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1

Lymphocytes transport serotonin and dopamine: agony or ecstasy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lymphocytes apparently carry active transport systems for the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine. Meanwhile, pharmacological substrates for the transporters have been claimed to impinge on immune function: these include, commonly used antidepressants [such as fluoxetine (Prozac®)], appetite suppressants and the recreational drugs MDMA [3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘Ecstasy’)] and cocaine. Data on these issues can be patchy. Given the widespread use – or, abuse

John Gordon; Nicholas M. Barnes

2003-01-01

2

Brain dopamine and serotonin differ in regulation and its consequences  

PubMed Central

Dopamine and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) are neurotransmitters that are implicated in many psychological disorders. Although dopamine transmission in the brain has been studied extensively in vivo with fast scan cyclic voltammetry, detection of 5-HT using in vivo voltammetric methods has only recently been established. In this work we use two carbon-fiber microelectrodes to simultaneously measure dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens and 5-HT release in the substantia nigra pars reticulata, using a common stimulation in a single rat. We find that 5-HT release is profoundly restricted in comparison with dopamine release despite comparable tissue content levels. Using physiological and pharmacological analysis, we find that 5-HT transmission is mostly sensitive to uptake and metabolic degradation mechanisms. In contrast, dopamine transmission is constrained by synthesis and repackaging. Finally, we show that disruption of serotonergic regulatory mechanisms by simultaneous inhibition of uptake and metabolic degradation can have severe physiological consequences that mimic serotonin syndrome.

Hashemi, Parastoo; Dankoski, Elyse C.; Lama, Rinchen; Wood, Kevin M.; Takmakov, Pavel; Wightman, R. Mark

2012-01-01

3

Selective detection of neurotransmitter serotonin by a gold nanoparticle-modified glassy carbon electrode.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were allowed to self-assemble onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) that was prior modified by L-cysteine. The modified electrode was then used as a voltammetric sensor in detecting the neurotransmitter serotonin. The electrode exhibited a linear voltammetric response for serotonin within a concentration range of 6.0 x 10(-8) M to 6 x 10(-6) M, with a detection limit of 2 x 10(-8) M. The detection of serotonin was found to be unaffected by the presence of epinephrine, dopamine, ascorbic acid and folic acid. The electrode was applied to detect serotonin added to human blood serum, with an average recovery value of 104.67%. PMID:20596570

Wei, Xiaohan; Wang, Fei; Yin, Yumin; Liu, Qiongyan; Zou, Lina; Ye, Baoxian

2010-09-01

4

Effects of kamikihito, a traditional Chinese medicine, on neurotransmitter receptor binding in the aged rat brain determined by in vitro autoradiography: changes in dopamine D1 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptor binding.  

PubMed

Using in vitro autoradiography, we investigated the effects of Kamikihito (KKT), a traditional Chinese medicine, on specific [3H]SCH23390 binding to dopamine D1 receptors and [3H]ketanserine binding to serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the rat brain. Specific binding of both compounds was affected by aging. Long-term administration of KKT resulted in decreases in [3H]SCH23390 binding to the cortex and hippocampus in aged rats, and in decreases in [3H]ketanserine binding to the caudate/putamen in young rats. These results suggest that the changes in dopamine Di and serotonin 5-HT2A receptor binding may be involved in the central effects of KKT. PMID:7820124

Ishihara, S; Yamada, K; Hayashi, T; Hasegawa, T; Kameyama, T; Morimasa, T; Kaneyuki, T; Shohmori, T; Nabeshima, T

1994-08-01

5

The role of serotonin in memory: interactions with neurotransmitters and downstream signaling.  

PubMed

Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is found to be involved in many physiological or pathophysiological processes including cognitive function. Seven distinct receptors (5-HT1-7), each with several subpopulations, have been identified for serotonin, which are different in terms of localization and downstream signaling. Because of the development of selective agonists and antagonists for these receptors as well as transgenic animal models of cognitive disorders, our understanding of the role of serotonergic transmission in learning and memory has improved in recent years. A large body of evidence indicates the interplay between serotonergic transmission and other neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, dopamine, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate, in the neurobiological control of learning and memory. In addition, there has been an alteration in the density of serotonergic receptors in aging and Alzheimer's disease, and serotonin modulators are found to alter the process of amyloidogenesis and exert cognitive-enhancing properties. Here, we discuss the serotonin-induced modulation of various systems involved in mnesic function including cholinergic, dopaminergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic transmissions as well as amyloidogenesis and intracellular pathways. PMID:24430027

Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Fakhfouri, Gohar; Ramezani, Vahid; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Rahimian, Reza

2014-03-01

6

Antihistamine effect on synaptosomal uptake of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study on the effects of five H1 and H2 antihistamines on the synaptosomal uptake of serotonin (5HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) is presented. Brain homogenates from female rats were incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer solution in the presence of one of three radioactive neurotransmitters, and one of the five antihistamines. Low concentrations of pyrilamine competitively inhibited 5HT uptake, had little effect on NE uptake, and no effect on DA uptake. Promethazine, diphenhydramine, metiamide, and cimetidine had no effect on 5HT or DA uptake at the same concentration. Diphenhydramine had a small inhibitory effect on NE uptake. It is concluded that pyrilamine is a selective and potent competitive inhibitor of 5HT uptake at concentrations between .05 and .5 micromolars.

Brown, P. A.; Vernikos, J.

1980-01-01

7

Serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors are the same size in membranes  

SciTech Connect

Target size analysis was used to compare the sizes of serotonin-S2 and dopamine-D2 receptors in rat brain membranes. The sizes of these receptors were standardized by comparison with the muscarinic receptor, a receptor of known size. The number of serotonin-S2 receptors labeled with (3H)ketanserin or (3H)spiperone in frontal cortex decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and receptor affinity was not affected. The number of dopamine-D2 receptors labeled with (3H)spiperone in striatum also decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and D2 and S2 receptors were equally sensitive to radiation. In both striatum and frontal cortex, the number of muscarinic receptors labeled with (3H)QNB decreased as an exponential function of radiation dose, and were much less sensitive to radiation than S2 and D2 receptors. These data indicate that in rat brain membranes, S2 and D2 receptors are of similar size, and both molecules are much larger than the muscarinic receptor.

Brann, M.R.

1985-12-31

8

Serotonin and Dopamine Protect from Hypothermia/Rewarming Damage through the CBS/ H2S Pathway  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines have been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptotic cell death. Herein we show for the first time that serotonin and dopamine increase H2S production by the endogenous enzyme cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS) and protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and apoptosis. Treatment with both compounds doubled CBS expression through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and increased H2S production in cultured rat smooth muscle cells. In addition, serotonin and dopamine treatment significantly reduced ROS formation. The beneficial effect of both compounds was minimized by inhibition of their re-uptake and by pharmacological inhibition of CBS or its down-regulation by siRNA. Exogenous administration of H2S and activation of CBS by Prydoxal 5?-phosphate also protected cells from hypothermic damage. Finally, serotonin and dopamine pretreatment of rat lung, kidney, liver and heart prior to 24 h of hypothermia at 3°C followed by 30 min of rewarming at 37°C upregulated the expression of CBS, strongly reduced caspase activity and maintained the physiological pH compared to untreated tissues. Thus, dopamine and serotonin protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced damage by increasing H2S production mediated through CBS. Our data identify a novel molecular link between biogenic amines and the H2S pathway, which may profoundly affect our understanding of the biological effects of monoamine neurotransmitters.

Talaei, Fatemeh; Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Van der Graaf, Adrianus C.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Schmidt, Martina; Henning, Robert H.

2011-01-01

9

Modulation for emergent networks: serotonin and dopamine.  

PubMed

In autonomous learning, value-sensitive experiences can improve the efficiency of learning. A learning network needs be motivated so that the limited computational resources and the limited lifetime are devoted to events that are of high value for the agent to compete in its environment. The neuromodulatory system of the brain is mainly responsible for developing such a motivation system. Although reinforcement learning has been extensively studied, many existing models are symbolic whose internal nodes or modules have preset meanings. Neural networks have been used to automatically generate internal emergent representations. However, modeling an emergent motivational system for neural networks is still a great challenge. By emergent, we mean that the internal representations emerge autonomously through interactions with the external environments. This work proposes a generic emergent modulatory system for emergent networks, which includes two subsystems - the serotonin system and the dopamine system. The former signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically aversive (e.g., stress or pain). The latter signals a large class of stimuli that are intrinsically appetitive (e.g., pleasure or sweet). We experimented with this motivational system for two settings. The first is a visual recognition setting to investigate how such a system can learn through interactions with a teacher, who does not directly give answers, but only punishments and rewards. The second is a setting for wandering in the presence of a friend and a foe. PMID:23294763

Weng, Juyang; Paslaski, Stephen; Daly, James; VanDam, Courtland; Brown, Jacob

2013-05-01

10

Subsecond voltammetric separation between dopamine and serotonin in the presence of ascorbate.  

PubMed

Although voltammetry has proved an important tool for unraveling the dynamics of specific neurotransmitter molecules during the past decade, it has been very difficult to monitor more than one neurotransmitter simultaneously. In this work, we present a voltammetric methodology that allows discrimination between dopamine and serotonin, two important neurotransmitter molecules with very similar electrochemical properties, in the presence of high concentrations of ascorbate. We combined the application of a novel large-amplitude/high-frequency voltage excitation with signal processing techniques valid for the analysis of nonstationary and nonlinear phenomena. This allows us to minimize the contribution from capacitance and preserve the faradaic features of the voltammetric response providing us with excellent voltammetric detail. Using appropriate voltage excitation parameters and defining specific regions in the voltage space, so-called voltage windows, we can measure the concentrations of dopamine and serotonin separately or independently in mixed solutions even in the presence of high concentrations of ascorbate. Because of the enhanced voltammetric detail of this new technique, it is also possible to explore effects attributed to interfacial phenomena such as adsorption/desorption and electrode fouling. PMID:17007525

Anastassiou, Costas A; Patel, Bhavik A; Arundell, Martin; Yeoman, Mark S; Parker, Kim H; O'Hare, Danny

2006-10-01

11

Mapping neurotransmitter networks with PET: An example on serotonin and opioid systems.  

PubMed

All functions of the human brain are consequences of altered activity of specific neural pathways and neurotransmitter systems. Although the knowledge of "system level" connectivity in the brain is increasing rapidly, we lack "molecular level" information on brain networks and connectivity patterns. We introduce novel voxel-based positron emission tomography (PET) methods for studying internal neurotransmitter network structure and intercorrelations of different neurotransmitter systems in the human brain. We chose serotonin transporter and ?-opioid receptor for this analysis because of their functional interaction at the cellular level and similar regional distribution in the brain. Twenty-one healthy subjects underwent two consecutive PET scans using [(11) C]MADAM, a serotonin transporter tracer, and [(11) C]carfentanil, a ?-opioid receptor tracer. First, voxel-by-voxel "intracorrelations" (hub and seed analyses) were used to study the internal structure of opioid and serotonin systems. Second, voxel-level opioid-serotonin intercorrelations (between neurotransmitters) were computed. Regional ?-opioid receptor binding potentials were uniformly correlated throughout the brain. However, our analyses revealed nonuniformity in the serotonin transporter intracorrelations and identified a highly connected local network (midbrain-striatum-thalamus-amygdala). Regionally specific intercorrelations between the opioid and serotonin tracers were found in anteromedial thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parietal cortex, i.e., in areas relevant for several neuropsychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders. This methodology enables in vivo mapping of connectivity patterns within and between neurotransmitter systems. Quantification of functional neurotransmitter balances may be a useful approach in etiological studies of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in drug development as a biomarker-based rationale for targeted modulation of neurotransmitter networks. Hum Brain Mapp 35:1875-1884, 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23671038

Tuominen, Lauri; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli; Hietala, Jarmo

2014-05-01

12

Hybrid dopamine uptake blocker-serotonin releaser ligands: a new twist on transporter-focused therapeutics.  

PubMed

As part of our program to study neurotransmitter releasers, we report herein a class of hybrid dopamine reuptake inhibitors that display serotonin releasing activity. Hybrid compounds are interesting since they increase the design potential of transporter related compounds and hence represent a novel and unexplored strategy for therapeutic drug discovery. A series of N-alkylpropiophenones was synthesized and assessed for uptake inhibition and release activity using rat brain synaptosomes. Substitution on the aromatic ring yielded compounds that maintained hybrid activity, with the two disubstituted analogues (PAL-787 and PAL-820) having the most potent hybrid activity. PMID:24944732

Blough, Bruce E; Landavazo, Antonio; Partilla, John S; Baumann, Michael H; Decker, Ann M; Page, Kevin M; Rothman, Richard B

2014-06-12

13

Using the neurotransmitter serotonin to target imaging agents to glioblastoma cells.  

PubMed

The neurotransmitter serotonin is involved in numerous bodily functions via seven different serotonin receptor subfamilies. Serotonin plays a role in gastrointestinal functions like intestinal secretion or peristalsis and neuropsychiatric events like depression or migraine. One of these subtypes has been found on glioblastoma cells, inducing growth promotion. In our study we attempted to target imaging agents to glioblastoma cells via the serotonin receptor. For this we coupled serotonin to the fluorescent dye rhodamine and the magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent gadolinium (Gd)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The cellular uptake, cytotoxicity and detection sensitivity of the conjugates were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), cell growth analysis, flow cytometry and magnetic resonance relaxometry on U373 human glioblastoma cells. Receptor-dependency of the uptake was confirmed by competition experiments with excess of unmarked serotonin. Cellular uptake of the conjugates was found in CLSM, magnetic resonance relaxometry and flow cytometry experiments.CLSM revealed the cytoplasmic character of the uptake. In cell growth analysis experiments no adverse effect of either conjugate on the cells was observed. Competition experiments performed with the conjugates and unmarked serotonin showed decreased conjugate uptake compared to the experiments without competition. In conclusion the neurotransmitter serotonin could be successfully used to target imaging agents into human glioblastoma cells. This makes it of interest for future glioblastoma imaging methods. PMID:22212740

Sturzu, Alexander; Sheikh, Sumbla; Klose, Uwe; Echner, Hartmut; Kalbacher, Hubert; Deeg, Martin; Nägele, Thomas; Horger, Marius; Ernemann, Ulrike; Heckl, Stefan

2012-12-01

14

Analysis of Glutamate, GABA, Noradrenaline, Dopamine, Serotonin, and Metabolites Using Microbore UHPLC with Electrochemical Detection  

PubMed Central

The applicability of microbore ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with electrochemical detection for offline analysis of a number of well-known neurotransmitters in less than 10 ?L microdialysis fractions is described. Two methods are presented for the analysis of monoamine or amino acid neurotransmitters, using the same UHPLC instrument. Speed of analysis of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and the metabolites homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxyindole aceticacid (5-HIAA), and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) was predominated by the retention behavior of NA, the nonideal behavior of matrix components, and the loss in signal of 5-HT. This method was optimized to meet the requirements for detection sensitivity and minimizing the size of collected fractions, which determines temporal resolution in microdialysis. The amino acid neurotransmitters glutamate (Glu) and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were analyzed after an automated derivatization procedure. Under optimized conditions, Glu was resolved from a number of early eluting system peaks, while the total runtime was decreased to 15 min by a 4-fold increase of the flow rate under UHPLC conditions. The detection limit for Glu and GABA was 10 nmol/L (15 fmol in 1.5 ?L); the monoamine neurotransmitters had a detection limit between 32 and 83 pmol/L (0.16–0.42 fmol in 5 ?L) in standard solutions. Using UHPLC, the analysis times varied from 15 min to less than 2 min depending on the complexity of the samples and the substances to be analyzed.

2013-01-01

15

Altered Dopamine and Serotonin Metabolism in Motorically Asymptomatic R6/2 Mice  

PubMed Central

The pattern of cerebral dopamine (DA) abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD) is complex, as reflected by the variable clinical benefit of both DA antagonists and agonists in treating HD symptoms. In addition, little is known about serotonin metabolism despite the early occurrence of anxiety and depression in HD. Post-mortem enzymatic changes are likely to interfere with the in vivo profile of biogenic amines. Hence, in order to reliably characterize the regional and chronological profile of brain neurotransmitters in a HD mouse model, we used a microwave fixation system that preserves in vivo concentrations of dopaminergic and serotoninergic amines. DA was decreased in the striatum of R6/2 mice at 8 and 12 weeks of age while DA metabolites, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid, were already significantly reduced in 4-week-old motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice. In the striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex of 4, 8 and 12-week-old R6/2 mice, serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased in association with a decreased turnover of serotonin. In addition, automated high-resolution behavioural analyses displayed stress-like behaviours such as jumping and grooming and altered spatial learning in R6/2 mice at age 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Therefore, we describe the earliest alterations of DA and serotonin metabolism in a HD murine model. Our findings likely underpin the neuropsychological symptoms at time of disease onset in HD.

Mochel, Fanny; Durant, Brandon; Durr, Alexandra; Schiffmann, Raphael

2011-01-01

16

Altered dopamine and serotonin metabolism in motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice.  

PubMed

The pattern of cerebral dopamine (DA) abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD) is complex, as reflected by the variable clinical benefit of both DA antagonists and agonists in treating HD symptoms. In addition, little is known about serotonin metabolism despite the early occurrence of anxiety and depression in HD. Post-mortem enzymatic changes are likely to interfere with the in vivo profile of biogenic amines. Hence, in order to reliably characterize the regional and chronological profile of brain neurotransmitters in a HD mouse model, we used a microwave fixation system that preserves in vivo concentrations of dopaminergic and serotoninergic amines. DA was decreased in the striatum of R6/2 mice at 8 and 12 weeks of age while DA metabolites, 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid, were already significantly reduced in 4-week-old motorically asymptomatic R6/2 mice. In the striatum, hippocampus and frontal cortex of 4, 8 and 12-week-old R6/2 mice, serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were significantly decreased in association with a decreased turnover of serotonin. In addition, automated high-resolution behavioural analyses displayed stress-like behaviours such as jumping and grooming and altered spatial learning in R6/2 mice at age 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Therefore, we describe the earliest alterations of DA and serotonin metabolism in a HD murine model. Our findings likely underpin the neuropsychological symptoms at time of disease onset in HD. PMID:21483838

Mochel, Fanny; Durant, Brandon; Durr, Alexandra; Schiffmann, Raphael

2011-01-01

17

Neurotransmitters  

NASA Video Gallery

Our nerve cells (neurons) communicate with each other using little chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. These neurotransmitters are transferred from one neuron to the next within a space c...

18

Opponency Revisited: Competition and Cooperation Between Dopamine and Serotonin  

PubMed Central

Affective valence lies on a spectrum ranging from punishment to reward. The coding of such spectra in the brain almost always involves opponency between pairs of systems or structures. There is ample evidence for the role of dopamine in the appetitive half of this spectrum, but little agreement about the existence, nature, or role of putative aversive opponents such as serotonin. In this review, we consider the structure of opponency in terms of previous biases about the nature of the decision problems that animals face, the conflicts that may thus arise between Pavlovian and instrumental responses, and an additional spectrum joining invigoration to inhibition. We use this analysis to shed light on aspects of the role of serotonin and its interactions with dopamine.

Boureau, Y-Lan; Dayan, Peter

2011-01-01

19

Serotonin and dopamine: unifying affective, activational, and decision functions.  

PubMed

Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin-comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either-can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

2011-01-01

20

Chemical sensing of neurotransmitters.  

PubMed

In the past few decades, the development of chemosensors for neurotransmitters has emerged as a research area of significant importance, which attracted a tremendous amount of attention due to its high sensitivity and rapid response. This current review focuses on various neurotransmitter detection based on fluorescent or colorimetric spectrophotometry published for the last 12 years, covering biogenic amines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin, histamine and acetylcholine), amino acids (glutamate, aspartate, GABA, glycine and tyrosine), and adenosine. PMID:24736802

Pradhan, Tuhin; Jung, Hyo Sung; Jang, Joo Hee; Kim, Tae Woo; Kang, Chulhun; Kim, Jong Seung

2014-07-01

21

A conserved asparagine residue in transmembrane segment 1 (TM1) of serotonin transporter dictates chloride-coupled neurotransmitter transport.  

PubMed

Na(+)- and Cl(-)-dependent uptake of neurotransmitters via transporters of the SLC6 family, including the human serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), is critical for efficient synaptic transmission. Although residues in the human serotonin transporter involved in direct Cl(-) coordination of human serotonin transport have been identified, the role of Cl(-) in the transport mechanism remains unclear. Through a combination of mutagenesis, chemical modification, substrate and charge flux measurements, and molecular modeling studies, we reveal an unexpected role for the highly conserved transmembrane segment 1 residue Asn-101 in coupling Cl(-) binding to concentrative neurotransmitter uptake. PMID:21730057

Henry, L Keith; Iwamoto, Hideki; Field, Julie R; Kaufmann, Kristian; Dawson, Eric S; Jacobs, Miriam T; Adams, Chelsea; Felts, Bruce; Zdravkovic, Igor; Armstrong, Vanessa; Combs, Steven; Solis, Ernesto; Rudnick, Gary; Noskov, Sergei Y; DeFelice, Louis J; Meiler, Jens; Blakely, Randy D

2011-09-01

22

A Conserved Asparagine Residue in Transmembrane Segment 1 (TM1) of Serotonin Transporter Dictates Chloride-coupled Neurotransmitter Transport*  

PubMed Central

Na+- and Cl?-dependent uptake of neurotransmitters via transporters of the SLC6 family, including the human serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), is critical for efficient synaptic transmission. Although residues in the human serotonin transporter involved in direct Cl? coordination of human serotonin transport have been identified, the role of Cl? in the transport mechanism remains unclear. Through a combination of mutagenesis, chemical modification, substrate and charge flux measurements, and molecular modeling studies, we reveal an unexpected role for the highly conserved transmembrane segment 1 residue Asn-101 in coupling Cl? binding to concentrative neurotransmitter uptake.

Henry, L. Keith; Iwamoto, Hideki; Field, Julie R.; Kaufmann, Kristian; Dawson, Eric S.; Jacobs, Miriam T.; Adams, Chelsea; Felts, Bruce; Zdravkovic, Igor; Armstrong, Vanessa; Combs, Steven; Solis, Ernesto; Rudnick, Gary; Noskov, Sergei Y.; DeFelice, Louis J.; Meiler, Jens; Blakely, Randy D.

2011-01-01

23

Dopamine and serotonin transporters in patients with schizophrenia: an imaging study with [ 123I]?-CIT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Several lines of evidence derived from imaging and postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with hyperactivity of dopamine function and deficiency in serotonin (5-HT) function. The aim of this study was to investigate potential alterations of striatal dopamine transporters (DAT) and brainstem serotonin transporters (SERT) density in schizophrenia.Methods: Striatal DAT and brainstem SERT were measured in 24 patients

Marc Laruelle; Anissa Abi-Dargham; Christopher van Dyck; Roberto Gil; D. Cyril D’Souza; John Krystal; John Seibyl; Ronald Baldwin; Robert Innis

2000-01-01

24

Binding of [3H]-dopamine to human lymphocytes: possible relationship to neurotransmitter uptake sites.  

PubMed

Freshly isolated human lymphocytes from 11 healthy subjects had specific binding sites for dopamine which were dependent on time, temperature and sodium, and appeared to follow Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (KD) of human lymphocytes for dopamine and the maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) were 109 +/- 21 nM and 2.66 +/- 1.75 pmol/10(7) cells, respectively. Dopamine binding was markedly affected by cocaine (IC50 = 150 nM) and other inhibitors of biogenic amine uptake. The relatively high potency of cocaine in competing for dopamine binding suggested that human lymphocytes may serve as a readily accessible model to detect changes in the neuronal uptake of dopamine and perhaps other monoamine neurotransmitters. PMID:1676177

Faraj, B A; Olkowski, Z L; Jackson, R T

1991-01-01

25

Motoneurons which may utilize dopamine as their neurotransmitter  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Three neurons in the abdominal ganglion ofAplysia elicit gill movements similar to those observed when dopamine is added to a gill perfusate. One, which we designate L9, produces contractions of all medial and lateral external pinnule muscles, the circular and longitudinal muscles of the afferent vessel, and the circular muscles of the efferent vessel. The others produce identical contractions in

John W. Swann; C. Nelson Sinback; Procerfina R. Kebabian; David O. Carpenter

1982-01-01

26

Transmissions of serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate are required for the formation of neurotoxicity from Al2O3-NPs in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated genetic mechanisms of neurotransmitters in regulating the formation of adverse effects on locomotion behavior in Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs)-exposed Caenorhabditis elegans. Al2O3-NPs exposure caused the decrease of locomotion behavior with head thrash and body bend as endpoints. Interestingly, the neurotransmitters of glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine were required for the adverse effects of Al2O3-NPs on locomotion behavior in nematodes. Glutamate transporter EAT-4, serotonin transporter MOD-5, and dopamine transporter DAT-1 might serve as the molecular targets of Al2O3-NPs for neurotoxicity formation. Moreover, the behavioral response of nematodes to Al2O3-NPs exposure was primarily mediated by non-NMDA glutamate receptors GLR-2 and GLR-6, ionotropic serotonin receptor MOD-1, and D1-like dopamine receptor DOP-1. Therefore, Al2O3-NPs exposure influences locomotion behavior of nematodes primarily by impinging on their glutamatergic, serotoninergic, and dopaminergic systems. Our data will shed light on questions surrounding the involvement of neurotransmitters in mediating the adverse behavioral effects from Al2O3-NPs. PMID:22548316

Li, Yinxia; Yu, Shunhui; Wu, Qiuli; Tang, Meng; Wang, Dayong

2013-08-01

27

Quantitation of dopamine, serotonin and adenosine content in a tissue punch from a brain slice using capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection  

PubMed Central

Methods to determine neurochemical concentrations in small samples of tissue are needed to map interactions among neurotransmitters. In particular, correlating physiological measurements of neurotransmitter release and the tissue content in a small region would be valuable. HPLC is the standard method for tissue content analysis but it requires microliter samples and the detector often varies by the class of compound being quantified; thus detecting molecules from different classes can be difficult. In this paper, we develop capillary electrophoresis with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry detection (CE-FSCV) for analysis of dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content in tissue punches from rat brain slices. Using field-amplified sample stacking, the limit of detection was 5 nM for dopamine, 10 nM for serotonin, and 50 nM for adenosine. Neurotransmitters could be measured from a tissue punch as small as 7 µg (7 nL) of tissue, three orders of magnitude smaller than a typical HPLC sample. Tissue content analysis of punches in successive slices through the striatum revealed higher dopamine but lower adenosine content in the anterior striatum. Stimulated dopamine release was measured in a brain slice, then a tissue punch collected from the recording region. Dopamine content and release had a correlation coefficient of 0.71, which indicates much of the variance in stimulated release is due to variance in tissue content. CE-FSCV should facilitate measurements of tissue content in nanoliter samples, leading to a better understanding of how diseases or drugs affect dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine content.

Fang, Huaifang; Pajski, Megan L.; Ross, Ashley E.; Venton, B. Jill

2013-01-01

28

Dispensable, Redundant, Complementary, and Cooperative Roles of Dopamine, Octopamine, and Serotonin in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

To investigate the regulation of Drosophila melanogaster behavior by biogenic amines, we have exploited the broad requirement of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) for the vesicular storage and exocytotic release of all monoamine neurotransmitters. We used the Drosophila VMAT (dVMAT) null mutant to globally ablate exocytotic amine release and then restored DVMAT activity in either individual or multiple aminergic systems, using transgenic rescue techniques. We find that larval survival, larval locomotion, and female fertility rely predominantly on octopaminergic circuits with little apparent input from the vesicular release of serotonin or dopamine. In contrast, male courtship and fertility can be rescued by expressing DVMAT in octopaminergic or dopaminergic neurons, suggesting potentially redundant circuits. Rescue of major aspects of adult locomotion and startle behavior required octopamine, but a complementary role was observed for serotonin. Interestingly, adult circadian behavior could not be rescued by expression of DVMAT in a single subtype of aminergic neurons, but required at least two systems, suggesting the possibility of unexpected cooperative interactions. Further experiments using this model will help determine how multiple aminergic systems may contribute to the regulation of other behaviors. Our data also highlight potential differences between behaviors regulated by standard exocytotic release and those regulated by other mechanisms.

Chen, Audrey; Ng, Fanny; Lebestky, Tim; Grygoruk, Anna; Djapri, Christine; Lawal, Hakeem O.; Zaveri, Harshul A.; Mehanzel, Filmon; Najibi, Rod; Seidman, Gabriel; Murphy, Niall P.; Kelly, Rachel L.; Ackerson, Larry C.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Jackson, F. Rob; Krantz, David E.

2013-01-01

29

Active [3H]-dopamine uptake by human lymphocytes: correlates with serotonin transporter activity.  

PubMed

The main objective of the present investigation was to determine whether the uptake of [3H]-dopamine in human lymphocytes is mediated through a serotonin transporter. This was examined by studying the effects of various monoamine uptake inhibitors on the uptake of [3H]-dopamine in human lymphocytes. Among the compounds tested, indatraline, imipramine and fluoxetine, selective inhibitors of neuronal serotonin transporter, were the most potent inhibitors of [3H]-dopamine uptake in lymphocytes. The 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) for these inhibitors was in the range of 3.5-17 nmol/l. Bupropion, GBR 12909, nomifensine and xylamine, selective inhibitors of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, had low affinity for the dopamine uptake system in human lymphocytes with IC50 values ranging between 1,000 and 40,000 nmol/l. These findings provide supportive evidence for the participation of a serotonin transporter in the uptake of [3H]-dopamine in human lymphocytes. The existence of a high affinity transport system for dopamine and serotonin in human lymphocytes may serve as a readily accessible model to detect changes in the neuronal uptake of dopamine and serotonin in addictive and psychiatric disorders. PMID:8016192

Faraj, B A; Olkowski, Z L; Jackson, R T

1994-05-01

30

Serotonin, serotonin 5HT 1A receptors and dopamine in blood peripheral lymphocytes of major depression patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are increasing evidences of cell markers present in the immune and the nervous systems. These include neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Serotonin receptor subtypes are related to depression and also have been shown to be present in certain cells of the immune system. In the present report, we determined the presence of 5-HT1A receptors by the binding of the selective

O. Fajardo; J. Galeno; M. Urbina; I. Carreira; L. Lima

2003-01-01

31

Ca 2+ channel blockade prevents lysergic acid diethylamide-induced changes in dopamine and serotonin metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effect of a single and multiple administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on cerebral metabolism of dopamine and serotonin, male Wistar rats were treated with low and high doses (0.1 and 2.0 mg\\/kg i.p.) of LSD and the levels of dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were assayed by HPLC in the nucleus

Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk; Irena Roma?ska; Jerzy Vetulani

1997-01-01

32

Unfaithful neurotransmitter transporters: Focus on serotonin uptake and implications for antidepressant efficacy  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amine transporters for serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine (SERT, NET and DAT respectively), are the key players terminating transmission of these amines in the central nervous system by their high-affinity uptake. They are also major targets for many antidepressant drugs. Interestingly however, drugs targeted to a specific transporter do not appear to be as clinically efficacious as those that block two or all three of these transporters. A growing body of literature, reviewed here, supports the idea that promiscuity among these transporters (the uptake of multiple amines in addition to their “native” transmitter) may account for improved therapeutic effects of dual and triple uptake blockers. However, even these drugs do not provide effective treatment outcomes for all individuals. An emerging literature suggests that “non-traditional” transporters such as organic cation transporters (OCT) and the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) may contribute to the less than hoped for efficacy of currently prescribed uptake inhibitors. OCT and PMAT are capable of clearing biogenic amines from extracellular fluid and may serve to buffer the effects of frontline antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In addition, polymorphisms that occur in the genes encoding the transporters can lead to variation in transporter expression and function (e.g. the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region; 5-HTTLPR) and can have profound effects on treatment outcome. This may be accounted for, in part, by compensatory adaptations in other transporters. This review synthesizes the existing literature, focusing on serotonin to illustrate and revive a model for the rationale design of improved antidepressants.

Daws, Lynette C.

2009-01-01

33

Dopamine Regulating Genes, Negative Stressors, and Energy Balance Behaviors Among Chinese Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Dopamine has been implicated as an important neurotransmitter involved in regulating appetite and food intake by modulating the reinforcement of food via the meso-limbic circuitry of the brain. Several genes have been linked with the regulation of dopamine. Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) modulates the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine, both of which are neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of

Rosa Ahn

2012-01-01

34

Dopamine and serotonin modulate human GABA?1 receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes.  

PubMed

GABA?1 receptors are highly expressed in bipolar neurons of the retina and to a lesser extent in several areas of the central nervous system (CNS), and dopamine and serotonin are also involved in the modulation of retinal neural transmission. Whether these biogenic amines have a direct effect on ionotropic GABA receptors was not known. Here, we report that GABA?1 receptors, expressed in X. laevis oocytes, were negatively modulated by dopamine and serotonin and less so by octopamine and tyramine. Interestingly, these molecules did not have effects on GABA(A) receptors. 5-Carboxamido-tryptamine and apomorphine did not exert evident effects on any of the receptors. Schild plot analyses of the inhibitory actions of dopamine and serotonin on currents elicited by GABA showed slopes of 2.7 ± 0.3 and 6.1 ± 1.8, respectively, indicating a noncompetitive mechanism of inhibition. The inhibition of GABA?1 currents was independent of the membrane potential and was insensitive to picrotoxin, a GABA receptor channel blocker and to the GABA?-specific antagonist (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-yl)methyl phosphinic acid (TPMPA). Dopamine and serotonin changed the sensitivity of GABA?1 receptors to the inhibitory actions of Zn(2+). In contrast, La(3+) potentiated the amplitude of the GABA currents generated during negative modulation by dopamine (EC(50) 146 ?M) and serotonin (EC(50) 196 ?M). The functional role of the direct modulation of GABA? receptors by dopamine and serotonin remains to be elucidated; however, it may represent an important modulatory pathway in the retina, where GABA? receptors are highly expressed and where these biogenic amines are abundant. PMID:22860179

Ochoa-de la Paz, Lenin D; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Limón, Agenor; Miledi, Ricardo; Martínez-Torres, Ataúlfo

2012-02-15

35

The Role of Serotonin and Dopamine in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

For many years schizophrenia was attributed to an overabundance of dopamine in the brain, and until recently conventional neuroleptics (dopamine-D2 receptor antagonists) have been the mainstay of pharmacologic treatment for patients with this illness. The dopaminergic mechanism of action makes conventional neuroleptics effective for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia but not for the negative symptoms. It is now recog nized

Francine L. OConnor

1998-01-01

36

Structure-Guided Directed Evolution of Highly Selective P450-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sensors for Dopamine and Serotonin  

PubMed Central

New tools that allow dynamic visualization of molecular neural events are important for studying the basis of brain activity and disease. Sensors that permit ligand-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful reagents due to the non-invasive nature and good temporal and spatial resolution of MR methods. Paramagnetic metalloproteins can be effective MRI sensors due to the selectivity imparted by the protein active site and the ability to tune protein properties using techniques such as directed evolution. Here we show that structure-guided directed evolution of the active site of the cytochrome P450 BM3 heme domain (BM3h) produces highly selective MRI probes with sub-micromolar affinities for small molecules. We report a new, high affinity dopamine sensor as well as the first MRI reporter for serotonin, with which we demonstrate quantification of neurotransmitter release in vitro. We also present a detailed structural analysis of evolved BM3h lineages to systematically dissect the molecular basis of neurotransmitter binding affinity, selectivity, and enhanced MRI contrast activity in these engineered proteins.

Brustad, Eric M.; Lelyveld, Victor S.; Snow, Christopher D.; Crook, Nathan; Jung, Sang Taek; Martinez, Francisco M.; Scholl, Timothy J.; Jasanoff, Alan; Arnold, Frances H.

2012-01-01

37

The clozapine metabolite N-desmethylclozapine displays variable activity in diverse functional assays at human dopamine D? and serotonin 5-HT?A receptors.  

PubMed

N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC or norclozapine) is the major active metabolite of the antipsychotic clozapine in humans. The activity of NDMC differs from clozapine at a number of neurotransmitter receptors, probably influencing the pharmacological effects of clozapine treatment. Here, we tested the properties of NDMC in comparison with clozapine at recombinant human dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors, using a panel of functional assays implicating diverse signalling pathways. At dopamine D(2) receptors, NDMC as well as clozapine did not display agonist activity in measures of G protein activation by [(35)S]GTP?S binding and in the sensitive Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation assay. In contrast, there were weak partial agonist actions of NDMC (but not of clozapine) for dopamine D(2)-dependent activation of Ca(2+) liberation via coexpressed chimeric G?(q/o) proteins and for G protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium channel (GIRK) current induction in Xenopus oocytes. Intriguingly, GIRK currents induced by NDMC via dopamine D(2) receptors showed a rapid and transient time course, strikingly different from currents recorded with other receptor agonists. At serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors, NDMC was a more efficacious partial agonist than clozapine for [(35)S]GTP?S binding, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and GIRK activation. Respective low and moderate partial agonist properties of NDMC at dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors thus differentiate the metabolite from its parent drug and may contribute to the overall effects of clozapine pharmacotherapy. PMID:21835172

Heusler, Peter; Bruins Slot, Liesbeth; Tourette, Amélie; Tardif, Stéphanie; Cussac, Didier

2011-11-01

38

Altered Dopamine and Serotonin Metabolism in Motorically Asymptomatic R6\\/2 Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of cerebral dopamine (DA) abnormalities in Huntington disease (HD) is complex, as reflected by the variable clinical benefit of both DA antagonists and agonists in treating HD symptoms. In addition, little is known about serotonin metabolism despite the early occurrence of anxiety and depression in HD. Post-mortem enzymatic changes are likely to interfere with the in vivo profile

Fanny Mochel; Brandon Durant; Alexandra Durr; Raphael Schiffmann; David Rubinsztein

2011-01-01

39

The Roles of Dopamine and Serotonin in Decision Making: Evidence from Pharmacological Experiments in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurophysiological experiments in primates, alongside neuropsychological and functional magnetic resonance investigations in humans, have significantly enhanced our understanding of the neural architecture of decision making. In this review, I consider the more limited database of experiments that have investigated how dopamine and serotonin activity influences the choices of human adults. These include those experiments that have involved the administration of

Robert D Rogers

2011-01-01

40

Adult attachment and gene polymorphisms of the dopamine D4 receptor and serotonin transporter (5-HTT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, the Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene (DRD4) and the Serotonin Transporter Gene (5-HTT) have been found to be candidate genes for infant attachment disorganization. The present study aimed to explore the relationship of these genes to adult attachment representations. The Adult Attachment Interview was used to assess attachment representations in 167 German adults. DNA from buccal cells was genotyped for

Iris Reiner; Gottfried Spangler

2010-01-01

41

NORADRENALINE, DOPAMINE, SEROTONIN: DIFFERENT EFFECTS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS ON BRAIN BIOGENIC AMINES IN MICE AND RATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of restraint stress on central neurotransmission was evaluated in mice and rats. Noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels and their primary metabolites were measured in discrete brain regions following exposure to stress. Mice and rats demonstrated a similar response to stress in some brain regions. Both species responded to stress with lower NA and 5-HT in

MARIA KONSTANDI; ELIZABETH JOHNSON; MATTI A. LANG; MICHALIS MALAMAS; MARIOS MARSELOS

2000-01-01

42

Dopamine D4 receptor and serotonin transporter promoter in the determination of neonatal temperament  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic effects on behavior were evaluated at a time in early development when we hypothesized that environmental influences are minimal and least likely to confound associations between temperament and genes. The behavioral effects of two common polymorphisms linked respectively in some, but not all, studies to novelty seeking (dopamine D4 receptor – D4DR) and neuroticism and harm avoidance (serotonin transporter

R P Ebstein; J Levine; V Geller; J Auerbach; I Gritsenko; R H Belmaker

1998-01-01

43

Aniracetam enhances cortical dopamine and serotonin release via cholinergic and glutamatergic mechanisms in SHRSP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, has been recently found to preferentially increase extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), basolateral amygdala and dorsal hippocampus of the mesocorticolimbic system in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. In the present study, we aimed to identify actually active substances among aniracetam and its major metabolites and to clarify the mode

Masatoshi Shirane; Kazuo Nakamura

2001-01-01

44

Role of serotonin in cocaine effects in mice with reduced dopamine transporter function.  

PubMed

The mesolimbic dopaminergic system, especially the nucleus accumbens, has received attention for its involvement in the reinforcing and addictive properties of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. It is generally accepted that the ability of cocaine to inhibit the dopamine transporter (DAT) is directly related to its reinforcing actions. However, mice with a genetic deletion of the DAT (DAT-KO mice) still experience the rewarding effects of cocaine. These behavioral findings suggest that there is an alternate site for cocaine reinforcement. We demonstrate here that modulation of the serotonergic system in the ventral tegmental area, where the mesolimbic dopamine system originates, is a target of cocaine action. The ultimate effect of this serotonin mechanism in animal models with sustained elevations of dopamine may be a feed-forward enhancement of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. PMID:14691264

Mateo, Yolanda; Budygin, Evgeny A; John, Carrie E; Jones, Sara R

2004-01-01

45

Role of serotonin in cocaine effects in mice with reduced dopamine transporter function  

PubMed Central

The mesolimbic dopaminergic system, especially the nucleus accumbens, has received attention for its involvement in the reinforcing and addictive properties of cocaine and other drugs of abuse. It is generally accepted that the ability of cocaine to inhibit the dopamine transporter (DAT) is directly related to its reinforcing actions. However, mice with a genetic deletion of the DAT (DAT-KO mice) still experience the rewarding effects of cocaine. These behavioral findings suggest that there is an alternate site for cocaine reinforcement. We demonstrate here that modulation of the serotonergic system in the ventral tegmental area, where the mesolimbic dopamine system originates, is a target of cocaine action. The ultimate effect of this serotonin mechanism in animal models with sustained elevations of dopamine may be a feed-forward enhancement of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens.

Mateo, Yolanda; Budygin, Evgeny A.; John, Carrie E.; Jones, Sara R.

2004-01-01

46

Central l-proline attenuates stress-induced dopamine and serotonin metabolism in the chick forebrain.  

PubMed

Using microdialysis, we investigated the effect of l-proline on monoamine release in the medio-rostral neostriatum/hyperstriatum ventrale (MNH) of freely moving and restricted chicks. A 30 min handling-stress resulted in a significant increase in extracellular homovallinic acid (HVA), a dopamine metabolite, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), a serotonin metabolite, in the MNH. l-Proline, perfused through the microdialysis probe into the MNH during the stressed condition, significantly attenuated the average dialysate concentration of HVA produced by handling-stress. Handling-stress resulted in a significant increase in 5-HIAA levels in the control group, which were attenuated by profusion with l-proline. l-Proline did not significantly modify basal concentrations of HVA or 5-HIAA in the MNH during control conditions. These results show that perfusion of l-proline modified the turnover/metabolism of dopamine and serotonin in the MNH caused by handling-stress. PMID:19450655

Hamasu, Kousuke; Shigemi, Kazutaka; Kabuki, Yusuke; Tomonaga, Shozo; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

2009-08-21

47

Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Binding in Children with Autism Determined by SPECT  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Disturbances in the serotonergic system have been recognized in autism. To investigate the association between serotonin and dopamine transporters and autism, we studied 15 children (14 males, one female; mean age 8y 8mo [SD 3y 10mo]) with autism and 10 non-autistic comparison children (five males, five females; mean age 9y 10mo [SD 2y 8mo]) using…

Makkonen, Ismo; Riikonen, Raili; Kokki, Hannu; Airaksinen, Mauno M.; Kuikka, Jyrki T.

2008-01-01

48

GDNF Selectively Protects Dopamine Neurons over Serotonin Neurons Against the Neurotoxic Effects of Methamphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated methamphetamine (METH) administration to animals can result in long-lasting decreases in striatal dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. Glial cell line-derived neuro- trophic factor (GDNF) has pronounced effects on dopaminergic systems in vivo, including partial neuroprotective effects against 6-hydroxydopamine and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6- tetrahydropyridine -induced lesions. The present study exam- ined the ability of GDNF to prevent METH-induced reductions in potassium-evoked

Wayne A. Cass

49

Effects of chronic delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration on neurotransmitter concentrations and receptor binding in the rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

THC is the major psychoactive constituent of marijuana and is also known as an hallucinogenic compound. Numerous reports have shown that large doses of THC produce significant alterations in various neurotransmitter systems. The present study was designed to determine whether chronic exposure to THC produces significant alterations in selected neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, GABAergic, benzodiazepine, and opiate) in the

S. F. Ali; G. D. Newport; A. C. Scallet; K. W. Gee; M. G. Paule; R. M. Brown; W. Jr. Slikker

2009-01-01

50

Analysis of microdialysate monoamines, including noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, using capillary ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.  

PubMed

Electrochemical methods are very often used to detect catecholamine and indolamine neurotransmitters separated by conventional reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The present paper presents the development of a chromatographic method to detect monoamines present in low-volume brain dialysis samples using a capillary column filled with sub-2?m particles. Several parameters (repeatability, linearity, accuracy, limit of detection) for this new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with electrochemical detection were examined after optimization of the analytical conditions. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine were separated in 1?L of injected sample volume; they were detected above concentrations of 0.5-1nmol/L, with 2.1-9.5% accuracy and intra-assay repeatability equal to or less than 6%. The final method was applied to very low volume dialysates from rat brain containing monoamine traces. The study demonstrates that capillary UHPLC with electrochemical detection is suitable for monitoring dialysate monoamines collected at high sampling rate. PMID:24508677

Ferry, Barbara; Gifu, Elena-Patricia; Sandu, Ioana; Denoroy, Luc; Parrot, Sandrine

2014-03-01

51

What is new for monoamine neurotransmitter disorders?  

PubMed

The monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are increasingly recognized as an expanding group of inherited neurometabolic syndromes caused by disturbances in the synthesis, transport and metabolism of the biogenic amines, including the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and serotonin. Disturbances in monoamine metabolism lead to neurological syndromes that frequently mimic other conditions, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, parkinsonism-dystonia syndromes, primary genetic dystonia and paroxysmal disorders. As a consequence, neurotransmitter disorders are frequently misdiagnosed. Early and accurate diagnosis of these neurotransmitter disorders is important, as many are highly amenable to, and some even cured by, therapeutic intervention. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the field, particularly the recent extensive characterization of known neurotransmitter disorders and identification of novel neurotransmitter disorders. We also provide an overview of current and future research in the field focused on developing novel treatment strategies. PMID:24696406

Marecos, Clara; Ng, Joanne; Kurian, Manju A

2014-07-01

52

Clinical features and pharmacotherapy of childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders.  

PubMed

Childhood neurotransmitter disorders are increasingly recognised as an expanding group of inherited neurometabolic syndromes. They are caused by disturbance in synthesis, metabolism, and homeostasis of the monoamine neurotransmitters, including the catecholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine) and serotonin. Disturbances in monoamine neurotransmission will lead to neurological symptoms that often overlap with clinical features of other childhood neurological disorders (such as hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy, cerebral palsy, other movement disorders, and paroxysmal conditions); consequently, neurotransmitter disorders are frequently misdiagnosed. The diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is made through detailed clinical assessment, analysis of cerebrospinal fluid neurotransmitters, and further supportive diagnostic investigations. Early and accurate diagnosis of neurotransmitter disorders is important, as many are amenable to therapeutic intervention. The principles of treatment for monoamine neurotransmitter disorders are mainly directly derived from understanding these metabolic pathways. In disorders characterized by enzyme deficiency, we aim to increase monoamine substrate availability, boost enzyme co-factor levels, reduce monoamine breakdown, and replace depleted levels of monoamines with pharmacological analogs as clinically indicated. Most monoamine neurotransmitter disorders lead to reduced levels of central dopamine and/or serotonin. Complete amelioration of motor symptoms is achievable in some disorders, such as Segawa's syndrome, and, in other conditions, significant improvement in quality of life can be attained with pharmacotherapy. In this review, we provide an overview of the clinical features and current treatment strategies for childhood monoamine neurotransmitter disorders. PMID:25011953

Ng, J; Heales, S J R; Kurian, M A

2014-08-01

53

Role of melatonin, serotonin 2B, and serotonin 2C receptors in modulating the firing activity of rat dopamine neurons.  

PubMed

Melatonin has been widely used for the management of insomnia, but is devoid of antidepressant effect in the clinic. In contrast, agomelatine which is a potent melatonin receptor agonist is an effective antidepressant. It is, however, a potent serotonin 2B (5-HT(2B)) and serotonin 2C (5-HT(2C)) receptor antagonist as well. The present study was aimed at investigating the in vivo effects of repeated administration of melatonin (40 mg/kg/day), the 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg/day), the selective 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonist LY 266097 (0.6 mg/kg/day) and their combination on ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA), locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE), and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) serotonin (5-HT) firing activity. Administration of melatonin twice daily increased the number of spontaneously active DA neurons but left the firing of NE neurons unaltered. Long-term administration of melatonin and SB 242084, by themselves, had no effect on the firing rate and burst parameters of 5-HT and DA neurons. Their combination, however, enhanced only the number of spontaneously active DA neurons, while leaving the firing of 5-HT neurons unchanged. The addition of LY 266097, which by itself is devoid of effect, to the previous regimen increased for DA neurons the number of bursts per minute and the percentage of spikes occurring in bursts. In conclusion, the combination of melatonin receptor activation as well as 5-HT(2C) receptor blockade resulted in a disinhibition of DA neurons. When 5-HT(2B) receptors were also blocked, the firing and the bursting activity of DA neurons were both enhanced, thus reproducing the effect of agomelatine. PMID:24189440

Chenu, Franck; Shim, Stacey; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

2014-02-01

54

PNDDB: Database of Pediatric Neurotransmitter Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The catecholamines (dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and epinephrine (E)), together with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5HT), are major neurotransmitters that are involved with the control of brain homeostasis, behavior, and movement. The initial synthesis steps require hydroxylation of tyrosine to L-dopa, via the action of TH, for the catecholamines, and hydroxylation of tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP), via the action of tryptophan

A. Roubertie; B. Assmann; T. Lutz; J. M. Penzien; B. Thony; N. Blau

55

The mechanistic basis for noncompetitive ibogaine inhibition of serotonin and dopamine transporters.  

PubMed

Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study. PMID:22451652

Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H; Sandtner, Walter

2012-05-25

56

The Mechanistic Basis for Noncompetitive Ibogaine Inhibition of Serotonin and Dopamine Transporters*  

PubMed Central

Ibogaine, a hallucinogenic alkaloid proposed as a treatment for opiate withdrawal, has been shown to inhibit serotonin transporter (SERT) noncompetitively, in contrast to all other known inhibitors, which are competitive with substrate. Ibogaine binding to SERT increases accessibility in the permeation pathway connecting the substrate-binding site with the cytoplasm. Because of the structural similarity between ibogaine and serotonin, it had been suggested that ibogaine binds to the substrate site of SERT. The results presented here show that ibogaine binds to a distinct site, accessible from the cell exterior, to inhibit both serotonin transport and serotonin-induced ionic currents. Ibogaine noncompetitively inhibited transport by both SERT and the homologous dopamine transporter (DAT). Ibogaine blocked substrate-induced currents also in DAT and increased accessibility of the DAT cytoplasmic permeation pathway. When present on the cell exterior, ibogaine inhibited SERT substrate-induced currents, but not when it was introduced into the cytoplasm through the patch electrode. Similar to noncompetitive transport inhibition, the current block was not reversed by increasing substrate concentration. The kinetics of inhibitor binding and dissociation, as determined by their effect on SERT currents, indicated that ibogaine does not inhibit by forming a long-lived complex with SERT, but rather binds directly to the transporter in an inward-open conformation. A kinetic model for transport describing the noncompetitive action of ibogaine and the competitive action of cocaine accounts well for the results of the present study.

