Sample records for neurotransmitters serotonin dopamine

  1. Synthesis of dopamine and serotonin derivatives for immobilization on a solid support.

    PubMed

    Funder, Erik Daa; Jensen, Anne Bjørnskov; Tørring, Thomas; Kodal, Anne Louise Bank; Azcargorta, Ane Rebolledo; Gothelf, Kurt Vesterager

    2012-04-01

    The two important neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are synthesized with short PEG tethers and immobilized on a magnetic solid support. The tether is attached to the aromatic moiety of the neurotransmitters to conserve their original functional groups. This approach causes minimal alteration of the original structure with the aim of optimizing the immobilized neurotransmitters for aptamer selection by SELEX. For the dopamine derivative, the tether is attached to the aromatic core of a dopamine precursor by the Sonogashira reaction. For serotonin, a link to the indole core is introduced by a Claisen rearrangement from the allylated phenol moiety of serotonin. The tethers are azide-functionalized, which enables coupling to alkyne-modified magnetic beads. The coupling to the magnetic beads is quantified by UV spectroscopy using Fmoc-monitoring of the immobilized dopamine and serotonin derivatives. PMID:22390263

  2. A calcium-channel homologue required for adaptation to dopamine and serotonin in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, William R.; Kenyon, Cynthia J.

    1995-05-01

    PROCESSING and storage of information by the nervous system requires the ability to modulate the response of excitable cells to neurotransmitter. A simple process of this type, known as adaptation or desensitization, occurs when prolonged stimulation triggers processes that attenuate the response to neurotransmitter. Here we report that the Caenorhabditis elegans gene unc-2 is required for adaptation to two neurotransmitters, dopamine and serotonin. A loss-of-function mutation in unc-2 resulted in failure to adapt either to paralysis by dopamine or to stimulation of egg laying by serotonin. In addition, unc-2 mutants displayed behaviours similar to those induced by serotonin treatment. We found that unc-2 encodes a homologue of a voltage-sensitive calcium-channel ?-1 subunit. Expression of unc-2 occurs in two types of neurons implicated in the control of egg laying, a behaviour regulated by serotonin. Unc-2 appears to be required in modulatory neurons to downregulate the response of the egg-laying muscles to serotonin. We propose that adaptation to serotonin occurs through activation of an Unc-2-dependent calcium influx, which modulates the post-synaptic response to serotonin, perhaps by inhibiting the release of a potentiating neuropeptide.

  3. Dopamine and Serotonin in the Trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) Pituitary: Main Metabolites and Changes during Gonadal Recrudescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Hernandez-Rauda; J. Otero; P. Rey; G. Rozas; M. Aldegunde

    1996-01-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the trout pituitary have been studied. Dopamine (DA), serotonin (5HT), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) were separated as pure peaks by HPLC. Peak purity and identity were confirmed by electrochemical behavior. However, measurable amounts of the O-methylated DA metabolites 3-methoxytyramine and homovanillic acid were not detected in pituitary glands of different-aged trout

  4. The Design, Synthesis and Structure-Activity Relationship of Mixed Serotonin, Norepinephrine and Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhengming; Yang, Ji; Skolnick, Phil

    The evolution of antidepressants over the past four decades has involved the replacement of drugs with a multiplicity of effects (e.g., TCAs) by those with selective actions (i.e., SSRIs). This strategy was employed to reduce the adverse effects of TCAs, largely by eliminating interactions with certain neurotransmitters or receptors. Although these more selective compounds may be better tolerated by patients, selective drugs, specifically SSRIs, are not superior to older drugs in treating depressed patients as measured by response and remission rates. It may be an advantage to increase synaptic levels of both serotonin and norepinephrine, as in the case of dual uptake inhibitors like duloxetine and venlafaxine. An important recent development has been the emergence of the triple-uptake inhibitors (TUIs/SNDRIs), which inhibit the uptake of the three neurotransmitters most closely linked to depression: serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Preclinical studies and clinical trials indicate that a drug inhibiting the reuptake of all three of these neurotransmitters could produce more rapid onset of action and greater efficacy than traditional antidepressants. This review will detail the medicinal chemistry involved in the design, synthesis and discovery of mixed serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine transporter uptake inhibitors.

  5. Hybrid Dopamine Uptake Blocker–Serotonin Releaser Ligands: A New Twist on Transporter-Focused Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As part of our program to study neurotransmitter releasers, we report herein a class of hybrid dopamine reuptake inhibitors that display serotonin releasing activity. Hybrid compounds are interesting since they increase the design potential of transporter related compounds and hence represent a novel and unexplored strategy for therapeutic drug discovery. A series of N-alkylpropiophenones was synthesized and assessed for uptake inhibition and release activity using rat brain synaptosomes. Substitution on the aromatic ring yielded compounds that maintained hybrid activity, with the two disubstituted analogues (PAL-787 and PAL-820) having the most potent hybrid activity. PMID:24944732

  6. Reproductive phase dependent circadian variation in hypothalamic concentration of serotonin, dopamine and peripheral thyroxine levels in Japanese Quail following 5-HTP and L-DOPA administration at specific time intervals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Tiwari; P. Kumar; S. Singh; D. Sharma; C. M. Chaturvedi

    2006-01-01

    Temporal phase relations of circadian hypothalamic neurotransmitters are reported to regulate seasonal reproduction in some avian species. Present experiments were designed to study circadian variation in the hypothalamic concentration of neurotransmitters (serotonin and dopamine) and the plasma thyroxine level in sexually active (long day) and inactive (short day) Japanese Quail. A significant circadian cycle was noted in the hypothalamic content

  7. Interaction between the dopamine D4 receptor and the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphisms in alcohol and tobacco use among 15-year-olds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Skowronek; M. Laucht; E. Hohm; K. Becker; M. H. Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    Early onset of alcohol and tobacco use during adolescence increases the risk for establishing a substance use disorder in adulthood. Both alcohol and nicotine stimulate the dopamine (DA) and the serotonin (5-HT) systems. The DA system has been implicated in the mediation of the rewarding effects of self-administered drugs of abuse. A possible role of an interaction between these neurotransmitter

  8. Interactions between central monoaminergic systems: dopamine-serotonin.

    PubMed Central

    Roccatagliata, G; Albano, C; Cocito, L; Maffini, M

    1979-01-01

    Concentration of dopamine and serotonin metabolites (HVA and 5-HIAA) in the CSF was evaluated before and after pharmacological treatment in 19 patients with different neuropsychiatric diseases. In every case a reciprocal modification of the two metabolites occurred after treatment. The result supports the hypothesis of a functional balance between the monoaminergic systems in the central nervous system. PMID:160445

  9. Serotonin and Dopamine: Unifying Affective, Activational, and Decision Functions

    PubMed Central

    Cools, Roshan; Nakamura, Kae; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin, like dopamine (DA), has long been implicated in adaptive behavior, including decision making and reinforcement learning. However, although the two neuromodulators are tightly related and have a similar degree of functional importance, compared with DA, we have a much less specific understanding about the mechanisms by which serotonin affects behavior. Here, we draw on recent work on computational models of dopaminergic function to suggest a framework by which many of the seemingly diverse functions associated with both DA and serotonin—comprising both affective and activational ones, as well as a number of other functions not overtly related to either—can be seen as consequences of a single root mechanism. PMID:20736991

  10. Relationship between dopamine deficit and the expression of depressive behavior resulted from alteration of serotonin system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minkyung; Ryu, Young Hoon; Cho, Won Gil; Kang, Yeo Wool; Lee, Soo Jin; Jeon, Tae Joo; Lyoo, Chul Hyoung; Kim, Chul Hoon; Kim, Dong Goo; Lee, Kyochul; Choi, Tae Hyun; Choi, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    Depression frequently accompanies in Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous research suggested that dopamine (DA) and serotonin systems are closely linked with depression in PD. However, comprehensive studies about the relationship between these two neurotransmitter systems are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of dopaminergic destruction on the serotonin system. The interconnection between motor and depression was also examined. Two PET scans were performed in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned and sham operated rats: [(18) F]FP-CIT for DA transporters and [(18) F]Mefway for serotonin 1A (5-HT1A ) receptors. Here, 6-OHDA is a neurotoxin for dopaminergic neurons. Behavioral tests were used to evaluate the severity of symptoms: rotational number for motor impairment and immobility time, acquired from the forced swim test for depression. Region-of-interests were drawn in the striatum and cerebellum for the DA system and hippocampus and cerebellum for the 5-HT system. The cerebellum was chosen as a reference region. Nondisplaceable binding potential in the striatum and hippocampus were compared between 6-OHDA and sham groups. As a result, the degree of DA depletion was negatively correlated with rotational behavior (R(2) ?=?0.79, P?=?0.003). In 6-OHDA lesioned rats, binding values for 5-HT1A receptors was 22% lower than the sham operated group. This decrement of 5-HT1A receptor binding was also correlated with the severity of depression (R(2) ?=?0.81, P?=?0.006). Taken together, this research demonstrated that the destruction of dopaminergic system causes the reduction of the serotonergic system resulting in the expression of depressive behavior. The degree of dopaminergic dysfunction was positively correlated with the impairment of the serotonin system. Severity of motor symptoms was also closely related to depressive behavior. Synapse 69:453-460, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26089169

  11. Prenatal Serotonin and Neonatal Outcome: Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    In a study on prenatal dopamine and its association with depression and other neurotransmitters, serotonin was a confounding variable (Field, Diego, Hernandez-Reif, Figueiredo, Deeds et al., 2007). Serotonin has long been associated with depression (Cubala & Landwski, 2006; Neumeister, 2003; Neumeister, Young, & Stastny, 2004). Serotonin receptors and serotonin transporters are reduced in depression, suggesting that serotonin systems play a key role in the pathophysiology of depression (Neumeister et al., 2004). PMID:18279966

  12. Dispensable, Redundant, Complementary, and Cooperative Roles of Dopamine, Octopamine, and Serotonin in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Audrey; Ng, Fanny; Lebestky, Tim; Grygoruk, Anna; Djapri, Christine; Lawal, Hakeem O.; Zaveri, Harshul A.; Mehanzel, Filmon; Najibi, Rod; Seidman, Gabriel; Murphy, Niall P.; Kelly, Rachel L.; Ackerson, Larry C.; Maidment, Nigel T.; Jackson, F. Rob; Krantz, David E.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of Drosophila melanogaster behavior by biogenic amines, we have exploited the broad requirement of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) for the vesicular storage and exocytotic release of all monoamine neurotransmitters. We used the Drosophila VMAT (dVMAT) null mutant to globally ablate exocytotic amine release and then restored DVMAT activity in either individual or multiple aminergic systems, using transgenic rescue techniques. We find that larval survival, larval locomotion, and female fertility rely predominantly on octopaminergic circuits with little apparent input from the vesicular release of serotonin or dopamine. In contrast, male courtship and fertility can be rescued by expressing DVMAT in octopaminergic or dopaminergic neurons, suggesting potentially redundant circuits. Rescue of major aspects of adult locomotion and startle behavior required octopamine, but a complementary role was observed for serotonin. Interestingly, adult circadian behavior could not be rescued by expression of DVMAT in a single subtype of aminergic neurons, but required at least two systems, suggesting the possibility of unexpected cooperative interactions. Further experiments using this model will help determine how multiple aminergic systems may contribute to the regulation of other behaviors. Our data also highlight potential differences between behaviors regulated by standard exocytotic release and those regulated by other mechanisms. PMID:23086220

  13. Dispensable, redundant, complementary, and cooperative roles of dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Chen, Audrey; Ng, Fanny; Lebestky, Tim; Grygoruk, Anna; Djapri, Christine; Lawal, Hakeem O; Zaveri, Harshul A; Mehanzel, Filmon; Najibi, Rod; Seidman, Gabriel; Murphy, Niall P; Kelly, Rachel L; Ackerson, Larry C; Maidment, Nigel T; Jackson, F Rob; Krantz, David E

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the regulation of Drosophila melanogaster behavior by biogenic amines, we have exploited the broad requirement of the vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT) for the vesicular storage and exocytotic release of all monoamine neurotransmitters. We used the Drosophila VMAT (dVMAT) null mutant to globally ablate exocytotic amine release and then restored DVMAT activity in either individual or multiple aminergic systems, using transgenic rescue techniques. We find that larval survival, larval locomotion, and female fertility rely predominantly on octopaminergic circuits with little apparent input from the vesicular release of serotonin or dopamine. In contrast, male courtship and fertility can be rescued by expressing DVMAT in octopaminergic or dopaminergic neurons, suggesting potentially redundant circuits. Rescue of major aspects of adult locomotion and startle behavior required octopamine, but a complementary role was observed for serotonin. Interestingly, adult circadian behavior could not be rescued by expression of DVMAT in a single subtype of aminergic neurons, but required at least two systems, suggesting the possibility of unexpected cooperative interactions. Further experiments using this model will help determine how multiple aminergic systems may contribute to the regulation of other behaviors. Our data also highlight potential differences between behaviors regulated by standard exocytotic release and those regulated by other mechanisms. PMID:23086220

  14. Monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin) in the rat medial vestibular nucleus: endogenous levels and turnover

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Cransac; J.-M. Cottet-Emard; J. M. Pequignot; L. Peyrin

    1996-01-01

    Summary Monoamine (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin) and metabolite endogenous levels were determined in the rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) using HPLC with electrochemical detection. As a comparison, the locus cœruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe nucleus (RD) which contain the cell bodies of MVN noradrenergic and serotoninergic neurons respectively were also analyzed. Norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) basal levels of MVN were

  15. Serotonin and dopamine receptors in the rat pituitary gland: autoradiographic identification, characterization, and localization.

    PubMed

    De Souza, E B

    1986-10-01

    S2 serotonin and D2 dopamine receptors were identified, characterized, and localized in rat pituitary gland by quantitative light microscopic autoradiography. [3H]Spiperone was used to localize S2 serotonin and D2 dopamine receptors. A high concentration of D2 dopamine receptors [1 microM 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (ADTN)- or sulpiride-displaceable [3H]spiperone binding] was found in the rat intermediate lobe with much lower concentrations present in the anterior and posterior lobes. Significant densities of cinanserin-displaceable [3H]spiperone binding sites (i.e. S2 serotonin receptors) were present in all three lobes of the pituitary gland. [125I]Lysergic acid ([125I]LSD) was used to characterize further and selectively visualize S2 serotonin receptors in the rat pituitary. Data analysis by densitometry showed that [125I]LSD binding the rat intermediate pituitary was saturable and of high affinity with an apparent dissociation constant (Kd) of 1.2 nM. Data from competition studies using a variety of compounds showed a S2 serotonin receptor profile at this [125I]LSD binding site in rat pituitary. The highest concentration of [125I]LSD binding sites was found in the intermediate lobe with progressively lower concentrations present in the posterior and anterior lobes, respectively. There is a uniform pattern of distribution of S2 serotonin and D2 dopamine receptors within each lobe of the rat pituitary gland. The results of the present study provide the first identification of S2 serotonin receptors in the pituitary and confirm the heterogeneous distribution of D2 dopamine receptors within the rat pituitary. These data provide further evidence for the importance of dopamine in regulating pituitary function and suggest a physiological role for serotonin in regulating pituitary hormone secretion. PMID:2944737

  16. Longevity manipulations differentially affect serotonin/dopamine level and behavioral deterioration in aging Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jiang-An; Liu, Xi-Juan; Yuan, Jie; Jiang, Jing; Cai, Shi-Qing

    2014-03-12

    Aging is accompanied with behavioral and cognitive decline. Changes in the neurotransmitter level are associated with the age-related behavioral deterioration, but whether well-known longevity manipulations affect the function of neurotransmitter system in aging animals is largely unclear. Here we report that serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) level decrease with age in C. elegans. The reduction results in downregulation of the activity of neurons controlled by 5-HT/DA signaling, and deterioration of some important behaviors, including pharyngeal pumping, food-induced slowing responses, and male mating. Longevity manipulations differentially affect the age-related decline in neuronal level of 5-HT/DA. The reduction and resultant behavioral deterioration occur in long-lived worms with defective insulin signaling [daf-2(e1370), age-1(hx546)] or mitochondria function [isp-1(qm150), tpk-1(qm162)], but not in long-lived worms with dietary restriction eat-2(ad1116). A reduced expression level of dopa decarboxylase BAS-1, the shared enzyme for 5-HT/DA synthesis, is responsible for the decline in 5-HT/DA levels. RNAi assay revealed that the sustained 5-HT/DA level in neurons of aged eat-2(ad1116) worms requires PHA-4 and its effectors superoxide dismutases and catalases, suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the 5-HT/DA decline. Furthermore, we found that elevating 5-HT/DA ameliorates age-related deterioration of pharyngeal pumping, food-induced slowing responses, and male mating in both wild-type and daf-2(e1370) worms. Together, dietary restriction preserves healthy behaviors in aged worms at least partially by sustaining a high 5-HT/DA level, and elevating the 5-HT/DA level in wild-type and daf-2(e1370) worms improves their behaviors during aging. PMID:24623772

  17. Electrochemical Analysis of Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Elizabeth S; Wightman, R Mark

    2015-07-22

    Chemical signaling through the release of neurotransmitters into the extracellular space is the primary means of communication between neurons. More than four decades ago, Ralph Adams and his colleagues realized the utility of electrochemical methods for the study of easily oxidizable neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin and their metabolites. Today, electrochemical techniques are frequently coupled to microelectrodes to enable spatially resolved recordings of rapid neurotransmitter dynamics in a variety of biological preparations spanning from single cells to the intact brain of behaving animals. In this review, we provide a basic overview of the principles underlying constant-potential amperometry and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, the most commonly employed electrochemical techniques, and the general application of these methods to the study of neurotransmission. We thereafter discuss several recent developments in sensor design and experimental methodology that are challenging the current limitations defining the application of electrochemical methods to neurotransmitter measurements. PMID:25939038

  18. Comonitoring of adenosine and dopamine using the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System: proof of principle

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Young-Min; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Object The authors of previous studies have demonstrated that local adenosine efflux may contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of action of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor. Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of DBS-targeted regions may thus advance functional neurosurgical procedures by identifying candidate neurotransmitters and neuromodulators involved in the physiological effects of DBS. This would in turn permit the development of a method of chemically guided placement of DBS electrodes in vivo. Designed in compliance with FDA-recognized standards for medical electrical device safety, the authors report on the utility of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for real-time comonitoring of electrical stimulation–evoked adenosine and dopamine efflux in vivo, utilizing fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a polyacrylonitrile-based (T-650) carbon fiber microelectrode (CFM). Methods The WINCS was used for FSCV, which consisted of a triangle wave scanned between ?0.4 and +1.5 V at a rate of 400 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages applied to the CFM were with respect to an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single T-650 carbon fiber (r = 2.5 ?m) into a glass capillary and pulling to a microscopic tip using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ? 50 ?m. Proof of principle tests included in vitro measurements of adenosine and dopamine, as well as in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring adenosine and dopamine efflux in the dorsomedial caudate putamen evoked by high-frequency electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Results The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of adenosine efflux. Peak oxidative currents appeared at +1.5 V and at +1.0 V for adenosine, separate from the peak oxidative current at +0.6 V for dopamine. The WINCS detected subsecond adenosine and dopamine efflux in the caudate putamen at an implanted CFM during high-frequency stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Both in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated that WINCS can detect adenosine in the presence of other easily oxidizable neurochemicals such as dopamine comparable to the detection abilities of a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Conclusions Altogether, these results demonstrate that WINCS is well suited for wireless monitoring of high-frequency stimulation-evoked changes in brain extracellular concentrations of adenosine. Clinical applications of selective adenosine measurements may prove important to the future development of DBS technology. PMID:19731995

  19. Understanding the redox coupling between quantum dots and the neurotransmitter dopamine in hybrid self-assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xin; Makarov, Nikolay S.; Wang, Wentao; Palui, Goutam; Robel, Istvan; Mattoussi, Hedi

    2015-03-01

    Interactions between luminescent fluorophores and redox active molecules often involve complex charge transfer processes, and have great ramifications in biology. Dopamine is a redox active neurotransmitter involved in a range of brain activities. We used steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence along with transient absorption bleach measurements, to probe the effects of changing the QD size and valence on the rate of photoluminescence quenching in QD-dopamine conjugates, when the pH of the medium was varied. In particular, we measured substantially larger quenching efficiencies, combined with more pronounced shortening in the PL lifetime decay when smaller size QDs and/or alkaline pH were used. Moreover, we found that changes in the nanocrystal size alter both the electron and hole relaxation of photoexcited QDs but with very different extents. For instance, a more pronounced change in the hole relaxation was recorded in alkaline buffers and for green-emitting QDs compared to their red-emitting counterparts. We attributed these results to the more favorable electron transfer pathway from the reduced form of the complex to the valence band of the QD. This process benefits from the combination of lower oxidation potential and larger energy mismatch in alkaline buffers and for green-emitting QDs. In comparison, the effects on the rate of electron transfer from excited QDs to dopamine are less affected by QD size. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms that drive charge transfer interactions and the ensuing quenching of QD emission in such assemblies.

  20. The clozapine metabolite N-desmethylclozapine displays variable activity in diverse functional assays at human dopamine D? and serotonin 5-HT?A receptors.

    PubMed

    Heusler, Peter; Bruins Slot, Liesbeth; Tourette, Amélie; Tardif, Stéphanie; Cussac, Didier

    2011-11-01

    N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC or norclozapine) is the major active metabolite of the antipsychotic clozapine in humans. The activity of NDMC differs from clozapine at a number of neurotransmitter receptors, probably influencing the pharmacological effects of clozapine treatment. Here, we tested the properties of NDMC in comparison with clozapine at recombinant human dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors, using a panel of functional assays implicating diverse signalling pathways. At dopamine D(2) receptors, NDMC as well as clozapine did not display agonist activity in measures of G protein activation by [(35)S]GTP?S binding and in the sensitive Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation assay. In contrast, there were weak partial agonist actions of NDMC (but not of clozapine) for dopamine D(2)-dependent activation of Ca(2+) liberation via coexpressed chimeric G?(q/o) proteins and for G protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium channel (GIRK) current induction in Xenopus oocytes. Intriguingly, GIRK currents induced by NDMC via dopamine D(2) receptors showed a rapid and transient time course, strikingly different from currents recorded with other receptor agonists. At serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors, NDMC was a more efficacious partial agonist than clozapine for [(35)S]GTP?S binding, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and GIRK activation. Respective low and moderate partial agonist properties of NDMC at dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors thus differentiate the metabolite from its parent drug and may contribute to the overall effects of clozapine pharmacotherapy. PMID:21835172

  1. Dissociable roles of dopamine and serotonin transporter function in a rat model of negative urgency.

    PubMed

    Yates, Justin R; Darna, Mahesh; Gipson, Cassandra D; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2015-09-15

    Negative urgency is a facet of impulsivity that reflects mood-based rash action and is associated with various maladaptive behaviors in humans. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of negative urgency are not fully understood. Several brain regions within the mesocorticolimbic pathway, as well as the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), have been implicated in impulsivity. Extracellular DA and 5-HT concentrations are regulated by DA transporters (DAT) and 5-HT transporters (SERT); thus, these transporters may be important molecular mechanisms underlying individual differences in negative urgency. The current study employed a reward omission task to model negative urgency in rats. During reward trials, a cue light signaled the non-contingent delivery of one sucrose pellet; immediately following the non-contingent reward, rats responded on a lever to earn sucrose pellets (operant phase). Omission trials were similar to reward trials, except that non-contingent sucrose was omitted following the cue light prior to the operant phase. As expected, contingent responding was higher following omission of expected reward than following delivery of expected reward, thus reflecting negative urgency. Upon completion of behavioral training, Vmax and Km were obtained from kinetic analysis of [(3)H]DA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake using synaptosomes prepared from nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (Str), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) isolated from individual rats. Vmax for DAT in NAc and for SERT in OFC were positively correlated with negative urgency scores. The current findings suggest that mood-based impulsivity (negative urgency) is associated with enhanced DAT function in NAc and SERT function in OFC. PMID:26005123

  2. Structure-Guided Directed Evolution of Highly Selective P450-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Sensors for Dopamine and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Brustad, Eric M.; Lelyveld, Victor S.; Snow, Christopher D.; Crook, Nathan; Jung, Sang Taek; Martinez, Francisco M.; Scholl, Timothy J.; Jasanoff, Alan; Arnold, Frances H.

