC-MS were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method exhibited a low detection limit (5-10ngmL(-1)), and good linearity with R between 0.9991 and 0.9998. The recoveries in human urine samples were 99.0%±3.6%. for the 13 studied biogenic amines with intra- and inter-day RSDs of 0.24-9.55% and 0.31-10.0%, respectively. The developed DLLME-LC-MS method could be successfully applied for the determination of trace amounts of polar endogenous compounds, such as neurotransmitters, in human urine samples, including samples with a reduced volume obtained from pediatric patients. PMID:26747692

  18. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states. PMID:26154191

  19. Serotonin control of thermotaxis memory behavior in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinxia; Zhao, Yunli; Huang, Xu; Lin, Xingfeng; Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans. PMID:24223727

  20. Serotonin Control of Thermotaxis Memory Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

    2013-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans. PMID:24223727

  1. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-07-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states.

  2. Mimicking subsecond neurotransmitter dynamics with femtosecond laser stimulated nanosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Chin, Catherine; Myint, David Mo Aung; Tan, Eng Wui; Hale, Peter John; Krishna M., Bala Murali; Reynolds, John N. J.; Wickens, Jeff; Dani, Keshav M.

    2014-06-01

    Existing nanoscale chemical delivery systems target diseased cells over long, sustained periods of time, typically through one-time, destructive triggering. Future directions lie in the development of fast and robust techniques capable of reproducing the pulsatile chemical activity of living organisms, thereby allowing us to mimic biofunctionality. Here, we demonstrate that by applying programmed femtosecond laser pulses to robust, nanoscale liposome structures containing dopamine, we achieve sub-second, controlled release of dopamine - a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system - thereby replicating its release profile in the brain. The fast delivery system provides a powerful new interface with neural circuits, and to the larger range of biological functions that operate on this short timescale.

  3. Common Drugs Inhibit Human Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1)-Mediated Neurotransmitter Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Boxberger, Kelli H.; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The human organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is a polyspecific transporter involved in the uptake of positively charged and neutral small molecules in the liver. To date, few endogenous compounds have been identified as OCT1 substrates; more importantly, the effect of drugs on endogenous substrate transport has not been examined. In this study, we established monoamine neurotransmitters as substrates for OCT1, specifically characterizing serotonin transport in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kinetic analysis yielded a Km of 197 micomolar and a Vmax of 561 pmol/mg protein/minute for serotonin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that serotonin uptake was inhibited by diphenhydramine, fluoxetine, imatinib, and verapamil, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. These results were recapitulated in primary human hepatocytes, suggesting that OCT1 plays a significant role in hepatic elimination of serotonin and that xenobiotics may alter the elimination of endogenous compounds as a result of interactions at the transporter level. PMID:24688079

  4. Role of the perifornical hypothalamic monoamine neurotransmitter systems in anorectic effects of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Trinka W; Corll, Connie; Svec, Frank; Porter, Johnny

    2010-01-01

    The cachexia-anorexia syndrome, in which patients suffering from chronic illness lack the desire to eat and experience weight loss, creates a serious clinical problem when patients are attempting to overcome the disease process. Endotoxin (ET) has many actions in the brain and peripheral injections can affect regulation of monoamines in brain areas as diverse as the olfactory lobes and the locus coeruleus. Certainly, ET is involved in the febrile process and it plays a prominent role in the regulation of food intake and maintenance of body weight during chronic illnesses. Monoamine neurotransmitters in specific regions of the hypothalamus also participate in the regulation of food intake and body weight and have been well characterized. In this regard, the hypothalamic perifornical nucleus (PFN) is of interest to our lab due to its role in drug-induced anorexia caused by amphetamines. It is also the most sensitive site in the hypothalamic monoaminergic system that involves dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EPI). DA antagonist, stereotaxically placed in this site, can stimulate feeding, and specific injections of DA or EPI can result in a 70-90% decrease in food intake, even in food-deprived animals. We have shown in our studies that ET in a dose (0.2 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide) that does not induce noticeable ambulatory (lack of movement) effects (related to malaise) can cause a significant decrease in food intake in lean Zucker rats. We hypothesize that exogenous ET causes an increase in the extracellular concentrations of monoamines in the perifornical hypothalamus, which in turn can mediate the decrease in food intake. Microdialysis was utilized to measure extracellular concentrations of EPI, norepinephrine, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, DA, and serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine. These measurements were taken at a post-ET time period that coincides with an ET-induced decrease (4x) in food intake. Extracellular DA and EPI both significantly increased in the PFN in response to injection of ET. Increases in extracellular DA were dose related and were significant (p < 0.05) compared to zero baseline and saline at both doses of ET. No statistically significant differences were found in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, norepinephrine, and serotonin in microdialysates of this part of the hypothalamus. The present data suggest that catecholamines, namely DA and EPI which are known to decrease food intake, in the PFN may be involved in the regulation of decreases in food intake caused by peripherally administered ET. This does not rule out a role for locally produced inflammatory molecules in the brain in this process. PMID:19940463

  5. Pyrethroid insecticides evoke neurotransmitter release from rabbit striatal slices

    SciTech Connect

    Eells, J.T.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1988-08-01

    The effects of the synthetic pyrethroid insecticide fenvalerate ((R,S)-alpha-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl(R,S)-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3- methylbutyrate) on neurotransmitter release in rabbit brain slices were investigated. Fenvalerate evoked a calcium-dependent release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine from rabbit striatal slices that was concentration-dependent and specific for the toxic stereoisomer of the insecticide. The release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine and (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine by fenvalerate was modulated by D2 dopamine receptor activation and antagonized completely by the sodium channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. These findings are consistent with an action of fenvalerate on the voltage-dependent sodium channels of the presynaptic membrane resulting in membrane depolarization, and the release of dopamine and acetylcholine by a calcium-dependent exocytotic process. In contrast to results obtained in striatal slices, fenvalerate did not elicit the release of (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine or (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine from rabbit hippocampal slices indicative of regional differences in sensitivity to type II pyrethroid actions.

  6. Serotonin released from amacrine neurons is scavenged and degraded in bipolar neurons in the retina

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Kanika; Zelinka, Christopher; Fischer, Andy J.

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin is synthesized in the retina by one type of amacrine neuron but accumulates in bipolar neurons in many vertebrates. The mechanisms, functions and purpose underlying of serotonin in bipolar cells remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that exogenous serotonin transiently accumulates in a distinct type of bipolar neuron. KCl-mediated depolarization causes the depletion of serotonin from amacrine neurons and, subsequently, serotonin is taken-up by bipolar neurons. The accumulation of endogenous or exogenous serotonin by bipolar neurons is blocked by selective reuptake inhibitors. Exogenous serotonin is specifically taken-up by bipolar neurons even when serotonin-synthesizing amacrine neurons are destroyed; excluding the possibility that serotonin diffuses through gap junctions from amacrine into bipolar neurons. Further, inhibition of monoamine oxidase (A) prevents the degradation of serotonin in bipolar neurons, suggesting that MAO(A) is present in these neurons. However, the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT2) is present only in amacrine cells suggesting that serotonin is not transported into synaptic vesicles and re-used as a transmitter in the bipolar neurons. We conclude that the serotonin-accumulating bipolar neurons perform glial functions in the retina by actively transporting and degrading serotonin that is synthesized in neighboring amacrine cells. PMID:19619137

  7. Voltammetric and Mathematical Evidence for Dual Transport Mediation of Serotonin Clearance In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kevin M.; Zeqja, Anisa; Nijhout, H. Frederik; Reed, Michael C.; Best, Janet; Hashemi, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin underlies many of the brains functions. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is important for improving treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Antidepressants commonly target serotonin clearance via serotonin transporters (SERTs) and have variable clinical effects. Adjunctive therapies, targeting other systems including serotonin autoreceptors, also vary clinically and carry adverse consequences. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is particularly well suited for studying antidepressant effects on serotonin clearance and autoreceptors by providing real-time chemical information on serotonin kinetics in vivo. However, the complex nature of in vivo serotonin responses makes it difficult to interpret experimental data with established kinetic models. Here, we electrically stimulated the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB) to provoke and detect terminal serotonin in the substantia nigra reticulata (SNr). In response to MFB stimulation we found three dynamically distinct serotonin signals. To interpret these signals we developed a computational model that supports two independent serotonin reuptake mechanisms (high affinity, low efficiency reuptake mechanism and low affinity, high efficiency reuptake system) and bolsters an important inhibitory role for the serotonin autoreceptors. Our data and analysis, afforded by the powerful combination of voltammetric and theoretical methods, gives new understanding of the chemical heterogeneity of serotonin dynamics in the brain. This diverse serotonergic matrix likely contributes to clinical variability of antidepressants. PMID:24702305

  8. Serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neurons in the antenna of the cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Shimohigashi, Miki; Yokohari, Fumio

    2014-02-01

    The antennae of insects contain a vast array of sensory neurons that process olfactory, gustatory, mechanosensory, hygrosensory, and thermosensory information. Except those with multimodal functions, most sensory neurons use acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter. Using immunohistochemistry combined with retrograde staining of antennal sensory neurons in the cockroach Periplaneta americana, we found serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neurons in the antenna. These were selectively distributed in chaetic and scolopidial sensilla and in the scape, the pedicel, and first 15 segments of the flagellum. In a chaetic sensillum, A single serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neuron cohabited with up to four serotonin-negative sensory neurons. Based on their morphological features, serotonin-immunopositive and -negative sensory neurons might process mechanosensory and contact chemosensory modalities, respectively. Scolopidial sensilla constitute the chordotonal and Johnston's organs within the pedicel and process antennal vibrations. Immunoelectron microscopy clearly revealed that serotonin-immunoreactivities selectively localize to a specific type of mechanosensory neuron, called type 1 sensory neuron. In a chordotonal scolopidial sensillum, a serotonin-immunoreactive type 1 neuron always paired with a serotonin-negative type 1 neuron. Conversely, serotonin-immunopositive and -negative type 1 neurons were randomly distributed in Johnston's organ. In the deutocerebrum, serotonin-immunoreactive sensory neuron axons formed three different sensory tracts and those from distinct types of sensilla terminated in distinct brain regions. Our findings indicate that a biogenic amine, serotonin, may act as a neurotransmitter in peripheral mechanosensory neurons. PMID:23852943

  9. Profiling neurotransmitter receptor expression in the Ambystoma mexicanum brain.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Limon, Agenor; Korn, Matthew J; Nakamura, Paul A; Shirkey, Nicole J; Wong, Jamie K; Miledi, Ricardo

    2013-03-22

    Ability to regenerate limbs and central nervous system (CNS) is unique to few vertebrates, most notably the axolotl (Ambystoma sp.). However, despite the fact the neurotransmitter receptors are involved in axonal regeneration, little is known regarding its expression profile. In this project, RT-PCR and qPCR were performed to gain insight into the neurotransmitter receptors present in Ambystoma. Its functional ability was studied by expressing axolotl receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes by either injection of mRNA or by direct microtransplantation of brain membranes. Oocytes injected with axolotl mRNA expressed ionotropic receptors activated by GABA, aspartate+glycine and kainate, as well as metabotropic receptors activated by acetylcholine and glutamate. Interestingly, we did not see responses following the application of serotonin. Membranes from the axolotl brain were efficiently microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes and two types of native GABA receptors that differed in the temporal course of their responses and affinities to GABA were observed. Results of this study are necessary for further characterization of axolotl neurotransmitter receptors and may be useful for guiding experiments aimed at understanding activity-dependant limb and CNS regeneration. PMID:23353105

  10. Contributions to the field of neurotransmitters by Japanese scientists, and reflections on my own research

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    Part I describes important contributions made by some Japanese pioneers in the field of neurotransmitters: (their achievements in parentheses) J. Takamine (isolation and crystallization of adrenaline); K. Shimidzu (early hint for acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter); F. Kanematsu (donation of the Kanematsu Memorial Institute in Sydney); T. Hayashi (discovery of the excitatory action of glutamate and the inhibitory action of GABA); and I. Sano (discovery of a high concentration of dopamine in striatum, its reduction in a patient with Parkinsons disease and the treatment with DOPA). In Part II, I present some of my reflections on my research on neurotransmitters. The work of my colleagues and myself has made some significant contributions to the establishment of neurotransmitter roles played by GABA and substance P, the first amino acid and the first peptide neurotransmitters, respectively. By the early 1960s, 3 substances, i.e., acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline, had been established as neurotransmitters. Now the number of neurotransmitters is believed to be as many as 50 or even more mainly due to the inclusion of several amino acids and a large number of peptide transmitters. PMID:24019584

  11. Dopamine release from serotonergic nerve fibers is reduced in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Nevalainen, Nina; af Bjerkn, Sara; Lundblad, Martin; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Strmberg, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine) is the most commonly used treatment for symptomatic control in patients with Parkinsons disease. Unfortunately, most patients develop severe side effects, such as dyskinesia, upon chronic L-DOPA treatment. The patophysiology of dyskinesia is unclear, however, involvement of serotonergic nerve fibers in converting L-DOPA to dopamine has been suggested. Therefore, potassium-evoked dopamine release was studied after local application of L-DOPA in the striata of normal, dopamine- and dopamine/serotonin-lesioned L-DOPA nave, and dopamine-denervated chronically L-DOPA-treated dyskinetic rats using in vivo chronoamperometry. The results revealed that local L-DOPA administration into normal and intact hemisphere of dopamine-lesioned L-DOPA nave animals significantly increased the potassium-evoked dopamine release. L-DOPA application also increased the dopamine peak amplitude in the dopamine-depleted L-DOPA nave striatum, although these dopamine levels were several-folds lower than in the normal striatum, while no increased dopamine release was found in the dopamine/serotonin-denervated striatum. In dyskinetic animals, local L-DOPA application did not affect the dopamine release, resulting in significantly attenuated dopamine levels compared to those measured in L-DOPA nave dopamine-denervated striatum. To conclude, L-DOPA is most likely converted to dopamine in serotonergic nerve fibers in the dopamine-depleted striatum, but the dopamine release is several-fold lower than in normal striatum. Furthermore, L-DOPA loading does not increase the dopamine release in dyskinetic animals as found in L-DOPA nave animals, despite similar density of serotonergic innervation. Thus, the dopamine overflow produced from the serotonergic nerve fibers appears not to be the major cause of dyskinetic behavior. PMID:21534956

  12. Dopamine Transporter Blockade Increases LTP in the CA1 Region of the Rat Hippocampus via Activation of the D3 Dopamine Receptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swant, Jarod; Wagner, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has been demonstrated to be involved in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. As monoamine transporter blockade will increase the actions of endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters, the effect of a dopamine transporter (DAT) antagonist on LTP was assessed using field excitatory postsynaptic

  13. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic

  14. Analysis of urinary neurotransmitters by capillary electrophoresis: sensitivity enhancement using field-amplified sample injection and molecular imprinted polymer solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Claude, Brengre; Nehm, Reine; Morin, Philippe

    2011-08-12

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been investigated for the analysis of some neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) at nanomolar concentrations in urine. Field-amplified sample injection (FASI) has been used to improve the sensitivity through the online pre-concentration samples. The cationic analytes were stacked at the capillary inlet between a zone of low conductivity - sample and pre-injection plug - and a zone of high conductivity - running buffer. Several FASI parameters have been optimized (ionic strength of the running buffer, concentration of the sample protonation agent, composition of the sample solvent and nature of the pre-injection plug). Best results were obtained using H(3)PO(4)-LiOH (pH 4, ionic strength of 80 mmol L(-1)) as running buffer, 100 ?mol L(-1) of H(3)PO(4) in methanol-water 90/10 (v/v) as sample solvent and 100 ?mol L(-1) of H(3)PO(4) in water for the pre-injection plug. In these conditions, the linearity was verified in the 50-300 nmol L(-1) concentration range for DA, 3-MT and 5-HT with a determination coefficient (r(2)) higher than 0.99. The limits of quantification (10 nmol L(-1) for DA and 3-MT, 5.9 nmol L(-1) for 5-HT) were 500 times lower than those obtained with hydrodynamic injection. However, if this method is applied to the analysis of neurotransmitters in urine, the presence of salts in the matrix greatly reduces the sensitivity of the FASI/CE-UV method.Therefore, a solid phase extraction (SPE) on a dedicated imprinted polymer (MIP) was developed to extract specific neurotransmitters, catecholamines, metanephrines and indolamines, from urine. Matrix salts were thus discarded after sample extraction on AFFINIMIP Catecholamine & Metanephrine (100mg) cartridge. Therefore, lower limits of quantification were determined in artificial urine (46 nmol L(-1) for DA, 11 nmol L(-1) for 3-MT and 6 nmol L(-1) for 5-HT).The application of this protocol MIP-SPE/FASI-CE-UV analysis of neurotransmitters in human urine gave rise to electropherograms with a very good base line and signal to noise ratios above 15. PMID:21704780

  15. A Dualistic Conformational Response to Substrate Binding in the Human Serotonin Transporter Reveals a High Affinity State for Serotonin*

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida; Wiborg, Ove; Sinning, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes that occur in the human SERT upon binding of ions, the translocation of substrate, and the role of cholesterol in this interplay are not fully elucidated. Here we show that serotonin induces a dualistic conformational response in SERT. We exploited the substituted cysteine scanning method under conditions that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation. Furthermore, we found that membrane cholesterol plays a role in the dualistic conformational response in SERT induced by serotonin. Our results indicate the existence of a subpopulation of SERT responding differently to serotonin binding than hitherto believed and that membrane cholesterol plays a role in this subpopulation of SERT. PMID:25614630

  16. A dualistic conformational response to substrate binding in the human serotonin transporter reveals a high affinity state for serotonin.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Severinsen, Kasper; Said, Saida; Wiborg, Ove; Sinning, Steffen

    2015-03-20

    Serotonergic neurotransmission is modulated by the membrane-embedded serotonin transporter (SERT). SERT mediates the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neurons. Conformational changes in SERT occur upon binding of ions and substrate and are crucial for translocation of serotonin across the membrane. Our understanding of these conformational changes is mainly based on crystal structures of a bacterial homolog in various conformations, derived homology models of eukaryotic neurotransmitter transporters, and substituted cysteine accessibility method of SERT. However, the dynamic changes that occur in the human SERT upon binding of ions, the translocation of substrate, and the role of cholesterol in this interplay are not fully elucidated. Here we show that serotonin induces a dualistic conformational response in SERT. We exploited the substituted cysteine scanning method under conditions that were sensitized to detect a more outward-facing conformation of SERT. We found a novel high affinity outward-facing conformational state of the human SERT induced by serotonin. The ionic requirements for this new conformational response to serotonin mirror the ionic requirements for translocation. Furthermore, we found that membrane cholesterol plays a role in the dualistic conformational response in SERT induced by serotonin. Our results indicate the existence of a subpopulation of SERT responding differently to serotonin binding than hitherto believed and that membrane cholesterol plays a role in this subpopulation of SERT. PMID:25614630

  17. A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of four endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters in rat brain using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbin; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Lyu, Chunming; Zhang, Shen; Yan, Chao; Cheng, Yu; Wei, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters play an essential role in neural communication in mammalians. Many quantitative methods for endogenous monoamines have been developed during recent decades. Yet, matrix effect was usually a challenge in the quantification, in many cases asking for tedious sample preparation or sacrificing sensitivity. In this work, a simple, fast and sensitive method with no matrix effect was developed to simultaneously determine four endogenous monoamines including serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in rat brain tissues, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, ion source, MS/MS conditions, and brain tissue preparation methods, were optimized and validated. Pre-weighed 20mg brain sample could be effectively and reproducibly homogenized and protein-precipitated by 20 times value of 0.2% formic acid in cold organic solvents (methanol-acetonitrile, 10:90, v/v). This method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes (regression coefficients>0.998 or 0.999). The precision, expressed as coefficients of variation, was less than 3.43% for intra-day analyses and ranged from 4.17% to 15.5% for inter-day analyses. Good performance was showed in limit of detection (between 0.3nM and 3.0nM for all analytes), recovery (90.8-120%), matrix effect (84.4-107%), accuracy (89.8-100%) and stability (88.3-104%). The validated method was well applied to simultaneously determine the endogenous serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in four brain sections of 18 Wistar rats. The quantification of four endogenous monoamines in rat brain performed excellently in the sensitivity, high throughput, simple sample preparation and matrix effect. PMID:26363373

  18. Excess nicotinamide increases plasma serotonin and histamine levels.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yan-Jie; Li, Da; Ma, Qiang; Gu, Xin-Yi; Guo, Ming; Lun, Yong-Zhi; Sun, Wu-Ping; Wang, Xin-Yuan; Cao, Yu; Zhou, Shi-Sheng

    2013-02-25

    Methylation, a methyl group-consuming reaction, plays a key role in the degradation (i.e., inactivation) of monoamine neurotransmitters, including catecholamines, serotonin and histamine. Without labile methyl groups, the methylation-mediated degradation cannot take place. Although high niacin (nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) intake, which is very common nowadays, is known to deplete the body's methyl-group pool, its effect on monoamine-neurotransmitter degradation is not well understood. The aim of this article was to investigate the effect of excess nicotinamide on the levels of plasma serotonin and histamine in healthy subjects. Urine and venous blood samples were collected from nine healthy male volunteers before and after oral loading with 100 mg nicotinamide. Plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide, urinary N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide (2-Py), and plasma betaine levels were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Plasma concentrations of choline, serotonin and histamine were measured using commercial kits. The results showed that the plasma N(1)-methylnicotinamide level and the urinary excretion of 2-Py significantly increased after oral loading with 100 mg nicotinamide, which was accompanied with a decrease in the methyl-group donor betaine. Compared with those before nicotinamide load, five-hour postload plasma serotonin and histamine levels significantly increased. These results suggest that excess nicotinamide can disturb monoamine-neurotransmitter metabolism. These findings may be of significance in understanding the etiology of monoamine-related mental diseases, such as schizophrenia and autism (a neurodevelopmental disorder). PMID:23426511

  19. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters: mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Anne, Christine; Gasnier, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Secondary transporters driven by a V-type H⁺-ATPase accumulate nonpeptide neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles. Distinct transporter families are involved depending on the neurotransmitter. Monoamines and acetylcholine on the one hand, and glutamate and ATP on the other hand, are accumulated by SLC18 and SLC17 transporters, respectively, which belong to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). GABA and glycine accumulate through a common SLC32 transporter from the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily. Although crystallographic structures are not yet available for any vesicular transporter, homology modeling studies of MFS-type vesicular transporters based on distantly related bacterial structures recently provided significant advances, such as the characterization of substrate-binding pockets or the identification of spatial clusters acting as hinge points during the alternating-access cycle. However, several basic issues, such as the ion stoichiometry of vesicular amino acid transporters, remain unsettled. PMID:24745982

  20. Is Aspartate an Excitatory Neurotransmitter?

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Bruce E.; Silm, Katlin

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has resurrected the idea that the amino acid aspartate, a selective NMDA receptor agonist, is a neurotransmitter. Using a mouse that lacks the glutamate-selective vesicular transporter VGLUT1, we find that glutamate alone fully accounts for the activation of NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses in the hippocampus. This excludes a role for aspartate and, by extension, a recently proposed role for the sialic acid transporter sialin in excitatory transmission. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT It has been proposed that the amino acid aspartate serves as a neurotransmitter. Although aspartate is a selective agonist for NMDA receptors, we find that glutamate alone fully accounts for neurotransmission at excitatory synapses in the hippocampus, excluding a role for aspartate. PMID:26180193

  1. Prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide enriched butanolic residue from Senecio brasiliensis affects behavior and striatal neurotransmitter levels of rats in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Sandini, Thasa M; Udo, Mariana S B; Reis-Silva, Thiago M; Sanches, Daniel; Bernardi, Maria Martha; Flrio, Jorge Camilo; Spinosa, Helenice de S

    2015-12-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are toxins that are exclusively biosynthesized by plants and are commonly present in foods and herbs. PAs are usually associated with poisoning events in livestock and human beings. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal exposure to PA integerrimine N-oxide of rats in adulthood. Pregnant Wistar rats received integerrimine N-oxide from the butanolic residue of Senecio brasiliensis by gavage on gestational days 6-20 at doses of 3, 6 and 9mg/kg. During adulthood of the offspring, the following behavioral tests were performed: open-field, plus-maze, forced swimming, catalepsy and stereotypy. Histological analyses and monoamine levels were measured. Male offspring from dams that were exposed to 9mg/kg showed an increase in locomotion in the open-field test, an increased frequency of entries and time spent in open arms in elevated plus-maze test, as well as decreased swimming time. In the female offspring from dams that were exposed to 9mg/kg, there was an increased time of climbing in forced swimming and intensity of stereotyped behavior. The histological study indicates an increase in the number of multinucleated cells in the liver (6 and 9mg/kg). In neurotransmitter analysis, specifically in the striatum, we observed change in dopamine and serotonin levels in the middle dose. Thus, our results indicate that prenatal exposure to integerrimine N-oxide changed behavior in adulthood and neurotransmitter levels in the striatum. Our results agree with previous studies, which showed that integerrimine N-oxide impaired physical and neurobehavioral development in childhood that can persist until adulthood. PMID:26416213

  2. Detection of dopamine neurotransmission in “real time”

    PubMed Central

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.