Bulling, Simon; Schicker, Klaus; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Steinkellner, Thomas; Stockner, Thomas; Gruber, Christian W.; Boehm, Stefan; Freissmuth, Michael; Rudnick, Gary; Sitte, Harald H.; Sandtner, Walter

2012-01-01

57

Effect of traumatic imagery on cerebrospinal fluid dopamine and serotonin metabolites in posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

Dopaminergic mechanisms may be involved in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), although the evidence for this is limited; serotonergic mechanisms are implicated largely by virtue of the modest efficacy of serotonergic drugs in the treatment of the disorder. Basal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dopamine and serotonin metabolite concentrations are normal in PTSD patients. However, in the present experiment, we postulated that perturbations in CSF dopamine and serotonin metabolites could be induced by acute psychological stress. Ten volunteers with war-related chronic PTSD underwent 6-h continuous lumbar CSF withdrawal on two occasions per patient (6-9 weeks apart), using a randomized, within subject-controlled, crossover design. During one session a 1-h video with trauma-related footage (traumatic video) was shown and in the other session subjects viewed a 1-h neutral video. We quantified the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in CSF at 10-min intervals, before, during, and after video provocation. Blood pressure, heart rate, and subjective anxiety and mood were monitored. Significant drop in mood and increases in anxiety and blood pressure occurred during the traumatic relative to the neutral movie. CSF HVA concentrations diminished significantly after the traumatic video (p < 0.05), in comparison with the neutral, while 5-HIAA tended to diminish (p < 0.10). We conclude that an acute decline in CNS HVA concentrations is associated with laboratory-induced symptoms in chronic PTSD patients. While further research is required to determine if the stress-induced dopaminergic changes are normative or pathological, the present data suggest that increasing dopaminergic neurotransmission be explored as a potential therapy, or adjunctive therapy, for PTSD. PMID:23540599

Geracioti, Thomas D; Jefferson-Wilson, Lena; Strawn, Jeffrey R; Baker, Dewleen G; Dashevsky, Boris A; Horn, Paul S; Ekhator, Nosakhare N

2013-07-01

58

Simple method for the simultaneous determination of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin by stepwise elution from a short column of weak cation-exchange resin.  

PubMed

A simple method for the simultaneous determination of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin using a short column of Amberlite CG-50 is described. Noradrenaline and dopamine were eluted from the column with phosphate buffers containing 1.5 and 4.0% boric acid, respectively, and then serotonin was eluted with 1.0 N HCl. Catecholamines were determined by a modification of the ethylenediamine condensation method using potassium ferricyanide as oxidant and isobutanol for extraction of the fluorophores. Serotonin was measured by the acidic o-phthalaldehyde method. The method was applied to the simultaneous determination of noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin in discrete regions of rat brain. PMID:541447

Ogasahara, S; Mandai, T; Yamatodani, A; Watanabe, T; Wada, H; Seki, T

1979-11-28

59

LC-ESI-MS-MS Method for Monitoring Dopamine, Serotonin and Their Metabolites in Brain Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and precise LC-ESI-MS-MS method for the parallel identification and quantification of dopamine, serotonin and their\\u000a metabolites (homovanillic acid, 3-methoxytyramine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid) from rat\\u000a brain tissue without any pre-analysis adjustment of the sample such as pre-concentration or derivatization has been developed.\\u000a In particular, the reaction-monitoring mode was selected for its extremely high degree of selectivity and

V?ra Najmanová; Lukáš Rambousek; Kamila Syslová; V?ra Bubeníková; Romana Šlamberová; Karel Valeš; Petr Ka?er

2011-01-01

60

Fluorescent-Labeled Lipophilic Analogues of Serotonin, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine: Synthesis, Mass Spectrometry, and Biological Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

4,4-Difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoyl derivatives of serotonin, dopamine, choline, and N,N-dimethylaminoethanol, with the fluorescence maximum at 512 nm (?exc 470 nm), and 4,4-difluoro-5,7-diphenyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoyl derivatives of choline and N,N-dimethylaminoethanol, with the fluorescence maximum at 554 nm (?exc 470 nm), were synthesized. These compounds yield protonated molecular ions of 100% intensity upon mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization at atmospheric pressure. The fragmentation of molecular ions

V. V. Bezuglov; N. M. Gretskaya; S. E. Esipov; N. B. Polyakov; L. A. Nikitina; G. A. Buznikov; J. Lauder

2004-01-01

61

Changes in sensitivity of brain dopamine and serotonin receptors during long-term treatment with carbidine  

SciTech Connect

The authors study the state of the dopamine and serotonin receptors of the brain during chronic administration of carbidine to animals. Parts of the brain from two rats were pooled and binding of tritium-spiperone and tritium-LSD was determined. Statistical analysis of the data for apomorphine sterotypy was carried out and the Student's test was used for analysis of the remaining data. It is shown that after discontinuation of carbidine binding of tritium-spiperone and tritium-LSD in the cortex was reduced.

Zharkovskii, A.M.; Allikmets, L.K.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

1986-04-01

62

Recognition properties and competitive assays of a dual dopamine/serotonin selective molecularly imprinted polymer.  

PubMed

A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with dual dopamine/serotonin-like binding sites (DS-MIP) was synthesized for use as a receptor model of study the drug-interaction of biological mixed receptors at a molecular level. The polymer material was produced using methacrylic acid (MAA) and acrylamide (ACM) as functional monomers, N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as cross-linker, methanol/water mixture (4:1, v/v) as porogen and a mixture of dopamine (D) and serotonin (S) as templates. The prepared DS-MIP exhibited the greatest rebinding of the template(s) in aqueous methanol solution with decreased recognition in acetonitrile, water and methanol solvent. The binding affinity and binding capacity of DS-MIP with S were found to be higher than those of DS-MIP with D. The selectivity profiles of DS-MIP suggest that the D binding site of DS-MIP has sufficient integrity to discriminate between species of non-optimal functional group orientation, whilst the S binding site of DS-MIP is less selective toward species having structural features and functional group orientations different from S. The ligand binding activities of a series of ergot derivatives (ergocryptine, ergocornine, ergocristine, ergonovine, agroclavine, pergolide and terguride) have been studied with the DS-MIP using a competitive ligand binding assay protocol. The binding affinities of DS-MIP were demonstrated in the micro- or submicro-molar range for a series of ergot derivatives, whereas the binding affinities were considerably greater to natural receptors derived from the rat hypothalamus. The DS-MIP afforded the same pattern of differentiation as the natural receptors, i.e. affinity for the clavines > lysergic acid derivatives > ergopeptines. The results suggest that the discrimination for the ergot derivatives by the dopamine and serotonin sites of DS-MIP is due to the structural features and functional orientation of the phenylethylamine and indolylethylamine entities at the binding sites, and the fidelity of the dopamine and serotonin imprinted cavities. PMID:19330079

Suedee, Roongnapa; Seechamnanturakit, Vatcharee; Suksuwan, Acharee; Canyuk, Bhutorn

2008-12-01

63

Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiencies.  

PubMed

Pediatric neurotransmitter disorders refer to a constellation of inherited neurometabolic syndromes attributable to disturbances of neurotransmitter synthesis, degradation, or transport. Monoamine deficiencies represent defects in synthesis of dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine or in availability of tetrahydrobiopterin, an important cofactor for monoamine synthesis. Some disorders do not manifest peripheral hyperphenyalaninemia and require CSF neurotransmitter metabolite assay for diagnosis. These include Segawa dopa-responsive dystonia and enzymatic deficiencies of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and sepiapterin reductase. The first, autosomal dominantly inherited GTP cyclohydrolase deficiency, has a satisfying response to therapy at any age with benefits maintained over time. The others have more severe and treatment-refractory phenotypes, typically with manifestations well beyond movement disorders. Disorders detectable by elevated serum phenylalanine are deficiencies of GTP cyclohydrolase (homozygous), pterin-carbinolamine dehydratase, dihydropteridine reductase, and pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase. The latter is the most prevalent and heterogeneous but typically has infantile onset with extrapyramidal as well as bulbar, hypothalamic, limbic, and epileptic manifestations. There are therapeutic roles for neurotransmitter supplementation, and dopaminergic agonists. Basal ganglia calcifications in dihydropteridine reductase deficiency are reversible with folinic acid. Deficiencies of monoamine degradation lead to cognitive, behavioral, and autonomic disorders. PMID:23622404

Pearl, Phillip L

2013-01-01

64

Striatal dopamine release and genetic variation of the serotonin 2C receptor in humans.  

PubMed

Mesoaccumbal and nigrostriatal projections are sensitive to stress, and heightened stress sensitivity is thought to confer risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. Serotonin 2C (5-HT(2C)) receptors mediate the inhibitory effects of serotonin on dopaminergic circuitry in experimental animals, and preclinical findings have implicated 5-HT(2C) receptors in motivated behaviors and psychotropic drug mechanisms. In humans, a common missense single-nucleotide change (rs6318, Cys23Ser) in the 5-HT(2C) receptor gene (HTR2C) has been associated with altered activity in vitro and with clinical mood disorders. We hypothesized that dopaminergic circuitry would be more sensitive to stress in humans carrying the Ser23 variant. To test this hypothesis, we studied 54 healthy humans using positron emission tomography and the displaceable D(2)/D(3) receptor radiotracer [(11)C]raclopride. Binding potential (BP(ND)) was quantified before and after a standardized stress challenge consisting of 20 min of moderate deep muscular pain, and reduction in BP(ND) served as an index of dopamine release. The Cys23Ser variant was genotyped on a custom array, and ancestry informative markers were used to control for population stratification. We found greater dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen among Ser23 carriers, after controlling for sex, age, and ancestry. Genotype accounted for 12% of the variance in dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. There was no association of Cys23Ser with baseline BP(ND). These findings indicate that a putatively functional HTR2C variant (Ser23) is associated with greater striatal dopamine release during pain in healthy humans. Mesoaccumbal stress sensitivity may mediate the effects of HTR2C variation on risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22764241

Mickey, Brian J; Sanford, Benjamin J; Love, Tiffany M; Shen, Pei-Hong; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Stohler, Christian S; Goldman, David; Zubieta, Jon-Kar

2012-07-01

65

Brexpiprazole I: in vitro and in vivo characterization of a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator.  

PubMed

Brexpiprazole (OPC-34712, 7-{4-[4-(1-benzothiophen-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}quinolin-2(1H)-one) is a novel drug candidate in clinical development for psychiatric disorders with high affinity for serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline receptors. In particular, it bound with high affinity (Ki < 1 nM) to human serotonin 1A (h5-HT1A)-, h5-HT2A-, long form of human D2 (hD2L)-, h?1B-, and h?2C-adrenergic receptors. It displayed partial agonism at h5-HT1A and hD2 receptors in cloned receptor systems and potent antagonism of h5-HT2A receptors and h?1B/2C-adrenoceptors. Brexpiprazole also had affinity (Ki < 5 nM) for hD3-, h5-HT2B-, h5-HT7-, h?1A-, and h?1D-adrenergic receptors, moderate affinity for hH1 (Ki = 19 nM), and low affinity for hM1 receptors (Ki > 1000 nM). Brexpiprazole potently bound to rat 5-HT2A and D2 receptors in vivo, and ex vivo binding studies further confirmed high 5-HT1A receptor binding potency. Brexpiprazole inhibited DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine)-induced head twitches in rats, suggestive of 5-HT2A antagonism. Furthermore, in vivo D2 partial agonist activity of brexpiprazole was confirmed by its inhibitory effect on reserpine-induced DOPA accumulation in rats. In rat microdialysis studies, brexpiprazole slightly reduced extracellular dopamine in nucleus accumbens but not in prefrontal cortex, whereas moderate increases of the dopamine metabolites, homovanillic acid and DOPAC (3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl-acetic acid), in these areas also suggested in vivo D2 partial agonist activity. In particular, based on a lower intrinsic activity at D2 receptors and higher binding affinities for 5-HT1A/2A receptors than aripiprazole, brexpiprazole would have a favorable antipsychotic potential without D2 receptor agonist- and antagonist-related adverse effects. In conclusion, brexpiprazole is a serotonin-dopamine activity modulator with a unique pharmacology, which may offer novel treatment options across a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders. PMID:24947465

Maeda, Kenji; Sugino, Haruhiko; Akazawa, Hitomi; Amada, Naoki; Shimada, Jun; Futamura, Takashi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Ito, Nobuaki; McQuade, Robert D; Mørk, Arne; Pehrson, Alan L; Hentzer, Morten; Nielsen, Vibeke; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Arnt, Jørn; Stensbøl, Tine Bryan; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

2014-09-01

66

Solvent Extraction Method for Simultaneous Determination of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Serotonin, And 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid in a Single Mouse Brain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method is described for simultaneously determining norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in a single small piece of brain tissue. Up to 40-60 pieces of tissue can be conveniently processed at the same time. As many as 120 p...

A. S. Welch B. L. Welch

1968-01-01

67

Cell Lineage, Cell Death, and the Developmental Origin of ldenti Serotonin and Dopamine-Containing Neurons in the Leech  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nervous system of the glossiphoniid leech includes segmentally iterated neurons that contain serotonin (5HT) and dopamine. These have been investigated in Helobdella triserialis, Theromyzon rude, and Haementeria ghilianii. Five types of 5-HT neurons are identified by immunocytochem- istry in the abdominal ganglia of the ventral nerve cord: the bilaterally paired Retzius, anteromedial, ventrolateral and dorsolateral neurons, and the unpaired

Duncan K. Stuart; Seth S. Blair; David A. Weisblatb

1987-01-01

68

Modulation of the stress response by coffee: an in vivo microdialysis study of hippocampal serotonin and dopamine levels in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied whether coffee and its components (caffeine and chlorogenic acid) have stress-relaxing effects. In vivo brain microdialysis was used to characterize the effects of coffee, stress, and their interaction on the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in the rat hippocampus. Restraint stress for 100 min caused a marked increase in dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) levels in the hippocampus, and then,

Takako Yamato; Satomi Yamasaki; Yukiko Misumi; Mayuko Kino; Toshio Obata; Masahiro Aomine

2002-01-01

69

Association of dopamine transporter and monoamine oxidase molecular polymorphisms with sudden infant death syndrome and stillbirth: new insights into the serotonin hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings demonstrated the role of neurotransmitters in the aetiopathogenesis of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy.\\u000a Although genes involved in serotonin metabolism have been proposed as risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS),\\u000a the contribution of additional neurotransmitters and genes different from the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4, 5-HTT) has not been investigated. Considering the common metabolic pathway and synergism between

Laura Filonzi; Cinzia Magnani; Anna Maria Lavezzi; Guido Rindi; Stefano Parmigiani; Giulio Bevilacqua; Luigi Matturri; Francesco Nonnis Marzano

2009-01-01

70

Function and evolution of the serotonin-synthetic bas-1 gene and other aromatic amino acid decarboxylase genes in Caenorhabditis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of biogenic amines, including the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, throughout the animal kingdom. These neurotransmitters typically perform important functions in both the nervous system and other tissues, as illustrated by the debilitating conditions that arise from their deficiency. Studying the regulation and evolution of AADC genes is therefore desirable to

Emily E Hare; Curtis M Loer

2004-01-01

71

Optimal physical performance in athletes: key roles of dopamine in a specific neurotransmitter\\/hormonal mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is proposed that exercise training leads to resetting of the central autonomic nervous system (ANS) status, modifies neuroendocrine function and consistently results in upgraded efficiency of physiological\\/metabolic regulations. The initiating neurotransmitter mechanism is widely held to be due, essentially, to activation of certain brain cholinergic neurons (amygdala n.), stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical pathway, and to cortisol as the dominant

Christine Gilbert

1995-01-01

72

[Fluorescent-labeled lipophilic analogues of serotonin, dopamine, and acetylcholine: synthesis, mass spectrometry, and biological activity].  

PubMed

4,4-Difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoyl derivatives of serotonin, dopamine, choline, and N,N-dimethylaminoethanol, with the fluorescence maximum at 512 nm (lambda(exc) 470 nm), and 4,4-difluoro-5,7-diphenyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-dodecanoyl derivatives of choline and N,N-dimethylaminoethanol, with the fluorescence maximum at 554 nm (lambda(exc) 470 nm), were synthesized. These compounds yield protonated molecular ions of 100% intensity upon mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization at atmospheric pressure. The fragmentation of molecular ions under the conditions of secondary mass spectrometry mainly proceeds through the elimination of hydrogen fluoride from the fluorescent core of the molecules. Experiments on sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus embryos and larvae showed that these compounds easily penetrate into the cells and are accumulated in the cytoplasm. They do not differ in their biological activity from similar derivatives of arachidonic acid described previously and are agonists of serotonin or acetylcholine or antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The English version of the paper: Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry, 2004, vol. 30, no. 5; see also http: // www.maik.ru. PMID:15562973

Bezyglov, V V; Gretskaia, N M; Esipov, S E; Poliakov, N B; Nikitina, L A; Buznikov, G A; Lauder, J

2004-01-01

73

Dopamine transport by the serotonin transporter: a mechanistically distinct mode of substrate translocation  

PubMed Central

The serotonin transporter (SERT) is the principal mechanism for terminating serotonin (5HT) signals in the nervous system and is a site of action for a variety of psychoactive drugs including antidepressants, amphetamines, and cocaine. Here we show that human SERTs (hSERTs) and rat SERTs are capable of robust dopamine (DA) uptake through a process that differs mechanistically from 5HT transport in several unanticipated ways. DA transport by hSERT has a higher maximum velocity than 5HT transport, requires significantly higher Na+ and Cl? concentrations to sustain transport, is inhibited non-competitively by 5HT and is more sensitive to SERT inhibitors, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). We use a thiol reactive methane thiosulfonate (MTS) reagent to modify a conformationally-sensitive cysteine residue to demonstrate that hSERT spends more time in an outward facing conformation when transporting DA than when transporting 5HT. Co-transfection of an inactive or an MTS-sensitive SERT with wild type SERT subunits reveals an absence of cooperative interactions between subunits during DA, but not 5HT transport. To establish the physiological relevance of this mechanism for DA clearance, we show using in vivo high-speed chronoamperometry that SERT has the capacity to clear extracellularly applied DA in the hippocampal CA3 region of anesthetized rats. Together, these observations suggest the possibility that SERT serves as a DA transporter in vivo and highlight the idea that there can be distinct modes of transport of alternative physiological substrates by SERT.

Larsen, Mads Breum; Sonders, Mark S.; Mortensen, Ole Valente; Larson, Gaynor A.; Zahniser, Nancy R.; Amara, Susan G.

2011-01-01

74

Serotonin and Dopamine Play Complementary Roles in Gambling to Recover Losses  

PubMed Central

Continued gambling to recover losses—‘loss chasing'—is a prominent feature of social and pathological gambling. However, little is known about the neuromodulators that influence this behavior. In three separate experiments, we investigated the role of serotonin activity, D2/D3 receptor activity, and beta-adrenoceptor activity on the loss chasing of age and IQ-matched healthy adults randomized to treatment or an appropriate control/placebo. In Experiment 1, participants consumed amino-acid drinks that did or did not contain the serotonin precursor, tryptophan. In Experiment 2, participants received a single 176??g dose of the D2/D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole, or placebo. In Experiment 3, participants received a single 80?mg dose of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker, propranolol, or placebo. Following treatment, participants completed a computerized loss-chasing game. Mood and heart rate were measured at baseline and following treatment. Tryptophan depletion significantly reduced the number of decisions made to chase losses, and the number of consecutive decisions to chase, in the absence of marked changes in mood. By contrast, pramipexole significantly increased the value of losses chased and diminished the value of losses surrendered. Propranolol markedly reduced heart rate, but produced no significant changes in loss-chasing behavior. Loss chasing can be thought of as an aversively motivated escape behavior controlled, in part, by the marginal value of continued gambling relative to the value of already accumulated losses. Serotonin and dopamine appear to play dissociable roles in the tendency of individuals to gamble to recover, or to seek to ‘escape' from, previous losses. Serotonergic activity seems to promote the availability of loss chasing as a behavioral option, whereas D2/D3 receptor activity produces complex changes in the value of losses judged worth chasing. Sympathetic arousal, at least as mediated by beta-adrenoceptors, does not play a major role in laboratory-based loss-chasing choices.

Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel; Wakeley, Judi; Herbert, Vanessa; Cook, Jennifer; Scollo, Paolo; Ray, Manaan Kar; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Passingham, Richard E; Cowen, Phillip; Rogers, Robert D

2011-01-01

75

Gold nanoparticles modified indium tin oxide electrode for the simultaneous determination of dopamine and serotonin: Application in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids.  

PubMed

A new rapid, convenient and sensitive electrochemical method based on a gold nanoparticles modified ITO (Au/ITO) electrode is described for the detection of dopamine and serotonin in the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid. The electrocatalytic response was evaluated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and the modified electrode exhibited good electrocatalytic properties towards dopamine and serotonin oxidation with a peak potential of 70mV and 240mV lower than that at the bare ITO electrode, respectively. The selective sensing of dopamine is further improved by applying square wave voltammetry (SWV) which leads to the lowering of its detection limit. A similar effect on the detection limit of serotonin was observed on using SWV. Linear calibration curves are obtained in the range 1.0x10(-9)-5.0x10(-4)M and 1.0x10(-8)-2.5x10(-4)M with a detection limit of 0.5nM and 3.0nM for dopamine and serotonin, respectively. The Au/ITO electrode efficiently determines both the biomolecules simultaneously, even in the presence of a large excess of ascorbic acid. The adequacy of the developed method was evaluated by applying it to the determination of the content of dopamine in dopamine hydrochloride injections. The proposed procedure was also successfully applied to simultaneously detect dopamine and serotonin in human serum and urine. PMID:19071712

Goyal, Rajendra N; Gupta, Vinod K; Oyama, Munetaka; Bachheti, Neeta

2007-05-15

76

Cocaine reward models: Conditioned place preference can be established in dopamine- and in serotonin-transporter knockout mice  

PubMed Central

Cocaine and methylphenidate block uptake by neuronal plasma membrane transporters for dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine. Cocaine also blocks voltage-gated sodium channels, a property not shared by methylphenidate. Several lines of evidence have suggested that cocaine blockade of the dopamine transporter (DAT), perhaps with additional contributions from serotonin transporter (5-HTT) recognition, was key to its rewarding actions. We now report that knockout mice without DAT and mice without 5-HTT establish cocaine-conditioned place preferences. Each strain displays cocaine-conditioned place preference in this major mouse model for assessing drug reward, while methylphenidate-conditioned place preference is also maintained in DAT knockout mice. These results have substantial implications for understanding cocaine actions and for strategies to produce anticocaine medications.

Sora, Ichiro; Wichems, Christine; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Li, Xiao-Fei; Zeng, Zhizhen; Revay, Randal; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Murphy, Dennis L.; Uhl, George R.

1998-01-01

77

Mood is indirectly related to serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine levels in humans: a meta-analysis of monoamine depletion studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dysfunction in the monoamine systems of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) may causally be related to major depressive disorder (MDD). Monoamine depletion studies investigate the direct effects of monoamines on mood. Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) or para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) deplete 5-HT, acute phenylalanine\\/tyrosine depletion (APTD) or alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine (AMPT) deplete NE\\/DA. Available depletion studies found conflicting results in heterogeneous populations:

H G Ruhé; N S Mason; A H Schene

2007-01-01

78

Risperidone: regional effects in vivo on release and metabolism of dopamine and serotonin in the rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antipsychotic drug risperidone shows high affinity for both central serotonin (5-HT)2A and dopamine (DA)-D2 receptors in vivo. By employing microdialysis in freely moving rats, the effects of acute risperidone administration on regional brain DA and 5-HT release and metabolism were compared with the corresponding effects of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine as well as amperozide, the selective DA-D2 receptor

P. Hertel; G. G. Nomikos; M. Iurlo; T. H. Svensson

1996-01-01

79

Methamphetamine-elicited alterations of dopamine- and serotonin-metabolite levels within ? -opioid receptor knockout mice: a microdialysis study  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Opioid receptors (?-ORs) modulate methamphetamine (MA)-induced behavioral responses, increased locomotor activity and stereotyped\\u000a behavior in the mouse model. We investigated the changes in dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) metabolism in the striatum\\u000a following either acute or repeated MA treatment using in vivo microdialysis. We also studied the role of ?-ORs in the modulation\\u000a of MA-induced DA and 5-HT metabolism within ?-OR

Kuo-Cheng Lan; Tangeng Ma; Shoei-Yn Lin-Shiau; Shing-Hwa Liu; Ing-Kang Ho

2008-01-01

80

SPECT imaging of dopamine and serotonin transporters with [ 123 I]?-CIT. Binding kinetics in the human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) studies in non-human primates have previously shown that the cocaine derivative [123I]-2-ß-carbomethoxy-3-ß-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane ([123I]ß-CIT) labels dopamine transporters in the striatum and serotonin transporters in the hypothalamusmidbrain area. Here, we report on the regional kinetic uptake of [123I]ß-CIT in the brain of 4 normal volunteers and 2 patients with Parkinson's disease. In healthy subjects striatal

T. Briicke; J. Kornhuber; P. Angelberger; S. Asenbaum; H. Frassine; I. Podreka

1993-01-01

81

Enhancement of [ 123 I]ß-CIT binding in the striatum with clomipramine: is there a serotonin-dopamine interaction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reports support the concept of serotonergic-dopaminergic interaction in the brain. However, at present, there are few methods to study this relationship in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of serotonin (5-HT) uptake inhibitor, clomipramine, on a dopamine (DA) transporter ligand, [123I]#-CIT (RTI-55), in rat brain. Dose-dependent changes in [123I]#-CIT specific binding induced by clomipramine

Masahiro Fujita; Keizo Takatoku; Yoshinori Matoba; Masaru Nishiura; Kaoru Kobayashi; Osamu Inoue; Tsunehiko Nishimura

1997-01-01

82

Enhancement of [ 123 I]?-CIT binding in the striatum with clomipramine: Is there a serotonin-dopamine interaction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many reports support the concept of serotonergic-dopaminergic interaction in the brain. However, at present, there are few methods to study this relationship in vivo. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of serotonin (5-HT) uptake inhibitor, clomipramine, on a dopamine (DA) transporter ligand, [123I]ß-CIT (RTI-55), in rat brain. Dose-dependent changes in [123I]ß-CIT specific binding induced by clomipramine

Masahiro Fujita; Keizo Takatoku; Yoshinori Matoba; Masaru Nishiura; Kaoru Kobayashi; Tsunehiko Nishimura; Osamu Inoue

1997-01-01

83

Site-specific activation of dopamine and serotonin transmission by aniracetam in the mesocorticolimbic pathway of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of aniracetam on extracellular levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites were examined in five brain regions in freely moving stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) using in vivo microdialysis. Basal DA release in SHRSP was uniformly lower in all regions tested than that in age-matched control Wistar Kyoto rats. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid levels were

Kazuo Nakamura; Masatoshi Shirane; Noriaki Koshikawa

2001-01-01

84

Optimal physical performance in athletes: key roles of dopamine in a specific neurotransmitter/hormonal mechanism.  

PubMed

It is proposed that exercise training leads to resetting of the central autonomic nervous system (ANS) status, modifies neuroendocrine function and consistently results in upgraded efficiency of physiological/metabolic regulations. The initiating neurotransmitter mechanism is widely held to be due, essentially, to activation of certain brain cholinergic neurons (amygdala n.), stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical pathway, and to cortisol as the dominant peripheral effector of overall improved efficiency. This thesis raises certain questions. The present analysis, based on studies of sedentary and exercise trained humans, proposes the following: that (1) the ANS profile in exercise consists in enhanced dopaminergic (DA) relative to noradrenergic (NA) activity and increased vagal tone; (2) DA is the principal catecholamine neuromodulator/neurotransmitter of the brain, directly involved in motor control in the striatum and is key to the mechanism underlying increased and maintained efficiency of exercise trained humans; (3) DA is a major participant in many aspects of motor function which include the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function (heart rate, blood pressure, and other), muscle tone, visual processing, calcium homeostasis, protein synthesis and conceivably the optimal utilization of food intake; (4) the peripheral actions of DA reflect and are functionally interrelated to the observed global activation of brain DA systems in exercising animals, and probably man; (5) that a different enzyme profile evolves in exercise training which may potentiate DA synthesis and preserve the structural and functional integrity of central DA neurons; (6) that a shift to enhanced DA vs. NA activity occurs in exercise trained Whites which resembles the norm for sedentary Africans and confers distinct physiological advantages; (7) there is unequivocal evidence for the physiological efficiency of a DA dominated ANS profile which can be correlated to the low incidence of DA related diseases in aging Africans; (8) data suggests that the superiority of top-class African athletes in distance running and their endurance capacity are related to an inherent neurophysiological advantage, to efficient DA and protein synthesis, a decreased rate of DA decline during aging and to improved calcium homeostasis, inter alia. Throughout this study, the term sedentary refers to subjects not undergoing specific exercise training of defined intensity and duration. PMID:8788237

Gilbert, C

1995-10-13

85

Analysis of intact glucuronides and sulfates of serotonin, dopamine, and their phase I metabolites in rat brain microdialysates by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method for the analysis of intact glucuronides and sulfates of common neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) as well as of 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) in rat brain microdialysates by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Enzyme-assisted synthesis using rat liver microsomes as a biocatalyst was employed for the production of 5-HT-, 5-HIAA-, DOPAC-, and HVA-glucuronides for reference compounds. The sulfate conjugates were synthesized either chemically or enzymatically using a rat liver S9 fraction. The LC-MS/MS method was validated by determining the limits of detection and quantitation, linearity, and repeatability for the quantitative analysis of 5-HT and DA and their glucuronides, as well as of 5-HIAA, DOPAC, and HVA and their sulfate-conjugates. In this study, 5-HT-glucuronide was for the first time detected in rat brain. The concentration of 5-HT-glucuronide (1.0-1.7 nM) was up to 2.5 times higher than that of free 5-HT (0.4-2.1 nM) in rat brain microdialysates, whereas the concentration of DA-glucuronide (1.0-1.4 nM) was at the same level or lower than the free DA (1.2-2.4 nM). The acidic metabolites of neurotransmitters, 5-HIAA, HVA, and DOPAC, were found in free and sulfated form, whereas their glucuronidation was not observed. PMID:19772284

Uutela, Päivi; Reinilä, Ruut; Harju, Kirsi; Piepponen, Petteri; Ketola, Raimo A; Kostiainen, Risto

2009-10-15

86

Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Releasers: Potential Treatment Agents for Stimulant Addiction  

PubMed Central

“Agonist therapy” for cocaine and methamphetamine addiction involves administration of stimulant-like medications (e.g., monoamine releasers) to reduce withdrawal symptoms and prevent relapse. A significant problem with this strategy is that many candidate medications possess abuse liability because of activation of mesolimbic dopamine (DA) neurons in the brain. One way to reduce DA-mediated abuse liability of candidate drugs is to add in serotonin (5-HT) releasing properties, since substantial evidence shows that 5-HT neurons provide an inhibitory influence over mesolimbic DA neurons. This article addresses several key issues related to the development of dual DA/5-HT releasers for the treatment of substance use disorders. First, the authors briefly summarize the evidence supporting a dual deficit in DA and 5-HT function during withdrawal from chronic cocaine or alcohol abuse. Second, the authors discuss data demonstrating that 5HT release can dampen DA-mediated stimulant effects, and the “antistimulant” role of 5-HT2C receptors is considered. Next, the mechanisms underlying potential adverse effects of 5-HT releasers are described. Finally, the authors discuss recently published data with PAL-287, a novel nonamphetamine DA/5-HT releasing agent that suppresses cocaine self-administration but lacks positive reinforcing properties. It is concluded that DA/5-HT releasers could be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of cocaine and alcohol addictions, as well as for obesity, attention-deficit disorder, and depression.

Rothman, Richard B.; Blough, Bruce E.; Baumann, Michael H.

2009-01-01

87

A Comparison of the Subsecond Dynamics of Neurotransmission of Dopamine and Serotonin  

PubMed Central

The neuromodulators dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) are similar in a number of ways. Both monoamines can act by volume transmission at metabotropic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission in brain circuits. Presynaptic regulation of 5-HT and DA is governed by parallel processes, and behaviorally, both exert control over emotional processing. However, differences are also apparent: more than twice as many 5-HT receptor subtypes mediate postsynaptic effects than DA receptors and different presynaptic regulation is also emerging. Monoamines are amenable to real-time electrochemical detection using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), which allows resolution of the subsecond dynamics of release and reuptake in response to a single action potential. This approach has greatly enriched understanding of DA transmission and has facilitated an integrated view of how DA mediates behavioral control. However, technical challenges are associated with FSCV measurement of 5-HT and understanding of 5-HT transmission at subsecond resolution has not advanced at the same rate. As a result, how the actions of 5-HT at the level of the synapse translate into behavior is poorly understood. Recent technical advances may aid the study of 5-HT in real-time. It is timely, therefore, to compare and contrast what is currently understood of the subsecond characteristics of transmission for DA and 5-HT. In doing so, a number of areas are highlighted as being worthy of exploration for 5-HT.

2013-01-01

88

The effects of methamphetamine on serotonin transporter activity: role of dopamine and hyperthermia.  

PubMed

Multiple administrations of methamphetamine (METH) rapidly decreased serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT) function in rat striatum and hippocampus. The purpose of this study was to identify the mechanisms/ factors contributing to this METH-induced decrease in SERT function. Multiple high-dose METH injections rapidly decreased 5HT uptake without altering binding of the 5HT transporter ligand paroxetine. Hyperthermia contributed to this deficit in transporter function in striatum and hippocampus, as prevention of METH-induced hyperthermia attenuated this decrease. A role for dopamine (DA) was suggested by findings that pretreatment with the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine, the D1 antagonist SCH-23390, or the D2 antagonist eticlopride attenuated the METH-induced decrease in striatal, but not hippocampal, SERT activity. These effects were independent of the ability of these DA-antagonizing drugs to prevent METH-induced hyperthermia. These results suggest that DA contributes to the decrease in SERT function caused by multiple METH injections in the striatum, but not hippocampus, and that hyperthermia facilitates these deficits in SERT function in both brain regions. In contrast, the response of SERT to a single administration of METH was DA and hyperthermia independent. These findings suggest that the mechanisms/ factors involved in decreasing SERT activity after a single administration of METH are distinct from that caused by multiple administrations. PMID:10987842

Haughey, H M; Fleckenstein, A E; Metzger, R R; Hanson, G R

2000-10-01

89

A comparison of the subsecond dynamics of neurotransmission of dopamine and serotonin.  

PubMed

The neuromodulators dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) are similar in a number of ways. Both monoamines can act by volume transmission at metabotropic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission in brain circuits. Presynaptic regulation of 5-HT and DA is governed by parallel processes, and behaviorally, both exert control over emotional processing. However, differences are also apparent: more than twice as many 5-HT receptor subtypes mediate postsynaptic effects than DA receptors and different presynaptic regulation is also emerging. Monoamines are amenable to real-time electrochemical detection using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), which allows resolution of the subsecond dynamics of release and reuptake in response to a single action potential. This approach has greatly enriched understanding of DA transmission and has facilitated an integrated view of how DA mediates behavioral control. However, technical challenges are associated with FSCV measurement of 5-HT and understanding of 5-HT transmission at subsecond resolution has not advanced at the same rate. As a result, how the actions of 5-HT at the level of the synapse translate into behavior is poorly understood. Recent technical advances may aid the study of 5-HT in real-time. It is timely, therefore, to compare and contrast what is currently understood of the subsecond characteristics of transmission for DA and 5-HT. In doing so, a number of areas are highlighted as being worthy of exploration for 5-HT. PMID:23627553

Jennings, Katie A

2013-05-15

90

Mutations in the Sepiapterin Reductase Gene Cause a Novel Tetrahydrobiopterin-Dependent Monoamine-Neurotransmitter Deficiency without Hyperphenylalaninemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classic tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) deficiencies are characterized by hyperphenylalaninemia and deficiency of mono- amine neurotransmitters. In this article, we report two patients with progressive psychomotor retardation, dystonia, severe dopamine and serotonin deficiencies (low levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic and homovanillic acids), and abnormal pterin pattern (high levels of biopterin and dihydrobiopterin) in cerebrospinal fluid. Furthermore, they presented with normal urinary pterins and without

Luisa Bonafé; Beat Thöny; Johann M. Penzien; Barbara Czarnecki; Nenad Blau

2001-01-01

91

Oxidatively Generated DNA Damage Following Cu(II)-Catalysis of Dopamine and Related Catecholamine Neurotransmitters and Neurotoxins: Role of Reactive Oxygen Species1  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence supporting a causal role of oxidatively damaged DNA in neurodegeneration during the natural aging process and neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. The presence of redox-active catecholamine neurotransmitters coupled with the localization of catalytic copper to DNA suggests a plausible role for these agents in the induction of oxidatively generated DNA damage. In this study we have investigated the role of Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of several catecholamine neurotransmitters and related neurotoxins to induce oxidatively generated DNA damage. Auto-oxidation of all catechol neurotransmitters and related congeners tested resulted in the formation of nearly a dozen oxidation DNA products resulting in a decomposition pattern that was essentially identical for all agents tested. The presence of Cu(II), and to a lesser extent Fe(III), had no effect on the decomposition pattern but substantially enhanced the DNA product levels by up to 75 fold, with dopamine producing the highest levels of unidentified oxidation DNA products (383 ± 46 adducts/106 nucleotides), comparable to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine levels under the same conditions (122 ± 19 adducts/106 nucleotides). The addition of sodium azide, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone, tiron, catalase, bathocuproine or methional to the dopamine/Cu(II) reaction mixture resulted in a substantial decrease (>90%) in oxidation DNA product levels, indicating a role of singlet oxygen, superoxide, H2O2, Cu(I) and Cu(I)OOH in their formation. While the addition of N-tert-butyl-?-phenylnitrone significantly decreased (67%) dopamine-mediated oxidatively damaged DNA, three other hydroxyl radical scavengers, ascorbic acid, sodium benzoate and mannitol, had little to no effect on these oxidation DNA product levels, suggesting that free hydroxyl radicals may have limited involvement in this dopamine/Cu(II)-mediated oxidatively generated DNA damage. These studies suggest a possible contributory role of oxidatively generated DNA damage by dopamine and related catechol neurotransmitters/neurotoxins in neurodegeneration and cell death. We also found that a naturally occurring broad spectrum antioxidant, ellagic acid, was substantially effective (nearly 50% inhibition) at low doses (1 ?M) at preventing this dopamine/Cu(II)-mediated oxidatively generated DNA damage. Since dietary ellagic acid has been found to reduce oxidative stress in rat brains, a neuro-protective role of this polyphenol is plausible.

Spencer, Wendy A.; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Kichambre, Sunita; Gupta, Ramesh C.

2012-01-01

92

A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review  

PubMed Central

Most of the current techniques for in vivo detection of dopamine exploit the ease of oxidation of this compound. The major problem during the detection is the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid that is oxidized at nearly the same potential as dopamine on bare electrodes. Furthermore, the oxidation product of dopamine reacts with ascorbic acid present in samples and regenerates dopamine again, which severely limits the accuracy of the detection. Meanwhile, the product could also form a melanin-like insulating film on the electrode surface, which decreases the sensitivity of the electrode. Various surface modifications on the electrode, new materials for making the electrodes, and new electrochemical techniques have been exploited to solve these problems. Recently we developed a new electrochemical detection method that did not rely on direct oxidation of dopamine on electrodes, which may naturally solve these problems. This approach takes advantage of the high performance of our newly developed poly(anilineboronic acid)/carbon nanotube composite and the excellent permselectivity of the ion-exchange polymer Nafion. The high affinity binding of dopamine to the boronic acid groups of the polymer affects the electrochemical properties of the polyaniline backbone, which act as the basis for the transduction mechanism of this non-oxidative dopamine sensor. The unique reduction capability and high conductivity of single-stranded DNA functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrochemical activity of the polymer in a physiologically-relevant buffer, and the large surface area of the carbon nanotubes increased the density of the boronic acid receptors. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor show excellent promise toward molecular diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of this novel detection approach, the new interferences in this detection approach, and how to eliminate these interferences toward in vivo and in vitro detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

Ali, Shah R.; Parajuli, Rishi R.; Balogun, Yetunde; Ma, Yufeng; He, Huixin

2008-01-01

93

Characterization of the effects of serotonin on the release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices  

SciTech Connect

The effect of serotonin agonists on the depolarization (K+)-induced, calcium-dependent, release of (/sup 3/H)dopamine (DA) from rat nucleus accumbens and striatal slices was investigated. Serotonin enhanced basal /sup 3/H overflow and reduced K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA from nucleus accumbens slices. The effect of serotonin on basal /sup 3/H overflow was not altered by the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, or the serotonin re-uptake blocker, chlorimipramine, but was reversed by the DA re-uptake carrier inhibitors nomifensine and benztropine. With the effect on basal overflow blocked, serotonin did not modulate K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens or striatum. The serotonin agonists, quipazine (in the presence of nomifensine) and 5-methoxytryptamine, did not significantly affect K+-induced release of (/sup 3/H)DA in the nucleus accumbens. This study does not support suggestions that serotonin receptors inhibit the depolarization-induced release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens or striatum of the rat brain. The present results do not preclude the possibility that serotonin may affect the mesolimbic reward system at a site which is post-synaptic to dopaminergic terminals in the nucleus accumbens.

Nurse, B.; Russell, V.A.; Taljaard, J.J.

1988-05-01

94

Voltammetric characterization of the effect of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin uptake in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra slices  

PubMed Central

Summary Fast scan cyclic voltammetry is an electrochemical technique used to measure dynamics of transporter-mediated monoamine uptake in real time and provides a tool to evaluate the detailed effects of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin transporter function. We measured the effects of cocaine, methylphenidate, 2?-propanoyl–3?-(4tolyl) tropane (PTT), fluoxetine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), phentermine and fenfluramine on dopamine and serotonin uptake following electrically stimulated release in mouse caudate-putamen and substantia nigra pars reticulata slices. We determined rank orders of uptake inhibition effects based on two variables; increases in apparent Km for dopamine and serotonin uptake and inhibition constant (Ki) values. For example, the rank order of uptake inhibition based on apparent Km values at the dopamine transporter was amphetamine ? PTT ? methylphenidate ? methamphetamine = phentermine = MDMA > cocaine ? fluoxetine = fenfluramine, and at the serotonin transporter was fluoxetine = methamphetamine = fenfluramine = MDMA > amphetamine = cocaine = PTT ? methylphenidate > phentermine. Additionally, changes in electrically stimulated release were documented. This is the first study using voltammetry to measure the effects of a wide range of monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers on dopamine and serotonin uptake in mouse brain slices. These studies also highlight methodological considerations for comparison of effects between heterogeneous brain regions.

John, Carrie E.; Jones, Sara R.

2007-01-01

95

Role of Serotonin and Dopamine System Interactions in the Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression and its Comorbidity with other Clinical Disorders  

PubMed Central

Impulsive aggression is characterized by an inability to regulate affect as well as aggressive impulses, and is highly comorbid with other mental disorders including depression, suicidal behavior, and substance abuse. In an effort to elucidate the neurobiological underpinnings of impulsive aggression and to help account for its connections with these other disorders, this paper reviews relevant biochemical, brain imaging, and genetic studies. The review suggests that dysfunctional interactions between serotonin and dopamine systems in the prefrontal cortex may be an important mechanism underlying the link between impulsive aggression and its comorbid disorders. Specifically, serotonin hypofunction may represent a biochemical trait that predisposes individuals to impulsive aggression, with dopamine hyperfunction contributing in an additive fashion to the serotonergic deficit. The current paper proposes a modified diathesis-stress model of impulsive aggression in which the underlying biological diathesis may be deficient serotonergic function in the ventral prefrontal cortex. This underlying disposition can be manifested behaviorally as impulsive aggression towards oneself and others, and as depression under precipitating life stressors. Substance abuse associated with impulsive aggression is understood in the context of dopamine dysregulation resulting from serotonergic deficiency. Also discussed are future research directions in the neurobiology of impulsive aggression and its comorbid disorders.

Seo, Dongju; Patrick, Christopher J.; Kennealy, Patrick J.

2008-01-01

96

Brexpiprazole II: Antipsychotic-Like and Procognitive Effects of a Novel Serotonin-Dopamine Activity Modulator.  

PubMed

Brexpiprazole (OPC-34712, 7-{4-[4-(1-benzothiophen-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}quinolin-2(1H)-one) is a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator with partial agonist activity at serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) and D2/3 receptors, combined with potent antagonist effects on 5-HT2A, ?1B-, and ?2C-adrenergic receptors. Brexpiprazole inhibited conditioned avoidance response (ED50 = 6.0 mg/kg), apomorphine- or d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity (ED50 = 2.3 and 0.90, respectively), and apomorphine-induced stereotypy (ED50 = 2.9) in rats at clinically relevant D2 receptor occupancies. Brexpiprazole also potently inhibited apomorphine-induced eye blinking in monkeys. The results suggest that brexpiprazole has antipsychotic potential. Brexpiprazole induced catalepsy (ED50 = 20) well above clinically relevant D2 receptor occupancies, suggesting a low risk for extrapyramidal side effects. Subchronic treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) induced cognitive impairment in both novel object recognition (NOR) and attentional set-shifting (ID-ED) tests in rats. Brexpiprazole reversed the PCP-induced cognitive impairment in the NOR test at 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg, and in the ID-ED test at 1.0 mg/kg. However, aripiprazole (10 mg/kg) was ineffective in both tests, despite achieving relevant D2 occupancies. In the NOR test, the 5-HT1A agonist buspirone and the 5-HT2A antagonist M100907 [(R)-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)[1-(4-fluorophenethyl)piperidin-4-yl]methanol] partially but significantly reversed PCP-induced impairment. Furthermore, the effect of brexpiprazole was reversed by cotreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY100635 (N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-2-pyridinylcyclohexanecarboxamide maleate). The results indicate that brexpiprazole has antipsychotic-like activity and robust efficacy in relevant models of cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia. The effects of brexpiprazole in the cognitive tests are superior to those of aripiprazole. We propose that the pharmacologic profile of brexpiprazole be based on its balanced effects on 5-HT1A, D2, and 5-HT2A receptors, with possible modulating activity through additional monoamine receptors. PMID:24947464

Maeda, Kenji; Lerdrup, Linda; Sugino, Haruhiko; Akazawa, Hitomi; Amada, Naoki; McQuade, Robert D; Stensbøl, Tine Bryan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Arnt, Jørn; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

2014-09-01

97

Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine.  

PubMed

Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, which in turn may be modulated by DA and 5HT transmission. We analyzed long-term, off-drug changes in learning from positive and negative feedback and associated striatal DA transporter (DAT) and frontocortical 5HT transporter (SERT) binding in rats pretreated with methamphetamine (mAMPH). Specifically, we assessed the reversal phase of pairwise visual discrimination learning in rats receiving single dose- (mAMPHsingle) vs. escalating-dose exposure (mAMPHescal). Using fine-grained trial-by-trial analyses, we found increased sensitivity to and reliance on positive feedback in mAMPH-pretreated animals, with the mAMPHsingle group showing more pronounced use of this type of feedback. In contrast, overall negative feedback sensitivity was not altered following any mAMPH treatment. In addition to validating the enduring effects of mAMPH on early reversal learning, we found more consecutive error commissions before the first correct response in mAMPH-pretreated rats. This behavioral rigidity was negatively correlated with subregional frontocortical SERT whereas positive feedback sensitivity negatively correlated with striatal DAT binding. These results provide new evidence for the overlapping, yet dissociable roles of DA and 5HT systems in overcoming perseveration and in learning new reward rules. PMID:24959862

Stolyarova, Alexandra; O'Dell, Steve J; Marshall, John F; Izquierdo, Alicia

2014-09-01

98

Comodulation of dopamine and serotonin on prefrontal cortical rhythms: a theoretical study  

PubMed Central

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is implicated to play an important role in cognitive control. Abnormal PFC activities and rhythms have been observed in some neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and evidences suggest influences from the neuromodulators dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). Despite the high level of interest in these brain systems, the combined effects of DA and 5-HT modulation on PFC dynamics remain unknown. In this work, we build a mathematical model that incorporates available experimental findings to systematically study the comodulation of DA and 5-HT on the network behavior, focusing on beta and gamma band oscillations. Single neuronal model shows pyramidal cells with 5-HT1A and 2A receptors can be non-monotonically modulated by 5-HT. Two-population excitatory-inhibitory type network consisting of pyramidal cells with D1 receptors can provide rich repertoires of oscillatory behavior. In particular, 5-HT and DA can modulate the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations, which can emerge or cease, depending on receptor types. Certain receptor combinations are conducive for the robustness of the oscillatory regime, or the existence of multiple discrete oscillatory regimes. In a multi-population heterogeneous model that takes into account possible combination of receptors, we demonstrate that robust network oscillations require high DA concentration. We also show that selective D1 receptor antagonists (agonists) tend to suppress (enhance) network oscillations, increase the frequency from beta toward gamma band, while selective 5-HT1A antagonists (agonists) act in opposite ways. Selective D2 or 5-HT2A receptor antagonists (agonists) can lead to decrease (increase) in oscillation amplitude, but only 5-HT2A antagonists (agonists) can increase (decrease) the frequency. These results are comparable to some pharmacological effects. Our work illustrates the complex mechanisms of DA and 5-HT when operating simultaneously through multiple receptors.

Wang, Da-Hui; Wong-Lin, KongFatt

2013-01-01

99

Lack of evidence for reduced prefrontal cortical serotonin and dopamine efflux after acute tryptophan depletion  

PubMed Central

Rationale Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a widely used method to study the role of serotonin (5-HT) in affect and cognition. ATD results in a strong but transient decrease in plasma tryptophan and central 5-HT synthesis and availability. Although its use is widespread, the evidence that the numerous functional effects of ATD are caused by actual changes in 5-HT neuronal release is not very strong. Thus far, decreases in 5-HT efflux (thought to reflect synaptic release) were only reported after chronic tryptophan depletion or when ATD was combined with blockade of 5-HT reuptake. Objective With the current experiment, we aimed to study the validity of the method of ATD by measuring the extent to which it reduces the efflux of 5-HT (and dopamine) in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of reuptake blockage. Materials and methods We simultaneously measured in freely moving animals plasma tryptophan via a catheter in the jugular vein and 5-HT and DA efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex through microdialysis after ATD treatment. Results ATD reduced plasma tryptophan to less than 30% of control, without affecting 5-HT or DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex, indicating that even strong reductions of plasma tryptophan do not necessarily result in decreases in central 5-HT efflux. Conclusion The present experiment showed that reductions in plasma tryptophan, similar to values associated with behavioural effects, do not necessarily reduce 5-HT efflux and suggest that the cognitive and behavioural effects of ATD may not be (exclusively) due to alterations in 5-HT release.

Meerkerk, Dorie (T). J.; Lieben, Cindy K. J.; Blokland, Arjan; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.

2007-01-01

100

MDMA-induced impairment in primates: antagonism by a selective norepinephrine or serotonin, but not by a dopamine\\/norepinephrine transport inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human MDMA (R,S-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) users display selective cognitive deficits after acute MDMA exposure, frequently attributed to serotonin deficits. We postulated that MDMA will compromize executive function in primates and that an inhibitor of the serotonin transporter (SERT) and the norepinephrine transporter (NET) but not the dopamine (DAT) transporter, will prevent impairment. The potencies of DAT\\/NET, NET and SERT inhibitors to block

Christopher D Verrico; Laurie Lynch; Michele A Fahey; Ashley-Kay Fryer; Gregory M Miller; Bertha K Madras

2008-01-01

101

Impact of Serotonin 2C Receptor Null Mutation on Physiology and Behavior Associated with Nigrostriatal Dopamine Pathway Function  

PubMed Central

The impact of serotonergic neurotransmission on brain dopaminergic pathways has substantial relevance to many neuropsychiatric disorders. A particularly prominent role has been ascribed to the inhibitory effects of serotonin 2C receptor (5-HT2CR) activation on physiology and behavior mediated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway, particularly in the terminal region of the nucleus accumbens. The influence of this receptor subtype on functions mediated by the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway is less clear. Here we report that a null mutation eliminating expression of 5-HT2CRs produces marked alterations in the activity and functional output of this pathway. 5-HT2CR mutant mice displayed increased activity of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) dopaminergic neurons, elevated baseline extracellular dopamine concentrations in the dorsal striatum (DSt), alterations in grooming behavior, and enhanced sensitivity to the stereotypic behavioral effects of D-amphetamine and GBR 12909. These psychostimulant responses occurred in the absence of phenotypic differences in drug-induced extracellular dopamine concentration, suggesting a phenotypic alteration in behavioral responses to released dopamine. This was further suggested by enhanced behavioral responses of mutant mice to the D1 receptor agonist SKF 81297. Differences in DSt D1 or D2 receptor expression were not found, nor were differences in medium spiny neuron firing patterns or intrinsic membrane properties following dopamine stimulation. We conclude that 5-HT2CRs regulate nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity and function both at SNc dopaminergic neurons and at a locus downstream of the DSt.