    2012-01-01

    New tools that allow dynamic visualization of molecular neural events are important for studying the basis of brain activity and disease. Sensors that permit ligand-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful reagents due to the non-invasive nature and good temporal and spatial resolution of MR methods. Paramagnetic metalloproteins can be effective MRI sensors due to the selectivity imparted by the protein active site and the ability to tune protein properties using techniques such as directed evolution. Here we show that structure-guided directed evolution of the active site of the cytochrome P450 BM3 heme domain (BM3h) produces highly selective MRI probes with sub-micromolar affinities for small molecules. We report a new, high affinity dopamine sensor as well as the first MRI reporter for serotonin, with which we demonstrate quantification of neurotransmitter release in vitro. We also present a detailed structural analysis of evolved BM3h lineages to systematically dissect the molecular basis of neurotransmitter binding affinity, selectivity, and enhanced MRI contrast activity in these engineered proteins. PMID:22659321

  3. A role for Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 as integrators of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission in mental health.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression and schizophrenia are a major public health concern worldwide. Several pharmacologic agents acting on monoamine neurotransmission are used for the management of these disorders. However, there is still little understanding of the ultimate molecular mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of these drugs or their relations with disease etiology. Here I provide an overview of recent advances on the involvement of the signalling molecules Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in the regulation of behaviour by the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). I examine the possible participation of these signalling molecules to the effects of antidepressants, lithium and antipsychotics, as well as their possible contribution to mental disorders. Regulation of Akt and GSK3 may constitute an important signalling hub in the subcellular integration of 5-HT and DA neurotransmission. It may also provide a link between the action of these neurotransmitters and gene products, like disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and neuregulin (NRG), that are associated with increased risk for mental disorders. However, changes in Akt and GSK3 signalling are not restricted to a single disorder, and their contribution to specific behavioural symptoms or therapeutic effects may be modulated by broader changes in biologic contexts or signalling landscapes. Understanding these interactions may provide a better understanding of mental illnesses, leading to better efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21711983

  4. A role for Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 as integrators of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression and schizophrenia are a major public health concern worldwide. Several pharmacologic agents acting on monoamine neurotransmission are used for the management of these disorders. However, there is still little understanding of the ultimate molecular mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of these drugs or their relations with disease etiology. Here I provide an overview of recent advances on the involvement of the signalling molecules Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in the regulation of behaviour by the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). I examine the possible participation of these signalling molecules to the effects of antidepressants, lithium and antipsychotics, as well as their possible contribution to mental disorders. Regulation of Akt and GSK3 may constitute an important signalling hub in the subcellular integration of 5-HT and DA neurotransmission. It may also provide a link between the action of these neurotransmitters and gene products, like disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and neuregulin (NRG), that are associated with increased risk for mental disorders. However, changes in Akt and GSK3 signalling are not restricted to a single disorder, and their contribution to specific behavioural symptoms or therapeutic effects may be modulated by broader changes in biologic contexts or signalling landscapes. Understanding these interactions may provide a better understanding of mental illnesses, leading to better efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21711983

  5. Sexual side effects of serotonergic antidepressants: mediated by inhibition of serotonin on central dopamine release?

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Chan, Johnny S W; Olivier, Berend; Veening, Jan G; Millan, Mark J; Waldinger, Marcel D; Oosting, Ronald S

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction adversely affects the quality of life of antidepressant users and reduces compliance with treatment. Animal models provide an instructive approach for examining potential sexual side effects of novel drugs. This review discusses the stability and reproducibility of our standardized test procedure that assesses the acute, subchronic and chronic effects of psychoactive compounds in a 30 minute mating test. In addition, we present an overview of the effects of several different (putative) antidepressants on male rat sexual behavior, as tested in our standardized test procedure. By comparing the effects of these mechanistically distinct antidepressants (paroxetine, venlafaxine, bupropion, buspirone, DOV 216,303 and S32006), this review discusses the putative mechanism underlying sexual side effects of antidepressants and their normalization. This review shows that sexual behavior is mainly inhibited by antidepressants that increase serotonin neurotransmission via blockade of serotonin transporters, while those that mainly increase the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline are devoid of sexual side effects. Those sexual disturbances cannot be normalized by simultaneously increasing noradrenaline neurotransmission, but are normalized by increasing both noradrenaline and dopamine neurotransmission. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be mediated by their inhibitory effects on dopamine signaling in sex brain circuits. Clinical development of novel antidepressants should therefore focus on compounds that simultaneously increase both serotonin and dopamine signaling. PMID:24128918

  6. Serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine metabolites in transcendental meditation-technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bujatti; P. Biederer

    1976-01-01

    Summary The highly significant increase of 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid) in Transcendental Meditation technique suggests systemic serotonin as “rest and fulfillment hormone” of deactivation-relaxation.

  7. Radioenzymatic analysis of neurotransmitters

    SciTech Connect

    Philips, S.R.

    1987-08-17

    Since the late 1960's, radioenzymatic assays have gradually come to replace the less sensitive and less specific spectrofluorometric and bioassay procedures previously used to determine many of the neurotransmitters. These assays provide the means to measure picogram quantities of most of these substances, and have enabled determinations to be made in very small volumes of body fluids, in brain perfusates and individual brain nuclei, and in large individual cells of some simple animals. This paper reviews briefly some of the radioenzymatic techniques presently available for assaying norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), dopamine (DA), serotonin, and the trace amines octopamine (OA), phenylethanolamine (PEOHA), phenylethylamine (PEA), tyramine (TA) and tryptamine (T).

  8. Dopamine and ?-aminobutyric acid are colocalized in restricted groups of neurons in the sea lamprey brain: insights into the early evolution of neurotransmitter colocalization in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Villar-Cerviño, Verona; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery, the possible corelease of classic neurotransmitters from neurons has received much attention. Colocalization of monoamines and amino acidergic neurotransmitters [mainly glutamate and dopamine (DA) or serotonin] in mammalian neurons has been reported. However, few studies have dealt with the colocalization of DA and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in neurons. With the aim of providing some insight into the colocalization of neurotransmitters during early vertebrate phylogeny, we studied GABA expression in dopaminergic neurons in the sea lamprey brain by using double-immunofluorescence methods with anti-DA and anti-GABA antibodies. Different degrees of colocalization of DA and GABA were observed in different dopaminergic brain nuclei. A high degree of colocalization (GABA in at least 25% of DA-immunoreactive neurons) was observed in populations of the caudal rhombencephalon, ventral isthmus, postoptic commissure nucleus, preoptic nucleus and in granule-like cells of the olfactory bulb. A new DA-immunoreactive striatal population that showed colocalization with GABA in about a quarter of its neurons was observed. In the periventricular hypothalamus, colocalization was observed in only a few cells, despite the abundance of DA- and GABA-immunoreactive neurons, and no double-labelled cells were observed in the paratubercular nucleus. The frequent colocalization of DA and GABA reveals that the dopaminergic populations of lampreys are more complex than previously reported. Double-labelled fibres or terminals were observed in different brain regions, suggesting possible corelease of DA and GABA by these lamprey neurons. The present results suggest that colocalization of DA and GABA in neurons appeared early in vertebrate evolution. PMID:19840024

  9. Opponency Revisited: Competition and Cooperation Between Dopamine and Serotonin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y-Lan Boureau; Peter Dayan

    2011-01-01

    Affective valence lies on a spectrum ranging from punishment to reward. The coding of such spectra in the brain almost always involves opponency between pairs of systems or structures. There is ample evidence for the role of dopamine in the appetitive half of this spectrum, but little agreement about the existence, nature, or role of putative aversive opponents such as

  10. Dissociable Effects of Serotonin and Dopamine on the Valuation of Harm in Moral Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Molly J; Siegel, Jenifer Z; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Ousdal, Olga T; Story, Giles; Frieband, Carolyn; Grosse-Rueskamp, Johanna M; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-20

    An aversion to harming others is a core component of human morality and is disturbed in antisocial behavior [1-4]. Deficient harm aversion may underlie instrumental and reactive aggression, which both feature in psychopathy [5]. Past work has highlighted monoaminergic influences on aggression [6-11], but a mechanistic account of how monoamines regulate antisocial motives remains elusive. We previously observed that most people show a greater aversion to inflicting pain on others than themselves [12]. Here, we investigated whether this hyperaltruistic disposition is susceptible to monoaminergic control. We observed dissociable effects of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram and the dopamine precursor levodopa on decisions to inflict pain on oneself and others for financial gain. Computational models of choice behavior showed that citalopram increased harm aversion for both self and others, while levodopa reduced hyperaltruism. The effects of citalopram were stronger than those of levodopa. Crucially, neither drug influenced the physical perception of pain or other components of choice such as motor impulsivity or loss aversion [13, 14], suggesting a direct and specific influence of serotonin and dopamine on the valuation of harm. We also found evidence for dose dependency of these effects. Finally, the drugs had dissociable effects on response times, with citalopram enhancing behavioral inhibition and levodopa reducing slowing related to being responsible for another's fate. These distinct roles of serotonin and dopamine in modulating moral behavior have implications for potential treatments of social dysfunction that is a common feature as well as a risk factor for many psychiatric disorders. PMID:26144968

  11. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System–based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    Object In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. Methods The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal model, the pig. Results The WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA. Conclusions By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425899

  12. Recognition Properties and Competitive Assays of a Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Selective Molecularly Imprinted Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Suedee, Roongnapa; Seechamnanturakit, Vatcharee; Suksuwan, Acharee; Canyuk, Bhutorn

    2008-01-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) with dual dopamine/serotonin-like binding sites (DS-MIP) was synthesized for use as a receptor model of study the drug-interaction of biological mixed receptors at a molecular level. The polymer material was produced using methacrylic acid (MAA) and acrylamide (ACM) as functional monomers, N,N?-methylene bisacrylamide (MBAA) as cross-linker, methanol/water mixture (4:1, v/v) as porogen and a mixture of dopamine (D) and serotonin (S) as templates. The prepared DS-MIP exhibited the greatest rebinding of the template(s) in aqueous methanol solution with decreased recognition in acetonitrile, water and methanol solvent. The binding affinity and binding capacity of DS-MIP with S were found to be higher than those of DS-MIP with D. The selectivity profiles of DS-MIP suggest that the D binding site of DS-MIP has sufficient integrity to discriminate between species of non-optimal functional group orientation, whilst the S binding site of DS-MIP is less selective toward species having structural features and functional group orientations different from S. The ligand binding activities of a series of ergot derivatives (ergocryptine, ergocornine, ergocristine, ergonovine, agroclavine, pergolide and terguride) have been studied with the DS-MIP using a competitive ligand binding assay protocol. The binding affinities of DS-MIP were demonstrated in the micro- or submicro-molar range for a series of ergot derivatives, whereas the binding affinities were considerably greater to natural receptors derived from the rat hypothalamus. The DS-MIP afforded the same pattern of differentiation as the natural receptors, i.e. affinity for the clavines > lysergic acid derivatives > ergopeptines. The results suggest that the discrimination for the ergot derivatives by the dopamine and serotonin sites of DS-MIP is due to the structural features and functional orientation of the phenylethylamine and indolylethylamine entities at the binding sites, and the fidelity of the dopamine and serotonin imprinted cavities. PMID:19330079

  13. Changes in sensitivity of brain dopamine and serotonin receptors during long-term treatment with carbidine

    SciTech Connect

    Zharkovskii, A.M.; Allikmets, L.K.; Chereshka, K.S.; Zharkovskaya, T.A.

    1986-04-01

    The authors study the state of the dopamine and serotonin receptors of the brain during chronic administration of carbidine to animals. Parts of the brain from two rats were pooled and binding of tritium-spiperone and tritium-LSD was determined. Statistical analysis of the data for apomorphine sterotypy was carried out and the Student's test was used for analysis of the remaining data. It is shown that after discontinuation of carbidine binding of tritium-spiperone and tritium-LSD in the cortex was reduced.

  14. Effect of ibogaine on cocaine-induced efflux of [ 3H]dopamine and [ 3H]serotonin from mouse striatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sershen Henry; Hashim Audrey; Lajtha Abel

    1996-01-01

    Ibogaine, an indole alkaloid with proposed antiaddictive properties, has structural similarity to serotonin and has been shown to have affinity to the k-opioid binding site. In addition to the dopamine system, the serotonin system is a major target for cocaine action and the opioid system can affect the serotonin system. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of ibogaine on

  15. Neural circuits, neurotransmitters, and behavior: serotonin and temperament in bulimic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Steiger, Howard; Bruce, Kenneth R; Groleau, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    In bulimia nervosa (BN), and in related binge-purge syndromes, factors affecting central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) function appear to contribute not only to appetitive dysregulation but also to temperamental and personality manifestations. Drawing upon findings from neurobiological, molecular-genetic, and brain-imaging studies, we present an integrative model of the role of 5-HT function in bulimic syndromes. At the core of our model is a consideration of the ways in which diverse hereditary and environmental influences impact the action of the 5-HT system. We believe that our model helps account for heterogeneous traits seen in the bulimic population, for disproportionate representation of individuals displaying pathological personality traits and exposure to severe environmental stressors, and for interindividual variations as to treatment response. PMID:21107929

  16. A cyclodextrin host-guest recognition approach to an electrochemical sensor for simultaneous quantification of serotonin and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Noori, Abolhassan

    2011-08-15

    An electrochemical sensor for simultaneous quantification of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and dopamine (DA) using a ?-cyclodextrin/poly(N-acetylaniline)/carbon nanotube composite modified carbon paste electrode has been developed. Synergistic effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in addition to the pre-concentrating effect of ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) as well as its different inclusion complex stability with 5-HT and DA was used to construct an electrochemical sensor for quantification of these important neurotransmitters. The overlapping anodic peaks of 5-HT and DA at 428 mV on bare electrode resolved in two well-defined voltammetric peaks at 202 and 363 mV vs. Ag/AgCl respectively. The oxidation mechanism of 5-HT and DA on the surface of the electrode was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and it was found that the electrode processes are pH dependent and electrochemical oxidation of 5-HT is totally irreversible while the electrode gave a more reversible process to DA. Under optimized conditions, linear calibration curves were obtained in the range of about 4-200 ?M with a detection limits down to sub-?M levels (S/N=3) after 20-s accumulation, for both. The proposed sensor was shown to be remarkably selective for 5-HT and DA in matrices containing different species including ascorbic acid and uric acid. The suitability of the developed method was tested for the determination of 5-HT and DA in the Randox Synthetic Plasma samples and acceptable recoveries were obtained for a set of spiked samples. PMID:21715153

  17. The serotonin-dopamine interaction measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and C-11 raclopride in normal human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.S.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1994-05-01

    Our previous studies have shown that the interaction between serotonin and dopamine can be measured with C-11 raclopride and PET in the baboon brain. A series of studies was undertaken to extend dim findings to the normal human brain. PET studies were conducted in male control subjects (n=8) using the CTI 931 tomograph. Two C-11 raclopride scans were performed, prior to and 180 minutes following administration of the selective serotonin releasing agent, fenfluramine (60mg/PO). The neuroendocrine response to fenfluramine challenge is commonly used in psychiatric research as an index of serotonin activity. The C-11 raclopride data were analyzed with the distribution volume method. For the group of subjects, an increase was observed in the striatum to cerebellum ratio (specific to non-specific binding ratio), in excess of the test-retest variability of the ligand. Variability in response was observed across subjects. These results are consistent with our previous findings in the baboon that citalopram administration increased C-11 raclopride binding, consistent with a decrease in endogenous dopamine. In vivo microdialysis studies in freely moving rats confirmed that citalopram produces a time-dependent decrease in extracellular dopamine levels, consistent with the PET results. In vivo PET studies of the serotonin-dopamine interaction are relevant to the evaluation of etiologic and therapeutic mechanisms in schizophrenia and affective disorder.

  18. Genetic Susceptibility and Neurotransmitters in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paschou, Peristera; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Sharp, Frank; Heiman, Gary A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Family studies have consistently shown that Tourette syndrome (TS) is a familial disorder and twin studies have clearly indicated a genetic contribution in the etiology of TS. Whereas early segregation studies of TS suggested a single-gene autosomal dominant disorder, later studies have pointed to more complex models including additive and multifactorial inheritance and likely interaction with genetic factors. While the exact cellular and molecular base of TS is as yet elusive, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological studies have pointed to the involvement of cortico-striato-thalamocortical circuits and abnormalities in dopamine, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and serotonin neurotransmitter systems, with the most consistent evidence being available for involvement of dopamine-related abnormalities, that is, a reduction in tonic extracellular dopamine levels along with hyperresponsive spike-dependent dopamine release, following stimulation. Genetic and gene expression findings are very much supportive of involvement of these neurotransmitter systems. Moreover, intriguingly, genetic work on a two-generation pedigree has opened new research pointing to a role for histamine, a so far rather neglected neurotransmitter, with the potential of the development of new treatment options. Future studies should be aimed at directly linking neurotransmitter-related genetic and gene expression findings to imaging studies (imaging genetics), which enables a better understanding of the pathways and mechanisms through which the dynamic interplay of genes, brain, and environment shapes the TS phenotype. PMID:24295621

  19. Caenorhabditis elegans selects distinct crawling and swimming gaits via dopamine and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Gadea, Andrés; Topper, Stephen; Young, Layla; Crisp, Ashley; Kressin, Leah; Elbel, Erin; Maples, Thomas; Brauner, Martin; Erbguth, Karen; Axelrod, Abram; Gottschalk, Alexander; Siegel, Dionicio; Pierce-Shimomura, Jonathan T

    2011-10-18

    Many animals, including humans, select alternate forms of motion (gaits) to move efficiently in different environments. However, it is unclear whether primitive animals, such as nematodes, also use this strategy. We used a multifaceted approach to study how the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans freely moves into and out of water. We demonstrate that C. elegans uses biogenic amines to switch between distinct crawling and swimming gaits. Dopamine is necessary and sufficient to initiate and maintain crawling after swimming. Serotonin is necessary and sufficient to transition from crawling to swimming and to inhibit a set of crawl-specific behaviors. Further study of locomotory switching in C. elegans and its dependence on biogenic amines may provide insight into how gait transitions are performed in other animals. PMID:21969584

  20. Firing of an Isolated Serotonergic Neuron Depends on the Rate of Neurotransmitter Synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. E. D'yakonova; D. A. Sakharov

    2001-01-01

    It is not clear whether the neuronal electric activity is correlated with the neurotransmitter synthesis rate in the neuron. A high synaptic activity is known to be followed by a compensatory enhancement of the synthesis; this compensatory response is mediated by secondary messengers and early genes [1?3]. Serotonin and dopamine metabolic precursors are used in experiments and in clinical practice

  1. Synthesis and preliminary biological characterization of a new potential 125I-Radioligand for dopamine and serotonin receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Guarna; Gloria Menchi; Giovanna Berti; Nicoletta Cini; Anna Bottoncetti; Silvia Raspanti; Alessandro Politi; Alberto Pupi

    2001-01-01

    The synthesis and a preliminary biological characterization of a new class of N-benzyl-aminoalcohols which have serotonin (5-HT2) and dopamine (D2) receptor affinity is described. In vitro competition binding studies were conducted with the new molecules and 3H-spiperone on crude membrane preparation from rat striatum and frontal cortex. One of these compounds, 3-benzylamino-1-(4-fluoro-2-iodophenyl)-propan-1-ol (6f), whose IC50 values are in the micromolar

  2. The effects of serotonin, dopamine, gonadotropin-releasing hormones, and corazonin, on the androgenic gland of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Siangcham, Tanapan; Tinikul, Yotsawan; Poljaroen, Jaruwan; Sroyraya, Morakot; Changklungmoa, Narin; Phoungpetchara, Ittipon; Kankuan, Wilairat; Sumpownon, Chanudporn; Wanichanon, Chaitip; Hanna, Peter J; Sobhon, Prasert

    2013-11-01

    Neurotransmitters and neurohormones are agents that control gonad maturation in decapod crustaceans. Of these, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) are neurotransmitters with known antagonist roles in female reproduction, whilst gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) and corazonin (Crz) are neurohormones that exercise both positive and negative controls in some invertebrates. However, the effects of these agents on the androgenic gland (AG), which controls testicular maturation and male sex development in decapods, via insulin-like androgenic gland hormone (IAG), are unknown. Therefore, we set out to assay the effects of 5-HT, DA, l-GnRH-III, oct-GnRH and Crz, on the AG of small male Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr), using histological studies, a BrdU proliferative cell assay, immunofluorescence of Mr-IAG, and ELISA of Mr-IAG. The results showed stimulatory effects by 5-HT and l-GnRH-III through significant increases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). In contrast, DA and Crz caused inhibitory effects on the AG through significant decreases in AG size, proliferation of AG cells, and Mr-IAG production (P<0.05). Moreover, the prawns treated with Crz died before day 16 of the experimental period. We propose that 5-HT and certain GnRHs can be now used to stimulate reproduction in male M. rosenbergii, as they induce increases in AG and testicular size, IAG production, and spermatogenesis. The mechanisms by which these occur are part of our on-going research. PMID:23867230

  3. Neonatal 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure alters neuronal protein kinase A activity, serotonin and dopamine content, and [35S]GTP?S binding in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Cynthia A.; Williams, Michael T.; Kohutek, Jodie L.; Choi, Fiona Y.; Yoshida, Shelly T.; McDougall, Sanders A.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    Recreational use of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has dramatically increased among juveniles and young adults of child-bearing age, and the potential for fetal exposure has increased. For this reason, it is surprising that comparatively few studies have assessed the long-term impact of early MDMA exposure on serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurotransmitter systems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated exposure to MDMA during the preweanling period would cause long-term changes in 5-HT and DA functioning. Rats were treated with saline or 20 mg/kg MDMA (two injections per day) from postnatal day (PD) 11–20. At PD 90, rats were killed, and their dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus were removed. 5-HT and DA content, as well as their metabolites, were measured using HPLC. In addition, cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity and agonist-stimulated [35S]GTP?S binding was assayed using tissue homogenates from each brain region. Results indicated that early MDMA exposure caused a decrease in PKA activity and 5-HT content in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus while increasing the efficacy of 5-HT1A receptors as measured by agonist-stimulated [35S]GTP?S binding. Additionally, DA content was reduced in the dorsal striatum and prefrontal cortex. These data indicate that early MDMA exposure has long-term effects on the 5-HT and DA neurotransmitter systems that may be mediated, at least partially, by changes in 5-HT1A receptor sensitivity. PMID:16483555

  4. Serotonin 5-HT2 receptor interactions with dopamine function: implications for therapeutics in cocaine use disorder.

    PubMed

    Howell, Leonard L; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine exhibits prominent abuse liability, and chronic abuse can result in cocaine use disorder with significant morbidity. Major advances have been made in delineating neurobiological mechanisms of cocaine abuse; however, effective medications to treat cocaine use disorder remain to be discovered. The present review will focus on the role of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) neurotransmission in the neuropharmacology of cocaine and related abused stimulants. Extensive research suggests that the primary contribution of 5-HT to cocaine addiction is a consequence of interactions with dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. The literature on the neurobiological and behavioral effects of cocaine is well developed, so the focus of the review will be on cocaine with inferences made about other monoamine uptake inhibitors and releasers based on mechanistic considerations. 5-HT receptors are widely expressed throughout the brain, and several different 5-HT receptor subtypes have been implicated in mediating the effects of endogenous 5-HT on DA. However, the 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors in particular have been implicated as likely candidates for mediating the influence of 5-HT in cocaine abuse as well as to traits (e.g., impulsivity) that contribute to the development of cocaine use disorder and relapse in humans. Lastly, new approaches are proposed to guide targeted development of serotonergic ligands for the treatment of cocaine use disorder. PMID:25505168

  5. A Comparison of the Subsecond Dynamics of Neurotransmission of Dopamine and Serotonin

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The neuromodulators dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) are similar in a number of ways. Both monoamines can act by volume transmission at metabotropic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission in brain circuits. Presynaptic regulation of 5-HT and DA is governed by parallel processes, and behaviorally, both exert control over emotional processing. However, differences are also apparent: more than twice as many 5-HT receptor subtypes mediate postsynaptic effects than DA receptors and different presynaptic regulation is also emerging. Monoamines are amenable to real-time electrochemical detection using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), which allows resolution of the subsecond dynamics of release and reuptake in response to a single action potential. This approach has greatly enriched understanding of DA transmission and has facilitated an integrated view of how DA mediates behavioral control. However, technical challenges are associated with FSCV measurement of 5-HT and understanding of 5-HT transmission at subsecond resolution has not advanced at the same rate. As a result, how the actions of 5-HT at the level of the synapse translate into behavior is poorly understood. Recent technical advances may aid the study of 5-HT in real-time. It is timely, therefore, to compare and contrast what is currently understood of the subsecond characteristics of transmission for DA and 5-HT. In doing so, a number of areas are highlighted as being worthy of exploration for 5-HT. PMID:23627553

  6. [Serotonin and dopamine brain metabolism in mice with different predisposition to catalepsy].