    2013-01-01

    Current imaging techniques have limited ability to detect neurotransmitters released during brain processing. It is a critical limitation because neurotransmitters have significant control over the brain activity. In this context, recent development of single-scan dynamic molecular imaging technique is important because it allows detection, mapping, and measurement of dopamine released in the brain during task performance. The technique exploits the competition between endogenously released dopamine and its receptor ligand for occupancy of receptor sites. Dopamine released during task performance is detected by dynamically measuring concentration of intravenously injected radiolabeled ligand using a positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Based on the ligand concentration, values of receptor kinetic parameters are estimated. These estimates allow detection of dopamine released in the human brain during task performance. PMID:23874267

  3. Dopamine signaling regulates fat content through ?-oxidation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Barros, Alexandre Guimares de Almeida; Bridi, Jessika Cristina; de Souza, Bruno Rezende; de Castro Jnior, Clio; de Lima Torres, Karen Ceclia; Malard, Leandro; Jorio, Ado; de Miranda, Dbora Marques; Ashrafi, Kaveh; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurlio

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of energy balance involves an intricate interplay between neural mechanisms that respond to internal and external cues of energy demand and food availability. Compelling data have implicated the neurotransmitter dopamine as an important part of body weight regulation. However, the precise mechanisms through which dopamine regulates energy homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate mechanisms through which dopamine modulates energy storage. We showed that dopamine signaling regulates fat reservoirs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the fat reducing effects of dopamine were dependent on dopaminergic receptors and a set of fat oxidation enzymes. Our findings reveal an ancient role for dopaminergic regulation of fat and suggest that dopamine signaling elicits this outcome through cascades that ultimately mobilize peripheral fat depots. PMID:24465759

  4. Serotonin: a never-ending story.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Berend

    2015-04-15

    The neurotransmitter serotonin is an evolutionary ancient molecule that has remarkable modulatory effects in almost all central nervous system integrative functions, such as mood, anxiety, stress, aggression, feeding, cognition and sexual behavior. After giving a short outline of the serotonergic system (anatomy, receptors, transporter) the author's contributions over the last 40 years in the role of serotonin in depression, aggression, anxiety, stress and sexual behavior is outlined. Each area delineates the work performed on animal model development, drug discovery and development. Most of the research work described has started from an industrial perspective, aimed at developing animals models for psychiatric diseases and leading to putative new innovative psychotropic drugs, like in the cases of the SSRI fluvoxamine, the serenic eltoprazine and the anxiolytic flesinoxan. Later this research work mainly focused on developing translational animal models for psychiatric diseases and implicating them in the search for mechanisms involved in normal and diseased brains and finding new concepts for appropriate drugs. PMID:25446560

  5. Dopamine receptors in human gastrointestinal mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, D.E.; Mason, G.A.; Walker, C.H.; Valenzuela, J.E.

    1987-12-21

    Dopamine is a putative enteric neurotransmitter that has been implicated in exocrine secretory and motility functions of the gastrointestinal tract of several mammalian species including man. This study was designed to determine the presence of dopamine binding sites in human gastric and duodenal mucosa and to describe certain biochemical characteristics of these enteric receptor sites. The binding assay was performed in triplicate with tissue homogenates obtained from healthy volunteers of both sexes using /sup 3/H-dopamine as a ligand. The extent of nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of a 100-fold excess of unlabeled dopamine. Scatchard analysis performed with increasing concentrations of /sup 3/H-dopamine (20-500 nM) revealed a single class of saturable dopamine binding sites in gastric and duodenal mucosa. The results of this report demonstrate the presence of specific dopamine receptors in human gastric and duodenal mucosa. These biochemical data suggest that molecular abnormalities of these receptor sites may be operative in the pathogenesis of important gastrointestinal disorders. 33 references, 2 figures.

  6. A Conserved Salt Bridge between Transmembrane Segments 1 and 10 Constitutes an Extracellular Gate in the Dopamine Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Anders V.; Andreassen, Thorvald F.; Loland, Claus J.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter transporters play an important role in termination of synaptic transmission by mediating reuptake of neurotransmitter, but the molecular processes behind translocation are still unclear. The crystal structures of the bacterial homologue, LeuT, provided valuable insight into the structural and dynamic requirements for substrate transport. These structures support the existence of gating domains controlling access to a central binding site. On the extracellular side, access is controlled by the thin gate formed by an interaction between Arg-30 and Asp-404. In the human dopamine transporter (DAT), the corresponding residues are Arg-85 and Asp-476. Here, we present results supporting the existence of a similar interaction in DAT. The DAT R85D mutant has a complete loss of function, but the additional insertion of an arginine in opposite position (R85D/D476R), causing a charge reversal, results in a rescue of binding sites for the cocaine analogue [3H]CFT. Also, the coordination of Zn2+ between introduced histidines (R85H/D476H) caused a ?2.5-fold increase in [3H]CFT binding (Bmax). Importantly, Zn2+ also inhibited [3H]dopamine transport in R85H/D476H, suggesting that a dynamic interaction is required for the transport process. Furthermore, cysteine-reactive chemistry shows that mutation of the gating residues causes a higher proportion of transporters to reside in the outward facing conformation. Finally, we show that charge reversal of the corresponding residues (R104E/E493R) in the serotonin transporter also rescues [3H](S)-citalopram binding, suggesting a conserved feature. Taken together, these data suggest that the extracellular thin gate is present in monoamine transporters and that a dynamic interaction is required for substrate transport. PMID:25339174

  7. Effects of novel monoamine oxidases and cholinesterases targeting compounds on brain neurotransmitters and behavior in rat model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, Anna; Mussur, Mirosław; Unzeta, Mercedes; Samadi, Abdelouahid; Marco-Contelles, José L; Fogel, W Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are associated with different neurochemical and morphological alterations in the brain leading to cognitive and behavioural impairments. New therapeutic strategies comprise multifunctional drugs. The aim of the presented studies is to evaluate in vivo the novel compounds - ASS188 and ASS234 - which combine the benzylpiperidine moiety of the acetylcholinesteras (AChE) inhibitor donepezil and the indolyl propargylamino moiety of the monoaminooxidase (MAO) inhibitor, N-[(5-benzyloxy-1- methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)methyl]-N-methylprop-2-yn-1-amine, with respect to their influence on cerebral amine neurotransmitters systems and neuroprotective activity. The presumed therapeutic potential of these compounds has been evaluated following their administration to rats with experimental vascular dementia. A rat model of the permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (BCCAO) and the holeboard memory test were employed for this purpose. Wistar rats were used, either intact or 1 day after BCCAO. ASS188 (1 mg/kg) and ASS234 (5 mg/kg) were given s.c. for 5 consecutive days. Working and reference memory in rats was evaluated by holeboard tests before- and 7 and 12 days after BCCAO. The activities of MAOs, AChE and histamine N-methyltransferase (HMT), as well as cerebral amines concentrations were assayed. A significant inhibition of brain MAO A (>95%) and weaker MAO B (ca 60%) and HMT (<30%) and reduced AChE activities were recorded with a pronounced (2 - 10 fold) increase in the cerebral concentrations of serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline and smaller rises (up to 30%) of histamine. The BCCAO rats treated with ASS188 or ASS234 tended to perform holeboard tests better than the BCCAO untreated group, indicating a beneficial effect of the administered therapeutics. PMID:23701539

  8. PET evaluation of the dopamine system of the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Gatley, S. |

    1996-07-01

    Dopamine plays a pivotal role in the regulation and control of movement, motivation and cognition. It also is closely linked to reward, reinforcement and addiction. Abnormalities in brain dopamine are associated with many neurological and psychiatric disorders including Parkinson`s disease, schizophrenia and substance abuse. This close association between dopamine and neurological and psychiatric diseases and with substance abuse make it an important topic in research in the neurosciences and an important molecular target in drug development. PET enables the direct measurement of components of the dopamine system in the living human brain. It relies on radiotracers which label dopamine receptors, dopamine transporters, precursors of dopamine or compounds which have specificity for the enzymes which degrade dopamine. Additionally, by using tracers that provide information on regional brain metabolism or blood flow as well as neurochemically specific pharmacological interventions, PET can be used to assess the functional consequences of change in brain dopamine activity. PET dopamine measurements have been used to investigate the normal human brain and its involvement in psychiatric and neurological diseases. It has also been used in psychopharmacological research to investigate dopamine drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson`s disease and of schizophrenia as well as to investigate the effects of drugs of abuse on the dopamine system. Since various functional and neurochemical parameters can be studied in the same subject, PET enables investigation of the functional integrity of the dopamine system in the human brain and investigation of the interactions of dopamine with other neurotransmitters. This paper summarizes the different tracers and experimental strategies developed to evaluate the various elements of the dopamine system in the human brain with PET and their applications to clinical research. 254 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Neurotransmitter Specific, Cellular-Resolution Functional Brain Mapping Using Receptor Coated Nanoparticles: Assessment of the Possibility

    PubMed Central

    Forati, Ebrahim; Sabouni, Abas; Ray, Supriyo; Head, Brian; Schoen, Christian; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Receptor coated resonant nanoparticles and quantum dots are proposed to provide a cellular-level resolution image of neural activities inside the brain. The functionalized nanoparticles and quantum dots in this approach will selectively bind to different neurotransmitters in the extra-synaptic regions of neurons. This allows us to detect neural activities in real time by monitoring the nanoparticles and quantum dots optically. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with two different geometries (sphere and rod) and quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were studied along with three different neurotransmitters: dopamine, gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), and glycine. The absorption/emission spectra of GNPs and QDs before and after binding of neurotransmitters and their corresponding receptors are reported. The results using QDs and nanorods with diameter 25nm and aspect rations larger than three were promising for the development of the proposed functional brain mapping approach. PMID:26717196

  10. Increased expression of the dopamine transporter leads to loss of dopamine neurons, oxidative stress and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits.

    PubMed

    Masoud, S T; Vecchio, L M; Bergeron, Y; Hossain, M M; Nguyen, L T; Bermejo, M K; Kile, B; Sotnikova, T D; Siesser, W B; Gainetdinov, R R; Wightman, R M; Caron, M G; Richardson, J R; Miller, G W; Ramsey, A J; Cyr, M; Salahpour, A

    2015-02-01

    The dopamine transporter is a key protein responsible for regulating dopamine homeostasis. Its function is to transport dopamine from the extracellular space into the presynaptic neuron. Studies have suggested that accumulation of dopamine in the cytosol can trigger oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Previously, ectopic expression of the dopamine transporter was shown to cause damage in non-dopaminergic neurons due to their inability to handle cytosolic dopamine. However, it is unknown whether increasing dopamine transporter activity will be detrimental to dopamine neurons that are inherently capable of storing and degrading dopamine. To address this issue, we characterized transgenic mice that over-express the dopamine transporter selectively in dopamine neurons. We report that dopamine transporter over-expressing (DAT-tg) mice display spontaneous loss of midbrain dopamine neurons that is accompanied by increases in oxidative stress markers, 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine and 5-S-cysteinyl-DOPAC. In addition, metabolite-to-dopamine ratios are increased and VMAT2 protein expression is decreased in the striatum of these animals. Furthermore, DAT-tg mice also show fine motor deficits on challenging beam traversal that are reversed with l-DOPA treatment. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that even in neurons that routinely handle dopamine, increased uptake of this neurotransmitter through the dopamine transporter results in oxidative damage, neuronal loss and l-DOPA reversible motor deficits. In addition, DAT over-expressing animals are highly sensitive to MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. The effects of increased dopamine uptake in these transgenic mice could shed light on the unique vulnerability of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease. PMID:25447236

  11. Dynamic changes of five neurotransmitters and their related enzymes in various rat tissues following ?-asarone and levodopa co-administration

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, LIPING; DENG, MINZHEN; FANG, YONGQI; LI, LING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the dynamic changes of five neurotransmitters and their associated enzymes in the rat plasma and brain tissues following the co-administration of ?-asarone and levodopa (L-dopa). The rats were divided into five groups, including the control group and four treatment groups that were intragastrically co-administered ?-asarone and L-dopa and sacrificed at 1, 5, 18 and 48 h, respectively. Neurotransmitter levels in the brain tissues and plasma were detected using high performance liquid chromatograph and the related enzymes of dopamine (DA) were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the striatal levels of L-dopa and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) peaked at 1 h and then returned to the normal levels, while the striatal levels of DA were stable within 48 h. In the cortex and hippocampus tissue, L-dopa, DA, DOPAC and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels peaked at 1 h and then returned to normal levels. In the plasma, L-dopa, DA, DOPAC and HVA levels peaked at 1 h. Compared with the control group, L-dopa, DA and HVA levels were higher between 18 and 48 h, whereas the DOPAC level was lower. By contrast, no statistically significant differences were observed in the serotonin (5-HT) levels among the plasma, hippocampus, cortex and striatum. Furthermore, the DA/L-dopa ratio in the brain tissues and plasma increased in the first 5 h, while (DOPAC + HVA)/DA ratios demonstrated a significant reduction. Striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) levels were higher compared with the control group; however, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and monoamine oxidase B levels were reduced. In the rat plasma, TH and COMT peaked at 1 h, while AADC peaked at 5 h. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the co-administration of L-dopa and ?-asarone may be used to maintain a stable striatal DA level within 48 h. In addition, this treatment may promote DA generation by AADC and reduce the metabolism of DA by COMT. PMID:26622527

  12. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  13. Identification of catecholamine neurotransmitters using fluorescence sensor array.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Forough; Hormozi-Nezhad, M Reza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-04-21

    A nano-based sensor array has been developed for identification and discrimination of catecholamine neurotransmitters based on optical properties of their oxidation products under alkaline conditions. To produce distinct fluorescence response patterns for individual catecholamine, quenching of thioglycolic acid functionalized cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots, by oxidation products, were employed along with the variation of fluorescence spectra of oxidation products. The spectral changes were analyzed with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to identify catecholamine patterns. The proposed sensor could efficiently discriminate the individual catecholamine (i.e., dopamine, norepinephrine, and l-DOPA) and their mixtures in the concentration range of 0.25-30 μmol L(-1). Finally, we found that the sensor had capability to identify the various catecholamines in urine sample. PMID:27026604

  14. The discovery of chemical neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Valenstein, Elliot S

    2002-06-01

    Neurotransmitters have become such an intrinsic part of our theories about brain function that many today are unaware of how difficult it was to prove their existence or the protracted dispute over the nature of synaptic transmission. The story is important not only because it is fascinating science history, but also because it exemplifies much of what is best in science and deserving to be emulated. The friendships formed among such major figures in this history as Henry Dale, Otto Loewi, Wilhelm Feldberg, Walter Cannon, and others extended over two world wars, enriching their lives and facilitating their research. Even the dispute-the "war of the sparks and the soups"--between neurophysiologists and pharmacologists over whether synaptic transmission is electrical or chemical played a positive role in stimulating the research needed to provide convincing proof. PMID:12027394

  15. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  16. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis. PMID:20089137

  17. A CMOS Amperometric System for Multi-Neurotransmitter Detection.

    PubMed

    Massicotte, Genevieve; Carrara, Sandro; Di Micheli, Giovanni; Sawan, Mohamad

    2016-06-01

    In vivo multi-target and selective concentration monitoring of neurotransmitters can help to unravel the brain chemical complex signaling interplay. This paper presents a dedicated integrated potentiostat transducer circuit and its selective electrode interface. A custom 2-electrode time-based potentiostat circuit was fabricated with 0.13 μm CMOS technology and provides a wide dynamic input current range of 20 pA to 600 nA with 56 μ W, for a minimum sampling frequency of 1.25 kHz. A multi-working electrode chip is functionalized with carbon nanotubes (CNT)-based chemical coatings that offer high sensitivity and selectivity towards electroactive dopamine and non-electroactive glutamate. The prototype was experimentally tested with different concentrations levels of both neurotransmitter types, and results were similar to measurements with a commercially available potentiostat. This paper validates the functionality of the proposed biosensor, and demonstrates its potential for the selective detection of a large number of neurochemicals. PMID:26761882

  18. Serotonin and Mental Disorders: A Concise Review on Molecular Neuroimaging Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin is one of the most important neurotransmitters influencing mental health and, thus, is a potential target for pharmaco-logical treatments. Functional neuroimaging techniques, such as positron-emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), could provide persuasive evidence for the association between mental disorders and serotonin. In this concise review, we focus on evidence of the links between serotonin and major depressive disorders, as well as other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism. PMID:25598822

  19. Dopamine D3 receptor antagonism contributes to blonanserin-induced cortical dopamine and acetylcholine efflux and cognitive improvement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Kwon, Sunoh; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-11-01

    Blonanserin is a novel atypical antipsychotic drug (APD), which, unlike most atypical APDs, has a slightly higher affinity for dopamine (DA) D2 than serotonin (5-HT)2A receptors, and is an antagonist at both, as well as at D3 receptors. The effects of atypical APDs to enhance rodent cortical, hippocampal, limbic, and dorsal striatal (dSTR) DA and acetylcholine (ACh) release, contribute to their ability to improve novel object recognition (NOR) in rodents treated with sub-chronic (sc) phencyclidine (PCP) and cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS). Here we determined the ability of blonanserin, the D3 antagonist NGB 2904, and the typical APD, haloperidol, a D2 antagonist, to enhance neurotransmitter efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and dSTR of mice, and to ameliorate the scPCP-induced deficit in NOR in rats. Blonanserin, 10mg/kg, i.p., increased DA, norepinephrine (NE), and ACh efflux in mPFC and dSTR. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, increased DA and ACh, but not NE, efflux in mPFC, and DA, but not ACh, efflux in dSTR. Haloperidol increased DA and NE efflux in dSTR only. The selective D3 agonist PD 128907 partially blocked the blonanserin-induced cortical ACh, DA, NE and striatal DA efflux. NGB 2904, 3mg/kg, like blonanserin, 1mg/kg, and the combination of sub-effective doses of NGB 2904 and blonanserin (both 0.3mg/kg), ameliorated the scPCP-induced NOR deficit in rats. These results suggest that D3 receptor blockade may contribute to the ability of blonanserin to increase cortical DA and ACh efflux, as well as to restore NOR and improve CIAS. PMID:26383990

  20. Serotonin, genetic variability, behaviour, and psychiatric disorders - a review

    PubMed Central

    Oreland, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Brain monoamines, and serotonin in particular, have repeatedly been shown to be linked to different psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, antisocial behaviour, and dependence. Many studies have implicated genetic variability in the genes encoding monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and the serotonin transporter (5HTT) in modulating susceptibility to these conditions. Paradoxically, the risk variants of these genes have been shown, in vitro, to increase levels of serotonin, although many of the conditions are associated with decreased levels of serotonin. Furthermore, in adult humans, and monkeys with orthologous genetic polymorphisms, there is no observable correlation between these functional genetic variants and the amount or activity of the corresponding proteins in the brain. These seemingly contradictory data might be explained if the association between serotonin and these behavioural and psychiatric conditions were mainly a consequence of events taking place during foetal and neonatal brain development. In this review we explore, based on recent research, the hypothesis that the dual role of serotonin as a neurotransmitter and a neurotrophic factor has a significant impact on behaviour and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders through altered development of limbic neurocircuitry involved in emotional processing, and development of the serotonergic neurons, during early brain development. PMID:20187845

  1. Serotonin Modulates Olfactory Processing in the Antennal Lobe of Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dacks, Andrew M.; Green, David S.; Root, Cory M.; Nighorn, Alan J.; Wang, Jing W.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory systems must be able to extract features of environmental cues within the context of the different physiological states of the organism and often temper their activity in a state-dependent manner via the process of neuromodulation. We examined the effects of the neuromodulator serotonin on a well-characterized sensory circuit, the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster, using two-photon microscopy and the genetically expressed calcium indicator, G-CaMP. Serotonin enhances sensitivity of the antennal lobe output projection neurons in an odor-specific manner. For odorants that sparsely activate the antennal lobe, serotonin enhances projection neuron responses and causes an offset of the projection neuron tuning curve, most likely by increasing projection neuron sensitivity. However, for an odorant that evokes a broad activation pattern, serotonin enhances projection neuron responses in some, but not all, glomeruli. Further, serotonin enhances the responses of inhibitory local interneurons, resulting in a reduction of neurotransmitter release from the olfactory sensory neurons via GABAB receptor-dependent presynaptic inhibition, which may be a mechanism underlying the odorant-specific modulation of projection neuron responses. Our data suggest that the complexity of serotonin modulation in the antennal lobe accommodates coding stability in a glomerular pattern and flexible projection neuron sensitivity under different physiological conditions. PMID:19863268

  2. Further strategies for treating fibromyalgia: the role of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mease, Philip J

    2009-12-01

    Fibromyalgia and associated conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and temporomandibular disorder involve dysfunctions in central sensitization and pain modulation. Central nervous system dysfunction may also contribute to other symptoms characteristic of fibromyalgia, such as fatigue and sleep disturbance. Two key neurotransmitters in the pain modulation pathway are serotonin and norepinephrine. Preclinical studies using animal models of chronic pain have shown that pharmacologic agents that combine serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibition, thus augmenting the function of these neurotransmitters, have stronger analgesic effects than agents that inhibit reuptake of either neurotransmitter alone. Although tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) inhibit reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine and have shown efficacy for the treatment of fibromyalgia, long-term use of these drugs is limited owing to poor tolerability. Unlike TCAs, the newer dual reuptake inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine, such as the drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for fibromyalgia, milnacipran and duloxetine, do not possess significant affinity for other neurotransmitter systems, resulting in diminished side effects and enhanced tolerability. Both duloxetine and milnacipran have shown efficacy in clinical trials by improving pain and other symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. Both compounds inhibit the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters; however, there is a difference in their affinities and selectivity for these transporters. Although duloxetine has affinity for both receptors, it is somewhat more selective for the serotonin transporter. In contrast, milnacipran is somewhat more selective for norepinephrine than serotonin reuptake inhibition. Pharmacologic agents that specifically target serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake may prove to be valuable tools in the treatment of fibromyalgia. PMID:19962496

  3. (/sup 3/H)Spiroxatrine labels a serotonin/sub 1A/-like site in the rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.L.; Monroe, P.J.; Lambert, G.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-09-28

    (/sup 3/H)Spiroxatrine was examined as a potential ligand for the labeling of 5-HT/sub 1A/ sites in the rat hippocampus. Analysis o the binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine in the absence and presence of varying concentrations of three monoamine neurotransmitters revealed that serotonin (5-HT) had high affinity for the (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine binding sites, consistent with the labeling of 5-HT/sub 1/ sites, while dopamine and norepinephrine had very low affinity. Saturation studies of the binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine revealed a single population of sites with a K/sub d/ = 2.21 nM. Further pharmacologic characterization with the 5-HT/sub 1A/ ligands 8-hydroxy-2-(di-ni-propylamino)tetralin, ipsapirone, and WB4101 and the butyrophenone compounds spiperone and haloperidol gave results that were consistent with (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine labeling 5-HT/sub 1A/ sites. This ligand produced stable, reproducible binding with a good ratio of specific to nonspecific binding. The binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine was sensitive to GTP, suggesting that this ligand may act as an agonist. 21 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Influence of serotonin on the immune response.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J C; Cross, R J; Walker, R F; Markesbery, W R; Brooks, W H; Roszman, T L

    1985-01-01

    The present study investigates the influence of pharmacological agents known to regulate biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on the primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in the CBA mouse. Systemic administration of 5-HT (4-100 mg/kg) or its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, 50-400 mg/kg), 30-60 min before immunization resulted in dose-dependent suppression of both the IgM and IgG plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to SRBC. Conversely, para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 250 mg/kg), which inhibits the rate-limiting enzyme (tryptophan hydroxylase) in 5-HT biosynthesis, markedly enhanced IgM and IgG antibody production when injected 48 hr prior to antigen. Effects of these drugs on immune processes appeared independent of observed changes in plasma corticosterone levels. Further, immune function was preserved following selective depletion of brain serotonin through intracisternal injection of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) in mice pretreated with desmethylimipramine (DMI). Thus, immunomodulation by serotonin appears to be mediated via peripheral mechanism(s). PMID:3156091

  5. Optogenetic control of striatal dopamine release in rats

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Vance, Zachary B; Sullivan, Ryan P; Bonin, Keith D; Budygin, Evgeny A

    2010-01-01

    Optogenetic control over neuronal firing has become an increasingly elegant method to dissect the microcircuitry of mammalian brains. To date, examination of these manipulations on neurotransmitter release has been minimal. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of optogenetic stimulation on dopamine neurotransmission in the dorsal striatum of urethane-anesthetized rats. By combining the tight spatial and temporal resolution of both optogenetics and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry we have determined the parameters necessary to control phasic dopamine release in the dorsal striatum of rats in vivo. The kinetics of optically induced dopamine release mirror established models of electrically evoked release, indicating that potential artifacts of electrical stimulation on ion channels and the dopamine transporter are negligible. Furthermore a lack of change in extracellular pH indicates that optical stimulation does not alter blood flow. Optical control over dopamine release is highly reproducible and flexible. We are able to repeatedly evoke concentrations of dopamine release as small as a single dopamine transient (50 nM). A U-shaped frequency response curve exists with maximal stimulation inducing dopamine effluxes exceeding 500 nM. Taken together, these results have obvious implications for understanding the neurobiological basis of dopaminergic-based disorders and provide the framework to effectively manipulate dopamine patterns. PMID:20534006

  6. Plasma HVA in Adults with Mental Retardation and Stereotyped Behavior: Biochemical Evidence for a Dopamine Deficiency Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of the neurotransmitter dopamine through measurement of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in adult subjects with mental retardation and with high rates of body stereotypy (n=12), compulsive behaviors (n=9), or neither (n=12) found lowest HVA concentrations in the stereotypy group and highest in the compulsive group. (DB)

  7. RAPID DOPAMINE TRANSMISSION WITHIN THE NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS DRAMATICALLY DIFFERS FOLLOWING MORPHINE AND OXYCODONE DELIVERY

    PubMed Central

    Mabrouk, Omar S.; Lovic, Vedran; Singer, Bryan F.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Aragona, Brandon J.