Abdallah, Luna; Bonasera, Stephen J.; Hopf, F. Woodward; O'Dell, Laura; Giorgetti, Marco; Jongsma, Minke; Carra, Scott; Pierucci, Massimo; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Esposito, Ennio; Parsons, Loren H.; Bonci, Antonello; Tecott, Laurence H.

2011-01-01

102

Saliva secretion and ionic composition of saliva in the cockroach Periplaneta americana after serotonin and dopamine stimulation, and effects of ouabain and bumetamide.  

PubMed

Isolated salivary glands of Periplaneta americana were used to measure secretion rates and, by quantitative capillary electrophoresis, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) concentrations in saliva collected during dopamine (1 micro M) and serotonin (1 micro M) stimulation in the absence and presence of ouabain (100 micro M) or bumetanide (10 micro M). Dopamine stimulated secretion of a NaCl-rich hyposmotic saliva containing (mM): Na(+) 95 +/- 2; K(+) 38 +/- 1; Cl(-) 145 +/- 3. Saliva collected during serotonin stimulation had a similar composition. Bumetanide decreased secretion rates induced by dopamine and serotonin; secreted saliva had lower Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations and osmolarity. Ouabain caused increased secretion rates on a serotonin background. Saliva secreted during dopamine but not serotonin stimulation in the presence of ouabain had lower K(+) and higher Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations, and was isosmotic. We concluded: The Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter is of cardinal importance for electrolyte and fluid secretion. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase contributes to apical Na(+) outward transport and Na(+) and K(+) cycling across the basolateral membrane in acinar P-cells. The salivary ducts modify the primary saliva by Na(+) reabsorption and K(+) secretion, whereby Na(+) reabsorption is energized by the basolateral Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase which imports also some of the K(+) needed for apical K(+) extrusion. PMID:12769995

Rietdorf, K; Lang, I; Walz, B

2003-03-01

103

Quantitative evaluation of serotonin release and clearance in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Serotonin signaling plays a key role in the regulation of development, mood and behavior. Drosophila is well suited for the study of the basic mechanisms of serotonergic signaling, but the small size of its nervous system has previously precluded the direct measurements of neurotransmitters. This study demonstrates the first real-time measurements of changes in extracellular monoamine concentrations in a single larval Drosophila ventral nerve cord. Channelrhodopsin2-mediated, neuronal type-specific stimulation is used to elicit endogenous serotonin release, which is detected using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at an implanted microelectrode. Release is decreased when serotonin synthesis or packaging are pharmacologically inhibited, confirming that the detected substance is serotonin. Similar to tetanus-evoked serotonin release in mammals, evoked serotonin concentrations are 280 – 640 nM in the fly, depending on the stimulation length. Extracellular serotonin signaling is prolonged after administering cocaine or fluoxetine, showing that transport regulates the clearance of serotonin from the extracellular space. When ChR2 is targeted to dopaminergic neurons, dopamine release is measured demonstrating that this method is broadly applicable to other neurotransmitter systems. This study shows that the dynamics of serotonin release and reuptake in Drosophila are analogous to those in mammals, making this simple organism more useful for the study of the basic physiological mechanisms of serotonergic signaling.

Borue, Xenia; Cooper, Stephanie; Hirsh, Jay; Condron, Barry; Venton, B. Jill

2009-01-01

104

Quantitative evaluation of serotonin release and clearance in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Serotonin signaling plays a key role in the regulation of development, mood and behavior. Drosophila is well suited for the study of the basic mechanisms of serotonergic signaling, but the small size of its nervous system has previously precluded the direct measurements of neurotransmitters. This study demonstrates the first real-time measurements of changes in extracellular monoamine concentrations in a single larval Drosophila ventral nerve cord. Channelrhodopsin-2-mediated, neuronal type-specific stimulation is used to elicit endogenous serotonin release, which is detected using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at an implanted microelectrode. Release is decreased when serotonin synthesis or packaging are pharmacologically inhibited, confirming that the detected substance is serotonin. Similar to tetanus-evoked serotonin release in mammals, evoked serotonin concentrations are 280-640nM in the fly, depending on the stimulation length. Extracellular serotonin signaling is prolonged after administering cocaine or fluoxetine, showing that transport regulates the clearance of serotonin from the extracellular space. When ChR2 is targeted to dopaminergic neurons, dopamine release is measured demonstrating that this method is broadly applicable to other neurotransmitter systems. This study shows that the dynamics of serotonin release and reuptake in Drosophila are analogous to those in mammals, making this simple organism more useful for the study of the basic physiological mechanisms of serotonergic signaling. PMID:19428541

Borue, Xenia; Cooper, Stephanie; Hirsh, Jay; Condron, Barry; Venton, B Jill

2009-05-15

105

Comparative effect of lurasidone and blonanserin on cortical glutamate, dopamine, and acetylcholine efflux: role of relative serotonin (5-HT)2A and DA D2 antagonism and 5-HT1A partial agonism.  

PubMed

Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) have been suggested to be more effective in improving cognitive impairment in schizophrenia than typical APDs, a conclusion supported by differences in receptor affinities and neurotransmitter efflux in the cortex and the hippocampus. More potent serotonin (5-HT)2A than dopamine (DA) D2 receptors antagonism, and direct or indirect 5-HT1A agonism, characterize almost all AAPDs. Blonanserin, an AAPD, has slightly greater affinity for D2 than 5-HT2A receptors. Using microdialysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, we compared the abilities of the typical APD, haloperidol, three AAPDs, blonanserin, lurasidone, and olanzapine, and a selective 5-HT1A partial agonist, tandospirone, and all, except haloperidol, were found to ameliorate the cognitive deficits produced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, phencyclidine, altering the efflux of neurotransmitters and metabolites in the rat cortex and nucleus accumbens. Blonanserin, lurasidone, olanzapine, and tandospirone, but not haloperidol, increased the efflux of cortical DA and its metabolites, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Olanzapine and lurasidone increased the efflux of acetylcholine; lurasidone increased glutamate as well. None of the compounds significantly altered the efflux of 5-HT or its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, or GABA, serine, and glycine. The ability to increase cortical DA efflux was the only shared effect of the compounds which ameliorates the deficit in cognition in rodents following phencyclidine. PMID:24164459

Huang, Mei; Panos, John J; Kwon, Sunoh; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Meltzer, Herbert Y

2014-03-01

106

Determination of dopamine and serotonin in human urine samples utilizing microextraction online with liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A specific LC-MS-MS method for the determination of dopamine and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) in human urine is described. The analytes were extracted from urine and preconcentrated by microextraction in a packed syringe (MEPS). The new method is very promising, very easy to use, fully automated, of low cost, and rapid in comparison to previously used methods. The method was validated and the standard curves were evaluated by means of quadratic regression and weighted by inverse of the concentration: 1/x for the calibration range 50-4000 microg/L. The MEPS applied polymer (silica-C8) could be used more than 300 times. The extraction recovery was about 50%. The results showed close correlation coefficients (r2 > 0.999) for all analytes in the calibration range studied. The accuracy of MEPS-LC-MS-MS was 100-101% for dopamine and 99-100% for 5HT. The interday precision (n = 3 days), expressed as the RSD%, was 6.0-7.7% for dopamine and 6.1-11% for 5HT. MEPS reduced the handling time by 12 times compared to a published method. PMID:17396602

El-Beqqali, Aziza; Kussak, Anders; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

2007-02-01

107

Attachment of DNA to the carbon fiber microelectrode via gold nanoparticles for simultaneous determination of dopamine and serotonin.  

PubMed

A novel biochemical sensor was fabricated on a carbon fiber microelectrode, which consisted of an inner layer of electrodeposited gold nanoparticles, as a nano-array electrode, and an outer layer of electrodeposited calf thymus ds-DNA at +1.5 V vs. SCE. This modified electrode was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). It was found that this electrochemical sensor exhibits a strong catalytic activity toward the oxidation of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and ascorbic acid (AA), as a result of resolving the anodic voltammetric peaks of DA, 5-HT and AA into three well-defined peaks. Simutaneous DPV determination of DA and 5-HT can be achieved in the presence of 2000-fold AA. The modified electrode shows good sensitivity, selectivity and stability. PMID:15352499

Lu, Liping; Wang, Shuqing; Lin, Xiangqin

2004-08-01

108

Dopamine and serotonin signaling during two sensitive developmental periods differentially impact adult aggressive and affective behaviors in mice.  

PubMed

Pharmacologic blockade of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) or serotonin transporter (5-HTT) has antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy in adulthood. Yet, genetically conferred MAOA or 5-HTT hypoactivity is associated with altered aggression and increased anxiety/depression. Here we test the hypothesis that increased monoamine signaling during development causes these paradoxical aggressive and affective phenotypes. We find that pharmacologic MAOA blockade during early postnatal development (P2-P21) but not during peri-adolescence (P22-41) increases anxiety- and depression-like behavior in adult (>P90) mice, mimicking the effect of P2-21 5-HTT inhibition. Moreover, MAOA blockade during peri-adolescence, but not P2-21 or P182-201, increases adult aggressive behavior, and 5-HTT blockade from P22-P41 reduced adult aggression. Blockade of the dopamine transporter, but not the norepinephrine transporter, during P22-41 also increases adult aggressive behavior. Thus, P2-21 is a sensitive period during which 5-HT modulates adult anxiety/depression-like behavior, and P22-41 is a sensitive period during which DA and 5-HT bi-directionally modulate adult aggression. Permanently altered DAergic function as a consequence of increased P22-P41 monoamine signaling might underlie altered aggression. In support of this hypothesis, we find altered aggression correlating positively with locomotor response to amphetamine challenge in adulthood. Proving that altered DA function and aggression are causally linked, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of VTA DAergic neurons increases aggression. It therefore appears that genetic and pharmacologic factors impacting dopamine and serotonin signaling during sensitive developmental periods can modulate adult monoaminergic function and thereby alter risk for aggressive and emotional dysfunction. PMID:24589889

Yu, Q; Teixeira, C M; Mahadevia, D; Huang, Y; Balsam, D; Mann, J J; Gingrich, J A; Ansorge, M S

2014-06-01

109

Recreational Ecstasy\\/MDMA, the serotonin syndrome, and serotonergic neurotoxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ring-substituted amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or “Ecstasy” is widely used a recreational drug. It stimulates the release and inhibits the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and other neurotransmitters such as dopamine to a lesser extent. The acute boost in monoamine activity can generate feelings of elation, emotional closeness, and sensory pleasure. In the hot and crowded conditions of raves\\/dances, mild

A. C. Parrott

2002-01-01

110

Effects of p-Aminosalicylic acid on the Neurotoxicity of Manganese and Levels of Dopamine and Serotonin in the Nervous System and Innervated Organs of Crassostrea virginica.  

PubMed

Manganese is a neurotoxin causing Manganism in individuals chronically exposed to elevated levels in their environment. Toxic manganese exposure causes mental and emotional disturbances, and a movement disorder similar to Idiopathic Parkinsons Disease. Manganese interferes with dopamine neurons involved in control of body movements. Recently, p-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is being used to alleviate symptoms of Manganism, but its mechanism of action is unknown. The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, possesses a dopaminergic innervation of its gill. Oysters exposed to manganese have reduced levels of dopamine in the cerebral ganglia, visceral ganglia and gill, but not of norepinephrine, octopamine or serotonin. Those results are consistent with reported mechanisms of action of manganese in human and mammalian systems. In this study we determined the effects of PAS treatments on dopamine and serotonin levels in oysters exposed to manganese. Adult C. virginica were exposed to 500 µM and 1 mM of manganese with and without 500 µM and 1 mM of PAS by removing one shell and maintaining the animals in individual containers of aerated artificial sea water at 18° C for 3 days. Control animals were similarly treated without manganese or PAS. Dopamine and serotonin levels were measured by HPLC with fluorescence detection. PAS protected the ganglia and gill against the effects of 500 µM manganese, but not against the 1 mM manganese treatments. Serotonin levels were not affected by the treatments. The study demonstrates PAS can protect against reductions in dopamine levels caused by neurotoxic manganese exposure, but is concentration dependent. These findings may provide insights into the actions of PAS in therapeutic treatments of Manganism. PMID:21841974

King, Candice; Myrthil, Marie; Carroll, Margaret A; Catapane, Edward J

2008-01-01

111

Variations of dopamine, serotonin, and amino acid concentrations in Noda epileptic rat (NER) retina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noda epileptic rats (NER) exhibit frequent spontaneous tonic–clonic convulsions which represent a valuable model of human epilepsy. If implication of brain neurotransmitters was largely reported, little is known about retina. However, it has been reported that human epilepsy syndrome varies not only with the location of seizure foci but also according to rhythmic patterns, for which retina has a major

Evelyne Chanut; Benoît Labarthe; Brigitte Lacroix; Atsuhi Noda; Sylvie Gasdeblay; Jean-Robert Bondier; Claudine Versaux-Botteri

2006-01-01

112

Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

2012-10-01

113

Alterations in central fatigue by pharmacological manipulations of neurotransmitters in normal and high ambient temperature.  

PubMed

The scientific evidence is reviewed for the involvement of the brain monoamines serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in the onset of fatigue, in both normal and high ambient temperatures. The main focus is the pharmacological manipulations used to explore the central fatigue hypothesis. The original central fatigue hypothesis emphasizes that an exercise-induced increase in serotonin is responsible for the development of fatigue. However, several pharmacological studies attempted and failed to alter exercise capacity through changes in serotonergic neurotransmission in humans, indicating that the role of serotonin is often overrated. Recent studies, investigating the inhibition of the reuptake of both dopamine and noradrenaline, were capable of detecting changes in performance, specifically when ambient temperature was high. Dopamine and noradrenaline are prominent in innervated areas of the hypothalamus, therefore changes in the catecholaminergic concentrations may also be expected to be involved with the regulation of body core temperature during exercise in the heat. Evidence from different studies suggests that it is very unlikely that one neurotransmitter system is responsible for the appearance of central fatigue. The exact mechanism of fatigue is not known; presumably a complex interplay between both peripheral and central factors induces fatigue. Central fatigue will be determined by the collaboration of the different neurotransmitter systems, with the most important role possibly being for the catecholamines dopamine and noradrenaline. PMID:20199121

Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain

2010-03-01

114

Validation of a fluorescence-based high-throughput assay for the measurement of neurotransmitter transporter uptake activity.  

PubMed

Pre-synaptic dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin transporters (DAT, NET and SERT) terminate synaptic catecholamine transmission through reuptake of released neurotransmitter. Common approaches for studying these transporters involve radiolabeled substrates or inhibitors which, however, have several limitations. In this study we have used a novel neurotransmitter transporter uptake assay kit. The assay employs a fluorescent substrate that mimics the biogenic amine neurotransmitters and is taken up by the cell through the specific transporters, resulting in increased fluorescence intensity. In order to validate the assay, a variety of reference and proprietary neurotransmitter transporter ligands from a number of chemical and pharmacological classes were tested. The ability of these compounds to inhibit the selective transporter-mediated uptake demonstrated a similar rank order of potency and IC(50) values close to those obtained in radiolabeled neurotransmitter uptake assays. The described assay enables monitoring of dynamic transport activity of DAT, NET and SERT and is amenable for high-throughput screening and compound characterization. PMID:18222006

Jørgensen, Susanne; Nielsen, Elsebet Østergaard; Peters, Dan; Dyhring, Tino

2008-03-30

115

Neurotransmitters in the Gas Phase: La-Mb Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy combines laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets overcoming the problems of thermal decomposition associated with conventional heating methods. We present here the results on LA-MB-FTMW studies of some neurotransmitters. Six conformers of dopamine, four of adrenaline, five of noradrenaline and three conformers of serotonin have been characterized in the gas phase. The rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants extracted from the analysis of the rotational spectrum are directly compared with those predicted by ab initio methods to achieve the conclusive identification of different conformers and the experimental characterization of the intramolecular forces at play which control conformational preferences.

Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

2011-06-01

116

Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

2011-01-01

117

Evidence for the Preferential Involvement of 5HT2A Serotonin Receptors in Stress and Drug-Induced Dopamine Release in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism(s) by which serotonin modulates dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex is not known, although studies suggest an involvement of 5-HT2 family receptors. We employed in vivo microdialysis and putatively selective 5-HT2A antagonists (M100907, MDL 11,939, SR46349B) to determine if 5-HT2A receptors are responsible for both drug- and stress-induced DA release in the medial prefrontal cortex. MDL 11,939

Elizabeth A Pehek; Christine Nocjar; Bryan L Roth; Tara A Byrd; Omar S Mabrouk

2006-01-01

118

Alterations in the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system of mice displaying a persistent dyskinesia due to crotononitrile or 2-pentenenitrile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of crotononitrile (4.22 mmol\\/kg, CRN) or 2-pentenenitrile (2.00 mmol\\/kg, 2-PN), which exhibit long-term dyskinesia, was examined on the metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in five brain regions of mice 1, 5, 12 and 35 days after dosing with CRN or 2-PN or vehicle (0.1 ml\\/25 g). One day after injection, CRN increased the level of the

Hideji Tanii; Masao Hayashi; Kazuo Hashimoto

1990-01-01

119

Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) and serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in the determination of temperament in 2-month-old infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We and others have previously shown that the dopamine D4 exon III repeat (D4DR) and the serotonin-transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms are not only associated with adult personality traits1–7 but also with temperament in 2-week-old neonates.8 We now report the results of a second study of these infants and their temperament at 2 months using Rothbart's Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ).9

J Auerbach; V Geller; S Lezer; E Shinwell; R H Belmaker; J Levine; R P Ebstein

1999-01-01

120

The Role of Dopamine in Schizophrenia from a Neurobiological and Evolutionary Perspective: Old Fashioned, but Still in Vogue  

PubMed Central

Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. The revised dopamine hypothesis states that dopamine abnormalities in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions exist in schizophrenia. However, recent research has indicated that glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin alterations are also involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This review provides an in-depth analysis of dopamine in animal models of schizophrenia and also focuses on dopamine and cognition. Furthermore, this review provides not only an overview of dopamine receptors and the antipsychotic effects of treatments targeting them but also an outline of dopamine and its interaction with other neurochemical models of schizophrenia. The roles of dopamine in the evolution of the human brain and human mental abilities, which are affected in schizophrenia patients, are also discussed.

Brisch, Ralf; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bielau, Hendrik; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Braun, Anna Katharina; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kumaritlake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej; Gos, Tomasz

2014-01-01

121

Levetiracetam inhibits neurotransmitter release associated with CICR.  

PubMed

To define the antiepileptic mechanisms of levetiracetam (LEV), the present study determined the concentration-dependent effects of locally perfused LEV on the releases of norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, l-glutamate and GABA induced by 50 mMK(+)-evoked stimulation and agonists of ryanodine receptor (RyR) and inositol-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) in the median prefrontal cortex (mPFC) using in vivo microdialysis. Local perfusion with LEV (10, 30 and 100 ?M) alone did not affect the extracellular levels of all neurotransmitters in the mPFC. The release of neurotransmitters induced by K(+)-evoked stimulation was inhibited by perfusion with LEV in a concentration-dependent manner, and those induced by agonists of RyR and IP3R were also inhibited by LEV. Specifically, the RyR-induced release was inhibited by 10 ?M LEV, whereas the IP3R-induced release was inhibited by 100 ?M LEV, but not by 10 or 30 ?M LEV. The above results suggest that LEV has little effect on the components of normal synaptic transmission but selectively inhibits transmission induced by neuronal hyperactivation. Thus, the mechanisms of the antiepileptic and neuroprotective actions of LEV seem to be mediated, at least in part, through the combination of these two inhibitory effects on depolarization-induced and CICR-associated neurotransmitter releases. PMID:22484014

Fukuyama, Kouji; Tanahashi, Shunsuke; Nakagawa, Masanori; Yamamura, Satoshi; Motomura, Eishi; Shiroyama, Takashi; Tanii, Hisashi; Okada, Motohiro

2012-06-19

122

Central fatigue: the serotonin hypothesis and beyond.  

PubMed

The original central fatigue hypothesis suggested that an exercise-induced increase in extracellular serotonin concentrations in several brain regions contributed to the development of fatigue during prolonged exercise. Serotonin has been linked to fatigue because of its well known effects on sleep, lethargy and drowsiness and loss of motivation. Several nutritional and pharmacological studies have attempted to manipulate central serotonergic activity during exercise, but this work has yet to provide robust evidence for a significant role of serotonin in the fatigue process. However, it is important to note that brain function is not determined by a single neurotransmitter system and the interaction between brain serotonin and dopamine during prolonged exercise has also been explored as having a regulative role in the development of fatigue. This revised central fatigue hypothesis suggests that an increase in central ratio of serotonin to dopamine is associated with feelings of tiredness and lethargy, accelerating the onset of fatigue, whereas a low ratio favours improved performance through the maintenance of motivation and arousal. Convincing evidence for a role of dopamine in the development of fatigue comes from work investigating the physiological responses to amphetamine use, but other strategies to manipulate central catecholamines have yet to influence exercise capacity during exercise in temperate conditions. Recent findings have, however, provided support for a significant role of dopamine and noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in performance during exercise in the heat. As serotonergic and catecholaminergic projections innervate areas of the hypothalamus, the thermoregulatory centre, a change in the activity of these neurons may be expected to contribute to the control of body temperature whilst at rest and during exercise. Fatigue during prolonged exercise clearly is influenced by a complex interaction between peripheral and central factors. PMID:17004850

Meeusen, Romain; Watson, Philip; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria F

2006-01-01

123

Brain serotonin and dopamine modulators, perceptual responses and endurance performance during exercise in the heat following creatine supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The present experiment examined the responses of peripheral modulators and indices of brain serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function and their association with perception of effort during prolonged exercise in the heat after creatine (Cr) supplementation. METHODS: Twenty one endurance-trained males performed, in a double-blind fashion, two constant-load exercise tests to exhaustion at 63 ± 5% V?\\u000a MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaagaart1ev2aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacPC6xNi=xH8viVGI8Gi=hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0xb9qqpG0dXdb9aspeI8k8fiI+fsY=rqGqVepae9pg0db9vqaiVgFr0xfr=xfr=xc9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaaeqabiWaaaGcbaGafeOvayLbaiaaaaa@2D11@O2 max

Marios Hadjicharalambous; Liam P Kilduff; Yannis P Pitsiladis

2008-01-01

124

Long-term administration of the dopamine D3/2 receptor agonist pramipexole increases dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission in the male rat forebrain  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term administration of the dopamine (DA) D2-like (D3/2) receptor agonist pramipexole (PPX) has been previously found to desensitize D2 autoreceptors, thereby allowing a normalization of the firing of DA neurons and serotonin (5-HT)1A autoreceptors, permitting an enhancement of the spontaneous firing of 5-HT neurons. We hypothesized that PPX would increase overall DA and 5-HT neurotransmission in the forebrain as a result of these changes at the presynaptic level. Methods Osmotic minipumps were implanted subcutaneously in male Sprague-Dawley rats, delivering PPX at a dose of 1 mg/kg/d for 14 days. The in vivo electrophysiologic microiontophoretic experiments were carried out in anesthetized rats. Results The sensitivity of postsynaptic D2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) remained unaltered following PPX administration, as indicated by the unchanged responsiveness to the microiontophoretic application of DA. Their tonic activation was, however, significantly increased by 104% compared with the control level. The sensitivity of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors was not altered, as indicated by the unchanged responsiveness to the microiontophoretic application of 5-HT. Similar to other antidepressant treatments, long-term PPX administration enhanced the tonic activation of 5-HT1A receptors on CA3 pyramidal neurons by 142% compared with the control level. Limitations The assessment of DA and 5-HT neuronal tone was restricted to the PFC and the hippocampus, respectively. Conclusion Chronic PPX administration led to a net enhancement in DA and 5-HT neurotransmission, as indicated by the increased tonic activation of postsynaptic D2 and 5-HT1A receptors in forebrain structures.

Chernoloz, Olga; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

2012-01-01

125

Neurochemical characterization of the release and uptake of dopamine in ventral tegmental area and serotonin in substantia nigra of the mouse.  

PubMed

In the present report, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry was used to identify the monoamines that were released by electrical stimulation in mouse brain slices containing ventral tegmental area (VTA), substantia nigra (SN) -pars compacta (SNc) and -pars reticulata (SNr). We showed that voltammograms obtained in mouse VTA were consistent with detection of a catecholamine, while those in both subregions of the SN were consistent with detection of an indolamine, based on the reduction peak potentials. We used pharmacological blockade and genetic deletion of monoamine transporters to further confirm the identity of released monoamines in mouse midbrain and to assess the control of monoamines by their transporters in each brain region. Inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine transporters by nomifensine (1 and 10 microm) decreased uptake rates in the VTA, but did not change uptake rates in either subregion of the SN. Serotonin transporter inhibition by fluoxetine (10 microm) decreased uptake rates in the SNc and SNr, but was without effect in the VTA. Selective inhibition of the norepinephrine transporter by desipramine (10 microm) had no effect in any brain region. Using dopamine transporter- and serotonin transporter-knockout mice, we found decreased uptake rates in VTA and SN subregions, respectively. Peak signals recorded in each midbrain region were pulse number dependent and exhibited limited frequency dependence. Thus, dopamine is predominately detected by voltammetry in mouse VTA, while serotonin is predominately detected in mouse SNc and SNr. Furthermore, active uptake occurs in these areas and can be altered only by specific uptake inhibitors, suggesting a lack of heterologous uptake. In addition, somatodendritic dopamine release in VTA was not mediated by monoamine transporters. This work offers an initial characterization of voltammetric signals in the midbrain of the mouse and provides insight into the regulation of monoamine neurotransmission in these areas. PMID:16300629

John, Carrie E; Budygin, Evgeny A; Mateo, Yolanda; Jones, Sara R

2006-01-01

126

Orquestic regulation of neurotransmitters on reward-seeking behavior  

PubMed Central

The ventral tegmental area is strongly associated with the reward system. Dopamine is released in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex as a result of rewarding experiences such as food, sex, and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. Electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area or its output pathways can itself serve as a potent reward. Different drugs that increase dopamine levels are intrinsically rewarding. Although the dopaminergic system represent the cornerstone of the reward system, other neurotransmitters such as endogenous opioids, glutamate, ?-Aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, serotonin, adenosine, endocannabinoids, orexins, galanin and histamine all affect this mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Consequently, genetic variations of neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. Here, we discuss current evidence on the orquestic regulation of different neurotranmitters on reward-seeking behavior and its potential effect on drug addiction.

2014-01-01

127

Contrasting contribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine 1A receptor activation to neurochemical profile of novel antipsychotics: frontocortical dopamine and hippocampal serotonin release in rat brain.  

PubMed

Several novel antipsychotics, such as aripiprazole, bifeprunox, SSR181507 [(3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-(((2S)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl)methyl)-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)octane-3-methanamine], and SLV313 [1-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yl)-4-[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-pyridin-3-ylmethyl]-piperazine], activate serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptors. Such activity is associated with enhanced treatment of negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, which may be mediated by modulation of cerebral dopamine and serotonin levels. We employed microdialysis coupled to high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to examine 5-HT1A receptor activation in the modulation of extracellular dopamine in medial prefrontal cortex and serotonin in hippocampus of freely moving rats. The above compounds were compared with drugs that have less interaction with 5-HT1A receptors (clozapine, nemonapride, ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol). Hippocampal 5-HT was decreased by bifeprunox, SSR181507, SLV313, sarizotan, and nemonapride, effects similar to those seen with the 5-HT1A agonist, (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin [(+)8-OH-DPAT], consistent with activation of 5-HT1A autoreceptors. These decreases were reversed by the selective 5-HT1A antagonist, WAY100635 [N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide]. In contrast, haloperidol, risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole did not significantly modify hippocampal serotonin levels. In medial prefrontal cortex, dopamine levels were increased by SSR181507, SLV313, sarizotan, and (+)8-OH-DPAT. These effects were reversed by WAY100635, indicating mediation by 5-HT1A receptors. In contrast, the increases in dopamine levels induced by clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, and ziprasidone were not blocked by WAY100635, consistent with predominant influence of other mechanisms in the actions of these drugs. Haloperidol, nemonapride, and the D2 partial agonists, aripiprazole and bifeprunox, did not significantly alter dopamine release. Taken together, these data demonstrate the diverse contribution of 5-HT1A receptor activation to the profile of antipsychotics and suggest that novel drugs selectively targeting D2 and 5-HT1A receptors may present distinctive therapeutic properties. PMID:15987834

Assié, Marie-Bernadette; Ravailhe, Véronique; Faucillon, Valérie; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian

2005-10-01

128

Systemic tumor necrosis factor-alpha decreases brain stimulation reward and increases metabolites of serotonin and dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of mice.  

PubMed

Many patients with chronic inflammatory disorders have an abnormal high prevalence of major depression accompanied by elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?). We hypothesize that systemic TNF-? increases brain monoamine metabolism, which might induce anhedonia (i.e. a core symptom of major depression). The effect of an intraperitoneal TNF-? injection on extracellular monoamine and metabolite concentrations was investigated by in vivo microdialysis in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of C57BL/6 mice. In another group, the effects of TNF-? on body weight and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds were measured. TNF-? reduced body weight and increased ICSS thresholds, suggesting a state of anhedonia. TNF-? did not affect serotonin levels, but increased its metabolite 5-HIAA in the NAc. Remarkably, TNF-? also increased the dopamine metabolite HVA, without affecting dopamine levels itself. These data concur with earlier findings that pro-inflammatory cytokines enhance serotonin transporter activity, and possibly also dopamine transporter activity in the brain. However, more research is needed to understand the precise molecular mechanisms by which TNF-? increases transporter activity and anhedonia. PMID:23896053

van Heesch, Floor; Prins, Jolanda; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Westphal, Koen G C; Lemstra, Suzanne; Olivier, Berend; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Korte, S Mechiel

2013-09-15

129

Hyperfunctionality of serotonin-2C receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release in an animal model of depression is reversed by antidepressant treatment.  

PubMed

Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens mediates motivation and reward, making it a likely candidate to be involved in anhedonia, one of the major symptoms of depression. In the current study, alterations in basal extracellular dopamine levels and 5HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release in Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, an animal model of depression, were investigated. We found that FSL rats have decreased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens and an increased inhibitory-like effect of 5HT2C receptors on accumbal dopamine release. However, neither basal 5HT levels nor the accumbal 5HT response to the local 5HT2C receptor antagonist (RS 102221) differed between Sprague-Dawley and FSL rats. Seven-day treatment with the nefazodone (a serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and 5HT2C antagonist) as well as 7-day and 14-day treatments with a tricyclic antidepressant desipramine increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of FSL rats. However, only 14-day treatment with desipramine or 7-day treatment with nefazodone, but not 7-day treatment with desipramine, decreased 5HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition of accumbal dopamine release. Based on a possible correlation between the onset of 5HT2C receptor-mediated inhibition and the behavioral effects of desipramine and nefazodone treatment that was described in our previous studies, we suggest that 5HT2C receptor activation may be important for the onset of the behavioral effects of antidepressant treatment. PMID:15617725

Dremencov, Eliyahu; Newman, Michael E; Kinor, Noa; Blatman-Jan, Gitit; Schindler, Cheryl J; Overstreet, David H; Yadid, Gal

2005-01-01

130

Serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline adjust actions of myelinated afferents via modulation of presynaptic inhibition in the mouse spinal cord.  

PubMed

Gain control of primary afferent neurotransmission at their intraspinal terminals occurs by several mechanisms including primary afferent depolarization (PAD). PAD produces presynaptic inhibition via a reduction in transmitter release. While it is known that descending monoaminergic pathways complexly regulate sensory processing, the extent these actions include modulation of afferent-evoked PAD remains uncertain. We investigated the effects of serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) on afferent transmission and PAD. Responses were evoked by stimulation of myelinated hindlimb cutaneous and muscle afferents in the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord. Monosynaptic responses were examined in the deep dorsal horn either as population excitatory synaptic responses (recorded as extracellular field potentials; EFPs) or intracellular excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). The magnitude of PAD generated intraspinally was estimated from electrotonically back-propagating dorsal root potentials (DRPs) recorded on lumbar dorsal roots. 5HT depressed the DRP by 76%. Monosynaptic actions were similarly depressed by 5HT (EFPs 54%; EPSCs 75%) but with a slower time course. This suggests that depression of monosynaptic EFPs and DRPs occurs by independent mechanisms. DA and NA had similar depressant actions on DRPs but weaker effects on EFPs. IC50 values for DRP depression were 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 µM for 5HT, DA and NA, respectively. Depression of DRPs by monoamines was nearly-identical in both muscle and cutaneous afferent-evoked responses, supporting a global modulation of the multimodal afferents stimulated. 5HT, DA and NA produced no change in the compound antidromic potentials evoked by intraspinal microstimulation indicating that depression of the DRP is unrelated to direct changes in the excitability of intraspinal afferent fibers, but due to metabotropic receptor activation. In summary, both myelinated afferent-evoked DRPs and monosynaptic transmission in the dorsal horn are broadly reduced by descending monoamine transmitters. These actions likely integrate with modulatory actions elsewhere to reconfigure spinal circuits during motor behaviors. PMID:24587177

García-Ramírez, David L; Calvo, Jorge R; Hochman, Shawn; Quevedo, Jorge N

2014-01-01

131

Effects of sustained serotonin reuptake inhibition on the firing of dopamine neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area  

PubMed Central

Background Selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are efficacious in depression because of their ability to increase 5-HT neurotransmission. However, owing to a purported inhibitory effect of 5-HT on dopamine (DA) neuronal activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), this increase in 5-HT transmission might result in a suppression of the firing activity of DA neurons. Since the mesolimbic DA system plays an important role in motivation and reward, a potential decrease in the firing of DA neurons may lead, in some patients, to a lack of adequate response to SSRIs. Methods We administered the SSRIs citalopram or escitalopram in rats. We determined DA neuronal activity using in-vivo electrophysiology. Results Sustained administration of escitalopram robustly decreased the firing rate and burst activity of DA neurons. There was no difference in the mean number of spontaneously active DA neurons per tract among the 3 groups (citalopram, escitalopram, control). This inhibition was reversed by the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB 242084. Citalopram, however, did not alter the overall firing rate but inhibited the burst activity of DA neurons. Limitations Our experiments were carried out with the rats under general anesthesia. Therefore, under such conditions the absolute changes produced by SSRIs may heve been different from those occurring in freely moving rats. The exact location of the 5-HT2C receptors mediating the inhibitory effects of the SSRIs could not be determined in these studies. Conclusion The difference between escitalopram and citalopram in their effect on DA neuronal activity may be explained by the higher efficacy of escitalopram as a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor. Since the inhibitory effect of escitalopram on DA neuronal activity is mediated via 5-HT2C receptors, antagonists of these receptors might be effective adjuncts in SSRI-resistant depression.

Dremencov, Eliyahu; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

2009-01-01

132

Electrophysiological Effects of Repeated Administration of Agomelatine on the Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Serotonin Systems in the Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Agomelatine is a melatonergic MT1/MT2 agonist and a serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT2C antagonist. The effects of 2-day and 14-day administration of agomelatine were investigated on the activity of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA), locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE), and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons using in vivo electrophysiology in rats. The 5-HT1A transmission was assessed at hippocampus CA3 pyramidal neurons. After a 2-day regimen of agomelatine (40?mg/kg/day, i.p.), an increase in the number of spontaneously active VTA-DA neurons (p<0.001) and in the firing rate of LC-NE neurons (p<0.001) was observed. After 14 days, the administration of agomelatine induced an increase in: (1) the number of spontaneously active DA neurons (p<0.05), (2) the bursting activity of DA neurons (bursts/min, p<0.01 and percentage of spikes occurring in bursts, p<0.05), (3) the firing rate of DRN-5-HT neurons (p<0.05), and (4) the tonic activation of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptors located in the hippocampus. The increase in 5-HT firing rate was D2 dependent, as it was antagonized by the D2 receptor antagonist paliperidone. The enhancement of NE firing was restored by the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist MDL-100,907 after the 14-day regimen. All the effects of agomelatine were antagonized by a single administration of the melatonergic antagonist S22153 (except for the increase in the percentage of spikes occurring in burst for DA neurons). The present results suggest that (1) agomelatine exerts direct (2 days) and indirect (14 days) modulations of monoaminergic neuronal activity and (2) the melatonergic agonistic activity of agomelatine contributes to the enhancement of DA and 5-HT neurotransmission.

Chenu, Franck; El Mansari, Mostafa; Blier, Pierre

2013-01-01

133

Gold nanoparticles modified GC electrodes: electrochemical behaviour dependence of different neurotransmitters and molecules of biological interest on the particles size and shape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gold colloidal nanoparticles (AuNps), synthesized by gold chloride hydrate (HAuCl4) chemical reduction were used to realize a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Different shapes and sizes were observed,\\u000a varying the molar ratio of HAuCl4 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The electrochemical behaviour of different neurotransmitters and molecules of biological\\u000a interest (dopamine, caffeic acid, catechol, uric acid, epinephrine and serotonin) were investigated by

D. Caschera; F. Federici; D. Zane; F. Focanti; A. Curulli; G. Padeletti

2009-01-01

134

Evidence for the preferential involvement of 5-HT2A serotonin receptors in stress- and drug-induced dopamine release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

The mechanism(s) by which serotonin modulates dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex is not known, although studies suggest an involvement of 5-HT2 family receptors. We employed in vivo microdialysis and putatively selective 5-HT2A antagonists (M100907, MDL 11,939, SR46349B) to determine if 5-HT2A receptors are responsible for both drug- and stress-induced DA release in the medial prefrontal cortex. MDL 11,939 and SR46349B receptor-binding studies indicated, for the first time, that only MDL 11,939 had greater selectivity for the 5-HT2A vs the 5-HT2C receptor subtypes similar to M100907, and that both showed low or no affinity for non-5-HT2 receptors. Reverse dialysis with 5-HT2A antagonists had little or no effect on basal dopamine efflux. However, intracortical administration of MDL 11,939 or M100907 attenuated dopamine release induced by systemic administration of the 5-HT2 agonist DOI. Dual-probe microdialysis demonstrated that systemic DOI also increased glutamate concentrations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This was blocked by intracortical M100907. Cortical perfusion with M100907, or the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone, but not the 5-HT2B/C ligand SB 206553, also decreased dopamine release induced physiologically by stress. These results indicate that stimulation of cortical 5-HT2A receptors increases the release of dopamine from the mesocortical system. They suggest that this effect may be mediated by increases in glutamate release from corticotegmental projections to the VTA. Additionally, they indicate that cortical 5-HT2A receptors modulate evoked dopamine release, such as that observed physiologically following mild stress. These findings may have implications for the pharmacological treatment of disorders resulting from or exacerbated by stress. PMID:15999145

Pehek, Elizabeth A; Nocjar, Christine; Roth, Bryan L; Byrd, Tara A; Mabrouk, Omar S

2006-02-01

135

The neurotoxic effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine on serotonin, dopamine, and GABA-ergic terminals: an in-vitro autoradiographic study in rats.  

PubMed

Damage to serotonin (5-HT) terminals following doses of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is well documented, and this toxicity is thought to be related to dopamine release that is potentiated by the 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist effects of the drug. Although MDMA and methamphetamine (METH) have some similar dopaminergic activities, they differ in their 5-HT agonistic properties. It is reasoned that the study of the resultant toxicity following equimolar doses of MDMA and METH on both dopamine and 5-HT terminals should offer a comparison of the ability of these drugs to induce neurotoxicity. In order to measure the toxic effects to the brain, rats were given equimolar doses of MDMA (40 mg/kg/day) and METH (32 mg/kg/day) in subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps for a period of 5 days, and in-vitro autoradiography using [3H]-paroxetine, [3H]-mazindol, [3H]-methylspiperone, and [3H]-flunitrazepam, was performed on brain sections. The results showed that METH was more toxic to 5-HT terminals than MDMA in forebrain regions, including the anterior cingulate, caudate nucleus, nucleus accumbens, and septum. METH was also more toxic than MDMA to dopamine terminals in the habenula, and posterior retrosplenial cortex. Therefore, we find that METH was more toxic to 5-HT and dopamine terminals in specific brain regions in both pre and post-synaptic sites following continuous equimolar dosing. PMID:15474609

Armstrong, Brian D; Noguchi, Kevin K

2004-12-01

136

The serotonin-dopamine interaction is critical for fast-onset action of antidepressant treatment: in vivo studies in an animal model of depression.  

PubMed

In the last decade, many new antidepressants have been developed that display a more rapid onset to clinical effects than classical antidepressants. However, the mechanism that enables some drugs to have a faster onset of action than others is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine neural alterations that are specific to fast-acting antidepressant action using Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats, an animal model of depression. Because of the central role of accumbal dopamine in the mediation of motivation and reward, our measurements were focused on dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAC). The authors found that 7-day treatment with nefazodone (a putative fast-onset antidepressant) but not with desipramine (a classical antidepressant) normalized immobility time in the swim test in FSL rats. Serotonin (5-HT)-induced dopamine release but not basal dopamine levels correlated with the improvement of depressive-like behavior. The authors conclude that the 5-HT-dopamine interaction is critical to the fast-onset action of antidepressant treatment. PMID:14687868

Dremencov, Eliyahu; Gispan-Herman, Iris; Rosenstein, Merav; Mendelman, Avivit; Overstreet, David H; Zohar, Joseph; Yadid, Gal

2004-01-01

137

[In vitro effects of acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine and serotonin on tracheal smooth muscle response during hypersecretion and normal secretion of tracheal glands].  

PubMed

It is expressed in vitro answer of the soft musculature of the tracheobronchial system of the newborns from 12 to 18 weeks of the gestation, with the hypersecretion and normosecretin of the tracheal gland. On 30 tracheal preparations taken by autopsy' of the dead children, was followed-up the answer of the tracheal soft musculature (SMT) on acetylcholine, dopamine, histamine and serotonine in the concentrations from 110(-4), 10(-3), 10(-2), 10(-1) M/L. The results illustrate that acetylcholyne, and histamine in the mentioned concentrations provoked the statistically significant answers of GMT with the hypersecretion and normosecretion of the tracheal glands (p < 0.01). On the contrary, dopamine and serotonine have not provoked statistically significant answers of these structures (p > 0.1), what illustrates that also dopaminergic and serotoninergic receptors at tracheobronchila system are not sufficient developed in this age of life. The answers of the tracheal-bronchial rings with hypersection of the tracheal glands a little more emphasized than the answers with normosecretion of the glands, but this difference is not statistically significant (p > 0.1). PMID:12822376

Islami, Hilmi; Shabani, R; Rama, Adem; Disba, M; Dida, B; Azizi, E

2003-01-01

138

Involvement of dopamine (DA)/serotonin (5-HT)/sigma (sigma) receptor modulation in mediating the antidepressant action of ropinirole hydrochloride, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist.  

PubMed

Multiple lines of investigation have explored the role of dopaminergic systems in mental depression. Chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs has been reported to alter dopaminergic neurotransmission, most notably a sensitization of behavioural responses to agonists acting at D2/D3 dopamine receptors within the nucleus accumbens. Recent clinical evidences have shown that ropinirole, a D2/D3 dopamine receptor agonist, augments the action of various standard antidepressant drugs in treatment-resistant depression. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the possible mechanism of antidepressant action of ropinirole employing various behavioral paradigms of despair supported by the measurements of neurochemical changes in the tissue contents of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the whole brain using high-performance-liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detectors (ECD). In the mouse forced swim test (FST) or tail-suspension test (TST), ropinirole (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) produced S-shaped dose-response curve in the percentage decrease in immobility period. Compared with vehicle, ropinirole (10 mg/kg., i.p.) had a significant anti-immobility effect without affecting locomotor activity. The reduction in the immobility period elicited by ropinirole (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the FST was reversed by dopaminergic and sigma receptor antagonist, haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), and specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist sulpiride (5 mg/kg i.p.), but not by SCH 23390 (0.5 mg/kg i.p), a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist. Rimcazole (5 mg/kg i.p.) (a sigma receptor antagonist), progesterone (10 mg/kg i.p.) (a sigma receptor antagonistic neurosteroid), BD 1047 (1 mg/kg i.p.) (a novel sigma receptor antagonist with preferential affinity for sigma-1 sites) also reversed the anti-immobility effect of ropinirole (10 mg/kg i.p.). The neurochemical studies of whole brain revealed that ropinirole at 10 mg/kg i.p. did not affect the tissue levels of dopamine but significantly increased serotonin levels. The study indicated that ropinirole possessed anti-immobility activity in FST by altering dopaminergic, serotonergic or sigma receptor function. PMID:17683790

Dhir, Ashish; Kulkarni, S K

2007-09-14

139

Auditory event-related potentials (P3a, P3b) and genetic variants within the dopamine and serotonin system in healthy females.  

PubMed

The late positive components of the human event-related brain potential comprise electrocortical reflections of stimulus-driven attentional capture (the anteriorly distributed P3a) and top-down control detection of relevant events (the posteriorly distributed P3b). As of yet, the neuropharmacologic and neurogenetic origin of the P3a and P3b is not fully understood. In this study, we address the contribution of dopaminergic and serotoninergic mechanisms. Sixty healthy females completed an active auditory novelty oddball paradigm while EEG was recorded. In all subjects, genetic polymorphisms within the dopamine system (dopamine transporter [DAT1], catecholamine-O-methyltransferase val158met [COMT val158met]) and the serotonin system (serotonin transporter [5HTTLPR]) were assessed. Across genotypes, novels (relative to standards) elicited a fronto-centrally distributed P3a, and targets (relative to standards) a parieto-centrally distributed P3b. Genotypes effects were observed for both P3a (COMT, 5HTTPLR) and P3b (DAT1, COMT, 5HTTLPR) only at prefrontal electrode location (Fz). Specifically, the frontal P3a was enhanced in COMT met/met homozygotes, but not in DAT1 9R. The target-related P3b was enhanced in COMT met/met and DAT1 9R relative to its genetic counterparts, but only at frontal electrodes. This 'anteriorized' enhancement may reflect either an additional frontal component in the target-related P3 dependent on dopamine, or a more subtle shift in the neural ensemble that generates the target-related P3. Results for 5HTTLPR short allele homozygotes mimicked those in COMT met/met homozygotes. In all, the present findings suggest involvement of frontal-cortical dopaminergic and serotoninergic mechanisms in bottom-up attentional capture (COMT val158met, 5HTTLPR), with an additional top-down component sensitive to striatal signals (DAT1). PMID:23619133

Heitland, I; Kenemans, J L; Oosting, R S; Baas, J M P; Böcker, K B E

2013-07-15

140

Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

2012-02-01

141

Evidence for a gene–gene interaction in predicting children's behavior problems: Association of serotonin transporter short and dopamine receptor D4 long genotypes with internalizing and externalizing behaviors in typically developing 7-year-olds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent work on the molecular genetics of complex traits in typical and atypical human development has focused primarilyon associations of single genes with behavior. Disparate literature suggests that the presence of one or two copies of the short allele of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene and the long allele (7-repeat allele) version of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene predicts

Louis A. Schmidt; Nathan A. Fox; DEAN H. HAMERc

2007-01-01

142

Determination of Serotonin and Dopamine Metabolites in Human Brain Microdialysis and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples by UPLC-MS/MS: Discovery of Intact Glucuronide and Sulfate Conjugates  

PubMed Central

An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), their phase I metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA, and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates in human brain microdialysis samples obtained from two patients with acute brain injuries, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from four patients with obstructive hydrocephalus, and a lumbar CSF sample pooled mainly from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia in preparation for orthopedic surgery. The method was validated by determining the limits of detection and quantification, linearity, repeatability and specificity. The direct method enabled the analysis of the intact phase II metabolites of 5-HT and DA, without hydrolysis of the conjugates. The method also enabled the analysis of the regioisomers of the conjugates, and several intact glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were identified and quantified for the first time in the human brain microdialysis and CSF samples. We were able to show the presence of 5-HIAA sulfate, and that dopamine-3-O-sulfate predominates over dopamine-4-O-sulfate in the human brain. The quantitative results suggest that sulfonation is a more important phase II metabolism pathway than glucuronidation in the human brain.

Suominen, Tina; Uutela, Paivi; Ketola, Raimo A.; Bergquist, Jonas; Hillered, Lars; Finel, Moshe; Zhang, Hongbo; Laakso, Aki; Kostiainen, Risto

2013-01-01

143

Decreased cerebral spinal fluid neurotransmitter levels in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.  

PubMed

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with cognitive impairment and a distinct behavioral phenotype that includes autistic features. SLOS is caused by a defect in 3?-hydroxysterol ?(7)-reductase which leads to decreased cholesterol levels and elevated cholesterol precursors, specifically 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol. However, the pathological processes contributing to the neurological abnormalities in SLOS have not been defined. In view of prior data suggesting defects in SLOS in vesicular release and given the association of altered serotonin metabolism with autism, we were interested in measuring neurotransmitter metabolite levels in SLOS to assess their potential to be used as biomarkers in therapeutic trials. We measured cerebral spinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) respectively, in 21 SLOS subjects. Results were correlated with the SLOS anatomical severity score, Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores and concurrent sterol biochemistry. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were significantly reduced in SLOS subjects. In individual patients, the levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were reduced to a similar degree. CSF neurotransmitter metabolite levels did not correlate with either CSF sterols or behavioral measures. This is the first study demonstrating decreased levels of CSF neurotransmitter metabolites in SLOS. We propose that decreased levels of neurotransmitters in SLOS are caused by a sterol-related defect in synaptic vesicle formation and that CSF 5HIAA and HVA will be useful biomarkers in development of future therapeutic trials. PMID:24500076

Sparks, S E; Wassif, C A; Goodwin, H; Conley, S K; Lanham, D C; Kratz, L E; Hyland, K; Gropman, A; Tierney, E; Porter, F D

2014-05-01

144

Multisite Intracerebral Microdialysis to Study the Mechanism of L-DOPA Induced Dopamine and Serotonin Release in the Parkinsonian Brain  

PubMed Central

L-DOPA is currently one of the best medications for Parkinson’s disease. It was assumed for several years that its benefits and side effects were related to the enhancement of dopamine release in the dopamine-depleted striatum. The use of intracerebral microdialysis combined with a pharmacological approach has led to the discovery that serotonergic neurons are responsible for dopamine release induced by L-DOPA. The subsequent use of multisite microdialysis has further revealed that L-DOPA-stimulated dopamine release is widespread and related to the serotonergic innervation. The present Review emphasizes the functional impact of extrastriatal release of dopamine induced by L-DOPA in both the therapeutic and side effects of L-DOPA.

2013-01-01

145

Monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin release as candidate "agonist" medications for cocaine dependence: studies in assays of cocaine discrimination and cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

Monoamine releasers constitute one class of drugs under investigation as candidate medications for the treatment of cocaine abuse. Promising preclinical and clinical results have been obtained with amphetamine, which has high selectivity for releasing dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin. However, use of amphetamine as a pharmacotherapy is complicated by its high abuse potential. Recent preclinical studies suggest that nonselective monoamine releasers or serotonin-selective releasers have lower abuse liability and may warrant evaluation as alternatives to amphetamine. To address this issue, the present study evaluated the effects of five monoamine releasers in assays of cocaine discrimination and cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. The releasers varied along a continuum from dopamine/norepinephrine-selective to serotonin-selective [m-fluoroamphetamine (PAL-353), methamphetamine, m-methylamphetamine (PAL-314), 1-napthyl-2-aminopropane (PAL-287), fenfluramine]. In drug discrimination studies, rhesus monkeys were trained to discriminate saline from cocaine (0.4 mg/kg i.m.) in a two-key, food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Substitution for cocaine was positively associated with selectivity for dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin release. In drug self-administration studies, rhesus monkeys responded for cocaine (0.01 and 0.032 mg/kg/injection) and food (1-g pellets) under a second-order fixed-ratio 2 (variable-ratio 16:S) schedule. In general, monoamine releasers produced dose-dependent and sustained decreases in cocaine self-administration. However, the dopamine/norepinephrine-selective releasers decreased cocaine self-administration with minimal effects on food-maintained responding, whereas the more serotonin-selective releasers produced nonselective reductions in both cocaine- and food-maintained responding. These results are consistent with the conclusion that dopamine/norepinephrine-selective releasers retain cocaine-like abuse-related effects but may also be capable of producing relatively selective reductions in the reinforcing effects of cocaine. PMID:17071819

Negus, S S; Mello, N K; Blough, B E; Baumann, M H; Rothman, R B

2007-02-01

146

Simultaneous measurement of serotonin, dopamine and their metabolites in mouse brain extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry following derivatization with ethyl chloroformate.  