    PubMed

    Sinyakova, N A; Kulikova, E A; Kulikov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Catalepsy usually is caused by imbalance of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) systems of brain. The aim of our work was to verify if this imbalance plays an important role in the mechanism of hereditary catalepsy in mice. Maintenance of DA, 5-HT and their main metabolites--5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanilic acid was determined in cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, striatum, substantia nigra and nuclei raphes in catalepsy-resistant AKR/J mice strain and catalepsy-prone CBA/LacJ mice strain and recombinant mice AKR/J.CBA-D13Mit76 (D13) strain. The latest strain was selected by transferring of a fragment of the chromosome 13 from CBA/LacJ carrying the main gene of hereditary catalepsy to AKR/J genome. There were no interstrain differences in concentration of biogenic amines and their metabolites in all brain regions. As a result of our work the hypothesis about the important role of 5-HT and/or DA systems of brain in the mechanism of hereditary catalepsy in mice was denied. PMID:25975144

  7. Differential effects of kainic acid on dopamine and serotonin metabolism in ventral and dorsal striatal regions.

    PubMed

    Guevara, B H; Hoffmann, I S; Cubeddu, L X

    1997-02-21

    The comparative effects of kainic acid (KA) on dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) metabolism in ventral and dorsal striatum were investigated. Local injection of KA into the caudate-putamen (CP) increased by 155% DOPAC (2,3-dihydrophenylacetic acid), by 114% HVA (homovanillic acid) and by 79% 5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) concentrations; with little or no effect on monoamine levels. The (DOPAC + HVA)/DA ratio increased from 0.33 +/- 0.2 in vehicle-treated to 0.77 +/- 0.1 in KA-treated CP. 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased from 2.7 +/- 0.2 to 5.9 +/- 0.1 after KA treatment. However, direct KA injections into the olfactory tubercle (OT), the most ventral part of the ventral striatum, did not alter significantly the levels of DA, 5-HT, DOPAC, HVA or 5-HIAA. Since KA is a neurotoxin which preferentially destroys perykaria and dendrites, leaving unchanged terminal boutons and axons of passage, the lack of effects on DA and 5-HT metabolism in OT suggests, that contrary to the CP, interneurons and projecting neurons in the OT play no role in inhibitory feedback mechanisms to control DA and 5-HT activities. PMID:9070639

  8. Effect of psilocin on extracellular dopamine and serotonin levels in the mesoaccumbens and mesocortical pathway in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Sakashita, Yuichi; Abe, Kenji; Katagiri, Nobuyuki; Kambe, Toshie; Saitoh, Toshiaki; Utsunomiya, Iku; Horiguchi, Yoshie; Taguchi, Kyoji

    2015-01-01

    Psilocin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-ol) is a hallucinogenic component of the Mexican mushroom Psilocybe mexicana and a skeletal serotonin (5-HT) analogue. Psilocin is the active metabolite of psilocybin (3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-1H-indol-4-yl dihydrogen phosphate). In the present study, we examined the effects of systemically administered psilocin on extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), nucleus accumbens, and medial prefrontal cortex of the dopaminergic pathway in awake rats using in vivo microdialysis. Intraperitoneal administration of psilocin (5, 10?mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Psilocin did not affect the extracellular 5-HT level in the nucleus accumbens. Conversely, systemic administration of psilocin (10?mg/kg) significantly increased extracellular 5-HT levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of rats, but dopamine was decreased in this region. However, neither extracellular dopamine nor 5-HT levels in the VTA were altered by administration of psilocin. Behaviorally, psilocin significantly increased the number of head twitches. Thus, psilocin affects the dopaminergic system in the nucleus accumbens. In the serotonergic system, psilocin contribute to a crucial effect in the medial prefrontal cortex. The present data suggest that psilocin increased both the extracellular dopamine and 5-HT concentrations in the mesoaccumbens and/or mesocortical pathway. PMID:25342005

  9. Antipsychotic drugs disrupt normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans via additional mechanisms besides dopamine and serotonin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Dallas R.; Aamodt, Eric J.; Osborn, Elizabeth; Dwyer, Donard S.

    2006-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs may produce adverse effects during development in humans and rodents. However, the extent of these effects has not been systematically characterized nor have molecular mechanisms been identified. Consequently, we sought to evaluate the effects of an extensive panel of antipsychotic drugs in a model organism, C. elegans, whose development is well characterized, and which offers the possibility of identifying novel molecular targets. For these studies, animals were grown from hatching in the presence of vehicle (control) or antipsychotic drugs over a range of concentrations (20–160 ?M) and growth was analyzed by measuring head-to-tail length at various intervals. First-generation antipsychotics (e.g., fluphenazine) generally slowed growth and maturation more than second-generation drugs such as quetiapine, and olanzapine. This is consistent with in vitro effects on human neuronal cell lines. Clozapine, a second-generation drug, produced similar growth deficits as haloperidol. Converging lines of evidence, including the failure to rescue growth with high concentrations of agonists, suggested that the drug-induced delay in development was not mediated by the major neurotransmitter receptors recognized by the antipsychotic drugs. Moreover, in serotonin-deficient tph-1 mutants, the drugs dramatically slowed development and led to larval arrest (including dauer formation), and neuronal abnormalities. Evaluation of alternative targets of the antipsychotics revealed a potential role for calmodulin and underscored the significance of Ca2+-calmodulin signaling in development. These findings suggest that antipsychotic drugs may interfere with normal developmental processes, and provide a tool for investigating the key signaling pathways involved. PMID:16962336

  10. Cloning of the cocaine-sensitive bovine dopamine transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Usdin, T.B.; Chen, C.; Brownstein, M.J.; Hoffman, B.J. (National Inst. of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Mezey, E. (Semmelweis Univ., Budapest (Hungary))

    1991-12-15

    A cDNA encoding the dopamine transporter from bovine brain substantia nigra was identified on the basis of its structural homology to other, recently cloned, neurotransmitter transporters. The sequence of the 693-amino acid protein is quite similar to those of the rat {gamma}-aminobutyric acid, human norepinephrine, and rat serotonin transporters. Dopamine transporter mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra but not in the locus coeruleus, raphe, caudate, or other brain areas. ({sup 3}H)Dopamine accumulation in tissue culture cells transfected with the cDNA was inhibited by amphetamine, cocaine, and specific inhibitors of dopamine transports, including GBR12909.

  11. A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shah R.; Parajuli, Rishi R.; Balogun, Yetunde; Ma, Yufeng; He, Huixin

    2008-01-01

    Most of the current techniques for in vivo detection of dopamine exploit the ease of oxidation of this compound. The major problem during the detection is the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid that is oxidized at nearly the same potential as dopamine on bare electrodes. Furthermore, the oxidation product of dopamine reacts with ascorbic acid present in samples and regenerates dopamine again, which severely limits the accuracy of the detection. Meanwhile, the product could also form a melanin-like insulating film on the electrode surface, which decreases the sensitivity of the electrode. Various surface modifications on the electrode, new materials for making the electrodes, and new electrochemical techniques have been exploited to solve these problems. Recently we developed a new electrochemical detection method that did not rely on direct oxidation of dopamine on electrodes, which may naturally solve these problems. This approach takes advantage of the high performance of our newly developed poly(anilineboronic acid)/carbon nanotube composite and the excellent permselectivity of the ion-exchange polymer Nafion. The high affinity binding of dopamine to the boronic acid groups of the polymer affects the electrochemical properties of the polyaniline backbone, which act as the basis for the transduction mechanism of this non-oxidative dopamine sensor. The unique reduction capability and high conductivity of single-stranded DNA functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrochemical activity of the polymer in a physiologically-relevant buffer, and the large surface area of the carbon nanotubes increased the density of the boronic acid receptors. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor show excellent promise toward molecular diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of this novel detection approach, the new interferences in this detection approach, and how to eliminate these interferences toward in vivo and in vitro detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

  12. Lack of evidence for reduced prefrontal cortical serotonin and dopamine efflux after acute tryptophan depletion

    PubMed Central

    Meerkerk, Dorie (T). J.; Lieben, Cindy K. J.; Blokland, Arjan; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a widely used method to study the role of serotonin (5-HT) in affect and cognition. ATD results in a strong but transient decrease in plasma tryptophan and central 5-HT synthesis and availability. Although its use is widespread, the evidence that the numerous functional effects of ATD are caused by actual changes in 5-HT neuronal release is not very strong. Thus far, decreases in 5-HT efflux (thought to reflect synaptic release) were only reported after chronic tryptophan depletion or when ATD was combined with blockade of 5-HT reuptake. Objective With the current experiment, we aimed to study the validity of the method of ATD by measuring the extent to which it reduces the efflux of 5-HT (and dopamine) in the prefrontal cortex in the absence of reuptake blockage. Materials and methods We simultaneously measured in freely moving animals plasma tryptophan via a catheter in the jugular vein and 5-HT and DA efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex through microdialysis after ATD treatment. Results ATD reduced plasma tryptophan to less than 30% of control, without affecting 5-HT or DA efflux in the prefrontal cortex, indicating that even strong reductions of plasma tryptophan do not necessarily result in decreases in central 5-HT efflux. Conclusion The present experiment showed that reductions in plasma tryptophan, similar to values associated with behavioural effects, do not necessarily reduce 5-HT efflux and suggest that the cognitive and behavioural effects of ATD may not be (exclusively) due to alterations in 5-HT release. PMID:17713760

  13. Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Analysis of Serotonin, Adrenergic, Muscarinic, and Dopamine Receptor Dimerization: The Oligomer Number Puzzle

    PubMed Central

    Grinde, Ellinor; Cowan, Ann; Mazurkiewicz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomer status has not been resolved. Although many studies have provided evidence in favor of receptor-receptor interactions, there is no consensus as to the exact oligomer size of class A GPCRs. Previous studies have reported monomers, dimers, tetramers, and higher-order oligomers. In the present study, this issue was examined using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) with photon counting histogram (PCH) analysis, a sensitive method for monitoring diffusion and oligomer size of plasma membrane proteins. Six different class A GPCRs were selected from the serotonin (5-HT2A), adrenergic (?1b-AR and ?2-AR), muscarinic (M1 and M2), and dopamine (D1) receptor families. Each GPCR was C-terminally labeled with green fluorescent protein (GFP) or yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. FCS provided plasma membrane diffusion coefficients on the order of 7.5 × 10?9 cm2/s. PCH molecular brightness analysis was used to determine the GPCR oligomer size. Known monomeric (CD-86) and dimeric (CD-28) receptors with GFP and YFP tags were used as controls to determine the molecular brightness of monomers and dimers. PCH analysis of fluorescence-tagged GPCRs revealed molecular brightness values that were twice the monomeric controls and similar to the dimeric controls. Reduced ?2 analyses of the PCH data best fit a model for a homogeneous population of homodimers, without tetramers or higher-order oligomers. The homodimer configuration was unaltered by agonist treatment and was stable over a 10-fold range of receptor expression level. The results of this study demonstrate that biogenic amine receptors freely diffusing within the plasma membrane are predominantly homodimers. PMID:23907214

  14. Reelin influences the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Varela, M J; Lage, S; Caruncho, H J; Cadavid, M I; Loza, M I; Brea, J

    2015-04-01

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein that plays a critical role in neuronal guidance during brain neurodevelopment and in synaptic plasticity in adults and has been associated with schizophrenia. Reelin mRNA and protein levels are reduced in various structures of post-mortem schizophrenic brains, in a similar way to those found in heterozygous reeler mice (HRM). Reelin is involved in protein expression in dendritic spines that are the major location where synaptic connections are established. Thus, we hypothesized that a genetic deficit in reelin would affect the expression and function of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors that are associated with the action of current antipsychotic drugs. In this study, D2 and 5-HT2A receptor expression and function were quantitated by using radioligand binding studies in the frontal cortex and striatum of HRM and wild-type mice (WTM). We observed increased expression (p<0.05) in striatum membranes and decreased expression (p<0.05) in frontal cortex membranes for both dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors from HRM compared to WTM. Our results show parallel alterations of D2 and 5-HT2A receptors that are compatible with a possible hetero-oligomeric nature of these receptors. These changes are similar to changes described in schizophrenic patients and provide further support for the suitability of using HRM as a model for studying this disease and the effects of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25637489

  15. Role of prenatal undernutrition in the expression of serotonin, dopamine and leptin receptors in adult mice: Implications of food intake

    PubMed Central

    MANUEL-APOLINAR, LETICIA; ROCHA, LUISA; DAMASIO, LETICIA; TESORO-CRUZ, EMILIANO; ZARATE, ARTURO

    2014-01-01

    Perturbations in the levels of serotonin expression have a significant impact on behavior and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety, mood and appetite. Fetal programming is a risk factor for the development of metabolic diseases during adulthood. Moreover, previous studies have shown that serotonin (5-HT), dopamine and leptin are important in energy balance. In the present study, the impact of maternal malnutrition-induced prenatal undernutrition (UN) was investigated in mice and the expression of 5-HT1A, dopamine (D)1, D2 and Ob-Rb receptors was analyzed in the hypothalamus during adulthood. The UN group showed a low birth weight compared with the control group. With regard to receptor expression, 5-HT1A in the UN group was increased in the hypothalamus and D1 was reduced, whereas D2 showed an increase from postnatal day (P)14 in the arcuate nucleus. Ob-Rb receptor expression was increased in the hypothalamus at P14 and P90. These observations indicated that maternal caloric restriction programs a postnatal body weight gain in offspring with an increased food intake in early postnatal life which continues into adulthood. In addition, UN in mice was found to be affected by Ob-Rb, 5-HT1A and D1/2 receptor expression, indicating that these observations may be associated with hyperphagia and obesity. PMID:24337628

  16. Effects of Acute Tryptophan Depletion on Brain Serotonin Function and Concentrations of Dopamine and Norepinephrine in C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ Mice

    PubMed Central

    Biskup, Caroline Sarah; Sánchez, Cristina L.; Arrant, Andrew; Van Swearingen, Amanda E. D.; Kuhn, Cynthia; Zepf, Florian Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a method of lowering brain serotonin (5-HT). Administration of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) limits the transport of endogenous tryptophan (TRP) across the blood brain barrier by competition with other LNAAs and subsequently decreases serotonergic neurotransmission. A recent discussion on the specificity and efficacy of the ATD paradigm for inhibition of central nervous 5-HT has arisen. Moreover, side effects such as vomiting and nausea after intake of amino acids (AA) still limit its use. ATD Moja-De is a revised mixture of AAs which is less nauseating than conventional protocols. It has been used in preliminary clinical studies but its effects on central 5-HT mechanisms and other neurotransmitter systems have not been validated in an animal model. We tested ATD Moja-De (TRP?) in two strains of mice: C57BL/6J, and BALB/cJ, which are reported to have impaired 5-HT synthesis and a more anxious phenotype relative to other strains of mice. ATD Moja-De lowered brain TRP, significantly decreased 5-HT synthesis as indexed by 5-HTP levels after decarboxlyase inhibition, and lowered 5-HT and 5-HIAA in both strains of mice, however more so in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ. Dopamine and its metabolites as well as norepinephrine were not affected. A balanced (TRP+) control mixture did not raise 5-HT or 5-HIAA. The present findings suggest that ATD Moja-De effectively and specifically suppresses central serotonergic function. These results also demonstrate a strain- specific effect of ATD Moja-De on anxiety-like behavior. PMID:22629305

  17. Comparative effect of lurasidone and blonanserin on cortical glutamate, dopamine, and acetylcholine efflux: role of relative serotonin (5-HT)2A and DA D2 antagonism and 5-HT1A partial agonism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei; Panos, John J; Kwon, Sunoh; Oyamada, Yoshihiro; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2014-03-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) have been suggested to be more effective in improving cognitive impairment in schizophrenia than typical APDs, a conclusion supported by differences in receptor affinities and neurotransmitter efflux in the cortex and the hippocampus. More potent serotonin (5-HT)2A than dopamine (DA) D2 receptors antagonism, and direct or indirect 5-HT1A agonism, characterize almost all AAPDs. Blonanserin, an AAPD, has slightly greater affinity for D2 than 5-HT2A receptors. Using microdialysis and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, we compared the abilities of the typical APD, haloperidol, three AAPDs, blonanserin, lurasidone, and olanzapine, and a selective 5-HT1A partial agonist, tandospirone, and all, except haloperidol, were found to ameliorate the cognitive deficits produced by the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist, phencyclidine, altering the efflux of neurotransmitters and metabolites in the rat cortex and nucleus accumbens. Blonanserin, lurasidone, olanzapine, and tandospirone, but not haloperidol, increased the efflux of cortical DA and its metabolites, homovanillic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Olanzapine and lurasidone increased the efflux of acetylcholine; lurasidone increased glutamate as well. None of the compounds significantly altered the efflux of 5-HT or its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, or GABA, serine, and glycine. The ability to increase cortical DA efflux was the only shared effect of the compounds which ameliorates the deficit in cognition in rodents following phencyclidine. PMID:24164459

  18. Stress-induced changes in extracellular dopamine and serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal hippocampus of prenatally malnourished rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Mokler; Olga I. Torres; Janina R. Galler; Peter J. Morgane

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal protein malnutrition continues to be a significant problem in the world today. Exposure to prenatal protein malnutrition increases the risk of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood including depression, schizophrenia and attentional deficit disorder. In the present experiment, we have examined the effects of stress on extracellular serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine in the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsal

  19. Differential Effects of Acute Serotonin and Dopamine Depletion on Prepulse Inhibition and P50 Suppression Measures of Sensorimotor and Sensory Gating in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Collette Mann; Rodney J Croft; Kirsty E Scholes; Alan Dunne; Barry V O'Neill; Sumie Leung; David Copolov; K Luan Phan; Pradeep J Nathan

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with impairments of sensorimotor and sensory gating as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response and P50 suppression of the auditory event-related potential respectively. While serotonin and dopamine play an important role in the pathophysiology and treatment of schizophrenia, their role in modulating PPI and P50 suppression in humans is yet to be fully

  20. Neurotransmitter transporters and their impact on the development of psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    The synaptic actions of most neurotransmitters are inactivated by reuptake into the nerve terminals from which they are released, or by uptake into adjacent cells. A family of more than 20 transporter proteins is involved. In addition to the plasma membrane transporters, vesicular transporters in the membranes of neurotransmitter storage vesicles are responsible for maintaining vesicle stores and facilitating exocytotic neurotransmitter release. The cell membrane monoamine transporters are important targets for CNS drugs. The transporters for noradrenaline and serotonin are key targets for antidepressant drugs. Both noradrenaline-selective and serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors are effective against major depression and a range of other psychiatric illnesses. As the newer drugs are safer in overdose than the first-generation tricyclic antidepressants, their use has greatly expanded. The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a key target for amphetamine and methylphenidate, used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychostimulant drugs of abuse (amphetamines and cocaine) also target DAT. The amino-acid neurotransmitters are inactivated by other families of neurotransmitter transporters, mainly located on astrocytes and other non-neural cells. Although there are many different transporters involved (four for GABA; two for glycine/D-serine; five for L-glutamate), pharmacology is less well developed in this area. So far, only one new amino-acid transporter-related drug has become available: the GABA uptake inhibitor tiagabine as a novel antiepileptic agent. PMID:16402124

  1. Modulation of Fictive Feeding by Dopamine and Serotonin EVGENI A. KABOTYANSKI,1,2

    E-print Network

    Byrne, John H.

    . The present study investigated the roles of dopa- mine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in regulating feeding activates appetitive behaviors, such as locomotion and head waving, which bring the animal in contact

  2. Serotonin and GABA are colocalized in restricted groups of neurons in the larval sea lamprey brain: insights into the early evolution of neurotransmitter colocalization in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro-Iglesias, Antón; Cornide-Petronio, María Eugenia; Anadón, Ramón; Rodicio, María Celina

    2009-01-01

    Colocalization of the classic neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT) and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) (or the enzyme that synthesizes the latter, glutamate decarboxylase) has been reported in a few neurons of the rat raphe magnus-obscurus nuclei. However, there are no data on the presence of neurochemically similar neurons in the brain of non-mammalian vertebrates. Lampreys are the oldest extant vertebrates and may provide important data on the phylogeny of neurochemical systems. The colocalization of 5-HT and GABA in neurons of the sea lamprey brain was studied using antibodies directed against 5-HT and GABA and confocal microscopy. Colocalization of the neurotransmitters was observed in the diencephalon and the isthmus. In the diencephalon, about 87% of the serotonergic cells of the rostral tier of the dorsal thalamus (close to the zona limitans) exhibited GABA immunoreactivity. In addition, occasional cells double-labelled for GABA and 5-HT were observed in the hypothalamic tuberal nucleus and the pretectum. Of the three serotonergic isthmic subgroups already recognized in the sea lamprey isthmus (dorsal, medial and ventral), such double-labelled cells were only observed in the ventral subgroup (about 61% of the serotonergic cells in the ventral subgroup exhibited GABA immunoreactivity). An equivalence between these lamprey isthmic cells and the serotonergic/GABAergic raphe cells of mammals is suggested. Present findings suggest that serotonergic/GABAergic neurons are more extensive in lampreys than in the rat and probably appeared before the separation of agnathans and gnathostomes. Cotransmission by release of 5-HT and GABA by the here-described lamprey brain neurons is proposed. PMID:19552725

  3. A carbon nanofiber based biosensor for simultaneous detection of dopamine and serotonin in the presence of ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Rand, Emily; Periyakaruppan, Adaikkappan; Tanaka, Zuki; Zhang, David; Marsh, Michael P.; Andrews, Russell J.; Lee, Kendall H.; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.; Koehne, Jessica E.

    2013-01-01

    A biosensor based on an array of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition is found to be effective for the simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the presence of excess ascorbic acid (AA). The CNF electrode outperforms the conventional glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for both selectivity and sensitivity. Using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), three distinct peaks are seen for the CNF electrode at 0.13 V, 0.45 V, and 0.70 V for the ternary mixture of AA, DA, and 5-HT. In contrast, the analytes are indistinguishable in a mixture using a GCE. For the CNF electrode, the detection limits are 50 nM for DA and 250 nM for 5-HT. PMID:23228495

  4. Dopamine and serotonin signaling during two sensitive developmental periods differentially impact adult aggressive and affective behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qinghui; Teixeira, Cátia M.; Mahadevia, Darshini; Huang, Yung-Yu; Balsam, Daniel; Mann, J John; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologic blockade of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) or serotonin transporter (5-HTT) has antidepressant and anxiolytic efficacy in adulthood. Yet, genetically conferred MAOA or 5-HTT hypo-activity is associated with altered aggression and increased anxiety/depression. Here we test the hypothesis that increased monoamine signaling during development causes these paradoxical aggressive and affective phenotypes. We find that pharmacologic MAOA blockade during early postnatal development (P2-P21) but not during peri-adolescence (P22-41) increases anxiety- and depression-like behavior in adult (> P90) mice, mimicking the effect of P2-21 5-HTT inhibition. Moreover, MAOA blockade during peri-adolescence, but not P2-21 or P182-201, increases adult aggressive behavior, and 5-HTT blockade from P22-P41 reduced adult aggression. Blockade of the dopamine transporter, but not the norepinephrine transporter, during P22-41 also increases adult aggressive behavior. Thus, P2-21 is a sensitive period during which 5-HT modulates adult anxiety/depression-like behavior, and P22-41 is a sensitive period during which DA and 5-HT bi-directionally modulate adult aggression. Permanently altered DAergic function as a consequence of increased P22-P41 monoamine signaling might underlie altered aggression. In support of this hypothesis, we find altered aggression correlating positively with locomotor response to amphetamine challenge in adulthood. Proving that altered DA function and aggression are causally linked, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of VTA DAergic neurons increases aggression. It therefore appears that genetic and pharmacologic factors impacting dopamine and serotonin signaling during sensitive developmental periods can modulate adult monoaminergic function and thereby alter risk for aggressive and emotional dysfunction. PMID:24589889

  5. The role of endogenous serotonin in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David M; Angoa Pérez, Mariana; Francescutti-Verbeem, Dina M; Shah, Mrudang M; Kuhn, Donald M

    2010-11-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a neurotoxic drug of abuse that damages the dopamine (DA) neuronal system in a highly delimited manner. The brain structure most affected by METH is the striatum where long-term DA depletion and microglial activation are maximal. Endogenous DA has been implicated as a critical participant in METH-induced neurotoxicity, most likely as a substrate for non-enzymatic oxidation by METH-generated reactive oxygen species. The striatum is also extensively innervated by serotonin (5HT) nerve endings and this neurochemical system is modified by METH in much the same manner as seen in DA nerve endings (i.e., increased release of 5HT, loss of function in tryptophan hydroxylase and the serotonin transporter, long-term depletion of 5HT stores). 5HT can also be modified by reactive oxygen species to form highly reactive species that damage neurons but its role in METH neurotoxicity has not been assessed. Increases in 5HT levels with 5-hydroxytryptophan do not change METH-induced neurotoxicity to the DA nerve endings as revealed by reductions in DA, tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine transporter levels. Partial reductions in 5HT with p-chlorophenylalanine are without effect on METH toxicity, despite the fact that p-chlorophenylalanine largely prevents METH-induced hyperthermia. Mice lacking the gene for brain tryptophan hydroxylase 2 are devoid of brain 5HT and respond to METH in the same manner as wild-type controls, despite showing enhanced drug-induced hyperthermia. Taken together, the present results indicate that endogenous 5HT does not appear to play a role in METH-induced damage to DA nerve endings of the striatum. PMID:20722968

  6. Species-specific effects on hemolymph glucose control by serotonin, dopamine, and L-enkephalin and their inhibitors in Squilla mantis and Astacus leptodactylus (crustacea).