    2014-01-01

    While most drugs of abuse increase dopamine neurotransmission, rapid neurochemical measurements show that different drugs evoke distinct dopamine release patterns within the nucleus accumbens. Rapid changes in dopamine concentration following psychostimulant administration have been well studied; however, such changes have never been examined following opioid delivery. Here, we provide novel measures of rapid dopamine release following intravenous infusion of two opioids, morphine and oxycodone, in drug nave rats using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry and rapid (1 min) microdialysis coupled with mass spectrometry. In addition to measuring rapid dopamine transmission, microdialysis HPLC-MS measures changes in GABA, glutamate, monoamines, monoamine metabolites, and several other neurotransmitters. Although both opioids increased dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, their patterns of drug-evoked dopamine transmission differed dramatically. Oxycodone evoked a robust and stable increase in dopamine concentration and a robust increase in the frequency and amplitude of phasic dopamine release events. Conversely, morphine evoked a brief (~ 1 min) increase in dopamine that was coincident with a surge in GABA concentration and then both transmitters returned to baseline levels. Thus, by providing rapid measures of neurotransmission, this study reveals previously unknown differences in opioid-induced neurotransmitter signaling. Investigating these differences may be essential for understanding how these two drugs of abuse could differentially usurp motivational circuitry and powerfully influence behavior. PMID:25208732

  8. Effects of Early Serotonin Programming on Fear Response, Memory and Aggression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) also acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain. Early administration of a 5-HT agonist could alter development of serotonergic circuitry, altering behaviors mediated by 5-HT signaling, including memory, fear and aggression. The present study was desi...

  9. Larvae of small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, express a novel serotonin receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter in vertebrates and invertebrates. It acts in regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioral processes through G protein-coupled receptors. Insects express five 5-HT receptor subtypes that share high simila...

  10. A model of dopamine modulated glutamatergic synapse.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Vito; Ventriglia, Francesco; Santillo, Silvia

    2015-10-01

    The dopamine neurotransmitter regulates important neural pathways and its action in the brain is very complex. When dopaminergic neurons make synapses on spiny neurons of the striatum nucleus, they tune the responsiveness of glutamatergic synapses by means of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptors. We studied the effect of dopamine D1 receptors on glutamatergic synapse of GABAergic spiny neurons in striatum nucleus where they are located on the neck of the same spine. The action of dopamine consists essentially in promoting the phosphorylation of AMPA and NMDA receptors thus increasing the Excitatory Post Synaptic Current peak amplitude. The consequence is a cooperative effect of glutamatergic and dopaminergic synapses for the regulation of the GABAergic neuronal code. The mechanisms by which the phosphorylation induces the increase of the EPSC amplitude still remain unclear although the lack of this regulation can be involved in several pathologies as, for example, the Parkinson's disease. We tested, by computational experiments based on our model of glutamatergic synapse, three parameters of the synaptic function that could be involved in dopamine action: (a) time binding of glutamate to receptors; (b) open probability of the receptors; and (c) single receptor conductance. For different reasons, any of the three parameters could be responsible of the increased EPSC-dopamine-dependent. Our computational results were compared and discussed with experimental results found in literature. Although for our model both the open probability and the single receptor conductance can reproduce the phosphorylation effect of dopamine, we argue that the dopamine effect consists essentially in an increase of the single receptor conductance due to a 3D rearrangement of the phosphorylated receptors. PMID:26001676

  11. Sustained N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor hypofunction remodels the dopamine system and impairs phasic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J.; Milenkovic, Marija; Liu, Shuai; Mielnik, Catharine A.; Beerepoot, Pieter; John, Carrie E.; Espaa, Rodrigo A.; Sotnikova, Tatyana D.; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Borgland, Stephanie L.; Jones, Sara R.; Ramsey, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has been proposed as a contributing factor to symptoms of schizophrenia. However, it is unclear how sustained NMDAR hypofunction throughout development affects other neurotransmitter systems that have been implicated in the disease. Dopamine neuron biochemistry and activity were examined to determine whether sustained NMDAR hypofunction causes a state of hyperdopaminergia. We report that a global, genetic reduction in NMDARs led to a remodeling of dopamine neurons, substantially affecting two key regulators of dopamine homeostasis, i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter. In NR1 knockdown mice, dopamine synthesis and release were attenuated, and dopamine clearance was increased. Although these changes would have the effect of reducing dopamine transmission, we demonstrated that a state of hyperdopaminergia existed in these mice because dopamine D2 autoreceptors were desensitized. In support of this conclusion, NR1 knockdown dopamine neurons have higher tonic firing rates. Although the tonic firing rates are higher, phasic signaling is impaired, and dopamine overflow cannot be achieved with exogenous high-frequency stimulation that models phasic firing. Through the examination of several parameters of dopamine neurotransmission, we provide evidence that chronic NMDAR hypofunction leads to a state of elevated synaptic dopamine. Compensatory mechanisms to attenuate hyperdopaminergia also impact the ability to generate dopamine surges through phasic firing. PMID:24754704

  12. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ

    PubMed Central

    S?oniecka, Marta; Le Roux, Sandrine; Boman, Peter; Bystrm, Berit; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh), catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine), and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic) receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R), dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT), M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the ?1 and ?2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that neuropeptides/neurotransmitters are involved in cell proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis, it is possible that they play a role in corneal wound healing. PMID:26214847

  13. The dopamine theory of addiction: 40 years of highs and lows.

    PubMed

    Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Erritzoe, David; Stokes, Paul R A

    2015-05-01

    For several decades, addiction has come to be viewed as a disorder of the dopamine neurotransmitter system; however, this view has not led to new treatments. In this Opinion article, we review the origins of the dopamine theory of addiction and discuss the ability of addictive drugs to elicit the release of dopamine in the human striatum. There is robust evidence that stimulants increase striatal dopamine levels and some evidence that alcohol may have such an effect, but little evidence, if any, that cannabis and opiates increase dopamine levels. Moreover, there is good evidence that striatal dopamine receptor availability and dopamine release are diminished in individuals with stimulant or alcohol dependence but not in individuals with opiate, nicotine or cannabis dependence. These observations have implications for understanding reward and treatment responses in various addictions. PMID:25873042

  14. The Dopamine Augmenter L-DOPA Does Not Affect Positive Mood in Healthy Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Liggins, John; Pihl, Robert O.; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine neurotransmission influences approach toward rewards and reward-related cues. The best cited interpretation of this effect proposes that dopamine mediates the pleasure that commonly accompanies reward. This hypothesis has received support in some animal models and a few studies in humans. However, direct assessments of the effect of transiently increasing dopamine neurotransmission have been largely limited to the use of psychostimulant drugs, which elevate brain levels of multiple neurotransmitters in addition to dopamine. In the present study we tested the effect of more selectively elevating dopamine neurotransmission, as produced by administration of the immediate dopamine precursor, L-DOPA (0, 100/25, 200/50 mg, Sinemet), in healthy human volunteers. Neither dose altered positive mood. The results suggest that dopamine neurotransmission does not directly influence positive mood in humans. PMID:22238577

  15. Sex- and SERT-mediated differences in stimulated serotonin revealed by fast microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongyan; Sampson, Maureen M; Senturk, Damla; Andrews, Anne M

    2015-08-19

    In vivo microdialysis is widely used to investigate how neurotransmitter levels in the brain respond to biologically relevant challenges. Here, we combined recent improvements in the temporal resolution of online sampling and analysis for serotonin with a brief high-K(+) stimulus paradigm to study the dynamics of evoked release. We observed stimulated serotonin overflow with high-K(+) pulses as short as 1 min when determined with 2-min dialysate sampling in ventral striatum. Stimulated serotonin levels in female mice during the high estrogen period of the estrous cycle were similar to serotonin levels in male mice. By contrast, stimulated serotonin overflow during the low estrogen period in female mice was increased to levels similar to those in male mice with local serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibition. Stimulated serotonin levels in mice with constitutive loss of SERT were considerably higher yet, pointing to neuroadaptive potentiation of serotonin release. When combined with brief K(+) stimulation, fast microdialysis reveals dynamic changes in extracellular serotonin levels associated with normal hormonal cycles and pharmacologic vs genetic loss of SERT function. PMID:26167657

  16. Turn-On Near-Infrared Fluorescent Sensor for Selectively Imaging Serotonin.

    PubMed

    Hettie, Kenneth S; Glass, Timothy E

    2016-01-20

    A molecular imaging tool that provides for the direct visualization of serotonin would significantly aid in the investigation of neuropsychiatric disorders that are attributed to its neuronal dysregulation. Here, the design, synthesis, and evaluation of NeuroSensor 715 (NS715) is presented. NS715 is the first molecular sensor that exhibits a turn-on near-infrared fluorescence response toward serotonin. Density functional theory calculations facilitated the design of a fluorophore based on a coumarin-3-aldehyde scaffold that derives from an electron-rich 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoxaline framework, which provides appropriate energetics to prevent the hydroxyindole moiety of serotonin from quenching its fluorescence emission. Spectroscopic studies revealed that NS715 produces an 8-fold fluorescence enhancement toward serotonin with an emission maximum at 715 nm. Accompanying binding studies indicated NS715 displays a 19-fold selective affinity for serotonin and a modest affinity for catecholamines over other primary-amine neurotransmitters. The utility of NS715 toward neuroimaging applications was validated by selectively labeling and directly imaging norepinephrine within secretory vesicles using live chromaffin cells, which serve as a model system for specialized neurons that synthesize, package, and release only a single, unique type of neurotransmitter. In addition, NS715 effectively differentiated between cell populations that express distinct neurotransmitter phenotypes. PMID:26521705

  17. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  18. Sampling phasic dopamine signaling with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in awake behaving rats

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, SM; Cone, JJ; Ng-Evans, S; McCutcheon, JE; Roitman, MF

    2015-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is an electrochemical technique which permits the in vivo measurement of extracellular fluctuations in multiple chemical species. The technique is frequently utilized to sample sub-second (phasic) concentration changes of the neurotransmitter dopamine in awake and behaving rats. Phasic dopamine signaling is implicated in reinforcement, goal-directed behavior, and locomotion and FSCV has been used to investigate how rapid changes in striatal dopamine concentration contribute to these and other behaviors. This unit describes the instrumentation and construction, implantation, and use of necessary components required to sample and analyze dopamine concentration changes in awake rats with FSCV. PMID:25559005

  19. The Role of Dopamine and Its Dysfunction as a Consequence of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Juárez Olguín, Hugo; Calderón Guzmán, David; Hernández García, Ernestina; Barragán Mejía, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is produced in the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and hypothalamus of the brain. Dysfunction of the dopamine system has been implicated in different nervous system diseases. The level of dopamine transmission increases in response to any type of reward and by a large number of strongly additive drugs. The role of dopamine dysfunction as a consequence of oxidative stress is involved in health and disease. Introduce new potential targets for the development of therapeutic interventions based on antioxidant compounds. The present review focuses on the therapeutic potential of antioxidant compounds as a coadjuvant treatment to conventional neurological disorders is discussed. PMID:26770661

  20. Combined serotonin (5-HT)1A agonism, 5-HT(2A) and dopamine D₂ receptor antagonism reproduces atypical antipsychotic drug effects on phencyclidine-impaired novel object recognition in rats.

    PubMed

    Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Horiguchi, Masakuni; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Miyauchi, Masanori; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2015-05-15

    Subchronic administration of an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, e.g. phencyclidine (PCP), produces prolonged impairment of novel object recognition (NOR), suggesting they constitute a hypoglutamate-based model of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia (CIS). Acute administration of atypical, e.g. lurasidone, but not typical antipsychotic drugs (APDs), e.g. haloperidol, are able to restore NOR following PCP (acute reversal model). Furthermore, atypical APDs, when co-administered with PCP, have been shown to prevent development of NOR deficits (prevention model). Most atypical, but not typical APDs, are more potent 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonists than dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists, and have been shown to enhance cortical and hippocampal efflux and to be direct or indirect 5-HT(1A) agonists in vivo. To further clarify the importance of these actions to the restoration of NOR by atypical APDs, sub-effective or non-effective doses of combinations of the 5-HT(1A) partial agonist (tandospirone), the 5-HT(2A) inverse agonist (pimavanserin), or the D2 antagonist (haloperidol), as well as the combination of all three agents, were studied in the acute reversal and prevention PCP models of CIS. Only the combination of all three agents restored NOR and prevented the development of PCP-induced deficit. Thus, this triple combination of 5-HT(1A) agonism, 5-HT(2A) antagonism/inverse agonism, and D2 antagonism is able to mimic the ability of atypical APDs to prevent or ameliorate the PCP-induced NOR deficit, possibly by stimulating signaling cascades from D1 and 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation, modulated by D2 and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonism. PMID:25448429

  1. Pharmacological profile of 2-bromoterguride at human dopamine D2, porcine serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A, and ?2C-adrenergic receptors, and its antipsychotic-like effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Jantschak, F; Brosda, J; Franke, R T; Fink, H; Mller, D; Hbner, H; Gmeiner, P; Pertz, H H

    2013-10-01

    Dopaminergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic receptors are targets for therapeutic actions in schizophrenia. Dopamine D2 receptor partial agonists such as aripiprazole represent a treatment option for patients with this severe disorder. The ineffectiveness of terguride, another D2 receptor partial agonist, in treating schizophrenia was recently attributed to its considerably high intrinsic activity at D2 receptors. In this study, we used functional assays for recombinant D2 receptors and native 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A), ?2C-adrenergic, and histamine H1 receptors to compare the pharmacological properties of terguride and three of its halogenated derivatives (2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, 2-iodoterguride) with those of aripiprazole. Subsequently, we studied the antidopaminergic effects of 2-bromoterguride using amphetamine-induced locomotion (AIL). Its influence on spontaneous behavior was tested in the open field. Extrapyramidal side effect (EPS) liability was evaluated by catalepsy test. In a guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP?S) binding assay, 2-chloro-, 2-bromo-, and 2-iodoterguride produced intrinsic activities at human D2short (hD2S) receptors that were half as high as the intrinsic activity for terguride; aripiprazole lacked agonist activity. 2-Bromoterguride and aripiprazole activated D2S receptor-mediated inhibition of cAMP accumulation to the same extent; intrinsic activity was half as high as that of terguride. All compounds tested behaved as antagonists at human D2long/G?o (hD2L/G?o) receptors. Compared with aripiprazole, terguride and its derivatives displayed higher affinity at porcine 5-HT2A receptors and ?2C-adrenoceptors and lower affinity at H1 receptors. 2-Bromoterguride inhibited AIL and did not induce catalepsy in rats. Because of its in vitro and in vivo properties, 2-bromoterguride may be a strong candidate for the treatment of schizophrenia with a lower risk to induce EPS. PMID:23863695

  2. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,

  3. The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

  4. The serotonin aldehyde, 5-HIAL, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Cooney, Adele; Sullivan, Patricia; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2015-03-17

    In Parkinson's disease (PD) alpha-synuclein oligomers are thought to be pathogenic, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate aldehyde intermediate in neuronal dopamine metabolism, potently oligomerizes alpha-synuclein. PD involves alpha-synuclein deposition in brainstem raphe nuclei; however, whether 5-hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde (5-HIAL), the aldehyde of serotonin, oligomerizes alpha-synuclein has been unknown. In this study we tested whether 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein in vitro and in PC12 cells conditionally over-expressing alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein oligomers were quantified by western blotting after incubation of alpha-synuclein with serotonin and monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) to generate 5-HIAL or dopamine to generate DOPAL. Oligomerization of alpha-synuclein in PC12 cells over-expressing the protein was compared between vehicle-treated cells and cells incubated with levodopa to generate DOPAL or 5-hydroxytryptophan to generate 5-HIAL. Monoamine aldehyde mediation of the oligomerization was assessed using the MAO inhibitor, pargyline. Dopamine and serotonin incubated with MAO-A both strongly oligomerized alpha-synuclein (more than 10 times control); pargyline blocked the oligomerization. In synuclein overexpressing PC12 cells, levodopa and 5-hydroxytryptophan elicited pargyline-sensitive alpha-synuclein oligomerization. 5-HIAL oligomerizes alpha-synuclein both in vitro and in synuclein-overexpressing PC12 cells, in a manner similar to DOPAL. The findings may help explain loss of serotonergic neurons in PD. PMID:25637699

  5. Serotonin neuronal function and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Kaye, W; Gendall, K; Strober, M

    1998-11-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are disorders characterized by aberrant patterns of feeding behavior and weight regulation, and disturbances in attitudes toward weight and shape and the perception of body shape. Emerging data support the possibility that substantial biologic and genetic vulnerabilities contribute to the pathogenesis of AN and BN. Multiple neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter abnormalities have been documented in AN and BN, but for the most part, these disturbances are state-related and tend to normalize after symptom remission and weight restoration; however, elevated concentrations of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid after recovery suggest that altered serotonin activity in AN and BN is a trait-related characteristic. Elevated serotonin activity is consistent with behaviors found after recovery from AN and BN, such as obsessionality with symmetry and exactness, harm avoidance, perfectionism, and behavioral over control. In BN, serotonergic modulating antidepressant medications suppress symptoms independently of their antidepressant effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are not useful when AN subjects are malnourished and under-weight; however, when given after weight restoration, fluoxetine may significantly reduce the extremely high rate of relapse normally seen in AN. Nonresponse to SSRI medication in ill AN subjects could be a consequence of an inadequate supply of nutrients, which are essential to normal serotonin synthesis and function. These data raise the possibility that a disturbance of serotonin activity may create a vulnerability for the expression of a cluster of symptoms that are common to both AN and BN and that nutritional factors may affect SSRI response in depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or other conditions characterized by disturbances in serotonergic pathways. PMID:9807638

  6. Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates, and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    The ability of a meal to increase or decrease brain neurotransmitter synthesis has been studied. It is concluded that brain serotonin synthesis is directly controlled by the proportions of carbohydrate to protein in meals and snacks that increase or decrease brain tryptophan levels, thereby changing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase and the rate of serotonin synthesis. The ability of serotoninergic neurons to have their output coupled to dietary macronutrients enables them to function as sensors of peripheral metabolism, and to subserve an important role in the control of appetite. The robust and selective responses of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons to supplemental tyrosine and choline suggest that these compounds may become useful as a new type of drug for treating deseases or conditions in which adequate quantities of the transmitter would otherwise be unavailable.

  7. Structure and functional expression of cloned rat serotonin 5HT-2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, D B; Bach, A W; Wozny, M; Taleb, O; Dal Toso, R; Shih, J C; Seeburg, P H

    1988-01-01

    A complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a serotonin receptor with 51% sequence identity to the 5HT-1C subtype was isolated from a rat brain cDNA library by homology screening. Transient expression of the cloned cDNA in mammalian cells was used to establish the pharmacological profile of the encoded receptor polypeptide. Membranes from transfected cells showed high-affinity binding of the serotonin antagonists spiperone, ketanserin and mianserin, low affinity for haloperidol (a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist), 8-OH-DPAT as well as MDL-72222 and no detectable binding of [3H]serotonin. This profile is consonant with the 5HT-2 subtype of serotonin receptors. In agreement with this assignment, serotonin increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and activated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in transfected mammalian cells. The agonist also elicited a current flow, blocked by spiperone, in Xenopus oocytes injected with in vitro synthesized RNA containing the cloned nucleotide sequences. PMID:2854054

  8. The serotonin 5-HT7 receptors: two decades of research.

    PubMed

    Gellynck, Evelien; Heyninck, Karen; Andressen, Kjetil W; Haegeman, Guy; Levy, Finn Olav; Vanhoenacker, Peter; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Like most neurotransmitters, serotonin possesses a simple structure. However, the pharmacological consequences are more complex and diverse. Serotonin is involved in numerous functions in the human body including the control of appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature regulation, mood, behavior, cardiovascular function, muscle contraction, endocrine regulation, and depression. Low levels of serotonin may be associated with several disorders, namely increase in aggressive and angry behaviors, clinical depression, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, tinnitus, and bipolar disease. These effects are mediated via different serotonin (5-HT) receptors. In this review, we will focus on the last discovered member of this serotonin receptor family, the 5-HT7 receptor. This receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and was cloned two decades ago. Later, different splice variants were described but no major functional differences have been described so far. All 5-HT7 receptor variants are coupled to G?s proteins and stimulate cAMP formation. Recently, several interacting proteins have been reported, which can influence receptor signaling and trafficking. PMID:24042216

  9. Serotonin deficiency exacerbates acetaminophen-induced liver toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyao; Song, Sidong; Pang, Qing; Zhang, Ruiyao; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Sushun; Meng, Fandi; Wu, Qifei; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a major cause of acute liver failure. Peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) is a cytoprotective neurotransmitter which is also involved in the hepatic physiological and pathological process. This study seeks to investigate the mechanisms involved in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, as well as the role of 5-HT in the liver's response to APAP toxicity. We induced APAP hepatotoxicity in mice either sufficient of serotonin (wild-type mice and TPH1-/- plus 5- Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)) or lacking peripheral serotonin (Tph1-/- and wild-type mice plus p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)). Mice with sufficient 5-HT exposed to acetaminophen have a significantly lower mortality rate and a better outcome compared with mice deficient of 5-HT. This difference is at least partially attributable to a decreased level of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Glutathione (GSH) depletion, peroxynitrite formation, hepatocyte apoptosis, elevated hepatocyte proliferation, activation of 5-HT2B receptor, less activated c-Jun NH?-terminal kinase (JNK) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? in the mice sufficient of 5-HT versus mice deficient of 5-HT. We thus propose a physiological function of serotonin that serotonin could ameliorate APAP-induced liver injury mainly through inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis ER stress and promoting liver regeneration. PMID:25631548

  10. Serotonin Deficiency Exacerbates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Toxicity In Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyao; Song, Sidong; Pang, Qing; Zhang, Ruiyao; Zhou, Lei; Liu, Sushun; Meng, Fandi; Wu, Qifei; Liu, Chang

    2015-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is a major cause of acute liver failure. Peripheral 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-HT) is a cytoprotective neurotransmitter which is also involved in the hepatic physiological and pathological process. This study seeks to investigate the mechanisms involved in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, as well as the role of 5-HT in the liver's response to APAP toxicity. We induced APAP hepatotoxicity in mice either sufficient of serotonin (wild-type mice and TPH1-/- plus 5- Hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)) or lacking peripheral serotonin (Tph1-/- and wild-type mice plus p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)).Mice with sufficient 5-HT exposed to acetaminophen have a significantly lower mortality rate and a better outcome compared with mice deficient of 5-HT. This difference is at least partially attributable to a decreased level of inflammation, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Glutathione (GSH) depletion, peroxynitrite formation, hepatocyte apoptosis, elevated hepatocyte proliferation, activation of 5-HT2B receptor, less activated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? in the mice sufficient of 5-HT versus mice deficient of 5-HT. We thus propose a physiological function of serotonin that serotonin could ameliorate APAP-induced liver injury mainly through inhibiting hepatocyte apoptosis ER stress and promoting liver regeneration. PMID:25631548

  11. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational design of new inhibitors.