PubMed

In order to measure the levels of serotonin (5-hydroxyltryptamine, 5-HT), dopamine (DA), 3,4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) and homovanillic acid (HVA) simultaneously, an effective derivatization method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrochemical ionization mass spectrometry was used. The derivatization reaction of biological samples with ethyl chloroformate occurred rapidly at room temperature in aqueous conditions, and the resulting derivatives were isocratically separated with good selectivity using a C18 reversed-phase column within 30 min. The study results showed that the new derivatization procedure offers an excellent means of simultaneous determination of 5-HT, DA and their metabolites in mouse brain homogenates, which are important in a number of physiological and behavioral functions. PMID:23196426

Park, Ju-Young; Myung, Seung-Woon; Kim, In-Soo; Choi, Dong-Kug; Kwon, Soon-Jung; Yoon, Sung-Hwa

2013-01-01

147

A functional polymorphism in the MAOA gene promoter (MAOA-LPR) predicts central dopamine function and body mass index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in brain monoaminergic activity is heritable and modulates risk of alcoholism and other addictions, as well as food intake and energy expenditure. Monoamine oxidase A deaminates the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine (DA), and noradrenalin. The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene (Xp11.5) contains a length polymorphism in its promoter region (MAOA-LPR) that putatively affects transcriptional efficiency. Our goals were to

F Ducci; T K Newman; S Funt; G L Brown; M Virkkunen; D Goldman

2006-01-01

148

SLC18: Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters for monoamines and acetylcholine ?  

PubMed Central

The exocytotic release of neurotransmitters requires active transport into synaptic vesicles and other types of secretory vesicles. Members of the SLC18 family perform this function for acetylcholine (SLC18A3, the vesicular acetylcholine transporter or VAChT) and monoamines such as dopamine and serotonin (SLC18A1 and 2, the vesicular monoamine transporters VMAT1 and 2, respectively). To date, no specific diseases have been attributed to a mutation in an SLC18 family member; however, polymorphisms in SLC18A1 and SLC18A2 may confer risk for some neuropsychiatric disorders. Additional members of this family include SLC18A4, expressed in insects, and SLC18B1, the function of which is not known. SLC18 is part of the Drug:H+ Antiporter-1 Family (DHA1, TCID 2.A.1.2) within the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS, TCID 2.A.1).

Lawal, Hakeem O.; Krantz, David E.

2012-01-01

149

An extended reinforcement learning model of basal ganglia to understand the contributions of serotonin and dopamine in risk-based decision making, reward prediction, and punishment learning  

PubMed Central

Although empirical and neural studies show that serotonin (5HT) plays many functional roles in the brain, prior computational models mostly focus on its role in behavioral inhibition. In this study, we present a model of risk based decision making in a modified Reinforcement Learning (RL)-framework. The model depicts the roles of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in Basal Ganglia (BG). In this model, the DA signal is represented by the temporal difference error (?), while the 5HT signal is represented by a parameter (?) that controls risk prediction error. This formulation that accommodates both 5HT and DA reconciles some of the diverse roles of 5HT particularly in connection with the BG system. We apply the model to different experimental paradigms used to study the role of 5HT: (1) Risk-sensitive decision making, where 5HT controls risk assessment, (2) Temporal reward prediction, where 5HT controls time-scale of reward prediction, and (3) Reward/Punishment sensitivity, in which the punishment prediction error depends on 5HT levels. Thus the proposed integrated RL model reconciles several existing theories of 5HT and DA in the BG.

Balasubramani, Pragathi P.; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

2014-01-01

150

An extended reinforcement learning model of basal ganglia to understand the contributions of serotonin and dopamine in risk-based decision making, reward prediction, and punishment learning.  

PubMed

Although empirical and neural studies show that serotonin (5HT) plays many functional roles in the brain, prior computational models mostly focus on its role in behavioral inhibition. In this study, we present a model of risk based decision making in a modified Reinforcement Learning (RL)-framework. The model depicts the roles of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in Basal Ganglia (BG). In this model, the DA signal is represented by the temporal difference error (?), while the 5HT signal is represented by a parameter (?) that controls risk prediction error. This formulation that accommodates both 5HT and DA reconciles some of the diverse roles of 5HT particularly in connection with the BG system. We apply the model to different experimental paradigms used to study the role of 5HT: (1) Risk-sensitive decision making, where 5HT controls risk assessment, (2) Temporal reward prediction, where 5HT controls time-scale of reward prediction, and (3) Reward/Punishment sensitivity, in which the punishment prediction error depends on 5HT levels. Thus the proposed integrated RL model reconciles several existing theories of 5HT and DA in the BG. PMID:24795614

Balasubramani, Pragathi P; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A

2014-01-01

151

Selective inhibitors of biosynthesis of aminergic neurotransmitters  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the enzymatic decarboxylation of amino acids is of substantial importance to biochemistry1, there are few inhibitors of the decarboxylase enzymes which combine activity with selectivity. Several of the amines formed by in vivo decarboxylation of amino acids (biogenic amines) have key roles in physiology. The neurotransmitters dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, histamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid result from such enzymatic decarboxylation; dopamine in

J. Kollonitsch; A. A. Patchett; S. Marburg; A. L. Maycock; L. M. Perkins; G. A. Doldouras; D. E. Duggan; S. D. Aster

1978-01-01

152

A nonoxidative sensor based on a self-doped polyaniline/carbon nanotube composite for sensitive and selective detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine.  

PubMed

Most of the current techniques for detection of dopamine exploit its ease of oxidation. However, the oxidative approaches suffer from a common problem. The products of dopamine oxidation can react with ascorbic acid present in samples and regenerate dopamine again, which severely limits the accuracy of detection. In this paper, we report a nonoxidative approach to electrochemically detect dopamine with high sensitivity and selectivity. This approach takes advantage of the high performance of our newly developed poly(anilineboronic acid)/carbon nanotube composite and the excellent permselectivity of the ion-exchange polymer Nafion. The binding of dopamine to the boronic acid groups of the polymer with large affinity affects the electrochemical properties of the polyaniline backbone, which act as the transduction mechanism of this nonoxidative dopamine sensor. The unique reduction capability and high conductivity of single-stranded DNA functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrochemical activity of the polymer in physiological buffer, and the large surface area of the carbon nanotubes largely increased the density of the boronic acid receptors. The high sensitivity along with the improved selectivity of this sensing approach is a significant step forward toward molecular diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. PMID:17286387

Ali, Shah R; Ma, Yufeng; Parajuli, Rishi R; Balogun, Yetunde; Lai, Warren Y-C; He, Huixin

2007-03-15

153

Amyloid precursor protein 96-110 and beta-amyloid 1-42 elicit developmental anomalies in sea urchin embryos and larvae that are alleviated by neurotransmitter analogs for acetylcholine, serotonin and cannabinoids.  

PubMed

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is overexpressed in the developing brain and portions of its extracellular domain, especially amino acid residues 96-110, play an important role in neurite outgrowth and neural cell differentiation. In the current study, we evaluated the developmental abnormalities caused by administration of exogenous APP(96-110) in sea urchin embryos and larvae, which, like the developing mammalian brain, utilize acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters as morphogens; effects were compared to those of beta-amyloid 1-42 (Abeta42), the neurotoxic APP fragment contained within neurodegenerative plaques in Alzheimer's Disease. Although both peptides elicited dysmorphogenesis, Abeta42 was far more potent; in addition, whereas Abeta42 produced abnormalities at developmental stages ranging from early cleavage divisions to the late pluteus, APP(96-110) effects were restricted to the intermediate, mid-blastula stage. For both agents, anomalies were prevented or reduced by addition of lipid-permeable analogs of acetylcholine, serotonin or cannabinoids; physostigmine, a carbamate-derived cholinesterase inhibitor, was also effective. In contrast, agents that act on NMDA receptors (memantine) or alpha-adrenergic receptors (nicergoline), and that are therapeutic in Alzheimer's Disease, were themselves embryotoxic, as was tacrine, a cholinesterase inhibitor from a different chemical class than physostigmine. Protection was also provided by agents acting downstream from receptor-mediated events: increasing cyclic AMP with caffeine or isobutylmethylxanthine, or administering the antioxidant, a-tocopherol, were all partially effective. Our findings reinforce a role for APP in development and point to specific interactions with neurotransmitter systems that act as morphogens in developing sea urchins as well as in the mammalian brain. PMID:18565728

Buznikov, Gennady A; Nikitina, Lyudmila A; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A; Bezuglov, Vladimir V; Milosevi?, Ivan; Lazarevi?, Lidija; Rogac, Ljubica; Ruzdiji?, Sabera; Raki?, Ljubisa M

2008-01-01

154

Oxidatively generated DNA damage after Cu(II) catalysis of dopamine and related catecholamine neurotransmitters and neurotoxins: Role of reactive oxygen species  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence supporting a causal role for oxidatively damaged DNA in neurodegeneration during the natural aging process and in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson and Alzheimer. The presence of redox-active catecholamine neurotransmitters coupled with the localization of catalytic copper to DNA suggests a plausible role for these agents in the induction of oxidatively generated DNA damage. In this

Wendy A. Spencer; Jeyaprakash Jeyabalan; Sunita Kichambre; Ramesh C. Gupta

2011-01-01

155

Neurotransmitter properties of the newborn human retina  

SciTech Connect

Human retinal tissue from a newborn was examined autoradiographically for the presence of high-affinity uptake and localization of the following putative neurotransmitters: dopamine, glycine, GABA, aspartate, and glutamate. In addition, the dopamine content of this newborn retina was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Our study reveals that specific uptake mechanisms for /sup 3/H-glycine, /sup 3/H-dopamine, and /sup 3/H-GABA are present at birth. However, the number and distribution of cells labeled with each of these /sup 3/H-transmitters are not identical to those observed in adult human retinas. Furthermore, the amount of endogenous dopamine in the newborn retina is approximately 1/20 the adult level. Photoreceptor-specific uptake of /sup 3/H-glutamate and /sup 3/H-aspartate are not observed. These findings indicate that, while some neurotransmitter-specific properties are present at birth, significant maturation of neurotransmitter systems occurs postnatally.

Hollyfield, J.G.; Frederick, J.M.; Rayborn, M.E.

1983-07-01

156

MDMA (Ecstasy) and human dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin transporters: implications for MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, designated as “Ecstasy” if illicitly marketed in tablet form) induces significant decrements in neuronal serotonin (5-HT) markers in humans, nonhuman primates, and rats as a function of dosing and dosing regimen. In rats, MDMA-mediated effects are attributed, in part, to selective high-affinity transport of MDMA into 5-HT neurons by the 5-HT transporter (SERT), followed by extensive 5-HT release.Objectives  To

Christopher D. Verrico; Gregory M. Miller; Bertha K. Madras

2007-01-01

157

Association between tridimensional personality questionnaire (TPQ) traits and three functional polymorphisms: dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), serotonin transporter promoter region (5-HTTLPR) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4), serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region (5-HTTLPR) and catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) polymorphisms were examined for association with TPQ personality factors in 455 subjects. Significant interactions were observed by multivariate analysis, (COMT × 5-HTTLPR: Hotelling's Trace = 2.3, P = 0.02) and by subsequent univariate 3-way ANOVA when Novelty Seeking (NS) was the dependent variable: 5-HTTLPR × D4DR

J Benjamin; Y Osher; M Kotler; I Gritsenko; L Nemanov; R H Belmaker; R P Ebstein

2000-01-01

158

Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive-compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity  

PubMed Central

Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders.

Murphy, Dennis L.; Moya, Pablo R.; Fox, Meredith A.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Wendland, Jens R.; Timpano, Kiara R.

2013-01-01

159

Neurotransmitter transporters in schistosomes: structure, function and prospects for drug discovery.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) play a fundamental role in the control of neurotransmitter signaling and homeostasis. Sodium symporters of the plasma membrane mediate the cellular uptake of neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft, whereas proton-driven vesicular transporters sequester the neurotransmitter into synaptic vesicles for subsequent release. Together these transporters control how much transmitter is released and how long it remains in the synaptic cleft, thereby regulating the intensity and duration of signaling. NTTs have been the subject of much research in mammals and there is growing interest in their activities among invertebrates as well. In this review we will focus our attention on NTTs of the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Bloodflukes of the genus Schistosoma are the causative agents of human schistosomiasis, a devastating disease that afflicts over 200 million people worldwide. Schistosomes have a well-developed nervous system and a rich diversity of neurotransmitters, including many of the small-molecule ("classical") neurotransmitters that normally employ NTTs in their mechanism of signaling. Recent advances in schistosome genomics have unveiled numerous NTTs in this parasite, some of which have now been cloned and characterized in vitro. Moreover new genetic and pharmacological evidence suggests that NTTs are required for proper control of neuromuscular signaling and movement of the worm. Among these carriers are proteins that have been successfully targeted for drug discovery in other organisms, in particular sodium symporters for biogenic amine neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine. Our goal in this chapter is to review the current status of research on schistosome NTTs, with emphasis on biogenic amine sodium symporters, and to evaluate their potential for anti-schistosomal drug targeting. Through this discussion we hope to draw attention to this important superfamily of parasite proteins and to identify new directions for future research. PMID:23800409

Ribeiro, Paula; Patocka, Nicholas

2013-12-01

160

Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a negligible change to the signal. Chapter 3 is devoted to the development and characterization of new CNT-Yarn Microelectrodes (CNTYME) which display a beneficial enhancement in sensitivity and reduction in both electron transfer kinetics and overpotential. Chapter 4 introduces the high-speed dopamine detection capabilities of CNTYMEs, almost two orders of magnitude faster than at CFMEs without any compromise in electrochemical sensitivity, and discusses how adsorption and desorption relate to this phenomenon.

Jacobs, Christopher B.

161

Antipsychotics differ in their ability to internalise human dopamine D2S and human serotonin 5-HT1A receptors in HEK293 cells.  

PubMed

Antipsychotic drugs act preferentially via dopamine D(2) receptor blockade, but interaction with serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors has attracted interest as additional target for antipsychotic treatment. As receptor internalisation is considered crucial for drug action, we tested the propensity of antipsychotics to internalise human (h)D(2S) receptors and h5-HT(1A) receptors. Agonist-induced internalisation of hemaglutinin (HA)-tagged hD(2S) and HA-h5-HT(1A) receptors expressed in HEK293 cells was increased by coexpression of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestin2. At the HA-hD(2S) receptor, dopamine, quinpirole and bromocriptine behaved as full agonists, while S(-)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-n-propylpiperidine [(-)-3PPP] and sarizotan were partial agonists. The typical antipsychotic, haloperidol, and the atypical compounds, olanzapine, nemonapride, ziprasidone and clozapine did not internalise HA-hD(2S) receptors, whereas aripiprazole potently internalised these receptors (>50% relative efficacy). Among antipsychotics with combined D(2)/5-HT(1A) properties, bifeprunox and (3-exo)-8-benzoyl-N-[[(2S)7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-1-yl]methyl]-8-azabicyclo-[3.2.1]octane-3-methanamine (SSR181507) partially internalised HA-hD(2S) receptors, piperazine, 1-(2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-5-yl)-4-[[5-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-pyridinyl]methyl (SLV313) and N-[(2,2-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-benzofuran-7-yloxy)ethyl]-3-(cyclopent-1-enyl)-benzylamine (F15063) were inactive. At the HA-h5-HT(1A) receptor, serotonin, (+)-8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin [(+)-8-OH-DPAT] and sarizotan were full agonists, buspirone acted as partial agonist. (-)-Pindolol showed little activity and no internalising properties were manifested for the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635). Most antipsychotics induced HA-h5-HT(1A) receptor internalisation, with an efficacy rank order: nemonapride>F15063>SSR181507>bifeprunox approximately SLV313 approximately ziprasidone>aripiprazole and potencies: SLV313>SSR181507 approximately F15063>bifeprunox approximately nemonapride approximately aripiprazole>ziprasidone. Interestingly, the internalisation induced by clozapine was only minimal, whereas aripirazole and bifeprunox were more potent for internalisation than for G-protein activation. These different profiles of antipsychotics for receptor internalisation may help to evaluate their potential therapeutic impact in the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:18190908

Heusler, Peter; Newman-Tancredi, Adrian; Loock, Timothé; Cussac, Didier

2008-02-26

162

Effect of antiparkinson drug HP-200 (Mucuna pruriens) on the central monoaminergic neurotransmitters.  

PubMed

HP-200, which contains Mucuna pruriens endocarp, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Mucuna pruriens endocarp has also been shown to be more effective compared to synthetic levodopa in an animal model of Parkinson's disease. The present study was designed to elucidate the long-term effect of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in HP-200 on monoaminergic neurotransmitters and its metabolite in various regions of the rat brain. HP-200 at a dose of 2.5, 5.0 or 10.0 g/kg/day was mixed with rat chow and fed daily ad lib to Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 for each group) for 52 weeks. Controls (n = 6) received no drug. Random assignment was made for doses and control. The rats were sacrificed at the end of 52 weeks and the neurotransmitters were analyzed in the cortex, hippocampus, substantia nigra and striatum. Oral administration of Mucuna pruriens endocarp in the form of HP-200 had a significant effect on dopamine content in the cortex with no significant effect on levodopa, norepinephrine or dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites- HVA, DOPAC and 5-HIAA in the nigrostriatal tract. The failure of Mucuna pruriens endocarp to significantly affect dopamine metabolism in the striatonigral tract along with its ability to improve Parkinsonian symptoms in the 6-hydorxydopamine animal model and humans may suggest that its antiparkinson effect may be due to components other than levodopa or that it has an levodopa enhancing effect. PMID:15022157

Manyam, Bala V; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Hare, Theodore A

2004-02-01

163

Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) for Intraoperative Neurochemical Monitoring  

PubMed Central

The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter concentrations at an electrochemical sensor, typically a carbon-fiber microelectrode. WINCS comprises a battery-powered patient module and a custom software application (WINCSware) running on a nearby personal computer. The patient module impresses upon the electrochemical sensor either a constant potential (for FPA) or a time-varying waveform (for FSCV). A transimpedance amplifier converts the resulting current to a signal that is digitized and transmitted to the base station via a Bluetooth® radio link. WINCSware controls the operational parameters for FPA or FSCV, and records the transmitted data stream. Filtered data is displayed in various formats, including a background-subtracted plot of sequential FSCV scans—a representation that enables users to distinguish the signatures of various analytes with considerable specificity. Dopamine, glutamate, adenosine and serotonin were selected as analytes for test trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow-injection measurements and in vivo measurements in rat and pig. Further testing demonstrated basic functionality in a 3-Tesla MRI unit. WINCS was designed in compliance with consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, and it is anticipated that its capability for real-time intraoperative monitoring of neurotransmitter release at an implanted sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery.

Kimble, Christopher J.; Johnson, David M.; Winter, Bruce A.; Whitlock, Sidney V.; Kressin, Kenneth R.; Horne, April E.; Robinson, Justin C.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Tye, Susannah J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Agnesi, Filippo; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Covey, Daniel; Shon, Young-Min; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.

2010-01-01

164

Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring.  

PubMed

The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter concentrations at an electrochemical sensor, typically a carbon-fiber microelectrode. WINCS comprises a battery-powered patient module and a custom software application (WINCSware) running on a nearby personal computer. The patient module impresses upon the electrochemical sensor either a constant potential (for FPA) or a time-varying waveform (for FSCV). A transimpedance amplifier converts the resulting current to a signal that is digitized and transmitted to the base station via a Bluetooth radio link. WINCSware controls the operational parameters for FPA or FSCV, and records the transmitted data stream. Filtered data is displayed in various formats, including a background-subtracted plot of sequential FSCV scans - a representation that enables users to distinguish the signatures of various analytes with considerable specificity. Dopamine, glutamate, adenosine and serotonin were selected as analytes for test trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow-injection measurements and in vivo measurements in rat and pig. Further testing demonstrated basic functionality in a 3-Tesla MRI unit. WINCS was designed in compliance with consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, and it is anticipated that its capability for real-time intraoperative monitoring of neurotransmitter release at an implanted sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery. PMID:19963865

Kimble, Christopher J; Johnson, David M; Winter, Bruce A; Whitlock, Sidney V; Kressin, Kenneth R; Horne, April E; Robinson, Justin C; Bledsoe, Jonathan M; Tye, Susannah J; Chang, Su-Youne; Agnesi, Filippo; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Covey, Daniel; Shon, Young-Min; Bennet, Kevin E; Garris, Paul A; Lee, Kendall H

2009-01-01

165

Effects of monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for releasing dopamine/norepinephrine versus serotonin on choice between cocaine and food in rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Monoamine releasers constitute one class of candidate medications for treatment of cocaine abuse, and concurrent cocaine-versus-food choice procedures are potentially valuable as experimental tools to evaluate the efficacy and safety of candidate medications. This study assessed choice between cocaine and food by rhesus monkeys during treatment with five monoamine releasers that varied in selectivity to promote release of dopamine and norepinephrine (DA/NE) vs. serotonin (5HT) [m-fluoroamphetamine, (+)-phenmetrazine, (+)-methamphetamine, napthylisopropylamine and (±)-fenfluramine]. Rhesus monkeys (n=8) responded under a concurrent-choice schedule of food delivery (1-g pellets, fixed-ratio 100 schedule) and cocaine injections (0 – 0.1 mg/kg/inj, fixed-ratio 10 schedule). Cocaine choice dose-effect curves were determined daily during continuous seven-day treatment with saline or each test compound dose. During saline treatment, cocaine maintained a dose-dependent increase in cocaine choice, and the highest cocaine doses (0.032 – 0.1 mg/kg/inj) maintained almost exclusive cocaine choice. Efficacy of monoamine releasers to decrease cocaine choice corresponded to their pharmacological selectivity to release DA/NE vs. 5HT. None of the releasers reduced cocaine choice or promoted reallocation of responding to food choice to the same extent as substituting saline for cocaine. These results extend the range of conditions across which DA/NE-selective releasers have been shown to reduce cocaine self-administration.

Banks, Matthew L; Blough, Bruce E; Negus, S. Stevens

2011-01-01

166

Alterations in the metabolism of serotonin and dopamine in the central nervous system of mice displaying a persistent dyskinesia due to crotononitrile or 2-pentenenitrile.  

PubMed

The effect of crotononitrile (4.22 mmol/kg, CRN) or 2-pentenenitrile (2.00 mmol/kg, 2-PN), which exhibit long-term dyskinesia, was examined on the metabolism of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in five brain regions of mice 1, 5, 12 and 35 days after dosing with CRN or 2-PN or vehicle (0.1 ml/25 g). One day after injection, CRN increased the level of the following substances and the ratio of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)/5-HT: 5-HT in medulla oblongata plus pons (144% of control); 5-HIAA in cortex (162%), striatum (166%), medulla oblongata plus pons (212%), hypothalamus (146%) and mid-brain (167%); 5-HIAA/5-HT in medulla oblongata plus pons (148%) and midbrain (133%). The changes caused by 2-PN were as follows: DA levels in cortex (176% of control, 35 days after dosing); HVA levels in striatum (136%, 1 day); 5-HT levels in hypothalamus (141%, 35 days); 5-HIAA levels in striatum (150%, 1 day), medulla oblongata plus pons (159%, 1 day) and midbrain (146%, 1 day); 5-HIAA/5-HT in striatum (153%, 1 day) and midbrain (134%, 1 day). The results suggest that changes in the 5-HT system are involved in the appearance of the dyskinetic syndrome which was seen in mice 1-2 days after dosing with CRN or 2-PN. PMID:2372234

Tanii, H; Hayashi, M; Hashimoto, K

1990-01-01

167

Displacement of serotonin and dopamine transporters by venlafaxine extended release capsule at steady state: a [123I]2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane single photon emission computed tomography imaging study.  

PubMed

Both positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies suggest that saturation of serotonin transporters (SERT) is present during treatment with therapeutic doses of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors also appear to increase the availability of dopamine transporters (DAT). The current study measured SERT occupancy and modulation of DAT by the serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) venlafaxine using [123I]2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane SPECT. Eight healthy subjects were administered open-label venlafaxine extended release capsules (75 mg/d for 4 days followed by 150 mg/d for 5 days). Venlafaxine significantly inhibited [123I]beta-CIT binding to SERT in the brainstem (55.4%) and the diencephalon (54.1%). In contrast, venlafaxine increased [123I]beta-CIT binding to DAT in the striatum (10.1%) after 5 days of administration of 150 mg/d. The displacement of [123I]beta-CIT from brain SERT and the increase in striatal [123I]beta-CIT binding to DAT appear similar to previous work with the SSRI citalopram (40 mg/d). A literature review of SERT occupancy by marketed SSRIs and the SNRI venlafaxine using SPECT ([123I]beta-CIT) or positron emission tomography ([11C](N, N-Dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)-benzylamine) imaging suggests that therapeutic doses of SNRI are associated with virtual saturation of the serotonin transporter. PMID:17224717

Shang, Yili; Gibbs, Megan A; Marek, Gerard J; Stiger, Thomas; Burstein, Aaron H; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John P; Rogers, Janyce F

2007-02-01

168

Does chronic nicotine alter neurotransmitter receptors involved in Parkinson's disease  

SciTech Connect

Cigarette smokers are fewer in number among Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients than among groups of persons who do not have PD. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. One which must be tested is the possibility that some pharmacologic agent present in cigarette smoke may interact with some central nervous system component involved in PD. To this end, they have investigated the effect of chronic nicotine administration on receptors for some of the neurotransmitters that are affected in PD. Rats were injected for six weeks with saline or nicotine 0.8 mg/kg S.C., then killed and brains removed and dissected. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-ketanserin to serotonin receptors in frontal cortex and of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone to dopamine receptors in caudate was not affected. However, the binding of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone in nucleus accumbens was altered: the K/sub d/ increased from 0.16 +/- 0.02 nM to 0.61 +/- 0.07 nM, and the B/sub max/ increased from 507 +/- 47 fmol/mg protein to 910 +/- 43 fmol/mg (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). These values are based on three ligand concentrations. Additional studies are in progress to substantiate the data. It is concluded that chronic nicotine administration may alter dopamine receptors in nucleus accumbens.

Reilly, M.A.; Lapin, E.P.; Lajtha, A.; Maker, H.S.

1986-03-05

169

Sleep and Rhythm Consequences of a Genetically Induced Loss of Serotonin  

PubMed Central

Background: A genetic deficiency in sepiapterin reductase leads to a combined deficit of serotonin and dopamine. The motor phenotype is characterized by a dopa–responsive fluctuating generalized dystonia–parkinsonism. The non–motor symptoms are poorly recognized. In particular, the effects of brain serotonin deficiency on sleep have not been thoroughly studied. Objective: We examine the sleep, sleep–wake rhythms, CSF neurotransmitters, and melatonin profile in a patient with sepiapterin reductase deficiency. Patient: The patient was a 28–year–old man with fluctuating generalized dystonia–parkinsonism caused by sepiapterin reductase deficiency. Methods: A sleep interview, wrist actigraphy, sleep log over 14 days, 48–h continuous sleep and core temperature monitoring, and measurement of CSF neurotransmitters and circadian serum melatonin and cortisol levels before and after treatment with 5–hydroxytryptophan (the precursor of serotonin) and levodopa were performed. Results: Before treatment, the patient had mild hypersomnia with long sleep time (704 min), ultradian sleep–wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 11.8 ± 5.3 h), organic hyperphagia, attention/executive dysfunction, and no depression. The serotonin metabolism in the CSF was reduced, and the serum melatonin profile was flat, while cortisol and core temperature profiles were normal. Supplementation with 5–hydroxytryptophan, but not with levodopa, normalized serotonin metabolism in the CSF, reduced sleep time to 540 min, normalized the eating disorder and the melatonin profile, restored a circadian sleep–wake rhythm (sleep occurred every 24±1.7 h, P < 0.0001), and improved cognition. Conclusion: In this unique genetic paradigm, the melatonin deficiency (caused by a lack of its substrate, serotonin) may cause the ultradian sleep–wake rhythm. Citation: Leu–Semenescu S; Arnulf I; Dicaix C; Moussa F; Clot F; Boniol C; Touitou Y; Levy R; Vidailhet M; Roze E. Sleep and rhythm consequences of a genetically induced loss of serotonin. SLEEP 2010;33(3):307–314.

Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Decaix, Caroline; Moussa, Fathi; Clot, Fabienne; Boniol, Camille; Touitou, Yvan; Levy, Richard; Vidailhet, Marie; Roze, Emmanuel

2010-01-01

170

Reserpine modulates neurotransmitter release to extend lifespan and alleviate age-dependent A? proteotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Aging is a debilitating process often associated with chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD occurs at a very high incidence posing a huge burden to the society. Model organisms such as C. elegans become essential to understand aging or lifespan extension - the etiology, molecular mechanism and identification of new drugs against age associated diseases. The AD model, manifesting A? proteotoxicity, in C. elegans is well established and has provided valuable insights. Earlier, we have reported that Reserpine, an FDA-approved antihypertensive drug, increases C. elegans lifespan with a high quality of life and ameliorates A? toxicity in C. elegans. But reserpine does not seem to act through the known lifespan extension pathways or inhibition of its known target, vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT. Reserpine's mode of action and the pathways it activates are not known. Here, we have evaluated the presynaptic neurotransmitter(s) release pathway and identified acetylcholine (ACh) as the crucial player for reserpine's action. The corroborating evidences are: i) lack of lifespan extension in the ACh loss of function (hypomorphic) - synthesis (cha-1) and transport (unc-17) mutants; ii) mitigation of chronic aldicarb effect; iii) lifespan extension in dopamine (cat-2) and dopamine and serotonin (bas-1) biosynthetic mutants; iv) no rescue from exogenous serotonin induced paralysis in the AD model worms; upon reserpine treatment. Thus, modulation of acetylcholine is essential for reserpine's action. PMID:22212533

Saharia, Kopal; Arya, Upasna; Kumar, Ranjeet; Sahu, Rashmi; Das, Chinmaya Kumar; Gupta, Kuldeep; Dwivedi, Hemalata; Subramaniam, Jamuna R

2012-02-01

171

Neuroleptic and LSD Interactions at Dopamine Receptors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Neuroleptic and LSD interactions at Dopamine Receptors were studied. Results show the neuroblastoma clones NG108-15 and TCX11 do not contain detectable levels of dopamine or serotonin receptor binding sites. Gradient fractionations of bovine caudate membr...

P. Hartig

1981-01-01

172

The phenotypic spectrum of paediatric neurotransmitter diseases and infantile parkinsonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Paediatric neurotransmitter diseases are a group of inherited disorders attributable to a disturbance of neurotransmitter\\u000a metabolism. The monoamines, catecholamines and serotonin, also called biogenic amines, are neurotransmitters with multiple\\u000a roles including psychomotor function, hormone secretion, cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal control, sleep mechanisms,\\u000a body temperature and pain. Given the multiple functions of monoamines, disorders of their metabolism comprise a wide spectrum

R. Pons

2009-01-01

173

Sonochemical synthesis of Ag nanoclusters: electrogenerated chemiluminescence determination of dopamine.  

PubMed

We report a facile one-pot sonochemical approach to preparing highly water-soluble Ag nanoclusters (NCs) using bovine serum albumin as a stabilizing agent and reducing agent in aqueous solution. Intensive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) was observed from the as-prepared Ag (NCs) and successfully applied for the ECL detection of dopamine with high sensitivity and a wide detection range. A possible ECL mechanism is proposed for the preparation of Ag NCs. With this method, the dopamine concentration was determined in the range of 8.3 × 10(-9) to 8.3 × 10(-7) mol/L without the obvious interference of uric acid, ascorbic acid and some other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the detection limit was 9.2 × 10(-10) mol/L at a signal/noise ratio of 3. PMID:23418144

Liu, Tao; Zhang, Lichun; Song, Hongjie; Wang, Zhonghui; Lv, Yi

2013-01-01

174

Amphetamine-type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin.  

PubMed

A large body of evidence supports the hypothesis that mesolimbic dopamine (DA) mediates, in animal models, the reinforcing effects of central nervous system stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. The role DA plays in mediating amphetamine-type subjective effects of stimulants in humans remains to be established. Both amphetamine and cocaine increase norepinephrine (NE) via stimulation of release and inhibition of reuptake, respectively. If increases in NE mediate amphetamine-type subjective effects of stimulants in humans, then one would predict that stimulant medications that produce amphetamine-type subjective effects in humans should share the ability to increase NE. To test this hypothesis, we determined, using in vitro methods, the neurochemical mechanism of action of amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), (+)-methamphetamine, ephedrine, phentermine, and aminorex. As expected, their rank order of potency for DA release was similar to their rank order of potency in published self-administration studies. Interestingly, the results demonstrated that the most potent effect of these stimulants is to release NE. Importantly, the oral dose of these stimulants, which produce amphetamine-type subjective effects in humans, correlated with the their potency in releasing NE, not DA, and did not decrease plasma prolactin, an effect mediated by DA release. These results suggest that NE may contribute to the amphetamine-type subjective effects of stimulants in humans. PMID:11071707

Rothman, R B; Baumann, M H; Dersch, C M; Romero, D V; Rice, K C; Carroll, F I; Partilla, J S

2001-01-01

175

Locomotor stimulation produced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is correlated with dialysate levels of serotonin and dopamine in rat brain  

PubMed Central

(±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetmine (MDMA, or Ecstasy) is an illicit drug that evokes transporter-mediated release of monoamines, including serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA). Here we monitored the effects of MDMA on neurochemistry and motor activity in rats, as a means to evaluate relationships between 5-HT, DA, and behavior. Male rats undergoing in vivo microdialysis were housed in chambers equipped with photobeams for measurement of ambulation (i.e., forward locomotion) and stereotypy (i.e., head weaving and forepaw treading). Microdialysis probes were placed into the n. accumbens, striatum or prefrontal cortex in separate groups of rats. Dialysate samples were assayed for 5-HT and DA by microbore HPLC-ECD. Rats received two i.v. injections of MDMA, 1 mg/kg followed by 3 mg/kg 60 min later; neurochemical and locomotor parameters were measured concurrently. MDMA produced dose-related elevations in extracellular 5-HT and DA in all regions, with the magnitude of 5-HT release always exceeding that of DA release. MDMA-induced ambulation was positively correlated with dialysate DA levels in all regions (P<0.05-0.0001) and with dialysate 5-HT in striatum and cortex (P<0.001-0.0001). Stereotypy was strongly correlated with dialysate 5-HT in all areas (P<0.001-0.0001) and with dialysate DA in accumbens and striatum (P<0.001-0.0001). These data support previous work and suggest the complex spectrum of behaviors produced by MDMA involves 5-HT and DA in a region- and modality-specific manner.

Baumann, Michael H.; Clark, Robert D.; Rothman, Richard B.

2008-01-01

176

Interaction between serotonin transporter and dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand measures is associated with harm avoidant symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Rationale Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have alterations of measures of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function, which persist after long-term recovery and are associated with elevated harm avoidance (HA), a measure of anxiety and behavioral inhibition. Objective Based on theories that 5-HT is an aversive motivational system that may oppose a DA-related appetitive system, we explored interactions of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand measures that reflect portions of these systems. Methods Twenty-seven individuals recovered (REC) from eating disorders (EDs) (7 AN-BN, 11 AN, 9 BN) and 9 control women (CW) were analyzed for correlations between [11C]McN5652 and [11C]raclopride binding. Results There was a positive correlation between [11C]McN5652 binding potential BPnon displaceable(ND)) and [11C]raclopride BPND for the dorsal caudate (r(27) = .62; p < .001), antero-ventral striatum (r(27) = .55, p = .003), middle caudate (r(27) = .68; p < .001), ventral (r(27) = .64; p < .001) and dorsal putamen (r(27) = .42; p = .03). No significant correlations were found in CW. [11C]raclopride BPND, but not [11C]McN5652 BPND, was significantly related to HA in REC EDs. A linear regression analysis showed that the interaction between [11C]McN5652 BPND and [11C]raclopride BPND in the dorsal putamen significantly (b = 140.04; t (22) = 2.21; p = .04) predicted HA. Conclusions This is the first study using PET and the radioligands [11C]McN5652 and [11C]raclopride to show a direct relationship between 5-HT transporter and striatal DA D2/D3 receptor binding in humans, supporting the possibility that 5-HT and DA interactions contribute to HA behaviors in EDs.

Bailer, Ursula F.; Frank, Guido K.; Price, Julie C.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Becker, Carl; Mathis, Chester A.; Wagner, Angela; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Putnam, Karen; Schork, Nicholas J.; Gamst, Anthony; Kaye, Walter H.

2013-01-01

177

Dose-related effects of clozapine and risperidone on the pattern of brain regional serotonin and dopamine metabolism and on tests related to extrapyramidal functions in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to evaluate the behavioral and neurochemical profiles of clozapine and risperidone in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Animals injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with clozapine (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg kg-1) or risperidone (1.0, 2.5 and 5.0 mg kg-1) were sacrificed 1 h later to collect brain samples. Hypolocomotive effects (home cage activity and catalepsy) were successively monitored in each animal after the drug or saline administration. Both drugs significantly (p < 0.01) decreased locomotor activity at high doses and in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum (100%) cataleptic potential was achieved at a high dose (5.0 mg kg-1) of risperidone. Neurochemical estimations were carried out by HPLC with electrochemical detection. Both drugs, at all doses, significantly (p < 0.01) increased the concentration of homovanillic acid (HVA), a metabolite of dopamine (DA), in the striatum. Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels increased in the striatum and decreased in the rest of the brain, particularly in clozapine-injected rats. 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), the predominant metabolite of serotonin, significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in the striatum. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) was significantly (p < 0.01) increased by risperidone and decreased by clozapine in the rest of the brain. Striatal tryptophan (TRP) was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased by risperidone and increased in the rest of the brain. The striatal HVA/DA ratio increased and the 5-HT turnover rate remained unchanged in the rest of the brain. Results suggest that the affinity of the two drugs towards D2/5-HT1A receptors interaction is involved in lower incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. Role of 5-HT1A receptors in the treatment of schizophrenia is discussed. PMID:21134850

Batool, Farhat; Hasnat, Ambreen; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

2010-06-01

178

Pharmacological characterization of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).  

PubMed

Established antidepressants including tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), tetracyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) affect a series of neurotransmitter functions. In the debate of clinical efficacy much attention has focused on the uptake of noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) as a means to increase neuronal activity. Most antidepressants, whether classic or new, inhibit the uptake of either one or the other or both transmitters. Besides that, all of the classical antidepressants potently inhibit a series of neurotransmitter receptors. A series of newer antidepressants preferentially increase 5-HT transmission by inhibiting 5-HT uptake. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are those which preferably inhibit 5-HT uptake compared with NA, and which at the same time have no or only slight effect on other uptake mechanisms, neurotransmitter receptors, enzymes, etc. Five SSRIs are currently marked, i.e. citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline. They all fulfil the above-mentioned criteria. Citalopram is the most selective 5-HT-uptake inhibitor, whereas paroxetine is the most potent. By and large the rank order of selectivity is equal in in vitro studies, in biochemical in vivo studies and in behavioural studies. Selectivity and potency for 5-HT uptake do not coincide. The selectivity of SSRIs is also founded on the lack of inhibition of receptors for different neurotransmitters, e.g. acetylcholine, histamine, NA, 5-HT or dopamine (DA), as well as monoamine oxidase (MAO). Citalopram, fluoxetine and sertraline are metabolized to compounds possessing similar properties as the parent drugs, whereas this is not the case with the metabolites of fluvoxamine and paroxetine. Upon repeated administration SSRIs maintain the selective and potent inhibition of 5-HT uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8021435

Hyttel, J

1994-03-01

179

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Graphical Kinetic Data Analysis of the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System: An Exercise for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), are widely used in clinical settings and in basic neuroscience research. Education in these methods and their applications may be incorporated into curricula to keep pace with this expanding field. Here, we have developed pedagogical materials on the fundamental principles of PET that incorporate a hands-on laboratory activity to view and analyze human brain scans. In this activity, students will use authentic PET brain scans generated from original research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Volkow et al., 2009) to explore the neurobiological effects of a drug on the dopamine system. We provide lecture and assignment materials (including a 50-minute PowerPoint presentation introducing PET concepts), written background information for students and instructors, and explicit instructions for a 4-hour, computer-based laboratory to interested educators. Also, we discuss our experience implementing this exercise as part of an advanced undergraduate laboratory course at Stony Brook University in 2010 and 2011. Observing the living human brain is intriguing, and this laboratory is designed to illustrate how PET neuroimaging techniques are used to directly probe biological processes occurring in the living brain. Laboratory course modules on imaging techniques such as PET can pique the interest of students potentially interested in neuroscience careers, by exposing them to current research methods. This activity provides practical experience analyzing PET data using a graphical analysis method known as the Logan plot, and applies core neuropharmacology concepts. We hope that this manuscript inspires college instructors to incorporate education in PET neuroimaging into their courses. PMID:24693258

Mirrione, Martine M; Ruth, Nora; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna; Kernan, Maurice

2014-01-01

180

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Graphical Kinetic Data Analysis of the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System: An Exercise for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course  

PubMed Central

Neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), are widely used in clinical settings and in basic neuroscience research. Education in these methods and their applications may be incorporated into curricula to keep pace with this expanding field. Here, we have developed pedagogical materials on the fundamental principles of PET that incorporate a hands-on laboratory activity to view and analyze human brain scans. In this activity, students will use authentic PET brain scans generated from original research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Volkow et al., 2009) to explore the neurobiological effects of a drug on the dopamine system. We provide lecture and assignment materials (including a 50-minute PowerPoint presentation introducing PET concepts), written background information for students and instructors, and explicit instructions for a 4-hour, computer-based laboratory to interested educators. Also, we discuss our experience implementing this exercise as part of an advanced undergraduate laboratory course at Stony Brook University in 2010 and 2011. Observing the living human brain is intriguing, and this laboratory is designed to illustrate how PET neuroimaging techniques are used to directly probe biological processes occurring in the living brain. Laboratory course modules on imaging techniques such as PET can pique the interest of students potentially interested in neuroscience careers, by exposing them to current research methods. This activity provides practical experience analyzing PET data using a graphical analysis method known as the Logan plot, and applies core neuropharmacology concepts. We hope that this manuscript inspires college instructors to incorporate education in PET neuroimaging into their courses.

Mirrione, Martine M.; Ruth, Nora; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna; Kernan, Maurice

2014-01-01

181

Fast liquid chromatography separation and multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometric detection of neurotransmitters.  

PubMed

We describe here the fast LC-MS/MS separation of a mixture of neurotransmitters consisting of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine (DHBA), salsolinol, serotonin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The new UltiMate 3000 Rapid Separation system (RSLC) was successfully coupled to the 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer operating in multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The separation was attained using a 100 mm length, 2.2 microm particle size Acclaim column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column back pressure was 350 bar, while the total run time including column re-equilibration was 5.2 min. The peak resolution was minimally affected by the fast separation. The RSLC-MRM separation was found to have a precision range based on peak area for 50 replicate runs of 2-5% CV for all analytes, and the reproducibility of the retention time for all analytes was found to range from 0-2% CV. The described method represents an almost seven times shorter analysis time of neurotransmitters using LC/MRM which is very useful in screening large quantities of biological samples for various neurotransmitters. PMID:19569096

Hammad, Loubna A; Neely, Matthew; Bridge, Bob; Mechref, Yehia

2009-07-01

182

Biochemical and Neurotransmitters Changes Associated with Tramadol in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Rats  

PubMed Central

The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Chronic neuropathic pain occurs in approximately 25% of diabetic patients. Tramadol, an atypical analgesic with a unique dual mechanism of action, is used in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. It acts on monoamine transporters to inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes on the brain neurotransmitter alterations induced by tramadol in rats, and to study the hepatic and renal toxicities of the drug. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two sets: the normal set and the diabetic set. Diabetes was induced in rats. Tramadol was administered orally once daily for 28 days. The levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in cerebral cortex, thalamus/hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem were evaluated in rats. In addition, the renal toxicity and histopathological effects of the drug were assessed. The induction of diabetes altered neurotransmitter levels. Oral administration of tramadol significantly decreased the neurotransmitter levels. Diabetes significantly altered the effects of tramadol in all brain regions. Tramadol affected function and histology of the liver and kidney. The clinical effects of tramadol in diabetic patients should be stressed.

Ezzeldin, Essam; Souror, Wafaa A. H.; El-Nahhas, Toqa; Soudi, Abdel Nasser M. M.; Shahat, Abdelaaty A.

2014-01-01

183

Biochemical and neurotransmitters changes associated with tramadol in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.  

PubMed

The incidence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Chronic neuropathic pain occurs in approximately 25% of diabetic patients. Tramadol, an atypical analgesic with a unique dual mechanism of action, is used in the management of painful diabetic neuropathy. It acts on monoamine transporters to inhibit the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and dopamine (DA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of diabetes on the brain neurotransmitter alterations induced by tramadol in rats, and to study the hepatic and renal toxicities of the drug. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into two sets: the normal set and the diabetic set. Diabetes was induced in rats. Tramadol was administered orally once daily for 28 days. The levels of DA, NE, and 5-HT in cerebral cortex, thalamus/hypothalamus, midbrain, and brainstem were evaluated in rats. In addition, the renal toxicity and histopathological effects of the drug were assessed. The induction of diabetes altered neurotransmitter levels. Oral administration of tramadol significantly decreased the neurotransmitter levels. Diabetes significantly altered the effects of tramadol in all brain regions. Tramadol affected function and histology of the liver and kidney. The clinical effects of tramadol in diabetic patients should be stressed. PMID:24971322

Ezzeldin, Essam; Souror, Wafaa A H; El-Nahhas, Toqa; Soudi, Abdel Nasser M M; Shahat, Abdelaaty A

2014-01-01

184

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphisms, neurotransmitter levels, and depressive symptoms in an elderly population.  

PubMed

A large number of studies have examined associations between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene polymorphisms and depressive symptoms. However, results still remain controversial. Recent studies suggested a significant age and gender effect on the heritability of depression. The potential neurobiological pathways that could possibly mediate this relationship have not been examined so far. Since BDNF is involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter production, a mediating role of neurotransmitters seems plausible. The present study aims to examine the association between three common BDNF single-nucleotid polymorphisms (SNPs; rs7103411, rs7124442, and rs6265) and depressive symptoms in a community-based elderly population taking into account the serum levels of four neurotransmitters, serotonin, dopamine, adrenalin, and noradrenalin, as potential mediating factors. We also examined whether age and gender had a modifying effect on this association. We collected and analyzed the genetic and laboratory data as well as Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scores of 350 community-dwelling elderly individuals (aged 65+ years). We found that the BDNF rs6265 polymorphism was related to the severity of depressive symptoms, and that this association was independent of neurotransmitter levels. Stratified analyses showed that this association was restricted to older individuals (?74 years) and men. The associations of SNPs rs7103411 or rs7124442 SNP with depressive symptoms were not statistically significant. This study importantly adds to the existing literature by affirming previous assumptions on an age and gender difference in the relation between BDNF genotype and depression. We moreover first-time report a missing mediating role of neurotransmitters in this association. PMID:21898033

Czira, Maria E; Wersching, Heike; Baune, Bernhard T; Berger, Klaus

2012-12-01

185

Alteration of selective neurotransmitters in fetal brains of prenatally alcohol-treated C57BL/6 mice: quantitative analysis using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that prenatal alcohol exposure results in brain defects at different embryonic stages. This study is aimed at characterizing the influence of prenatal alcohol exposure on the levels of several neurotransmitters at early embryonic stage 13 (E13). Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either a 25% ethanol derived calorie diet (ALC) or pair-fed (PF) liquid diet from E7 to E13. At E13, fetal brains were collected from dams of the ALC and PF groups. Liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was then used to evaluate neurotransmitter levels. This approach involved the use of an LC column in conjunction with multiple-reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. Quantitative analyses of catecholamines, idolamine, and amino acid neurotransmitters revealed significant reductions in the levels of dopamine (p=0.004), norepinephrine (p=0.0009), epinephrine (p=0.0002), serotonin (p=0.004), and GABA (p=0.002) in the ALC group compared to the PF group. However, there was no significant change in the levels of glutamate in E13 fetal brains. These findings demonstrate that prenatal alcohol exposure reduces the concentrations of some catecholamines, idolamine, and amino acid neurotransmitters in E13 fetal brains. This study suggests that alterations of selective neurotransmitters may be the cause of abnormalities in brain function and behavior found in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:20123123

Sari, Youssef; Hammad, Loubna A; Saleh, Marwa M; Rebec, George V; Mechref, Yehia

2010-05-01

186

Abuse-related effects of dual dopamine/serotonin releasers with varying potency to release norepinephrine in male rats and rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

d-Amphetamine selectively promotes release of both dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) versus serotonin (5HT), and chronic d-amphetamine treatment decreases cocaine-taking behavior in rats, nonhuman primates, and humans. However, abuse liability limits the clinical utility of amphetamine maintenance for treating cocaine abuse. One strategy to improve safety and efficacy of monoamine releasers as candidate anticocaine medications has been to develop dual DA/5HT releasers like 1-napthyl-2-aminopropane (PAL-287), but the pharmacology of this class of compounds has not been extensively examined. In particular, PAL-287 has similar potencies to release DA, 5HT, and NE, and the role of manipulating NE release potency on abuse-related or anticocaine effects of dual DA/5HT releasers is not known. To address this issue, the present study compared effects of four novel DA/5HT releasers that varied >800-fold in their selectivities to release DA/5HT versus NE: [1-(5-chloro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-542), 1-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-544), 1-(1H-indol-5-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-571), and (R)-1-(1H-indol-1-yl)propain-2-amine (PAL-569). Abuse-related effects of all four compounds were evaluated in assays of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats and cocaine discrimination in rats and monkeys, and none of the compounds reliably facilitated ICSS or substituted for cocaine. Anticocaine effects of the compound with highest selectivity to release DA/5HT versus NE (PAL-542) were tested in an assay of cocaine versus food choice in rhesus monkeys, and PAL-542 failed to reduce cocaine choice. These results suggests that potency to release NE has minimal influence on abuse liability of dual DA/5HT releasers, and reducing relative potency to release NE versus DA/5HT does not improve anticocaine efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24796848

Banks, Matthew L; Bauer, Clayton T; Blough, Bruce E; Rothman, Richard B; Partilla, John S; Baumann, Michael H; Negus, S Stevens

2014-06-01

187

[C-11]{beta}CNT: A new monoamine uptake ligand for studying serotonin and dopamine transporter sites in the living brain with PET  

SciTech Connect

There is considerable interest in measuring serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) function in the human brain. Altered levels of 5HT and DA are recognized in drug abuse, neurotoxicities, psychiatric disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s disease. Several phenyltropane analogs of cocaine bind tightly to both DA and 5HT uptake proteins. We have made a new agent from this class called {beta}CNT, 2{beta}-carboxymethyl-3{beta}-(2-naphthyl)-tropane, the isosteric O-for-CH{sub 2} analog of a compound reported to have among the highest measured affinities for DA and 5HT transporters and studied its in vivo brain distributions in animals for the first time. Optically pure {beta}CNT was made from cocaine, and labeled at the O-methyl position by esterification of {beta}CNT-acid with [C-11]CH{sub 3}OTfl under conditions similar to Wilson`s. HPLC-purified (99+%) final products (15-50% eob yield from CO{sub 2}, 40 min synth) had specific activities 0.1-1.2 Ci/{mu}mol at the time of injection. Preliminary [C-11]{beta}{beta}CNT rodent distribution showed very high brain uptake (3% ID at 60 min) and localization (striat: fr cort: hypo: cer: blood, 11: 5: 4: 1: 06). {beta}CNT-PET studies in juvenile pigs (5-20 mCi, 20-35 kg) found rapid brain uptake, and prominent retention (85 min) in midbrain, anterior brainstem and striatum, followed by cortex and olfactory bulb. Paroxetine pretreatment (5HT uptake blocker, 2mg/kg), diminished retention in most brain areas; nomifensine (DA/NE uptake blocker, 6 mg/kg) reduced striatum selectively. Direct comparisons of [C-11]{beta}CNT with other PET transporter radioligands {beta}CFT, {beta}CIT, and {beta}CTT (RTI-32) in the same pig found {beta}CNT had highest overall brain uptake among the agents. These initial results suggest {beta}CNT has favorable properties for imaging both 5HT and DA transporters in vivo, and further evaluation of its potential as a human PET agent is warranted.