    PubMed

    Lorenzon, Simonetta; Brezovec, Sara; Ferrero, Enrico A

    2004-09-01

    Hemolymph glucose level is controlled by crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH) released from the eyestalk neuroendocrine centers under conditions of both physiological and environmental stress. Biogenic amines and enkephalin have been found to mediate the release of several neurohormones from crustacean neuroendocrine tissue. We investigated the effect of serotonin, dopamine, and Leucine-enkephalin in vivo--injected into the stomatopod Squilla mantis and the decapod Astacus leptodactylus--whether increasing or depressing glycemia. Serotonin had a marked effect in elevating glucose level compared with initial values in both species. 5-HT1-like receptors are more involved in mediating serotonin action as co-injected cyproheptadine was a more effective antagonist than ketanserin (5-HT2-like receptor inhibitor). Dopamine injection in intact animals produced a decrease below initial levels of hemolymph glucose. This effect was significantly antagonized by domperidone. No significant effect of both amines occurred in eyestalkless animals. L-enkephalin shows a differential effect: in S. mantis it induced hypoglycemia while in A. leptodactylus it caused an increase of glucose level. Co-injected antagonist naloxone affected the direction of the response. Serotonin appears to provide a major control on glucose mobilization, whereas dopamine and L-enkephalin act as modulators whose plasticity in use or action varies among species. PMID:15559934

  7. WINCS-BASED WIRELESS ELECTROCHEMICAL MONITORING OF SEROTONIN (5-HT) USING FAST-SCAN CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY: PROOF OF PRINCIPLE

    PubMed Central

    Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Object We previously reported the development of a Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for measuring dopamine and suggested that this technology may be useful for evaluating deep brain stimulation (DBS)-related neuromodulatory effects on neurotransmitter systems. WINCS supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially resolved neurotransmitter measurements. The FSCV parameters used to establish WINCS dopamine measurements are not suitable for serotonin, a neurotransmitter implicated in depression, because they lead to CFM fouling and a loss of sensitivity. Here, we incorporate into WINCS a previously described N-shaped waveform applied at a high scan rate to establish wireless serotonin monitoring. Methods FSCV optimized for the detection of serotonin consisted of an N-shaped waveform scanned linearly from a resting potential of, in V, +0.2 to +1.0, then to ?0.1 and back to +0.2 at a rate of 1000 V/s. Proof of principle tests included flow injection analysis and electrically evoked serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus of rat brain slices. Results Flow cell injection analysis demonstrated that the N waveform applied at a scan rate of 1000 V/s significantly reduced serotonin fouling of the CFM, relative to that observed with FSCV parameters for dopamine. In brain slices, WINCS reliably detected sub-second serotonin release in the dorsal raphe nucleus evoked by local high-frequency stimulation. Conclusion WINCS supported high-fidelity wireless serotonin monitoring by FSCV at a CFM. In the future such measurements of serotonin in large animal models and in humans may help to establish the mechanism of DBS for psychiatric disease. PMID:20415521

  8. Detection and Monitoring of Neurotransmitters - a Spectroscopic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia; Lee, Kendall; Durrer, William; Bennet, Kevin

    2012-10-01

    In this work we demonstrate the capability of confocal Raman mapping spectroscopy for simultaneously and locally detecting important compounds in neuroscience such as dopamine, serotonin, and adenosine. The Raman results show shifting of the characteristic vibrations of the compounds, observations consistent with previous spectroscopic studies. Although some vibrations are common in these neurotransmitters, Raman mapping was achieved by detecting non-overlapping characteristic spectral signatures of the compounds, as follows: for dopamine the vibration attributed to C-O stretching, for serotonin the indole ring stretching vibration, and for adenosine the adenine ring vibrations. Without damage, dyeing, or preferential sample preparation, confocal Raman mapping provided positive detection of each neurotransmitter, allowing association of the high-resolution spectra with specific micro-scale image regions. Such information is particularly important for complex, heterogeneous samples, where modification of the chemical or physical composition can influence the neurotransmission processes. We also report an estimated dopamine diffusion coefficient two orders of magnitude smaller than that calculated by the flow-injection method.

  9. SLC6 neurotransmitter transporters: structure, function, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Anders S; Andersen, Jacob; Jørgensen, Trine N; Sørensen, Lena; Eriksen, Jacob; Loland, Claus J; Strømgaard, Kristian; Gether, Ulrik

    2011-09-01

    The neurotransmitter transporters (NTTs) belonging to the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) gene family (also referred to as the neurotransmitter-sodium-symporter family or Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporters) comprise a group of nine sodium- and chloride-dependent plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), dopamine, and norepinephrine, and the amino acid neurotransmitters GABA and glycine. The SLC6 NTTs are widely expressed in the mammalian brain and play an essential role in regulating neurotransmitter signaling and homeostasis by mediating uptake of released neurotransmitters from the extracellular space into neurons and glial cells. The transporters are targets for a wide range of therapeutic drugs used in treatment of psychiatric diseases, including major depression, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and epilepsy. Furthermore, psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines have the SLC6 NTTs as primary targets. Beginning with the determination of a high-resolution structure of a prokaryotic homolog of the mammalian SLC6 transporters in 2005, the understanding of the molecular structure, function, and pharmacology of these proteins has advanced rapidly. Furthermore, intensive efforts have been directed toward understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in regulation of the activity of this important class of transporters, leading to new methodological developments and important insights. This review provides an update of these advances and their implications for the current understanding of the SLC6 NTTs. PMID:21752877

  10. Radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    The study of neurotransmitter systems is one of the major thrusts in emission tomography today. The current generation of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) radiotracers examines neurotransmitter properties from a number of different perspectives including their pre and post synaptic sites and the activity of the enzymes which regulate their concentration. Although the dopamine system has been the most extensively investigated, other neurotransmitter systems including the acetylcholine muscarine, serotonin, benzodiazepine, opiate, NMDA and others are also under intensive development. Enzymes involved in the synthesis and regulation of neurotransmitter concentration, for example monoamine oxidase and amino acid decarboxylase has also been probed in vivo. Medical applications range from the study of normal function and the characterization of neurotransmitter activity in neurological and psychiatric diseases and in heart disease and cancer to the study of the binding of therapeutic drugs and substances of abuse. This chapter will provide an overview of the current generation of radiotracers for PET and SPECT studies of neurotransmitter systems including radiotracer design, synthesis localization mechanisms and applications in emission tomography. 60 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Neurotransmitters in the Gas Phase: La-Mb Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Mata, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    LA-MB-FTMW spectroscopy combines laser ablation with Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in supersonic jets overcoming the problems of thermal decomposition associated with conventional heating methods. We present here the results on LA-MB-FTMW studies of some neurotransmitters. Six conformers of dopamine, four of adrenaline, five of noradrenaline and three conformers of serotonin have been characterized in the gas phase. The rotational and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants extracted from the analysis of the rotational spectrum are directly compared with those predicted by ab initio methods to achieve the conclusive identification of different conformers and the experimental characterization of the intramolecular forces at play which control conformational preferences.

  12. Extended Radioligand Binding Profile of Iloperidone: A Broad Spectrum Dopamine\\/Serotonin\\/Norepinephrine Receptor Antagonist for the Management of Psychotic Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans Otto Kalkman; Natarajan Subramanian; Daniel Hoyer

    2001-01-01

    Iloperidone is a novel psychotropic compound currently undergoing Phase III trials. Its affinity for human dopamine and 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors has been reported previously (Kongsamut et al. 1996). This report presents the affinity of iloperidone for a largely extended number of human neurotransmitter receptors. In a few instances human receptors were not available and receptor studies were performed on

  13. Dopamine and serotonin in the larval CNS of a drosophilid fly,Chymomyza costata: Are they involved in the regulation of diapause?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Kostal; Hirofumi Noguchi; Kimio Shimada; Yoichi Hayakawa

    1999-01-01

    Developmental profiles of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hy- droxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the larval CNS of Chymomyza costata were measured by HPLC using electrochemical detection. Lar- vae of two strains, wild-type (W) and nondiapause mutant (M), were maintained either under long-day (LD, inducing pup- ariation) or short-day (SD, inducing diapause in W-strain) pho- toperiods. The levels of DA ranged from 10

  14. Suppression of annual testicular development in Indian Palm Squirrel, Funambulus pennanti by 8 hr temporal relationship of serotonin and dopamine precursor drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Chaturvedi; A. B. Singh

    1992-01-01

    Summary Daily injections of 5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin precursor) and L-DOPA (L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine, dopamine precursor) given 8 hour apart inhibited normal testicular growth in seasonally breeding Indian Palm Squirrel,Funambuluspennanti leading to complete gonadal atrophy, which was maintained till the end of the study. HCG administration induced higher degree of gonadal development but, when the two treatments (HCG + 8 hr relationship of

  15. Increased Serotonin and Dopamine Transporter Binding in Psychotropic Medication-Naõ ¨ve Patients with Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder Shown by 123Ib(4-Iodophenyl)Tropane SPECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nic J. van der Wee; Frederieke van Veen; Henk Stevens; Irene M. van Vliet; Peter P. van Rijk; Herman G. Westenberg

    There is circumstantial evidence for the involvement of seroto- nergic and dopaminergic systems in the pathophysiology of so- cial anxiety disorder. In the present study, using SPECT imaging we examined the 123I-b-(4-iodophenyl)-tropane binding potential for the serotonin and dopamine transporters in patients with a generalized social anxiety disorder and in age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Twelve psychotropic medication- naõ¨ve

  16. Associations between Dopamine and Serotonin Genes and Job Satisfaction: Preliminary Evidence from the Add Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Li, Wendong; Arvey, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous behavioral genetic studies have found that job satisfaction is partially heritable. We went a step further to examine particular genetic markers that may be associated with job satisfaction. Using an oversample from the National Adolescent Longitudinal Study (Add Health Study), we found 2 genetic markers, dopamine receptor gene DRD4 VNTR…

  17. The role of dopamine in schizophrenia from a neurobiological and evolutionary perspective: old fashioned, but still in vogue.

    PubMed

    Brisch, Ralf; Saniotis, Arthur; Wolf, Rainer; Bielau, Hendrik; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Braun, Katharina; Braun, Anna Katharina; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Kumaritlake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej; Gos, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. The revised dopamine hypothesis states that dopamine abnormalities in the mesolimbic and prefrontal brain regions exist in schizophrenia. However, recent research has indicated that glutamate, GABA, acetylcholine, and serotonin alterations are also involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. This review provides an in-depth analysis of dopamine in animal models of schizophrenia and also focuses on dopamine and cognition. Furthermore, this review provides not only an overview of dopamine receptors and the antipsychotic effects of treatments targeting them but also an outline of dopamine and its interaction with other neurochemical models of schizophrenia. The roles of dopamine in the evolution of the human brain and human mental abilities, which are affected in schizophrenia patients, are also discussed. PMID:24904434

  18. Improvement of dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits in mice by brexpiprazole, a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Noriko; Futamura, Takashi; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive impairment, including impaired social cognition, is largely responsible for the deterioration in social life suffered by patients with psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). Brexpiprazole (7-{4-[4-(1-benzothiophen-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}quinolin-2(1H)-one), a novel serotonin-dopamine activity modulator, was developed to offer efficacious and tolerable therapy for different psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and adjunctive treatment of MDD. In this study, we investigated whether brexpiprazole could improve social recognition deficits (one of social cognition deficits) in mice, after administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine). Dosing with dizocilpine (0.1mg/kg) induced significant impairment of social recognition in mice. Brexpiprazole (0.01, 0.03, 0.1mg/kg, p.o.) significantly ameliorated dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits, without sedation or a reduction of exploratory behavior. In addition, brexpiprazole alone had no effect on social recognition in untreated control mice. By contrast, neither risperidone (0.03mg/kg, p.o.) nor olanzapine (0.03mg/kg, p.o.) altered dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits. Finally, the effect of brexpiprazole on dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits was antagonized by WAY-100,635, a selective serotonin 5-HT1A antagonist. These results suggest that brexpiprazole could improve dizocilpine-induced social recognition deficits via 5-HT1A receptor activation in mice. Therefore, brexpiprazole may confer a beneficial effect on social cognition deficits in patients with psychiatric disorders. PMID:25600995

  19. Simultaneous determination of serotonin and dopamine at the PEDOP/MWCNTs-Pd nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seul Ki; Jeon, Seungwon

    2012-03-01

    Electrochemical determination of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) have been studied at a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at pH 7.4, all over the interfering biomolecule ascorbic acid (AA). The GCE was modified by palladium-functionalized, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-Pd) with electrochemical deposition of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxy pyrrole (PEDOP), denoted as PEDOP/MWCNTs-Pd/GCE, and investigated by SEM and EIS experiments. The highly electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode toward 5-HT and DA was demonstrated from the sensitive and well-separated voltammetric experiment. The oxidation peaks found were 0.165 and 0.355 mV for DA and 5-HT, respectively. The composite film shows a significant accumulation effects on two species, as well as the mutual interference among the analytes. This biosensor was best in response compared to other modified electrodes made in the same lab. The lowest detection limits were found to be 5.0 x 10(-9) and 1.0 x 10(-8) for 5-HT and DA, respectively. The respective linear ranges were determined as 1.0 x 10(-7) to 2.0 x 10(-4) and 1.0 x 10(-7) to 2.0 x 10(-4) for 5-HT and DA. PMID:22754997

  20. In vivo assessment of dopamine and serotonin receptors measured by C-11 n-methylspiperone (NMSP) in patients with schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Tune, L.E.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Suneja, S.; Bjorvinsson, E.; Pearlson, G.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wilson, A.A.; Links, J.M.

    1985-05-01

    The authors carried out PET imaging with C-11 NMSP in 13 pts. diagnosed as chronic schizophrenic by (DSM 3) criteria. They had no detectable serum neuroleptics by radioassay at the time of the scan. No pt. had received a neuroleptic for at least 1 week before study, with an avg. abstinence of 7 mo. One had never been on neuroleptics. During the time of scanning, 8/13 had delusions and hallucinations. There was no statistically significant difference from 44 age and sex matched control subjects for the 43 min. Caudate/cerebellar ratio, or the Frontal/Cerebellar ratio, both measures of relative dopamine D2, and serotonin S2 binding. These preliminary studies suggest that these drug free pts. show no large differences in the receptor levels compared to normal data. Differences from in vitro data could be due to: differences in duration of illness (the avg. 10.3) yrs.; difference in age (our pts. vg. 32.7 are much younger than those dying with schizophrenia); drug induced effects at death or persistent neuroleptic effect in our pts.; or difference in method.

  1. Ionotropic and metabotropic activation of a neuronal chloride channel by serotonin and dopamine in the leech Hirudo medicinalis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Declan W; Catarsi, Stefano; Drapeau, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    Cl? channels on the pressure-sensitive (P) neuron in the leech are directly activated by synaptic release of serotonin (5-HT) and are indirectly stimulated by the cAMP second messenger pathway, suggesting an unusual dual regulation of the channels. We have investigated the mode of action of 5-HT and dopamine (DA) on a Cl? channel in adult P cells in culture by recording from cell-attached patches.5-HT increased Cl? channel activity only when included in the recording pipette and not when applied in the bath.Pipette or, more effectively, bath application of DA led to an increase in Cl? channel activity. This effect was blocked by the potent and specific dopaminergic (DA1) receptor blocker, SCH-23390.The stimulation by DA, but not by 5-HT, was also blocked by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-cAMP and was mimicked by the membrane-permeant cAMP analogue dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP).Our results show that 5-HT directly gates a Cl? channel that is also activated by DA via the cAMP pathway. This study demonstrates that a ligand-gated channel can be independently operated by another transmitter acting via a second messenger pathway. PMID:9547394

  2. L-thyroxine treatment and neurotransmitter levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of hypothyroid patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg, S; Eriksson, M; Nordin, C

    1998-11-01

    Monoamine precursors, neurotransmitters and their metabolites were studied in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from nine newly diagnosed hypothyroid patients. Before treatment, the serum TSH correlated positively with the CSF concentrations of tyrosine and phenylalanine. During treatment, the levels of the precursors tryptophan, phenylalanine and tyrosine decreased significantly, as was also the case with dopamine and the noradrenaline metabolite 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (HMPG), but not with serotonin, noradrenaline and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, nor the dopamine metabolites homovanilic acid and dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. The study provided some indication that the CSF levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine are related to thyroid function. Furthermore, we have found an indication that L-thyroxine treatment affects the CSF levels of the precursors as well as dopamine and HMPG. Our results support the notion that there is an interaction between thyroid function and CSF disposition of monoamine compounds. PMID:9849813

  3. Orquestic regulation of neurotransmitters on reward-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Caraza-Santiago, Xanic; Salgado-Licona, Sergio; Salama, Mohamed; Machado, Sergio; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Menéndez-González, Manuel; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area is strongly associated with the reward system. Dopamine is released in areas such as the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex as a result of rewarding experiences such as food, sex, and neutral stimuli that become associated with them. Electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area or its output pathways can itself serve as a potent reward. Different drugs that increase dopamine levels are intrinsically rewarding. Although the dopaminergic system represent the cornerstone of the reward system, other neurotransmitters such as endogenous opioids, glutamate, ?-Aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine, serotonin, adenosine, endocannabinoids, orexins, galanin and histamine all affect this mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Consequently, genetic variations of neurotransmission are thought influence reward processing that in turn may affect distinctive social behavior and susceptibility to addiction. Here, we discuss current evidence on the orquestic regulation of different neurotranmitters on reward-seeking behavior and its potential effect on drug addiction. PMID:25061480

  4. Direct control of the gonadotroph in a teleost, Poecilia latipinna. II. Neurohormones and neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Groves, D J; Batten, T F

    1986-05-01

    Pituitaries from male and female mollies were incubated with varying amounts of mammalian LH-RH, arginine vasotocin, dopamine, or serotonin for 18 hr. Ultrastructural differences between control and experimentally treated glands were used to define the direct effects of these neurohormones and neurotransmitters on the gonadotrophic cells of the adenohypophysis. The effects varied in intensity according to the sex and reproductive state of the donor animal. LH-RH stimulated gonadotrophin secretion by the gonadotrophs, as did vasotocin, although to a much lesser extent and with noticeable differences between the sexes. Dopamine inhibited secretion by basally active gonadotrophs and probably from active cells also, although to a lesser extent. Serotonin mildly stimulated secretion at all stages in both sexes. The results of this study indicate the possible involvement of neurohypophysial octapeptides and of monoamines in the direct control of the gonadotroph of Poecilia latipinna. PMID:2877917

  5. Withdrawal from chronic ethanol increases the sensitivity of presynaptic 5HT 1A receptors modulating serotonin and dopamine synthesis in rat brain in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susana Esteban; David Moranta; Antoni Sastre-Coll; Antonio Miralles; Jesús A. Garc??a-Sevilla

    2002-01-01

    The in vivo sensitivity of presynaptic 5-HT1A receptors (autoreceptors and heteroreceptors) modulating the synthesis of 5-hydroxytryptophan\\/serotonin (5-HTP\\/5-HT) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine\\/dopamine (DOPA\\/DA) in rat brain was investigated after ethanol treatment and withdrawal. In saline-treated rats as well as in acute ethanol (2 g\\/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.), 2 h)- and chronic ethanol (2 g\\/kg for 7 days)-treated rats, a low dose of the 5-HT1A

  6. Memory, Mood, Dopamine, and Serotonin in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-Lesioned Mouse Model of Basal Ganglia Injury

    PubMed Central

    Vu?kovi?, Marta G.; Wood, Ruth I.; Holschneider, Daniel P.; Abernathy, Avery; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Smith, Alexsandra; Petzinger, Giselle M.; Jakowec, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned mouse serves as a model of basal ganglia injury and Parkinson’s disease. The present study investigated the effects of MPTP-induced lesioning on associative memory, conditioned fear, and affective behavior. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered saline or MPTP and separate groups were evaluated at either 7 or 30 days post-lesioning. In the social transmission of food preference test, mice showed a significant decrease in preference for familiar food 30 days post-MPTP compared to controls. Mice at both 7 and 30 days post-MPTP-lesioning had increased fear extinction compared to controls. HPLC analysis of tissues homogenates showed dopamine and serotonin were depleted in the striatum, frontal cortex, and amygdala. No changes in anxiety or depression were detected by the tail suspension, sucrose preference, light-dark preference, or hole-board tests. In conclusion, acute MPTP-lesioning regimen in mice causes impairments in associative memory and conditioned fear, no mood changes, and depletion of dopamine and serotonin throughout the brain. PMID:18718537

  7. Neurotransmitter Transporters

    E-print Network

    Bergles, Dwight

    Neurotransmitter Transporters Dwight E Bergles,Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA Neurotransmitters are released into the extracellular space during synaptic transmission. The actions into the release of a chemical messenger, or neurotransmitter, that carries the information between cells. In order

  8. Noncovalent Complexation of Monoamine Neurotransmitters and Related Ammonium Ions by Tetramethoxy Tetraglucosylcalix[4]arene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torvinen, Mika; Kalenius, Elina; Sansone, Francesco; Casnati, Alessandro; Jänis, Janne

    2012-02-01

    The noncovalent complexation of monoamine neurotransmitters and related ammonium and quaternary ammonium ions by a conformationally flexible tetramethoxy glucosylcalix[4]arene was studied by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI-FTICR) mass spectrometry. The glucosylcalixarene exhibited highest binding affinity towards serotonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Structural properties of the guests, such as the number, location, and type of hydrogen bonding groups, length of the alkyl spacer between the ammonium head-group and the aromatic ring structure, and the degree of nitrogen substitution affected the complexation. Competition experiments and guest-exchange reactions indicated that the hydroxyl groups of guests participate in intermolecular hydrogen bonding with the glucocalixarene.