  12. Evolution of neurotransmitter receptor systems.

    PubMed

    Venter, J C; di Porzio, U; Robinson, D A; Shreeve, S M; Lai, J; Kerlavage, A R; Fracek, S P; Lentes, K U; Fraser, C M

    1988-01-01

    The presence of hormones, neurotransmitters, their receptors and biosynthetic and degradative enzymes is clearly not only associated with the present and the recent past but with the past several hundred million years. Evidence is mounting which indicates substantial conservation of protein structure and function of these receptors and enzymes over these tremendous periods of time. These findings indicate that the evolution and development of the nervous system was not dependent upon the formation of new or better transmitter substances, receptor proteins, transducers and effector proteins but involved better utilization of these highly developed elements in creating advanced and refined circuitry. This is not a new concept; it is one that is now substantiated by increasingly sophisticated studies. In a 1953 article discussing chemical aspects of evolution (Danielli, 1953) Danielli quotes Medawar, "... endocrine evolution is not an evolution of hormones but an evolution of the uses to which they are put; an evolution not, to put it crudely, of chemical formulae but of reactivities, reaction patterns and tissue competences." To also quote Danielli, "In terms of comparative biochemistry, one must ask to what extent the evolution of these reactivities, reaction patterns and competences is conditional upon the evolution of methods of synthesis of new proteins, etc., and to what extent the proteins, etc., are always within the synthetic competence of an organism. In the latter case evolution is the history of changing uses of molecules, and not of changing synthetic abilities." (Danielli, 1953). Figure 4 outlines a phylogenetic tree together with an indication of where evidence exists for both the enzymes that determine the biosynthesis and metabolism of the cholinergic and adrenergic transmitters and their specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. This figure illustrates a number of important points. For example, the evidence appears to show that the transmitters and their associated enzymes existed for a substantial period before their respective receptor proteins. While the transmitters and enzymes appear to exist in single cellular organisms, there is no solid evidence for the presence of adrenergic or cholinergic receptors until multicellular organisms where the receptors appear to be clearly associated with specific cellular and neuronal communication (Fig. 4). One can only speculate as to the possible role for acetylcholine and the catecholamine in single cell organisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2830635

  13. Presence and Function of Dopamine Transporter (DAT) in Stallion Sperm: Dopamine Modulates Sperm Motility and Acrosomal Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Alejandra A.; Rodrguez-Gil, Joan Enric; Ramrez-Reveco, Alfredo; Concha, Ilona I.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is a catecholamine with multiple physiological functions, playing a key role in nervous system; however its participation in reproductive processes and sperm physiology is controversial. High dopamine concentrations have been reported in different portions of the feminine and masculine reproductive tract, although the role fulfilled by this catecholamine in reproductive physiology is as yet unknown. We have previously shown that dopamine type 2 receptor is functional in boar sperm, suggesting that dopamine acts as a physiological modulator of sperm viability, capacitation and motility. In the present study, using immunodetection methods, we revealed the presence of several proteins important for the dopamine uptake and signalling in mammalian sperm, specifically monoamine transporters as dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters in equine sperm. We also demonstrated for the first time in equine sperm a functional dopamine transporter using 4-[4-(Dimethylamino)styryl]-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+), as substrate. In addition, we also showed that dopamine (1 mM) treatment in vitro, does not affect sperm viability but decreases total and progressive sperm motility. This effect is reversed by blocking the dopamine transporter with the selective inhibitor vanoxerine (GBR12909) and non-selective inhibitors of dopamine reuptake such as nomifensine and bupropion. The effect of dopamine in sperm physiology was evaluated and we demonstrated that acrosome integrity and thyrosine phosphorylation in equine sperm is significantly reduced at high concentrations of this catecholamine. In summary, our results revealed the presence of monoamine transporter DAT, NET and SERT in equine sperm, and that the dopamine uptake by DAT can regulate sperm function, specifically acrosomal integrity and sperm motility. PMID:25402186

  14. Elevated spinal monoamine neurotransmitters after antenatal hypoxia-ischemia in rabbit cerebral palsy model

    PubMed Central

    Drobyshevsky, Alexander; Takada, Silvia Honda; Luo, Kehuan; Derrick, Matthew; Yu, Lei; Quinlan, Katharina A.; Vasquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Nogueira, Maria Ins; Tan, Sidhartha

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that a deficiency in the descending serotonergic input to spinal cord may underlie postnatal muscle hypertonia after global antenatal hypoxic-ischemic injury in a rabbit model of cerebral palsy. Neurotransmitter content was determined by HPLC in the spinal cord of newborns with and without muscle hypertonia after fetal global hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and nave controls. Contrary to our hypothesis, serotonin levels in both cervical and lumbar expansions and norepinephrine in cervical expansion were increased in hypertonic kits relative to non-hypertonic kits and controls, with unchanged number of serotonergic cells in caudal raphe by stereological count. Serotonergic fiber length per unit of volume was also increased in hypertonic kits cervical and lumbar spinal cord, both in dorsal and ventral horns. Gene expression of serotonin transporter was increased and 5-HTR2 receptors were decreased in hypertonic kits relative to controls in cervical and lumbar cord. Intrathecal administration of nonselective serotonin receptor inhibitor methysergide decreased muscle tone in hypertonic kits only. Conversely, intrathecal administration of serotonin solution increased muscle tone only in non-hypertonic kits. We speculate that maturation of serotonergic system in spinal cord may be directly affected by decreased corticospinal connectivity after antenatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. PMID:25421613

  15. Antidepressant treatment and emotional processing: can we dissociate the roles of serotonin and noradrenaline?

    PubMed

    Pringle, A; McCabe, C; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J

    2013-08-01

    The ability to match individual patients to tailored treatments has the potential to greatly improve outcomes for individuals suffering from major depression. In particular, while the vast majority of antidepressant treatments affect either serotonin or noradrenaline or a combination of these two neurotransmitters, it is not known whether there are particular patients or symptom profiles which respond preferentially to the potentiation of serotonin over noradrenaline or vice versa. Experimental medicine models suggest that the primary mode of action of these treatments may be to remediate negative biases in emotional processing. Such models may provide a useful framework for interrogating the specific actions of antidepressants. Here, we therefore review evidence from studies examining the effects of drugs which potentiate serotonin, noradrenaline or a combination of both neurotransmitters on emotional processing. These results suggest that antidepressants targeting serotonin and noradrenaline may have some specific actions on emotion and reward processing which could be used to improve tailoring of treatment or to understand the effects of dual-reuptake inhibition. Specifically, serotonin may be particularly important in alleviating distress symptoms, while noradrenaline may be especially relevant to anhedonia. The data reviewed here also suggest that noradrenergic-based treatments may have earlier effects on emotional memory that those which affect serotonin. PMID:23392757

  16. Waterborne lead affects circadian variations of brain neurotransmitters in fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, R.E.; Russo, A.C.; Weber, D.N.

    1995-09-01

    Lead is a potent neurotoxin affecting brain levels of a number of vertebrate neurotransmitters. Reports on these effects are, however, not consistent either among or within species. For example, with lead-intoxicated rats there are reports of decreased acetylcholine (ACh) release and decreased ACh brain levels as well as reports of increased levels or no change in levels. Also, with rats there are reports of increased levels, decreased levels, or no change in brain catecholamines, with lead producing similar changes in both norephinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in some cases and differences in response between the two in others. Although most early reports dealt with whole brain levels, reports on neurotransmitter levels in specific brain regions can be equally conflicting. Similar sorts of discrepancies exist among studies with fishes. Much of the variation among studies on lead effects on neurotransmitters is, no doubt, due to differences among the studies in variables such as: species, age, dosage and duration, route of administration. However, lead can apparently affect circadian locomotor rhythms of both rats and fishes. Therefore, another possible cause for the variation among studies is that there is an interaction among dosage, sampling time and endogenous rhythms. A lead-produced phase shift or disruption in endogenous neurotransmitter rhythms could in turn elicit a host of varying results and interpretations depending on the circadian time of sampling. We elected to examine this possibility in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a freshwater species widely used for toxicity studies. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Calmodulin-dependent regulation of neurotransmitter release differs in subsets of neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kosuke; Kudo, Yoshihisa; Aoyagi, Kyota; Ishikawa, Ryoki; Igarashi, Michihiro; Takahashi, Masami

    2013-10-16

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether calmodulin (CaM) plays a role in neurotransmitter release by examining the effect that ophiobolin A (OBA), a CaM antagonist, on neurotransmitter release from clonal rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, primary cortical neurons, and primary cerebellar granule cells. OBA inhibited Ca²⁺/CaM-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein in all cell types tested. Moreover, Ca²⁺-dependent release of dopamine and acetylcholine from PC12 cells were remarkably reduced by OBA in a dose-dependent and temporal manner, but neurotransmitter release partially recovered with the addition of CaM in membrane permeabilized PC12 cells. OBA and several synthetic CaM antagonists suppressed Ca²⁺-dependent glutamate release from cerebral cortical neurons, but not from cerebellar granule cells. Myosin Va, a CaM binding protein, localized to synaptic vesicles of PC12 cells and cerebral cortical neurons, but not in cerebellar granule cells. OBA suppressed Ca²⁺-induced myosin Va dissociation from secretory vesicles, and inhibited secretory vesicle motility in PC12 cells. These results suggest that CaM, although not essential, regulates neurotransmitter release in a subset of neurons and secretory cells, and myosin Va is a possible target of OBA in this process. PMID:23973605

  18. Administration of caffeine inhibited adenosine receptor agonist-induced decreases in motor performance, thermoregulation, and brain neurotransmitter release in exercising rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist on caffeine-induced changes in thermoregulation, neurotransmitter release in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus, and endurance exercise performance in rats. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either saline alone (SAL), 10mgkg(-1) caffeine and saline (CAF), a non-selective adenosine receptor agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine [NECA]: 0.5mgkg(-1)) and saline (NECA), or the combination of caffeine and NECA (CAF+NECA). Rats ran until fatigue on the treadmill with a 5% grade at a speed of 18mmin(-1) at 23°C. Compared to the SAL group, the run time to fatigue (RTTF) was significantly increased by 52% following caffeine administration and significantly decreased by 65% following NECA injection (SAL: 91±14.1min; CAF: 137±25.8min; NECA: 31±13.7min; CAF+NECA: 85±11.8min; p<0.05). NECA decreased the core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption, which is an index of heat production, tail skin temperature, which is an index of heat loss, and extracellular dopamine (DA) release at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, caffeine injection inhibited the NECA-induced decreases in the RTTF, Tcore, heat production, heat loss, and extracellular DA release. Neither caffeine nor NECA affected extracellular noradrenaline or serotonin release. These results support the findings of previous studies showing improved endurance performance and overrides in body limitations after caffeine administration, and imply that the ergogenic effects of caffeine may be associated with the adenosine receptor blockade-induced increases in brain DA release. PMID:26604076

  19. Central actions of a novel and selective dopamine antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine traditionally have been divided into two subgroups: the D/sub 1/ class, which is linked to the stimulation of adenylate cyclase-activity, and the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ dopamine receptor that mediates the physiological and behavioral actions of dopamine in the intact animal. However, the benzazepine SCH23390 is a dopamine antagonist which has potent behavioral actions while displaying apparent neurochemical selectivity for the D/sub 1/ class of dopamine receptors. The purpose of this dissertation was to (1) confirm and characterize this selectivity, and (2) test certain hypothesis related to possible modes of action of SCH233390. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase by SCH23390 occurred via an action at the dopamine receptor only. A radiolabeled analog of SCH23390 displayed the receptor binding properties of a specific high-affinity ligand, and regional receptor densities were highly correlated with dopamine levels. The subcellular distribution of (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding did not correspond completely with that of dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase. The neurochemical potency of SCH23390 as a D/sub 1/ receptor antagonist was preserved following parental administration. A variety of dopamine agonists and antagonists displayed a high correlation between their abilities to compete for (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding in vitro and to act at an adenylate cyclase-linked receptor. Finally, the relative affinities of dopamine and SCH23390 for both D/sub 1/ receptors and (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding sites were comparable. It is concluded that the behavioral effects of SCH23390 are mediated by actions at D/sub 1/ dopamine receptors only, and that the physiological importance of this class of receptors should be reevaluated.

  20. Serotonin: a novel bone mass controller may have implications for alveolar bone

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    As recent studies highlight the importance of alternative mechanisms in the control of bone turnover, new therapeutic approaches can be envisaged for bone diseases and periodontitis-induced bone loss. Recently, it has been shown that Fluoxetine and Venlafaxine, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors commonly used as antidepressants, can positively or negatively affect bone loss in rat models of induced periodontitis. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that can be found within specific nuclei of the central nervous system, but can also be produced in the gut and be sequestered inside platelet granules. Although it is known to be mainly involved in the control of mood, sleep, and intestinal physiology, recent evidence has pointed at far reaching effects on bone metabolism, as a mediator of the effects of Lrp5, a membrane receptor commonly associated with Wnt canonical signaling and osteoblast differentiation. Deletion of Lrp5 in mice lead to increased expression of Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1, the gut isoform of the enzyme required for serotonin synthesis, thus increasing serum levels of serotonin. Serotonin, in turn, could bind to HTR1B receptors on osteoblasts and stop their proliferation by activating PKA and CREB. Although different groups have reported controversial results on the existence of an Lrp5-serotonin axis and the action of serotonin in bone remodeling, there is convincing evidence that serotonin modulators such as SSRIs can affect bone turnover. Consequently, the effects of this drug family on periodontal physiology should be thoroughly explored. PMID:23964727

  1. Serotonin: a novel bone mass controller may have implications for alveolar bone.

    PubMed

    Galli, Carlo; Macaluso, Guido; Passeri, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    As recent studies highlight the importance of alternative mechanisms in the control of bone turnover, new therapeutic approaches can be envisaged for bone diseases and periodontitis-induced bone loss. Recently, it has been shown that Fluoxetine and Venlafaxine, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors commonly used as antidepressants, can positively or negatively affect bone loss in rat models of induced periodontitis. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that can be found within specific nuclei of the central nervous system, but can also be produced in the gut and be sequestered inside platelet granules. Although it is known to be mainly involved in the control of mood, sleep, and intestinal physiology, recent evidence has pointed at far reaching effects on bone metabolism, as a mediator of the effects of Lrp5, a membrane receptor commonly associated with Wnt canonical signaling and osteoblast differentiation. Deletion of Lrp5 in mice lead to increased expression of Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1, the gut isoform of the enzyme required for serotonin synthesis, thus increasing serum levels of serotonin. Serotonin, in turn, could bind to HTR1B receptors on osteoblasts and stop their proliferation by activating PKA and CREB.Although different groups have reported controversial results on the existence of an Lrp5-serotonin axis and the action of serotonin in bone remodeling, there is convincing evidence that serotonin modulators such as SSRIs can affect bone turnover. Consequently, the effects of this drug family on periodontal physiology should be thoroughly explored. PMID:23964727

  2. Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR-SERS) of neurotransmitters in colloidal silver solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneipp, Katrin; Wang, Yang; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    1995-03-01

    NIR-SERS spectra are measured for the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine at concentrations as low as 5 10 -9 M in colloidal silver solutions with accumulation times as short as 25 ms. The detection range and acquisition time are on the order of physiologically relevant concentrations and the time scale of neuronal processes, respectively. The spectra are obtained using a CCD detection system, dye laser at 830 nm for excitation, fiber optic probe and high throughput spectrograph. Mixtures containing the two neurotransmitters are used to demonstrate the capability of extracting quantitative information from SERS spectra. Albumin added to the sample up to 0.5% concentration does not show any influence on the SERS spectra of the neurotransmitters in the silver colloidal solutions. The results demonstrate the potential of NIR-SERS in probing dopamine and norepinephrine with high sensitivity and specificity. They also suggest that NIR-SERS from colloidal silver solution can be a powerful tool for the study of neurotransmitters in brain extracts and dialysates.

  3. Dopamine Signaling Regulates Fat Content through β-Oxidation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Alexandre Guimarães de Almeida; Bridi, Jessika Cristina; de Souza, Bruno Rezende; de Castro Júnior, Célio; de Lima Torres, Karen Cecília; Malard, Leandro; Jorio, Ado; de Miranda, Débora Marques; Ashrafi, Kaveh; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of energy balance involves an intricate interplay between neural mechanisms that respond to internal and external cues of energy demand and food availability. Compelling data have implicated the neurotransmitter dopamine as an important part of body weight regulation. However, the precise mechanisms through which dopamine regulates energy homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate mechanisms through which dopamine modulates energy storage. We showed that dopamine signaling regulates fat reservoirs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the fat reducing effects of dopamine were dependent on dopaminergic receptors and a set of fat oxidation enzymes. Our findings reveal an ancient role for dopaminergic regulation of fat and suggest that dopamine signaling elicits this outcome through cascades that ultimately mobilize peripheral fat depots. PMID:24465759

  4. Melatonin Supports CYP2D-Mediated Serotonin Synthesis in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Haduch, Anna; Bromek, Ewa; Wójcikowski, Jacek; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Daniel, Władysława A

    2016-03-01

    Melatonin is used in the therapy of sleep and mood disorders and as a neuroprotective agent. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that melatonin supported (via its deacetylation to 5-methoxytryptamine) CYP2D-mediated synthesis of serotonin from 5-methoxytryptamine. We measured serotonin tissue content in some brain regions (the cortex, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, brain stem, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum) (model A), as well as its extracellular concentration in the striatum using an in vivo microdialysis (model B) after melatonin injection (100 mg/kg i.p.) to male Wistar rats. Melatonin increased the tissue concentration of serotonin in the brain structures studied of naïve, sham-operated, or serotonergic neurotoxin (5,7-dihydroxytryptamine)-lesioned rats (model A). Intracerebroventricular quinine (a CYP2D inhibitor) prevented the melatonin-induced increase in serotonin concentration. In the presence of pargyline (a monoaminoxidase inhibitor), the effect of melatonin was not visible in the majority of the brain structures studied but could be seen in all of them in 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-lesioned animals when serotonin storage and synthesis via a classic tryptophan pathway was diminished. Melatonin alone did not significantly increase extracellular serotonin concentration in the striatum of naïve rats but raised its content in pargyline-pretreated animals (model B). The CYP2D inhibitor propafenone given intrastructurally prevented the melatonin-induced increase in striatal serotonin in those animals. The obtained results indicate that melatonin supports CYP2D-catalyzed serotonin synthesis from 5-methoxytryptamine in the brain in vivo, which closes the serotonin-melatonin-serotonin biochemical cycle. The metabolism of exogenous melatonin to the neurotransmitter serotonin may be regarded as a newly recognized additional component of its pharmacological action. PMID:26884482

  5. Serotonin mediated immunoregulation and neural functions: Complicity in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Preeti; Mohanakumar, Kochupurackal P; Rajamma, Usha

    2015-08-01

    Serotonergic system has long been implicated in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), since platelet hyperserotonemia is consistently observed in a subset of autistic patients, who respond well to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Apart from being a neurotransmitter, serotonin functions as a neurotrophic factor directing brain development and as an immunoregulator modulating immune responses. Serotonin transporter (SERT) regulates serotonin level in lymphoid tissues to ensure its proper functioning in innate and adaptive responses. Immunological molecules such as cytokines in turn regulate the transcription and activity of SERT. Dysregulation of serotonergic system could trigger signalling cascades that affect normal neural-immune interactions culminating in neurodevelopmental and neural connectivity defects precipitating behavioural abnormalities, or the disease phenotypes. Therefore, we suggest that a better understanding of the cross talk between serotonergic genes, immune systems and serotonergic neurotransmission will open wider avenues to develop pharmacological leads for addressing the core ASD behavioural deficits. PMID:26021727

  6. Molecular cloning of genomic DNA and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the enzyme for catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi-Ichinose, Chiho ); Ichinose, Hiroshi; Nagatsu, Toshiharu ); Takahashi, Eiichi; Hori, Tadaaki )

    1992-03-03

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of both L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and L-5-hydroxytryptophan to dopamine and serotonin, respectively, which are major mammalian neurotransmitters and hormones belonging to catecholamines and indoleamines. This report describes the organization of the human AADC gene. The authors proved that the gene of human AADC consists of 15 exons spanning more than 85 kilobases and exists as a single copy in the haploid genome. The boundaries between exon and intron followed the AG/GT rule. The sizes of exons and introns ranged from 20 to 400 bp and from 1.0 to 17.7 kb, respectively, while the sizes of four introns were not determined. Untranslated regions located in the 5{prime} region of mRNA were encoded by two exons, exons 1 and 2. The transcriptional starting point was determined around G at position {minus}111 by primer extension and S1 mapping. There were no typical TATA box' and CAAT box' within 540 bp from the transcriptional starting point. The human AADC gene was mapped to chromosome band 7p12.1-p12.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. This is the first report on the genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the AADC gene in mammals.

  7. Effect of manganese treatment on the levels of neurotransmitters, hormones, and neuropeptides: modulation by stress

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.S.; Jung, C.R.; Seth, P.K.; Mason, G.; Bondy, S.C.

    1984-08-01

    Six weeks of daily intraperitoneal injection with manganese chloride (15 mg/kg body wt) reduced the normal weight gain of male Fischer-344 rats. This treatment depressed plasma testosterone and corticosterone levels, but prolactin levels were unaffected. The only significant changes in the levels of a variety of neuropeptides assayed in several regions were increases in the levels of hypothalamic substance P and pituitary neurotensin. Striatal serotonin, dopamine, and their metabolites were unchanged in manganese-exposed rats relative to saline-injected controls. However, the stress of injection combined with the effect of manganese appeared to significantly increase concentrations of striatal monoamines relative to uninjected controls.

  8. Drug Abuse and the Simplest Neurotransmitter

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter vesicles are known to concentrate hydrogen ions (or protons), the simplest ion, and to release them during neurotransmission. Furthermore, receptors highly sensitive to protons, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), were previously localized on the opposite side of the synaptic cleft on dendritic spines. Now, recent experiments provide some of the strongest support to date that protons function as a neurotransmitter in mice, crossing synapses onto medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), activating ASICs, and ultimately suppressing drug abuse-related behaviors. PMID:25054738

  9. Serotonin produces monoamine oxidase-dependent oxidative stress in human heart valves

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jordan D.; Chu, Yi; Heistad, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    Heart valve disease and pulmonary hypertension, in patients with carcinoid tumors and people who used the fenfluramine-phentermine combination for weight control, have been associated with high levels of serotonin in blood. The mechanism by which serotonin induces valvular changes is not well understood. We recently reported that increased oxidative stress is associated with valvular changes in aortic valve stenosis in humans and mice. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin induces oxidative stress in human heart valves, and examined mechanisms by which serotonin may increase reactive oxygen species. Superoxide (O2·−) was measured in heart valves from explanted human hearts that were not used for transplantation. O2·− levels (lucigenin-enhanced chemoluminescence) were increased in homogenates of cardiac valves and blood vessels after incubation with serotonin. A nonspecific inhibitor of flavin-oxidases (diphenyliodonium), or inhibitors of monoamine oxidase [MAO (tranylcypromine and clorgyline)], prevented the serotonin-induced increase in O2·−. Dopamine, another MAO substrate that is increased in patients with carcinoid syndrome, also increased O2·− levels in heart valves, and this effect was attenuated by clorgyline. Apocynin [an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidase] did not prevent increases in O2·− during serotonin treatment. Addition of serotonin to recombinant human MAO-A generated O2·−, and this effect was prevented by an MAO inhibitor. In conclusion, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby MAO-A can contribute to increased oxidative stress in human heart valves and pulmonary artery exposed to serotonin and dopamine. PMID:19666839

  10. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays critical roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding. Neurons immunoreactive (IR)to 5-HT were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the larval and adult stages of the stab...