Mulholland, G.K.; Zheng, Q.H.; Zhou, F.C. [Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis, IN (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

188

The sea urchin embryo, an invertebrate model for mammalian developmental neurotoxicity, reveals multiple neurotransmitter mechanisms for effects of chlorpyrifos: therapeutic interventions and a comparison with the monoamine depleter, reserpine.  

PubMed

Lower organisms show promise for the screening of neurotoxicants that might target mammalian brain development. Sea urchins use neurotransmitters as embryonic growth regulatory signals, so that adverse effects on neural substrates for mammalian brain development can be studied in this simple organism. We compared the effects of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos in sea urchin embryos with those of the monoamine depleter, reserpine, so as to investigate multiple neurotransmitter mechanisms involved in developmental toxicity and to evaluate different therapeutic interventions corresponding to each neurotransmitter system. Whereas reserpine interfered with all stages of embryonic development, the effects of chlorpyrifos did not emerge until the mid-blastula stage. After that point, the effects of the two agents were similar. Treatment with membrane permeable analogs of the monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin and dopamine, prevented the adverse effects of either chlorpyrifos or reserpine, despite the fact that chlorpyrifos works simultaneously through actions on acetylcholine, monoamines and other neurotransmitter pathways. This suggests that different neurotransmitters, converging on the same downstream signaling events, could work together or in parallel to offset the developmental disruption caused by exposure to disparate agents. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating membrane permeable analogs of acetylcholine and cannabinoids, both of which proved effective against chlorpyrifos- or reserpine-induced teratogenesis. Invertebrate test systems can provide both a screening procedure for mammalian neuroteratogenesis and may uncover novel mechanisms underlying developmental vulnerability as well as possible therapeutic approaches to prevent teratogenesis. PMID:17720543

Buznikov, Gennady A; Nikitina, Lyudmila A; Raki?, Ljubisa M; Milosevi?, Ivan; Bezuglov, Vladimir V; Lauder, Jean M; Slotkin, Theodore A

2007-09-28

189

The Sea Urchin Embryo, an Invertebrate Model for Mammalian Developmental Neurotoxicity, Reveals Multiple Neurotransmitter Mechanisms for Effects of Chlorpyrifos: Therapeutic Interventions and a Comparison with the Monoamine Depleter, Reserpine  

PubMed Central

Lower organisms show promise for the screening of neurotoxicants that might target mammalian brain development. Sea urchins use neurotransmitters as embryonic growth regulatory signals, so that adverse effects on neural substrates for mammalian brain development can be studied in this simple organism. We compared the effects of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos in sea urchin embryos with those of the monoamine depleter, reserpine, so as to investigate multiple neurotransmitter mechanisms involved in developmental toxicity and to evaluate different therapeutic interventions corresponding to each neurotransmitter system. Whereas reserpine interfered with all stages of embryonic development, the effects of chlorpyrifos did not emerge until the mid-blastula stage. After that point, the effects of the two agents were similar. Treatment with membrane permeable analogs of the monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin and dopamine, prevented the adverse effects of either chlorpyrifos or reserpine, despite the fact that chlorpyrifos works simultaneously through actions on acetylcholine, monoamines and other neurotransmitter pathways. This suggests that different neurotransmitters, converging on the same downstream signaling events, could work together or in parallel to offset the developmental disruption caused by exposure to disparate agents. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating membrane permeable analogs of acetylcholine and cannabinoids, both of which proved effective against chlorpyrifos- or reserpine-induced teratogenesis. Invertebrate test systems can provide both a screening procedure for mammalian neuroteratogenesis and may uncover novel mechanisms underlying developmental vulnerability as well as possible therapeutic approaches to prevent teratogenesis.

Buznikov, Gennady A.; Nikitina, Lyudmila A.; Rakic, Ljubisa M.; Milosevi, Ivan; Bezuglov, Vladimir V.; Lauder, Jean M.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

2007-01-01

190

Neonatal +-methamphetamine exposure in rats alters adult locomotor responses to dopamine D1 and D2 agonists and to a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, but not to serotonin agonists.  

PubMed

Neonatal exposure to (+)-methamphetamine (Meth) results in long-term behavioural abnormalities but its developmental mechanisms are unknown. In a series of experiments, rats were treated from post-natal days (PD) 11-20 (stage that approximates human development from the second to third trimester) with Meth or saline and assessed using locomotor activity as the readout following pharmacological challenge doses with dopamine, serotonin and glutamate agonists or antagonists during adulthood. Exposure to Meth early in life resulted in an exaggerated adult locomotor hyperactivity response to the dopamine D1 agonist SKF-82958 at multiple doses, a high dose only under-response activating effect of the D2 agonist quinpirole, and an exaggerated under-response to the activating effect of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, MK-801. No change in locomotor response was seen following challenge with the 5-HT releaser p-chloroamphetamine or the 5-HT2/3 receptor agonist, quipazine. These are the first data to show that PD 11-20 Meth exposure induces long-lasting alterations to dopamine D1, D2 and glutamate NMDA receptor function and may suggest how developmental Meth exposure leads to many of its long-term adverse effects. PMID:22391043

Graham, Devon L; Amos-Kroohs, Robyn M; Braun, Amanda A; Grace, Curtis E; Schaefer, Tori L; Skelton, Matthew R; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V

2013-03-01

191

Inhibitory effects of neurotransmitters and steroids on human CYP2A6.  

PubMed

Human CYP2A6 catalyzes the metabolism of nicotine, cotinine, and coumarin as well as some pharmaceutical drugs. CYP2A6 is highly expressed in liver and, also, in brain and steroid-related tissues. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of neurotransmitters and steroid hormones on CYP2A6 activity. We found that coumarin 7-hydroxylation and cotinine 3'-hydroxylation by recombinant CYP2A6 expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells were competitively inhibited by tryptamine (both K(i) = 0.2 microM), serotonin (K(i) = 252 microM and 167 microM), dopamine (K(i) = 49 microM and 22 microM), and histamine (K(i) = 428 microM and 359 microM). Cotinine formation from nicotine was inhibited by tryptamine (K(i) = 0.7 microM, competitive), serotonin (K(i) = 272 microM, noncompetitive), dopamine, noradrenaline, and adrenaline (K(i) = 11 microM, 54 microM, and 81 microM, uncompetitive). Estrogens (K(i) = 0.6-3.8 microM), androgens (K(i) = 60-149 microM), and corticosterone (K(i) = 36 microM) also inhibited cotinine formation, but coumarin 7-hydroxylation and cotinine 3'-hydroxylation did not. Nicotine-Delta(5'(1'))-iminium ion formation from nicotine was not affected by these steroid hormones, indicating that the inhibition of cotinine formation was due to the inhibitory effects on aldehyde oxidase. The nicotine-Delta(5'(1'))-iminium ion formation was competitively inhibited by tryptamine (K(i) = 0.3 microM), serotonin (K(i) = 316 microM), dopamine (K(i) = 66 microM), and histamine (K(i) = 209 microM). Thus, we found that some neurotransmitters inhibit CYP2A6 activity, being related with inter- and intraindividual differences in CYP2A6-dependent metabolism. The inhibitory effects of steroid hormones on aldehyde oxidase may also contribute to interindividual differences in nicotine metabolism. PMID:17237153

Higashi, Eriko; Nakajima, Miki; Katoh, Miki; Tokudome, Shogo; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

2007-04-01

192

Serotonin receptor activity is necessary for olfactory learning and memory in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Learning and memory in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a complex behavior with many parallels to mammalian learning and memory. Although many neurotransmitters including acetylcholine, dopamine, glutamate, and GABA have previously been demonstrated to be involved in aversive olfactory learning and memory, the role of serotonin has not been well defined. Here, we present the first evidence of the involvement of individual serotonin receptors in olfactory learning and memory in the fly. We initially followed a pharmacological approach, utilizing serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists to demonstrate that all serotonin receptor families present in the fly are necessary for short-term learning and memory. Isobolographic analysis utilizing combinations of drugs revealed functional interactions are occurring between 5-HT(1A)-like and 5-HT(2), and 5-HT(2) and 5-HT(7) receptor circuits in mediating short-term learning and memory. Examination of long-term memory suggests that 5-HT(1A)-like receptors are necessary for consolidation and important for recall, 5-HT(2) receptors are important for consolidation and recall, and 5-HT(7) receptors are involved in all three phases. Importantly, we have validated our pharmacological results with genetic experiments and showed that hypomorph strains for 5-HT(2)Dro and 5-HT(1B)Dro receptors, as well as knockdown of 5-HT(7)Dro mRNA, significantly impair performance in short-term memory. Our data highlight the importance of the serotonin system and individual serotonin receptors to influence olfactory learning and memory in the fly, and position the fly as a model system to study the role of serotonin in cognitive processes relevant to mammalian CNS function. PMID:21749913

Johnson, O; Becnel, J; Nichols, C D

2011-09-29

193

Polymelamine modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite sensor for the electrochemical assay of serotonin.  

PubMed

A sensitive and novel electrochemical method has been developed for the determination of an important neurotransmitter, serotonin, using a polymelamine modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite sensor (EPPGS). Melamine was used for the modification of sensor by electropolymerizing it at the surface of EPPGS in acidic medium to form a layer of conducting polymer. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the characterization of the surface of polymer modified sensor. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The polymelamine modified sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of serotonin, exhibiting a larger peak current and shift of peak potential to less positive potentials as compared to the unmodified sensor. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was found between 1-100 µm and 0.1-100 µm with detection limit of 492 nM and 30 nM for unmodified and polymer modified sensors, respectively. The determination of serotonin in human blood serum and urine has been carried out. The common metabolites such as ascorbic acid, dopamine, xanthine and hypoxanthine do not interfere in the determination up to 10-fold concentration, revealing good selectivity of the proposed sensor. PMID:24468336

Gupta, Pankaj; Goyal, Rajendra N

2014-03-01

194

Synaptic Neurotransmitter-Gated Receptors  

PubMed Central

Since the discovery of the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors in the brain, many have deliberated over their likely structures and how these may relate to function. This was initially satisfied by the determination of the first amino acid sequences of the Cys-loop receptors that recognized acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and glycine, followed later by similar determinations for the glutamate receptors, comprising non-NMDA and NMDA subtypes. The last decade has seen a rapid advance resulting in the first structures of Cys-loop receptors, related bacterial and molluscan homologs, and glutamate receptors, determined down to atomic resolution. This now provides a basis for determining not just the complete structures of these important receptor classes, but also for understanding how various domains and residues interact during agonist binding, receptor activation, and channel opening, including allosteric modulation. This article reviews our current understanding of these mechanisms for the Cys-loop and glutamate receptor families.

Smart, Trevor G.; Paoletti, Pierre

2012-01-01

195

Abnormalities of neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems in human neuroepithelioma cells infected by three Toxoplasma strains  

PubMed Central

Since Toxoplasma gondii can establish a persistent infection in the central nervous system in humans, we studied its effects on a host's neurotransmitter and neuropeptide systems (NNS). Using microarray technology we have screened the expression of genes coding for NNS in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to representative strains of Toxoplasma to identify potential target genes. Transcripts that displayed expression levels distinct from uninfected controls were examined by RT-PCR and Western blot. Our results indicate the presence of disturbed NNS upon Toxoplasma infection and the extent of this disturbance varies considerably among the three strains. In cells infected by type I strain, three neurotransmitter systems (dopamine, glutamate and serotonin) and two neuropeptides (PROK2 and TAC1) displayed abnormalities relative to controls. Type III infection led to the change of a critical enzyme, TDO2, in the kynurenine pathway. No significant effects of type II infection were found in the NNS. These data may have implications for understanding the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of neurologic disturbances in toxoplasmosis.

Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Jones-Brando, Lorraine; Yolken, Robert H.

2014-01-01

196

Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis.  

PubMed

Studies performed during the past decade have shown that the rates at which certain neurons produce and release their neurotransmitters can be affected by precursor availability, and thus by the changes in plasma composition that occur after ingestion of the precursors in purified form or as constituents of foods. Thus, tryptophan administration or a plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids, thereby raising brain tryptophan levels, increasing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase, and accelerating the synthesis and release of serotonin. Tyrosine administration or a high-protein meal similarly elevates brain tyrosine and can accelerate catecholamine synthesis in the CNS and sympathoadrenal cells, while the consumption of lecithin or choline increases brain choline levels and neuronal acetylcholine synthesis. The physiologic and biochemical mechanisms that must exist in order for nutrient consumption to affect neurotransmitte synthesis have been characterized and include: 1) the lack of significant feedback control of plasma levels of the precursor; 2) the lack of a real "bloodbrain barrier" for the precursor, i.e. the ability of the plasma level of the precursor to control its influx into, or efflux from, the CNS; 3) the existence of a low-affinity (and thus unsaturated) transport system mediating the flux of the precursor between blood and brain; 4) low-affinity kinetics for the enzyme that initiates the conversion of the precursor to the transmitter; and, 5) the lack of end-product inhibition of the enzyme, in vivo, by its ultimate product, the neurotransmitter. The extent to which neurotransmitter synthesis in any particular aminergic neuron happens to be affected by changes in the availability of its precursor probably varies directly with the neuron's firing frequency. This relationship allows precursor administration to produce selective physiologic effects by enhancing neurotransmitter release from some but not all of the neurons potentially capable of utilizing the precursor for this purpose. It also allows the investigator to predict when administering the precursor might be useful for amplifying a physiologic process, or for treating a pathologic state. (for example, tyrosine administration raises blood pressure in hypotensive rats, lowers it in hypertensive animals, and has little effect on blood pressure in normotensive animals; the elevation in blood pressure probably reflects enhanced catecholamine release from sympathoadrenal cells, while the reduction in hypertensive animals probably results from increased catecholamine release within the brain-stem.) Such predictions are now being tested clinically in many institution. Available evidence suggests that lecithin or cholie administration can diminish the frequency of abnormal movements in patients with tardive dyskinesia... PMID:6115400

Wurtman, R J; Hefti, F; Melamed, E

1980-12-01

197

Serotonin 2A receptors differentially contribute to abuse-related effects of cocaine and cocaine-induced nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine overflow in nonhuman primates.  

PubMed

Two of the most commonly used procedures to study the abuse-related effects of drugs in laboratory animals are intravenous drug self-administration and reinstatement of extinguished behavior previously maintained by drug delivery. Intravenous self-administration is widely accepted to model ongoing drug-taking behavior, whereas reinstatement procedures are accepted to model relapse to drug taking following abstinence. Previous studies indicate that 5-HT2A receptor antagonists attenuate the reinstatement of cocaine-maintained behavior but not cocaine self-administration in rodents. Although the abuse-related effects of cocaine have been closely linked to brain dopamine systems, no previous study has determined whether this dissociation is related to differential regulation of dopamine neurotransmission. To elucidate the neuropharmacological and neuroanatomical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, we evaluated the effects of the selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 on intravenous cocaine self-administration and drug- and cue-primed reinstatement in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). In separate subjects, we evaluated the role of 5-HT2A receptors in cocaine-induced dopamine overflow in the nucleus accumbens (n = 4) and the caudate nucleus (n = 5) using in vivo microdialysis. Consistent with previous studies, M100907 (0.3 mg/kg, i.m.) significantly attenuated drug- and cue-induced reinstatement but had no significant effects on cocaine self-administration across a range of maintenance doses. Importantly, M100907 (0.3 mg/kg, i.m.) attenuated cocaine-induced (1.0 mg/kg, i.v.) dopamine overflow in the caudate nucleus but not in the nucleus accumbens. These data suggest that important abuse-related effects of cocaine are mediated by distinct striatal dopamine projection pathways. PMID:23946394

Murnane, Kevin S; Winschel, Jake; Schmidt, Karl T; Stewart, LaShaya M; Rose, Samuel J; Cheng, Kejun; Rice, Kenner C; Howell, Leonard L

2013-08-14

198

Serotonin: multiphoton imaging and relevant spectral data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coupling three-photon microscopy with automated stage movement can now produce a live high resolution map of the neurotransmitter serotonin in a single cross section of the whole rat brain. Accurate quantification of these serotonin images demands appropriate spectral filtering. This requires one to consider that the spectral characteristics of serotonin show a remarkable variation as it non-covalently associates with different molecules, as we discuss here. Also it is known that serotonin emission changes when it forms a covalent adduct with para-formaldehyde. This provides a potential route for producing a whole brain serotonin map using multiphoton microscopy in a fixed rat brain. Here we take the initial step showing that multiphoton microscopy of this adduct can quantitatively image chemically induced changes in serotonin distribution.

Kaushalya, S. K.; Nag, Suman; Balaji, J.; Maiti, S.

2008-03-01

199

Serotonergic dystrophy induced by excess serotonin  

PubMed Central

Administration of certain serotonin-releasing amphetamine derivatives (fenfluramine and/or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) results in dystrophic serotonergic morphology in the mammalian brain. In addition to drug administration, dystrophic serotonergic neurites are also associated with neurodegenerative disorders. We demonstrate here that endogenously elevated serotonin in the Drosophila CNS induces aberrant enlarged varicosities, or spheroids, that are morphologically similar to dystrophic mammalian serotonergic fibers. In Drosophila these spheroids are specific to serotonergic neurons, distinct from typical varicosities, and form only after prolonged increases in cytoplasmic serotonin. Our results also suggest that serotonin levels during early development determine later sensitivity of spheroid formation to manipulations of the serotonin transporter (SERT). Elevated serotonin also interacts with canonical protein aggregation and autophagic pathways to form spheroids. The data presented here support a model in which excess cytoplasmic neurotransmitter triggers a cell-specific pathway inducing aberrant morphology in fly serotonergic neurons that may be shared in certain mammalian pathologies.

Daubert, Elizabeth A.; Heffron, Daniel S.; Mandell, James W.; Condron, Barry G.

2010-01-01

200

Serotonergic dystrophy induced by excess serotonin.  

PubMed

Administration of certain serotonin-releasing amphetamine derivatives (fenfluramine and/or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, 'ecstasy') results in dystrophic serotonergic morphology in the mammalian brain. In addition to drug administration, dystrophic serotonergic neurites are also associated with neurodegenerative disorders. We demonstrate here that endogenously elevated serotonin in the Drosophila CNS induces aberrant enlarged varicosities, or spheroids, that are morphologically similar to dystrophic mammalian serotonergic fibers. In Drosophila these spheroids are specific to serotonergic neurons, distinct from typical varicosities, and form only after prolonged increases in cytoplasmic serotonin. Our results also suggest that serotonin levels during early development determine later sensitivity of spheroid formation to manipulations of the serotonin transporter (SERT). Elevated serotonin also interacts with canonical protein aggregation and autophagic pathways to form spheroids. The data presented here support a model in which excess cytoplasmic neurotransmitter triggers a cell-specific pathway inducing aberrant morphology in fly serotonergic neurons that may be shared in certain mammalian pathologies. PMID:20394820

Daubert, Elizabeth A; Heffron, Daniel S; Mandell, James W; Condron, Barry G

2010-07-01

201

Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI  

PubMed Central

Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid systems, and food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314 in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model influences only one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fit the dual-risk or diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement on BMI.

Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles; Allison, David; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H.

2014-01-01

202

Reversal of stress-induced memory changes by moclobemide: the role of neurotransmitters.  

PubMed

Studies on animals have shown that chronic stress is able to evoke behavioral changes such as locomotor activity deficit, decreased sleep, reduced food and water consumption and impaired memory. Chronic stress produces changes in concentrations of neurotransmitters, mainly in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure that is involved in learning and memory functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of chronic stress procedure and moclobemide in rats, and the influence of chronic stress on the levels of monoamines: noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the rat hippocampus [as well as their metabolites: dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)]. It was found out that chronic 21-day stress caused worsening of memory: the well trained rats after stress procedure lost their ability to find food quickly. Because of many errors in finding the way, the time these animals needed was on average 2.4-times longer than that of the control group. Single, as well as prolonged (21 days) treatment with moclobemide (10 mg/kg/day) counteracted the deficit of memory induced by chronic stress. In stressed animals, we observed an increase in DA, decrease in DOPAC, 5-HT and 5-HIAA and decrease in NE levels. Moclobemide modulated the changes in the levels of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, decreasing their turnover. The results demonstrate that moclobemide improves memory impaired by stress. They suggest also that moclobemide has a modulatory effect on stress-induced neurotransmitter changes which may be of importance for the protective effect of the drug with regard to memory impairment. PMID:11785923

Nowakowska, E; Chodera, A; Kus, K; Nowak, P; Szkilnik, R

2001-01-01

203

Effect of Curare on Responses to Different Putative Neurotransmitters in Aplysia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effects of curare on responses resulting from ionophoretic application of several putative neurotransmitters onto Aplysia neurons were studied. These neurons have specific receptors for acetylcholine (ACh), dopamine, octopamine, phenylethanolamine, hi...

D. O. Carpenter J. W. Swann P. J. Yarowsky P. R. Myers J. A. Willis

1976-01-01

204

Function and evolution of the serotonin-synthetic bas-1 gene and other aromatic amino acid decarboxylase genes in Caenorhabditis  

PubMed Central

Background Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) enzymes catalyze the synthesis of biogenic amines, including the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, throughout the animal kingdom. These neurotransmitters typically perform important functions in both the nervous system and other tissues, as illustrated by the debilitating conditions that arise from their deficiency. Studying the regulation and evolution of AADC genes is therefore desirable to further our understanding of how nervous systems function and evolve. Results In the nematode C. elegans, the bas-1 gene is required for both serotonin and dopamine synthesis, and maps genetically near two AADC-homologous sequences. We show by transformation rescue and sequencing of mutant alleles that bas-1 encodes an AADC enzyme. Expression of a reporter construct in transgenics suggests that the bas-1 gene is expressed, as expected, in identified serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. The bas-1 gene is one of six AADC-like sequences in the C. elegans genome, including a duplicate that is immediately downstream of the bas-1 gene. Some of the six AADC genes are quite similar to known serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic AADC's from other organisms whereas others are divergent, suggesting previously unidentified functions. In comparing the AADC genes of C. elegans with those of the congeneric C. briggsae, we find only four orthologous AADC genes in C. briggsae. Two C. elegans AADC genes – those most similar to bas-1 – are missing from C. briggsae. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one or both of these bas-1-like genes were present in the common ancestor of C. elegans and C. briggsae, and were retained in the C. elegans line, but lost in the C. briggsae line. Further analysis of the two bas-1-like genes in C. elegans suggests that they are unlikely to encode functional enzymes, and may be expressed pseudogenes. Conclusions The bas-1 gene of C. elegans encodes a serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic AADC enzyme. Two C. elegans AADC-homologous genes that are closely related to bas-1 are missing from the congeneric C. briggsae; one or more these genes was present in the common ancestor of C. elegans and C. briggsae. Despite their persistence in C. elegans, evidence suggests the bas-1-like genes do not encode functional AADC proteins. The presence of the genes in C. elegans raises questions about how many 'predicted genes' in sequenced genomes are functional, and how duplicate genes are retained or lost during evolution. This is another example of unexpected retention of duplicate genes in eukaryotic genomes.

Hare, Emily E; Loer, Curtis M

2004-01-01

205

Dopamine may be ‘hyper’ with respect to noradrenaline metabolism, but ‘hypo’ with respect to serotonin metabolism in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noradrenaline: Hechtman (J Psychiat Neurosci 1994;19:193) argued for a role for frontal dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) in ADHD, where Oades (Prog Neurobiol 1987;29:365) has described lateralised functional impairments. Mechanisms (e.g. via alpha-2 sites) for stimulating low NA activity in ADHD children (J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997;36:1688) in order to promote interactions with mesocortical DA have been discussed

Robert D Oades

2002-01-01

206

Is serotonin hyperalgesic or analgesic?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin (5-hydroxtryptamine, 5-HT) is an important molecule in pain processing and modulation. Whether 5-HT has an analgesic\\u000a or hyperalgesic action depends on the cell type and type of receptor it acts on. In the periphery, 5-HT sensitizes afferent\\u000a nerve fibers, thus contributing to hyperalgesia in infiammation and nerve injury. In the trigeminal system, agonism at 5-HT1B\\/D receptors reduces neurotransmitter release,

Claudia Sommer

2006-01-01

207

Brain Neurotransmitter and High Energy Phosphate Concentration after Combined Hypoxia and Hypotension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous work by the authors has established decreased brain ATP concentration after a combined hypoxic-hypotensive episode. This study was undertaken to determine what changes, if any, occur in brain norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT)...

H. J. Proctor R. A. Mueller W. G. Palladino G. R. Breese

1980-01-01

208

Self-assembled monolayer as a pre-concentrating receptor for selective serotonin sensing.  

PubMed

We describe a novel medium, a captopril/thiophenol (Capt/TP) mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) formed on gold, for selectively pre-concentrating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT molecules were shown to be selectively captured via formation of a strong complex, providing anodic stripping currents upon anodic scan or drastic increases in charge-transfer resistances for a redox probe, Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-) pair, due to their blocking effects. The 5-HT molecules thus collected were subsequently detected by anodic stripping differential pulse voltammetry (ASDPV) or electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The detection limit was 1.2 when detected by EIS and 28 nM with ASDPV. 5-HT was shown to be determined in physiological matrices containing ascorbic acid, dopamine, and other commonly encountered neurotransmitters. PMID:20627680

Mozaffari, Seyed Ahmad; Chang, Taihyun; Park, Su-Moon

2010-09-15

209

Differential Activation by Restraint Stress of a Mechanism to Conserve Brain Catecholamines and Serotonin in Mice Differing in Excitability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Male mice were isolated or grouped for 8 weeks subsequent to weaning. Restraint stress: (1) elevated brain norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin; (2) elevated brain norepinephrine and serotonin more in pre-isolated than in pre-grouped mice; (3) elevated ...

B. L. Welch A. S. Welch

1968-01-01

210

Predator exposure/psychosocial stress animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder modulates neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can develop in response to a traumatic event involving a threat to life. To date, no diagnostic biomarkers have been identified for PTSD. Recent research points toward physiological abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, sympathoadrenal medullary and immune system that may be implicated in the disorder. The modulation of neurotransmitters is another possible mechanism, but their role in the progression of PTSD is poorly understood. Low serotonin (5-HT) may be a factor, but it may not be the only neurotransmitter affected as modulation affects levels of other neurotransmitters. In this study, we hypothesized the predator exposure/psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD may alter levels of 5-HT and other neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. We induced PTSD via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress model, whereby rats were placed in a cage with a cat for 1 hour on days 1 and 11 of the 31-day experiment. Rats also received psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. On day 32, the rats were sacrificed and the brains dissected to remove the hippocampus and PFC. Norepinephrine (NE), 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dopamine (DA), and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-HT levels in the hippocampus and PFC were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the hippocampus, 5-HT and HVA were lower, while NE and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. In the PFC, only 5-HT was lower, while NE, DA, and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also examined and confirmed our findings. These results demonstrate that the predator exposure/psychosocial stress model of PTSD produces neurotransmitter changes similar to those seen in human patients and may cause a heightened noradrenergic response. PMID:24551226

Wilson, C Brad; Ebenezer, Philip J; McLaughlin, Leslie D; Francis, Joseph

2014-01-01

211

Nicotine's effect on hypothalamic neurotransmitters and appetite regulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Tobacco smoking reduces appetite and body weight. Cessation of smoking leads to hyperphagia and weight gain. Food intake is a function of meal number (MN) and meal size (MZ) (ie, Food intake = MN × MZ). The effect of nicotine on these feeding components and their relationships to dopamine and serotonin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) were determined.

Go Miyata; Michael M. Meguid; Serguei O. Fetissov; Giovanni F. Torelli; Hyune-Ju Kim

1999-01-01

212

Neurotransmitters Drive Combinatorial Multistate Postsynaptic Density Networks  

PubMed Central

The mammalian postsynaptic density (PSD) comprises a complex collection of ~1100 proteins. Despite extensive knowledge of individual proteins, the overall organization of the PSD is poorly understood. Here, we define maps of molecular circuitry within the PSD based on phosphorylation of postsynaptic proteins. Activation of a single neurotransmitter receptor, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), changed the phosphorylation status of 127 proteins. Stimulation of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors and dopamine receptors activated overlapping networks with distinct combinatorial phosphorylation signatures. Using peptide array technology, we identified specific phosphorylation motifs and switching mechanisms responsible for the integration of neurotransmitter receptor pathways and their coordination of multiple substrates in these networks. These combinatorial networks confer high information processing capacity and functional diversity on synapses and their elucidation may provide new insights into disease mechanisms and new opportunities for drug discovery.

Coba, Marcelo P.; Pocklington, Andrew J.; Collins, Mark O.; Kopanitsa, Maksym V.; Uren, Rachel T.; Swamy, Sajani; Croning, Mike D. R.; Choudhary, Jyoti S.; Grant, Seth G. N.

2012-01-01

213

Serotonin: good or bad for bone  

PubMed Central

Besides its action as a neurotransmitter, serotonin has multiple physiological functions in several peripheral organs. Recently, Yadav et al. suggested that peripheral serotonin produced in the gut was a major negative regulator of osteoblast proliferation. These data were challenged by Cui et al. that showed no change in bone density in mature mice with a global invalidation of tryptophan hydroxylase 1, the enzyme responsible of serotonin synthesis in the periphery. In this context, we showed that osteoclasts are able to synthetize serotonin that acts locally to induce osteoclast precursors differentiation. Our data and previous results from others suggest that rather than acting as a hormone, serotonin produced in the bone could act locally on osteoclast and osteoblast realizing in the bone a complete micro-serotoninergic system.

de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine; Collet, Corinne; Chabbi-Achengli, Yasmine

2012-01-01

214

Electrical coupling between the human serotonin transporter and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.  

PubMed

Monoamine transporters have been implicated in dopamine or serotonin release in response to abused drugs such as methamphetamine or ecstasy (MDMA). In addition, monoamine transporters show substrate-induced inward currents that may modulate excitability and Ca(2+) mobilization, which could also contribute to neurotransmitter release. How monoamine transporters modulate Ca(2+) permeability is currently unknown. We investigate the functional interaction between the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) and voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (CaV). We introduce an excitable expression system consisting of cultured muscle cells genetically engineered to express hSERT. Both 5HT and S(+)MDMA depolarize these cells and activate the excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanism. However, hSERT substrates fail to activate EC-coupling in CaV1.1-null muscle cells, thus implicating Ca(2+) channels. CaV1.3 and CaV2.2 channels are natively expressed in neurons. When these channels are co-expressed with hSERT in HEK293T cells, only cells expressing the lower-threshold L-type CaV1.3 channel show Ca(2+) transients evoked by 5HT or S(+)MDMA. In addition, the electrical coupling between hSERT and CaV1.3 takes place at physiological 5HT concentrations. The electrical coupling between monoamine neurotransmitter transporters and Ca(2+) channels such as CaV1.3 is a novel mechanism by which endogenous substrates (neurotransmitters) or exogenous substrates (like ecstasy) could modulate Ca(2+)-driven signals in excitable cells. PMID:24854234

Ruchala, Iwona; Cabra, Vanessa; Solis, Ernesto; Glennon, Richard A; De Felice, Louis J; Eltit, Jose M

2014-07-01

215

Social stress and the polymorphic region of the serotonin reuptake transporter gene modify estradiol-induced changes on central monoamine concentrations in female rhesus monkeys  

PubMed Central

Psychosocial stress exposure is linked to a disruption of emotional regulation that can manifest as anxiety and depression. Women are more likely to suffer from such psychopathologies than men, indicating that gender-based differences in gonadal steroids may be a key factor in the etiology of stress-induced adverse health outcomes. Estradiol (E2) positively influences mood and cognition in females, an effect likely related to E2’s ability to modulate the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, genetic variation due to the polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene (SLC6A4) encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) also can influence E2’s ability to modulate behavior and physiology. However, it remains uncertain whether exposure to social stress interacts with the 5HTTLPR to influence E2-induced changes in behavior and physiology. The present study used ovariectomized adult female rhesus monkeys to investigate acute and chronic effects of E2 on central monoamine metabolite concentrations using CSF sampling. We further assessed how E2-induced changes in monoamine metabolite levels are modified by the unpredictable stress of social subordination and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. Levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) decreased significantly during chronic E2 treatment only in dominant females with the long promoter length of SLC6A4. Chronic administration of E2 decreased levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in a manner independent of the social status, 5HTTLPR genotype, or their interactions. Overall levels of dopamine and serotonin metabolites were increased in subordinate females but this effect of social stress was not influenced by 5HTTLPR genotype. Together, these data emphasize how E2 can modulate central neurotransmitter systems and indicate that social subordination in female monkeys is a valid model for examining how chronic psychosocial stress alters sensitivity to E2. Future studies are necessary to elaborate how changes in central neurotransmitter metabolism due to E2 and prolonged exposure to stress affect behavior and physiology.

Asher, Jennifer; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Reding, Katherine M; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna

2012-01-01

216

Social stress and the polymorphic region of the serotonin reuptake transporter gene modify oestradiol-induced changes on central monoamine concentrations in female rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

Psychosocial stress exposure is linked to the disruption of emotional regulation that can manifest as anxiety and depression. Women are more likely to suffer from such psychopathologies than men, indicating that sex-based differences in gonadal steroids may be a key factor in the aetiology of stress-induced adverse health outcomes. Oestradiol (E2 ) positively influences mood and cognition in females, an effect likely related to the ability of E2 to modulate the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, genetic variation as a result of the polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene (SLC6A4) encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) also can influence the ability of E2 to modulate behaviour and physiology. However, it remains uncertain whether exposure to social stress interacts with the 5HTTLPR to influence E2 -induced changes in behaviour and physiology. The present study used ovariectomised adult female rhesus monkeys to investigate acute and chronic effects of E2 on central monoamine metabolite concentrations using cerobrospinal fluid sampling. We further assessed how E2 -induced changes in monoamine metabolite levels are modified by the unpredictable stress of social subordination and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. Levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid decreased significantly during chronic E2 treatment only in dominant females with the long promoter length of SLC6A4. Chronic administration of E2 decreased levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydrophenylacetic acid in a manner independent of the social status, 5HTTLPR genotype, or their interactions. Overall levels of dopamine and serotonin metabolites were increased in subordinate females, although this effect of social stress was not influenced by 5HTTLPR genotype. Together, these data emphasise how E2 can modulate central neurotransmitter systems and indicate that social subordination in female monkeys is a valid model for examining how chronic psychosocial stress alters sensitivity to E2 . Future studies are necessary to elaborate how changes in central neurotransmitter metabolism affect behaviour and physiology as a result of E2 and prolonged exposure to stress. PMID:23253112

Asher, J; Michopoulos, V; Reding, K M; Wilson, M E; Toufexis, D

2013-04-01

217

Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.  

PubMed

Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low ?g/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 ?g/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 ?g/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24486880

Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J

2014-03-01

218

Reprint of: Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.  

PubMed

Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low ?g/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 ?g/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 ?g/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24679646

Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J

2014-06-01

219

Altered Neurocircuitry in the Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mouse Brain  

PubMed Central

The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO) mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT) KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral mesolimbic structures at 26 hr post-injection. Thus, DAT KO mice appear, at this level of anatomic resolution, to have preserved cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity but diminished robustness of reward-modulating circuitry distal to the thalamus. This is in contradistinction to the state of this circuitry in serotonin transporter KO mice where we observed more robust connectivity in more posterior brain regions using methods identical to those employed here.

Zhang, Xiaowei; Bearer, Elaine L.; Boulat, Benoit; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Jacobs, Russell E.

2010-01-01

220

Dopamine deficiency in mice.  

PubMed

Dopamine is the principal neurotransmitter that mediates a wide range of brain functions, including locomotion, emotion, learning, and neuroendocrine modulation. To clarify the role of dopamine during postnatal development, it is useful to have mutant mice genetically deleting dopamine. In this paper, we describe the mice lacking expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the first and rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosynthetic pathway, in the dopaminergic neuronal type. In these mice, TH expression in noradrenergic and adrenergic cells was restored. Lack of TH expression in dopaminergic neurons resulted in a marked reduction of dopamine accumulation. This led to multiple behavioral abnormalities at the juvenile stage, which were characterized by a reduction in spontaneous locomotor activity, blockade of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity, cataleptic behavior, and defect in active avoidance learning. In contrast, development of pituitary gland as well as production and secretion of the pituitary peptide hormones dependent on hypothalamic dopaminergic control were normally maintained in spite of the reduced dopamine synthesis. Our findings provide genetic evidence that dopamine is essential for controlling spontaneous and voluntary movement and emotional learning during postnatal development through the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways. PMID:10984662

Kobayashi, K; Sano, H

2000-09-01

221

Intrahippocampal infusions of anisomycin produce amnesia: contribution of increased release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine.  

PubMed

Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and injections of NE alone produce amnesia. These findings suggest that abnormal neurotransmitter responses may be the basis for amnesia produced by inhibition of protein synthesis. The present experiment extends these findings to the hippocampus and adds acetylcholine (ACh) to the list of neurotransmitters affected by anisomycin. Using in vivo microdialysis at the site of injection, release of NE, DA, and ACh was measured before and after injections of anisomycin into the hippocampus. Anisomycin impaired inhibitory avoidance memory when rats were tested 48 h after training and also produced substantial increases in local release of NE, DA, and ACh. In an additional experiment, pretreatment with intrahippocampal injections of propranolol prior to anisomycin and training significantly attenuated anisomycin-induced amnesia. The disruption of neurotransmitter release patterns at the site of injection appears to contribute significantly to the mechanisms underlying amnesia produced by protein synthesis inhibitors, calling into question the dominant interpretation that the amnesia reflects loss of training-initiated protein synthesis necessary for memory formation. Instead, the findings suggest that proteins needed for memory formation are available prior to an experience, and that post-translational modifications of these proteins may be sufficient to enable the formation of new memories. PMID:19403793

Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E

2009-05-01

222

Intrahippocampal infusions of anisomycin produce amnesia: Contribution of increased release of norepinephrine, dopamine, and acetylcholine  

PubMed Central

Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and injections of NE alone produce amnesia. These findings suggest that abnormal neurotransmitter responses may be the basis for amnesia produced by inhibition of protein synthesis. The present experiment extends these findings to the hippocampus and adds acetylcholine (ACh) to the list of neurotransmitters affected by anisomycin. Using in vivo microdialysis at the site of injection, release of NE, DA, and ACh was measured before and after injections of anisomycin into the hippocampus. Anisomycin impaired inhibitory avoidance memory when rats were tested 48 h after training and also produced substantial increases in local release of NE, DA, and ACh. In an additional experiment, pretreatment with intrahippocampal injections of propranolol prior to anisomycin and training significantly attenuated anisomycin-induced amnesia. The disruption of neurotransmitter release patterns at the site of injection appears to contribute significantly to the mechanisms underlying amnesia produced by protein synthesis inhibitors, calling into question the dominant interpretation that the amnesia reflects loss of training-initiated protein synthesis necessary for memory formation. Instead, the findings suggest that proteins needed for memory formation are available prior to an experience, and that post-translational modifications of these proteins may be sufficient to enable the formation of new memories.

Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

2009-01-01

223

Alterations in dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in tetrahydrobiopterin deficient spr-/- mice: relevance to schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a pivotal cofactor for enzymes responsible for the synthesis and release of monoamine neurotransmitters including dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) as well as the release of glutamate (Glu). Deficiencies in BH4 levels and reduced activities of BH(4)-associated enzymes have been recently reported in patients with schizophrenia. Accordingly, it is possible that abnormalities in the biochemical cascades regulated by BH(4) may alter DA, 5-HT and Glu neurotransmission, and consequently contribute to the pathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. The development of a novel strain of mutant mice that is deficient in BH(4) by knocking out the expression of a functional sepiapterin reductase gene (spr -/-) has added new insights into the potential role of BH(4) in the pathophysiology and improved treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:20846490

Choi, Yong Kee; Tarazi, Frank I

2010-09-01

224

Analysis of drug effects on neurotransmitter release  

SciTech Connect

The release of neurotransmitter is routinely studied in a superfusion system in which serial samples are collected and the effects of drugs or other treatments on the amount of material in the superfusate is determined. With frequent sampling interval, this procedure provides a mechanism for dynamically characterizing the release process itself. Using automated data collection in conjunction with polyexponential computer analysis, the equation which describes the release process in each experiment is determined. Analysis of the data during the nontreated phase of the experiment allows an internal control to be used for accurately assessing any changes in neurotransmitter release which may occur during a subsequent treatment phase. The use of internal controls greatly improves the signal to noise ratio and allows determinations of very low concentrations of drugs on small amounts of tissue to be made. In this presentation, the effects of 10 ..mu..M nicotine on /sup 3/H-dopamine release in rat nucleus accumbens is described. The time course, potency and efficacy of the drug treatment is characterized using this system. Determinations of the exponential order of the release as well as the rate constants allow one to study the mechanism of the release process. A description of /sup 3/H-dopamine release in normal as well as Ca/sup + +/-free medium is presented.

Rowell, P.; Garner, A.

1986-03-05

225

Estradiol Modulates Neurotransmitter Concentrations in the Developing Zebra Finch Song System  

PubMed Central

The neural song system in zebra finches is highly sexually dimorphic; only males sing and the brain regions controlling song are far larger in males than females. Estradiol (E2) administered during development can partially masculinize both structure and function. However, additional mechanisms, including those through which E2 may act, remain unclear. Male and female zebra finches were treated with E2 or control vehicle from post-hatching days 3 through 25, at which time norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) were measured in individual nuclei of the song system. Main effects of sex were not detected. However, E2 increased NE in the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). In HVC (proper name), the hormone decreased 5-HT across the two sexes and increased DA in females only. These effects suggest that, while baseline levels of these neurotransmitters may not contribute to sexually dimorphic development of the song system, they could play specific roles in functions common to both sexes and/or in modification of the song system by exogenous E2.

Wade, Juli; Peabody, Camilla; Tang, Yu Ping; Qi, Linda; Burnett, Robert

2013-01-01

226

Antidepressant activity of astilbin: involvement of monoaminergic neurotransmitters and BDNF signal pathway.  

PubMed

Depression and related mood disorders are among the world's greatest public health problems. Previous studies have demonstrated that astilbin (AST) has broad pharmacological functions which may modulate numerous pathways, such as antioxidant, scavenging free radicals, anti-inflammatory and so on, similarly to some of other flavonoids. In this study, the antidepressant-like effect of AST was investigated using chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model of depression in mice. The results showed that chronic administration of AST at doses of 10, 20 and 40?mg/kg (intraperitoneally (i.p.), 21?d) reduced depressive-like behaviors of mice in the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and sucrose preference test (SPT) without affecting locomotor activity. AST increased the contents of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) in the frontal cortex of CUMS mice. Additionally, it was shown that AST treatment restored the CUMS-induced inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and AKT phosphorylation in the frontal cortex, conformed to the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Our findings suggest that AST has antidepressant activities and the mechanisms, at least in part, relate to up-regulation of monoaminergic neurotransmitters (5-HT and DA) and activation of the BDNF signaling pathway. PMID:24681540

Lv, Qiong-Qiong; Wu, Wen-Jie; Guo, Xiao-Liang; Liu, Rui-Li; Yang, Yu-Ping; Zhou, Du-Shuang; Zhang, Ji-Xia; Liu, Ju-Yuan

2014-06-01

227

Serotonin-Labeled CdSe Nanocrystals: Applications for Neuroscience  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter which has been linked to the regulation of critical behaviors including sleep, appetite, and mood. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a 12-transmembrane domain protein responsible for clearance of serotonin from extracellular spaces following release. In order to assess the potential for use of ligand-conjugated nanocrystals to target cell surface receptors, ion channels, and transporters we have measured the ability of serotonin-labeled CdSe nanocrystals (SNACs) to block the uptake of tritiated serotonin by the human and Drosophila serotonin transporters (hSERT and dSERT). Estimated Ki values, the SNAC concentration at which half of the serotonin transport activity is blocked, were determined by nonlinear regression to be Ki (hSERT ) = 74uM and Ki (dSERT ) = 29uM. These values and our inability to detect free serotonin indicate that SNACs selectively interact with the serotonin recognition site of the transporter. We have also exposed the SNACs to cells containing ionotropic serotonin receptors and have measured the electrical response of the cell using a two microelectrode voltage clamp. We find that serotonin receptors do respond to the SNACs and we measure currents similar to the free serotonin response. These results indicate that ligand-conjugated nanocrystals can be used to label both receptor and transporter proteins. Initial fluorescence labeling experiments will be discussed.

Kippeny, Tadd; Adkins, Erika; Adams, Scott; Thomlinson, Ian; Schroeter, Sally; Defelice, Louis; Blakely, Randy; Rosenthal, Sandra

2000-03-01

228

Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry  

PubMed Central

Object Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. Methods The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between ?0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 ?m) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ~ 100 ?m. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. Results The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer); 2) Bluetooth transceiver; 3) microprocessor; and 4) direct-current battery. A Windows-XP laptop computer running custom software and equipped with a Universal Serial Bus–connected Bluetooth transceiver served as the base station. Computer software directed wireless data acquisition at 100 kilosamples/second and remote control of FSCV operation and adjustable waveform parameters. The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of dopamine and other neurochemicals such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and ascorbic acid by using FSCV at CFM and by flow injection analysis. In rats, the WINCS detected subsecond striatal dopamine release at the implanted sensor during high-frequency stimulation of ascending dopaminergic fibers. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated comparable signals to a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Importantly, the WINCS reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic noise typically found in an operating room setting. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that the WINCS is well suited for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring. It is anticipated that neurotransmitter measurements at an implanted chemical sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery.

Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Covey, Daniel P.; Blaha, Charles D.; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M.; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.; Garris, Paul A.

2009-01-01

229

Radical scavenging reactivity of catecholamine neurotransmitters and the inhibition effect for DNA cleavage.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitters such as catecholamines (dopamine, L-dopa, epinephrine, norepinephrine) have phenol structure and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) by hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) to ROS. Radical scavenging reactivity of neurotransmitters with galvinoxyl radical (GO*) and cumyloxyl radical (RO*) in acetonitrile at 298 K was determined by the UV-vis spectral change. The UV-vis spectral change for HAT from catecholamine neurotransmitters to GO* was measured by a photodiode array spectrophotometer, whereas HAT to much more reactive cumylperoxyl radical, which was produced by photoirradiation of dicumyl peroxide, was measured by laser flash photolysis. The second-order rate constants (k(GO)) were determined from the slopes of linear plots of the pseudo-first-order rate constants vs concentrations of neurotransmitters. The k(GO) value of hydrogen transfer from dopamine to GO* was determined to be 23 M(-1) s(-1), which is the largest among examined catecholamine neurotransmitters. This value is comparable to the value of a well-known antioxidant: (+)-catechine (27 M(-1) s(-1)). The k(GO) value of hydrogen transfer from dopamine to GO* increased in the presence of Mg(2+) with increasing concentration of Mg(2+). Such enhancement of the radical scavenging reactivity may result from the metal ion-promoted electron transfer from dopamine to the galvinoxyl radical. Inhibition of DNA cleavage with neurotransmitters was also examined using agarose gel electrophoresis of an aqueous solution containing pBR322 DNA, NADH, and catecholamine neurotransmitters under photoirradiation. DNA cleavage was significantly inhibited by the presence of catecholamine neurotransmitters that can scavenge hydroperoxyl radicals produced under photoirradiation of an aerated aqueous solution of NADH. The inhibition effect of dopamine on DNA cleavage was enhanced by the presence of Mg(2+) because of the enhancement of the radical scavenging reactivity. PMID:19938853

Kawashima, Tomonori; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

2010-01-14

230

Development of an LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of serotonin and related compounds in urine and the identification of a potential biomarker for attention deficit hyperactivity/hyperkinetic disorder.  

PubMed

Serotonin is a major neurotransmitter and affects various functions both in the brain and in the rest of the body. It has been demonstrated that altered serotinergic function is implicated in various psychiatric disorders including depression and schizophrenia. Serotonin has also been implicated along with dopamine in attention deficit-hyperkinetic disorder (AD-HKD). This study provides a versatile validated method for the analysis of serotonin, hydroxyindole acetic acid and dopamine in urine using LC-MS/MS. This method was then used to quantify these analytes in a test group of 17 children diagnosed with severe AD-HKD. This group was compared to a matched control group to investigate the possibility that one of these compounds may be a potential biomarker for this condition. The developed method provided good linear calibration curves for the multiplex assay of analytes in urine (0.05-3.27 nmol/L; R(2) ? 0.9977). Acceptable inter-day repeatability was achieved for all analytes with RSD values (n = 9) ranging from 1.1% to 9.3% over a concentration range of 0.11-3.27 ?mol/L in urine. Excellent limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantitation (LOQ) were achieved with LODs of 8.8-18.2 nmol/L and the LOQs of 29.4-55.7 nmol/L for analytes in urine. Recoveries were in the ranges of 98-104%, 100-106% and 91-107% for serotonin, 5-HIAA and dopamine, respectively. An appropriate sample clean-up procedure for urine was developed to ensure efficient recovery and reproducibility on analysis. Evaluation of matrix effects was also carried out and the influence of ion suppression on analytical results reported. Confirmatory analysis was carried out on a linear trap quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer to obtain high mass accuracy data of the target analytes in the clinical samples. PMID:21866401

Moriarty, Merisa; Lee, Aoife; O'Connell, Brendan; Kelleher, Ann; Keeley, Helen; Furey, Ambrose

2011-11-01

231

MODERATE PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE AND SEROTONIN GENOTYPE INTERACT TO ALTER CNS SEROTONIN FUNCTION IN RHESUS MONKEYS OFFSPRING  

PubMed Central

Background Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure can contribute to neurodevelopmental impairments and disrupt several neurotransmitter systems. We examined the timing of moderate level alcohol exposure, serotonin transporter gene polymorphic region variation (rh5-HTTLPR), and levels of primary serotonin and dopamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in rhesus monkeys. Methods Thirty-two 30-month old rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) from four groups of females were assessed: (1) early alcohol-exposed group (n = 9), in which mothers voluntarily consumed 0.6 g/kg/day alcohol solution on gestational days 0 – 50; (2) middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed group (n = 6), mothers consumed 0.6 g/kg/day alcohol solution on gestational days 50 – 135; (3) a continuous-exposure group (n = 8), mothers consumed 0.6 g/kg/day alcohol solution on gestational days 0 – 135; and (4) controls (n = 9), mothers consumed an isocaloric control solution on gestational days 0 – 50, 50 – 135, or 0 – 135. Serotonin transporter promoter region allelic variants (homozygous s/s or heterozygous s/l versus homozygous l/l) were determined. We examined CSF concentrations of the 5-HT and DA metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively, at baseline and 50 hours after separation from cage-mates, when the monkeys were 30 months old. Results Early- and middle-to-late gestation-alcohol exposed monkeys carrying the short allele had lower concentrations of 5-HIAA in CSF relative to other groups. Concentrations of 5-HIAA in CSF were lower for s allele carriers and increased from baseline relative to pre-separation values, while 5-HIAA levels in l/l allele carriers were not affected by separation. Monkeys carrying the short allele had lower basal concentrations of HVA in CSF compared to monkeys homozygous for the long allele. Conclusion Carrying the s allele of the 5-HT transporter increased the probability of reduced 5-HIAA in early- and middle-to-late gestation alcohol-exposed monkeys and reduced HVA at baseline. These findings that prenatal alcohol exposure altered central 5-HT activity in genetically sensitive monkeys raise questions about whether abnormal serotonin biological pathways could underlie some of the psychiatric disorders reported in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).

Schneider, Mary L.; Moore, Colleen F.; Barr, Christina S.; Larson, Julie A.; Kraemer, Gary W.