  9. Determination of Serotonin and Dopamine Metabolites in Human Brain Microdialysis and Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples by UPLC-MS/MS: Discovery of Intact Glucuronide and Sulfate Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Suominen, Tina; Uutela, Päivi; Ketola, Raimo A.; Bergquist, Jonas; Hillered, Lars; Finel, Moshe; Zhang, Hongbo; Laakso, Aki; Kostiainen, Risto

    2013-01-01

    An UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for the determination of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), their phase I metabolites 5-HIAA, DOPAC and HVA, and their sulfate and glucuronide conjugates in human brain microdialysis samples obtained from two patients with acute brain injuries, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from four patients with obstructive hydrocephalus, and a lumbar CSF sample pooled mainly from patients undergoing spinal anesthesia in preparation for orthopedic surgery. The method was validated by determining the limits of detection and quantification, linearity, repeatability and specificity. The direct method enabled the analysis of the intact phase II metabolites of 5-HT and DA, without hydrolysis of the conjugates. The method also enabled the analysis of the regioisomers of the conjugates, and several intact glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were identified and quantified for the first time in the human brain microdialysis and CSF samples. We were able to show the presence of 5-HIAA sulfate, and that dopamine-3-O-sulfate predominates over dopamine-4-O-sulfate in the human brain. The quantitative results suggest that sulfonation is a more important phase II metabolism pathway than glucuronidation in the human brain. PMID:23826355

  10. Decreased Cerebral Spinal Fluid Neurotransmitter Levels in Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sparks, S.E.; Wassif, C.A.; Goodwin, H.; Conley, S.K.; Lanham, D.C.; Kratz, L.E.; Hyland, K.; Gropman, A.; Tierney, E.; Porter, F.D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with cognitive impairment and a distinct behavioral phenotype that includes autistic features. SLOS is caused by a defect in 3?-hydroxysterol ?7-reductase which leads to decreased cholesterol levels and elevated cholesterol precursors, specifically 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol. However, the pathological processes contributing to the neurological abnormalities in SLOS have not been defined. In view of prior data suggesting defects in SLOS in vesicular release and given the association of altered serotonin metabolism with autism, we were interested in measuring neurotransmitter metabolite levels in SLOS to assess their potential to be used as biomarkers in therapeutic trials. We measured cerebral spinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) respectively, in 21 SLOS subjects. Results were correlated with the SLOS anatomical severity score, Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores and concurrent sterol biochemistry. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were significantly reduced in SLOS subjects. In individual patients, the levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were reduced to a similar degree. CSF neurotransmitter metabolite levels did not correlate with either CSF sterols or behavioral measures. This is the first study demonstrating decreased levels of CSF neurotransmitter metabolites in SLOS. We propose that decreased levels of neurotransmitters in SLOS are caused by a sterol-related defect in synaptic vesicle formation and that CSF 5HIAA and HVA will be useful biomarkers in development of future therapeutic trials. PMID:24500076

  11. Decreased cerebral spinal fluid neurotransmitter levels in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sparks, S E; Wassif, C A; Goodwin, H; Conley, S K; Lanham, D C; Kratz, L E; Hyland, K; Gropman, A; Tierney, E; Porter, F D

    2014-05-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is an autosomal recessive, multiple congenital anomaly syndrome with cognitive impairment and a distinct behavioral phenotype that includes autistic features. SLOS is caused by a defect in 3?-hydroxysterol ?(7)-reductase which leads to decreased cholesterol levels and elevated cholesterol precursors, specifically 7- and 8-dehydrocholesterol. However, the pathological processes contributing to the neurological abnormalities in SLOS have not been defined. In view of prior data suggesting defects in SLOS in vesicular release and given the association of altered serotonin metabolism with autism, we were interested in measuring neurotransmitter metabolite levels in SLOS to assess their potential to be used as biomarkers in therapeutic trials. We measured cerebral spinal fluid levels of serotonin and dopamine metabolites, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA) respectively, in 21 SLOS subjects. Results were correlated with the SLOS anatomical severity score, Aberrant Behavior Checklist scores and concurrent sterol biochemistry. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were significantly reduced in SLOS subjects. In individual patients, the levels of both 5HIAA and HVA were reduced to a similar degree. CSF neurotransmitter metabolite levels did not correlate with either CSF sterols or behavioral measures. This is the first study demonstrating decreased levels of CSF neurotransmitter metabolites in SLOS. We propose that decreased levels of neurotransmitters in SLOS are caused by a sterol-related defect in synaptic vesicle formation and that CSF 5HIAA and HVA will be useful biomarkers in development of future therapeutic trials. PMID:24500076

  12. Could dopamine agonists aid in drug development for anorexia nervosa?

    PubMed

    Frank, Guido K W

    2014-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a severe psychiatric disorder most commonly starting during the teenage-years and associated with food refusal and low body weight. Typically there is a loss of menses, intense fear of gaining weight, and an often delusional quality of altered body perception. Anorexia nervosa is also associated with a pattern of high cognitive rigidity, which may contribute to treatment resistance and relapse. The complex interplay of state and trait biological, psychological, and social factors has complicated identifying neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to the illness. The dopamine D1 and D2 neurotransmitter receptors are involved in motivational aspects of food approach, fear extinction, and cognitive flexibility. They could therefore be important targets to improve core and associated behaviors in anorexia nervosa. Treatment with dopamine antagonists has shown little benefit, and it is possible that antagonists over time increase an already hypersensitive dopamine pathway activity in anorexia nervosa. On the contrary, application of dopamine receptor agonists could reduce circuit responsiveness, facilitate fear extinction, and improve cognitive flexibility in anorexia nervosa, as they may be particularly effective during underweight and low gonadal hormone states. This article provides evidence that the dopamine receptor system could be a key factor in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and dopamine agonists could be helpful in reducing core symptoms of the disorder. This review is a theoretical approach that primarily focuses on dopamine receptor function as this system has been mechanistically better described than other neurotransmitters that are altered in anorexia nervosa. However, those proposed dopamine mechanisms in anorexia nervosa also warrant further study with respect to their interaction with other neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin pathways. PMID:25988121

  13. Involvement of dopamine (DA)\\/serotonin (5HT)\\/sigma (?) receptor modulation in mediating the antidepressant action of ropinirole hydrochloride, a D 2\\/D 3 dopamine receptor agonist

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashish Dhir; S. K. Kulkarni

    2007-01-01

    Multiple lines of investigation have explored the role of dopaminergic systems in mental depression. Chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs has been reported to alter dopaminergic neurotransmission, most notably a sensitization of behavioural responses to agonists acting at D2\\/D3 dopamine receptors within the nucleus accumbens. Recent clinical evidences have shown that ropinirole, a D2\\/D3 dopamine receptor agonist, augments the action of

  14. Long-term effect of immunization with neural and nonneural antigens on the noradrenaline and serotonin levels of discrete brain areas in mice and the relationship between neurotransmitter levels and antibody production.

    PubMed

    Najbauer, J; Vécsei, L; Hartmann, G; Bebök, Z; Berki, T; Németh, P

    1991-01-01

    The effect of immunization with neural and nonneural antigens on hypothalamic and mesencephalic neurotransmission and antibody response have been investigated. Treatment of SJL/N mice with bovine myelin basic protein (BMBP), mouse spinal cord homogenate (MSCH) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) produced no significant changes in the average hypothalamic and mesencephalic noradrenaline (NA) or serotonin (5-HT) content. In Balb/c mice, however, treatment with BMBP caused a significant increase in mesencephalic NA, and treatment with MSCH caused a significant increase in hypothalamic 5-HT 3 weeks after the first antigenic challenge. The SJL/N strain showed a high antibody response to BMBP and BSA, and a moderate one to MSCH, while in Balb/c mice, there was a low response to BMBP, a moderate one to MSCH and a high response to BSA. Significant, positive correlations were found between the level of antigen-specific serum antibodies and the following neurotransmitters: hypothalamic NA in the BMBP and MSCH-treated groups, hypothalamic 5-HT in the MSCH-treated group, mesencephalic NA and 5-HT in the BMBP-treated group, and mesencephalic 5-HT in the MSCH-treated SJL/N animals. No significant correlations between the levels of antibodies and neurotransmitters have been found either in the BSA-immunized SJL/N animals, or in any of the groups of Balb/c mice treated with BMBP, MSCH or BSA. PMID:1719745

  15. Pharmacologic inhibition of L-tyrosine degradation ameliorates cerebral dopamine deficiency in murine phenylketonuria (PKU).

    PubMed

    Harding, Cary O; Winn, Shelley R; Gibson, K Michael; Arning, Erland; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Grompe, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency has been implicated in the etiology of neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with chronic hyperphenylalaninemia in phenylketonuria (PKU). Two proposed explanations for neurotransmitter deficiency in PKU include first, that chronically elevated blood L-phenylalanine (Phe) inhibits the transport of L-tyrosine (Tyr) and L-tryptophan (Trp), the substrates for dopamine and serotonin synthesis respectively, into brain. In the second hypothesis, elevated Phe competitively inhibits brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities, the rate limiting steps in dopamine and serotonin synthesis. Dietary supplementation with large neutral amino acids (LNAA) including Tyr and Trp has been recommended for individuals with chronically elevated blood Phe in an attempt to restore amino acid and monoamine homeostasis in brain. As a potential alternative treatment approach, we demonstrate that pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation through oral administration of nitisinone (NTBC) yielded sustained increases in blood and brain Tyr, decreased blood and brain Phe, and consequently increased dopamine synthesis in a murine model of PKU. Our results suggest that Phe-mediated inhibition of TH activity is the likely mechanism of impaired dopamine synthesis in PKU. Pharmacologic inhibition of Tyr degradation may be a promising adjunct therapy for CNS monoamine neurotransmitter deficiency in hyperphenylalaninemic individuals with PKU. PMID:24487571

  16. Serotonin phase-shifts the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity in the cockroach.

    PubMed

    Page, T L

    1987-01-01

    Serotonin, a putative neurotransmitter in insects, was found to cause consistent phase shifts of the circadian rhythm of locomotor activity of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae when administered during the early subjective night as a series of 4-microliters pulses (one every 15 min) for either 3 or 6 hr. Six-hour treatments with dopamine also caused significant phase shifts during the early subjective night, but 3-hr treatments with dopamine had no phase-shifting effect. Other substances tested in early subjective night (norepinephrine, octopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, carbachol, histamine, tryptophan, tryptamine, N-acetyl serotonin, or 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid) did not consistently cause phase shifts. The phase-shifting effect of serotonin was found to be phase-dependent. The phase response curve (PRC) for serotonin treatments was different from the PRC for light. Like light, serotonin caused phase delays in the late subjective day and early subjective night, but serotonin did not phase-shift rhythms when tested at phases where light causes phase advances. PMID:2979649

  17. A functional polymorphism in the MAOA gene promoter (MAOA-LPR) predicts central dopamine function and body mass index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Ducci; T K Newman; S Funt; G L Brown; M Virkkunen; D Goldman

    2006-01-01

    Variation in brain monoaminergic activity is heritable and modulates risk of alcoholism and other addictions, as well as food intake and energy expenditure. Monoamine oxidase A deaminates the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine (DA), and noradrenalin. The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene (Xp11.5) contains a length polymorphism in its promoter region (MAOA-LPR) that putatively affects transcriptional efficiency. Our goals were to

  18. Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid exposure on dopamine D 2-like receptors in rat brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anal??a A Bortolozzi; Ana Mar??a Evangelista de Duffard; Ricardo O Duffard; Marta C Antonelli

    2004-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), a worldwide-used herbicide, has been associated with a range of adverse health effects on humans and different animal species. Although the mechanism of 2,4-D neurotoxicity remains unknown, we had previously reported changes in various neurotransmitter systems, such as serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), which were proposed to mediate some of the behavioral effects in rats. In the

  19. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field Modulates the Level of Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yoon Hee; Lee, Young Joo; Lee, Ho Sung; Chung, Su Jin; Lim, Cheol Hee; Oh, Keon Woong; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe that extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) may be relevant to changes of major neurotransmitters in rat brain. After the exposure to ELF-MF (60 Hz, 2.0 mT) for 2 or 5 days, we measured the levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites, amino acid neurotransmitters and nitric oxide (NO) in the cortex, striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. The exposure of ELF-MF for 2 or 5 days produced significant differences in norepinephrine and vanillyl mandelic acid in the striatum, thalamus, cerebellum and hippocampus. Significant increases in the levels of serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were also observed in the striatum, thalamus or hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased the concentration of dopamine in the thalamus. ELF-MF tended to increase the levels of amino acid neurotransmitters such as glutamine, glycine and ? -aminobutyric acid in the striatum and thalamus, whereas it decreased the levels in the cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. ELF-MF significantly increased NO concentration in the striatum, thalamus and hippocampus. The present study has demonstrated that exposure to ELF-MFs may evoke the changes in the levels of biogenic amines, amino acid and NO in the brain although the extent and property vary with the brain areas. However, the mechanisms remain further to be characterized. PMID:25605992

  20. An extended reinforcement learning model of basal ganglia to understand the contributions of serotonin and dopamine in risk-based decision making, reward prediction, and punishment learning

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Pragathi P.; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2014-01-01

    Although empirical and neural studies show that serotonin (5HT) plays many functional roles in the brain, prior computational models mostly focus on its role in behavioral inhibition. In this study, we present a model of risk based decision making in a modified Reinforcement Learning (RL)-framework. The model depicts the roles of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in Basal Ganglia (BG). In this model, the DA signal is represented by the temporal difference error (?), while the 5HT signal is represented by a parameter (?) that controls risk prediction error. This formulation that accommodates both 5HT and DA reconciles some of the diverse roles of 5HT particularly in connection with the BG system. We apply the model to different experimental paradigms used to study the role of 5HT: (1) Risk-sensitive decision making, where 5HT controls risk assessment, (2) Temporal reward prediction, where 5HT controls time-scale of reward prediction, and (3) Reward/Punishment sensitivity, in which the punishment prediction error depends on 5HT levels. Thus the proposed integrated RL model reconciles several existing theories of 5HT and DA in the BG. PMID:24795614

  1. Functional mechanisms of neurotransmitter transporters regulated by lipid-protein interactions of their terminal loops.

    PubMed

    Khelashvili, George; Weinstein, Harel

    2015-09-01

    The physiological functions of neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) in reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synapse into the presynaptic nerve have been shown to be complemented by their involvement, together with non-plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters, in the reverse transport of substrate (efflux) in response to psychostimulants. Recent experimental evidence implicates highly anionic phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2) lipids in such functions of the serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT) transporters. Thus, for both SERT and DAT, neurotransmitter efflux has been shown to be strongly regulated by the presence of PIP2 lipids in the plasma membrane, and the electrostatic interaction of the N-terminal region of DAT with the negatively charged PIP2 lipids. We examine the experimentally established phenotypes in a structural context obtained from computational modeling based on recent crystallographic data. The results are shown to set the stage for a mechanistic understanding of physiological actions of neurotransmitter transporters in the NSS family of membrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25847498

  2. LeuT-Desipramine Structure Reveals How Antidepressants Block Neurotransmitter Reuptake

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,Z.; Zhen, J.; Karpowich, N.; Goetz, R.; Law, C.; Reith, M.; Wang, D.

    2007-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants exert their pharmacological effect -- inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine -- by directly blocking neurotransmitter transporters (SERT, NET, and DAT, respectively) in the presynaptic membrane. The drug-binding site and the mechanism of this inhibition are poorly understood. We determined the crystal structure at 2.9 angstroms of the bacterial leucine transporter (LeuT), a homolog of SERT, NET, and DAT, in complex with leucine and the antidepressant desipramine. Desipramine binds at the inner end of the extracellular cavity of the transporter and is held in place by a hairpin loop and by a salt bridge. This binding site is separated from the leucine-binding site by the extracellular gate of the transporter. By directly locking the gate, desipramine prevents conformational changes and blocks substrate transport. Mutagenesis experiments on human SERT and DAT indicate that both the desipramine-binding site and its inhibition mechanism are probably conserved in the human neurotransmitter transporters.

  3. Carbon nanopipette electrodes for dopamine detection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Rees, Hillary R; Anderson, Sean E; Privman, Eve; Bau, Haim H; Venton, B Jill

    2015-04-01

    Small, robust, sensitive electrodes are desired for in vivo neurotransmitter measurements. Carbon nanopipettes have been previously manufactured and used for single-cell drug delivery and electrophysiological measurements. Here, a modified fabrication procedure was developed to produce batches of solid carbon nanopipette electrodes (CNPEs) with ?250 nm diameter tips, and controllable lengths of exposed carbon, ranging from 5 to 175 ?m. The electrochemical properties of CNPEs were characterized with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) for the first time. CNPEs were used to detect the electroactive neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine. CNPEs were significantly more sensitive for serotonin detection than traditional carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs). Similar to CFMEs, CNPEs have a linear response for dopamine concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 ?M and a limit of detection of 25 ± 5 nM. Recordings with CNPEs were stable for over 3 h when the applied triangle waveform was scanned between -0.4 and +1.3 V vs Ag/AgCl/Cl(-) at 400 V/s. CNPEs were used to detect endogenous dopamine release in Drosophila larvae using optogenetics, which verified the utility of CNPEs for in vivo neuroscience studies. CNPEs are advantageous because they are 1 order of magnitude smaller in diameter than typical CFMEs and have a sharp, tunable geometry that facilitates penetration and implantation for localized measurements in distinct regions of small organisms, such as the Drosophila brain. PMID:25711512

  4. Neurotransmitter Transporters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-12-26

    Doctor Randy Blakely explains that all neurotransmitters have transporters supporting their activity, which are typically involved in assisting and modulating. Genetic changes in transporters can lead to psychiatric problems.

  5. Dopamine elicits feeding motor program in Limax maximus.

    PubMed

    Wieland, S J; Gelperin, A

    1983-09-01

    A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in vivo and in vitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells in and the neuropil of the cerebral ganglia at a concentration of 62 pmol/ganglion; a large proportion of such dopamine-containing cells projected to the lips. The buccal ganglia contained several small dopaminergic cells and large amounts of dopamine in the neuropil; the measured concentration was 10 pmol/ganglion. Exogenous dopamine applied to the cerebral and buccal ganglia in vitro between 10(-7) M and 3 X 10(-6) M excited an autoactive salivary duct motor neuron (FB) and inhibited an autoactive secretomotor neuron (BSN). Concentrations of dopamine between 3 X 10(-6) M and 3 X 10(-5) M triggered FMP output, with an increased probability of triggering at higher concentrations of dopamine. ADTN and SK&F38393 were potent agonists in this system, whereas ergonovine was the only potent antagonist found; none of the neuroleptics tested was effective. Thus, the Limax system shows agonist responses similar to the vertebrate D1 receptors, but its antagonist-binding properties appear to have requirements quite different from vertebrate receptors. The effects of exogenous serotonin differed from dopamine's effects; serotonin excited BSN and several buccal motor neurons, could not elicit synchronized motor program cycling, and was not efficiently blocked by ergonovine. These data suggest that dopamine is a good candidate as an endogenous triggering and sustaining transmitter for the Limax feeding motor program. PMID:6886743

  6. Neurotransmitter properties of the newborn human retina

    SciTech Connect

    Hollyfield, J.G.; Frederick, J.M.; Rayborn, M.E.

    1983-07-01

    Human retinal tissue from a newborn was examined autoradiographically for the presence of high-affinity uptake and localization of the following putative neurotransmitters: dopamine, glycine, GABA, aspartate, and glutamate. In addition, the dopamine content of this newborn retina was measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. Our study reveals that specific uptake mechanisms for /sup 3/H-glycine, /sup 3/H-dopamine, and /sup 3/H-GABA are present at birth. However, the number and distribution of cells labeled with each of these /sup 3/H-transmitters are not identical to those observed in adult human retinas. Furthermore, the amount of endogenous dopamine in the newborn retina is approximately 1/20 the adult level. Photoreceptor-specific uptake of /sup 3/H-glutamate and /sup 3/H-aspartate are not observed. These findings indicate that, while some neurotransmitter-specific properties are present at birth, significant maturation of neurotransmitter systems occurs postnatally.

  7. The presence of both serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A) and dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene variants increase the risk of borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Joyce, Peter R.; Stephenson, John; Kennedy, Martin; Mulder, Roger T.; McHugh, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction in the dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems has been demonstrated to be important in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). We investigated the relationship of two BPD risk factors, the HTR1A promoter polymorphism -1019C > G (rs6295) and the dopamine transporter (DAT1) repeat allele, with BPD in a major depressive disorder cohort of 367 patients. Out-patients with major depressive disorder were recruited for two treatment trials and assessed for personality disorders, including BPD. DNA samples were collected and the rs6295 polymorphism was detected with a TaqMan® assay. The DAT1 repeat allele was genotyped using a modified PCR method. The impact of polymorphisms on BPD was statistically analyzed using uncontrolled logistic and multiple logistic regression models. BPD patients had higher frequencies of the DAT1 9,9 (OR = 2.67) and 9,10 (OR = 3.67) genotypes and also those homozygous HTR1A G allele (OR = 2.03). No significant interactions between HTR1A and DAT1 genotypes, were observed; however, an increased risk of BPD was observed for those patients who were either 9,10; G,G (OR = 6.64) and 9,9; C,G (OR = 5.42). Furthermore, the odds of BPD in patients exhibiting high-risk variants of these two genes differed from those of patients in low-risk groups by up to a factor of 9. Our study provides evidence implicating the importance of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems in BPD and that the interaction between genes from different neurotransmitters may play a role in the susceptibility to BPD. PMID:24432029

  8. Diurnal variations of serotonin and dopamine levels in discrete brain regions of Syrian hamsters and their modification by chronic clorgyline treatment.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, N; Duncan, W C; Johnson, K A; Wehr, T A

    1993-11-01

    In Syrian hamsters, chronic administration of the type A monoamine oxidase inhibitor, clorgyline (CLG), alters the intrinsic period and daily pattern of the circadian rhythm of wheel running, and changes the intensity-response curve for phase-shifting of the rhythm by light pulses. Chronic treatment with CLG also decreases hypothalamic and peritoneal temperatures, particularly during the rest phase of the activity-rest cycle. To help identify monoamines that may mediate CLG's effects on circadian rhythms, we measured levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) at nine time points over a 24-h period in micro-dissected brain regions in chronic CLG-treated or saline-treated hamsters. For 5-HT, a diurnal variation was detected in all regions in saline-treated animals; for DA, no diurnal variation was detected in any region. In all regions, 5-HT levels and, to a lesser extent, DA levels were higher after CLG treatment. The acrophase of the 5-HT rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) was delayed by CLG-treatment, while the acrophase in the dorsal raphe nucleus was unchanged. The diurnal variation of 5-HT in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, medial preoptic area, and median raphe nuclei was no longer detectable after chronic CLG-treatment. The phase-delay induced by CLG treatment in the daily rhythm of serotonin levels in the SCN, which functions as a circadian pacemaker, may be an important mechanism underlying the drug's capacity to slow the intrinsic rhythm of the pacemaker and to phase-delay behavioral rhythms that are under its control. PMID:8293303

  9. Neurotransmitter concentrations and binding at dopamine receptors in rats after maternal exposure to 3,4,3?,4?-tetrachlorobiphenyl: the role of reduced thyroid hormone concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid Roth-Härer; Hellmuth Lilienthal; Michael Bubser; Ulrich Kronthaler; William R. Mundy; Thomas R. Ward; Werner Schmidt; Hilke Winterhoff; Gerhard Winneke

    2001-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are environmental contaminants, which accumulate in the food chain and are transferred to the offspring during prenatal development through the placenta and postnatally via breast milk. It is reported that PCBs exert effects on thyroid hormone levels and brain neurotransmitter levels. Both actions may alter neuronal development. The aim of the present study was to investigate, if

  10. Carbon Nanotube-based microelectrodes for enhanced detection of neurotransmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher B.

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is one of the common techniques used for rapid measurement of neurotransmitters in vivo. Carbon-fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) are typically used for neurotransmitter detection because of sub-second measurement capabilities, ability to measure changes in neurotransmitter concentration during neurotransmission, and the small size electrode diameter, which limits the amount of damage caused to tissue. Cylinder CFMEs, typically 50 -- 100 microm long, are commonly used for in vivo experiments because the electrode sensitivity is directly related to the electrode surface area. However the length of the electrode can limit the spatial resolution of neurotransmitter detection, which can restrict experiments in Drosophila and other small model systems. In addition, the electrode sensitivity toward dopamine and serotonin detection drops significantly for measurements at rates faster than 10 Hz, limiting the temporal resolution of CFMEs. While the use of FSCV at carbon-fiber microelectrodes has led to substantial strides in our understanding of neurotransmission, techniques that expand the capabilities of CFMEs are crucial to fully maximize the potential uses of FSCV. This dissertation introduces new methods to integrate carbon nanotubes (CNT) into microelectrodes and discusses the electrochemical enhancements of these CNT-microelectrodes. The electrodes are specifically designed with simple fabrication procedures so that highly specialized equipment is not necessary, and they utilize commercially available materials so that the electrodes could be easily integrated into existing systems. The electrochemical properties of CNT modified CFMEs are characterized using FSCV and the effect of CNT functionalization on these properties is explored in Chapter 2. For example, CFME modification using carboxylic acid functionalized CNTs yield about a 6-fold increase in dopamine oxidation current, but modification with octadecylamine CNTs results in a negligible change to the signal. Chapter 3 is devoted to the development and characterization of new CNT-Yarn Microelectrodes (CNTYME) which display a beneficial enhancement in sensitivity and reduction in both electron transfer kinetics and overpotential. Chapter 4 introduces the high-speed dopamine detection capabilities of CNTYMEs, almost two orders of magnitude faster than at CFMEs without any compromise in electrochemical sensitivity, and discusses how adsorption and desorption relate to this phenomenon.

  11. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) for Intraoperative Neurochemical Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kimble, Christopher J.; Johnson, David M.; Winter, Bruce A.; Whitlock, Sidney V.; Kressin, Kenneth R.; Horne, April E.; Robinson, Justin C.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Tye, Susannah J.; Chang, Su-Youne; Agnesi, Filippo; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Covey, Daniel; Shon, Young-Min; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    The Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensing System (WINCS) measures extracellular neurotransmitter concentration in vivo and displays the data graphically in nearly real time. WINCS implements two electroanalytical methods, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and fixed-potential amperometry (FPA), to measure neurotransmitter concentrations at an electrochemical sensor, typically a carbon-fiber microelectrode. WINCS comprises a battery-powered patient module and a custom software application (WINCSware) running on a nearby personal computer. The patient module impresses upon the electrochemical sensor either a constant potential (for FPA) or a time-varying waveform (for FSCV). A transimpedance amplifier converts the resulting current to a signal that is digitized and transmitted to the base station via a Bluetooth® radio link. WINCSware controls the operational parameters for FPA or FSCV, and records the transmitted data stream. Filtered data is displayed in various formats, including a background-subtracted plot of sequential FSCV scans—a representation that enables users to distinguish the signatures of various analytes with considerable specificity. Dopamine, glutamate, adenosine and serotonin were selected as analytes for test trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow-injection measurements and in vivo measurements in rat and pig. Further testing demonstrated basic functionality in a 3-Tesla MRI unit. WINCS was designed in compliance with consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, and it is anticipated that its capability for real-time intraoperative monitoring of neurotransmitter release at an implanted sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery. PMID:19963865

  12. Optimization of solid phase microextraction coatings for liquid chromatography mass spectrometry determination of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Cudjoe, Erasmus; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    A simple solid phase microextraction method coupled to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry is introduced for the analysis of neurotransmitter compounds with a wide range of polarities in biological matrices. A novel "reversed" reverse-phase chromatographic method was developed without pre-column derivatization for the analysis of dopamine, serotonin, gamma aminobutyric acid and glutamate. New solid phase microextraction "in house" coatings using mixed-mode solid phase extraction particles were prepared, and used for the extraction of polar neurotransmitters. The polymer-support base reverse phase mixed-mode sorbents with strong ion exchange properties generally had higher extraction efficiencies compared to similar sorbents with weak ion exchange properties. The linear range was determined to be between 0.01 and 150ng/mL for all the analytes, except for GABA, which was from 0.1 to 100ng/mL. The limit of detection range was from 6 to 10pg/mL for all the neurotransmitters, and the limits of quantitation were in the range of 20-35pg/mL. The results demonstrate the potential of the SPME-LC-MS/MS technique for bioanalysis of small polar endogenous compounds, such as neurotransmitters, from various biological matrices using the mixed-mode sorbents as the extraction phase. PMID:24685167

  13. Dopamine transporters govern diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Mark J.; España, Rodrigo A.; Locke, Jason L.; Konstantopoulos, Joanne K.; Rose, Jamie H.; Chen, Rong; Jones, Sara R.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of neurotransmitter systems shows variations in state-dependent cell firing rates that are mechanistically linked to variations in extracellular levels, or tone, of their respective neurotransmitter. Diurnal variation in dopamine tone has also been demonstrated within the striatum, but this neurotransmitter is unique, in that variation in dopamine tone is likely not related to dopamine cell firing; this is largely because of the observation that midbrain dopamine neurons do not display diurnal fluctuations in firing rates. Therefore, we conducted a systematic investigation of possible mechanisms for the variation in extracellular dopamine tone. Using microdialysis and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in rats, as well as wild-type and dopamine transporter (DAT) knock-out mice, we demonstrate that dopamine uptake through the DAT and the magnitude of subsecond dopamine release is inversely related to the magnitude of extracellular dopamine tone. We investigated dopamine metabolism, uptake, release, D2 autoreceptor sensitivity, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression and activity as mechanisms for this variation. Using this approach, we have pinpointed the DAT as a critical governor of diurnal variation in extracellular dopamine tone and, as a consequence, influencing the magnitude of electrically stimulated dopamine release. Understanding diurnal variation in dopamine tone is critical for understanding and treating the multitude of psychiatric disorders that originate from perturbations of the dopamine system. PMID:24979798

  14. Does chronic nicotine alter neurotransmitter receptors involved in Parkinson's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, M.A.; Lapin, E.P.; Lajtha, A.; Maker, H.S.