  11. Rationality and emotionality: serotonin transporter genotype influences reasoning bias

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Stephanie E.; Anderson, Lindsay M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SLG carriers of the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) were less accurate selectively for evaluating emotional relational reasoning problems with belief-logic conflict relative to LALA carriers. Trait anxiety was positively associated with emotional belief-bias, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly accounted for the variance in this association. Thus, deductive reasoning, a higher cognitive ability, is sensitive to differences in emotionality rooted in serotonin neurotransmitter function. PMID:22275169

  12. Serotonin Effects on Sleep and Emotional Disorders in Adolescent Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Pakalnis, Ann; Splaingard, Mark; Splaingard, Deborah; Kring, Donna; Colvin, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine frequency of emotional disorders and sleep disturbances in adolescent migraineurs with episodic and chronic headaches. To determine the relationship of whole blood serotonin, caffeine consumption, and frequency of sleep and mood disorders. Background The neurotransmitter serotonin has been implicated to play a role in the initiation and maintenance of sleep and in modulating mood. A putative role in migraine pathophysiology is also known. Methods Adolescents from 13 to 17 years of age were identified from our headache clinic with episodic or chronic migraine (according to International Classification of Headache Disorders-Second Edition criteria) and healthy controls enrolled. Psychological rating scales were completed, including Adolescent Symptom Inventory (4th Edition) and Child Depression Inventory. Sleep questionnaires (Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire and Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire) were completed by the teenager’s parents/guardian. Whole blood serotonin levels were drawn and analyzed and caffeine consumption obtained by history. Results A total of 18 controls (8 girls) and 15 patients each with episodic migraines (9 girls) and chronic migraine (10 girls) were studied. Patients with headache had significantly more sleep problems than controls. Patients with chronic migraines had increased daytime sleepiness and dysthymia compared with teenagers with episodic migraines. Serotonin levels were not significantly different, and no association was noted between serotonin levels and sleep abnormalities or emotional rating scales. Increased caffeine intake was related to sleep and depressive complaints. Conclusions Sleep and emotional disorders were common in adolescents with migraine. Sleep disorders and dysthymia were more prevalent with increased headache frequency. No correlation was noted with whole blood serotonin levels. PMID:19486363

  13. RESPONSES OF NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS TO TOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As technology has become more refined and available in recent years, a major focus for neurotoxicologists has been the evaluation of toxicant effects on neuronal function. This interest will probably increase as the number of new chemical messengers (i.e., neurotransmitters and n...

  14. Dopamine and T cells: dopamine receptors and potent effects on T cells, dopamine production in T cells, and abnormalities in the dopaminergic system in T cells in autoimmune, neurological and psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Levite, M

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine, a principal neurotransmitter, deserves upgrading to 'NeuroImmunotransmitter' thanks to its multiple, direct and powerful effects on most/all immune cells. Dopamine by itself is a potent activator of resting effector T cells (Teffs), via two independent ways: direct Teffs activation, and indirect Teffs activation by suppression of regulatory T cells (Tregs). The review covers the following findings: (i) T cells express functional dopamine receptors (DRs) D1R-D5R, but their level and function are dynamic and context-sensitive, (ii) DR membranal protein levels do not necessarily correlate with DR mRNA levels, (iii) different T cell types/subtypes have different DR levels and composition and different responses to dopamine, (iv) autoimmune and pro-inflammatory T cells and T cell leukaemia/lymphoma also express functional DRs, (v) dopamine (~10(-8) M) activates resting/naive Teffs (CD8(+) >CD4(+) ), (vi) dopamine affects Th1/Th2/Th17 differentiation, (vii) dopamine inhibits already activated Teffs (i.e. T  cells that have been already activated by either antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies cytokines or other molecules), (viii) dopamine inhibits activated Tregs in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Thus, dopamine 'suppresses the suppressors' and releases the inhibition they exert on Teffs, (ix) dopamine affects intracellular signalling molecules and cascades in T cells (e.g. ERK, Lck, Fyn, NF-κB, KLF2), (x) T cells produce dopamine (Tregs>Teffs), can release dopamine, mainly after activation (by antigen, mitogen, anti-CD3 antibodies, PKC activators or other), uptake extracellular dopamine, and most probably need dopamine, (xi) dopamine is important for antigen-specific interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, (xii) in few autoimmune diseases (e.g. multiple sclerosis/SLE/rheumatoid arthritis), and neurological/psychiatric diseases (e.g. Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, Schizophrenia and Tourette), patient's T cells seem to have abnormal DRs expression and/or responses to dopamine or production of dopamine, (xiii) drugs that affect the dopaminergic system have potent effects on T cells (e.g. dopamine=Intropin, L-dopa, bromocriptine, haloperidol, quinpirole, reserpine, pergolide, ecopipam, pimozide, amantadine, tetrabenazine, nomifensine, butaclamol). Dopamine-induced activation of resting Teffs and suppression of Tregs seem beneficial for health and may also be used for immunotherapy of cancer and infectious diseases. Independently, suppression of DRs in autoimmune and pro-inflammatory T cells, and also in cancerous T cells, may be advantageous. The review is relevant to Immunologists, Neurologists, Neuroimmunologists, Hematologists, Psychiatrists, Psychologists and Pharmacologists. PMID:25728499

  15. Glucocorticoids Inhibit Basal and Hormone-Induced Serotonin Synthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hasni Ebou, Moina; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Launay, Jean-Marie; Callebert, Jacques; Tronche, François; Ferré, Pascal; Gautier, Jean-François; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Bréant, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major complication of chronic Glucocorticoids (GCs) treatment. GCs induce insulin resistance and also inhibit insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Yet, a full understanding of this negative regulation remains to be deciphered. In the present study, we investigated whether GCs could inhibit serotonin synthesis in beta cell since this neurotransmitter has been shown to be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. To this aim, serotonin synthesis was evaluated in vitro after treatment with GCs of either islets from CD1 mice or MIN6 cells, a beta-cell line. We also explored the effect of GCs on the stimulation of serotonin synthesis by several hormones such as prolactin and GLP 1. We finally studied this regulation in islet in two in vivo models: mice treated with GCs and with liraglutide, a GLP1 analog, and mice deleted for the glucocorticoid receptor in the pancreas. We showed in isolated islets and MIN6 cells that GCs decreased expression and activity of the two key enzymes of serotonin synthesis, Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and 2 (Tph2), leading to reduced serotonin contents. GCs also blocked the induction of serotonin synthesis by prolactin or by a previously unknown serotonin activator, the GLP-1 analog exendin-4. In vivo, activation of the Glucagon-like-Peptide-1 receptor with liraglutide during 4 weeks increased islet serotonin contents and GCs treatment prevented this increase. Finally, islets from mice deleted for the GR in the pancreas displayed an increased expression of Tph1 and Tph2 and a strong increased serotonin content per islet. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an original inhibition of serotonin synthesis by GCs, both in basal condition and after stimulation by prolactin or activators of the GLP-1 receptor. This regulation may contribute to the deleterious effects of GCs on beta cells. PMID:26901633

  16. Glucocorticoids Inhibit Basal and Hormone-Induced Serotonin Synthesis in Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Hasni Ebou, Moina; Singh-Estivalet, Amrit; Launay, Jean-Marie; Callebert, Jacques; Tronche, François; Ferré, Pascal; Gautier, Jean-François; Guillemain, Ghislaine; Bréant, Bernadette; Blondeau, Bertrand; Riveline, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is a major complication of chronic Glucocorticoids (GCs) treatment. GCs induce insulin resistance and also inhibit insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. Yet, a full understanding of this negative regulation remains to be deciphered. In the present study, we investigated whether GCs could inhibit serotonin synthesis in beta cell since this neurotransmitter has been shown to be involved in the regulation of insulin secretion. To this aim, serotonin synthesis was evaluated in vitro after treatment with GCs of either islets from CD1 mice or MIN6 cells, a beta-cell line. We also explored the effect of GCs on the stimulation of serotonin synthesis by several hormones such as prolactin and GLP 1. We finally studied this regulation in islet in two in vivo models: mice treated with GCs and with liraglutide, a GLP1 analog, and mice deleted for the glucocorticoid receptor in the pancreas. We showed in isolated islets and MIN6 cells that GCs decreased expression and activity of the two key enzymes of serotonin synthesis, Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1 (Tph1) and 2 (Tph2), leading to reduced serotonin contents. GCs also blocked the induction of serotonin synthesis by prolactin or by a previously unknown serotonin activator, the GLP-1 analog exendin-4. In vivo, activation of the Glucagon-like-Peptide-1 receptor with liraglutide during 4 weeks increased islet serotonin contents and GCs treatment prevented this increase. Finally, islets from mice deleted for the GR in the pancreas displayed an increased expression of Tph1 and Tph2 and a strong increased serotonin content per islet. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an original inhibition of serotonin synthesis by GCs, both in basal condition and after stimulation by prolactin or activators of the GLP-1 receptor. This regulation may contribute to the deleterious effects of GCs on beta cells. PMID:26901633

  17. Serotonin and beyond: therapeutics for major depression

    PubMed Central

    Blier, Pierre; El Mansari, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). The case for its contribution to the therapeutic efficacy of a wide variety of antidepressant treatments is, however, much stronger. All antidepressant strategies have been shown to enhance 5-HT transmission in the brain of laboratory animals. Catecholamines, norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) can also play a pivotal role in the mechanism of action of certain antidepressant strategies. The enhancement of 5-HT transmission by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which leads to a dampening of the activity of NE and DA neurons, may account in part for the low remission rate achieved with these medications and/or the residuals symptoms after remission is achieved. The functional connectivity between the 5-HT, NE and DA systems can be used to understand the mechanism of action of a wide variety of augmentation strategies in treatment-resistant MDD. Proof-of-concept studies have shown that antidepressant medications with complementary mechanisms of action on monoaminergic systems can double the remission rate achieved in a trial of standard duration. Novel approaches are also being used to treat MDD, which also appear to involve the monoaminergic system(s) to a varying extent. PMID:23440470

  18. Neurotransmitter Receptor Binding in Bovine Cerebral Microvessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peroutka, Stephen J.; Moskowitz, Michael A.; Reinhard, John F.; Synder, Solomon H.

    1980-05-01

    Purified preparations of microvessels from bovine cerebral cortex contain substantial levels of alpha-adrenergic, beta-adrenergic, and histamine 1 receptor binding sites but only negligible serotonin, muscarinic cholinergic, opiate, and benzodiazepine receptor binding. Norepinephrine and histamine may be endogenous regulators of the cerebral microcirculation at the observed receptors.

  19. Imaging neurotransmitter uptake and depletion in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.; Haydon, P.G.; Yeung, E.S.

    1997-08-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) laser-based optical microscope and charge-coupled device (CCD) detection system was used to obtain chemical images of biological cells. Subcellular structures can be easily seen in both optical and fluorescence images. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection provides high sensitivity and low limits of detection, and it does not require coupling to fluorescent dyes. We were able to quantitatively monitor serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual astrocytes on the basis of its native fluorescence. Different regions of the cells took up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of uptake kinetics. Similarly, we observed different serotonin depletion dynamics in different astrocyte regions. There were also some astrocyte areas where no serotonin uptake or depletion was observed. Potential applications include the mapping of other biogenic species in cells as well as the ability to image their release from specific regions of cells in response to external stimuli. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  20. Synthesis on accumulation of putative neurotransmitters by cultured neural crest cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.; Rafford, C.E.

    1982-07-01

    The events mediating the differentiation of embryonic neural crest cells into several types of neurons are incompletely understood. In order to probe one aspect of this differentiation, we have examined the capacity of cultured quail trunk neural crest cells to synthesize, from radioactive precursors, and store several putative neurotransmitter compounds. These neural crest cultures develop the capacity to synthesize and accumulate acetylcholine and the catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine. In contrast, detectable but relatively little synthesis and accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine gamma-aminobutyric acid, or octopamine from the appropriate radiolabeled precursors were observed. The capacity for synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines is very low or absent at 2 days in vitro. Between 3 and 7 days in vitro, there is a marked rise in both catecholamine and acetylcholine accumulation in the cultures. These findings suggest that, under the particular conditions used in these experiments, the development of neurotransmitter biosynthesis in trunk neural crest cells ijs restricted and resembles, at least partially, the pattern observed in vivo. The development of this capacity to synthesize and store radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines from the appropriate radioactive precursors coincides closely with the development of the activities of the synthetic enzymes choline acetyltransferase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase reported by others.

  1. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Kenneth T; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R; Laxton, Adrian W; Tatter, Stephen B; White, Jason P; Ellis, Thomas L; Phillips, Paul E M; Montague, P Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson's disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson's disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  2. Subsecond dopamine fluctuations in human striatum encode superposed error signals about actual and counterfactual reward

    PubMed Central

    Kishida, Kenneth T.; Saez, Ignacio; Lohrenz, Terry; Witcher, Mark R.; Laxton, Adrian W.; Tatter, Stephen B.; White, Jason P.; Ellis, Thomas L.; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, dopamine is a critical neuromodulator whose actions underlie learning, decision-making, and behavioral control. Degeneration of dopamine neurons causes Parkinson’s disease, whereas dysregulation of dopamine signaling is believed to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Experiments in animal models suggest the hypothesis that dopamine release in human striatum encodes reward prediction errors (RPEs) (the difference between actual and expected outcomes) during ongoing decision-making. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) imaging experiments in humans support the idea that RPEs are tracked in the striatum; however, BOLD measurements cannot be used to infer the action of any one specific neurotransmitter. We monitored dopamine levels with subsecond temporal resolution in humans (n = 17) with Parkinson’s disease while they executed a sequential decision-making task. Participants placed bets and experienced monetary gains or losses. Dopamine fluctuations in the striatum fail to encode RPEs, as anticipated by a large body of work in model organisms. Instead, subsecond dopamine fluctuations encode an integration of RPEs with counterfactual prediction errors, the latter defined by how much better or worse the experienced outcome could have been. How dopamine fluctuations combine the actual and counterfactual is unknown. One possibility is that this process is the normal behavior of reward processing dopamine neurons, which previously had not been tested by experiments in animal models. Alternatively, this superposition of error terms may result from an additional yet-to-be-identified subclass of dopamine neurons. PMID:26598677

  3. Platelet serotonin modulates immune functions.

    PubMed

    Mauler, M; Bode, C; Duerschmied, D

    2016-02-10

    This short review addresses immune functions of platelet serotonin. Platelets transport serotonin at a high concentration in dense granules and release it upon activation. Besides haemostatic, vasotonic and developmental modulation, serotonin also influences a variety of immune functions (mediated by different serotonin receptors). First, platelet serotonergic effects are directed against invading pathogens via activation and proliferation of lymphocytes, modulation of cytokine release, and recruitment of neutrophils to sites of acute inflammation by induction of selectin expression on endothelial cells. Second, serotonin levels are elevated in autoimmune diseases, such as asthma or rheumatoid arthritis, and during tissue regeneration after ischemia of myocardium or brain. Specific antagonism of serotonin receptors appears to improve survival after myocardial infarction or sepsis and to attenuate asthmatic attacks in animal models. It will be of great clinical relevance if these findings can be translated into human applications. In conclusion, targeting immune modulatory effects of platelet serotonin may provide novel therapeutic options for common health problems. PMID:25693763

  4. Dopamine Regulation of Human Speech and Bird Song: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonyan, Kristina; Horwitz, Barry; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the neural basis of human speech control, extensive research has been done using a variety of methodologies in a range of experimental models. Nevertheless, several critical questions about learned vocal motor control still remain open. One of them is the mechanism(s) by which neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, modulate speech and…

  5. Blink Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Evidence for Altered Dopamine Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. E.; Symons, F. J.; Johnson, A.-M.; Hatton, D. D.; Boccia, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor and cognitive functioning, can be non-invasively measured via observation of spontaneous blink rates. Blink rates have been studied in a number of clinical conditions including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinsons, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with results implicating either…

  6. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in…

  7. Dopamine Regulation of Human Speech and Bird Song: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonyan, Kristina; Horwitz, Barry; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the neural basis of human speech control, extensive research has been done using a variety of methodologies in a range of experimental models. Nevertheless, several critical questions about learned vocal motor control still remain open. One of them is the mechanism(s) by which neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, modulate speech and

  8. Developmental Changes in Dopamine Neurotransmission in Adolescence: Behavioral Implications and Issues in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahlstrom, Dustin; Collins, Paul; White, Tonya; Luciana, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increased risk-taking, novelty-seeking, and locomotor activity, all of which suggest a heightened appetitive drive. The neurotransmitter dopamine is typically associated with behavioral activation and heightened forms of appetitive behavior in mammalian species, and this pattern of activation has been described in

  9. Blink Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Evidence for Altered Dopamine Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. E.; Symons, F. J.; Johnson, A.-M.; Hatton, D. D.; Boccia, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor and cognitive functioning, can be non-invasively measured via observation of spontaneous blink rates. Blink rates have been studied in a number of clinical conditions including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinsons, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with results implicating either

  10. Influence of tacrine on dopamine-induced reactions of the gastric smooth muscle of rats.

    PubMed

    Turijski, V; Krustev, A; Getova-Spassova, D; Spassov, V

    2004-03-01

    The clinical usage of the cholinesterase inhibitor tacrine for treatment of Alzheimer's disease is accompanied by adverse effects on the gastrointestinal tract. These adverse effects are a result of the direct action of tacrine on the intestinal smooth muscles or of the modulation of certain neurotransmitters regulating gastrointestinal functions. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that modulates gastrointestinal motility. This study was designed to examine in vitro the effects of tacrine on dopamine-induced changes in spontaneous activity of smooth muscle preparations from rat's gastric corpus. The mechanical activity was isometrically registered. Tacrine 1.10(-7)-1.10(-5) mol/l caused smooth muscle contraction, which was blocked by atropine 1.10(-6) mol/l. Tacrine 1.10(-4) mol/l provoked a relaxation resistant to atropine. Dopamine and D(2)-receptor antagonists haloperidol and R121 had no effect on tacrine-induced relaxation. Dopamine-induced contraction was concentration-dependent. It was blocked by D(2)-receptor antagonists haloperidol and R121 and by tacrine 1.10(-4) mol/l. In the presence of tacrine 1.10(-7)-10(-5) mol/l or atropine the dopamine-induced contraction was significant. The data obtained suggested that tacrine 1.10(-4) mol/l inhibited the dopamine effects on gastric corpus smooth muscles. The effect was probably not dependent on its anticholinesterase activity or not realized through direct influence on D(2)-dopamine receptors. PMID:15071608

  11. A Neurobiological Hypothesis of Treatment-Resistant Depression Mechanisms for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Non-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Coplan, Jeremy D.; Gopinath, Srinath; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Berry, Benjamin R.

    2014-01-01

    First-line treatment of major depression includes administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), yet studies suggest that remission rates following two trials of an SSRI are <50%. The authors examine the putative biological substrates underlying treatment resistant depression (TRD) with the goal of elucidating novel rationales to treat TRD. We look at relevant articles from the preclinical and clinical literature combined with clinical exposure to TRD patients. A major focus was to outline pathophysiological mechanisms whereby the serotonin system becomes impervious to the desired enhancement of serotonin neurotransmission by SSRIs. A complementary focus was to dissect neurotransmitter systems, which serve to inhibit the dorsal raphe. We propose, based on a body of translational studies, TRD may not represent a simple serotonin deficit state but rather an excess of midbrain peri-raphe serotonin and subsequent deficit at key fronto-limbic projection sites, with ultimate compromise in serotonin-mediated neuroplasticity. Glutamate, serotonin, noradrenaline, and histamine are activated by stress and exert an inhibitory effect on serotonin outflow, in part by flooding 5-HT1A autoreceptors by serotonin itself. Certain factors putatively exacerbate this scenario presence of the short arm of the serotonin transporter gene, early-life adversity and comorbid bipolar disorder each of which has been associated with SSRI-treatment resistance. By utilizing an incremental approach, we provide a system for treating the TRD patient based on a strategy of rescuing serotonin neurotransmission from a state of SSRI-induced dorsal raphe stasis. This calls for stacked interventions, with an SSRI base, targeting, if necessary, the glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and histaminergic systems, thereby successively eliminating the inhibitory effects each are capable of exerting on serotonin neurons. Future studies are recommended to test this biologically based approach for treatment of TRD. PMID:24904340

  12. Evidence for striatal dopamine release during a video game.

    PubMed

    Koepp, M J; Gunn, R N; Lawrence, A D; Cunningham, V J; Dagher, A; Jones, T; Brooks, D J; Bench, C J; Grasby, P M

    1998-05-21

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved in learning, reinforcement of behaviour, attention, and sensorimotor integration. Binding of the radioligand 11C-labelled raclopride to dopamine D2 receptors is sensitive to levels of endogenous dopamine, which can be released by pharmacological challenge. Here we use 11C-labelled raclopride and positron emission tomography scans to provide evidence that endogenous dopamine is released in the human striatum during a goal-directed motor task, namely a video game. Binding of raclopride to dopamine receptors in the striatum was significantly reduced during the video game compared with baseline levels of binding, consistent with increased release and binding of dopamine to its receptors. The reduction in binding of raclopride in the striatum positively correlated with the performance level during the task and was greatest in the ventral striatum. These results show, to our knowledge for the first time, behavioural conditions under which dopamine is released in humans, and illustrate the ability of positron emission tomography to detect neurotransmitter fluxes in vivo during manipulations of behaviour. PMID:9607763

  13. IL-4 Inhibits IL-1?-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior and Central Neurotransmitter Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun-Soo; An, Kyungeh; Starkweather, Angela; Kim, Kyung Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    It has been known that activation of the central innate immune system or exposure to stress can disrupt balance of anti-/proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the modulation of depressive-like behaviors, the hormonal and neurotransmitter systems in rats. We investigated whether centrally administered IL-1? is associated with activation of CNS inflammatory pathways and behavioral changes and whether treatment with IL-4 could modulate IL-1?-induced depressive-like behaviors and central neurotransmitter systems. Infusion of IL-4 significantly decreased IL-1?-induced anhedonic responses and increased social exploration and total activity. Treatment with IL-4 markedly blocked IL-1?-induced increase in PGE2 and CORT levels. Also, IL-4 reduced IL-1?-induced 5-HT levels by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA and activating serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hippocampus, and levels of NE were increased by activating tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that IL-4 may locally contribute to the regulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and may inhibit IL-1?-induced behavioral and immunological changes. The present results suggest that IL-4 modulates IL-1?-induced depressive behavior by inhibiting IL-1?-induced central glial activation and neurotransmitter alterations. IL-4 reduced central and systemic mediatory inflammatory activation, as well as reversing the IL-1?-induced alterations in neurotransmitter levels. The present findings contribute a biochemical pathway regulated by IL-4 that may have therapeutic utility for treatment of IL-1?-induced depressive behavior and neuroinflammation which warrants further study. PMID:26417153

  14. IL-4 Inhibits IL-1?-Induced Depressive-Like Behavior and Central Neurotransmitter Alterations.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Jung; Shim, Hyun-Soo; An, Kyungeh; Starkweather, Angela; Kim, Kyung Soo; Shim, Insop