2010-01-01

232

THE EFFECTS OF 5HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN AND 5HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE ON DOPAMINE SYNTHESIS AND RELEASE IN RAT BRAIN STRIATAL SYNAPTOSOMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and serotonin (5-HT) on dopamine synthesis and release in rat brain striatal synaptosomes have been examined and compared to the effects of tyramine and dopamine. Serotonin inhibited dopamine synthesis from tyrosine, with 25% inhibition occurring at 3 ~M-S-HT and 60% inhibition at 200~~. Dopamine synthesis from DOPA was also inhibited by 5-HT, with 30% inhibition

David W. Andrews; Robert L. Patrick; Jack D. Barchas

1978-01-01

233

The antimalarial drug quinine interferes with serotonin biosynthesis and action  

PubMed Central

The major antimalarial drug quinine perturbs uptake of the essential amino acid tryptophan, and patients with low plasma tryptophan are predisposed to adverse quinine reactions; symptoms of which are similar to indications of tryptophan depletion. As tryptophan is a precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), here we test the hypothesis that quinine disrupts serotonin function. Quinine inhibited serotonin-induced proliferation of yeast as well as human (SHSY5Y) cells. One possible cause of this effect is through inhibition of 5-HT receptor activation by quinine, as we observed here. Furthermore, cells exhibited marked decreases in serotonin production during incubation with quinine. By assaying activity and kinetics of the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis, tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH2), we showed that quinine competitively inhibits TPH2 in the presence of the substrate tryptophan. The study shows that quinine disrupts both serotonin biosynthesis and function, giving important new insight to the action of quinine on mammalian cells.

Islahudin, Farida; Tindall, Sarah M.; Mellor, Ian R.; Swift, Karen; Christensen, Hans E. M.; Fone, Kevin C. F.; Pleass, Richard J.; Ting, Kang-Nee; Avery, Simon V.

2014-01-01

234

UWA-121, a mixed dopamine and serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, enhances L-DOPA anti-parkinsonian action without worsening dyskinesia or psychosis-like behaviours in the MPTP-lesioned common marmoset.  

PubMed

L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), but its long-term administration is complicated by wearing-off and dyskinesia. UWA-101, a dual, equipotent inhibitor of dopamine (DAT) and serotonin (SERT) transporters, has previously been shown to successfully extend duration of anti-parkinsonian benefit of L-DOPA (ON-time), without exacerbating dyskinesia, in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned marmoset. However, UWA-101 is racemic and it is unclear whether one or both enantiomers contribute to its actions, and whether a better therapeutic effect might be attained by using a single antipode. In the current study, we synthesised the two enantiomers of UWA-101, R-101 (UWA-121) and S-101 (UWA-122), characterised their pharmacological profiles and administered them to MPTP-lesioned marmosets. Parkinsonism, dyskinesia, psychosis-like behaviours and duration of ON-time were evaluated. UWA-121 is a dual DAT > SERT inhibitor, with an approximate 10:1 DAT:SERT affinity ratio (inhibitory constants (Ki) of 307 and 3830 nM, respectively). In combination with L-DOPA, UWA-121 extended duration of ON-time when compared to L-DOPA/vehicle treatment (by 40%, P < 0.01). UWA-121 also extended duration of ON-time without dyskinesia (by 215%, P < 0.05) and ON-time without psychosis-like behaviours when compared to L-DOPA/vehicle treatment (by 345%, P < 0.01). UWA-121 did not worsen the severity of dyskinesia or psychosis-like behaviours (P > 0.05). UWA-122 is a selective SERT inhibitor (Ki 120 nM, Ki at DAT > 50 ?M) and, in combination with L-DOPA, had no effect on ON-time, dyskinesia or psychosis-like behaviours (P > 0.05). These data indicate that dual DAT and SERT inhibitors effectively enhance L-DOPA anti-parkinsonian action without worsening dyskinesia and that compounds with such a pharmacological profile represent promising agents against wearing-off in PD. PMID:24447715

Huot, Philippe; Johnston, Tom H; Lewis, Katie D; Koprich, James B; Reyes, M Gabriela; Fox, Susan H; Piggott, Matthew J; Brotchie, Jonathan M

2014-07-01

235

Synergistic dopamine increase in the rat prefrontal cortex with the combination of quetiapine and fluvoxamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale The combination of atypical antipsychotic drugs in addition to serotonin reuptake inhibitors has recently proven to be beneficial in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as major depression, schizophrenia, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Objectives To investigate the effects of an atypical antipsychotic drug in combination with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor on extracellular serotonin [5-HT] ex, and dopamine levels [DA] ex

Damiaan Denys; André A. Klompmakers; Herman G. M. Westenberg

2004-01-01

236

APP+, a Fluorescent Analogue of the Neurotoxin MPP+, Is a Marker of Catecholamine Neurons in Brain Tissue, but Not a Fluorescent False Neurotransmitter  

PubMed Central

We have previously introduced fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFNs) as optical reporters that enable visualization of individual dopaminergic presynaptic terminals and their activity in the brain. In this context, we examined the fluorescent pyridinium dye 4-(4-dimethylamino)phenyl-1-methylpyridinium (APP+), a fluorescent analogue of the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPP+, in acute mouse brain tissue. APP+ is a substrate for the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and serotonin transporter (SERT), and as such represented a candidate for the development of new FFN probes. Here we report that APP+ labels cell bodies of catecholaminergic neurons in the midbrain in a DAT- and NET-dependent manner, as well as fine dopaminergic axonal processes in the dorsal striatum. APP+ destaining from presynaptic terminals in the dorsal striatum was also examined under the conditions inducing depolarization and exocytotic neurotransmitter release. Application of KCl led to a small but significant degree of destaining (approximately 15% compared to control), which stands in contrast to a nearly complete destaining of the new generation FFN agent, FFN102. Electrical stimulation of brain slices at 10 Hz afforded no significant change in the APP+ signal. These results indicate that the majority of the APP+ signal in axonal processes originates from labeled organelles including mitochondria, whereas only a minor component of the APP+ signal represents the releasable synaptic vesicular pool. These results also show that APP+ may serve as a useful probe for identifying catecholaminergic innervations in the brain, although it is a poor candidate for the development of FFNs.

2013-01-01

237

A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats  

PubMed Central

Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression.

Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

2012-01-01

238

Oestradiol modulation of serotonin reuptake transporter and serotonin metabolism in the brain of monkeys.  

PubMed

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is an important brain neurotransmitter that is implicated in mental and neurodegenerative diseases and is modulated by ovarian hormones. Nevertheless, the effect of oestrogens on 5-HT neurotransmission in the primate caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens, which are major components of the basal ganglia, and the anterior cerebral cortex, mainly the frontal and cingulate gyrus, is not well documented. The present study evaluated 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT) and 5-HT metabolism in these brain regions in response to 1-month treatment with 17?-oestradiol in short-term (1 month) ovariectomised (OVX) monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). SERT-specific binding was measured by autoradiography using the radioligand [³H]citalopram. Biogenic amine concentrations were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. 17?-Oestradiol increased SERT in the superior frontal cortex and in the anterior cingulate cortex, in the nucleus accumbens, and in subregions of the caudate nucleus of OVX monkeys. 17?-Oestradiol left [³H]citalopram-specific binding unchanged in the putamen, as well as the dorsal and medial raphe nucleus. 17?-Oestradiol treatment decreased striatal concentrations of the precursor of 5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptophan, and increased 5-HT, dopamine and 3-methoxytyramine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus and putamen, whereas the concentrations of the metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid remained unchanged. No effect of 17?-oestradiol treatment was observed for biogenic amine concentrations in the cortical regions. A significant positive correlation was observed between [³H]citalopram-specific binding and 5-HT concentrations in the caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens, suggesting their link. These results have translational value for women with low oestrogen, such as those in surgical menopause or perimenopause. PMID:23414342

Sánchez, M G; Morissette, M; Di Paolo, T

2013-06-01

239

The Influence of Serotonin on Fear Learning  

PubMed Central

Learning of associations between aversive stimuli and predictive cues is the basis of Pavlovian fear conditioning and is driven by a mismatch between expectation and outcome. To investigate whether serotonin modulates the formation of such aversive cue-outcome associations, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dietary tryptophan depletion to reduce brain serotonin (5-HT) levels in healthy human subjects. In a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm, 5-HT depleted subjects compared to a non-depleted control group exhibited attenuated autonomic responses to cues indicating the upcoming of an aversive event. These results were closely paralleled by reduced aversive learning signals in the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex, two prominent structures of the neural fear circuit. In agreement with current theories of serotonin as a motivational opponent system to dopamine in fear learning, our data provide first empirical evidence for a role of serotonin in representing formally derived learning signals for aversive events.

Hindi Attar, Catherine; Finckh, Barbara; Buchel, Christian

2012-01-01

240

Infantile parkinsonism-dystonia: a dopamine "transportopathy"  

PubMed Central

The dopamine transporter (DAT) retrieves the neurotransmitter dopamine from the synaptic cleft at dopaminergic synapses. Variations in solute carrier family 6A, member 3 (SLC6A3/DAT1), the human gene encoding DAT, have been implicated in attention deficit hyperactivity and bipolar disorders, and DAT is a prominent site of action for drugs such as amphetamines and cocaine. In this issue of the JCI, Kurian et al. report that an autosomal recessive infantile parkinsonism-dystonia is caused by loss-of-function mutations in DAT that impair dopamine reuptake (see the related article beginning on page 1595). Though this might be predicted to result in dopamine excess in the synaptic cleft, it likely also causes depletion of presynaptic dopamine stores and possibly downregulation of postsynaptic dopamine receptor function, resulting in impairments in dopaminergic neurotransmission consistent with the clinical presentation. This is the first report of a genetic alteration in DAT function underlying a parkinsonian disorder.

Blackstone, Craig

2009-01-01

241

Dopey dopamine: high tonic results in ironic performance.  

PubMed

Financial incentives are commonly used as motivational tools to enhance performance. Decades of research have established that the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) is the fuel that propels reward-motivated behavior, yet a new PET study questions whether dopamine is beneficial to performance, showing that tonic DA synthesis predicts performance decrements when incentives are high. PMID:24793397

Silston, Brian; Mobbs, Dean

2014-07-01

242

Chapter 4.1 Microdialysis to study the effects of stress on serotonin, corticosterone and behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past years, various refinements have made in vivo microdialysis an extremely powerful method to study the mechanisms involved in stress physiology and behaviour in rats and (mutant) mice. In this chapter, microdialysis studies on the neurotransmitter serotonin during the sleep\\/wake cycle and various forms of stress are reviewed. Extracellular levels of serotonin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid correlate

Astrid C. E. Linthorst

2006-01-01

243

Neurotransmitter transporters: structure meets function  

PubMed Central

Summary At synapses, sodium-coupled transporters remove released neurotransmitters, thereby recycling them and maintaining a low extracellular concentration of the neurotransmitter. The molecular mechanism underlying sodium-coupled neurotransmitter uptake is not completely understood. Several structures of homologues of human neurotransmitter transporters have been solved with X-ray crystallography. These crystal structures have spurred a plethora of computational and experimental work to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying sodium-coupled transport. Here, we compare the structures of GltPh, a glutamate transporter homologue, and LeuT, a homologue of neurotransmitter transporters for the biogenic amines and inhibitory molecules GABA and glycine. We relate these structures to data obtained from experiments and computational simulations, to draw conclusions about the mechanism of uptake by sodium-coupled neurotransmitter transporters. We here propose how sodium and substrate binding is coupled and how binding of sodium and substrate opens and closes the gates in these transporters, thereby leading to an efficient coupled transport.

Focke, Paul; Wang, Xiaoyu; Larsson, H. Peter

2013-01-01

244

Increased local dopamine secretion has growth promoting effects in cholangiocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma is a devastating cancer of biliary origin with limited treatment options. Symptoms are usually evident after blockage of the bile duct by the tumor, and at this late stage, they are relatively resistant to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Therefore, it is imperative that alternative treatment options are explored. We have previously shown that serotonin metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma leading to an increased secretion of serotonin, which has growth-promoting effects. Because serotonin and dopamine share the degradation machinery, we evaluated the secretion of dopamine from cholangiocarcinoma and its effects on cell proliferation. Using 4 cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and human biopsy samples, we demonstrated that there was an increase in mRNA and protein expression of the dopamine synthesis enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and dopa decarboxylase in cholangiocarcinoma. There was increased dopamine secretion from cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared to H69 and HIBEC cholangiocytes and increased dopamine immunoreactivity in human biopsy samples. Furthermore, administration of dopamine to all cholangiocarcinoma cell lines studied increased proliferation by up to 30% which could be blocked by the pretreatment of the D2 and D4 dopamine receptor antagonists, whereas blocking dopamine production by ?-methyldopa administration suppressed growth by up to 25%. Administration of ?-methyldopa to nude mice also suppressed cholangiocarcinoma tumor growth. The data presented here represent the first evidence that dopamine metabolism is dysregulated in cholangiocarcinoma and that modulation of dopamine synthesis may represent an alternative target for the development of therapeutic strategies.

Coufal, Monique; Invernizzi, Pietro; Gaudio, Eugenio; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Frampton, Gabriel A.; Onori, Paolo; Franchitto, Antonio; Carpino, Guido; Ramirez, Jonathan C.; Alvaro, Domenico; Marzioni, Marco; Battisti, Guido; Benedetti, Antonio; DeMorrow, Sharon

2009-01-01

245

Diethylation labeling combined with UPLC/MS/MS for simultaneous determination of a panel of monoamine neurotransmitters in rat prefrontal cortex microdialysates.  

PubMed

The primary challenge associated with the development of an LC/MS/MS-based assay for simultaneous determination of biogenic monoamine neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and normetanephrine (NM) in rat brain microdialysates is to improve detection sensitivity. In this work, a UPLC/ MS/MS-based method combined with a diethyl labeling technique was developed for simultaneous determination of a panel of monoamines in rat prefrontal cortex microdialysates. The chromatographic run time is 3.5 min/ sample. The limits of detection of the UPLC/MS/MS-based method for NE, DA, 5-HT/ and NM, with/without diethyl labeling of monoamines, are 0.005/0.4 (30/2367 pM), 0.005/0.1 (33/653 pM), 0.005/0.2 (28/1136 pM), and 0.002/0.2 ng/mL (11/1092 pM), respectively. Diethyl labeling of amino groups of monoamines affords 20-100 times increased detection sensitivity of corresponding native monoamines during the UPLC/MS/MS analysis. This could result from the following: (1) improved fragmentation patterns; (2) increased hydrophobicity and concomitantly increased ionization efficiency in ESI MS and MS/MS analysis; (3) reduced matrix interference. This labeling reaction employs a commercially available reagent, acetaldehyde-d4, to label the amine groups on the monoamines via reductive amination. It is also simple, fast (approximately 25-min reaction time), specific, and quantitative under mild reaction conditions. Data are also presented from the application of this assay to monitor the drug-induced changes of monoamine concentrations in rat prefrontal cortex microdialysate samples followed by administration of SKF 81297, a selective D1 dopamine receptor agonist known to elevate the extracellular level of the neurotransmitters DA and NE in the central nervous system. PMID:19551941

Ji, Chengjie; Li, Wenlin; Ren, Xiao-Dan; El-Kattan, Ayman F; Kozak, Rouba; Fountain, Scott; Lepsy, Christopher

2008-12-01

246

Dirty electricity, chronic stress, neurotransmitters and disease.  

PubMed

Dirty electricity, also called electrical pollution, is high-frequency voltage transients riding along the 50 or 60 Hz electricity provided by the electric utilities. It is generated by arcing, by sparking and by any device that interrupts current flow, especially switching power supplies. It has been associated with cancer, diabetes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in humans. Epidemiological evidence also links dirty electricity to most of the diseases of civilization including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and suicide, beginning at the turn of the twentieth century. The dirty electricity level in a public library was reduced from over 10 000 Graham/Stetzer (G/S) units to below 50 G/S units by installing plug-in capacitive filters. Before cleanup, the urinary dopamine level of only one of seven volunteers was within normal levels, while four of seven phenylethylamine levels were normal. After an initial decline, over the next 18 weeks the dopamine levels gradually increased to an average of over 215 ?g/g creatinine, which is well above 170 ?g/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Average phenylethylamine levels also rose gradually to slightly above 70 ?g/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Neurotransmitters may be biomarkers for dirty electricity and other electromagnetic field exposures. We believe that dirty electricity is a chronic stressor of electrified populations and is responsible for many of their disease patterns. PMID:23323864

Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, David

2013-12-01

247

Identification and evolutionary implications of neurotransmitter-ciliary interactions underlying the behavioral response to hypoxia in Lymnaea stagnalis embryos.  

PubMed

Acceleration of embryonic rotation is a common response to hypoxia among pond snails. It was first characterized in Helisoma trivolvis embryos, which have a pair of sensorimotor neurons that detect hypoxia and release serotonin onto postsynaptic ciliary cells. The objective of the present study was to determine how the hypoxia response is mediated in Lymnaea stagnalis, which differ from H. trivolvis by having both serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons, and morphologically distinct ciliated structures at comparative stages of embryonic development. Time-lapse video recordings of the rotational behavior in L. stagnalis revealed similar rotational features to those previously observed in H. trivolvis, including rotational surges and rotational responses to hypoxia. Serotonin and dopamine increased the rate of rotation with similar potency. In contrast, serotonin was more potent than dopamine in stimulating the ciliary beat frequency of isolated pedal cilia. Isolated apical plate cilia displayed an irregular pattern of ciliary beating that precluded the measurement of ciliary beat frequency. A qualitative assessment of ciliary beating revealed that both serotonin and dopamine were able to stimulate apical plate cilia. The ciliary responses to dopamine were reversible in both pedal and apical plate cilia, whereas the responses to serotonin were only reversible at concentrations below 100 ?mol l(-1). Mianserin, a serotonin receptor antagonist, and SKF83566, a dopamine receptor antagonist, effectively blocked the rotational responses to serotonin and dopamine, respectively. The rotational response to hypoxia was only partially blocked by mianserin, but was fully blocked by SKF83566. These data suggest that, despite the ability of serotonin to stimulate ciliary beating in L. stagnalis embryos, the rotational response to hypoxia is primarily mediated by the transient apical catecholaminergic neurons that innervate the ciliated apical plate. PMID:21795561

Goldberg, Jeffrey I; Rich, Darren R; Muruganathan, Siva P; Liu, Maple B; Pon, Julia R; Tam, Rose; Diefenbach, Thomas J; Kuang, Shihuan

2011-08-15

248

[Properties allowing the attribution to gamma-hydroxybutyrate the quality of neurotransmitter in the central nervous system].  

PubMed

gamma-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) fulfills the main criteria of a neurotransmitter: it is unevenly distributed in C.N.S.; it is synthesized from succinic semi-aldehyde by a specific semi-aldehyde succinic reductase localized in neurons, in some dendrites and synaptic terminals; GHB is released by tissue slice depolarization, this release being reduced by 50-60% in a Ca++ free medium. Tetrodotoxin and verapamil strongly inhibited the depolarization evoked-release; high affinity heterogenously distributed binding sites for gamma-hydroxybutyrate exist in the brain. This binding does not require Na+. The bound gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is not displaceable by GABA or GABA agonists. Binding sites are enriched in the synaptosomal fraction; after micro-iontophoretic application, GHB exerts a depressant action on nigral and neocortical cells which is resistant to the presence of bicuculline methiodide. In neuronal cultures, GHB causes a hyperpolarization similar to that produced by GABA; high affinity uptake system for GHB exists both in purified plasma membrane vesicles and in brain tissue slices. This uptake is dependent on an Na+ gradient and is inhibited by ouabaïn and dinitrophenol; GABA does not modify GHB uptake by rat brain slices; GABA derived GHB has a turnover time almost three times faster than that of whole brain serotonin, 6-8 times as rapid as that of whole brain dopamine and 13-19 times as rapid as that of whole brain norepinephrine. PMID:6145513

Maitre, M; Mandel, P

1984-01-01

249

Relevance of Norepinephrine-Dopamine Interactions in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Central dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems play essential roles in controlling several forebrain functions. Consequently, perturbations of these neurotransmissions may contribute to the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders. For many years, there was a focus on the serotonin (5-HT) system because of the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), the most prescribed antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Given the interconnectivity within the monoaminergic network, any action on one system may reverberate in the other systems. Analysis of this network and its dysfunctions suggests that drugs with selective or multiple modes of action on dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) may have robust therapeutic effects. This review focuses on NE-DA interactions as demonstrated in electrophysiological and neurochemical studies, as well as on the mechanisms of action of agents with either selective or dual actions on DA and NE. Understanding the mode of action of drugs targeting these catecholaminergic neurotransmitters can improve their utilization in monotherapy and in combination with other compounds particularly the SSRIs. The elucidation of such relationships can help design new treatment strategies for MDD, especially treatment-resistant depression.

El Mansari, Mostafa; Guiard, Bruno P; Chernoloz, Olga; Ghanbari, Ramez; Katz, Noam; Blier, Pierre

2010-01-01

250

The serotonin 5HT 1D receptor: A progress review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the known neurotransmitters interact with more than one type of receptor. Some of them even dispose of receptor subtypes to exert their actions. Serotonin, far from being an exception to that, possesses at least 3 classes of receptors, which have all been reported to be heterogeneous, although convincing data only exist for the 5-HT1 class. This name has

Christian Waeber; Philippe Schoeffter; Daniel Hoyer; José M. Palacios

1990-01-01

251

Tianeptine, a selective enhancer of serotonin uptake in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tianeptine is a tricyclic agent provided with antidepressant activity in experimental models and in clinical trials. In vitro tianeptine and its two principal metabolites have no effects on monoamine uptake, release or neurotransmitter receptor binding. The biochemical effect of tianeptine in vivo after acute or repeated treatment indicates an enhanced serotonin uptake in cortex and hippocampus but not in mesencephalon,

T. Mennini; E. Mocaer; S. Garattini

1987-01-01

252

Determination of monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters and their metabolites in rat brain samples by UFLC-MS/MS for the study of the sedative-hypnotic effects observed during treatment with S. chinensis.  

PubMed

Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. has been used as a sedative and hypnotic agent in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The purpose of this study was to reveal the influence of insomnia on the levels of the neurotransmitters: glutamate (Glu), ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) and their metabolites (5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA), and to study the role of S. chinensis in the treatment of insomnia. To achieve this goal, an efficient, sensitive and selective method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of these five neurotransmitters and their metabolites in rat brain samples using ultra fast liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS). The analysis was performed on a Synergi Fusion-RP 80A ODS column (150mm×2.0mm, 4.0?m) using gradient elution, with the mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.05% formic acid in water. The method was validated using rat brain homogenate samples and showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range (r(2)>0.99) with a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) at 4-16ngmL(-1). The intra and inter-day assay variability was less than 15% for all analytes. The results indicated that the condition of insomnia elevated GABA, NE, DA, DOPAC and HVA, and reduced 5-HT, 5-HIAA levels in rat brain. The oral administration of S. chinensis (7.5gkg(-1)day(-1), eight days) influenced insomnia by significantly increasing or reducing the levels of the neurotransmitters parameters mentioned above. These results suggested that S. chinensis could alter the levels of these brain neurotransmitters and their metabolites through its sedative-hypnotic effects. PMID:24176746

Wei, Binbin; Li, Qing; Fan, Ronghua; Su, Dan; Chen, Xiaohui; Jia, Ying; Bi, Kaishun

2014-01-01

253

Modulation of CYP1A2 enzyme activity by indoleamines: inhibition by serotonin and tryptamine.  

PubMed

Recent evidence supports a role for the CYP2D6 enzyme in the metabolism of tryptamine. Because of the partial overlapping between substrate and inhibitor specificities that characterize some cytochrome P450 enzymes, these finding raise the possibility that other cytochrome P450 enzymes may be modulated by endogenous compounds. In the present study, the occurrence of modulatory effect of 17 neurotransmitters, precursors and metabolites on the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme activity was studied in human liver microsomes. Two indoleamines, serotonin and tryptamine, showed a competitive inhibitory effect on the high-affinity component of the phenacetin O-de-ethylase activity. Both substances induced an inhibition of 100% of the activity, with Ki values of 35 and 45 microns for serotonin and tryptamine, respectively. The inhibitors did not affect the microsomal NADPH-reductase activity. Other substances, which were either poor or partial inhibitors, were dopamine, L-tyrosine, tryptophol, 5-hydroxytryptophol, adrenaline, indole-3-acetaldehyde, 5-hydroxytryptophan, noradrenaline, vanillylmandelic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid. L-tryptophan, dihydroxyphenylalanine and 5-hyroxyindole acetic acid induced very low or no inhibitory effect. Tryptamine and serotonin metabolism in human liver microsomes was studied after inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity with the unspecific MAO inhibitor pargyline. Both serotonin and tryptamine were metabolized in human liver microsomes. However, the metabolism of both indoleamines was not significantly inhibited with the CYP1A2-specific inhibitor furafylline, thus indicating that the inhibition of CYP1A2 was not related to metabolic activity of the CYP1A2 enzyme on serotonin or tryptamine. The CYP1A2 enzyme is expressed in brain and is involved in the metabolism of psychoactive drugs. Therefore, the fact that endogenous compounds could modulate the CYP1A2 activity suggests that local activity of brain CYP1A2 might be susceptible to local regulatory mechanisms. This may have important clinical implications, one of them being that CYP1A2 activity in brain tissue might correlate poorly with that of liver, as observed in vivo. In addition, the influence of indoleamines on CYP1A2 activity might be partly responsible for a number of associations of CYP1A2 activity with nutritional and environmental factors. PMID:9682270

Agúndez, J A; Gallardo, L; Martínez, C; Gervasini, G; Benítez, J

1998-06-01

254

Serotonin Control of Thermotaxis Memory Behavior in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Caenorhabditis elegans is as an ideal model system for the study of mechanisms underlying learning and memory. In the present study, we employed C. elegans assay system of thermotaxis memory to investigate the possible role of serotonin neurotransmitter in memory control. Our data showed that both mutations of tph-1, bas-1, and cat-4 genes, required for serotonin synthesis, and mutations of mod-5 gene, encoding a serotonin reuptake transporter, resulted in deficits in thermotaxis memory behavior. Exogenous treatment with serotonin effectively recovered the deficits in thermotaxis memory of tph-1 and bas-1 mutants to the level of wild-type N2. Neuron-specific activity assay of TPH-1 suggests that serotonin might regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior by release from the ADF sensory neurons. Ablation of ADF sensory neurons by expressing a cell-death activator gene egl-1 decreased the thermotaxis memory, whereas activation of ADF neurons by expression of a constitutively active protein kinase C homologue (pkc-1(gf)) increased the thermotaxis memory and rescued the deficits in thermotaxis memory in tph-1 mutants. Moreover, serotonin released from the ADF sensory neurons might act through the G-protein-coupled serotonin receptors of SER-4 and SER-7 to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Genetic analysis implies that serotonin might further target the insulin signaling pathway to regulate the thermotaxis memory behavior. Thus, our results suggest the possible crucial role of serotonin and ADF sensory neurons in thermotaxis memory control in C. elegans.

Guo, Yuling; Wang, Daoyong; Li, Chaojun; Wang, Dayong

2013-01-01

255

Pharmacologic mechanisms of serotonergic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission  

PubMed Central

The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has a long association with normal functions such as motor control, cognition, and reward, as well as a number of syndromes including drug abuse, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Studies show that serotonin (5-HT) acts through several 5-HT receptors in the brain to modulate DA neurons in all three major dopaminergic pathways. There are at least 14 5-HT receptor subtypes, many of which have been shown to play some role in mediating 5-HT/DA interactions. Several subtypes, including the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, act to facilitate DA release, while the 5-HT2C receptor mediates an inhibitory effect of 5-HT on DA release. Most 5-HT receptor subtypes only modulate DA release when 5-HT and/or DA neurons are stimulated, but the 5-HT2C receptor, characterized by high levels of constitutive activity, inhibits tonic as well as evoked DA release. This review summarizes the anatomical evidence for the presence of each 5-HT receptor subtype in dopaminergic regions of the brain and the neuropharmacological evidence demonstrating regulation of each DA pathway. The relevance of 5-HT receptor modulation of DA systems to the development of therapeutics used to treat schizophrenia, depression, and drug abuse is discussed. Lastly, areas are highlighted in which future research would be maximally beneficial to the treatment of these disorders.

Alex, K.D.; Pehek, E.A.

2007-01-01

256

Dopamine on Demand: a Possible Step Toward Stem Cell Therapy for Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson?s Disease (PD) is a degenerative brain disorder in which dopamine-producing cells in the substantia nigra are lost. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is essential for smooth motor control and the initiation of voluntary movement. The loss of these dopamine producing cells causes the classical symptoms of PD. Currently treatment involves pharmacotherapy with L-dopa, which is converted to dopamine in

Ashley Noone

2011-01-01

257

Dopamine dysfunction in borderline personality disorder: a hypothesis.  

PubMed

Research on the biological basis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has focused primarily on the serotonin model of impulsive aggression. However, there is evidence that dopamine (DA) dysfunction may also be associated with BPD. Pertinent research and review articles, identified by Medline searches of relevant topics, books, references from bibliographies, and conference proceedings from 1975 to 2003, were reviewed. Evidence of DA dysfunction in BPD derives from the efficacy of traditional and atypical antipsychotic agents in BPD, and from provocative challenges with amphetamine and methylphenidate of subjects with the disorder. In addition, human and animal studies indicate that DA activity plays an important role in emotion information processing, impulse control, and cognition. The results of this review suggest that DA dysfunction is associated with three dimensions of BPD, that is, emotional dysregulation, impulsivity, and cognitive-perceptual impairment. The main limitation of this hypothesis is that the evidence reviewed is circumstantial. There is no study that directly demonstrates DA dysfunction in BPD. In addition, the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic agents observed in BPD may be mediated by non-DA mechanisms of action. If the stated hypothesis is correct, DA dysfunction in BPD may result from genetic, developmental, or environmental factors directly affecting specific DA pathways. Alternatively, DA dysfunction in BPD may be a compensatory response to alterations in the primary neural systems that control emotion, impulse control, and cognition, and that are mediated by the brain's main neurotransmitters, glutamate, and GABA, or in one or more other neuromodulatory pathways such as serotonin, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine. PMID:15039763

Friedel, Robert O

2004-06-01

258

Schizophrenia-like disruptions of sensory gating by serotonin receptor stimulation in rats: effect of MDMA, DOI and 8-OH-DPAT.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia pathophysiology is associated with alterations in several neurotransmitter systems, particularly dopamine, glutamate and serotonin (5-HT). Schizophrenia patients also have disruptions in sensory gating, a brain information filtering mechanism in response to repeated sensory stimuli. Dopamine and glutamate have been implicated in sensory gating; however, little is known about the contribution of serotonin. We therefore investigated the effects of several psychoactive compounds that alter serotonergic neuronal activity on event-related potentials (ERP) to paired auditory pulses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with cortical surface electrodes to measure ERPs to 150 presentations of two 85 dB bursts of white noise, 500 ms apart (S1 and S2). Saline-treated animals suppressed the response to S2 to less than 50% of S1. In contrast, treatment with the serotonin releaser, MDMA (ecstasy; 2.0mg/kg), the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, DOI (0.5mg/kg), or the 5-HT1A/7 receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (0.5mg/kg), caused an increase in S2/S1 ratios. Analysis of waveform components suggested that the S2/S1 ratio disruption by MDMA was due to subtle effects on the ERPs to S1 and S2; DOI caused the disruption primarily by reducing the ERP to S1; 8-OH-DPAT-induced disruptions were due to an increase in the ERP to S2. These results show that 5-HT receptor stimulation alters S2/S1 ERP ratios in rats. These results may help to elucidate the sensory gating deficits observed in schizophrenia patients. PMID:24120765

Thwaites, Shane J; Gogos, Andrea; Van den Buuse, Maarten

2013-11-01

259

Directed Evolution Reveals Hidden Properties of VMAT, a Neurotransmitter Transporter*  

PubMed Central

The vesicular neurotransmitter transporter VMAT2 is responsible for the transport of monoamines into synaptic and storage vesicles. VMAT2 is the target of many psychoactive drugs and is essential for proper neurotransmission and survival. Here we describe a new expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that takes advantage of the polyspecificity of VMAT2. Expression of rVMAT2 confers resistance to acriflavine and to the parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) by their removal into the yeast vacuole. This expression system allowed identification of a new substrate, acriflavine, and isolation of mutants with modified affinity to tetrabenazine (TBZ), a non-competitive inhibitor of VMAT2 that is used in the treatment of various movement disorders including Tourette syndrome and Huntington chorea. Whereas one type of mutant obtained displayed decreased affinity to TBZ, a second type showed only a slight decrease in the affinity to TBZ, displayed a higher Km to the neurotransmitter serotonin, but conferred increased resistance to acriflavine and MPP+. A protein where both types of mutations were combined (with only three amino acid replacements) lost most of the properties of the neurotransmitter transporter (TBZ-insensitive, no transport of neurotransmitter) but displayed enhanced resistance to the above toxicants. The work described here shows that in the case of rVMAT2, loss of traits acquired in evolution of function (such as serotonin transport and TBZ binding) bring about an improvement in older functions such as resistance to toxic compounds. A process that has taken millions of years of evolution can be reversed by three mutations.

Gros, Yael; Schuldiner, Shimon

2010-01-01

260

Snapshot of antidepressants at work: the structure of neurotransmitter transporter proteins.  

PubMed

In the sweet spot: Cocrystal structures of engineered neurotransmitter transporters reveal the binding mode of commonly prescribed antidepressants, providing a basis for a rational drug design for this class of proteins. The picture shows the structure of the dopamine transporter of Drosophila melanogaster in complex with the antidepressant nortriptyline. PMID:24729171

Cuboni, Serena; Hausch, Felix

2014-05-12

261

Serotonin modulation of cortical neurons and networks.  

PubMed

The serotonergic pathways originating in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DR and MnR, respectively) are critically involved in cortical function. Serotonin (5-HT), acting on postsynaptic and presynaptic receptors, is involved in cognition, mood, impulse control and motor functions by (1) modulating the activity of different neuronal types, and (2) varying the release of other neurotransmitters, such as glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine and dopamine. Also, 5-HT seems to play an important role in cortical development. Of all cortical regions, the frontal lobe is the area most enriched in serotonergic axons and 5-HT receptors. 5-HT and selective receptor agonists modulate the excitability of cortical neurons and their discharge rate through the activation of several receptor subtypes, of which the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, and 5-HT3 subtypes play a major role. Little is known, however, on the role of other excitatory receptors moderately expressed in cortical areas, such as 5-HT2C, 5-HT4, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7. In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors are key players and exert opposite effects on the activity of pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The activation of 5-HT1A receptors in mPFC hyperpolarizes pyramidal neurons whereas that of 5-HT2A receptors results in neuronal depolarization, reduction of the afterhyperpolarization and increase of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and of discharge rate. 5-HT can also stimulate excitatory (5-HT2A and 5-HT3) and inhibitory (5-HT1A) receptors in GABA interneurons to modulate synaptic GABA inputs onto pyramidal neurons. Likewise, the pharmacological manipulation of various 5-HT receptors alters oscillatory activity in PFC, suggesting that 5-HT is also involved in the control of cortical network activity. A better understanding of the actions of 5-HT in PFC may help to develop treatments for mood and cognitive disorders associated with an abnormal function of the frontal lobe. PMID:23626526

Celada, Pau; Puig, M Victoria; Artigas, Francesc

2013-01-01

262

Voltammetric and mathematical evidence for dual transport mediation of serotonin clearance in vivo.  

PubMed

The neurotransmitter serotonin underlies many of the brain's functions. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is important for improving treatments for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Antidepressants commonly target serotonin clearance via serotonin transporters and have variable clinical effects. Adjunctive therapies, targeting other systems including serotonin autoreceptors, also vary clinically and carry adverse consequences. Fast scan cyclic voltammetry is particularly well suited for studying antidepressant effects on serotonin clearance and autoreceptors by providing real-time chemical information on serotonin kinetics in vivo. However, the complex nature of in vivo serotonin responses makes it difficult to interpret experimental data with established kinetic models. Here, we electrically stimulated the mouse medial forebrain bundle to provoke and detect terminal serotonin in the substantia nigra reticulata. In response to medial forebrain bundle stimulation we found three dynamically distinct serotonin signals. To interpret these signals we developed a computational model that supports two independent serotonin reuptake mechanisms (high affinity, low efficiency reuptake mechanism, and low affinity, high efficiency reuptake system) and bolsters an important inhibitory role for the serotonin autoreceptors. Our data and analysis, afforded by the powerful combination of voltammetric and theoretical methods, gives new understanding of the chemical heterogeneity of serotonin dynamics in the brain. This diverse serotonergic matrix likely contributes to clinical variability of antidepressants. Understanding serotonin neurochemistry is essential for improving antidepressant therapies. We provide evidence for two discrete serotonin reuptake mechanisms (high affinity, low efficiency reuptake mechanism, and low affinity, high efficiency reuptake system), characterized by three distinct serotonin responses. We characterize selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and autoreceptor inhibition effects. Our innovative tool offers an ideal method to study serotonin in relation to depression physiology and antidepressant therapies. PMID:24702305

Wood, Kevin M; Zeqja, Anisa; Nijhout, H Frederik; Reed, Michael C; Best, Janet; Hashemi, Parastoo

2014-08-01

263

Tolerability of serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepressants.  

PubMed

All three serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) inhibit the reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine but they do so with differing affinity ratios. Venlafaxine has a 30-fold higher affinity for serotonin than for norepinephrine while duloxetine has a 10-fold selectivity for serotonin. Milnacipran has a balanced (1:1) ratio of potency for inhibition of reuptake of the two neurotransmitters. The most frequent adverse event with SNRIs is nausea. Not unexpectedly, adverse effects related to a noradrenergic stimulation, such as dry mouth, sweating, and constipation, are found more frequently with SNRIs than with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. At true SNRI doses, venlafaxine is associated with dose-dependent cardiovascular phenomena (principally increased blood pressure), an effect which is less frequent with duloxetine and rare with milnacipran. Serious and potentially fatal hepatotoxity has been reported with duloxetine. This problem appears to be unique to duloxetine and not a characteristic of the SNRI class. There are differences in overdose toxicity between venlafaxine and the other SNRIs, possibly related to its increased cardiotoxicity. PMID:18622372

Montgomery, Stuart A

2008-07-01

264

Reduced platelet phenolsulphotransferase activity towards dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in migraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The sulphation of the neurotransmitters dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, and of the prototypical xenobiotic 4-nitrophenol, by phenolsulphotransferases was measured in platelet homogenates prepared from a group of migraine sufferers and a group of control subjects.

A. L. Jones; G. L. Rubin; M. W. H. Coughtrie; R. C. Roberts; W. Colvin

1995-01-01

265

Mimicking subsecond neurotransmitter dynamics with femtosecond laser stimulated nanosystems  

PubMed Central

Existing nanoscale chemical delivery systems target diseased cells over long, sustained periods of time, typically through one-time, destructive triggering. Future directions lie in the development of fast and robust techniques capable of reproducing the pulsatile chemical activity of living organisms, thereby allowing us to mimic biofunctionality. Here, we demonstrate that by applying programmed femtosecond laser pulses to robust, nanoscale liposome structures containing dopamine, we achieve sub-second, controlled release of dopamine – a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system – thereby replicating its release profile in the brain. The fast delivery system provides a powerful new interface with neural circuits, and to the larger range of biological functions that operate on this short timescale.

Nakano, Takashi; Chin, Catherine; Myint, David Mo Aung; Tan, Eng Wui; Hale, Peter John; Krishna M., Bala Murali; Reynolds, John N. J.; Wickens, Jeff; Dani, Keshav M.

2014-01-01

266

Mimicking subsecond neurotransmitter dynamics with femtosecond laser stimulated nanosystems.  

PubMed

Existing nanoscale chemical delivery systems target diseased cells over long, sustained periods of time, typically through one-time, destructive triggering. Future directions lie in the development of fast and robust techniques capable of reproducing the pulsatile chemical activity of living organisms, thereby allowing us to mimic biofunctionality. Here, we demonstrate that by applying programmed femtosecond laser pulses to robust, nanoscale liposome structures containing dopamine, we achieve sub-second, controlled release of dopamine - a key neurotransmitter of the central nervous system - thereby replicating its release profile in the brain. The fast delivery system provides a powerful new interface with neural circuits, and to the larger range of biological functions that operate on this short timescale. PMID:24954021

Nakano, Takashi; Chin, Catherine; Myint, David Mo Aung; Tan, Eng Wui; Hale, Peter John; Krishna M, Bala Murali; Reynolds, John N J; Wickens, Jeff; Dani, Keshav M

2014-01-01

267

Circulating serotonin in vertebrates.  

PubMed

The role of circulating serotonin is unclear and whether or not serotonin is present in the blood of non-mammalian species is not known. This study provides the first evidence for the presence of serotonin in thrombocytes of birds and three reptilian species, the endothermic leatherback sea turtle, the green sea turtle and the partially endothermic American alligator. Thrombocytes from a fresh water turtle, American bullfrog, Yellowfin tuna, and Chinook salmon did not contain serotonin. Serotonin is a vasoactive substance that regulates skin blood flow, a major mechanism for endothermic body temperature regulation, which could explain why circulating serotonin is present in warm-blooded species. The temperature sensitivity of human blood platelets with concomitant changes in serotonin content further supports a link between circulating serotonin and thermoregulation. Phylogenetic comparison of the presence of circulating serotonin indicated an evolutionary divergence within reptilian species that might coincide with the emergence of endothermy. PMID:16041566

Maurer-Spurej, E

2005-08-01

268

Cytoplasmic permeation pathway of neurotransmitter transporters.  

PubMed

Ion-coupled solute transporters are responsible for transporting nutrients, ions, and signaling molecules across a variety of biological membranes. Recent high-resolution crystal structures of several transporters from protein families that were previously thought to be unrelated show common structural features indicating a large structural family representing transporters from all kingdoms of life. This review describes studies that led to an understanding of the conformational changes required for solute transport in this family. The first structure in this family showed the bacterial amino acid transporter LeuT, which is homologous to neurotransmitter transporters, in an extracellularly oriented conformation with a molecule of leucine occluded at the substrate site. Studies with the mammalian serotonin transporter identified positions, buried in the LeuT structure, that defined a potential pathway leading from the cytoplasm to the substrate binding site. Modeling studies utilized an inverted structural repeat within the LeuT crystal structure to predict the conformation of LeuT in which the cytoplasmic permeation pathway, consisting of positions identified in SERT, was open for diffusion of the substrate to the cytoplasm. From the difference between the model and the crystal structures, a simple "rocking bundle" mechanism was proposed, in which a four-helix bundle changed its orientation with respect to the rest of the protein to close the extracellular pathway and open the cytoplasmic one. Subsequent crystal structures from structurally related proteins provide evidence supporting this model for transport. PMID:21774491

Rudnick, Gary

2011-09-01

269

Functional consequences of homo- but not hetero-oligomerization between transporters for the biogenic amine neurotransmitters  

PubMed Central

Before this study, the human norepinephrine transporter (hNET) was the only member of the biogenic amine neurotransmitter transporter family that had not been demonstrated to be a functional homo-oligomer. Here, using two forms of the transporter, I155C and hNET-myc, with distinct antigenicity and inhibitor sensitivity, we demonstrated that hNET exists as a homo-oligomer. hNET I155C is a functional mutant and is sensitive to inactivation by the sulfhydryl reagent [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl]methanethiosulfonate, while hNET-myc is resistant to inactivation by this reagent. Coimmunoprecipitation of these two forms demonstrated that a physical interaction exists between norepinephrine transporter monomers. Further characterization of this physical interaction has revealed that the activity of norepinephrine transporters depends on interactions between monomers. Because norepinephrine transporters and serotonin transporters are the only two members of the neurotransmitter transporter family endogenously expressed in the cell membrane of the same cells, placental syncytiotrophoblasts, we tested the ability of norepinephrine transporters and serotonin transporters to associate and function in a hetero-oligomeric form. Similarly, coexpression of hNET-myc with serotonin transporter-FLAG showed a physical interaction in coimmunoprecipitation assays. However, coexpression of serotonin and norepinephrine transporters did not sensitize norepinephrine transporter activity to inhibition by citalopram, a selective serotonin transport inhibitor. Thus, the norepinephrine transporter–serotonin transporter physical association did not produce functional consequences. Based on this, we propose that the transporters for biogenic amine neurotransmitters interact functionally in homo- but not hetero-oligomeric forms.

Kocabas, A. M.; Rudnick, G.; Kilic, F.

2011-01-01

270

From Galactorrhea to Osteopenia: Rethinking Serotonin–Prolactin Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been accompanied by numerous reports describing a potential association with hyperprolactinemia. Antipsychotics are commonly known to elevate serum prolactin (PRL) through blockade of dopamine receptors in the pituitary. However, there is little awareness of the mechanisms by which SSRIs stimulate PRL release. Hyperprolactinemia may result in overt symptoms such

Ana B F Emiliano; Julie L Fudge; ABF Emiliano

2004-01-01

271

Chronoamperometry to determine differential reductions in uptake in brain synaptosomes from serotonin transporter knockout mice.  

PubMed

The serotonin transporter (SERT) is a neuronal plasma membrane protein whose primary function is to take up the neurotransmitter serotonin from the extracellular space, thereby controlling the spatial and temporal aspects of serotonergic signaling in the brain. In humans, a commonly expressed genetic variant of the serotonin transporter gene results in 40% reductions in SERT expression that have been linked to increases in anxiety-related personality traits and susceptibility to stress-associated depression. Mice have been engineered to express similar reductions in SERT expression to investigate transporter-mediated control of serotonin neurotransmission and behavior. We employed carbon fiber microelectrode voltammetry (chronoamperometry) to examine serotonin clearance rates in brain liposomes (synaptosomes) prepared from mice with 50% (SERT(+/)(-)) or complete (SERT(-)(/)(-)) loss of SERT expression. Initial characterization of uptake showed that transport of serotonin was enhanced in the presence of oxygen and abolished when synaptosomes were stirred. Additionally, uptake was prevented by inclusion of the serotonin-selective reuptake inhibiting drug paroxetine in the incubation medium. Most notably, unlike prior studies using established radiochemical methods in synaptosomes, we determined 60% reductions in serotonin uptake rates in SERT(+/)(-) mice in two different brain regions-striatum and frontal cortex. Serotonin uptake was not detected in either brain region in SERT(-)(/)(-) mice. Thus, electroanalytical methods offer distinct advantages stemming from excellent temporal resolution for determining transporter kinetics. Moreover, these appear necessary for delineating moderate but biologically important changes in neurotransmitter transporter function. PMID:15679349

Perez, Xiomara A; Andrews, Anne M

2005-02-01

272

Dopamine transporter: basic aspects and neuroimaging.  

PubMed

The plasma membrane dopamine transporter (DAT) is found exclusively in dopamine neurones and seems to be the defining molecule of the dopamine neurone. It provides effective control over the intensity of dopamine-mediated signalling by recapturing the neurotransmitter released by presynaptic neurones. Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) represent unique techniques for assessing in vivo DAT distribution in humans and offer reliable methods for studying nigrostriatal dopaminergic function in health and disease. The characteristics of different DAT radiotracers, the modifying influences of factors such as age, gender, smoking habit, and dopaminergic drugs on DAT transporters as well as their implication in evaluation of neuroimaging studies are discussed. PMID:14531039

Piccini, Paola P

2003-10-01

273

A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic…

Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

2009-01-01

274

Profiling neurotransmitter receptor expression in the Ambystoma mexicanum brain.  

PubMed

Ability to regenerate limbs and central nervous system (CNS) is unique to few vertebrates, most notably the axolotl (Ambystoma sp.). However, despite the fact the neurotransmitter receptors are involved in axonal regeneration, little is known regarding its expression profile. In this project, RT-PCR and qPCR were performed to gain insight into the neurotransmitter receptors present in Ambystoma. Its functional ability was studied by expressing axolotl receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes by either injection of mRNA or by direct microtransplantation of brain membranes. Oocytes injected with axolotl mRNA expressed ionotropic receptors activated by GABA, aspartate+glycine and kainate, as well as metabotropic receptors activated by acetylcholine and glutamate. Interestingly, we did not see responses following the application of serotonin. Membranes from the axolotl brain were efficiently microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes and two types of native GABA receptors that differed in the temporal course of their responses and affinities to GABA were observed. Results of this study are necessary for further characterization of axolotl neurotransmitter receptors and may be useful for guiding experiments aimed at understanding activity-dependant limb and CNS regeneration. PMID:23353105

Reyes-Ruiz, Jorge Mauricio; Limon, Agenor; Korn, Matthew J; Nakamura, Paul A; Shirkey, Nicole J; Wong, Jamie K; Miledi, Ricardo

2013-03-22

275

Neurobehavioral toxic effects of perinatal oral exposure to aluminum on the developmental motor reflexes, learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters of mice offspring.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) is a known neurotoxicant and circumstantial evidence has linked this metal with several neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease, but no causal relationship has yet been proved. Al-induced behavioral alterations as well as cognitive deficits and rodent brain neurotransmitter level, are well known in adults but the exact mechanism in the offspring of perinatally Al exposed dams is not yet understood properly and needs more attention. In the present study, the perinatal oral exposure of the dams to 300 and 600mg/kg/day Al (aluminum chloride) resulted in significant and deleterious effects in the offspring inflicting a dose-dependent reduction in postnatal body weight gain, delays in opening of the eyes and appearance of body hair fuzz, and deficits in the sensory motor reflexes of the mice pups during weaning period (from the day of birth to postnatal day 21). During adolescent ages of the male offspring, a significant and dose-dependent deficit was also observed in their locomotor activity at postnatal day 22 (PD 22), learning capability (at PD 25), and cognitive behavior (at PD 30-36). Furthermore, a significant and dose-dependent disturbance in the levels of neurotransmitters like dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) was also observed in the forebrain region of the offspring at PD 7, PD 14, PD 21, PD 30, and PD 36. Thus, perinatal Al exposure, particularly during pregnancy and lactation period, can affect the in utero developing fetus and postnatal developing sucklings, raising the concerns that during a critical perinatal period of brain development, Al exposure has potential and long lasting neurotoxic hazards and might modify the properties of the dopaminergic system and thus can change the threshold of that system or other related systems at later ages. A reduced use of Al during pregnancy is of crucial importance in preventing Al-induced delayed neurotoxicity in the offspring. PMID:22115621

Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

2012-03-01

276

A dopamine transporter mutation associated with bipolar affective disorder causes inhibition of transporter cell surface expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a crucial role in dopaminergic neurotransmission as it clears the extracellular space of dopamine (DA) and thus controls the concentration of active neurotransmitter. Genetic association studies have reported a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms in the 3?-noncoding region of the DAT gene implicating this protein in the development of various psychiatric disorders. In a

S Horschitz; R Hummerich; T Lau; M Rietschel; P Schloss

2005-01-01

277

Dopamine, cocaine and the development of cerebral cortical cytoarchitecture: A review of current concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of the developing fetus to cocaine produces lasting adverse effects on brain structure and function. Animal models show that cocaine exerts its effects by interfering with monoamine neurotransmitter function and that dopamine is cocaine's principal monoamine target in the fetal brain. This review will examine the role of dopamine receptor signaling in the regulation of normal development of the

Pradeep G. Bhide

2009-01-01

278

Dopamine modulates acute responses to cocaine, nicotine and ethanol in Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drugs of abuse have a common property in mammals, which is their ability to facilitate the release of the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator dopamine in specific brain regions involved in reward and motivation. This increase in synaptic dopamine levels is believed to act as a positive reinforcer and to mediate some of the acute responses to drugs. The mechanisms by

Roland J Bainton; Linus T-Y Tsai; Carol M Singh; Monica S Moore; Wendi S Neckameyer; Ulrike Heberlein

2000-01-01

279

Dopamine neurons derived from embryonic stem cells function in an animal model of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson's disease is a widespread condition caused by the loss of midbrain neurons that synthesize the neurotransmitter dopamine. Cells derived from the fetal midbrain can modify the course of the disease, but they are an inadequate source of dopamine-synthesizing neurons because their ability to generate these neurons is unstable. In contrast, embryonic stem (ES) cells proliferate extensively and can generate

Jong-Hoon Kim; Jonathan M. Auerbach; José A. Rodríguez-Gómez; Iván Velasco; Denise Gavin; Nadya Lumelsky; Sang-Hun Lee; John Nguyen; Rosario Sánchez-Pernaute; Krys Bankiewicz; Ron McKay

2002-01-01

280

Inhibition of Dopamine Release Via Presynaptic D2 Receptors: Time Course and Functional Characteristics In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most neurotransmitters inhibit their own release through auto- receptors. However, the physiological functions of these pre- synaptic inhibitions are still poorly understood, in part because their time course and functional characteristics have not been described in vivo. Dopamine inhibits its own release through D2 autoreceptors. Here, the part played by autoinhibition in the relationship between impulse flow and dopamine release

Marianne Benoit-Marand; Emiliana Borrelli; Francois Gonon

2001-01-01

281

Genetic Variations in the Dopamine System and Facial Expression Recognition in Healthy Chinese College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study investigated the relation between genetic variations in the dopamine system and facial expression recognition. Methods: A sample of Chinese college students (n = 478) was given a facial expression recognition task. Subjects were genotyped for 98 loci [96 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2 variable number tandem repeats] in 16 genes involved in the dopamine neurotransmitter system, including

Bi Zhu; Chuansheng Chen; Robert K. Moyzis; Qi Dong; Chunhui Chen; Qinghua He; Hal S. Stern; He Li; Jin Li; Jun Li; Jared Lessard; Chongde Lin

2012-01-01

282

Automated mass spectrometric analysis of urinary and plasma serotonin.  