    1986-03-05

    Cigarette smokers are fewer in number among Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients than among groups of persons who do not have PD. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this observation. One which must be tested is the possibility that some pharmacologic agent present in cigarette smoke may interact with some central nervous system component involved in PD. To this end, they have investigated the effect of chronic nicotine administration on receptors for some of the neurotransmitters that are affected in PD. Rats were injected for six weeks with saline or nicotine 0.8 mg/kg S.C., then killed and brains removed and dissected. The binding of (/sup 3/H)-ketanserin to serotonin receptors in frontal cortex and of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone to dopamine receptors in caudate was not affected. However, the binding of (/sup 3/H)-domperidone in nucleus accumbens was altered: the K/sub d/ increased from 0.16 +/- 0.02 nM to 0.61 +/- 0.07 nM, and the B/sub max/ increased from 507 +/- 47 fmol/mg protein to 910 +/- 43 fmol/mg (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). These values are based on three ligand concentrations. Additional studies are in progress to substantiate the data. It is concluded that chronic nicotine administration may alter dopamine receptors in nucleus accumbens.

  15. Lack of involvement of dopamine and serotonin during the orphanin FQ/Nociceptin (OFQ/N)-induced prolactin secretory response.

    PubMed

    Kraska, Amy; Bryant, Winnifred; Murphree, Emily; Callahan, Phyllis; Janik, James

    2005-08-12

    The purpose of these studies was to examine possible mechanisms of Orphanin FQ/Nociceptin (OFQ/N)-induced prolactin release. We investigated the involvement of the dopaminergic neurons by quantifying DOPAC:DA levels in the median eminence and neurointermediate lobe following central administration of OFQ/N to female Sprague-Dawley rats. To specifically determine the involvement of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons, immunocytochemical studies were conducted to visualize c-fos protein expression in the arcuate nucleus following central administration of OFQ/N. In addition, the role of serotonergic activation was examined in dose response studies using the selective serotonin antagonist ritansarin and the nonselective antagonist metergoline. Finally, the pharmacological specificity of the prolactin response was examined by pretreating animals with [Nphe1] NC (1-13)NH2, a drug reported to antagonize OFQ/N effects. The results of these studies indicate that the increase in prolactin release following central administration of OFQ/N does not inhibit tuberoinfundibular, tuberohypophyseal or periventricular hypophysial dopaminergic neuronal activity at 10 min after drug administration, a time when prolactin levels were significantly elevated. Furthermore, serotonergic activation is not involved since pharmacological blockade of serotonergic receptors did not alter the prolactin secretory response to OFQ/N. NC (1-13)NH2 did not antagonize the stimulatory effects of OFQ/N on prolactin secretion. The neural effects of OFQ/N on dopaminergic neuronal activity may occur following a different time course than that of the prolactin increase. PMID:15996688

  16. Potencies of haloperidol metabolites as inhibitors of the human noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin transporters in transfected COS-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Bryan-Lluka, L J; Siebert, G A; Pond, S M

    1999-08-01

    Extrapyramidal symptoms, such as tardive dyskinesia, often develop in patients on long-term treatment with haloperidol. It has been proposed that these symptoms could be caused by neurotoxic effects of haloperidol metabolites following uptake by monoamine transporters, in an analogous mechanism to the neurotoxic effect of MPP+ (1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium) metabolised from MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine). In this study, the hypothesis was partially investigated by determining the potencies of haloperidol and reduced haloperidol and the corresponding pyridinium and tetrahydropyridine metabolites, compared with MPP+ and MPTP, as inhibitors of the noradrenaline transporter (NAT), dopamine transporter (DAT) and 5-HT transporter (SERT). Two days after COS-7 cells were transiently transfected with the cDNA for the human NAT, DAT or SERT (Lipofectamine method), the cells were incubated with 10 nM [3H]noradrenaline, dopamine or 5-HT, respectively, for 2 min at 37 C, in the absence or presence of various concentrations of the eight compounds or a specific uptake inhibitor (NAT: nisoxetine 1 microM; DAT: GBR 12909 1 microM; SERT: citalopram 10 microM). Specific amine uptake (fmol/ mg protein) was calculated as the difference in uptake in the absence and presence of the specific uptake inhibitor. Ki values were calculated for the eight compounds for inhibition of NAT, DAT and SERT. Haloperidol, its five metabolites and MPP+ and MPTP all inhibited NAT, DAT and SERT. For the pyridinium and tetrahydropyridine metabolites of haloperidol, there were not marked differences between their potencies as inhibitors between each other for NAT or DAT or between NAT and DAT, with all of the Ki values in the range of 5.8-16 microM. However, there were more marked differences for SERT, with all but one of the metabolites showing selectivity for inhibition of SERT relative to NAT and DAT. Haloperidol and reduced haloperidol had similar inhibitory potencies for all three transporters, and were clearly less potent than the other haloperidol metabolites only for inhibition of SERT. The lack of correlation between the inhibitory potencies of the haloperidol metabolites and their structural analogues, MPTP and MPP+, suggests that they are not likely to cause neurotoxicity by a mechanism analogous to that of the latter neurotoxin. PMID:10494878

  17. Role of Serotonin via 5HT2B Receptors in the Reinforcing Effects of MDMA in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphane Doly; Jesus Bertran-Gonzalez; Jacques Callebert; Alexandra Bruneau; Sophie Marie Banas; Arnauld Belmer; Katia Boutourlinsky; Denis Hervé; Jean-Marie Launay; Luc Maroteaux; Kenji Hashimoto

    2009-01-01

    The amphetamine derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) reverses dopamine and serotonin transporters to produce efflux of dopamine and serotonin, respectively, in regions of the brain that have been implicated in reward. However, the role of serotonin\\/dopamine interactions in the behavioral effects of MDMA remains unclear. We previously showed that MDMA-induced locomotion, serotonin and dopamine release are 5-HT2B receptor-dependent. The aim of

  18. High-sensitive liquid chromatographic method for determination of neuronal release of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine monitored by microdialysis in the rat prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Takashi; Yoshitake, Shimako; Fujino, Kaoru; Nohta, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Kehr, Jan

    2004-12-30

    A high-sensitive liquid chromatographic method based on precolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection allowing simultaneous determination of serotonin (5-HT), noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (DA) in brain microdialysis samples is described. 5-HT, NA and DA were derivatized with benzylamine and 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine in the presence of potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and glycine, which yielded to highly fluorescent and stable benzoxazoles. The derivatized samples were separated on a microbore column (150 mm x 1.0mm i.d., packed with C18 silica, 5 microm) within 60 min. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-Briton-Robinson buffer (pH 7.2) (32:68, v/v) containing 5 mM Na2EDTA and 5 mM octanesulfonic acid sodium salt. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) for 5-HT, NA and DA were 76, 42 and 95 amol/10 microl injected on-column, respectively. Microdialysis samples were collected at 10-min intervals from the probes implanted in the prefrontal cortex of awake rats. The basal levels of 5-HT, NA and DA were 7.3 +/- 0.7, 5.3 +/- 0.31 and 8.1 +/- 0.47 fmol/5 microl (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 5). Following 90-min perfusion with tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or calcium-free Ringer solution, the DA and NA levels were reduced to about 15 and 20%, respectively and the 5-HT levels to 45 and 60% of the basal levels, respectively. Reserpine, 12h after a dose of 5mg/kg i.p., reduced the extracellular 5-HT, NA and DA concentrations to about 34, 39 and 32% of the basal levels, respectively. In conclusion, the preset microdialysis/analytical method enables simultaneous monitoring of basal and pharmacologically reduced neuronal release of 5-HT, NA and DA in the rat brain. PMID:15589346

  19. Interaction between serotonin transporter and dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand measures is associated with harm avoidant symptoms in anorexia and bulimia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Bailer, Ursula F.; Frank, Guido K.; Price, Julie C.; Meltzer, Carolyn C.; Becker, Carl; Mathis, Chester A.; Wagner, Angela; Barbarich-Marsteller, Nicole C.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Putnam, Karen; Schork, Nicholas J.; Gamst, Anthony; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) have alterations of measures of serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) function, which persist after long-term recovery and are associated with elevated harm avoidance (HA), a measure of anxiety and behavioral inhibition. Objective Based on theories that 5-HT is an aversive motivational system that may oppose a DA-related appetitive system, we explored interactions of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand measures that reflect portions of these systems. Methods Twenty-seven individuals recovered (REC) from eating disorders (EDs) (7 AN-BN, 11 AN, 9 BN) and 9 control women (CW) were analyzed for correlations between [11C]McN5652 and [11C]raclopride binding. Results There was a positive correlation between [11C]McN5652 binding potential BPnon displaceable(ND)) and [11C]raclopride BPND for the dorsal caudate (r(27) = .62; p < .001), antero-ventral striatum (r(27) = .55, p = .003), middle caudate (r(27) = .68; p < .001), ventral (r(27) = .64; p < .001) and dorsal putamen (r(27) = .42; p = .03). No significant correlations were found in CW. [11C]raclopride BPND, but not [11C]McN5652 BPND, was significantly related to HA in REC EDs. A linear regression analysis showed that the interaction between [11C]McN5652 BPND and [11C]raclopride BPND in the dorsal putamen significantly (b = 140.04; t (22) = 2.21; p = .04) predicted HA. Conclusions This is the first study using PET and the radioligands [11C]McN5652 and [11C]raclopride to show a direct relationship between 5-HT transporter and striatal DA D2/D3 receptor binding in humans, supporting the possibility that 5-HT and DA interactions contribute to HA behaviors in EDs. PMID:23154100

  20. Serotonin2C receptor stimulation inhibits cocaine-induced Fos expression and DARPP-32 phosphorylation in the rat striatum independently of dopamine outflow.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Céline; Cathala, Adeline; Maitre, Marlène; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Abrous, Djoher Nora; Revest, Jean-Michel; Spampinato, Umberto

    2015-02-01

    The serotonin(2C) receptor (5-HT(2C)R) is known to control dopamine (DA) neuron function by modulating DA neuronal firing and DA exocytosis at terminals. Recent studies assessing the influence of 5-HT(2C)Rs on cocaine-induced neurochemical and behavioral responses have shown that 5-HT2CRs can also modulate mesoaccumbens DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by controlling DA transmission in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), independently of DA release itself. A similar mechanism has been proposed to occur at the level of the nigrostriatal DA system. Here, using in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats and molecular approaches, we assessed this hypothesis by studying the influence of the 5-HT(2C)R agonist Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced responses in the striatum. The intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of 1 mg/kg Ro 60-0175 had no effect on the increase in striatal DA outflow induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.). Conversely, Ro 60-0175 inhibited cocaine-induced Fos immunoreactivity and phosphorylation of the DA and c-AMP regulated phosphoprotein of Mr 32 kDa (DARPP-32) at threonine 75 residue in the striatum. Finally, the suppressant effect of Ro 60-0175 on cocaine-induced DARPP-32 phosphorylation was reversed by the selective 5-HT(2C)R antagonist SB 242084 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). In keeping with the key role of DARPP-32 in DA neurotransmission, our results demonstrate that 5-HT(2C)Rs are capable of modulating nigrostriatal DA pathway activity at post-synaptic level, by specifically controlling DA signaling in the striatum. PMID:25446572

  1. Variation in Dopamine D2 and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor Genes is Associated with Working Memory Processing and Response to Treatment with Antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Pierluigi; Fazio, Leonardo; Antonucci, Linda Antonella; Taurisano, Paolo; Masellis, Rita; Romano, Raffaella; Mancini, Marina; Zhang, Fengyu; Caforio, Grazia; Popolizio, Teresa; Apud, Jose; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors contribute to modulate prefrontal cortical physiology and response to treatment with antipsychotics in schizophrenia. Similarly, functional variation in the genes encoding these receptors is also associated with these phenotypes. In particular, the DRD2 rs1076560 T allele predicts a lower ratio of expression of D2 short/long isoforms, suboptimal working memory processing, and better response to antipsychotic treatment compared with the G allele. Furthermore, the HTR2A T allele is associated with lower 5-HT2A expression, impaired working memory processing, and poorer response to antipsychotics compared with the C allele. Here, we investigated in healthy subjects whether these functional polymorphisms have a combined effect on prefrontal cortical physiology and related cognitive behavior linked to schizophrenia as well as on response to treatment with second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia. In a total sample of 620 healthy subjects, we found that subjects with the rs1076560 T and rs6314 T alleles have greater fMRI prefrontal activity during working memory. Similar results were obtained within the attentional domain. Also, the concomitant presence of the rs1076560 T/rs6314 T alleles also predicted lower behavioral accuracy during working memory. Moreover, we found that rs1076560 T carrier/rs6314 CC individuals had better responses to antipsychotic treatment in two independent samples of patients with schizophrenia (n=63 and n=54, respectively), consistent with the previously reported separate effects of these genotypes. These results indicate that DRD2 and HTR2A genetic variants together modulate physiological prefrontal efficiency during working memory and also modulate the response to antipsychotics. Therefore, these results suggest that further exploration is needed to better understand the clinical consequences of these genotype-phenotype relationships. PMID:25563748

  2. Prenatal Dopamine and Neonatal Behavior and Biochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Figueiredo, Barbara; Deeds, Osvelia; Ascencio, Angela; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    Depressed pregnant women (N=126) were divided into high and low prenatal maternal dopamine (HVA) groups based on a tertile split on their dopamine levels at 20 weeks gestation. The high versus the low dopamine group had lower CES-D scores, higher norepinephrine levels at the 20 week gestational age visit and higher dopamine and serotonin levels at both the 20 the 32 week gestational age visits. The neonates of the mothers with high versus low prenatal dopamine levels also had higher dopamine and serotonin levels as well as lower cortisol levels. Finally, the neonates in the high dopamine group had better autonomic stability and excitability scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale. Thus, prenatal maternal dopamine levels appear to be negatively related to prenatal depression scores and positively related to neonatal dopamine and behavioral regulation, although these effects are confounded by elevated serotonin levels. PMID:18774177

  3. Dopamine: the rewarding years

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine has moved from being an insignificant intermediary in the formation of noradrenaline in 1957 to its present-day position as a major neurotransmitter in the brain. This neurotransmitter is involved in the control of movement and Parkinson's disease, the neurobiology and symptoms of schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is also considered an essential element in the brain reward system and in the action of many drugs of abuse. This evolution reflects the ability of several famous names in neuropharmacology, neurology and psychiatry to apply new techniques to ask and answer the right questions. There is now excellent knowledge about the metabolism of dopamine, dopamine receptor systems and the structural organisation of dopamine pathways in the brain. Less is known about the function of the different receptors and how the various dopamine pathways are organised to produce normal behaviour, which exhibits disruption in the disease states mentioned. In particular, we have very limited information as to why and how the dopamine system dies or becomes abnormal in Parkinson's disease or a neurodevelopmental disorder such as schizophrenia. Dopamine neurones account for less than 1% of the total neuronal population of the brain, but have a profound effect on function. The future challenge is to understand how dopamine is involved in the integration of information to produce a relevant response rather than to study dopamine in isolation from other transmission systems. This integrated approach should lead to greater understanding and improved treatment of diseases involving dopamine. PMID:16402097

  4. 1 Visualizing Neurotransmitter Secretion at Individual Synapses 2 Dalibor Sames,*,

    E-print Network

    Sulzer, David

    of the release and reuptake of this 40 neurotransmitter using carbon fiber microelectrodes. A wealth 41 of information about the dynamics of dopamine release and 42 reuptake in the brain (ex vivo and in freely overflow from individual 55presynaptic terminals and its reuptake. Only neurotransmitter 56molecules

  5. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Study of the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) and

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    and neurotransmitters for proper establishment and functioning [3]. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a major neurotransmitter involved in several complex beha- viours, including cognition and emotion, which have been shown

  6. Receptors and Other Signaling Proteins Required for Serotonin Control of Locomotion in Caenorhabditis elegans

    E-print Network

    Gustafson, Megan A.

    A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of signaling by the neurotransmitter serotonin is required to assess the hypothesis that defects in serotonin signaling underlie depression in humans. Caenorhabditis elegans ...

  7. Abuse-Related Effects of Dual Dopamine/Serotonin Releasers with Varying Potency to Release Norepinephrine in Male Rats and Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Blough, Bruce E.; Rothman, Richard B.; Partilla, John S.; Baumann, Michael H; Negus, S. Stevens

    2014-01-01

    d-Amphetamine selectively promotes release of both dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) vs. serotonin (5HT), and chronic d-amphetamine treatment decreases cocaine-taking behavior in rats, nonhuman primates, and humans. However, abuse liability limits the clinical utility of amphetamine maintenance for treating cocaine abuse. One strategy to improve safety and efficacy of monoamine releasers as candidate anti-cocaine medications has been to develop dual DA/5HT releasers like 1-napthyl-2-aminopropane (PAL-287), but the pharmacology of this class of compounds has not been extensively examined. In particular, PAL-287 has similar potencies to release DA, 5HT and NE, and the role of manipulating NE release potency on abuse-related or anti-cocaine effects of dual DA/5HT releasers is not known. To address this issue, the present study compared effects of four novel DA/5HT releasers that varied >800-fold in their selectivities to release DA/5HT vs NE: [1-(5-chloro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-542), 1-(5-fluoro-1H-indol-3-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-544), 1-(1H-indol-5-yl)propan-2-amine (PAL-571), and (R)-1-(1H-indol-1-yl)propain-2-amine (PAL-569). Abuse-related effects of all four compounds were evaluated in assays of intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rats and cocaine discrimination in rats and monkeys, and none of the compounds reliably facilitated ICSS or substituted for cocaine. Anti-cocaine effects of the compound with highest selectivity to release DA/5HT vs. NE (PAL-542) were tested in an assay of cocaine vs. food choice in rhesus monkeys, and PAL-542 failed to reduce cocaine choice. These results suggesst that potency to release NE has minimal influence on abuse liability of dual DA/5HT releasers, and reducing relative potency to release NE vs. DA/5HT does not improve anti-cocaine efficacy. PMID:24796848

  8. A network model of basal ganglia for understanding the roles of dopamine and serotonin in reward-punishment-risk based decision making

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramani, Pragathi P.; Chakravarthy, V. Srinivasa; Ravindran, Balaraman; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2015-01-01

    There is significant evidence that in addition to reward-punishment based decision making, the Basal Ganglia (BG) contributes to risk-based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Despite this evidence, little is known about the computational principles and neural correlates of risk computation in this subcortical system. We have previously proposed a reinforcement learning (RL)-based model of the BG that simulates the interactions between dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) in a diverse set of experimental studies including reward, punishment and risk based decision making (Balasubramani et al., 2014). Starting with the classical idea that the activity of mesencephalic DA represents reward prediction error, the model posits that serotoninergic activity in the striatum controls risk-prediction error. Our prior model of the BG was an abstract model that did not incorporate anatomical and cellular-level data. In this work, we expand the earlier model into a detailed network model of the BG and demonstrate the joint contributions of DA-5HT in risk and reward-punishment sensitivity. At the core of the proposed network model is the following insight regarding cellular correlates of value and risk computation. Just as DA D1 receptor (D1R) expressing medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum were thought to be the neural substrates for value computation, we propose that DA D1R and D2R co-expressing MSNs are capable of computing risk. Though the existence of MSNs that co-express D1R and D2R are reported by various experimental studies, prior existing computational models did not include them. Ours is the first model that accounts for the computational possibilities of these co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs, and describes how DA and 5HT mediate activity in these classes of neurons (D1R-, D2R-, D1R-D2R- MSNs). Starting from the assumption that 5HT modulates all MSNs, our study predicts significant modulatory effects of 5HT on D2R and co-expressing D1R-D2R MSNs which in turn explains the multifarious functions of 5HT in the BG. The experiments simulated in the present study relates 5HT to risk sensitivity and reward-punishment learning. Furthermore, our model is shown to capture reward-punishment and risk based decision making impairment in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The model predicts that optimizing 5HT levels along with DA medications might be essential for improving the patients' reward-punishment learning deficits.

  9. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Graphical Kinetic Data Analysis of the Dopamine Neurotransmitter System: An Exercise for an Undergraduate Laboratory Course

    PubMed Central

    Mirrione, Martine M.; Ruth, Nora; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Fowler, Joanna; Kernan, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, including positron emission tomography (PET), are widely used in clinical settings and in basic neuroscience research. Education in these methods and their applications may be incorporated into curricula to keep pace with this expanding field. Here, we have developed pedagogical materials on the fundamental principles of PET that incorporate a hands-on laboratory activity to view and analyze human brain scans. In this activity, students will use authentic PET brain scans generated from original research at Brookhaven National Laboratory (Volkow et al., 2009) to explore the neurobiological effects of a drug on the dopamine system. We provide lecture and assignment materials (including a 50-minute PowerPoint presentation introducing PET concepts), written background information for students and instructors, and explicit instructions for a 4-hour, computer-based laboratory to interested educators. Also, we discuss our experience implementing this exercise as part of an advanced undergraduate laboratory course at Stony Brook University in 2010 and 2011. Observing the living human brain is intriguing, and this laboratory is designed to illustrate how PET neuroimaging techniques are used to directly probe biological processes occurring in the living brain. Laboratory course modules on imaging techniques such as PET can pique the interest of students potentially interested in neuroscience careers, by exposing them to current research methods. This activity provides practical experience analyzing PET data using a graphical analysis method known as the Logan plot, and applies core neuropharmacology concepts. We hope that this manuscript inspires college instructors to incorporate education in PET neuroimaging into their courses. PMID:24693258

  10. Wide-Range, Picoampere-Sensitivity Multichannel VLSI Potentiostat for Neurotransmitter Sensing

    E-print Network

    Stanacevic, Milutin

    Wide-Range, Picoampere-Sensitivity Multichannel VLSI Potentiostat for Neurotransmitter Sensing@bme.jhu.edu, miki@jhu.edu, gert@jhu.edu Abstract-- Neurotransmitter sensing is critical in studying ner- vous neurotransmitters like dopamine, nitric oxide etc. The analog-to-digital converter design employs a current

  11. Polymelamine modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite sensor for the electrochemical assay of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pankaj; Goyal, Rajendra N

    2014-03-01

    A sensitive and novel electrochemical method has been developed for the determination of an important neurotransmitter, serotonin, using a polymelamine modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite sensor (EPPGS). Melamine was used for the modification of sensor by electropolymerizing it at the surface of EPPGS in acidic medium to form a layer of conducting polymer. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used for the characterization of the surface of polymer modified sensor. The electrochemical measurements were carried out using square wave voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry. The polymelamine modified sensor exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the electrochemical oxidation of serotonin, exhibiting a larger peak current and shift of peak potential to less positive potentials as compared to the unmodified sensor. The dynamic range for the serotonin determination was found between 1-100 µm and 0.1-100 µm with detection limit of 492 nM and 30 nM for unmodified and polymer modified sensors, respectively. The determination of serotonin in human blood serum and urine has been carried out. The common metabolites such as ascorbic acid, dopamine, xanthine and hypoxanthine do not interfere in the determination up to 10-fold concentration, revealing good selectivity of the proposed sensor. PMID:24468336

  12. Role of serotonin in fish reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Parvathy; Ogawa, Satoshi; Parhar, Ishwar S.