    2015-01-01

    It has been known that activation of the central innate immune system or exposure to stress can disrupt balance of anti-/proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the modulation of depressive-like behaviors, the hormonal and neurotransmitter systems in rats. We investigated whether centrally administered IL-1? is associated with activation of CNS inflammatory pathways and behavioral changes and whether treatment with IL-4 could modulate IL-1?-induced depressive-like behaviors and central neurotransmitter systems. Infusion of IL-4 significantly decreased IL-1?-induced anhedonic responses and increased social exploration and total activity. Treatment with IL-4 markedly blocked IL-1?-induced increase in PGE2 and CORT levels. Also, IL-4 reduced IL-1?-induced 5-HT levels by inhibiting tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) mRNA and activating serotonin transporter (SERT) in the hippocampus, and levels of NE were increased by activating tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that IL-4 may locally contribute to the regulation of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and may inhibit IL-1?-induced behavioral and immunological changes. The present results suggest that IL-4 modulates IL-1?-induced depressive behavior by inhibiting IL-1?-induced central glial activation and neurotransmitter alterations. IL-4 reduced central and systemic mediatory inflammatory activation, as well as reversing the IL-1?-induced alterations in neurotransmitter levels. The present findings contribute a biochemical pathway regulated by IL-4 that may have therapeutic utility for treatment of IL-1?-induced depressive behavior and neuroinflammation which warrants further study. PMID:26417153

  15. Two cases of mild serotonin toxicity via 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Hiroto; Umeda, Sumiyo; Nibuya, Masashi; Terao, Takeshi; Nisijima, Koichi; Nomura, Soichiro

    2014-01-01

    We propose the possibility of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptor involvement in mild serotonin toxicity. A 64-year-old woman who experienced hallucinations was treated with perospirone (8 mg/day). She also complained of depressed mood and was prescribed paroxetine (10 mg/day). She exhibited finger tremors, sweating, coarse shivering, hyperactive knee jerks, vomiting, diarrhea, tachycardia, and psychomotor agitation. After the discontinuation of paroxetine and perospirone, the symptoms disappeared. Another 81-year-old woman, who experienced delusions, was treated with perospirone (8 mg/day). Depressive symptoms appeared and paroxetine (10 mg/day) was added. She exhibited tachycardia, finger tremors, anxiety, agitation, and hyperactive knee jerks. The symptoms disappeared after the cessation of paroxetine and perospirone. Recently, the effectiveness of coadministrating 5-HT1A agonistic psychotropics with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been reported, and SSRIs with 5-HT1A agonistic activity have been newly approved in the treatment of depression. Perospirone is a serotonindopamine antagonist and agonistic on the 5-HT1A receptors. Animal studies have indicated that mild serotonin excess induces low body temperature through 5-HT1A, whereas severe serotonin excess induces high body temperature through 5-HT2A activation. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that mild serotonin excess induces side effects through 5-HT1A, and severe serotonin excess induces lethal side effects with hyperthermia through 5-HT2A. Serotonin toxicity via a low dose of paroxetine that is coadministered with perospirone, which acts agonistically on the 5-HT1A receptor and antagonistically on the 5-HT2A receptor, clearly indicated 5-HT1A receptor involvement in mild serotonin toxicity. Careful measures should be adopted to avoid serotonin toxicity following the combined use of SSRIs and 5-HT1A agonists. PMID:24627634

  16. Rapid, sensitive detection of neurotransmitters at microelectrodes modified with self-assembled SWCNT forests.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ning; Venton, B Jill

    2012-09-18

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modification of microelectrodes can result in increased sensitivity without compromising time response. However, dip coating CNTs is not very reproducible and the CNTs tend to lay flat on the electrode surface which limits access to the electroactive sites on the ends. In this study, aligned CNT forests were formed using a chemical self-assembly method, which resulted in more exposed CNT ends to the analyte. Shortened, carboxylic acid functionalized single-walled CNTs were assembled from a dimethylformamide (DMF) suspension onto a carbon-fiber disk microelectrode modified with a thin iron hydroxide-decorated Nafion film. The modified electrodes were highly sensitive, with 36-fold higher oxidation currents for dopamine using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry than bare electrodes and 34-fold more current than electrodes dipped in CNTs. The limit of detection (LOD) for dopamine was 17 3 nM at a 10 Hz repetition rate and 65 7 nM at 90 Hz. The LOD at 90 Hz was the same as a bare electrode at 10 Hz, allowing a 9-fold increase in temporal resolution without a decrease in sensitivity. Similar increases were observed for other cationic catecholamine neurotransmitters, and the increases in current were greater than for anionic interferents such as ascorbic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). The CNT forest electrodes had high sensitivity at 90 Hz repetition rate when stimulated dopamine release was measured in Drosophila . The sensitivity, temporal resolution, and spatial resolution of these CNT forest modified disk electrodes facilitate enhanced electrochemical measurements of neurotransmitter release in vivo. PMID:22823497

  17. Effects of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on neurotransmitter release and its relationship with glutamic acid neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takashi; Terashima, Takehiko; Okubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko

    2005-08-01

    t Theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea and many researchers have compared theanine's effects with glutamic acid because the chemical structure is similar. In the previous study, we demonstrated that theanine can pass brain-blood barrier and may play as an agonist or an antagonist of some receptors. In this study, we investigated the effects of theanine on neurotransmitter release in the rat brain striatum by in vivo brain microdialysis and examined whether theanine affected glutamate transporters by comparing it with a glutamate transporter blocker, L-trans-Pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (L-trans-2,4-PDC). Because we investigated whether the effects of theanine is similar to L-trans-2,4-PDC on the brain neurotransmission, we measured dopamine release and some amino acids release which are known as excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters from neurons by theanine or L-trans-2,4-PDC perfusion into the rat brain striatum. L-trans-2,4-PDC or theanine perfusion into the brain striatum caused dopamine release from dopaminergic neurons. In addition, L-trans-2,4-PDC perfusion increased glutamic acid, aspartic acid and, whereas theanine perfusion prevented aspartic acid release and increased glycine release. These results suggested that the mechanism of dopamine release caused by theanine is different from glutamate transporter blockers or glutamic acid. Further, L-trans-2,4-PDC cause excitatory neurotransmission, whereas theanine may inhibit excitatory neurotransmission and cause inhibitory neurotransmission via glycine receptors. PMID:16493792

  18. Dopamine induces an optimism bias in rats-Pharmacological proof for the translational validity of the ambiguous-cue interpretation test.

    PubMed

    Kregiel, J; Golebiowska, J; Popik, P; Rygula, R

    2016-01-15

    Recent findings have revealed that pharmacological enhancement of dopaminergic (DA) function by the administration of a dopaminergic precursor (dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine; l-DOPA) increases an optimism bias in humans. This effect is due to l-DOPA's impairment of the ability to update beliefs in response to undesirable information about the future. To test whether an 'optimistic' bias is also mediated by dopamine in animals, first, two groups of rats received either a dopaminergic precursor, l-DOPA, or a D2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol, and were subsequently tested using the ambiguous-cue interpretation (ACI) paradigm. To test whether similar effects might be observed when manipulating another neurotransmitter implicated in learning about reward and punishment, we administered the serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor escitalopram to a third group of animals and the selective and irreversible tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) to a fourth group. The results of our study demonstrated that prolonged (2 weeks), but not acute, l-DOPA administration induced optimistic bias in rats. Neither acute nor chronic treatment with the other tested compounds had significant effects on the cognitive judgment bias of rats. The convergence of these results with human studies suggests the translational validity of the ambiguous-cue interpretation paradigm in testing the effects of pharmacological manipulations on cognitive judgment bias (optimism/pessimism) in rats. PMID:26462571

  19. Intrahippocampal Infusions of Anisomycin Produce Amnesia: Contribution of Increased Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and…

  20. Intrahippocampal Infusions of Anisomycin Produce Amnesia: Contribution of Increased Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and

  1. Intranasal exposure to manganese disrupts neurotransmitter release from glutamatergic synapses in the central nervous system in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Moberly, Andrew H.; Czarnecki, Lindsey A.; Pottackal, Joseph; Rubinstein, Tom; Turkel, Daniel J.; Kass, Marley D.; McGann, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic exposure to aerosolized manganese induces a neurological disorder that includes extrapyramidal motor symptoms and cognitive impairment. Inhaled manganese can bypass the blood-brain barrier and reach the central nervous system by transport down the olfactory nerve to the brains olfactory bulb. However, the mechanism by which Mn disrupts neural function remains unclear. Here we used optical imaging techniques to visualize exocytosis in olfactory nerve terminals in vivo in the mouse olfactory bulb. Acute Mn exposure via intranasal instillation of 2200 ?g MnCl2 solution caused a dose-dependent reduction in odorant-evoked neurotransmitter release, with significant effects at as little as 2 ?g MnCl2 and a 90% reduction compared to vehicle controls with a 200 ?g exposure. This reduction was also observed in response to direct electrical stimulation of the olfactory nerve layer in the olfactory bulb, demonstrating that Mns action is occurring centrally, not peripherally. This is the first direct evidence that Mn intoxication can disrupt neurotransmitter release, and is consistent with previous work suggesting that chronic Mn exposure limits amphetamine-induced dopamine increases in the basal ganglia despite normal levels of dopamine synthesis (Guilarte et al., J Neurochem 2008). The commonality of Mns action between glutamatergic neurons in the olfactory bulb and dopaminergic neurons in the basal ganglia suggests that a disruption of neurotransmitter release may be a general consequence wherever Mn accumulates in the brain and could underlie its pleiotropic effects. PMID:22542936

  2. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Li; Dong, Shaojun

    2008-03-01

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 10-7 M, 3.5 10-7 M, 4.1 10-7 M, and 7.7 10-7 M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields.

  3. Neurotransmitter Systems in a Mild Blast Traumatic Brain Injury Model: Catecholamines and Serotonin.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Lizan; Arborelius, Ulf P; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Hkfelt, Tomas; Risling, Mrten; Agoston, Denes

    2015-08-15

    Exposure to improvised explosive devices can result in a unique form of traumatic brain injury--blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). At the mild end of the spectrum (mild bTBI [mbTBI]), there are cognitive and mood disturbances. Similar symptoms have been observed in post-traumatic stress disorder caused by exposure to extreme psychological stress without physical injury. A role of the monoaminergic system in mood regulation and stress is well established but its involvement in mbTBI is not well understood. To address this gap, we used a rodent model of mbTBI and detected a decrease in immobility behavior in the forced swim test at 1?d post-exposure, coupled with an increase in climbing behavior, but not after 14?d or later, possibly indicating a transient increase in anxiety-like behavior. Using in situ hybridization, we found elevated messenger ribonucleic acid levels of both tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 in the locus coeruleus and the dorsal raphe nucleus, respectively, as early as 2?h post-exposure. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis 1?d post-exposure primarily showed elevated noradrenaline levels in several forebrain regions. Taken together, we report that exposure to mild blast results in transient changes in both anxiety-like behavior and brain region-specific molecular changes, implicating the monoaminergic system in the pathobiology of mbTBI. PMID:25525686

  4. Aggression, suicidality, and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, V M; Virkkunen, M

    1992-10-01

    Studies from several countries, representing diverse cultures, have reported an association between violent suicide attempts by patients with unipolar depression and personality disorders and low concentrations of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Related investigations have documented a similar inverse correlation between impulsive, externally directed aggressive behavior and CSF 5-HIAA in a subgroup of violent offenders. In these individuals, low CSF 5-HIAA concentrations are also associated with a predisposition to mild hypoglycemia, a history of early-onset alcohol and substance abuse, a family history of type II alcoholism, and disturbances in diurnal activity rhythm. These data are discussed in the context of a proposed model for the pathophysiology of a postulated "low serotonin syndrome." PMID:1385390

  5. A review of genetic alterations in the serotonin pathway and their correlation with psychotic diseases and response to atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Baou, Maria; Boumba, Vassiliki A; Petrikis, Petros; Rallis, Georgios; Vougiouklakis, Theodore; Mavreas, Venetsanos

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that plays a predominant role in mood regulation. The importance of the serotonin pathway in controlling behavior and mental status is well recognized. All the serotonin elements - serotonin receptors, serotonin transporter, tryptophan hydroxylase and monoamine oxidase proteins - can show alterations in terms of mRNA or protein levels and protein sequence, in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Additionally, when examining the genes sequences of all serotonin elements, several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found to be more prevalent in schizophrenic or bipolar patients than in healthy individuals. Several of these alterations have been associated either with different phenotypes between patients and healthy individuals or with the response of psychiatric patients to the treatment with atypical antipsychotics. The complex pattern of genetic diversity within the serotonin pathway hampers efforts to identify the key variations contributing to an individual's susceptibility to the disease. In this review article, we summarize all genetic alterations found across the serotonin pathway, we provide information on whether and how they affect schizophrenia or bipolar disorder phenotypes, and, on the contribution of familial relationships on their detection frequencies. Furthermore, we provide evidence on whether and how specific gene polymorphisms affect the outcome of schizophrenic or bipolar patients of different ethnic groups, in response to treatment with atypical antipsychotics. All data are discussed thoroughly, providing prospective for future studies. PMID:26644303

  6. Context-dependent fluctuation of serotonin in the auditory midbrain: the influence of sex, reproductive state and experience

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of changing behavioral situations, plasticity of sensory systems can be a valuable mechanism to facilitate appropriate behavioral responses. In the auditory system, the neurotransmitter serotonin is an important messenger for context-dependent regulation because it is sensitive to both external events and internal state, and it modulates neural activity. In male mice, serotonin increases in the auditory midbrain region, the inferior colliculus (IC), in response to changes in behavioral context such as restriction stress and social contact. Female mice have not been measured in similar contexts, although the serotonergic system is sexually dimorphic in many ways. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sex, experience and estrous state on the fluctuation of serotonin in the IC across contexts, as well as potential relationships between behavior and serotonin. Contrary to our expectation, there were no sex differences in increases of serotonin in response to a restriction stimulus. Both sexes had larger increases in second exposures, suggesting experience plays a role in serotonergic release in the IC. In females, serotonin increased during both restriction and interactions with males; however, the increase was more rapid during restriction. There was no effect of female estrous phase on the serotonergic change for either context, but serotonin was related to behavioral activity in females interacting with males. These results show that changes in behavioral context induce increases in serotonin in the IC by a mechanism that appears to be uninfluenced by sex or estrous state, but may depend on experience and behavioral activity. PMID:24198252

  7. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding biologically distinct neurochemical systems that interact to produce a variety of behaviors and disorders. Neurotransmitters are neither static nor isolated in their distribution. In fact, it is through interactions with other neurochemically distinct systems that the central nervous system (CNS) performs its vital role in sustaining life. Exclusive quantitative capabilities intrinsic to PET make this technology a suitable experimental tool to measure not only the regional distribution of specific receptors and their subtypes, but also the dynamic properties of neuroreceptors and their inherent influence on related neurotransmitter pathways. The ability to investigate dynamic properties in a non-invasive and reproducible manner provides a powerful tool that can extend our current knowledge of these interactions. Coupled with innovative paradigms including pharmacologic manipulations, physiologic models and reconstruction theories, knowledge derived from PET studies can greatly advance our understanding of normal and abnormal brain function.

  8. Serotonin, tryptophan metabolism and the brain-gut-microbiome axis.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, S M; Clarke, G; Borre, Y E; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F

    2015-01-15

    The brain-gut axis is a bidirectional communication system between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Serotonin functions as a key neurotransmitter at both terminals of this network. Accumulating evidence points to a critical role for the gut microbiome in regulating normal functioning of this axis. In particular, it is becoming clear that the microbial influence on tryptophan metabolism and the serotonergic system may be an important node in such regulation. There is also substantial overlap between behaviours influenced by the gut microbiota and those which rely on intact serotonergic neurotransmission. The developing serotonergic system may be vulnerable to differential microbial colonisation patterns prior to the emergence of a stable adult-like gut microbiota. At the other extreme of life, the decreased diversity and stability of the gut microbiota may dictate serotonin-related health problems in the elderly. The mechanisms underpinning this crosstalk require further elaboration but may be related to the ability of the gut microbiota to control host tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway, thereby simultaneously reducing the fraction available for serotonin synthesis and increasing the production of neuroactive metabolites. The enzymes of this pathway are immune and stress-responsive, both systems which buttress the brain-gut axis. In addition, there are neural processes in the gastrointestinal tract which can be influenced by local alterations in serotonin concentrations with subsequent relay of signals along the scaffolding of the brain-gut axis to influence CNS neurotransmission. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota might be a viable treatment strategy for serotonin-related brain-gut axis disorders. PMID:25078296

  9. Novel repeat polymorphisms of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter genes among dogs and wolves.

    PubMed

    Hejjas, Krisztina; Vas, Judit; Kubinyi, Eniko; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Miklosi, Adam; Ronai, Zsolt

    2007-12-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of the neurotransmission systems are intensively studied in the human because of a possible influence on personality traits and the risk of psychiatric disorders. The investigation of genetic variations of the dog genome has recently been a promising approach, as a considerable similarity can be observed between dogs and humans, in both genetic and social aspects, suggesting that the dog could become an appropriate animal model of human behavioral genetic studies. The aim of our study was the identification and analysis of variable number of tandem repeats polymorphisms (VNTRs) in the genes of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system of dogs. The in silico search was followed by the development of PCR-based techniques for the analysis of the putative VNTRs. Highly variable repetitive sequence regions were found in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) genes. Allele frequency and genotype distribution of these novel polymorphisms together with the exon 3 and exon 1 VNTR of the dopamine D4 receptor gene were determined in a large sample involving four dog breeds (German Shepherd, Belgian Tervueren, Groenandael, and Malinois) and European Grey Wolves. A significant difference of allele and genotype frequencies was demonstrated among the analyzed breeds; therefore, an association analysis was also carried out between the activity-impulsivity phenotype and the described VNTRs. Preliminary findings are presented that polymorphisms of the DRD4, DBH, and DAT genes can be associated with attention deficit among Belgian Tervuerens. PMID:18049838

  10. HPLC analysis of serotonin, tryptamine, tyramine, and the hydroxycinnamic acid amides of serotonin and tyramine in food vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ly, Dalin; Kang, Kiyoon; Choi, Jang-Yeol; Ishihara, Atsushi; Back, Kyoungwhan; Lee, Seong-Gene

    2008-06-01

    Biogenic monoamines such as serotonin, tryptamine, and tyramine function as neurotransmitters and mitogenic factors in animals and are involved in flowering, morphogenesis, and protection from and adaptation to environmental changes in plants. In plants, serotonin and tyramine are conjugated to form phenolic compounds via thioester linkages during the synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid amides, including p-coumaroylserotonin (CS), feruloylserotonin (FS), p-coumaroyltyramine (CT), and feruloyltyramine (FT). In this study, we determined the amounts of the biogenic monoamines CS, FS, CT, and FT in commonly consumed vegetables using high-performance liquid chromatography. Serotonin, tryptamine, and tyramine were detected in all vegetables tested. The serotonin levels ranged from 1.8 to 294 microg/g of dry weight, the tryptamine levels ranged from 0.8 to 372 microg/g of dry weight, and the tyramine levels ranged from 1.4 to 286 microg/g of dry weight. The highest serotonin and tryptamine contents were found in tomato and cherry tomato (140.3-222 microg/g of dry weight), while paprika and green pepper had higher tyramine contents than the other vegetables (286 and 141.5 microg/g of dry weight, respectively). Overall, the levels of CS, FS, CT, and FT ranged from 0.03 to 13.8 microg/g of dry weight, with green onion possessing the highest levels of CS (0.69 microg/g of dry weight), FT (1.99 microg/g of dry weight), and CT (13.85 microg/g of dry weight). PMID:18598185

  11. Exaggerated aggression and decreased anxiety in mice deficient in brain serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Mosienko, V; Bert, B; Beis, D; Matthes, S; Fink, H; Bader, M; Alenina, N

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is a major neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Dysregulation of serotonin transmission in the CNS is reported to be related to different psychiatric disorders in humans including depression, impulsive aggression and anxiety disorders. The most frequently prescribed antidepressants and anxiolytics target the serotonergic system. However, these drugs are not effective in 2030% of cases. The causes of this failure as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the origin of psychological disorders are poorly understood. Biosynthesis of serotonin in the CNS is initiated by tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2). In this study, we used Tph2-deficient (Tph2?/?) mice to evaluate the impact of serotonin depletion in the brain on mouse behavior. Tph2?/? mice exhibited increased depression-like behavior in the forced swim test but not in the tail suspension test. In addition, they showed decreased anxiety-like behavior in three different paradigms: elevated plus maze, marble burying and novelty-suppressed feeding tests. These phenotypes were accompanied by strong aggressiveness observed in the residentintruder paradigm. Despite carrying only one copy of the gene, heterozygous Tph2+/? mice showed only 10% reduction in brain serotonin, which was not sufficient to modulate behavior in the tested paradigms. Our findings provide unequivocal evidence on the pivotal role of central serotonin in anxiety and aggression. PMID:22832966

  12. Species variation in dopamine receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Creese, I; Stewart, K; Snyder, S H

    1979-11-23

    Binding of 3H-spiroperidol, 3H-apomorphine and 3H-ADTN (2-amino-6,7-dihydroxytetrahydronaphthalene) associated with dopamine receptors has been evaluated in corpus striatal membranes of calf, rat and human brains. Substantial species differences are apparent for numberous agonists and antagonists in competing for receptor binding. In general, dopamine receptor antagonists are more potent in rat and agonists more potent in calf. In competing for 3H-spiroperidol binding sulpiride, molindone and metaclopramide show the most pronounced species differences, being 3--10 times more potent in rat and human than in calf. In all three species agonists compete for 3H-spiroperidol binding with Hill coefficients less than one while antagonists inhibit 3H-spiroperidol binding with Hill coefficients of about 1.0. Conversely, 3H-apomorphine and 3H-ADTN binding in all three species is inhibited by antagonists with Hill coefficients less than 1.0 while agonists display Hill coefficients of about 1.0. In general agonists are more potent in competing for binding of 3H-apomorphine and 3H-ADTN than 3H-spiroperidol. However, a small component of dopamine, apomorphine and ADTN inhibition of 3H-spiroperidol binding displays very high affinity (IC50 about 1 nM). In human amygdala 3H-spiroperidol appears to label serotonin receptors predominantly. PMID:520417

  13. Selective detection of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid via fluorescence quenching of InP/ZnS quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Ankireddy, Seshadri Reddy; Kim, Jongsung

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter of the catecholamine family and has many important roles, especially in human brain. Several diseases of the nervous system, such as Parkinsons disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, restless legs syndrome, are believed to be related to deficiency of dopamine. Several studies have been performed to detect dopamine by using electrochemical analysis. In this study, quantum dots (QDs) were used as sensing media for the detection of dopamine. The surface of the QDs was modified with l-cysteine by coupling reaction to increase the selectivity of dopamine. The fluorescence of cysteine-capped indium phosphide/zinc sulfide QDs was quenched by dopamine with various concentrations in the presence of ascorbic acid. This method shows good selectivity for dopamine detection, and the detection limit was 5 nM. PMID:26347250

  14. Pharmacology of neurotransmitter release: measuring exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Khvotchev, Mikhail; Kavalali, Ege T

    2008-01-01

    Neurotransmission in the nervous system is initiated at presynaptic terminals by fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane and subsequent exocytic release of chemical transmitters. Currently, there are multiple methods to detect neurotransmitter release from nerve terminals, each with their own particular advantages and disadvantages. For instance, most commonly employed methods monitor actions of released chemical substances on postsynaptic receptors or artificial substrates such as carbon fibers. These methods are closest to the physiological setting because they have a rapid time resolution and they measure the action of the endogenous neurotransmitters rather than the signals emitted by exogenous probes. However, postsynaptic receptors only indirectly report neurotransmitter release in a form modified by the properties of receptors themselves, which are often nonlinear detectors of released substances. Alternatively, released chemical substances can be detected biochemically, albeit on a time scale slower than electrophysiological methods. In addition, in certain preparations, where presynaptic terminals are accessible to whole cell recording electrodes, fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane can be monitored using capacitance measurements. In the last decade, in addition to electrophysiological and biochemical methods, several fluorescence imaging modalities have been introduced which report synaptic vesicle fusion, endocytosis, and recycling. These methods either take advantage of styryl dyes that can be loaded into recycling vesicles or exogenous expression of synaptic vesicle proteins tagged with a pH-sensitive GFP variant at regions facing the vesicle lumen. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of these methods with particular emphasis on their relative strengths and weaknesses and discuss the types of information one can obtain from them. PMID:18064410