PubMed

Serotonin emerges as crucial neurotransmitter and hormone in a growing number of different physiologic processes. Besides extensive serotonin production previously noted in patients with metastatic carcinoid tumors, serotonin now is implicated in liver cell regeneration and bone formation. The aim was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and highly selective automated on-line solid-phase extraction method coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (XLC-MS/MS) to quantify low serotonin concentrations in matrices such as platelet-poor plasma and urine. Fifty microliters plasma or 2.5 microL urine equivalent were pre-purified by automated on-line solid-phase extraction, using weak cation exchange. Chromatography of serotonin and its deuterated internal standard was performed with hydrophilic interaction chromatography. Mass spectrometric detection was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode using a quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with positive electrospray ionization. Serotonin concentrations were determined in platelet-poor plasma of metastatic carcinoid patients (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 22). Urinary reference intervals were set by analyzing 24-h urine collections of 120 healthy subjects. Total run-time was 6 min. Intra- and inter-assay analytical variation were <10%. Linearity in the 0-7300 micromol/L calibration range was excellent (R(2) > 0.99). Quantification limits were 30 and 0.9 nmol/L in urine and plasma, respectively. Platelet-poor serotonin concentrations in metastatic carcinoid patients were significantly higher than in controls. The urinary reference interval was 10-78 micromol/mol creatinine. Serotonin analysis with sensitive and specific XLC-MS/MS overcomes limitations of conventional HPLC. This enables accurate quantification of serotonin for both routine diagnostic procedures and research in serotonin-related disorders. PMID:20140664

de Jong, Wilhelmina H A; Wilkens, Marianne H L I; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Kema, Ido P

2010-04-01

283

State-dependent conformations of the translocation pathway in the tyrosine transporter Tyt1, a novel neurotransmitter:sodium symporter from Fusobacterium nucleatum.  

PubMed

The gene of a novel prokaryotic member (Tyt1) of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family has been cloned from Fusobacterium nucleatum. In contrast to eukaryotic and some prokaryotic NSSs, which contain 12 transmembrane domains (TMs), Tyt1 contains only 11 TMs, a characteristic shared by approximately 70% of prokaryotic NSS homologues. Nonetheless upon heterologous expression in an engineered Escherichia coli host, Tyt1 catalyzes robust Na+-dependent, highly selective l-tyrosine transport. Genetic engineering of Tyt1 variants devoid of cysteines or with individually retained endogenous cysteines at positions 18 or 238, at the cytoplasmic ends of TM1 and TM6, respectively, preserved normal transport activity. Whereas cysteine-less Tyt1 was resistant to the inhibitory effect of sulfhydryl-alkylating reagents, N-ethylmaleimide inhibited transport by Tyt1 variants containing either one or both of the endogenous cysteines, and this inhibition was altered by the substrates sodium and tyrosine, consistent with substrate-induced dynamics in the transport pathway. Our findings support a binding model of Tyt1 function in which an ordered sequence of substrate-induced structural changes reflects distinct conformational states of the transporter. This work identifies Tyt1 as the first functional bacterial NSS member putatively consisting of only 11 TMs and shows that Tyt1 is a suitable model for the study of NSS dynamics with relevance to structure/function relationships of human NSSs, including the dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and gamma-aminobutyric acid transporters. PMID:16798738

Quick, Matthias; Yano, Hideaki; Goldberg, Naomi R; Duan, Lihua; Beuming, Thijs; Shi, Lei; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A

2006-09-01

284

Rapid analysis of neurotransmitters in rat brain using ultra-fast liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry: application to a comparative study in normal and insomnic rats.  

PubMed

Neurotransmitters and their metabolites in central nervous system were known to play a significant role in sedation and hypnosis. A rapid and sensitive UFLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), tryptophan (Try), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid (Glu) and acetylcholine (Ach) in rat brain without derivatization, ion-pairing reagent or pre-concentration was developed. Analytes and IS were separated on a Inertsil ODS-EP column (150?mm?×?4.6?mm, 5?µm particles) and analyzed in a single chromatographic run in less than 9.0?min, using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 0.01% acetic acid in water at a flow rate of 1.2?ml?min(-1) . The detection of the analytes was performed on 4000Q UFLC-MS/MS system with turbo ion spray source in positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring mode. The developed method provided excellent linear calibration curves for the assay of analytes (R(2) ???0.9915). Limits of quantification were in the range of 1.0?ng?ml(-1) to 1.0?µg?ml(-1) for the analytes in rat brain. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of analytes were well within acceptance criteria (15%). Mean extraction recoveries of analytes and IS from rat brain were all more than 80.0%. Furthermore, the validated method was successfully applied to comparing profiles of analytes in normal and insomnic rat brains. Results indicated that there were statistically significant differences for serotonin, 5-HIAA, DA, NE, Glu and Ach, but no significant difference for Try and GABA between two groups. PMID:23893645

He, Bosai; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying; Wang, Jiahong; Lv, Chunxiao; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Longshan; Xu, Huarong; Chen, Xiaohui; Li, Qing

2013-08-01

285

Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce sex-specific changes in reinforcer-controlled behaviour and neurotransmitter metabolism in a spontaneously hypertensive rat model of ADHD  

PubMed Central

Background Previous reports suggest that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplements may reduce ADHD-like behaviour. Our aim was to investigate potential effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation in an animal model of ADHD. Methods We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR dams were given n-3 PUFA (EPA and DHA)-enriched feed (n-6/n-3 of 1:2.7) during pregnancy, with their offspring continuing on this diet until sacrificed. The SHR controls and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control rats were given control-feed (n-6/n-3 of 7:1). During postnatal days (PND) 25–50, offspring were tested for reinforcement-dependent attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity as well as spontaneous locomotion. The animals were then sacrificed at PND 55–60 and their neostriata were analysed for monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters with high performance liquid chromatography. Results n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced reinforcement-controlled attention and reduced lever-directed hyperactivity and impulsiveness in SHR males whereas the opposite or no effects were observed in females. Analysis of neostriata from the same animals showed significantly enhanced dopamine and serotonin turnover ratios in the male SHRs, whereas female SHRs showed no change, except for an intermediate increase in serotonin catabolism. In contrast, both male and female SHRs showed n-3 PUFA-induced reduction in non-reinforced spontaneous locomotion, and sex-independent changes in glycine levels and glutamate turnover. Conclusions Feeding n-3 PUFAs to the ADHD model rats induced sex-specific changes in reinforcement-motivated behaviour and a sex-independent change in non-reinforcement-associated behaviour, which correlated with changes in presynaptic striatal monoamine and amino acid signalling, respectively. Thus, dietary n-3 PUFAs may partly ameliorate ADHD-like behaviour by reinforcement-induced mechanisms in males and partly via reinforcement-insensitive mechanisms in both sexes.

2012-01-01

286

CMOS neurotransmitter microarray: 96-channel integrated potentiostat with on-die microsensors.  

PubMed

A 8 × 12 array of integrated potentiostats for on-CMOS neurotransmitter imaging is presented. Each potentiostat channel measures bidirectional redox currents proportional to the concentration of a neurochemical. By combining the current-to-frequency and the single-slope analog-to-digital converter (ADC) architectures a total linear dynamic range of 95 dB is achieved. A 3.8 mm × 3.1 mm prototype fabricated in a 0.35 ?m standard CMOS technology was integrated with flat and 3D on-die gold microelectrodes and an on-chip microfluidic network. It is experimentally validated in in-situ recording of neurotransmitter dopamine. PMID:23853333

Nazari, Meisam Honarvar; Mazhab-Jafari, Hamed; Leng, Lian; Guenther, Axel; Genov, Roman

2013-06-01

287

Development and sensitivity to serotonin of Drosophila serotonergic varicosities in the central nervous system  

PubMed Central

Serotonin is a classical small-molecule neurotransmitter with known effects on developmental processes. Previous studies have shown a developmental role for serotonin in the fly peripheral nervous system. In this study, we show that serotonin can modulate the development of serotonergic varicosities within the fly central nervous system. We have developed a system to examine the development of serotonergic varicosities in the larval CNS. We use this method to describe the normal serotonergic development in the A7 abdominal ganglion. From first to third instar larvae, the volume of the neuropil and number of serotonergic varicosities increase substantially while the varicosity density remains relatively constant. We hypothesize that serotonin is an autoregulator for serotonergic varicosity density. We tested the sensitivity of serotonergic varicosities to serotonin by adding neurotransmitter at various stages to isolated larval ventral nerve cords. Addition of excess exogenous serotonin decreases native varicosity density in older larvae, and these acute effects are reversible. The effects of serotonin appear to be selective for serotonergic varicosities, as dopaminergic and corazonergic varicosities remain qualitatively intact following serotonin application.

Sykes, Paul A.; Condron, Barry G.

2010-01-01

288

Development and sensitivity to serotonin of Drosophila serotonergic varicosities in the central nervous system.  

PubMed

Serotonin is a classical small-molecule neurotransmitter with known effects on developmental processes. Previous studies have shown a developmental role for serotonin in the fly peripheral nervous system. In this study, we show that serotonin can modulate the development of serotonergic varicosities within the fly central nervous system. We have developed a system to examine the development of serotonergic varicosities in the larval CNS. We use this method to describe the normal serotonergic development in the A7 abdominal ganglion. From first to third instar larvae, the volume of the neuropil and number of serotonergic varicosities increase substantially while the varicosity density remains relatively constant. We hypothesize that serotonin is an autoregulator for serotonergic varicosity density. We tested the sensitivity of serotonergic varicosities to serotonin by adding neurotransmitter at various stages to isolated larval ventral nerve cords. Addition of excess exogenous serotonin decreases native varicosity density in older larvae, and these acute effects are reversible. The effects of serotonin appear to be selective for serotonergic varicosities, as dopaminergic and corazonergic varicosities remain qualitatively intact following serotonin application. PMID:16122730

Sykes, Paul A; Condron, Barry G

2005-10-01

289

Intramolecular cross-linking in a bacterial homolog of mammalian SLC6 neurotransmitter transporters suggests an evolutionary conserved role of transmembrane segments 7 and 8.  

PubMed

The extracellular concentration of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA and glycine is tightly controlled by plasma membrane transporters belonging to the SLC6 gene family. A very large number of putative transport proteins with a remarkable homology to the SLC6 transporters has recently been identified in prokaryotes. Here we have probed structural relationships in a 'microdoman' corresponding to the extracellular ends of transmembrane segments (TM) 7 and 8 in one of these homologs, the tryptophan transporter TnaT from Symbiobacterium thermophilum. We found that simultaneous - but not individual - substitution of Ala286 at the top of TM7 and Met311 at the top of TM8 with cysteines conferred sensitivity to submicromolar concentrations of Hg(2+) as assessed in a [(3)H]tryptophan uptake assay. Because Hg(2+) can cross-link pairs of cysteines, this suggests close proximity between TM 7 and 8 in the tertiary structure of TnaT as previously suggested for the mammalian counterparts. Furthermore, the inhibition of uptake upon cross-linking the two cysteines provides indirect support for a conserved conformational role of these transmembrane domains in the transport process. It was not possible, however, to transfer to TnaT binding sites for another metal ion, Zn(2+), that we previously engineered in the dopamine (DAT) and GABA (GAT-1) transporters between TM 7 and 8. This suggests that the structure of the TM7/8 microdomain is not identical with that of DAT and GAT-1. Hence, our data also emphasize possible structural differences that should be taken into account when interpreting future data on bacterial homologs of the SLC6 transporters. PMID:16129457

Kniazeff, Julie; Loland, Claus Juul; Goldberg, Naomi; Quick, Matthias; Das, Shonit; Sitte, Harald H; Javitch, Jonathan A; Gether, Ulrik

2005-11-01

290

Dopamine modifies oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential in striatal mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has been related to mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, striatal intact mitochondria\\u000a and submitochondrial membranes were incubated with different dopamine concentrations, and changes on mitochondrial function,\\u000a hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide production were evaluated. A 35% decrease in state 3 oxygen uptake (active respiration\\u000a state) was found after 1 mM dopamine incubation. In addition, mitochondrial respiratory

Analía Czerniczyniec; Juanita Bustamante; Silvia Lores-Arnaiz

2010-01-01

291

Effect of neurotransmitters on NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in vitro activity.  

PubMed

Three neurotransmitters, namely adrenaline, serotonin and tryptamine inhibit the in vitro activity of several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A). In order to test whether this effect is related to inhibition of the CYP-coupled NADPH reductase activity, we assayed the potential inhibitory effect of these neurotransmitters and their main metabolites on the NADPH reductase activity. Of the five compounds analyzed: tryptamine, tryptophol, serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptamine and adrenaline, only adrenaline significantly decreased NADPH reductase activity at the fixed concentration of 500 microM. However, the effect became negligible when adrenaline concentration was decreased to 100 microM: whereas a high inhibitory effect was observed in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 enzyme activities, the NADPH reductase activity remains unchanged. This study indicates that the effect of these endogenous neurotransmitters on CYP enzymes is not related to changes in the reductase activity. In the light of these findings further studies on the inhibitory effect of these neurotransmitters on CYP enzymes can be designed ruling out the modulation of the coupled NADPH reductase activity as a confounding factor. PMID:19356039

Gervasini, Guillermo; Martinez, Carmen; Benitez, Julio; Agúndez, Jose A G

2007-08-01

292

Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR-SERS) of neurotransmitters in colloidal silver solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NIR-SERS spectra are measured for the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine at concentrations as low as 5 × 10?9 M in colloidal silver solutions with accumulation times as short as 25 ms. The detection range and acquisition time are on the order of physiologically relevant concentrations and the time scale of neuronal processes, respectively. The spectra are obtained using a CCD

Katrin Kneipp; Yang Wang; Ramachandra R. Dasari; Michael S. Feld

1995-01-01

293

Effect of Costus speciosus and Wedelia chinensis on Brain Neurotransmitters and Enzyme Monoamine Oxidase Following Cold Immobilization Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of alcoholic extracts of Costus speciosus rhizomes and Wedelia chinensis leaves were evaluated on stress induced changes in brain neurotransmitters and enzyme monoamine oxidase levels in albino rats. The extracts were found to possess normalizing activity against cold immobilization stress induced changes in norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5- HIAA), and enzyme

Nitin Verm; R. L. Khosa

294

Vesicular neurotransmitter transporters: mechanistic aspects.  

PubMed

Secondary transporters driven by a V-type H?-ATPase accumulate nonpeptide neurotransmitters into synaptic vesicles. Distinct transporter families are involved depending on the neurotransmitter. Monoamines and acetylcholine on the one hand, and glutamate and ATP on the other hand, are accumulated by SLC18 and SLC17 transporters, respectively, which belong to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS). GABA and glycine accumulate through a common SLC32 transporter from the amino acid/polyamine/organocation (APC) superfamily. Although crystallographic structures are not yet available for any vesicular transporter, homology modeling studies of MFS-type vesicular transporters based on distantly related bacterial structures recently provided significant advances, such as the characterization of substrate-binding pockets or the identification of spatial clusters acting as hinge points during the alternating-access cycle. However, several basic issues, such as the ion stoichiometry of vesicular amino acid transporters, remain unsettled. PMID:24745982

Anne, Christine; Gasnier, Bruno

2014-01-01

295

[Pediatric neurotransmitter disease in Japan].  

PubMed

Pediatric neurotransmitter disease (PND) encompasses a range of rare genetic disorders that affect the metabolism of neurotransmitters in children. While these neurological disorders are often studied independently of each other, they all manifest central nervous system symptoms and require proper diagnosis and intervention at early stages. Since clinical symptoms of PND can be nonspecific, the conditions are often under-diagnosed, leaving patients without a chance to receive effective treatment. Envisioning PND as a whole, a comprehensive research effort is underway for a better understanding of pathophysiology and epidemiology in Japan, and toward the establishment of diagnostic criteria. The early diagnosis and development of new effective therapies are of urgent importance for these rare disorders that are not covered by newborn mass screening. For rarer forms of PND, at the same time, it is important to encourage recognition and understanding of the disease concept among healthcare professionals. PMID:23012864

Shintaku, Haruo

2012-09-01

296

Nitrophenyl-based caged neurotransmitters.  

PubMed

Nitroaromatic photochemical protecting groups were developed for organic synthesis in 1966. Since the early 1990s, this type of chromophore has been used by neuroscientists to liberate a wide variety of amino acid neurotransmitters such as ACh, glutamate, GABA, and glycine, among others. Since 2001, several laboratories have used two-photon excitation of nitroaromatic cages for highly localized uncaging of glutamate in acute brain slices. PMID:24890218

Ellis-Davies, Graham C R

2014-01-01

297

Interaction of curcumin with manganese may compromise metal and neurotransmitter homeostasis in the hippocampus of young mice.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) exposure is related to industrial activities, where absorption by inhalation has high relevance. Manganism, a syndrome caused as a result of excessive accumulation of Mn in the central nervous system, has numerous symptoms similar to those seen in idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD). Some of these symptoms, such as learning, memory, sensorial, and neurochemical changes, appear before the onset of motor deficits in both manganism and IPD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effects of curcumin against behavioral deficits induced by Mn toxicity in young (2 months old) Swiss mice. We evaluated the effect of chronic inhalation of a Mn mixture [Mn(OAc)3 and MnCl2 (20:40 mM)], 1 h/session, three times a week, over a 14-week period on behavioral and neurochemical parameters. Curcumin was supplemented in the diet (500 or 1,500 ppm in food pellets). The Mn disrupted the motor performance evaluated in the single-pellet reach task, as well as the short- and long-term spatial memory evaluated in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Surprisingly, curcumin also produced similar deleterious effects in such behavioral tests. Moreover, the association of Mn plus curcumin significantly increased the levels of Mn and iron, and decreased the levels of dopamine and serotonin in the hippocampus. These alterations were not observed in the striatum. In conclusion, the current Mn treatment protocol resulted in mild deficits in motor and memory functions, resembling the early phases of IPD. Additionally, curcumin showed no beneficial effects against Mn-induced disruption of hippocampal metal and neurotransmitter homeostasis. PMID:24723215

Schmitz, Ariana Ern; de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; de Souza, Luiz F; da Silva, Danilo Grünig Humberto; Danielski, Samara; Santos, Danúbia Bonfanti; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Fisher, Andrew; Farina, Marcelo; Dafre, Alcir Luiz

2014-06-01

298

Monoamine neurotransmitters and fibroblast growth factor-2 in the brains of rats with post-stroke depression  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes in the levels of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) in the brains of rats with post-stroke depression (PSD). A rat model of stroke was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion and the rats were randomly divided into two groups: Control and modification groups. The rats in the modification group had PSD, while the rats in the control group had experienced a stroke only. The PSD model was established by applying chronic mild stress to the individually housed rats. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to detect the levels of 5-HT, DA and NE, while western blotting was used to detect the FGF-2 protein expression levels in the frontal lobe and hippocampus. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was also used to determine the mRNA expression levels of FGF-2 in the frontal lobes of the two groups. The levels of 5-HT, DA and NE in the frontal lobe and hippocampus of the rats in the PSD group were significantly lower than the levels observed in the rats in the stroke group (P<0.01). In addition, protein expression levels of FGF-2 in the frontal lobe of the rats in the PSD group were significantly lower when compared with the control group rats (P<0.01), however, the protein expression levels of FGF-2 in the hippocampus did not exhibit a statistically significant difference (P>0.05). The mRNA expression levels of FGF-2 in the frontal lobe of the rats in the modification group were significantly lower than the levels in the control group rats (P<0.01). Therefore, reduced levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and FGF-2 expression in the brains of rats with PSD are associated with the incidence of PSD.

JI, XIAO-WEI; WU, CHUN-LING; WANG, XING-CHEN; LIU, JIE; BI, JIAN-ZHONG; WANG, DIAN-YUN

2014-01-01

299

Exocytotic release of dopamine in ventral tegmental area slices from C57BL/6 and dopamine transporter knockout mice.  

PubMed

The present study used voltammetry to ascertain whether electrically stimulated somatodendritic dopamine release in ventral tegmental area slices from C57BL/6 and dopamine transporter knockout mice was due to exocytosis or dopamine transporter reversal, as has been debated. The maximal concentration of electrically evoked dopamine release was similar between ventral tegmental area slices from dopamine transporter knockout and C57BL/6 mice. Dopamine transporter blockade (10 microM nomifensine) in slices from C57BL/6 mice inhibited dopamine uptake but did not alter peak evoked dopamine release. In addition, dopamine release and uptake kinetics in ventral tegmental area slices from dopamine transporter knockout mice were unaltered by the norepinephrine transporter inhibitor, desipramine (10 microM), or the serotonin transporter inhibitor, fluoxetine (10 microM). Furthermore, maximal dopamine release in ventral tegmental area slices from both C57BL/6 and dopamine transporter knockout mice was significantly decreased in response to Na(+) channel blockade by 1 microM tetrototoxin, removal of Ca(2+) from the perfusion media and neuronal vesicular monoamine transporter inhibition by RO-04-1284 (10 microM) or tetrabenazine (10 and 100 microM). Finally, the glutamate receptor antagonists AP-5 (50 and 100 microM) and CNQX (20 and 50 microM) had no effect on peak somatodendritic dopamine release in C57BL/6 mice. Overall, these data suggest that similar mechanisms, consistent with exocytosis, govern electrically evoked dopamine release in ventral tegmental area slices from C57BL/6 and dopamine transporter knockout mice. PMID:16901588

John, Carrie E; Jones, Sara R

2006-12-01

300

Demonstration of clomipramine and venlafaxine occupation at serotonin reuptake sites in man in vivo.  

PubMed

We describe the use of 11CRTI-55 and the Multiple Objects Coincidences Counter (MOCC) to detect in-vivo binding to peripheral serotonin reuptake sites (left chest comprising platelet and lung serotonin reuptake sites) in man. Displacement and preloading experiments with clomipramine and venlafaxine in two healthy volunteers demonstrated that 11CRTI-55 binding is decreased in a dose-dependent fashion by both these drugs which bind to the serotonin transporter. In addition parallel data from the total head curve (representing 11CRTI-55 binding to central serotonin and dopamine (DA) reuptake sites) suggest that prior blockade of the serotonin transporter may be a useful strategy to maximize radioactive counts in the head when measuring the DA transporter. The MOCC is likely to be useful to determine sequential indices of relative serotonin reuptake blockade in patients on treatment. PMID:9305421

Malizia, A L; Melichar, J M; Brown, D J; Gunn, R N; Reynolds, A; Jones, T; Nutt, D J

1997-01-01

301

Serotonin transporter inhibition attenuates L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia without compromising L-DOPA efficacy in hemi-parkinsonian rats  

PubMed Central

Long-term dopamine replacement therapy with L-DOPA in Parkinson’s disease often leads to the development of abnormal involuntary movements known as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. Growing evidence suggests that following dopamine cell loss, serotonin neurons acting as surrogates for dopaminergic processes, take up L-DOPA, convert it to dopamine and release it in an unregulated fashion that precipitates dyskinesia. While most studies have focused on serotonin 5-HT1 receptor stimulation as an anti-dyskinetic strategy, targeting serotonin transporter modulation of dopamine activity has been overlooked. Therefore, in the current study, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were tested for their ability to reduce L-DOPA- and apomorphine-induced dyskinesia. In experiments 1 and 2, hemi-parkinsonian rats were primed with L-DOPA until stable dyskinesia developed. Rats in experiment 1 were administered the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors paroxetine, citalopram or fluoxetine, followed by L-DOPA. Abnormal involuntary movements and forepaw adjusting steps were recorded to determine the effects of these compounds on dyskinesia and motor performance, respectively. Brains were collected on the final test day, after which striatal and raphe monoamines were examined via high performance liquid chromatography. In experiment 2, dyskinesias were measured after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and apomorphine. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors dose-dependently attenuated L-DOPA- but not apomorphine-induced dyskinesia, while preserving L-DOPA efficacy. Neurochemically, serotonin transporter inhibition enhanced striatal and raphe serotonin levels and reduced its turnover, indicating a potential mechanism of action. The present results support targeting serotonin transporters to improve Parkinson’s disease treatment and provide further evidence for the role of the serotonin system in L-DOPA’s effects.

Bishop, Christopher; George, Jessica A.; Buchta, William; Goldenberg, Adam A.; Mohamed, Mohamed; Dickinson, Sando O.; Eissa, Satie; Eskow Jaunarajs, Karen L.

2012-01-01

302

Are the changes of mood in children with coeliac disease due to abnormal serotonin metabolism?  

PubMed

Children with untreated coeliac disease are characteristically unhappy and after a few days of treatment with a gluten-free diet their mood improves. This improvement in mood can be rapidly reversed by introducing gluten into their diet again which suggests that a humoral agent could be involved in this process. As serotonin is a neurotransmitter in the brain and abnormalities of serotonin metabolism have been reported in coeliac disease, this biogenic amine could be the humoral agent that mediates the changes of mood in coeliac disease. In this review the relationship between the mood changes in coeliac disease and serotonin metabolism will be further examined. PMID:3328116

Challacombe, D N; Wheeler, E E

1987-01-01

303

Alteration in the neurotransmitter levels in the brain of the freshwater snakehead fish (Channa punctatus) exposed to carbofuran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Channa punctatus a freshwater fish exposed to carbofuran (0.6 mg l-1) for 15 days exhibited alterations in norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels. NE levels increased in the cerebellum and decreased in the medulla and cerebral cortex relative to the controls. Increased DA levels were observed in the cerebellum and medulla whereas DA levels decreased in the cerebral

Krishna Gopal; Muralidhar Ram

1995-01-01

304

Serotonin, genetic variability, behaviour, and psychiatric disorders - a review  

PubMed Central

Brain monoamines, and serotonin in particular, have repeatedly been shown to be linked to different psychiatric conditions such as depression, anxiety, antisocial behaviour, and dependence. Many studies have implicated genetic variability in the genes encoding monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) and the serotonin transporter (5HTT) in modulating susceptibility to these conditions. Paradoxically, the risk variants of these genes have been shown, in vitro, to increase levels of serotonin, although many of the conditions are associated with decreased levels of serotonin. Furthermore, in adult humans, and monkeys with orthologous genetic polymorphisms, there is no observable correlation between these functional genetic variants and the amount or activity of the corresponding proteins in the brain. These seemingly contradictory data might be explained if the association between serotonin and these behavioural and psychiatric conditions were mainly a consequence of events taking place during foetal and neonatal brain development. In this review we explore, based on recent research, the hypothesis that the dual role of serotonin as a neurotransmitter and a neurotrophic factor has a significant impact on behaviour and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders through altered development of limbic neurocircuitry involved in emotional processing, and development of the serotonergic neurons, during early brain development.

Oreland, Lars

2010-01-01

305

Role of serotonin in Alzheimer's disease: a new therapeutic target?  

PubMed

Mounting evidence accumulated over the past few years indicates that the neurotransmitter serotonin plays a significant role in cognition. As a drug target, serotonin receptors have received notable attention due in particular to the role of several serotonin-receptor subclasses in cognition and memory. The intimate anatomical and neurochemical association of the serotonergic system with brain areas that regulate memory and learning has directed current drug discovery programmes to focus on this system as a major therapeutic drug target. Thus far, none of these programmes has yielded unambiguous data that suggest that any of the new drug entities possesses disease-modifying properties, and significantly more research in this promising area of investigation is required. Compounds are currently being investigated for activity against serotonin 5-HT(1), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(6) receptors. This review concludes that most work done in the development of selective serotonin receptor ligands is in the pre-clinical or early clinical phase. Also, while many of these compounds will likely find application as adjuvant therapy in the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease, there are currently only a few drug entities with activity against serotonin receptors that may offer the potential to alter the progression of the disease. PMID:21870888

Geldenhuys, Werner J; Van der Schyf, Cornelis J

2011-09-01

306

Further strategies for treating fibromyalgia: the role of serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors.  

PubMed

Fibromyalgia and associated conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and temporomandibular disorder involve dysfunctions in central sensitization and pain modulation. Central nervous system dysfunction may also contribute to other symptoms characteristic of fibromyalgia, such as fatigue and sleep disturbance. Two key neurotransmitters in the pain modulation pathway are serotonin and norepinephrine. Preclinical studies using animal models of chronic pain have shown that pharmacologic agents that combine serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibition, thus augmenting the function of these neurotransmitters, have stronger analgesic effects than agents that inhibit reuptake of either neurotransmitter alone. Although tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) inhibit reuptake of both serotonin and norepinephrine and have shown efficacy for the treatment of fibromyalgia, long-term use of these drugs is limited owing to poor tolerability. Unlike TCAs, the newer dual reuptake inhibitors of serotonin and norepinephrine, such as the drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for fibromyalgia, milnacipran and duloxetine, do not possess significant affinity for other neurotransmitter systems, resulting in diminished side effects and enhanced tolerability. Both duloxetine and milnacipran have shown efficacy in clinical trials by improving pain and other symptoms associated with fibromyalgia. Both compounds inhibit the serotonin and norepinephrine transporters; however, there is a difference in their affinities and selectivity for these transporters. Although duloxetine has affinity for both receptors, it is somewhat more selective for the serotonin transporter. In contrast, milnacipran is somewhat more selective for norepinephrine than serotonin reuptake inhibition. Pharmacologic agents that specifically target serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake may prove to be valuable tools in the treatment of fibromyalgia. PMID:19962496

Mease, Philip J

2009-12-01

307

How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission  

PubMed Central

The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging.

Sulzer, David

2011-01-01

308

Biosensors for Brain Trauma and Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry: Enoxaparin Simultaneously Reduces Stroke-Induced Dopamine and Blood Flow while Enhancing Serotonin and Blood Flow in Motor Neurons of Brain, In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) based on adsorptive electrochemistry, combined with Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is presented herein to investigate the brain neurochemistry affected by enoxaparin (Lovenox®), an antiplatelet/antithrombotic medication for stroke victims. NMI with miniature biosensors enables neurotransmitter and neuropeptide (NT) imaging; each NT is imaged with a response time in milliseconds. A semiderivative electronic reduction circuit images several NT’s selectively and separately within a response time of minutes. Spatial resolution of NMI biosensors is in the range of nanomicrons and electrochemically-induced current ranges are in pico- and nano-amperes. Simultaneously with NMI, the LDF technology presented herein operates on line by illuminating the living brain, in this example, in dorso-striatal neuroanatomic substrates via a laser sensor with low power laser light containing optical fiber light guides. NMI biotechnology with BRODERICK PROBE® biosensors has a distinct advantage over conventional electrochemical methodologies both in novelty of biosensor formulations and on-line imaging capabilities in the biosensor field. NMI with unique biocompatible biosensors precisely images NT in the body, blood and brain of animals and humans using characteristic experimentally derived half-wave potentials driven by oxidative electron transfer. Enoxaparin is a first line clinical treatment prescribed to halt the progression of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In the present studies, BRODERICK PROBE® laurate biosensors and LDF laser sensors are placed in dorsal striatum (DStr) dopaminergic motor neurons in basal ganglia of brain in living animals; basal ganglia influence movement disorders such as those correlated with AIS. The purpose of these studies is to understand what is happening in brain neurochemistry and cerebral blood perfusion after causal AIS by middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo as well as to understand consequent enoxaparin and reperfusion effects actually while enoxaparin is inhibiting blood clots to alleviate AIS symptomatology. This research is directly correlated with the medical and clinical needs of stroke victims. The data are clinically relevant, not only to movement dysfunction but also to the depressive mood that stroke patients often endure. These are the first studies to image brain neurotransmitters while any stroke medications, such as anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic and/or anti-glycoprotein are working in organ systems to alleviate the debilitating consequences of brain trauma and stroke/brain attacks.

Broderick, Patricia A.; Kolodny, Edwin H.

2011-01-01

309

BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in the brain and the target of antipsychotic drugs. In this review we will start with an overview of basal ganglia anatomy emphasizing dopamine circuitry. Then, we will review the major deficits in dopamine function in schizophrenia, emphasizing the role of excessive dopamine in the basal ganglia and the link to psychosis.

Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

2010-01-01

310

Interactions of ?9Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with Hypothalamic Neurotransmitters Controlling Luteinizing Hormone and Prolactin Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) turnover and hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and LHRH content preceding and during a progesterone- (P) induced LH and prolactin (PRL) surge were investigated in ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats. THC had no effect on basal LH levels, but it inhibited basal PRL levels and blocked the surges

Richard W. Steger; Louis DePaolo; Ricardo H. Asch; Andrew Y. Silverman

1983-01-01

311

Boosting serotonin in the brain: is it time to revamp the treatment of depression?  

PubMed Central

Abnormalities in serotonin systems are presumably linked to various psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and depression. Medications intended for these disorders aim to either block the reuptake or the degradation of this neurotransmitter. In an alternative approach, efforts have been made to enhance serotonin levels through dietary manipulation of precursor levels with modest clinical success. In the last 30 years, there has been little improvement in the pharmaceutical management of depression, and now is the time to revisit therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this disease. Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of serotonin. A recently discovered isoform, TPH2, is responsible for serotonin biosynthesis in the brain. Learning how to activate this enzyme (and its polymorphic versions) may lead to a new, more selective generation of antidepressants, able to regulate the levels of serotonin in the brain with fewer side effects.

Torrente, Mariana P; Gelenberg, Alan J; Vrana, Kent E

2012-01-01

312

Salvinorin A exerts opposite presynaptic controls on neurotransmitter exocytosis from mouse brain nerve terminals.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of salvinorin A on the basal and the 12 mM K(+)-evoked release of preloaded [(3)H]noradenaline ([(3)H]NA) and [(3)H]serotonin ([(3)H]5-HT) from mouse hippocampal nerve terminals (synaptosomes), as well as on the basal and 12mM K(+)-evoked release of preloaded [(3)H]dopamine ([(3)H]DA) from mouse striatal and prefrontal cortex (PFc) synaptosomes. Salvinorin A (0.1-1000 nM) failed to affect the basal release of amines, but inhibited the 12 mM K(+)-evoked, Ca(2+)-dependent, exocytotic-like release of [(3)H]5-HT and [(3)H]DA. At the same concentration, salvinorin A facilitated the 12 mM K(+)-evoked, Ca(2+)-dependent, exocytotic-like release of [(3)H]NA. These effects could not be observed in pertussis toxin (PTx) entrapped synaptosomes. The broad spectrum kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist norbinaltorphimine (norBNI, 1-100 nM) antagonized the inhibition of [(3)H]5-HT and [(3)H]DA exocytosis as well as the facilitation of [(3)H]NA overflow induced by 100 nM salvinorin A. The KOR agonist U69593 (1-100 nM) mimicked salvinorin A in inhibiting [(3)H]5-HT and of [(3)H]DA exocytosis, its effect being prevented by norBNI, but leaving unchanged the K(+)-evoked release of [(3)H]NA. The effects of Salvinorin A on neurotransmitter exocytosis were not prevented by the selective mu opioid (MOR) receptor antagonist CTAP (10-100 nM), whereas facilitation of [(3)H]NA exocytosis, but not inhibition of [(3)H]5-HT and [(3)H]DA K(+)-evoked release, was counteracted by the delta opioid receptor (DOR) antagonist naltrindole (1-100 nM). We conclude that salvinorin A presynaptically modulates central NA, 5-HT, and DA exocytosis evoked by a mild depolarizing stimulus by acting at presynaptic opioid receptors having different pharmacological profiles. PMID:19628000

Grilli, Massimo; Neri, Elisa; Zappettini, Stefania; Massa, Francesca; Bisio, Angela; Romussi, Giovanni; Marchi, Mario; Pittaluga, Anna

2009-01-01

313

Thyroid hormones, serotonin and mood: of synergy and significance in the adult brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of thyroid hormones as an effective adjunct treatment for affective disorders has been studied over the past three decades and has been confirmed repeatedly. Interaction of the thyroid and monoamine neurotransmitter systems has been suggested as a potential underlying mechanism of action. While catecholamine and thyroid interrelationships have been reviewed in detail, the serotonin system has been relatively

M Bauer; A Heinz; P C Whybrow

2002-01-01

314

Serotonin 1A Receptor Signaling in the Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus of the Peripubertal Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin (5-HT) is a ubiquitous neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in various physiologic functions including the regulation of hypothalamic hormones and has been implicated in various mood disorders such as depression. Preclinical and clinical data from studies in adults have shown that antidepressant drugs produce time-dependent changes in serotonergic and other systems and can also normalize dysfunction associated

Maureen Lynn Petrunich Rutherford

2011-01-01

315

Serotonin in Aging, Late-Life Depression, and Alzheimer's Disease: The Emerging Role of Functional Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin (5-HT) neuron and neurotransmitter loss in normal aging and neuropsychiatric diseases of late life may contribute to behavioral changes commonly observed in the elderly population. Extensive evidence implicates a deficit in serotonergic neurotransmission in the development of major depression. It has been further suggested that the age-related changes in 5-HT neurons may predispose the elderly to develop depression. There

Carolyn Cidis Meltzer; Gwenn Smith; Steven T DeKosky; Bruce G Pollock; Chester A Mathis; Robert Y Moore; David J Kupfer; Charles F Reynolds

1998-01-01

316

Serotonin and serotonin transport in the regulation of lactation.  

PubMed

Serotonin (5-HT), classically known as a neurotransmitter involved in regulating sleep, appetite, memory, sexual behavior, neuroendocrine function and mood is also synthesized in epithelial cells located in many organs throughout the body, including the mammary gland. The function of epithelial 5-HT is dependent on the expression of the 5-HT receptors in a particular system. The conventional components of a classic 5-HT system are found within the mammary gland; synthetic enzymes (tryptophan hydroxylase I, aromatic amino acid decarboxylase), several 5-HT receptors and the 5-HT reuptake transporter (SERT). In the mammary gland, two actions of 5-HT through two different 5-HT receptor subtypes have been described: negative feedback on milk synthesis and secretion, and stimulation of parathyroid hormone related-protein, a calcium-mobilizing hormone. As with neuronal systems, the regulation of 5-HT activity is multifactorial, but one seminal component is reuptake of 5-HT from the extracellular space following its release. Importantly, the wide availability of selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) allows the manipulation of 5-HT activity in a biological system. Here, we review the role of 5-HT in mammary gland function, review the biochemistry, genetics and physiology of SERT, and discuss how SERT is vital to the function of the mammary gland. PMID:24136337

Marshall, Aaron M; Hernandez, Laura L; Horseman, Nelson D

2014-03-01

317

Plasma HVA in Adults with Mental Retardation and Stereotyped Behavior: Biochemical Evidence for a Dopamine Deficiency Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessment of the neurotransmitter dopamine through measurement of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in adult subjects with mental retardation and with high rates of body stereotypy (n=12), compulsive behaviors (n=9), or neither (n=12) found lowest HVA concentrations in the stereotypy group and highest in the compulsive group. (DB)

Lewis, Mark H.; And Others

1996-01-01

318

Directed evolution of protein-based neurotransmitter sensors for MRI  

PubMed Central

The production of contrast agents sensitive to neuronal signaling events is a rate- limiting step in the development of molecular-level functional magnetic resonance imaging (molecular fMRI) approaches for studying the brain. High throughput generation and evaluation of potential probes is possible using techniques for macromolecular engineering of protein-based contrast agents. In an initial exploration of this strategy, we used the method of directed evolution to identify mutants of a bacterial heme protein that allowed detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine in vitro and in living animals. The directed evolution method involves successive cycles of mutagenesis and screening that could be generalized to produce contrast agents sensitive to a variety of molecular targets in the nervous system.

Romero, Philip A.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.; Arnold, Frances H.; Jasanoff, Alan

2013-01-01

319

Optogenetic control of striatal dopamine release in rats  

PubMed Central

Optogenetic control over neuronal firing has become an increasingly elegant method to dissect the microcircuitry of mammalian brains. To date, examination of these manipulations on neurotransmitter release has been minimal. Here we present the first in-depth analysis of optogenetic stimulation on dopamine neurotransmission in the dorsal striatum of urethane-anesthetized rats. By combining the tight spatial and temporal resolution of both optogenetics and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry we have determined the parameters necessary to control phasic dopamine release in the dorsal striatum of rats in vivo. The kinetics of optically induced dopamine release mirror established models of electrically evoked release, indicating that potential artifacts of electrical stimulation on ion channels and the dopamine transporter are negligible. Furthermore a lack of change in extracellular pH indicates that optical stimulation does not alter blood flow. Optical control over dopamine release is highly reproducible and flexible. We are able to repeatedly evoke concentrations of dopamine release as small as a single dopamine transient (50 nM). A U-shaped frequency response curve exists with maximal stimulation inducing dopamine effluxes exceeding 500 nM. Taken together, these results have obvious implications for understanding the neurobiological basis of dopaminergic-based disorders and provide the framework to effectively manipulate dopamine patterns.

Bass, Caroline E; Grinevich, Valentina P; Vance, Zachary B; Sullivan, Ryan P; Bonin, Keith D; Budygin, Evgeny A

2010-01-01

320

Epigenetic control of neurotransmitter expression in olfactory bulb interneurons.  

PubMed

Defining the molecular mechanisms that underlie development and maintenance of neuronal phenotypic diversity in the CNS is a fundamental challenge in developmental neurobiology. The vast majority of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons are GABAergic and this neurotransmitter phenotype is specified in migrating neuroblasts by transcription of either or both glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 (Gad1) and Gad2. A subset of OB interneurons also co-express dopamine, but transcriptional repression of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) suppresses the dopaminergic phenotype until these neurons terminally differentiate. In mature OB interneurons, GABA and dopamine levels are modulated by odorant-induced synaptic activity-dependent regulation of Gad1 and Th transcription. The molecular mechanisms that specify and maintain the GABAergic and dopaminergic phenotypes in the OB are not clearly delineated. In this report, we review previous studies and present novel findings that provide insight into the contribution of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms for controlling expression of these neurotransmitter phenotypes in the OB. We show that HDAC enzymes suppress the dopaminergic phenotype in migrating neuroblasts by repressing Th transcription. In the mature interneurons, both Th and Gad1 transcription levels are modulated by synaptic activity-dependent recruitment of acetylated Histone H3 on both the Th and Gad1 proximal promoters. We also show that HDAC2 has the opposite transcriptional response to odorant-induced synaptic activity when compared to Th and Gad1. These findings suggest that HDAC2 mediates, in part, the activity-dependent chromatin remodeling of the Th and Gad1 proximal promoters in mature OB interneurons. PMID:23220178

Banerjee, Kasturi; Akiba, Yosuke; Baker, Harriet; Cave, John W

2013-10-01

321

The biochemical analysis of neurotransmitters in central neurocytomas.  

PubMed

Central neurocytomas are rare benign intraventricular tumours composed of small round synaptophysin-positive cells, suggesting a neuronal origin of these tumour cells. Although past electron microscopic studies demonstrated synaptic vesicles in the synapse of central neurocytomas, the kinds of neurotransmitters in central neurocytomas have never been identified. In this study we analyzed neurotransmitters in an attempt to clarify the tumorigenesis of central neurocytomas. We studied frozen central neurocytoma specimens from four patients. The tissue levels of glutamate and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) in the tumours were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) using a selected ion monitoring method. The tissue levels of acetylcholine, choline, catecholamines and metabolites of catecholamines in the tumours were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with electrochemical detection. Choline was found in extremely high concentration in all central neurocytomas when compared with levels in controls. In one central neurocytoma, GABA was found in extremely high concentration compared with controls. In all central neurocytomas, glutamate was found in lower or identical concentrations compared with controls. In all central neurocytomas and controls, dopamine and catecholamine concentrations were extremely low. These results indicated that the histogenesis of central neurocytomas begins with the subependymal stem cells, which have the potential to differentiate into cholinergic or GABA neurons. PMID:11295115

Sugita, Y; Yamada, S; Sugita, S; Sakata, K; Morimatsu, M; Shigemori, M

2001-05-01

322

Dopamine Inhibits Mitochondrial Motility in Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Background The trafficking of mitochondria within neurons is a highly regulated process. In an earlier study, we found that serotonin (5-HT), acting through the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, promotes axonal transport of mitochondria in cultured hippocampal neurons by increasing Akt activity, and consequently decreasing glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3?) activity. This finding suggests a critical role for neuromodulators in the regulation of mitochondrial trafficking in neurons. In the present study, we investigate the effects of a second important neuromodulator, dopamine, on mitochondrial transport in hippocampal neurons. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we show that dopamine, like 5-HT, regulates mitochondrial motility in cultured hippocampal neurons through the Akt-GSK3? signaling cascade. But, in contrast to the stimulatory effect of 5-HT, administration of exogenous dopamine or bromocriptine, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) agonist, caused an inhibition of mitochondrial movement. Moreover, pretreatment with bromocriptine blocked the stimulatory effect of 5-HT on mitochondrial movement. Conversely, in cells pretreated with 5-HT, no further increases in movement were observed after administration of haloperidol, a D2R antagonist. In contrast to the effect of the D2R agonist, addition of SKF38393, a dopamine 1 receptor (D1R) agonist, promoted mitochondrial transport, indicating that the inhibitory effect of dopamine was actually the net summation of opposing influences of the two receptor subtypes. The most pronounced effect of dopamine signals was on mitochondria that were already moving directionally. Western blot analysis revealed that treatment with either a D2R agonist or a D1R antagonist decreased Akt activity, and conversely, treatment with either a D2R antagonist or a D1R agonist increased Akt activity. Conclusions/Significance Our observations strongly suggest a role for both dopamine and 5-HT in regulating mitochondrial movement, and indicate that the integrated effects of these two neuromodulators may be important in determining the distribution of energy sources in neurons.

Chen, Sigeng; Owens, Geoffrey C.; Edelman, David B.

2008-01-01

323

The Dopamine D2 Receptor Gene, Perceived Parental Support, and Adolescent Loneliness: Longitudinal Evidence for Gene-Environment Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Loneliness is a common problem in adolescence. Earlier research focused on genes within the serotonin and oxytocin systems, but no studies have examined the role of dopamine-related genes in loneliness. In the present study, we focused on the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2). Methods: Associations among the DRD2, sex, parental support,…

van Roekel, Eeske; Goossens, Luc; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Verhagen, Maaike

2011-01-01

324

Role of Serotonin Neurons in L-DOPA- and Graft-Induced Dyskinesia in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

L-DOPA, the most effective drug to treat motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, causes abnormal involuntary movements, limiting its use in advanced stages of the disease. An increasing body of evidence points to the serotonin system as a key player in the appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). In fact, exogenously administered L-DOPA can be taken up by serotonin neurons, converted to dopamine and released as a false transmitter, contributing to pulsatile stimulation of striatal dopamine receptors. Accordingly, destruction of serotonin fibers or silencing serotonin neurons by serotonin agonists could counteract LID in animal models. Recent clinical work has also shown that serotonin neurons are present in the caudate/putamen of patients grafted with embryonic ventral mesencephalic cells, producing intense serotonin hyperinnervation. These patients experience graft-induced dyskinesia (GID), a type of dyskinesia phenotypically similar to the one induced by L-DOPA but independent from its administration. Interestingly, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist buspirone has been shown to suppress GID in these patients, suggesting that serotonin neurons might be involved in the etiology of GID as for LID. In this paper we will discuss the experimental and clinical evidence supporting the involvement of the serotonin system in both LID and GID.

Shin, Eunju; Tronci, Elisabetta; Carta, Manolo

2012-01-01

325

Presynaptic inhibition of the release of multiple major central nervous system neurotransmitter types by the inhaled anaesthetic isoflurane  

PubMed Central

Background Presynaptic effects of general anaesthetics are not well characterized. We tested the hypothesis that isoflurane exhibits transmitter-specific effects on neurotransmitter release from neurochemically and functionally distinct isolated mammalian nerve terminals. Methods Nerve terminals from adult male rat brain were prelabelled with [3H]glutamate and [14C]GABA (cerebral cortex), [3H]norepinephrine (hippocampus), [14C]dopamine (striatum), or [3H]choline (precursor of [3H]acetylcholine; striatum). Release evoked by depolarizing pulses of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) or elevated KCl was quantified using a closed superfusion system. Results Isoflurane at clinical concentrations (<0.7 mM; ?2 times median anaesthetic concentration) inhibited Na+ channel-dependent 4AP-evoked release of the five neurotransmitters tested in a concentration-dependent manner. Isoflurane was a more potent inhibitor [expressed as IC50 (sem)] of glutamate release [0.37 (0.03) mM; P<0.05] compared with the release of GABA [0.52 (0.03) mM], norepinephrine [0.48 (0.03) mM], dopamine [0.48 (0.03) mM], or acetylcholine [0.49 (0.02) mM]. Inhibition of Na+ channel-independent release evoked by elevated K+ was not significant at clinical concentrations of isoflurane, with the exception of dopamine release [IC50=0.59 (0.03) mM]. Conclusions Isoflurane inhibited the release of the major central nervous system neurotransmitters with selectivity for glutamate release, consistent with both widespread inhibition and nerve terminal-specific presynaptic effects. Glutamate release was most sensitive to inhibition compared with GABA, acetylcholine, dopamine, and norepinephrine release due to presynaptic specializations in ion channel expression, regulation, and/or coupling to exocytosis. Reductions in neurotransmitter release by volatile anaesthetics could contribute to altered synaptic transmission, leading to therapeutic and toxic effects involving all major neurotransmitter systems.

Westphalen, R. I.; Desai, K. M.; Hemmings, H. C.

2013-01-01

326

Role of serotonin 5-HT? receptors in intestinal inflammation.  

PubMed

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), a well-characterized neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, plays a crucial role in regulating mood, body temperature, sleep, appetite, and metabolism. Serotonin is synthesized in the serotonergic neuron of the central nervous system; however, approximately 90% of serotonin is synthesized and localized in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, especially in the enterochromaffin (EC) cells. In the GI tract, serotonin mediates control over a variety of physiological functions such as contraction/relaxation of smooth muscle, and peristaltic and secretory reflexes, directly or indirectly through intrinsic primary afferent neurons. The receptors mediating the action of serotonin are mainly classified into 7 major groups known as the 5-HT1 to 5-HT7 receptors. The 5-HT3 receptor is distinguished from among the other 5-HT receptor subtypes because it is only a ligand-gated ion channel, whereas the other subtypes serve as G protein-coupled receptors. The 5-HT3 receptor, which is generally considered to be localized in the central and peripheral nervous systems, is involved in processes associated with emotion, cognition, memory, pain perception, and GI functions including secretion and motility. Recently, an increasing number of findings have provided evidence of the important role of the 5-HT3 receptor in the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. In fact, several 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have been reported to ameliorate intestinal inflammation. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of 5-HT3 receptors in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. PMID:23995650

Kato, Shinichi

2013-01-01

327

Serotonin of mast cell origin contributes to hippocampal function  

PubMed Central

In the CNS, serotonin, an important neurotransmitter and trophic factor, is synthesized by both mast cells and neurons. Mast cells, like other immune cells, are born in the bone marrow and migrate to many tissues. We show that they are resident in the mouse brain throughout development and adulthood. Measurements based on capillary electrophoresis with native fluorescence detection indicate that a significant contribution of serotonin to the hippocampal milieu is associated with mast cell activation. Compared to their littermates, mast cell deficient C57BL/6 KitW-sh/W-sh mice have profound deficits in hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory and in hippocampal neurogenesis. These deficits are associated with a reduction in cell proliferation and in immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, but not in the subventricular zone – a neurogenic niche lacking mast cells. Chronic treatment with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, reverses the deficit in hippocampal neurogenesis in mast cell deficient mice. In summary, the present studies demonstrate that mast cells are a source of serotonin, that mast cell deficient C57BL/6 KitW-sh/W-sh mice have disrupted hippocampus-dependent behavior and neurogenesis, and that elevating serotonin in these mice, by treatment with fluoxetine, reverses these deficits. We conclude that mast cells contribute to behavioral and physiological functions of the hippocampus and note that they play a physiological role in neuroimmune interactions, even in the absence of inflammatory responses.

Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Dailey, Christopher A.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L.; Rodriquez, Elizabeth; Son, Nguyen Hong; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Silver, Rae

2012-01-01

328

The serotonin 5-HT7 receptors: two decades of research.  

PubMed

Like most neurotransmitters, serotonin possesses a simple structure. However, the pharmacological consequences are more complex and diverse. Serotonin is involved in numerous functions in the human body including the control of appetite, sleep, memory and learning, temperature regulation, mood, behavior, cardiovascular function, muscle contraction, endocrine regulation, and depression. Low levels of serotonin may be associated with several disorders, namely increase in aggressive and angry behaviors, clinical depression, Parkinson's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, migraine, irritable bowel syndrome, tinnitus, and bipolar disease. These effects are mediated via different serotonin (5-HT) receptors. In this review, we will focus on the last discovered member of this serotonin receptor family, the 5-HT7 receptor. This receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily and was cloned two decades ago. Later, different splice variants were described but no major functional differences have been described so far. All 5-HT7 receptor variants are coupled to G?s proteins and stimulate cAMP formation. Recently, several interacting proteins have been reported, which can influence receptor signaling and trafficking. PMID:24042216

Gellynck, Evelien; Heyninck, Karen; Andressen, Kjetil W; Haegeman, Guy; Levy, Finn Olav; Vanhoenacker, Peter; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen

2013-10-01

329

Treatment of pituitary tumors: dopamine agonists.  

PubMed

The neurotransmitter/neuromodulator dopamine plays an important role in both the central nervous system and the periphery. In the hypothalamopituitary system its function is a dominant and tonic inhibitory regulation of pituitary hormone secretion including prolactin- and proopiomelanocortin-derived hormones. It is well known that dopamine agonists, such as bromocriptine, pergolide, quinagolide, cabergoline, and lisuride, can inhibit PRL secretion by binding to the D(2) dopamine receptors located on normal as well as tumorous pituitary cells. Moreover, they can effectively decrease excessive PRL secretion as well as the size of the tumor in patients having prolactinoma. Furthermore, dopamine agonists can also be used in other pituitary tumors. The major requirement for its use is that the tumor cells should express D(2) receptors. Therefore, in addition to prolactinomas, targets of dopamine agonist therapy are somatotroph tumors, nonfunctioning pituitary tumors, corticotroph pituitary tumors, Nelson's syndrome, gonadotropinomas, and thyrotropin-secreting pituitary tumors. It is also an option for the treatment of pituitary disease during pregnancy. Differences between the effectiveness and the resistance of different dopaminergic agents as well as the future perspectives of them in the therapy of pituitary tumors are discussed. PMID:16311416

Iván, Gabriella; Szigeti-Csúcs, Nikoletta; Oláh, Márk; Nagy, György M; Góth, Miklós I

2005-10-01

330

X-ray structure of dopamine transporter elucidates antidepressant mechanism.  

PubMed

Antidepressants targeting Na(+)/Cl(-)-coupled neurotransmitter uptake define a key therapeutic strategy to treat clinical depression and neuropathic pain. However, identifying the molecular interactions that underlie the pharmacological activity of these transport inhibitors, and thus the mechanism by which the inhibitors lead to increased synaptic neurotransmitter levels, has proven elusive. Here we present the crystal structure of the Drosophila melanogaster dopamine transporter at 3.0?Å resolution bound to the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline. The transporter is locked in an outward-open conformation with nortriptyline wedged between transmembrane helices 1, 3, 6 and 8, blocking the transporter from binding substrate and from isomerizing to an inward-facing conformation. Although the overall structure of the dopamine transporter is similar to that of its prokaryotic relative LeuT, there are multiple distinctions, including a kink in transmembrane helix 12 halfway across the membrane bilayer, a latch-like carboxy-terminal helix that caps the cytoplasmic gate, and a cholesterol molecule wedged within a groove formed by transmembrane helices 1a, 5 and 7. Taken together, the dopamine transporter structure reveals the molecular basis for antidepressant action on sodium-coupled neurotransmitter symporters and elucidates critical elements of eukaryotic transporter structure and modulation by lipids, thus expanding our understanding of the mechanism and regulation of neurotransmitter uptake at chemical synapses. PMID:24037379

Penmatsa, Aravind; Wang, Kevin H; Gouaux, Eric

2013-11-01

331

Dopamine transporter as target for drug development of cocaine dependence medications.  

PubMed

Because much evidence implicates the dopamine transporter in the reinforcing effects of cocaine, development of potential medications for cocaine dependence has included the dopamine transporter as a target. The present overview covers progress in the drug development area regarding several classes of dopamine uptake inhibitors, with an emphasis on structure-activity relationships that enhance potency and selectivity at transporters for dopamine compared with those for serotonin or norepinephrine. The following categories of compounds are covered: tropane, benztropine, 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (GBR), methylphenidate, mazindol, and phencyclidine analogs. Activity at transporters as well as on behavior is highlighted. PMID:14612141

Dutta, Aloke K; Zhang, Shijun; Kolhatkar, Rohit; Reith, Maarten E A

2003-10-31

332

Signaling Pathways Take Aim at Neurotransmitter Transporters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Neurotransmitter transporters are the target of various pharmacological agents used to treat psychological or cognitive conditions, such as depression and attention-deficit disorder. In addition, some of the effects of stimulant-type drugs of abuse result from inhibition of neurotransmitter transporters. Robinson describes the intersection between neurotransmitter transporters and signaling pathways. Neurotransmitter transporters can be regulated by altering the rate of internalization and insertion into the plasma membrane to control cell surface expression or by altering the activity of the transporters within the membrane. As the mechanisms governing regulation of these transporters become elucidated, new potential therapeutic targets may be revealed, given the many processes affected by the activity of neurotransmitter transporters.

Michael B. Robinson (University of Pennsylvania;Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia REV)

2003-11-04

333

Regulation of serotonin biosynthesis by the G proteins Galphao and Galphaq controls serotonin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

To analyze mechanisms that modulate serotonin signaling, we investigated how Caenorhabditis elegans regulates the function of serotonergic motor neurons that stimulate egg-laying behavior. Egg laying is inhibited by the G protein Galphao and activated by the G protein Galphaq. We found that Galphao and Galphaq act directly in the serotonergic HSN motor neurons to control egg laying. There, the G proteins had opposing effects on transcription of the tryptophan hydroxylase gene tph-1, which encodes the rate-limiting enzyme for serotonin biosynthesis. Antiserotonin staining confirmed that Galphao and Galphaq antagonistically affect serotonin levels. Altering tph-1 gene dosage showed that small changes in tph-1 expression were sufficient to affect egg-laying behavior. Epistasis experiments showed that signaling through the G proteins has additional tph-1-independent effects. Our results indicate that (1) serotonin signaling is regulated by modulating serotonin biosynthesis and (2) Galphao and Galphaq act in the same neurons to have opposing effects on behavior, in part, by antagonistically regulating transcription of specific genes. Galphao and Galphaq have opposing effects on many behaviors in addition to egg laying and may generally act, as they do in the egg-laying system, to integrate multiple signals and consequently set levels of transcription of genes that affect neurotransmitter release. PMID:18202365

Tanis, Jessica E; Moresco, James J; Lindquist, Robert A; Koelle, Michael R

2008-01-01

334

Chronic clozapine, but not haloperidol, alters the response of mesoprefrontal dopamine neurons to stress and clozapine challenges in rats.  

PubMed

Previously, we demonstrated that serotonin-lesioned rats had an enhanced mesoprefrontal dopaminergic response to restraint stress. This study attempted to extend our knowledge regarding this serotonin/dopamine interaction by seeing if suppression of serotonin metabolism by chronic administration of the atypical antipsychotic, clozapine, would have similar effects. Both typical and atypical neuroleptics require chronic administration in humans before antipsychotic activity is seen. Rats treated for 21 days with clozapine or haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic without significant binding affinity for serotonergic receptors, showed lowered basal dopamine metabolism in the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, and the striatum, as expected. Basal serotonin metabolism in the prefrontal cortex was also lowered by clozapine treatment, but not haloperidol. One of two challenges were given to chronically treated rats: 30 min of restraint stress or an acute challenge of clozapine. When corrected for baseline differences, both challenges significantly elevated dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex of the clozapine group more than the saline or haloperidol groups. No hyperresponsiveness was seen with serotonin metabolism in the prefrontal cortex or either dopamine or serotonin metabolism in the nucleus accumbens in clozapine-treated, challenged rats. Additionally, this augmentation of the dopaminergic stress response was not seen with a single, acute administration of clozapine. The significance of the clozapine-induced hyperresponsiveness of the mesoprefrontal dopamine system is discussed with regard to clinical efficacy of clozapine. PMID:10459169

Morrow, B A; Rosenberg, S J; Roth, R H

1999-10-01

335

Serotonin: a novel bone mass controller may have implications for alveolar bone.  

PubMed

As recent studies highlight the importance of alternative mechanisms in the control of bone turnover, new therapeutic approaches can be envisaged for bone diseases and periodontitis-induced bone loss. Recently, it has been shown that Fluoxetine and Venlafaxine, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors commonly used as antidepressants, can positively or negatively affect bone loss in rat models of induced periodontitis. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that can be found within specific nuclei of the central nervous system, but can also be produced in the gut and be sequestered inside platelet granules. Although it is known to be mainly involved in the control of mood, sleep, and intestinal physiology, recent evidence has pointed at far reaching effects on bone metabolism, as a mediator of the effects of Lrp5, a membrane receptor commonly associated with Wnt canonical signaling and osteoblast differentiation. Deletion of Lrp5 in mice lead to increased expression of Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1, the gut isoform of the enzyme required for serotonin synthesis, thus increasing serum levels of serotonin. Serotonin, in turn, could bind to HTR1B receptors on osteoblasts and stop their proliferation by activating PKA and CREB.Although different groups have reported controversial results on the existence of an Lrp5-serotonin axis and the action of serotonin in bone remodeling, there is convincing evidence that serotonin modulators such as SSRIs can affect bone turnover. Consequently, the effects of this drug family on periodontal physiology should be thoroughly explored. PMID:23964727

Galli, Carlo; Macaluso, Guido; Passeri, Giovanni

2013-01-01

336

Serotonin: a novel bone mass controller may have implications for alveolar bone  

PubMed Central

As recent studies highlight the importance of alternative mechanisms in the control of bone turnover, new therapeutic approaches can be envisaged for bone diseases and periodontitis-induced bone loss. Recently, it has been shown that Fluoxetine and Venlafaxine, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors commonly used as antidepressants, can positively or negatively affect bone loss in rat models of induced periodontitis. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that can be found within specific nuclei of the central nervous system, but can also be produced in the gut and be sequestered inside platelet granules. Although it is known to be mainly involved in the control of mood, sleep, and intestinal physiology, recent evidence has pointed at far reaching effects on bone metabolism, as a mediator of the effects of Lrp5, a membrane receptor commonly associated with Wnt canonical signaling and osteoblast differentiation. Deletion of Lrp5 in mice lead to increased expression of Tryptophan Hydroxylase 1, the gut isoform of the enzyme required for serotonin synthesis, thus increasing serum levels of serotonin. Serotonin, in turn, could bind to HTR1B receptors on osteoblasts and stop their proliferation by activating PKA and CREB. Although different groups have reported controversial results on the existence of an Lrp5-serotonin axis and the action of serotonin in bone remodeling, there is convincing evidence that serotonin modulators such as SSRIs can affect bone turnover. Consequently, the effects of this drug family on periodontal physiology should be thoroughly explored.

2013-01-01

337

The Association between Dopamine DRD2 Polymorphisms and Working Memory Capacity Is Modulated by a Functional Polymorphism on the Nicotinic Receptor Gene CHRNA4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory capacity is extremely limited and individual differences are heritable to a considerable extent. In the search for a better understanding of the exact genetic underpinnings of working memory, most research has focused on functional gene variants involved in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Recently, there has been investigation of genes related to other neurotransmitter systems such as

Sebastian A. Markett; Christian Montag; Martin Reuter

2010-01-01

338

The Association between Dopamine DRD2 Polymorphisms and Working Memory Capacity Is Modulated by a Functional Polymorphism on the Nicotinic Receptor Gene CHRNA4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working memory capacity is extremely limited and individual differences are heritable to a considerable extent. In the search for a better understanding of the exact genetic underpinnings of working memory, most research has focused on functional gene variants involved in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Recently, there has been investigation of genes related to other neurotransmitter systems such as

Sebastian A. Markett; Christian Montag; Martin Reuter

2009-01-01

339

Effects of volatile and intravenous anesthetics on the uptake of GABA, glutamate and dopamine by their transporters heterologously expressed in COS cells and in rat brain synaptosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the neurotransmitter uptake system is considered a possible target for the presynaptic action of anesthetic agents, observations are inconsistent concerning effects on the transporter and their clinical relevance. The present study examined the effects of volatile and intravenous anesthetics on the uptake of GABA, glutamate and dopamine in COS cells heterologously expressing the transporters for these neurotransmitters and in

Mitsutaka Sugimura; Shigeo Kitayama; Katsuya Morita; Masahiro Irifune; Tohru Takarada; Michio Kawahara; Toshihiro Dohi

2001-01-01

340

Tesofensine, a novel triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor with anti-obesity effects: dopamine transporter occupancy as measured by PET.  

PubMed

Tesofensine (TE) is a novel triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor inducing a potent inhibition of the re-uptake process in the synaptic cleft of the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin. In recent preclinical and clinical evaluations TE showed a robust anti-obesity effect, but the specific mechanism of this triple monoamine re-uptake inhibitor still needs to be further elucidated. This positron emission tomography (PET) study, using [¹¹C]?CIT-FE, aimed to assess the degree of the dopamine transporter (DAT) occupancy, at constant TE plasma levels, following different oral, multiple doses of TE during totally 8-12 days. In addition, the relationships between DAT occupancy and TE plasma concentrations, or doses, were investigated to enable assessment of DAT occupancies in subsequent clinical trials. The results demonstrated that TE induced a dose-dependent blockade of DAT following multiple doses of 0.125-1 mg TE at anticipated steady-state conditions. The mean striatal DAT occupancy varied dose-dependently between 18% and 77%. A sigmoid E(max) model well described the relationship between striatal DAT occupancy and TE plasma concentrations or doses. It was estimated that the maximum achievable DAT occupancy was about 80% and that half of this effect was accomplished by approximately 0.25 mg TE and a plasma drug concentration of 4 ng/ml. The results indicated an important mechanism of action of TE on DAT. Further, these results suggest that the previously reported dose-dependent weight loss, in TE treated subjects, was in part mediated by an up-regulation of dopaminergic pathways due to enhanced amounts of synaptic dopamine after blockade of DAT. PMID:24239329

Appel, Lieuwe; Bergström, Mats; Buus Lassen, Jørgen; Långström, Bengt

2014-02-01

341

Oxidative and stepwise grafting of dopamine inner-sphere redox couple onto electrode material: electron transfer activation of dopamine.  

PubMed

The immobilization of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, onto macroelectrode and microelectrode surfaces has been performed following two strategies. The first consists of a one-step grafting based on electrochemical oxidation of an amino group in acidic media. The second is a stepwise process starting with electrochemical grafting of diazonium, leading to the attachment of aryl layer bearing an acidic headgroup, followed by chemical coupling leading to immobilized dopamine molecules onto the electrode surface. Electrochemical, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses evidence that both methods are suitable for the immobilization of dopamine onto millimetric and micronic electrodes. The electrochemical responses of modified electrodes demonstrate that the electroactivity of the attached dopamine layer appears unaffected by the nature of the spacer, alkyl or aryl layers, suggesting that the communication, through tunneling, between the attached dopamine and the electrode is possible. More interestingly, the dopamine-modified electrode exhibits electron transfer activation toward dopamine in solution. As a result, not only does the dopamine modified electrode yield a fast electron transfer with lower ?E(p) (30 mV) than the majority of pretreatment procedures but also the ?E(p) is as small as that observed for more complex surface treatments. PMID:24171668

Ghilane, Jalal; Hauquier, Fanny; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe

2013-12-01

342

Effects of dietary amino acids, carbohydrates, and choline on neurotransmitter synthesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability of a meal to increase or decrease brain neurotransmitter synthesis has been studied. It is concluded that brain serotonin synthesis is directly controlled by the proportions of carbohydrate to protein in meals and snacks that increase or decrease brain tryptophan levels, thereby changing the substrate saturation of tryptophan hydroxylase and the rate of serotonin synthesis. The ability of serotoninergic neurons to have their output coupled to dietary macronutrients enables them to function as sensors of peripheral metabolism, and to subserve an important role in the control of appetite. The robust and selective responses of catecholaminergic and cholinergic neurons to supplemental tyrosine and choline suggest that these compounds may become useful as a new type of drug for treating deseases or conditions in which adequate quantities of the transmitter would otherwise be unavailable.

Wurtman, Richard J.

1988-01-01

343

Calcium control of neurotransmitter release.  

PubMed

Upon entering a presynaptic terminal, an action potential opens Ca(2+) channels, and transiently increases the local Ca(2+) concentration at the presynaptic active zone. Ca(2+) then triggers neurotransmitter release within a few hundred microseconds by activating synaptotagmins Ca(2+). Synaptotagmins bind Ca(2+) via two C2-domains, and transduce the Ca(2+) signal into a nanomechanical activation of the membrane fusion machinery; this activation is mediated by the Ca(2+)-dependent interaction of the synaptotagmin C2-domains with phospholipids and SNARE proteins. In triggering exocytosis, synaptotagmins do not act alone, but require an obligatory cofactor called complexin, a small protein that binds to SNARE complexes and simultaneously activates and clamps the SNARE complexes, thereby positioning the SNARE complexes for subsequent synaptotagmin action. The conserved function of synaptotagmins and complexins operates generally in most, if not all, Ca(2+)-regulated forms of exocytosis throughout the body in addition to synaptic vesicle exocytosis, including in the degranulation of mast cells, acrosome exocytosis in sperm cells, hormone secretion from endocrine cells, and neuropeptide release. PMID:22068972

Südhof, Thomas C

2012-01-01

344

Calcium Control of Neurotransmitter Release  

PubMed Central

Upon entering a presynaptic terminal, an action potential opens Ca2+ channels, and transiently increases the local Ca2+ concentration at the presynaptic active zone. Ca2+ then triggers neurotransmitter release within a few hundred microseconds by activating synaptotagmins Ca2+. Synaptotagmins bind Ca2+ via two C2-domains, and transduce the Ca2+ signal into a nanomechanical activation of the membrane fusion machinery; this activation is mediated by the Ca2+-dependent interaction of the synaptotagmin C2-domains with phospholipids and SNARE proteins. In triggering exocytosis, synaptotagmins do not act alone, but require an obligatory cofactor called complexin, a small protein that binds to SNARE complexes and simultaneously activates and clamps the SNARE complexes, thereby positioning the SNARE complexes for subsequent synaptotagmin action. The conserved function of synaptotagmins and complexins operates generally in most, if not all, Ca2+-regulated forms of exocytosis throughout the body in addition to synaptic vesicle exocytosis, including in the degranulation of mast cells, acrosome exocytosis in sperm cells, hormone secretion from endocrine cells, and neuropeptide release.

Sudhof, Thomas C.

2012-01-01

345

Nonparametric extraction of transient changes in neurotransmitter concentration from dynamic PET data.  

PubMed

We have developed a nonparametric approach to the analysis of dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) data for extracting temporal characteristics of the change in endogenous neurotransmitter concentration in the brain. An algebraic method based on singular value decomposition (SVD) was applied to simulated data under both rest (neurotransmitter at baseline) and activated (transient neurotransmitter release) conditions. The resulting signals are related to the integral of the change in free neurotransmitter concentration in the tissue. Therefore, a specially designed minimum mean-square error (MMSE) filter must be applied to the signals to recover the desired temporal pattern of neurotransmitter change. To test the method, we simulated sets of realistic time activity curves representing uptake of [11C]raclopride, a dopamine (DA) receptor antagonist, in brain regions, under baseline and dopamine-release conditions. Our tests considered two scenarios: 1) a spatially homogeneous pattern with all voxels in the activated state presenting an identical DA signal; 2) a spatially heterogeneous pattern in which different DA signals were contained in different families of voxels. In the first case, we demonstrated that the timing of a single DA peak can be accurately identified to within 1 min and that two distinct neurotransmitter peaks can be distinguished. In the second case, separate peaks of activation separated by as little as 5 min can be distinguished. A decrease in blood flow during activation could not account for our findings. We applied the method to human PET data acquired with [11C]raclopride in the presence of transiently elevated DA due to intravenous (IV) alcohol. Our results for an area of the nucleus accumbens-a region relevant to alcohol consumption-agreed with a model-based method for estimating the DA response. SVD-based analysis of dynamic PET data promises a completely noninvasive and model-independent technique for determining the dynamics of a neurotransmitter response to cognitive or pharmacological stimuli. Our results indicate that the method is robust enough for application to voxel-by-voxel data. PMID:17354641

Constantinescu, Cristian C; Bouman, Charles; Morris, Evan D

2007-03-01

346

Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressant, produces regionally selective increases of multiple neurotransmitters--a rat microdialysis and electrophysiology study.  

PubMed

The monoaminergic network, including serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) pathways, is highly interconnected and has a well-established role in mood disorders. Preclinical research suggests that 5-HT receptor subtypes, including 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT3, and 5-HT7 receptors as well as the 5-HT transporter (SERT), may have important roles in treating depression. This study evaluated the neuropharmacological profile of Lu AA21004, a novel multimodal antidepressant combining 5-HT3 and 5-HT7 receptor antagonism, 5-HT1B receptor partial agonism, 5-HT1A receptor agonism, and SERT inhibition in recombinant cell lines. Extracellular 5-HT, NE and DA levels were evaluated in the ventral hippocampus (vHC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) after acute and subchronic treatment with Lu AA21004 or escitalopram. The acute effects of LuAA21004 on NE and DA neuronal firing were also evaluated in the locus coeruleus (LC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), respectively. Acute Lu AA21004 dose-dependently increased 5-HT in the vHC, mPFC and NAc. Maximal 5-HT levels in the vHC were higher than those in the mPFC. Furthermore, mPFC 5-HT levels were increased at low SERT occupancy levels. In the vHC and mPFC, but not the NAc, high Lu AA21004 doses increased NE and DA levels. Lu AA21004 slightly decreased LC NE neuronal firing and had no effect on VTA DA firing. Results are discussed in context of occupancy at 5-HT3, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1A receptors and SERT. In conclusion, Lu AA21004, acting via two pharmacological modalities, 5-HT receptor modulation and SERT inhibition, results in a brain region-dependent increase of multiple neurotransmitter concentrations. PMID:22612991

Pehrson, Alan L; Cremers, Thomas; Bétry, Cecile; van der Hart, Marieke G C; Jørgensen, Laerke; Madsen, Mathias; Haddjeri, Nasser; Ebert, Bjarke; Sanchez, Connie

2013-02-01

347

Exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic field restores spinal cord injury-induced tonic pain and its related neurotransmitter concentration in the brain.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is unequivocally reported to produce hyperalgesia to phasic stimuli, while both hyper- and hypoalgesia to tonic stimuli. The former is spinally mediated and the latter centrally. Besides, its management is unsatisfactory. We report the effect of magnetic field (MF; 17.96 ?T, 50 Hz) on tonic pain behavior and related neurotransmitters in the brain of complete thoracic (T13) SCI rats at week 8. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into Sham, SCI and SCI+MF groups. Formalin-pain behavior was compared utilizing 5 min block pain rating (PR), 60 min session-PR, time spent in various categories of increasing pain (T0-T3) and flinch incidences. Serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinepherine (NE), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and glycine were estimated in brain tissue by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Session-PR, block-PR and number of flinches were significantly lower, while time spent in categories 0-1 was higher in the SCI versus Sham group. These parameters were comparable in the SCI+MF versus Sham group. 5-HT concentration in cortex, remaining forebrain areas and brain stem (BS), was lower while GABA and NE were higher in BS of SCI, which were comparable with Sham in the SCI+MF group. The concentration of DA, glutamate and glycine was comparable amongst the groups. The data indicate significant hypoalgesia in formalin pain while increased in GABA, NE and decreased in 5-HT post-SCI, which were restored in the SCI+MF group. We suggest beneficial effect of chronic (2 h/day × 8 weeks) exposure to MF (50 Hz, 17.96 ?T) on tonic pain that is mediated by 5-HT, GABA and NE in complete SCI rats. PMID:23656297

Kumar, Suneel; Jain, Suman; Velpandian, Thirumurthy; Petrovich Gerasimenko, Yury; D Avelev, Valery; Behari, Jitendra; Behari, Madhuri; Mathur, Rashmi

2013-12-01

348

Dopamine Induces Ca2+ Signaling in Astrocytes through Reactive Oxygen Species Generated by Monoamine Oxidase  

PubMed Central

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a major role in a variety of brain functions, as well as in disorders such as Parkinson disease and schizophrenia. In cultured astrocytes, we have found that dopamine induces sporadic cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca2+]c) signals. Importantly, we show that the dopamine-induced calcium signaling is receptor-independent in midbrain, cortical, and hippocampal astrocytes. We demonstrate that the calcium signal is initiated by the metabolism of dopamine by monoamine oxidase, which produces reactive oxygen species and induces lipid peroxidation. This stimulates the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor mechanism. These findings have major implications on the function of astrocytes that are exposed to dopamine and may contribute to understanding the physiological role of dopamine.

Vaarmann, Annika; Gandhi, Sonia; Abramov, Andrey Y.

2010-01-01

349

Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters  

SciTech Connect

Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational design of new inhibitors.

Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

2007-01-01

350

Serotonin, but not N-Methyltryptamines, activates the Serotonin 2A Receptor via a ?arrestin2/Src/Akt signaling complex in vivo  

PubMed Central

Hallucinogens mediate many of their psychoactive effects by activating serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT2AR). While serotonin is the cognate endogenous neurotransmitter and is not considered hallucinogenic, metabolites of serotonin also have high affinity at 5-HT2AR and can induce hallucinations in humans. Here we report that serotonin differs from the psychoactive N-methyltryptamines by its ability to engage a ?arrestin2-mediated signaling cascade in the frontal cortex. Serotonin and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) induce a head twitch response in wild-type (WT) mice which is a behavioral proxy for 5-HT2AR activation. The response in ?arrestin2 knockout (?arr2-KO) mice is greatly attenuated until the doses are elevated, at which point, ?arr2-KO mice display a head twitch response that can exceed that of WT mice. Direct administration of N-methyltryptamines also produces a greater response in ?arr2-KO mice. Moreover, the inhibition of N-methyltransferase blocks 5-HTP-induced head twitches in ?arr2-KO mice indicating that N-methyltrypatmines, rather than serotonin, primarily mediate this response. Biochemical studies demonstrate that serotonin stimulates Akt phosphorylation in the frontal cortex and in primary cortical neurons through the activation of a ?arrestin2/PI3-K/Src/Akt cascade, while N-methyltryptamines do not. Further, disruption of any of the components of this cascade prevents 5-HTP-, but not N-methyltryptamine-induced, head twitches. We propose that there is a bifurcation of 5-HT2AR signaling that is neurotransmitter- and ?arrestin2-dependent. This demonstration of agonist-directed 5-HT2AR signaling in vivo, may significantly impact drug discovery efforts for the treatment of disorders wherein hallucinations are part of the etiology, such as schizophrenia, or manifest as side effects of treatment, such as depression.

Schmid, Cullen L.; Bohn, Laura M.

2010-01-01

351

Serotonin, but not N-methyltryptamines, activates the serotonin 2A receptor via a ß-arrestin2/Src/Akt signaling complex in vivo.  

PubMed

Hallucinogens mediate many of their psychoactive effects by activating serotonin 2A receptors (5-HT(2A)R). Although serotonin is the cognate endogenous neurotransmitter and is not considered hallucinogenic, metabolites of serotonin also have high affinity at 5-HT(2A)R and can induce hallucinations in humans. Here we report that serotonin differs from the psychoactive N-methyltryptamines by its ability to engage a ?-arrestin2-mediated signaling cascade in the frontal cortex. Serotonin and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP) induce a head-twitch response in wild-type (WT) mice that is a behavioral proxy for 5-HT(2A)R activation. The response in ?-arrestin2 knock-out (?arr2-KO) mice is greatly attenuated until the doses are elevated, at which point, ?arr2-KO mice display a head-twitch response that can exceed that of WT mice. Direct administration of N-methyltryptamines also produces a greater response in ?arr2-KO mice. Moreover, the inhibition of N-methyltransferase blocks 5-HTP-induced head twitches in ?arr2-KO mice, indicating that N-methyltryptamines, rather than serotonin, primarily mediate this response. Biochemical studies demonstrate that serotonin stimulates Akt phosphorylation in the frontal cortex and in primary cortical neurons through the activation of a ?-arrestin2/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Src/Akt cascade, whereas N-methyltryptamines do not. Furthermore, disruption of any of the components of this cascade prevents 5-HTP-induced, but not N-methyltryptamine-induced, head twitches. We propose that there is a bifurcation of 5-HT(2A)R signaling that is neurotransmitter and ?-arrestin2 dependent. This demonstration of agonist-directed 5-HT(2A)R signaling in vivo may significantly impact drug discovery efforts for the treatment of disorders wherein hallucinations are part of the etiology, such as schizophrenia, or manifest as side effects of treatment, such as depression. PMID:20926677

Schmid, Cullen L; Bohn, Laura M

2010-10-01

352

Depression in Parkinson's disease: loss of dopamine and noradrenaline innervation in the limbic system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The reason for the high frequency of depression and anxiety in Parkinson's disease is poorly understood. Degeneration of neurotransmitter systems other than dopamine might play a specific role in the occurrence of these affective disorders. We used (11C)RTI-32 PET, an in vivo marker of both dopamine and noradrenaline trans- porter binding, to localize differences between depressed and non-depressed patients.

Philippe Remy; Miroslava Doder; Andrew Lees; Nora Turjanski; David Brooks

2005-01-01

353

Adenosine and Dopamine Receptor Interactions in Striatum and Caffeine-induced Behavioral Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review will examine how dopamine, a monoamine neurotransmitter, and adenosine, a neuromodulator, regulate behavioral activation, primarily as refl ected by locomotor activity, in rodents. Complex interactions among 2 major types of adenosine recep- tors (A1AR and A2AAR) and 2 dopamine receptors (D1R and D2R) occur due to physical interactions that alter their ligand-binding properties and subsequent effects on common

Xiaobin Xie; Vickram Ramkumar; Linda A Toth

354

Effects of endogenous dopamine on measures of [18F]N-methylspiroperidol binding in the basal ganglia: Comparison of simulations and experimental results from PET studies in baboons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of endogenous dopamine on PET measures of radioligand binding is important to the measurement of receptor density (or availability) and neurotransmitter interactions in vivo. We recently reported that pretreatment with amphetamine, a drug which stimulates dopamine release, significantly reduced NMS binding in the baboon brain as determined by the product Ak3 derived from the graphical analysis method for

Jean Logan; Stephen L. Dewey; Alfred P. Wolf; Joanna S. Fowler; Jonathan D. Brodie; Burton Angrist; Nora D. Volkow; S. John Gatley

1991-01-01

355

Neurotransmitter and Peptide Localization in Human Brain.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies utilizing human brain tissue examined the colocalozation of neurotransmitters using immunocytochemical and in vitro hybridization techniques. Results have shown the coexistance of somatostatin and neuropeptide Y in the hippocampus, and galanin and...

V. Chan-Palay

1990-01-01

356

Calmodulin-dependent regulation of neurotransmitter release differs in subsets of neuronal cells.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether calmodulin (CaM) plays a role in neurotransmitter release by examining the effect that ophiobolin A (OBA), a CaM antagonist, on neurotransmitter release from clonal rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells, primary cortical neurons, and primary cerebellar granule cells. OBA inhibited Ca²?/CaM-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein in all cell types tested. Moreover, Ca²?-dependent release of dopamine and acetylcholine from PC12 cells were remarkably reduced by OBA in a dose-dependent and temporal manner, but neurotransmitter release partially recovered with the addition of CaM in membrane permeabilized PC12 cells. OBA and several synthetic CaM antagonists suppressed Ca²?-dependent glutamate release from cerebral cortical neurons, but not from cerebellar granule cells. Myosin Va, a CaM binding protein, localized to synaptic vesicles of PC12 cells and cerebral cortical neurons, but not in cerebellar granule cells. OBA suppressed Ca²?-induced myosin Va dissociation from secretory vesicles, and inhibited secretory vesicle motility in PC12 cells. These results suggest that CaM, although not essential, regulates neurotransmitter release in a subset of neurons and secretory cells, and myosin Va is a possible target of OBA in this process. PMID:23973605

Ando, Kosuke; Kudo, Yoshihisa; Aoyagi, Kyota; Ishikawa, Ryoki; Igarashi, Michihiro; Takahashi, Masami

2013-10-16

357

Acute Effect of Manganese on Hypothalamic Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone Secretion in Adult Male Rats: Involvement of Specific Neurotransmitter Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese chloride (MnCl2) is capable of stimulating luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) secretion in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats through the activation of the hypothalamic nitric oxide\\/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)\\/protein kinase G pathway. The present study aimed to determine the in- volvement of specific neurotransmitters involved in this action. Our results indicate that dopamine, but not glutamic acid and prosta- glandinds,

Juan Pablo Prestifilippo; Javier Fernandez-Solari; Andrea De Laurentiis; Claudia Ester Mohn; Carolina de la Cal; R. Reynoso; W. L. Dees; V. Rettori

2008-01-01

358

[ 123I] ?-CIT and single photon emission computed tomography reveal reduced brain serotonin transporter availability in bulimia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Impaired serotonin transmission has been implicated in the pathophysiology of eating disorders. We investigated the in vivo availability of brain serotonin transporters and dopamine transporters in bulimia nervosa patients.Methods: Approximately 24 hours after injection of [123I]-2?-carbomethoxy-3?-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([123I] ?-CIT), single photon emission computed tomography scans were performed in 10 medication-free, female bulimic patients and 10 age-matched, healthy females. For quantification

Johannes Tauscher; Walter Pirker; Matthäus Willeit; Martina de Zwaan; Ursula Bailer; Alexander Neumeister; Susanne Asenbaum; Claudia Lennkh; Nicole Praschak-Rieder; Thomas Brücke; Siegfried Kasper

2001-01-01

359

Validation of an ELISA for urinary dopamine: applications in monitoring treatment of dopamine-related disorders.  

PubMed

Dopamine is a catecholamine that serves as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system. Non-invasive, reliable, and high-throughput techniques for its quantification are needed to assess dysfunctions of the dopaminergic system and monitor therapies. We developed and validated a competitive ELISA for direct determination of dopamine in urine samples. The method provides high specificity, good accuracy, and precision (average inter-assay variation < 12%). The analysis is not affected by general urinary components and structurally related drugs and metabolites. The correlation between ELISA and LC-MS/MS analyses was very good (r = 0.986, n = 28). The reference range was 64-261 ?g/g Cr (n = 64). Week-to-week biological variations of second morning urinary dopamine under free-living conditions were 23.9% for within- and 35.5% for between-subject variation (n = 10). The assay is applied in monitoring Parkinson's disease patients under different treatments. Urinary dopamine levels significantly increase in a dose-dependent manner for Parkinson's disease patients under l-DOPA treatment. The present ELISA provides a cost-effective alternative to chromatographic methods to monitor patients receiving dopamine restoring treatment to ensure appropriate dosing and clinical efficacy. The method can be used in pathological research for the assessment of possible peripheral biological markers for disorders related to the dopaminergic system. PMID:23530945

Nichkova, Mikaela; Wynveen, Paul M; Marc, David T; Huisman, Han; Kellermann, Gottfried H

2013-06-01

360

Rationality and emotionality: serotonin transporter genotype influences reasoning bias  

PubMed Central

Reasoning often occurs under emotionally charged, opinion-laden circumstances. The belief-bias effect indexes the extent to which reasoning is based upon beliefs rather than logical structure. We examined whether emotional content increases this effect, particularly for adults genetically predisposed to be more emotionally reactive. SS/SLG carriers of the serotonin transporter genotype (5-HTTLPR) were less accurate selectively for evaluating emotional relational reasoning problems with belief-logic conflict relative to LALA carriers. Trait anxiety was positively associated with emotional belief-bias, and the 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly accounted for the variance in this association. Thus, deductive reasoning, a higher cognitive ability, is sensitive to differences in emotionality rooted in serotonin neurotransmitter function.

Bean, Stephanie E.; Anderson, Lindsay M.; Devaney, Joseph M.; Vaidya, Chandan J.

2013-01-01

361

Dopamine D2-like receptor signaling suppresses human osteoclastogenesis.  

PubMed

Dopamine, a major neurotransmitter, transmits signals via five different seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors termed D1 to D5. Although the relevance of neuroendocrine system to bone metabolism has been emerging, the precise effects of dopaminergic signaling upon osteoclastogenesis remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that human monocyte-derived osteoclast precursor cells express all dopamine-receptor subtypes. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists such as pramipexole and quinpirole reduced the formation of TRAP-positive multi-nucleated cells, cathepsin K mRNA expression, and pit formation area in vitro. These inhibitory effects were reversed by pre-treatment with a D2-like receptor antagonist haloperidol or a G?i inhibitor pertussis toxin, but not with the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390. Dopamine and dopamine D2-like receptor agonists, but not a D1-like receptor agonist, suppressed intracellular cAMP concentration as well as RANKL-meditated induction of c-Fos and NFATc1 mRNA expression in human osteoclast precursor cells. Finally, the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist suppressed LPS-induced osteoclast formation in murine bone marrow culture ex vivo. These findings indicate that dopaminergic signaling plays an important role in bone homeostasis via direct effects upon osteoclast differentiation and further suggest that the clinical use of neuroleptics is likely to affect bone mass. PMID:23631878

Hanami, Kentaro; Nakano, Kazuhisa; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Okada, Yosuke; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Kubo, Satoshi; Kondo, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshiya

2013-09-01

362

Brain dopamine and amino acid concentrations in Lurcher mutant mice.  

PubMed

Lurcher mutant mice are characterized by massive degeneration of the cerebellum, including Purkinje cells and granule cells, as well as for the loss of neurons from the inferior olive. Concentrations of dopamine and two of its metabolites and of several amino acid neurotransmitters were determined in the cerebellum and in other brain regions of these mutants. By comparison to wild-type mice of the same background strain, glutamate and taurine concentrations were reduced in the Lurcher cerebellum. No decrease was found for aspartate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, as well as dopamine and its metabolites. Moreover, no neurochemical alterations occurred in the brain stem, thalamus, or neostriatum of Lurcher mutants. A selective reduction of glutamate concentration was found in the hippocampus, while all amino acids measured were decreased in the entorhinal-piriform areas. These results indicate region-selective reductions of neurotransmitter concentrations in a mouse mutant with a defined cerebellar cortical pathology. PMID:9570718

Reader, T A; Strazielle, C; Botez, M I; Lalonde, R

1998-03-15

363

Serotonin 5HT 2C Receptor Signal Transduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The neurotransmitter serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) binds to at least 14 structurally and pharmacologically distinct\\u000a receptor subtypes. All 5-HT receptors with the exception of 5-HT3 receptor, which is a ligand-gated ion channel, belong to the seven- transmembrane domain G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)\\u000a superfamily. Among all of 5-HT receptor subtypes, 5-HT2C receptor raises particular interest because of its important physiological roles in

Maria N. Garnovskaya; John R. Raymond

364

Role of Dopamine Transporter in Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity: Evidence from Mice Lacking the Transporter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of the dopamine transporter (DAT) in mediating the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (METH) was tested in mice lacking DAT. Dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) content, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, and free radical formation were assessed as markers of METH neurotoxicity in the striatum and\\/or hippocampus of wild-type, heterozygote, and homozygote (DAT 2\\/2) mice. Four injections of

Fabio Fumagalli; Raul R. Gainetdinov; Kenneth J. Valenzano; Marc G. Caron

1998-01-01

365

(+)-AJ 76 and (+)UH 232: Central stimulants acting as preferential dopamine autoreceptor antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical and behavioral effects of the putative dopamine autoreceptor antagonists cis-(+)-5-methoxy-1-methyl-2-(n-propylamino)tetralin, (+)-AJ 76 and cis-(+)-5-methoxy-1-methyl-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin, (+)-UH 232, were evaluated in various in vivo models in rats. Both compounds produced a marked elevation in brain dopamine synthesis and turnover with only slight effects on the synthesis and turnover of serotonin (5-HT) and noradrenaline being noted. (+)-AJ 76 and (+)-UH 232

Kjell Svensson; Anette M. Johansson; Tor Magnusson; Arvid Carlsson

1986-01-01

366

l-dopa-induced dopamine synthesis and oxidative stress in serotonergic cells  

PubMed Central

l-dopa is a precursor for dopamine synthesis and a mainstay treatment for Parkinson's disease. However, l-dopa therapy is not without side effects that may be attributed to non-dopaminergic mechanisms. Synthesized dopamine can be neurotoxic through its enzymatic degradation by monoamine oxidase (MAO) to form the reactive byproduct, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals or through auto-oxidation to form highly reactive quinones that can bind proteins and render them non-functional. Since l-dopa could be decarboxylated by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) present within both dopamine and serotonin neurons, it was hypothesized that serotonin neurons convert l-dopa into dopamine to generate excessive reactive oxygen species and quinoproteins that ultimately lead to serotonin neuron death. To examine the effects of l-dopa on serotonin neurons, the RN46A-B14 cell line was used. These immortalized serotonergic cell cultures were terminally differentiated and then incubated with varying concentrations of l-dopa. Results show that RN46A-B14 cells contain AADC and can synthesize dopamine after incubation with l-dopa. Furthermore, l-dopa dose-dependently increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death. Dopamine, ROS production and cell death were attenuated by co-incubation with the AADC inhibitor, NSD-1015. The MAO inhibitor, pargyline, also attenuated cell death and ROS after l-dopa treatment. Lastly, quinoprotein formation was enhanced significantly by incubation with l-dopa. Taken together, these data illustrate that serotonergic cells can produce dopamine and that the accumulation of dopamine after l-dopa and its subsequent degradation can lead to ROS production and death of RN46A-B14 serotonergic cells.

Stansley, Branden J.; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

2013-01-01

367

Evolution of neurotransmitter receptor systems.  

PubMed

The presence of hormones, neurotransmitters, their receptors and biosynthetic and degradative enzymes is clearly not only associated with the present and the recent past but with the past several hundred million years. Evidence is mounting which indicates substantial conservation of protein structure and function of these receptors and enzymes over these tremendous periods of time. These findings indicate that the evolution and development of the nervous system was not dependent upon the formation of new or better transmitter substances, receptor proteins, transducers and effector proteins but involved better utilization of these highly developed elements in creating advanced and refined circuitry. This is not a new concept; it is one that is now substantiated by increasingly sophisticated studies. In a 1953 article discussing chemical aspects of evolution (Danielli, 1953) Danielli quotes Medawar, "... endocrine evolution is not an evolution of hormones but an evolution of the uses to which they are put; an evolution not, to put it crudely, of chemical formulae but of reactivities, reaction patterns and tissue competences." To also quote Danielli, "In terms of comparative biochemistry, one must ask to what extent the evolution of these reactivities, reaction patterns and competences is conditional upon the evolution of methods of synthesis of new proteins, etc., and to what extent the proteins, etc., are always within the synthetic competence of an organism. In the latter case evolution is the history of changing uses of molecules, and not of changing synthetic abilities." (Danielli, 1953). Figure 4 outlines a phylogenetic tree together with an indication of where evidence exists for both the enzymes that determine the biosynthesis and metabolism of the cholinergic and adrenergic transmitters and their specific cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. This figure illustrates a number of important points. For example, the evidence appears to show that the transmitters and their associated enzymes existed for a substantial period before their respective receptor proteins. While the transmitters and enzymes appear to exist in single cellular organisms, there is no solid evidence for the presence of adrenergic or cholinergic receptors until multicellular organisms where the receptors appear to be clearly associated with specific cellular and neuronal communication (Fig. 4). One can only speculate as to the possible role for acetylcholine and the catecholamine in single cell organisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2830635

Venter, J C; di Porzio, U; Robinson, D A; Shreeve, S M; Lai, J; Kerlavage, A R; Fracek, S P; Lentes, K U; Fraser, C M

1988-01-01

368

5HT Modulation of Dopamine Release in Basal Ganglia in Psilocybin-Induced Psychosis in Man—A PET Study with [11C]raclopride  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulating effects of serotonin on dopamine neurotransmission are not well understood, particularly in acute psychotic states. Positron emission tomography was used to examine the effect of psilocybin on the in vivo binding of [11C]raclopride to D2-dopamine receptors in the striatum in healthy volunteers after placebo and a psychotomimetic dose of psilocybin (n = 7). Psilocybin is a potent indoleamine

Franz X Vollenweider; Peter Vontobel; Daniel Hell; Klaus L Leenders

1999-01-01

369

Subclinical effects of groundwater contaminants. II. Alteration of regional brain monoamine neurotransmitters by benzene in CD1 mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzene, a common groundwater contaminant, possesses neurotoxic and behavioral effects. Male, adult CD-1 mice were continuously fed drinking waterad libitum containing 0, 31, 166 and 790 mg\\/L benzene for four weeks. Endogenous levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), the catecholamine metabolites 3-methoxy-4-hydroxymandelic acid (VMA), 3,4-di-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), and the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT) and

Gin C. Hsieh; Robert D. R. Parker; Raghubir P. Sharma

1988-01-01

370

Myriocin, a serine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor, alters regional brain neurotransmitter levels without concurrent inhibition of the brain sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myriocin is a specific serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) inhibitor whose effect on the brain is unknown. Brain amine metabolism and sphingolipid biosynthesis were studied in mice treated intraperitoneally with 0, 0.1, 0.3 or 1mg\\/kg per day of myriocin for 5 days. Regional concentrations of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and norepinephrine (NE),

Marcin F. Osuchowski; Victor J. Johnson; Quanren He; Raghubir P. Sharma

2004-01-01

371

Neurotransmitter effects on inhibitory burst neurons in the cat.  

PubMed

The present experiment was designed to determine which neurotransmitter influences the burst pattern in the firing of the inhibitory burst neurons (IBN) during vestibular nystagmus. Cats were anesthetized with ether and mounted in a stereotaxic apparatus on a turntable, implanted stimulation electrodes, removed occipital bone and aspirated the vermal part of cerebellum. After the operation ether was discontinued. The recordings took place with the cats in an alert condition created by upper cervical cord transsection, artificial respiration and local anesthesia by infiltrating 0.5% lidocaine into the semilunar ganglions every two hours. We also employed iontophoretic application of the various drugs: GABA, muscimol, glycine, serotonin (5-HT) and bicuculline through seven-barrelled glass micropipettes. GABA or muscimol did not influence nystagmus rhythm, but both chemicals caused strong suppression of burst activities in IBN. Since this inhibitory effect of GABA was suppressed by the simultaneous application of bicuculline, IBNs appear to be controlled by GABAA receptor. Glycine and 5-HT did not change the firing pattern of IBN. Application of bicuculline itself caused an increase of tonic discharges of IBN. These findings suggest that IBN receive inhibitory impulses from the higher GABAergic neurons. PMID:2576838

Furuya, N; Shigihara, S; Yabe, T; Ashikawa, H

1989-01-01

372

Serotonin and beyond: therapeutics for major depression  

PubMed Central

The serotonin (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). The case for its contribution to the therapeutic efficacy of a wide variety of antidepressant treatments is, however, much stronger. All antidepressant strategies have been shown to enhance 5-HT transmission in the brain of laboratory animals. Catecholamines, norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) can also play a pivotal role in the mechanism of action of certain antidepressant strategies. The enhancement of 5-HT transmission by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, which leads to a dampening of the activity of NE and DA neurons, may account in part for the low remission rate achieved with these medications and/or the residuals symptoms after remission is achieved. The functional connectivity between the 5-HT, NE and DA systems can be used to understand the mechanism of action of a wide variety of augmentation strategies in treatment-resistant MDD. Proof-of-concept studies have shown that antidepressant medications with complementary mechanisms of action on monoaminergic systems can double the remission rate achieved in a trial of standard duration. Novel approaches are also being used to treat MDD, which also appear to involve the monoaminergic system(s) to a varying extent.

Blier, Pierre; El Mansari, Mostafa

2013-01-01

373

Serotonin in the Developing Mammal  

PubMed Central

Determinations have been made of the level of serotonin in various fetal and maternal tissues of goats and rabbits. In the goat, both fetal brain and blood were higher in serotonin content than comparable maternal tissues. Furthermore, in the goat fetal neocortical areas unexpectedly were found to be richer in serotonin than certain subcortical structures. In contrast to the goat, the rabbit was shown to have higher serotonin levels in maternal than in fetal blood. Moreover, when a large amount of serotonin was administered subcutaneously to pregnant rabbits, the fetuses began to die at a time when the maternal blood levels of serotonin had about doubled. This toxic action was shown to be due at least partially to the sensitivity of the umbilical vessels to the vasoconstrictor action of serotonin.

Pepeu, G.; Giarman, N. J.

1962-01-01

374

A Neurobiological Hypothesis of Treatment-Resistant Depression - Mechanisms for Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Non-Efficacy  

PubMed Central

First-line treatment of major depression includes administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), yet studies suggest that remission rates following two trials of an SSRI are <50%. The authors examine the putative biological substrates underlying “treatment resistant depression (TRD)” with the goal of elucidating novel rationales to treat TRD. We look at relevant articles from the preclinical and clinical literature combined with clinical exposure to TRD patients. A major focus was to outline pathophysiological mechanisms whereby the serotonin system becomes impervious to the desired enhancement of serotonin neurotransmission by SSRIs. A complementary focus was to dissect neurotransmitter systems, which serve to inhibit the dorsal raphe. We propose, based on a body of translational studies, TRD may not represent a simple serotonin deficit state but rather an excess of midbrain peri-raphe serotonin and subsequent deficit at key fronto-limbic projection sites, with ultimate compromise in serotonin-mediated neuroplasticity. Glutamate, serotonin, noradrenaline, and histamine are activated by stress and exert an inhibitory effect on serotonin outflow, in part by “flooding” 5-HT1A autoreceptors by serotonin itself. Certain factors putatively exacerbate this scenario – presence of the short arm of the serotonin transporter gene, early-life adversity and comorbid bipolar disorder – each of which has been associated with SSRI-treatment resistance. By utilizing an incremental approach, we provide a system for treating the TRD patient based on a strategy of rescuing serotonin neurotransmission from a state of SSRI-induced dorsal raphe stasis. This calls for “stacked” interventions, with an SSRI base, targeting, if necessary, the glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and histaminergic systems, thereby successively eliminating the inhibitory effects each are capable of exerting on serotonin neurons. Future studies are recommended to test this biologically based approach for treatment of TRD.

Coplan, Jeremy D.; Gopinath, Srinath; Abdallah, Chadi G.; Berry, Benjamin R.

2014-01-01

375

Dopamine, cocaine and the development of cerebral cortical cytoarchitecture: a review of current concepts.  

PubMed

Exposure of the developing fetus to cocaine produces lasting adverse effects on brain structure and function. Animal models show that cocaine exerts its effects by interfering with monoamine neurotransmitter function and that dopamine is cocaine's principal monoamine target in the fetal brain. This review will examine the role of dopamine receptor signaling in the regulation of normal development of the cerebral cortex, the seat of higher cognitive functions, and discuss whether dopamine receptor signaling mechanisms are the principal mediators of cocaine's deleterious effects on the ontogeny of cerebral cortical cytoarchitecture. PMID:19560044

Bhide, Pradeep G

2009-06-01

376

Discovery of Novel Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Through Development of a Protein-Based Pharmacophore  

PubMed Central

The serotonin transporter (SERT), a member of the neurotransmitter sodium symporter (NSS) family, is responsible for the reuptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft to maintain neurotransmitter homeostasis. SERT is established as an important target in the treatment of anxiety and depression. Because a high-resolution crystal structure is not available, a computational model of SERT was built based upon the x-ray coordinates of the leucine transporter LeuT, a bacterial NSS homolog. The model was used to develop the first SERT structure-based pharmacophore. Virtual screening (VS) of a small molecule structural library using the generated SERT computational model yielded candidate ligands of diverse scaffolds. Pharmacological analysis of the VS hits identified two SERT-selective compounds, potential lead compounds for further SERT-related medication development.

Manepalli, Sankar; Geffert, Laura M.; Surratt, Christopher K.

2011-01-01