    2015-01-01

    The neuroendocrine mechanism regulates reproduction through the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis which is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. The HPG axis is regulated by a variety of internal as well as external factors. Serotonin, a monoamine neurotransmitter, is involved in a wide range of reproductive functions. In mammals, serotonin regulates sexual behaviors, gonadotropin release and gonadotropin-release hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, the serotonin system in teleost may also play unique role in the control of reproduction as the mechanism of reproductive control in teleosts is not always the same as in the mammalian models. In fish, the serotonin system is also regulated by natural environmental factors as well as chemical substances. In particular, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly detected as pharmaceutical contaminants in the natural environment. Those factors may influence fish reproductive functions via the serotonin system. This review summarizes the functional significance of serotonin in the teleosts reproduction. PMID:26097446

  13. Serotonin: from top to bottom.

    PubMed

    Fidalgo, Sara; Ivanov, Dobril K; Wood, Shona H

    2013-02-01

    Serotonin is a monoamine neurotransmitter, which is phylogenetically conserved in a wide range of species from nematodes to humans. In mammals, age-related changes in serotonin systems are known risk factors of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, faecal incontinence and cardiovascular diseases. A decline in serotonin function with aging would be consistent with observations of age-related changes in behaviours, such as sleep, sexual behaviour and mood all of which are linked to serotonergic function. Despite this little is known about serotonin in relation to aging. This review aims to give a comprehensive analysis of the distribution, function and interactions of serotonin in the brain; gastrointestinal tract; skeletal; vascular and immune systems. It also aims to demonstrate how the function of serotonin is linked to aging and disease pathology in these systems. The regulation of serotonin via microRNAs is also discussed, as are possible applications of serotonergic drugs in aging research and age-related diseases. Furthermore, this review demonstrates that serotonin is potentially involved in whole organism aging through its links with multiple organs, the immune system and microRNA regulation. Methods to investigate these links are discussed. PMID:23100172

  14. Vanillin-induced amelioration of depression-like behaviors in rats by modulating monoamine neurotransmitters in the brain.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinyong; Xu, Hui; Liu, Yang; He, Haihui; Li, Guangwu

    2015-02-28

    Olfaction plays an important role in emotions in our daily life. Pleasant odors are known to evoke positive emotions, inducing relaxation and calmness. The beneficial effects of vanillin on depressive model rats were investigated using a combination of behavioral assessments and neurotransmitter measurements. Before and after chronic stress condition (or olfactory bulbectomy), and at the end of vanillin or fluoxetine treatment, body weight, immobility time on the forced swimming test and sucrose consumption in the sucrose consumption test were measured. Changes in these assessments revealed the characteristic phenotypes of depression in rats. Neurotransmitters were measured using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography. Our results indicated that vanillin could alleviate depressive symptoms in the rat model of chronic depression via the olfactory pathway. Preliminary analysis of the monoamine neurotransmitters revealed that vanillin elevated both serotonin and dopamine levels in brain tissue. These results provide important mechanistic insights into the protective effect of vanillin against chronic depressive disorder via olfactory pathway. This suggests that vanillin may be a potential pharmacological agent for the treatment of major depressive disorder. PMID:25595338

  15. Neurotransmitters Calcium ions

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Actin Nerve terminal Active zone Neurotransmitters Calcium ions Sodium ions Ultrafast endocytosis.These`bouton-type'ter- minalscontainapproximately200synapticves- icles (30­40 nanometres across), each packed with about 2,000 neurotransmitter). It is thought that one to three of those docked vesicles are primed to release neurotransmitters by a process

  16. Two functional serotonin polymorphisms moderate the effect of food reinforcement on BMI

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Katelyn A.; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D.; Sucheston, Lara; Singh, Prashant K.; Salis, Robbert; Erbe, Richard; Faith, Myles; Allison, David; Stice, Eric; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    Food reinforcement, or the motivation to eat, has been associated with increased energy intake, greater body weight and prospective weight gain. Much of the previous research on the reinforcing value of food has focused on the role of dopamine, but it may be worthwhile to examine genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin and opioid systems as these neurotransmitters have been shown to be related to reinforcement processes and to influence energy intake. We examined the relationship among 44 candidate genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine, serotonin and opioid systems, and food reinforcement and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of 245 individuals. Polymorphisms in the Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-LPR) and serotonin receptor 2A genes (rs6314) moderated the effect of food reinforcement on BMI, accounting for an additional 5-10% variance and revealed a potential role of the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs6314 in the serotonin 2A receptor as a differential susceptibility factor for obesity. Differential susceptibility describes a factor that can confer either risk or protection depending on a second variable, such that rs6314 is predictive of both high and low BMI based on the level of food reinforcement, while the diathesis stress or dual-gain model influences only one end of the outcome measure. The interaction with MAOA-LPR better fit the dual-risk or diathesis stress model, with the 3.5R/4R allele conferring protection for individuals low in food reinforcement. These results provide new insight into genes theoretically involved in obesity and support the hypothesis that genetics moderate the association between food reinforcement on BMI. PMID:23544600

  17. Serotonin and impulsive aggression.

    PubMed

    Coccaro, Emil F; Fanning, Jennifer R; Phan, K Luan; Lee, Royce

    2015-06-01

    Aggression is a behavior with evolutionary origins, but is often both destructive and maladaptive in today's society. Research over the past several decades has confirmed the involvement of neurotransmitter function in aggressive behavior. This research has centered around the "serotonin hypothesis." As this literature continues to grow, guided by pre-clinical research and aided by the application of increasingly sophisticated neuroimaging methodology, a more complex picture has emerged. As current pharmacological and therapeutic interventions are effective but imperfect, it is hoped that new insights into the neurobiology of aggression will reveal novel avenues for treatment of this destructive and costly behavior. PMID:25997605

  18. Induction of ovarian maturation and spawning by combined treatment of serotonin and a dopamine antagonist, spiperone in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Alfaro; Gerardo Zúñiga; J Komen

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to develop a reliable technique for inducing ovarian maturation and spawning in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei, as an alternative to the traditional and destructive eyestalk ablation. Two combinations of molecules were evaluated: (a) serotonin (5-HT) at 50 ?g g?1 body weight (b.w.)+juvenile hormone (JH III) at 227 ng g?1 b.w., and (b) 5-HT at 25

  19. Colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of Ichthyophis kohtaoensis (amphibia; Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Dünker, N

    1998-01-01

    Ichthyophis kohtaoensis, a member of the limbless Gymnophiona, has a specialized subterranean burrowing mode of life and a predominantly olfactory-guided orientation. The only visually guided behavior seems to be negative phototaxis. As these animals possess extremely small eyes (only 540 microm in diameter in adults), functional investigations of single retinal cells by electrophysiological methods have so far failed. Therefore, the content and distribution of retinal transmitters have been investigated as indications of a functioning sense organ in an animal that is supposed to be blind. Previous immunohistochemical investigation of the retinal transmitter system revealed immunoreactivity for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthetic pathway. The present studies have been performed in order to determine a possible colocalization of serotonin and GABA in retinal neurons of the caecilian retina. Therefore retinal cryostat sections of various developmental stages have been investigated by the indirect fluorescence method. In single-label preparations, serotonin is localized to cells in the inner nuclear layer and the ganglion cell layer. GABA immunocytochemistry labels a variety of cell types in the inner nuclear layer as well as cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer. In double-label preparations, some of the serotonergic cells are found to express GABA immunoreactivity and some GABAergic neurons also label for serotonin immunocytochemistry. Thus, despite the fact that caecilians mainly rely on olfaction and are believed to have a reduced visual system, their retina exhibits a surprisingly "normal" distribution of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, also typical of other anamniotes with a well-developed visual system, including the partial colocalization of serotonin and GABA at all developmental stages of I. kohtaoensis. These results indicate that a functional system that is under no strong selective pressure obviously has a long evolutionary persistence irrespective of its need for use. PMID:9462859

  20. Neurotransmitter imaging in living cells based on native fluorescence detection

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W.; Yeung, E.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)]|[Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Parpura, V.; Haydon, P.G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    A UV laser-based optical microscope and CCD detection system with high sensitivity has been developed to image neurotransmitters in living cells. We demonstrate the detection of serotonin that has been taken up into individual living glial cells (astrocytes) based on its native fluorescence. We found that the fluorescence intensity of astrocytes increased by up to 10 times after serotonin uptake. The temporal resolution of this detection system at 10{sup -4} M serotonin is as fast as 50 ms, and the spatial resolution is diffraction limited. This UV laser microscope imaging system shows promise for studies of spatial-temporal dynamics of neurotransmitter levels in living neurons and glia. 19 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Electrical coupling between the human Serotonin Transporter and Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ruchala, Iwona; Cabra, Vanessa; Solis, Ernesto; Glennon, Richard A.; De Felice, Louis J.; Eltit, Jose M.

    2014-01-01

    Monoamine transporters have been implicated in dopamine or serotonin release in response to abused drugs such as methamphetamine or ecstasy (MDMA). In addition, monoamine transporters show substrate-induced inward currents that may modulate excitability and Ca2+ mobilization, which could also contribute to neurotransmitter release. How monoamine transporters modulate Ca2+ permeability is currently unknown. We investigate the functional interaction between the human serotonin transporter (hSERT) and voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CaV). We introduce an excitable expression system consisting of cultured muscle cells genetically engineered to express hSERT. Both 5HT and S(+)MDMA depolarize these cells and activate the excitation-contraction (EC)-coupling mechanism. However, hSERT substrates fail to activate EC-coupling in CaV1.1-null muscle cells, thus implicating Ca2+ channels. CaV1.3 and CaV2.2 channels are natively expressed in neurons. When these channels are co-expressed with hSERT in HEK293T cells, only cells expressing the lower-threshold L-type CaV1.3 channel show Ca2+ transients evoked by 5HT or S(+)MDMA. In addition, the electrical coupling between hSERT and CaV1.3 takes place at physiological 5HT concentrations. The electrical coupling between monoamine neurotransmitter transporters and Ca2+ channels such as CaV1.3 is a novel mechanism by which endogenous substrates (neurotransmitters) or exogenous substrates (like ecstasy) could modulate Ca2+-driven signals in excitable cells. PMID:24854234

  2. Social stress and the polymorphic region of the serotonin reuptake transporter gene modify estradiol-induced changes on central monoamine concentrations in female rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Jennifer; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Reding, Katherine M; Wilson, Mark E; Toufexis, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial stress exposure is linked to a disruption of emotional regulation that can manifest as anxiety and depression. Women are more likely to suffer from such psychopathologies than men, indicating that gender-based differences in gonadal steroids may be a key factor in the etiology of stress-induced adverse health outcomes. Estradiol (E2) positively influences mood and cognition in females, an effect likely related to E2’s ability to modulate the serotonin and dopamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, genetic variation due to the polymorphism in the promoter region of the gene (SLC6A4) encoding the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR) also can influence E2’s ability to modulate behavior and physiology. However, it remains uncertain whether exposure to social stress interacts with the 5HTTLPR to influence E2-induced changes in behavior and physiology. The present study used ovariectomized adult female rhesus monkeys to investigate acute and chronic effects of E2 on central monoamine metabolite concentrations using CSF sampling. We further assessed how E2-induced changes in monoamine metabolite levels are modified by the unpredictable stress of social subordination and the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. Levels of the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) decreased significantly during chronic E2 treatment only in dominant females with the long promoter length of SLC6A4. Chronic administration of E2 decreased levels of the dopamine metabolite dihydrophenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in a manner independent of the social status, 5HTTLPR genotype, or their interactions. Overall levels of dopamine and serotonin metabolites were increased in subordinate females but this effect of social stress was not influenced by 5HTTLPR genotype. Together, these data emphasize how E2 can modulate central neurotransmitter systems and indicate that social subordination in female monkeys is a valid model for examining how chronic psychosocial stress alters sensitivity to E2. Future studies are necessary to elaborate how changes in central neurotransmitter metabolism due to E2 and prolonged exposure to stress affect behavior and physiology. PMID:23253112

  3. Predator Exposure/Psychosocial Stress Animal Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Modulates Neurotransmitters in the Rat Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C. Brad; Ebenezer, Philip J.; McLaughlin, Leslie D.; Francis, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can develop in response to a traumatic event involving a threat to life. To date, no diagnostic biomarkers have been identified for PTSD. Recent research points toward physiological abnormalities in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, sympathoadrenal medullary and immune system that may be implicated in the disorder. The modulation of neurotransmitters is another possible mechanism, but their role in the progression of PTSD is poorly understood. Low serotonin (5-HT) may be a factor, but it may not be the only neurotransmitter affected as modulation affects levels of other neurotransmitters. In this study, we hypothesized the predator exposure/psychosocial stress rodent model of PTSD may alter levels of 5-HT and other neurotransmitters in the rat hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this experiment. We induced PTSD via a predator exposure/psychosocial stress model, whereby rats were placed in a cage with a cat for 1 hour on days 1 and 11 of the 31-day experiment. Rats also received psychosocial stress via daily cage cohort changes. On day 32, the rats were sacrificed and the brains dissected to remove the hippocampus and PFC. Norepinephrine (NE), 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), dopamine (DA), and 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and 5-HT levels in the hippocampus and PFC were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the hippocampus, 5-HT and HVA were lower, while NE and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. In the PFC, only 5-HT was lower, while NE, DA, and DOPAC were higher, in the PTSD group vs. controls. The rate limiting enzymes tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase were also examined and confirmed our findings. These results demonstrate that the predator exposure/psychosocial stress model of PTSD produces neurotransmitter changes similar to those seen in human patients and may cause a heightened noradrenergic response. PMID:24551226

  4. Reprint of: Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.

    PubMed

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low ?g/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 ?g/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 ?g/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24679646

  5. Effects of the antidepressant venlafaxine on fish brain serotonin and predation behavior.

    PubMed

    Bisesi, Joseph H; Bridges, William; Klaine, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressants that enter receiving waters through final treated wastewater effluent have exhibited relatively low acute toxicity in traditional fish tests at currently measured concentrations. However, the psychotropic mode of action of these compounds warrants examination of the behavioral effects these chemicals may have on aquatic organisms. Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to the antidepressant fluoxetine causes decreased brain serotonin levels in fish and results in a decreased ability to capture prey. Another antidepressant, venlafaxine, has been found at low ?g/L concentrations in final treated wastewater effluent. The objective of this study was to quantify the effects of venlafaxine on fish predation behavior and determine if this effect was correlated with changes in brain neurotransmitter concentrations. The predator prey bioassay used hybrid striped bass (Morone saxatilis x Morone chrysops) as the predator and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) as prey. Bass were exposed to venlafaxine (0-500 ?g/L) for a period of 6 days and then allowed to recover for 6 days. During both exposure and recovery, bass were fed four minnows every third day. The time to capture the minnows was quantified and compared among treatments to determine if there was an effect on predation behavior. Brain tissue was analyzed for serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine, to determine the relationship between exposure concentration, brain monoamine levels, and predation behavior. Results indicated that venlafaxine exposures increased time to capture prey 1 and 2 by day 6 for the 250 and 500 ?g/L treatments. Time to capture prey 3 was increased for all venlafaxine treatments by day 6. Venlafaxine caused a statistically significant decrease in brain serotonin concentrations that initially decreased in a dose dependent manner before reaching a steady state by the end of exposures for all treatments. No significant, dose-dependent changes in dopamine or norepinephrine were seen. Brain serotonin alone did not adequately explain behavioral results. Serotonin response in other tissues as well as peripheral effects may have accounted for additional behavioral responses after brain serotonin reached a depressed steady state. PMID:24486880

  6. Serotonin: modulator of a drive to withdraw.

    PubMed

    Tops, Mattie; Russo, Sascha; Boksem, Maarten A S; Tucker, Don M

    2009-12-01

    Serotonin is a fundamental neuromodulator in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, with a suspected role in many human mental disorders. Yet, because of the complexity of serotonergic function, researchers have been unable to agree on a general theory. One function suggested for serotonin systems is the avoidance of threat. We propose and review evidence for an alternative hypothesis, that a phylogenetically primitive of function of serotonin is to oppose the activating neuromodulators (particularly noradrenalin and dopamine). The functional effect of this opposition can be seen as applying a drive to withdraw from dangerous, aversive or high stimulation environments. Proposing that serotonin is involved in a drive to withdraw and seek contentment, instead of a drive to avoid, may be compatible with several lines of evidence on serotonin function and may facilitate a better understanding of serotonergic neuromodulation in human psychopathology. PMID:19423206

  7. Effects of deprenyl on monoamine oxidase and neurotransmitters in the brains of MPTP-treated aging mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Wiener, H L

    1995-04-01

    Deprenyl is a selective monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitor and has been used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. However, it is not known whether deprenyl effects are symptomatic or pharmacological. Aging mice were partially lesioned with MPTP. Control and MPTP-treated mice were given deprenyl in drinking water for 14 days. Brain tissue (including the striatum, olfactory tubercle and cerebral cortex) was assayed for MAO-B and neurotransmitter levels. The results show that deprenyl treatment, given alone or after MPTP, reduced MAO-B activity in all the three regions. No change was seen in dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA) content in any of the three areas. Cortical norepinephrine (NE) levels were also unaltered. However, striatal serotonin (5-HT) levels were decreased while its metabolite, 5-HIAA levels were significantly increased in the olfactory tubercle in animals receiving deprenyl alone. These data suggest that deprenyl treatment reduces MAO-B activity in regions in addition to the striatum without affecting norepinephrine, dopamine (DA) and its metabolites. PMID:7544444

  8. Altered Neurocircuitry in the Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Bearer, Elaine L.; Boulat, Benoit; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Jacobs, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO) mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT) KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral mesolimbic structures at 26 hr post-injection. Thus, DAT KO mice appear, at this level of anatomic resolution, to have preserved cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity but diminished robustness of reward-modulating circuitry distal to the thalamus. This is in contradistinction to the state of this circuitry in serotonin transporter KO mice where we observed more robust connectivity in more posterior brain regions using methods identical to those employed here. PMID:20634895

  9. Transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at the mouse blood-retina and blood-brain barriers by uptake1 and uptake2.

    PubMed

    André, Pascal; Saubaméa, Bruno; Cochois-Guégan, Véronique; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Cattelotte, Julie; Smirnova, Maria; Schinkel, Alfred H; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore

    2012-11-01

    Uptake1 and uptake2 transporters are involved in the extracellular clearance of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at synaptic clefts. We looked for them at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barriers (BRB), where they could be involved in regulating the neurotransmitter concentration and modulate/terminate receptor-mediated effects within the neurovascular unit (NVU). Uptake2 (Oct1-3/Slc22a1-3, Pmat/Slc29a4) and Mate1/Slc47a1 transporters are also involved in the transport of xenobiotics. We used in situ carotid perfusion of prototypic substrates like [(3)H]-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ([(3)H]-MPP(+)), [(3)H]-histamine, [(3)H]-serotonin, and [(3)H]-dopamine, changes in ionic composition and genetic deletion of Oct1-3 carriers to detect uptake1 and uptake2 at the BBB and BRB. We showed that uptake1 and uptake2 are involved in the transport of [(3)H]-dopamine and [(3)H]-MPP(+) at the blood luminal BRB, but not at the BBB. These functional studies, together with quantitative RT-PCR and confocal imaging, suggest that the mouse BBB lacks uptake1 (Net/Slc6a2, Dat/Slc6a3, Sert/Slc6a4), uptake2, and Mate1 on both the luminal and abluminal sides. However, we found evidence for functional Net and Oct1 transporters at the luminal BRB. These heterogeneous transport properties of the brain and retina NVUs suggest that the BBB helps protect the brain against biogenic amine neurotransmitters in the plasma while the BRB has more of a metabolic/endocrine role. PMID:22850405

  10. Transport of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at the mouse blood–retina and blood–brain barriers by uptake1 and uptake2

    PubMed Central

    André, Pascal; Saubaméa, Bruno; Cochois-Guégan, Véronique; Marie-Claire, Cynthia; Cattelotte, Julie; Smirnova, Maria; Schinkel, Alfred H; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    Uptake1 and uptake2 transporters are involved in the extracellular clearance of biogenic amine neurotransmitters at synaptic clefts. We looked for them at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and blood–retina barriers (BRB), where they could be involved in regulating the neurotransmitter concentration and modulate/terminate receptor-mediated effects within the neurovascular unit (NVU). Uptake2 (Oct1-3/Slc22a1-3, Pmat/Slc29a4) and Mate1/Slc47a1 transporters are also involved in the transport of xenobiotics. We used in situ carotid perfusion of prototypic substrates like [3H]-1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ([3H]-MPP+), [3H]-histamine, [3H]-serotonin, and [3H]-dopamine, changes in ionic composition and genetic deletion of Oct1-3 carriers to detect uptake1 and uptake2 at the BBB and BRB. We showed that uptake1 and uptake2 are involved in the transport of [3H]-dopamine and [3H]-MPP+ at the blood luminal BRB, but not at the BBB. These functional studies, together with quantitative RT-PCR and confocal imaging, suggest that the mouse BBB lacks uptake1 (Net/Slc6a2, Dat/Slc6a3, Sert/Slc6a4), uptake2, and Mate1 on both the luminal and abluminal sides. However, we found evidence for functional Net and Oct1 transporters at the luminal BRB. These heterogeneous transport properties of the brain and retina NVUs suggest that the BBB helps protect the brain against biogenic amine neurotransmitters in the plasma while the BRB has more of a metabolic/endocrine role. PMID:22850405

  11. Towards neuroimmunotherapy for cancer: the neurotransmitters glutamate, dopamine and GnRH-II augment substantially the ability of T cells of few head and neck cancer patients to perform spontaneous migration, chemotactic migration and migration towards the autologous tumor, and also elevate markedly the expression of CD3zeta and CD3epsilon TCR-associated chains.