  15. Human iPSC Neurons Display Activity-Dependent Neurotransmitter Secretion: Aberrant Catecholamine Levels in Schizophrenia Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Vivian; Brennand, KristenJ.; Kim, Yongsung; Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Lee, KellyC.; Ziegler, Michael; Gage, FredH.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This study investigated human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) -derived neurons for their ability to secrete neurotransmitters in an activity-dependent manner, the fundamental property required for chemical neurotransmission. Cultured hiPSC neurons showed KCl stimulation of activity-dependent secretion of catecholaminesdopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (Epi)and the peptide neurotransmitters dynorphin and enkephlain. hiPSC neurons express the biosynthetic enzymes for catecholamines and neuropeptides. Because altered neurotransmission contributes to schizophrenia (SZ), we compared SZ to control cultures of hiPSC neurons and found that SZ cases showed elevated levels of secreted DA, NE, and Epi. Consistent with increased catecholamines, the SZ neuronal cultures showed a higher percentage of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons, the first enzymatic step for catecholamine biosynthesis. These findings show that hiPSC neurons possess the fundamental property of activity-dependent neurotransmitter secretion and can be advantageously utilized to examine regulation of neurotransmitter release related to brain disorders. PMID:25358781

  16. Neuroanatomical dichotomy of sexual behaviors in rodents: a special emphasis on brain serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Angoa-Pérez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the social behavior in which rodents engage is related to reproduction, such as maintaining a breeding territory, seeking mates, mating, and caring for young. Rodents belong to the internally fertilizing species that require sexual behavior for reproduction. The dyadic, heterosexual patterns of most mammalian species are sexually dimorphic, but they also share mutual components in both sexes: sexual attraction is reciprocal, sexual initiative is assumed, appetitive behavior is engaged in and mating involves consummatory and postconsummatory phases in females as well as in males. Serotonin, a phylogenetically ancient molecule, is the most widely distributed neurotransmitter in the brain and its signaling pathways are essential for numerous functions including sexual behavior. Since the late 1960’s, brain serotonergic neurotransmission has been considered to exert an inhibitory influence on the neural mechanisms mediating sexual behavior. This contention was based mainly on the observations that a decrease in central serotonergic activity facilitated the elicitation of sexual behavior while an increase in central serotonergic activity attenuated it. However, the discovery of over 14 types of serotonin receptors has added numerous layers of complexity to the study of serotonin and sexual behavior. Evidence shows that upon activation, certain receptor subtypes facilitate while some others suppress sexual behavior as well as sexual arousal and motivation. Furthermore, the role of these receptors has been shown to be differential in males versus females. The use of serotonergic pharmacological interventions, mouse strains with genetic polymorphisms causing alterations in the levels of brain serotonin as well as animal models with genetic manipulations of various serotonin effectors has helped delineate the fundamental role of this neurotransmitter in the regulation of sexual behavior. This review aims to examine the basics of the components of female and male sexual behavior and the participation of the serotonin system in the modulation of these behaviors with emphasis on rodents. PMID:26110223

  17. Neuroanatomical dichotomy of sexual behaviors in rodents: a special emphasis on brain serotonin.

    PubMed

    Angoa-Prez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M

    2015-09-01

    Much of the social behavior in which rodents engage is related to reproduction, such as maintaining a breeding territory, seeking mates, mating, and caring for their young. Rodents belong to the internally fertilizing species that require sexual behavior for reproduction. The dyadic, heterosexual patterns of most mammalian species are sexually dimorphic, but they also share mutual components in both sexes: sexual attraction is reciprocal, sexual initiative is assumed, appetitive behavior is engaged in, and mating involves consummatory and postconsummatory phases in females as well as in males. Serotonin, a phylogenetically ancient molecule, is the most widely distributed neurotransmitter in the brain and its signaling pathways are essential for numerous functions including sexual behavior. Since the late 1960s, brain serotonergic neurotransmission has been considered to exert an inhibitory influence on the neural mechanisms mediating sexual behavior. This contention was based mainly on the observations that a decrease in central serotonergic activity facilitated the elicitation of sexual behavior, whereas an increase in central serotonergic activity attenuated it. However, the discovery of over 14 types of serotonin receptors has added numerous layers of complexity to the study of serotonin and sexual behavior. Evidence shows that, upon activation, certain receptor subtypes facilitate, whereas some others suppress, sexual behavior, as well as sexual arousal and motivation. Furthermore, the role of these receptors has been shown to be different in the male and female sexes. The use of serotonergic pharmacological interventions, mouse strains with genetic polymorphisms causing alterations in the levels of brain serotonin, and animal models with genetic manipulations of various serotonin effectors has helped delineate the fundamental role of this neurotransmitter in the regulation of sexual behavior. This review aims to examine the basics of the components of female and male sexual behavior and the participation of the serotonin system in the modulation of these behaviors, with emphasis on rodents. PMID:26110223

  18. Serotonin receptor-mediated stimulation of bovine smooth muscle cell prostacyclin synthesis and its modulation by platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, S R; Moskowitz, M A; Antoniades, H N; Levine, L

    1981-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 0.5 microM and above) stimulated the synthesis of prostacyclin (as measured by radioimmunoassay of 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha) by bovine aortic smooth muscle cells in culture. This effect was structurally specific; a similar response was not elicited by the other indoles (tryptophan, n-acetylserotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan, melatonin, or 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) or by the amines phenylephrine, isoproterenol, dopamine, or histamine). The response was reversible and was saturable at serotonin concentrations of 10 microM or higher. An increase in prostacyclin synthesis was elicited by the addition of a serotonin agonist, quipazine (1 microM and above), and antagonized by the serotonin receptor blockers cyproheptadine, methysergide, or methiothepin but not by other aminergic receptor-blocking drugs (e.g., phentolamine or propranolol). This effect was selective for cell type because serotonin or quipazine (100 microM) did not increase prostacyclin synthesis by bovine aortic endothelial cells. The addition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to cultures of smooth muscle cells dramatically enhanced prostacyclin synthesis in response to the coadministration of serotonin. PDGF greatly increased the maximum response to serotonin without altering the half-maximal effective concentration for serotonin. This synergistic interaction was blocked by the addition of a serotonin-receptor blocking agent. Taken together, these data suggest that serotonin stimulates smooth muscle prostacyclin synthesis through a specific receptor-mediated mechanism that can be modulated by PDGF. Images PMID:7031670

  19. A microfluidic method for dopamine uptake measurements in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yue; Shamsi, Mohtashim H; Krastev, Dimitar L; Dryden, Michael D M; Leung, Yen; Wheeler, Aaron R

    2016-01-26

    Dopamine (DA) is a classical neurotransmitter and dysfunction in its synaptic handling underlies many neurological disorders, including addiction, depression, and neurodegeneration. A key to understanding DA dysfunction is the accurate measurement of dopamine uptake by dopaminergic neurons. Current methods that allow for the analysis of dopamine uptake rely on standard multiwell-plate based ELISA, or on carbon-fibre microelectrodes used in in vivo recording techniques. The former suffers from challenges associated with automation and analyte degradation, while the latter has low throughput and is not ideal for laboratory screening. In response to these challenges, we introduce a digital microfluidic platform to evaluate dopamine homeostasis in in vitro neuron culture. The method features voltammetric dopamine sensors with limit of detection of 30 nM integrated with cell culture sites for multi-day neuron culture and differentiation. We demonstrate the utility of the new technique for DA uptake assays featuring in-line culture and analysis, with a determination of uptake of approximately ?32 fmol in 10 min per virtual microwell (each containing ?200 differentiated SH-SY5Y cells). We propose that future generations of this technique will be useful for drug discovery for neurodegenerative disease as well as for a wide range of applications that would benefit from integrated cell culture and electroanalysis. PMID:26725686

  20. Neurotransmitter signaling in the pathophysiology of microglia

    PubMed Central

    Domercq, Mara; Vzquez-Villoldo, Nuria; Matute, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Microglial cells are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system. In the resting state, microglia are highly dynamic and control the environment by rapidly extending and retracting motile processes. Microglia are closely associated with astrocytes and neurons, particularly at the synapses, and more recent data indicate that neurotransmission plays a role in regulating the morphology and function of surveying/resting microglia, as they are endowed with receptors for most known neurotransmitters. In particular, microglia express receptors for ATP and glutamate, which regulate microglial motility. After local damage, the release of ATP induces microgliosis and activated microglial cells migrate to the site of injury, proliferate, and phagocytose cells, and cellular compartments. However, excessive activation of microglia could contribute to the progression of chronic neurodegenerative diseases, though the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Microglia have the capacity to release a large number of substances that can be detrimental to the surrounding neurons, including glutamate, ATP, and reactive oxygen species. However, how altered neurotransmission following acute insults or chronic neurodegenerative conditions modulates microglial functions is still poorly understood. This review summarizes the relevant data regarding the role of neurotransmitter receptors in microglial physiology and pathology. PMID:23626522

  1. Parallel Recording of Neurotransmitters Release from Chromaffin Cells Using a 10 10 CMOS IC Potentiostat Array with On-Chip Working Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Brian Namghi; Herbst, Adam D.; Kim, Sung June; Minch, Bradley A.; Lindau, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release is modulated by many drugs and molecular manipulations. We present an active CMOS-based electrochemical biosensor array with high throughput capability (100 electrodes) for on-chip amperometric measurement of neurotransmitter release. The high-throughput of the biosensor array will accelerate the data collection needed to determine statistical significance of changes produced under varying conditions, from several weeks to a few hours. The biosensor is designed and fabricated using a combination of CMOS integrated circuit (IC) technology and a photolithography process to incorporate platinum working electrodes on-chip. We demonstrate the operation of an electrode array with integrated high-gain potentiostats and output time-division multiplexing with minimum dead time for readout. The on-chip working electrodes are patterned by conformal deposition of Pt and lift-off photolithography. The conformal deposition method protects the underlying electronic circuits from contact with the electrolyte that covers the electrode array during measurement. The biosensor was validated by simultaneous measurement of amperometric currents from 100 electrodes in response to dopamine injection, which revealed the time course of dopamine diffusion along the surface of the biosensor array. The biosensor simultaneously recorded neurotransmitter release successfully from multiple individual living chromaffin cells. The biosensor was capable of resolving small and fast amperometric spikes reporting release from individual vesicle secretions. We anticipate that this device will accelerate the characterization of the modulation of neurotransmitter secretion from neuronal and endocrine cells by pharmacological and molecular manipulations of the cells. PMID:23084756

  2. Probing interactions of neurotransmitters with twin tailed anionic surfactant: A detailed physicochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajwinder; Sanan, Reshu; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Keeping in view the role of neurotransmitters (NTs) in central nervous system diseases and in controlling various physiological processes, present study is aimed to study the binding of neurotransmitters (NTs) such as norepinephrine hydrochloride (NE) and serotonin hydrochloride (5-HT) with twin tailed surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT). Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements combined with microcalorimetric measurements were used to characterize the interactions between AOT and NTs. Meteoric modifications to emission profile and absorption spectra of NTs upon addition of AOT are indicative of the binding of NTs with AOT. Distinct interactional states such as formation of ion-pairs, induced and regular micelles with adsorbed NTs molecules have been observed in different concentration regimes of AOT. The formation of ion-pairs from oppositely charged NTs and AOT is confirmed by the reduced absorbance, quenched fluorescence intensity and decrease in peak current (ipa) as well as shifts in peak potential (Epa) values. The stoichiometry and formation of the NTs-AOT complexes has been judged and the extent of interactions is quantitatively discussed in terms of binding constant (K) and free energy of binding (ΔG°). The enthalpy (ΔH°mic) and free energy of micellization (ΔG°mic) for AOT in presence and absence of NTs are determined from the enthalpy curves. PMID:26866888

  3. Effects of their nutrient precursors on the synthesis and release of serotonin, the catecholamines, and acetylcholine - Implications for behavioral disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Authentic foods affect brain serotonin synthesis by modifying brain tryptophan levels, carbohydrates increasing and proteins decreasing these levels. The carbohydrate-induced rise in brain serotonin tends to diminish the likelihood that one carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor meal or snack will be followed by another. This mechanism is apparently disturbed in carbohydrate-craving obesity, which may explain why this syndrome responds well to d-fenfluramine, a serotoninergic drug. Pure nutrients like tyrosine or choline can also affect the rates at which their neurotransmitter products, the catecholamines and acetylcholine, are synthesized in and released from nerve terminals, suggesting that these compounds may find uses as drugs.

  4. Amide-type adduct of dopamine - plausible cause of Parkinson diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuebo; Yamada, Naruomi; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is the endogenous neurotransmitter produced by nigral neurons. Dopamine loss can trigger not only prominent secondary morphological changes, but also changes in the density and sensitivity of dopamine receptors; therefore, it is a sign of PD development. The reasons for dopamine loss are attributed to dopamine's molecular instability due to it is a member of catecholamine family, whose catechol structure contributes to high oxidative stress through enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidation. Oxidative stress in the brain easily leads to the lipid peroxidation reaction due to a high concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6/?-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C18:4/?-6). Recent studies have shown that lipid hydroperoxides, the primary peroxidative products, could non-specifically react with primary amino groups to form N-acyl-type (amide-linkage) adducts. Therefore, based on the NH2-teminals in dopamine's structure, the aims of this chapter are to describes the possibility that reactive LOOH species derived from DHA/AA lipid peroxidation may modify dopamine to form amide-linkage dopamine adducts, which might be related to etiology of Parkinson's diseases. PMID:24374917

  5. Reward-based hypertension control by a synthetic braindopamine interface

    PubMed Central

    Rssger, Katrin; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic trigger-controlled devices that can reprogram mammalian cells to interface with complex metabolic activities. In the brain, the neurotransmitter dopamine coordinates communication with target neurons via a set of dopamine receptors that control behavior associated with reward-driven learning. This dopamine transmission has recently been suggested to increase central sympathetic outflow, resulting in plasma dopamine levels that correlate with corresponding brain activities. By functionally rewiring the human dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) via the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to synthetic promoters containing cAMP response element-binding protein 1(CREB1)-specific cAMP-responsive operator modules, we have designed a synthetic dopamine-sensitive transcription controller that reversibly fine-tunes specific target gene expression at physiologically relevant brain-derived plasma dopamine levels. Following implantation of circuit-transgenic human cell lines insulated by semipermeable immunoprotective microcontainers into mice, the designer device interfaced with dopamine-specific brain activities and produced a systemic expression response when the animals reward system was stimulated by food, sexual arousal, or addictive drugs. Reward-triggered brain activities were able to remotely program peripheral therapeutic implants to produce sufficient amounts of the atrial natriuretic peptide, which reduced the blood pressure of hypertensive mice to the normal physiologic range. Seamless control of therapeutic transgenes by subconscious behavior may provide opportunities for treatment strategies of the future. PMID:24127594

  6. Reward-based hypertension control by a synthetic brain-dopamine interface.

    PubMed

    Rssger, Katrin; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic trigger-controlled devices that can reprogram mammalian cells to interface with complex metabolic activities. In the brain, the neurotransmitter dopamine coordinates communication with target neurons via a set of dopamine receptors that control behavior associated with reward-driven learning. This dopamine transmission has recently been suggested to increase central sympathetic outflow, resulting in plasma dopamine levels that correlate with corresponding brain activities. By functionally rewiring the human dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1) via the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to synthetic promoters containing cAMP response element-binding protein 1(CREB1)-specific cAMP-responsive operator modules, we have designed a synthetic dopamine-sensitive transcription controller that reversibly fine-tunes specific target gene expression at physiologically relevant brain-derived plasma dopamine levels. Following implantation of circuit-transgenic human cell lines insulated by semipermeable immunoprotective microcontainers into mice, the designer device interfaced with dopamine-specific brain activities and produced a systemic expression response when the animal's reward system was stimulated by food, sexual arousal, or addictive drugs. Reward-triggered brain activities were able to remotely program peripheral therapeutic implants to produce sufficient amounts of the atrial natriuretic peptide, which reduced the blood pressure of hypertensive mice to the normal physiologic range. Seamless control of therapeutic transgenes by subconscious behavior may provide opportunities for treatment strategies of the future. PMID:24127594

  7. Dopamine Function and the Efficiency of Human Movement

    PubMed Central

    Gepshtein, Sergei; Li, Xiaoyan; Snider, Joseph; Plank, Markus; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard

    2016-01-01

    To sustain successful behavior in dynamic environments, active organisms must be able to learn from the consequences of their actions and predict action outcomes. One of the most important discoveries in systems neuroscience over the last 15 years has been about the key role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in mediating such active behavior. Dopamine cell firing was found to encode differences between the expected and obtained outcomes of actions. Although activity of dopamine cells does not specify movements themselves, a recent study in humans has suggested that tonic levels of dopamine in the dorsal striatum may in part enable normal movement by encoding sensitivity to the energy cost of a movement, providing an implicit “motor motivational” signal for movement. We investigated the motivational hypothesis of dopamine by studying motor performance of patients with Parkinson disease who have marked dopamine depletion in the dorsal striatum and compared their performance with that of elderly healthy adults. All participants performed rapid sequential movements to visual targets associated with different risk and different energy costs, countered or assisted by gravity. In conditions of low energy cost, patients performed surprisingly well, similar to prescriptions of an ideal planner and healthy participants. As energy costs increased, however, performance of patients with Parkinson disease dropped markedly below the prescriptions for action by an ideal planner and below performance of healthy elderly participants. The results indicate that the ability for efficient planning depends on the energy cost of action and that the effect of energy cost on action is mediated by dopamine. PMID:24144250

  8. Trans-blood brain barrier delivery of dopamine-loaded nanoparticles reverses functional deficits in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, Richa; Seth, Kavita; Shukla, Anshi; Shukla, Rajendra Kumar; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Saxena, Prem Narain; Arun, Jharna; Chaudhari, Bhushan Pradosh; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Shukla, Rakesh; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-05-26

    Sustained and safe delivery of dopamine across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a major hurdle for successful therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder. Therefore, in the present study we designed neurotransmitter dopamine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (DA NPs) to deliver dopamine to the brain. These nanoparticles slowly and constantly released dopamine, showed reduced clearance of dopamine in plasma, reduced quinone adduct formation, and decreased dopamine autoxidation. DA NPs were internalized in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum, regions affected in PD. Treatment with DA NPs did not cause reduction in cell viability and morphological deterioration in SH-SY5Y, as compared to bulk dopamine-treated cells, which showed reduced viability. Herein, we report that these NPs were able to cross the BBB and capillary endothelium in the striatum and substantia nigra in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of PD. Systemic intravenous administration of DA NPs caused significantly increased levels of dopamine and its metabolites and reduced dopamine-D2 receptor supersensitivity in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Further, DA NPs significantly recovered neurobehavioral abnormalities in 6-OHDA-induced parkinsonian rats. Dopamine delivered through NPs did not cause additional generation of ROS, dopaminergic neuron degeneration, and ultrastructural changes in the striatum and substantia nigra as compared to 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Interestingly, dopamine delivery through nanoformulation neither caused alterations in the heart rate and blood pressure nor showed any abrupt pathological change in the brain and other peripheral organs. These results suggest that NPs delivered dopamine into the brain, reduced dopamine autoxidation-mediated toxicity, and ultimately reversed neurochemical and neurobehavioral deficits in parkinsonian rats. PMID:25825926

  9. The (B)link Between Creativity and Dopamine: Spontaneous Eye Blink Rates Predict and Dissociate Divergent and Convergent Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chermahini, Soghra Akbari; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Human creativity has been claimed to rely on the neurotransmitter dopamine, but evidence is still sparse. We studied whether individual performance (N=117) in divergent thinking (alternative uses task) and convergent thinking (remote association task) can be predicted by the individual spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), a clinical marker of

  10. Physiologically Relevant Changes in Serotonin Resolved by Fast Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Online microdialysis is a sampling and detection method that enables continuous interrogation of extracellular molecules in freely moving subjects under behaviorally relevant conditions. A majority of recent publications using brain microdialysis in rodents report sample collection times of 2030 min. These long sampling times are due, in part, to limitations in the detection sensitivity of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By optimizing separation and detection conditions, we decreased the retention time of serotonin to 2.5 min and the detection threshold to 0.8 fmol. Sampling times were consequently reduced from 20 to 3 min per sample for online detection of serotonin (and dopamine) in brain dialysates using a commercial HPLC system. We developed a strategy to collect and to analyze dialysate samples continuously from two animals in tandem using the same instrument. Improvements in temporal resolution enabled elucidation of rapid changes in extracellular serotonin levels associated with mild stress and circadian rhythms. These dynamics would be difficult or impossible to differentiate using conventional microdialysis sampling rates. PMID:23614776

  11. Microwave-induced post-exposure hyperthermia: Involvement of endogenous opioids and serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.; Horita, A.

    1984-08-01

    Acute exposure to pulsed microwaves (2450 MHz, 1 mW/ cm/sup 2/, SAR 0.6 W/kg, 2-..mu..s pulses, 500 pulses/s) induces a transient post-exposure hyperthermia in the rat. The hyperthermia was attenuated by treatment with either the narcotic antagonist naltrexone or one of the serotonin antagonists cinanserin, cyproheptadine, or metergoline. It was not affected, however, by treatment with the peripheral serotonin antagonist xylamidine nor the dopamine antagonist haloperidol. It thus appears that both endogenous opioids and central serotonin are involved. It is proposed that pulsed microwaves activate endogenous opioid systems, and that they in turn activate a serotonergic mechanism that induces the rise in body temperature.

  12. Marine Toxins Potently Affecting Neurotransmitter Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Frdric A.; Mattei, Csar; Molg, Jordi

    Synapses are specialised structures where interneuronal communication takes place. Not only brain function is absolutely dependent on synaptic activity, but also most of our organs are intimately controlled by synaptic activity. Synapses re therefore an ideal target to act upon and poisonous species have evolved fascinating neurotoxins capable of shutting down neuronal communication by blocking or activating essential components of the synapse. By hijacking key proteins of the communication machinery, neurotoxins are therefore extremely valuable tools that have, in turn, greatly helped our understanding of synaptic biology. Moreover, analysis and understanding of the molecular strategy used by certain neurotoxins has allowed the design of entirely new classes of drugs acting on specific targets with high selectivity and efficacy. This chapter will discuss the different classes of marine neurotoxins, their effects on neurotransmitter release and how they act to incapacitate key steps in the process leading to synaptic vesicle fusion.

  13. Role of oxidation in the neurotoxic effects of intrastriatal dopamine injections.

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, T G; Lewis, D A; Zigmond, M J

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the biochemical and histological effects of high concentrations of dopamine (0.05-1.0 micromol) injected into the rat striatum. Twenty-four hours after such injections, the oxidation products of dopamine and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were detected as both free and protein-bound cysteinyl dopamine and cysteinyl dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Protein-bound cysteinyl catechols were increased 7- to 20-fold above control tissue levels. By 7 days postinjection, the protein-bound cysteinyl catechols were still detectable, although reduced in concentration, whereas the free forms could no longer be measured. Histological examination of striatum at 7 days revealed a central core of nonspecific damage including neuronal loss and gliosis. This core was surrounded by a region containing a marked reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity but no apparent loss of serotonin or synaptophysin immunoreactivity. When dopamine was injected with an equimolar concentration of either ascorbic acid or glutathione, the formation of protein-bound cysteinyl catechols was greatly reduced. Moreover, the specific loss of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity associated with dopamine injections was no longer detectable, although the nonspecific changes in cytoarchitecture were still apparent. Thus, following its oxidation, dopamine in high concentrations binds to protein in the striatum, an event that is correlated with the specific loss of dopaminergic terminals. We suggest that the selective degeneration of dopamine neurons in Parkinson's disease may be caused by an imbalance between the oxidation of dopamine and the availability of antioxidant defenses. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8700866

  14. Creating Dynamic Images of Short-lived Dopamine Fluctuations with lp-ntPET: Dopamine Movies of Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Evan D.; Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Wang, Shuo; Normandin, Marc D.; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Cosgrove, Kelly P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe experimental and statistical steps for creating dopamine movies of the brain from dynamic PET data. The movies represent minute-to-minute fluctuations of dopamine induced by smoking a cigarette. The smoker is imaged during a natural smoking experience while other possible confounding effects (such as head motion, expectation, novelty, or aversion to smoking repeatedly) are minimized. We present the details of our unique analysis. Conventional methods for PET analysis estimate time-invariant kinetic model parameters which cannot capture short-term fluctuations in neurotransmitter release. Our analysis - yielding a dopamine movie - is based on our work with kinetic models and other decomposition techniques that allow for time-varying parameters 1-7. This aspect of the analysis temporal-variation- is key to our work. Because our model is also linear in parameters, it is practical, computationally, to apply at the voxel level. The analysis technique is comprised of 5 main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and visualization. Preprocessing is applied to the PET data with a unique HYPR spatial filter 8 that reduces spatial noise but preserves critical temporal information. Modeling identifies the time-varying function that best describes the dopamine effect on 11C-raclopride uptake. The statistical step compares the fit of our (lp-ntPET) model 7 to a conventional model 9. Masking restricts treatment to those voxels best described by the new model. Visualization maps the dopamine function at each voxel to a color scale and produces a dopamine movie. Interim results and sample dopamine movies of cigarette smoking are presented. PMID:23963311

  15. Tyrosine administration enhances dopamine synthesis and release in light-activated rat retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C. J.; Watkins, C. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    Exposure of dark-adapted albino rats to light (350 lux) significantly elevated retinal levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid during the next hour; their return to a dark environment caused dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid levels to fall. Retinal dopamine levels were increased slightly by light exposure, suggesting that the increase in dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid reflected accelerated dopamine synthesis. Administration of tyrosine (100 mg/kg, i.p.) further elevated retinal dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid among light-exposed animals, but failed to affect dopamine release among animals in the dark. These observations show that a physiological stimulus - light exposure - can cause catecholaminergic neurons to become tyrosine-dependent; they also suggest that food consumption may affect neurotransmitter release within the retina.

  16. Isolated horizontal cells from carp retina demonstrate dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Van Buskirk, R; Dowling, J E

    1981-01-01

    Horizontal cells of the carp retina were separated from other retinal cell types by using enzymatic dissociation and velocity sedimentation at unit gravity. Fractions containing horizontal cells were tested for their ability to accumulate cyclic AMP in the presence of various putative neurotransmitters. Micromolar concentrations of dopamine, when added in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in these isolated cells. The dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP in intact isolated horizontal cells was blocked by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine antagonists such as haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol, and fluphenazine. The results indicate that there is a postsynaptic dopamine receptor on carp horizontal cells that is associated with adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1]. Images PMID:6278491

  17. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): enhancing serotonin release by combining serotonin (5HT) transporter inhibition with actions at 5HT receptors (5HT1A, 5HT1B, 5HT1D, 5HT7 receptors).

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-04-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant that targets multiple pharmacologic modes of action at sites--or nodes--where serotonergic neurons connect to various brain circuits. These multimodal pharmacologic actions of vortioxetine lead to enhanced release of various neurotransmitters, including serotonin, at various nodes within neuronal networks. PMID:25831967

  18. Neurotransmitter mechanisms of the action of the antihistamine dimebon on the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Shadurskaya, S.K.; Khomenko, A.I.; Pereverzev, V.A.; Balakeevskii, A.I.

    1986-11-01

    To discover the possible mechanism of the stimulating effect of dimebon on the CNS, the action of the drug was studied on catecholamine concentrations and turnover and activity of forms of monoamine oxidase (MAO), differing in the substrate metabolized, in brain structures involved in the regulation of the emotional state and in the regulation of motor activity in rats. /sup 3/H-serotonin creatinine-sulfate, /sup 3/H-dopamine hydrochloride, and /sup 14/C- benzylamine hydrochloride were used as substrates. The results show that dimebon can inhibit MAO activity in the basal ganglia and other brain structures both in vitro and in vivo, and can cause changes in DA and NA metabolism and in functional activity of catecholaminergic neuronal structures of the brain.

  19. Correlation of 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid Induced Seizures and Changes in Striatal Neurotransmitters Monitored by Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Crick, Eric W.; Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark; Mayer, Andrew P.; Lunte, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to use a status epilepticus steady-state chemical model in rats using the convulsant, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), and to compare the changes in striatal neurotransmission on a slow (5 minute) and fast (60 second) timescale. In vivo microdialysis was combined with electrophysiological methods in order to provide a complete evaluation of the dynamics of the results obtained. Objective To compare the effects of a steady-state chemical model pof status epilepticus on striatal amino-acid and amine neurotransmitters contents, as measured via in vivo microdialysis combined with electrophysiological methods. Measurements were performed on samples collected every 60 seconds and every 5 minutes. “Fast” (60s) and “slow” (5 min.) sampling timescales were selected, to gain more insight into the dynamics of GABA synthesis inhibition and of its effects on other neurotransmitters and on cortical electrical activity. Methods 3-MPA was administered in the form of an intra-venous load(60 mg/kg) followed by a constant infusion (50 mg/kg/min) for min. Microdialysis samples were collected from the striatum at intervals of 5 minutes and 60 seconds and analyzed for biogenic amine and amino acid neurotransmitters. ECoG activity was monitored via screws placed over the cortex. Results In the 5 minute samples, glutamate (Glu) increased and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) decreased monotonically while changes in dopamine (DA) concentration were bimodal. In the sixty second samples, Glu changes were bimodal, a feature that was not apparent with the five minute samples. ECoG activity was indicative of status epilepticus. Conclusions This study describes the combination of in vivo microdialysis with electrophysiology to monitor the effect of 3-MPA on neurotransmission in the brain. This led to a better understanding of the chemical changes in the striatum due to the applied 3-MPA chemical model of status epilepticus. PMID:24462767

  20. A heterocyclic compound CE-103 inhibits dopamine reuptake and modulates dopamine transporter and dopamine D1-D3 containing receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Sase, Ajinkya; Aher, Yogesh D; Saroja, Sivaprakasam R; Ganesan, Minu Karthika; Sase, Sunetra; Holy, Marion; Hger, Harald; Bakulev, Vasiliy; Ecker, Gerhard F; Langer, Thierry; Sitte, Harald H; Leban, Johann; Lubec, Gert

    2016-03-01

    A series of compounds have been reported to enhance memory via the DA system and herein a heterocyclic compound was tested for working memory (WM) enhancement. 2-((benzhydrylsulfinyl)methyl)thiazole (CE-103) was synthesized in a six-step synthesis. Binding of CE-103 to the dopamine (DAT), serotonin (SERT) and norepinephrine (NET) transporters and dopamine reuptake inhibition was tested as well as blood brain permeation and a screen for GPCR targets. 60 male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups: CE-103 treated 1-10mg/kg body weight, trained (TDI) and yoked (YDI) and vehicle treated, trained (TVI) and yoked (YVI) rats. Daily single intraperitoneal injections for a period of 10 days were administered and rats were tested in a radial arm maze (RAM). Hippocampi were taken 6h following the last day of training and complexes containing the unphosphorylated or phosphorylated dopamine transporter (DAT) and complexes containing the D1-3 dopamine receptor subunits were determined. CE-103 was binding to the DAT but insignificantly to SERT or NET and dopamine reuptake was blocked specifically (IC50=14.73?M). From day eight the compound was decreasing WM errors in the RAM significantly at both doses tested as compared to the vehicle controls. In the trained CE-103-treated group levels of the complex containing the phosphorylated dopamine transporter (pDAT) as well as D1R were decreased while levels of complexes containing D2R and D3R were significantly increased. CE-103 was shown to enhance spatial WM and DA reuptake inhibition with subsequent modulation of D1-3 receptors is proposed as a possible mechanism of action. PMID:26407764

  1. Local infusion of citalopram into the basolateral amygdala decreased conditioned fear of rats through increasing extracellular serotonin levels.

    PubMed

    Kitaichi, Yuji; Inoue, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Shin; Omiya, Yuki; Song, Ning; An, Yan; Chen, Chong; Kusumi, Ichiro; Koyama, Tsukasa

    2014-10-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely used for the treatment of depressive disorders and anxiety disorders. The anxiolytic mechanism of SSRIs is currently unclear. To investigate the anxiolytic effects of SSRIs, we measured both freezing behavior and extracellular serotonin and dopamine levels in the basolateral amygdala when rats were given conditioned fear stress under local reverse-dialysis of citalopram, an SSRI, into the basolateral amygdala. Local administration of citalopram into the basolateral amygdala significantly decreased freezing behavior induced by conditioned fear stress, and serotonin levels were simultaneously found to be significantly higher. Furthermore, repeated conditioned fear stress under local infusion of citalopram into the basolateral amygdala induced further increases in extracellular dopamine levels. Further studies investigating the role of dopamine in the amygdala for conditioned fear stress will be necessary. These results suggest that the basolateral amygdala is one of the target areas of the anxiolytic effects of citalopram and the increases of extracellular serotonin levels in the basolateral amygdala may be related to the anxiolytic effects. PMID:24928686

  2. Secondary Abnormalities of Neurotransmitters in Infants with Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Cazorla, A.; Serrano, M.; Perez-Duenas, B.; Gonzalez, V.; Ormazabal, A.; Pineda, M.; Fernandez-Alvarez, E.; Campistol, J. M. D.; Artuch, R. M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are essential in young children for differentiation and neuronal growth of the developing nervous system. We aimed to identify possible factors related to secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and biogenic amine metabolites in 56 infants

  3. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Serotonin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Terrell; González-Maeso, Javier

    2015-07-15

    Histone modifications and DNA methylation represent central dynamic and reversible processes that regulate gene expression and contribute to cellular phenotypes. These epigenetic marks have been shown to play fundamental roles in a diverse set of signaling and behavioral outcomes. Serotonin is a monoamine that regulates numerous physiological responses including those in the central nervous system. The cardinal signal transduction mechanisms via serotonin and its receptors are well established, but fundamental questions regarding complex interactions between the serotonin system and heritable epigenetic modifications that exert control on gene function remain a topic of intense research and debate. This review focuses on recent advances and contributions to our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms of serotonin receptor-dependent signaling, with focus on psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. PMID:25734378

  4. Alpha7 nicotinic cholinergic neuromodulation may reconcile multiple neurotransmitter hypotheses of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bencherif, Merouane; Stachowiak, Michal K; Kucinski, Aaron J; Lippiello, Patrick M

    2012-05-01

    The long prevailing hypothesis of schizophrenia pathogenesis implicates dopaminergic systems in the mesolimbic pathways as responsible for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia (hallucinations and delusions) and those in the mesocortical pathway as contributing to the negative symptoms (e.g., social disconnection, flattened affect and anhedonia). Several challenges to the dopamine hypothesis and the proposal of an alternative hypothesis implicating glutamate have provided additional support for the development of non-dopaminergic drugs for the management of schizophrenia symptomatology. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical evidence of alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated benefits in the triad of positive symptoms, negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, as well as the genetic linkage of this receptor to the disease, have added another level of complexity. Thus schizophrenia is increasingly believed to involve multi-neurotransmitter deficits, all of which may contribute to altered dopaminergic tone in the mesolimbic, mesocortical and other areas of the brain. In this paper we provide a model that reconciles the dopamine, glutamate and alpha7 cholinergic etiopathogenesis and is consistent with the clinical benefit derived from therapies targeted to these individual pathways. PMID:22336089

  5. [Alcohol dependence mediated by monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huafeng; Lai, Jianghua

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing brain disease with the characteristics of drinking alcohol out of control, has become a serious social problem. Monoamine neurotransmitters, mainly including dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, play important roles in the occurrence, development and neural dysfunction of alcohol dependence syndrome. In this review, the roles of key factors of the monoamine system (dopamine receptor genes, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor genes, transporter genes, tyrosine hydroxylase gene, tryptophanhydroxylase gene and monoamine oxidase gene) in alcohol dependence were discussed, and strategies for further studies of molecular mechanisms were proposed based on gene knockout mice models generated in our laboratory. Then, combining with studies on tyrosine hydroxylase activator CaMKII in our lab, therapeutic targets were discussed. Besides, epigenetic strategies for prevention and treatment of alcohol dependence syndrome were proposed. Furthermore, manipulating methylation levels in gene regulatory regions and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs might also have clinical implications. Finally, based on new findings on genetic polymorphism, it is of great potential to carry out individual prevention and treatment for patients suffering from alcohol dependence. PMID:24846914

  6. 5-Hydroxytryptamine drives apoptosis in biopsylike Burkitt lymphoma cells: reversal by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Serafeim, Adamantios; Grafton, Gillian; Chamba, Anita; Gregory, Christopher D; Blakely, Randy D; Bowery, Norman G; Barnes, Nicholas M; Gordon, John

    2002-04-01

    Serotonin (5-HT), a well-known neurotransmitter of the central nervous system, has been implicated in diverse aspects of immune regulation. Here we show that 5-HT can efficiently drive programmed cell death in established Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lines that remain faithful to the original biopsy phenotype (group 1). Group 1 BL cells cultured in the presence of 5-HT exhibited marked suppression of DNA synthesis that was accompanied by extensive apoptosis-serotonin-driven apoptosis was complete within 24 hours, was preceded by early caspase activation, and was accompanied by a decline in mitochondrial membrane potential. BL cells that had drifted to a lymphoblastic group 3 phenotype were relatively resistant to these actions of serotonin, and the forced ectopic expression of either bcl-2 or bcl-x(L) provided substantial protection from 5-HT-induced apoptosis. 5-HT receptor antagonists (SDZ205-557, granisetron, methysergide) failed to inhibit serotonin-induced apoptosis, whereas the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)-fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), and citalopram (Celexa)-substantially blocked the monoamine actions. Western blot analysis showed that BL cells expressed protein for the 5-HT transporter, and transport assays confirmed active uptake of serotonin by the cells. Unlike what was suggested for neuronal cells, there was no evidence that intracellular oxidative metabolites were responsible for the 5-HT-induced programmed death of BL cells. These data indicate that serotonin drives apoptosis in biopsylike BL cells after its entry through an active transport mechanism, and they suggest a novel therapeutic modality for Burkitt lymphoma. PMID:11895792

  7. Vasopressin indirectly excites dorsal raphe serotonin neurons through activation of the vasopressin1A receptor.

    PubMed

    Rood, B D; Beck, S G

    2014-02-28

    The neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP; arginine-vasopressin) is produced in a handful of brain nuclei located in the hypothalamus and extended amygdala and is released both peripherally as a hormone and within the central nervous system as a neurotransmitter. Central projections have been associated with a number of functions including regulation of physiological homeostasis, control of circadian rhythms, and modulation of social behavior. The AVP neurons located in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala (i.e., extended amygdala) in particular have been associated with affiliative social behavior in multiple species. It was recently demonstrated that in the mouse AVP projections emanating from extended amygdala neurons innervate a number of forebrain and midbrain brain regions including the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), the site of origin of most forebrain-projecting serotonin neurons. Based on the presence of AVP fibers in the DR, we hypothesized that AVP would alter the physiology of serotonin neurons via AVP 1A receptor (V1AR) activation. Using whole-cell electrophysiology techniques, we found that AVP increased the frequency and amplitude of excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in serotonin neurons of male mice. The indirect stimulation of serotonin neurons was AMPA/kainate receptor dependent and blocked by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin, suggesting an effect of AVP on glutamate neurons. Further, the increase in EPSC frequency induced by AVP was blocked by selective V1AR antagonists. Our data suggest that AVP had an excitatory influence on serotonin neurons. This work highlights a new target (i.e., V1AR) for manipulating serotonin neuron excitability. In light of our data, we propose that some of the diverse effects of AVP on physiology and behavior, including social behavior, may be due to activation of the DR serotonin system. PMID:24345477

  8. Vasopressin indirectly excites dorsal raphe serotonin neurons through activation of the vasopressin1A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Benjamin D.; Beck, Sheryl G.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP) is produced in a handful of brain nuclei located in the hypothalamus and extended amygdala and is released both peripherally as a hormone and within the central nervous system as a neurotransmitter. Central projections have been associated with a number of functions including regulation of physiological homeostasis, control of circadian rhythms, and modulation of social behavior. The AVP neurons located in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala (i.e., extended amygdala) in particular have been associated with affiliative social behavior in multiple species. It was recently demonstrated that in the mouse AVP projections emanating from extended amygdala neurons innervate a number of forebrain and midbrain brain regions including the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), the site of origin of most forebrain projecting serotonin neurons. Based on the presence of AVP fibers in the DR, we hypothesized that AVP would alter the physiology of serotonin neurons via AVP 1A receptor (V1AR) activation. Using whole cell electrophysiology techniques, we found that AVP increased the frequency and amplitude of excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in serotonin neurons of male mice. The indirect stimulation of serotonin neurons was AMPA/kainate receptor dependent and blocked by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin, suggesting an effect of AVP on glutamate neurons. Further, the increase in EPSC frequency induced by AVP was blocked by selective V1AR antagonists. Our data suggest that AVP had an excitatory influence on serotonin neurons. This work highlights a new target (i.e., V1AR) for manipulating serotonin neuron excitability. In light of our data, we propose that some of the diverse effects of AVP on physiology and behavior, including social behavior, may be due to activation of the dorsal raphe serotonin system. PMID:24345477

  9. Increased levels of brain serotonin correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels resulted in severe experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M; Seo, J-E; Rahaman, K A; Kang, M-J; Jung, B-H; Kwon, O-S

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of monoamine neurotransmitters on the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in obese mice. EAE was induced in mice with normal diets (ND-EAE) and obese mice with high-fat diets (HFD-EAE) through the immune response to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) (35-55). The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites in different anatomical brain regions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma and tissue NADPH oxidase and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 activities were analyzed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. The cumulative disease index and disease peaks were significantly higher in HFD-EAE compared with those in ND-EAE. Significantly higher 5-HT levels and lower 5-HT turnovers 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid ((5-HIAA)/5-HT) were found in the brains of HFD-EAE mice compared with those found in the HFD-CON and ND-EAE mice brains. Moreover, increased DA levels were observed in the caudate nucleus of the HFD-EAE mice compared with the control and ND-EAE mice. The NADPH oxidase and MMP-9 activities in the plasma and tissues were significantly higher in both the ND-EAE and HFD-EAE groups than in their respective controls. The cytokine levels in the plasma, tissues, and cultured splenocytes were found to be significantly altered in EAE mice compared with control mice. Moreover, HFD-EAE mice exhibited significantly higher MMP-9 activity and lower IL-4 levels than ND-EAE mice and were significantly correlated with brain 5-HT levels. In conclusion, the increased 5-HT levels in the brain significantly correlated with MMP-9 activity and IL-4 levels play an important role in the exacerbation of disease severity in HFD-EAE mice. PMID:26820599

  10. MDMA ("ecstasy") abuse as an example of dopamine neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Susan

    2011-04-01

    A number of reviews have focused on the short- and long-term effects of MDMA and, in particular, on the persistent deficits in serotonin neurotransmission that accompany some exposure regimens. The mechanisms underlying the serotonin deficits and their relevance to various behavioral and cognitive consequences of MDMA use are still being debated. It has become clear, however, that some individuals develop compulsive and uncontrolled drug-taking that is consistent with abuse. For other drugs of abuse, this transition has been attributed to neuroadaptations in central dopamine mechanisms that occur as a function of repeated drug exposure. A question remains as to whether similar neuroadaptations occur as a function of exposure to MDMA and the impact of serotonin neurotoxicity in the transition from use to abuse. This review focuses specifically on this issue by first providing an overview of human studies and then reviewing the animal literature with specific emphasis on paradigms that measure subjective effects of drugs and self-administration as indices of abuse liability. It is suggested that serotonin deficits resulting from repeated exposure to MDMA self-administration lead to a sensitized dopaminergic response to the drug and that this sensitized response renders MDMA comparable to other drugs of abuse. PMID:21184779

  11. BDE99 (2,2?,4,4?,5-PENTABROMODIPHENYL ETHER) SUPPRESSES DIFFERENTIATION INTO NEUROTRANSMITTER PHENOTYPES IN PC12 CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Slotkin, Theodore A.; Card, Jennifer; Infante, Alice; Seidler, Frederic J.

    2013-01-01

    Early-life exposures to brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) lead to neurobehavioral abnormalities later in life. Although these agents are thyroid disruptors, it is not clear whether this mechanism alone accounts for the adverse effects. We evaluated the impact of 2,2?,4,4?,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE99) on PC12 cells undergoing neurodifferentiation, contrasting the effects with chlorpyrifos, a known developmental neurotoxicant. BDE99 elicited decrements in the number of cells, evidenced by a reduction in DNA levels, to a lesser extent than did chlorpyrifos. This did not reflect cytotoxicity from oxidative stress, since cell enlargement, monitored by the total protein/DNA ratio, was not only unimpaired by BDE99, but was actually enhanced. Importantly, BDE99 impaired neurodifferentiation into both the dopamine and acetylcholine neurotransmitter phenotypes. The cholinergic phenotype was affected to a greater extent, so that neurotransmitter fate was diverted away from acetylcholine and toward dopamine. Chlorpyrifos produced the same imbalance, but through a different underlying mechanism, promoting dopaminergic development at the expense of cholinergic development. In our earlier work, we did not find these effects with BDE47, a BDE that has greater endocrine disrupting and cytotoxic effects than BDE99. Thus, our results point to interference with neurodifferentiation by specific BDE congeners, distinct from cytotoxic or endocrine mechanisms. PMID:23422510

  12. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  13. The Brainstem and Serotonin in the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Hannah C.; Richerson, George B.; Dymecki, Susan M.; Darnall, Robert A.; Nattie, Eugene E.

    2012-01-01

    The sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant under one year of age that is typically associated with sleep and that remains unexplained after a complete autopsy and death scene investigation. A leading hypothesis about its pathogenesis is that many cases result from defects in brainstem-mediated protective responses to homeostatic stressors occurring during sleep in a critical developmental period. Here we review the evidence for the brainstem hypothesis in SIDS with a focus upon abnormalities related to the neurotransmitter serotonin in the medulla oblongata, as these are the most robust pathologic findings to date. In this context, we synthesize the human autopsy data with genetic, whole-animal, and cellular data concerning the function and development of the medullary serotonergic system. These emerging data suggest an important underlying mechanism in SIDS that may help lead to identification of infants at risk and specific interventions to prevent death. PMID:19400695

  14. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K.; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  15. Determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulation using enhanced luminescence from europium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu.

    Biologically important compound dopamine plays an important role in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Insufficient dopamine level due to the loss of dopamine producing cells may lead to disease called Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Hence, a simple and fast detection of dopamine is necessary to study in the fields of neurophysiology and clinical medicine. An enhanced fluorimetric determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid is achieved using photoluminescence of europium complex, Eu(III)-dipicolinic acid. In order to obtain better responses, several operational parameters have been investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good stability and reproducibility. The application of this method for the determination of dopamine neurotransmitters was satisfactory. Linear response was found down to 3.0 × 10-7 M with limit of detection 1.0 × 10-8 M. The relative standard deviation was found to be 3.33% from 20 independent measurements for 1.0 × 10-5 M of dopamine.

  16. Determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulation using enhanced luminescence from europium complex.

    PubMed

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu

    2012-07-01

    Biologically important compound dopamine plays an important role in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Insufficient dopamine level due to the loss of dopamine producing cells may lead to disease called Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Hence, a simple and fast detection of dopamine is necessary to study in the fields of neurophysiology and clinical medicine. An enhanced fluorimetric determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid is achieved using photoluminescence of europium complex, Eu(III)-dipicolinic acid. In order to obtain better responses, several operational parameters have been investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good stability and reproducibility. The application of this method for the determination of dopamine neurotransmitters was satisfactory. Linear response was found down to 3.0 × 10(-7)M with limit of detection 1.0 × 10(-8)M. The relative standard deviation was found to be 3.33% from 20 independent measurements for 1.0 × 10(-5)M of dopamine. PMID:22484841

  17. Increased vesicular monoamine transporter enhances dopamine release and opposes Parkinson disease-related neurodegeneration in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Kelly M; Bernstein, Alison I; Stout, Kristen A; Dunn, Amy R; Lazo, Carlos R; Alter, Shawn P; Wang, Minzheng; Li, Yingjie; Fan, Xueliang; Hess, Ellen J; Yi, Hong; Vecchio, Laura M; Goldstein, David S; Guillot, Thomas S; Salahpour, Ali; Miller, Gary W

    2014-07-01

    Disruption of neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics (transport, capacity, release) has been implicated