    PubMed

    Saussez, Sven; Laumbacher, Barbara; Chantrain, Gilbert; Rodriguez, Alexandra; Gu, Songhai; Wank, Rudolf; Levite, Mia

    2014-08-01

    In previous studies we found that several Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides among them: Glutamate, Dopamine, Gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) I and II, Somatostatin, CGRP and Neuropeptide Y, can each by itself, at low physiological concentration (~10 nM) bind its receptors in human T cells and trigger several key T cell functions. These findings showed that the nervous system, via Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides, can 'talk' directly to the immune system, and stimulate what we coined 'Nerve-Driven Immunity': immune responses dictated by the nervous system. In various human cancers, the immune system of the patients, and their T cells in particular, are not functioning well enough against the cancer due to several reasons, among them the suppressive effects on the immune system induced by: (1) the cancer itself, (2) the chemotherapy and radiotherapy, (3) the ongoing/chronic stress, anxiety, depression and pain felt by the cancer patients. In Head and Neck Cancer (HNC), 5-year survival rate remains below 50%, primarily because of local recurrences or second primary tumors. Two-thirds of HNC patients are diagnosed at advanced clinical stage and have significantly poorer prognosis. Most HNC patients have multiple severe immunological defects especially in their T cells. A major defect in T cells of patients with HNC or other types of cancer is low CD3zeta expression that correlates with poor prognosis, decreased proliferation, apoptotic profile, abnormal cytokine secretion and poor abilities of destructing cancer cells. T cells of cancer patients are often also unable to migrate properly towards the tumor. In this study we asked if Glutamate, Dopamine or GnRH-II can augment the spontaneous migration, chemotactic migration and towards autologous HNC migration, and also increase CD3zeta and CD3epsilon expression, of peripheral T cells purified from the blood of five HNC patients. These HNC patients had either primary tumor or recurrence, and have been already treated by surgery and/or radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy without satisfactory outcomes. We found that Glutamate, Dopamine and GnRH-II, each by itself, at 10 nM, and during 30 min incubation only with the peripheral T cells of the HNC patients increased substantially their: (1) spontaneous migration (up to 4.4 fold increase), (2) chemotactic migration towards the key chemokine SDF-1 (up to 2.3 fold increase), (3) migration towards the autologous HNC tumor removed surgically ~48 h earlier in a pre-planned operation (up to 3.5 fold increase). Each of the Neurotransmitters even 'allowed' the T cells of one HNC patient to overcome completely the suppressive anti-migration effect of his autologous tumor, (4) cell surface CD3zeta expression (up to 4.3 fold increase), (5) cell surface CD3epsilon expression (up to 1.9 fold increase). If the absolutely essential larger scale subsequent studies would validate our present findings, Glutamate, Dopamine and GnRH-II could be used for a completely novel indication: adoptive T cell immunotherapy for some patients with HNC and maybe also other types of cancer. We coin here a novel term-'Neuroimmunotherapy' for this new form of T cell immunotherapy, based on the direct activation of the patient's own T cells by Neurotransmitters. Such 'Neuroimmunotherapy' could be reduced to practice by rather simple, painless and repeated/periodical removal of peripheral T cells from the cancer patients, activating them ex vivo for 30 min by either Glutamate, Dopamine or GnRH-II, and infusing them back to the patients by intravenous and/or intratumoral injection. The 'rejuvenated' Neurotransmitter-treated T cells are expected to have significantly improved abilities to reach and eradicate the cancer, and also combat infectious organisms that cancer patients often suffer from. Since the T cells are autologous, since the Neurotransmitters are physiological molecules, and since the ex vivo 'parking period' is very short, such Neuroimmunotherapy is expected to be very safe. PMID:25030361

  12. Protective Effect of Spermidine Against Excitotoxic Neuronal Death Induced by Quinolinic Acid in Rats: Possible Neurotransmitters and Neuroinflammatory Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jamwal, Sumit; Singh, Shamsher; Kaur, Navneet; Kumar, Puneet

    2015-08-01

    Huntington disease is hyperkinetic movement disorder characterized by selective and immense degradation of GABAergic medium spiny neurons in striatum. Quinolinic acid (QA)-induced neurotoxicity involves a cascade of events such as excitotoxicity, ATP depletion, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, as well as selective GABAergic neuronal loss. Therefore, we investigated spermidine, an endogenous molecule with free radical scavenging, anti-inflammatory, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic properties, for its beneficial potential if any, in QA-induced Huntington's like symptoms in rats. Rats were administered with QA (200 nmol/2 µl saline) bilaterally on 0 day. Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 21 days once a day. Behavioral parameters (body weight, locomotor activity, grip strength, and narrow beam walk) observations were done on 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day after QA treatment. On 21st day, animals were sacrificed and rat striatum was isolated for biochemical (LPO, GSH, Nitrite), neuroinflammation (TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6), and neurochemical analysis (GABA, glutamate, dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, DOPAC, HVA, 5-HIAA, adenosine, adenine, hypoxanthine, and inosine). QA treatment significantly altered body weight, locomotor activity, motor coordination, oxidative defense (increased LPO, nitrite, and decreased GSH), pro-inflammatory levels (TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-1?), GABA, glutamate, catecholamines level (norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin and their metabolites), and purines level (adenosine, inosine, and hypoxanthine). Spermidine (5 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly attenuated these alterations in body weight, motor impairments, oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory markers, GABA, glutamate, catecholamines, adenosine, and their metabolites levels in striatum. The neuroprotective effect of spermidine against QA-induced excitotoxic cell death is attributed to its antioxidant, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonistic, anti-inflammatory properties, and prevention of neurotransmitters alteration in striatum. PMID:26078029

  13. Shifts in striatal responsivity evoked by chronic stimulation of dopamine and glutamate systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Canales; C. Capper-Loup; D. Hu; E. S. Choe; U. Upadhyay; A. M. Graybiel

    2002-01-01

    Summary Dopamine and glutamate are key neurotransmitters in cortico-basal ganglia loops affecting motor and cogni- tive function. To examine functional convergence of dopamine and glutamate neurotransmitter systems in the basal ganglia, we evaluated the long-term effects of chronic stimulation of each of these systems on striatal responses to stimulation of the other. First we exposed rats to chronic intermittent cocaine

  14. Monoaminergic neurotransmitter alterations in postmortem brain regions of depressed and aggressive patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Yannick; Van Dam, Debby; Aerts, Tony; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P

    2014-12-01

    Depression and aggression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are 2 of the most severe and prominent neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS). Altered monoaminergic neurotransmitter system functioning has been implicated in both NPS, although their neurochemical etiology remains to be elucidated. Left frozen hemispheres of 40 neuropathologically confirmed AD patients were regionally dissected. Dichotomization based on depression and aggression scores resulted in depressed/nondepressed (AD + D/AD - D) and aggressive/nonaggressive (AD + Agr/AD - Agr) groups. Concentrations of dopamine, serotonin (5-HT), (nor)epinephrine ((N)E), and respective metabolites were determined using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly lower 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) and higher homovanillic acid levels were observed in Brodmann area (BA) 9 and 10 of AD + D compared with AD - D. In AD + Agr, 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in BA9, 5-HIAA to 5-HT ratios in BA11, and MHPG, NE, and 5-HIAA levels in the hippocampus were significantly decreased compared with AD - Agr. These findings indicate that brain region-specific altered monoamines and metabolites may contribute to the occurrence of depression and aggression in AD. PMID:24997673

  15. Transmitterlike action of serotonin in phase shifting a rhythm from the Aplysia eye.

    PubMed

    Corrent, G; Eskin, A

    1982-03-01

    The presence of serotonin (5-HT) and the characteristics of the phase-response curve for 5-HT indicate that 5-HT acts as a transmitter of circadian information in the Aplysia eye. Additional evidence for such a neurotransmitter role of 5-HT in the eye is presented. The isolated eye has the capacity to synthesize 5-HT from exogenous tryptophan. The receptors mediating the phase-shifting effect of 5-HT have a high affinity for 5-HT (threshold for phase shifting is less than or equal to 10(-7) M). Also these receptors demonstrate a high degree of structural specificity for 5-HT. Some structurally similar indoles to 5-HT do not cause phase shifts (5-hydroxytryptophan, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid), whereas others (bufotenine, tryptamine, LSD) do cause phase shifts but are less effective than 5-HT. Furthermore phase shifts in the rhythm are not produced by other monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, octopamine) or acetylcholine. Changes in membrane conductance to Na+, Cl-, or Ca2+ do not appear to be involved in phase shifting by 5-HT. Since large reductions in extracellular Ca2+ did not affect phase shifting by 5-HT, 5-HT is acting either directly on the circadian pacemaker cell(s) or on cells electronically coupled to the pacemaker cell(s). PMID:6121488

  16. Development of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Covey, Daniel P.; Blaha, Charles D.; Agnesi, Filippo; Mohseni, Pedram; Whitlock, Sidney; Johnson, David M.; Horne, April; Bennet, Kevin E.; Lee, Kendall H.; Garris, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Object Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that modulation of specific central neuronal systems contributes to the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and motor cortex stimulation (MCS). Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of targeted regions may therefore advance functional neurosurgery by, among other goals, providing a strategy for investigation of mechanisms, identification of new candidate neurotransmitters, and chemically guided placement of the stimulating electrode. The authors report the development of a device called the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring during functional neurosurgery. This device supports fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) for real-time, spatially and chemically resolved neurotransmitter measurements in the brain. Methods The FSCV study consisted of a triangle wave scanned between ?0.4 and 1 V at a rate of 300 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages were compared with an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single carbon fiber (r = 2.5 ?m) into a glass capillary and pulling the capillary to a microscopic tip by using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (that is, the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ~ 100 ?m. The neurotransmitter dopamine was selected as the analyte for most trials. Proof-of-principle tests included in vitro flow injection and noise analysis, and in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring dopamine release in the striatum following high-frequency electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle. Direct comparisons were made to a conventional hardwired system. Results The WINCS, designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, consisted of 4 modules: 1) front-end analog circuit for FSCV (that is, current-to-voltage transducer); 2) Bluetooth transceiver; 3) microprocessor; and 4) direct-current battery. A Windows-XP laptop computer running custom software and equipped with a Universal Serial Bus–connected Bluetooth transceiver served as the base station. Computer software directed wireless data acquisition at 100 kilosamples/second and remote control of FSCV operation and adjustable waveform parameters. The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of dopamine and other neurochemicals such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and ascorbic acid by using FSCV at CFM and by flow injection analysis. In rats, the WINCS detected subsecond striatal dopamine release at the implanted sensor during high-frequency stimulation of ascending dopaminergic fibers. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated comparable signals to a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Importantly, the WINCS reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic noise typically found in an operating room setting. Conclusions Taken together, these results demonstrate that the WINCS is well suited for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring. It is anticipated that neurotransmitter measurements at an implanted chemical sensor will prove useful for advancing functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425890

  17. THE EFFECTS OF 5HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN AND 5HYDROXYTRYPTAMINE ON DOPAMINE SYNTHESIS AND RELEASE IN RAT BRAIN STRIATAL SYNAPTOSOMES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Andrews; Robert L. Patrick; Jack D. Barchas

    1978-01-01

    The effects of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and serotonin (5-HT) on dopamine synthesis and release in rat brain striatal synaptosomes have been examined and compared to the effects of tyramine and dopamine. Serotonin inhibited dopamine synthesis from tyrosine, with 25% inhibition occurring at 3 ~M-S-HT and 60% inhibition at 200~~. Dopamine synthesis from DOPA was also inhibited by 5-HT, with 30% inhibition

  18. Serotonin in antipsychotic drugs action.

    PubMed

    Amato, Davide

    2015-01-15

    Antipsychotic drugs are the treatment of choice in schizophrenia. Since the discovery of chlorpromazine, several generations of antipsychotic drugs have been developed with disparate mechanism of action and complex binding profile. Although the modifications of their mechanisms have translated into decreased side effects, their superior therapeutic efficacy is often debated. Furthermore, the lack of clear criteria to define antipsychotic drugs as typical or atypical is delaying the development of new compounds with innovative mechanisms of actions. There is general agreement that we are abusing dopaminergic based criteria to evaluate the newly available compounds although they are targeting several other neurotransmitter systems. The present work will overview the antipsychotic drugs effects on serotonin levels as measured with microdialysis in the rat brain. A functional association among therapeutic mechanisms of antipsychotic drugs, their serotonin receptors affinities and serotonin level changes will be attempted. The primary ambition of this investigation is to provide an exhaustive reference for who is interested, at any levels, in antipsychotic drugs effects on cortical and subcortical serotonin output. PMID:25078293

  19. Serotonin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bodner, R A; Lynch, T; Lewis, L; Kahn, D

    1995-02-01

    We describe a patient treated with trazodone, isocarboxazid, and methylphenidate hydrochloride who developed confusion, agitation, poor concentration, rigidity, myoclonus, involuntary movements, orthostatic hypotension, and hyperreflexia. CK was normal, and the syndrome resolved spontaneously over 12 hours. The serotonin syndrome occurs following the use of serotomimetic agents (serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants, tryptophan, 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine, dextromethorphan, meperidine, S-adenosylmethionine) alone or in combination with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. It is characterized by various combinations of myoclonus, rigidity, hyperreflexia, shivering, confusion, agitation, restlessness, coma, autonomic instability, low-grade fever, nausea, diarrhea, diaphoresis, flushing, and rarely, rhabdomyolysis and death. PMID:7854515

  20. Synergistic dopamine increase in the rat prefrontal cortex with the combination of quetiapine and fluvoxamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damiaan Denys; André A. Klompmakers; Herman G. M. Westenberg

    2004-01-01

    Rationale The combination of atypical antipsychotic drugs in addition to serotonin reuptake inhibitors has recently proven to be beneficial in a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as major depression, schizophrenia, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. Objectives To investigate the effects of an atypical antipsychotic drug in combination with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor on extracellular serotonin [5-HT] ex, and dopamine levels [DA] ex

  1. Effect of Serotonin on T Lymphocyte Proliferation in vitro in Healthy Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Khan; G. Bhardwaj; N. Malla; C. Wattal; S. C. Agarwal

    1986-01-01

    The direct effect of different concentrations of serotonin on T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was seen in 20 normal individuals. It has been observed that the neurotransmitter had a suppressive effect on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. This study shows that the effect of serotonin on the immune system is direct.Copyright © 1986 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Effect of serotonin on T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Khan, I A; Bhardwaj, G; Malla, N; Wattal, C; Agarwal, S C

    1986-01-01

    The direct effect of different concentrations of serotonin on T lymphocyte proliferation in vitro was seen in 20 normal individuals. It has been observed that the neurotransmitter had a suppressive effect on mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. This study shows that the effect of serotonin on the immune system is direct. PMID:3491054

  3. Turn up the heat: circulating serotonin tunes our internal heating system.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jochen G; Nadeau, Joseph H

    2015-02-01

    Serotonin acts as neurotransmitter in the brain and as a multifaceted signaling molecule coordinating many physiological processes in the periphery. In a recent issue of Nature Medicine, Crane et al. (2014) find that peripheral serotonin controls thermogenesis in adipose tissue by modulating ?-adrenergic stimulation of UCP-1, thereby affecting glucose homeostasis and weight gain. PMID:25651169

  4. Determination of serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine and their metabolites in rat brain extracts and microdialysis samples by column liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection following derivatization with benzylamine and 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Yoshitake, Shimako; Fujino, Kaoru; Nohta, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi

    2004-08-01

    A highly selective and sensitive column liquid chromatographic method for fluorescence determination of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and their related metabolites 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) following derivatization with benzylamine and 1,2-diphenylethylenediamine (DPE) is described. The monoamines and the metabolites (20 microl samples) were derivatized in a two-step reaction, initiated with 20 microl of 0.3M benzylamine in 0.3M 3-cyclohexylaminopropanesulfonic acid (CAPS) buffer (pH 10.0), (for 5-HT, 5-HIAA, 2 min, 24 degrees C) and followed by 20 microl of 0.1M DPE in 0.3M glycine buffer (pH 10.0), (for DA, NA, DOPAC, 20 min, 50 degrees C). Both reagents contained 0.02 M potassium hexacyanoferrate(III) and 50% (v/v) methanol. The resulting highly fluorescent and stable benzoxazole derivatives were isocratically separated on a reversed-phase column (150 mm x 1.5 mm i.d., packed with C18 silica, 5 microm) within 45 min. Using fluorescence detection at ex. and em. wavelengths of 345 and 480 nm, respectively, the detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) for 5-HT, DA, NA, 5-HIAA, L-DOPA and DOPAC ranged between 0.08 and 5.65 fmol per 20-microl injection (12-847.5 pM in standard solution). The concentrations of monoamines (expressed in microg/g wet weight, mean +/- S.E.M., n=5) in tissue extracts from the rat striatum were: 0.45+/-0.05 (5-HT), 4.27+/-0.08 (DA), 0.27+/-0.04 (NA), 0.55+/-0.06 (5-HIAA), 1.26+/-0.16 (L-DOPA) and 1.62+/-0.11 (DOPAC). Microdialysis samples were collected in 20 min intervals from the probes implanted in the striatum of awake rats. The basal monoamine levels (in fmol/20 microl, mean +/- S.E.M., n=5) in the dialysates were: 4.0+/-0.7 (5-HT), 78.4+/-9.1 (DA), 6.4+/-0.8 (NA), 785.5+/-64.5 (5-HIAA) and 5504.5+/-136.5 (DOPAC). It is concluded that the new fluorescence derivatization protocol provides an excellent means for simultaneous determination of all three monoamines both in the complex samples (e.g. brain homogenates) and also at trace levels, such as those found in the microdialysis samples. PMID:15203027

  5. APP+, a fluorescent analogue of the neurotoxin MPP+, is a marker of catecholamine neurons in brain tissue, but not a fluorescent false neurotransmitter.

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Richard J; Dunn, Matthew; Sulzer, David; Sames, Dalibor

    2013-05-15

    We have previously introduced fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFNs) as optical reporters that enable visualization of individual dopaminergic presynaptic terminals and their activity in the brain. In this context, we examined the fluorescent pyridinium dye 4-(4-dimethylamino)phenyl-1-methylpyridinium (APP+), a fluorescent analogue of the dopaminergic neurotoxin MPP+, in acute mouse brain tissue. APP+ is a substrate for the dopamine transporter (DAT), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and serotonin transporter (SERT), and as such represented a candidate for the development of new FFN probes. Here we report that APP+ labels cell bodies of catecholaminergic neurons in the midbrain in a DAT- and NET-dependent manner, as well as fine dopaminergic axonal processes in the dorsal striatum. APP+ destaining from presynaptic terminals in the dorsal striatum was also examined under the conditions inducing depolarization and exocytotic neurotransmitter release. Application of KCl led to a small but significant degree of destaining (approximately 15% compared to control), which stands in contrast to a nearly complete destaining of the new generation FFN agent, FFN102. Electrical stimulation of brain slices at 10 Hz afforded no significant change in the APP+ signal. These results indicate that the majority of the APP+ signal in axonal processes originates from labeled organelles including mitochondria, whereas only a minor component of the APP+ signal represents the releasable synaptic vesicular pool. These results also show that APP+ may serve as a useful probe for identifying catecholaminergic innervations in the brain, although it is a poor candidate for the development of FFNs. PMID:23647019

  6. A Standardized Chinese Herbal Decoction, Kai-Xin-San, Restores Decreased Levels of Neurotransmitters and Neurotrophic Factors in the Brain of Chronic Stress-Induced Depressive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kevin Yue; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Ip, Siu-Po; Choi, Roy Chi-Yan; Dong, Tina Ting-Xia; Lau, David Tai-Wai; Tsim, Karl Wah-Keung

    2012-01-01

    Kai-xin-san (KXS), a Chinese herbal decoction being prescribed by Sun Simiao in Beiji Qianjin Yaofang about 1400 years ago, contains Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Polygalae Radix, Acori tatarinowii Rhizoma, and Poria. KXS has been used to treat stress-related psychiatric disease with the symptoms of depression and forgetfulness in ancient China until today. However, the mechanism of its antidepression action is still unknown. Here, the chronic mild-stress-(CMS-) induced depressive rats were applied in exploring the action mechanisms of KXS treatment. Daily intragastric administration of KXS for four weeks significantly alleviated the CMS-induced depressive symptoms displayed by enhanced sucrose consumption. In addition, the expressions of those molecular bio-markers relating to depression in rat brains were altered by the treatment of KXS. These KXS-regulated brain biomarkers included: (i) the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (ii) the transcript levels of proteins relating to neurotransmitter metabolism; (iii) the transcript levels of neurotrophic factors and their receptors. The results suggested that the anti-depressant-like action of KXS might be mediated by an increase of neurotransmitters and expression of neurotrophic factors and its corresponding receptors in the brain. Thus, KXS could serve as alternative medicine, or health food supplement, for patients suffering from depression. PMID:22973399

  7. Retinal Neurotransmitters Robert E. Marc

    E-print Network

    Marc, Robert E.

    Retinal Neurotransmitters Robert E. Marc John Moran Eye Center University of Utah School of References: 85 Abbreviated Title: Retinal Neurotransmitters *Correspondence to: Robert E. Marc, Moran Eye-6500. Facsimile (801) 581-3357 robert.marc@hsc.utah.edu #12;Rbert E. Marc Retinal Neurotransmitters Introduction

  8. Central neurotransmitters and control of prolactin secretion

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Central neurotransmitters and control of prolactin secretion C. KORDON A. ENJALBERT L. CARBONELL of prolactin, focussing our attention particularly on the role of neurotransmitters and neurohormones. General aspects of neurotransmitter-neurohormone interactions. Detection of neurotransmitter

  9. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Abagyan, Armen; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (A?) peptides are secreted from neurons, resulting in extracellular accumulation of A? and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Because neuronal secretion is fundamental for the release of neurotransmitters, this study assessed the hypothesis that A? undergoes co-release with neurotransmitters. Model neuronal-like chromaffin cells were investigated, and results illustrate regulated, co-secretion of A?(1–40) and A?(1–42) with peptide neurotransmitters (galanin, enkephalin, and NPY) and catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Regulated secretion from chromaffin cells was stimulated by KCl depolarization and nicotine. Forskolin, stimulating cAMP, also induced co-secretion of A? peptides with peptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. These data suggested the co-localization of A? with neurotransmitters in dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) that store and secrete such chemical messengers. Indeed, A? was demonstrated to be present in DCSV with neuropeptide and catecholamine transmitters. Furthermore, the DCSV organelle contains APP and its processing proteases, ?- and ?-secretases, that are necessary for production of A?. Thus, A? can be generated in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV. Human IMR32 neuroblastoma cells also displayed regulated secretion of A?(1–40) and A?(1–42) with the galanin neurotransmitter. These findings illustrate that A? peptides are present in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV, and undergo co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that regulate brain functions. PMID:23747840

  10. Currents in Neurotransmitter Transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Gerstbrein; H. H. Sitte

    Traditionally, substrate translocation by neurotransmitter transporters has been described by the alternate access model.\\u000a Recent structural data obtained with three distantly related transporters have also been interpreted as supportive of this\\u000a model, because conformational correlates were visualized (inward-facing conformation, occluded state). However, the experimental\\u000a evidence is overwhelmingly in favour of a more complex mode of operation: Transporters also exist in

  11. Cochlear Damage Affects Neurotransmitter Chemistry in the Central Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Augustine C.; Godfrey, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus, the perception of a monotonous sound not actually present in the environment, affects nearly 20% of the population of the United States. Although there has been great progress in tinnitus research over the past 25?years, the neurochemical basis of tinnitus is still poorly understood. We review current research about the effects of various types of cochlear damage on the neurotransmitter chemistry in the central auditory system and document evidence that different changes in this chemistry can underlie similar behaviorally measured tinnitus symptoms. Most available data have been obtained from rodents following cochlear damage produced by cochlear ablation, intense sound, or ototoxic drugs. Effects on neurotransmitter systems have been measured as changes in neurotransmitter level, synthesis, release, uptake, and receptors. In this review, magnitudes of changes are presented for neurotransmitter-related amino acids, acetylcholine, and serotonin. A variety of effects have been found in these studies that may be related to animal model, survival time, type and/or magnitude of cochlear damage, or methodology. The overall impression from the evidence presented is that any imbalance of neurotransmitter-related chemistry could disrupt auditory processing in such a way as to produce tinnitus. PMID:25477858

  12. Physiological Concentrations of Dopamine Inhibit the Proliferation and Cytotoxicity of Human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in vitro: A Receptor-Mediated Mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Baisakhi Saha; Amal Chandra Mondal; Jahar Majumder; Sujit Basu; Partha Sarathi Dasgupta

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Dopamine, a catecholamine neurotransmitter, influences growth and proliferation of lymphocytes. Pharmacological doses of dopamine have been shown to modulate T cell functions significantly, but no information is available on the effect of physiological concentrations of circulating dopamine on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell functions. This information may be of importance since significantly elevated plasma dopamine levels were observed in

  13. The roles of peripheral serotonin in metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    El-Merahbi, Rabih; Löffler, Mona; Mayer, Alexander; Sumara, Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic homeostasis in the organism is assured both by the nervous system and by hormones. Among a plethora of hormones regulating metabolism, serotonin presents a number of unique features. Unlike classical hormones serotonin is produced in different anatomical locations. In brain it acts as a neurotransmitter and in the periphery it can act as a hormone, auto- and/or paracrine factor, or intracellular signaling molecule. Serotonin does not cross the blood-brain barrier; therefore the two major pools of this bioamine remain separated. Although 95% of serotonin is produced in the periphery, its functions have been ignored until recently. Here we review the impact of the peripheral serotonin on the regulation of function of the organs involved in glucose and lipid homeostasis. PMID:26070423

  14. The Dopamine Metabolite 3-Methoxytyramine Is a Neuromodulator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatyana D. Sotnikova; Jean-Martin Beaulieu; Stefano Espinoza; Bernard Masri; Xiaodong Zhang; Ali Salahpour; Larry S. Barak; Marc G. Caron; Raul R. Gainetdinov; Alessandro Bartolomucci

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) is a well-known catecholamine neurotransmitter involved in multiple physiological functions including movement control. Here we report that the major extracellular metabolite of dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), can induce behavioral effects in a dopamine-independent manner and these effects are partially mediated by the trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Unbiased in vivo screening of putative trace amine receptor ligands for

  15. Effects of Postnatal Serotonin Agonism on Fear Response and Memory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) also acts as a neurogenic compound in the developing brain. Early administration of a 5-HT agonist could alter the development of the serotonergic circuitry, altering behaviors mediated by 5-HT signaling, such as memory, fear and aggression. White leghorn chicks...

  16. Serotonin Brain Circuits with a Focus on Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Violina Lozeva-Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Despite enormous strides in our understanding of human disease, the precise mechanisms of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a potential long-term complication of liver failure, are still unclear. Brain serotonin, a neurotransmitter with widespread distribution in the CNS, plays a role in the regulation of a wide range of physiological behaviors and functions. In addition, it has been implicated in the pathogenesis

  17. Metabolomics Approach Reveals Integrated Metabolic Network Associated with Serotonin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Rui; Shen, Sensen; Tian, Yonglu; Burton, Casey; Xu, Xinyuan; Liu, Yi; Chang, Cuilan; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter that broadly participates in various biological processes. While serotonin deficiency has been associated with multiple pathological conditions such as depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, the serotonin-dependent mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study therefore aimed to identify novel biomarkers and metabolic pathways perturbed by serotonin deficiency using metabolomics approach in order to gain new metabolic insights into the serotonin deficiency-related molecular mechanisms. Serotonin deficiency was achieved through pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase (Tph) using p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) or genetic knockout of the neuronal specific Tph2 isoform. This dual approach improved specificity for the serotonin deficiency-associated biomarkers while minimizing nonspecific effects of pCPA treatment or Tph2 knockout (Tph2-/-). Non-targeted metabolic profiling and a targeted pCPA dose-response study identified 21 biomarkers in the pCPA-treated mice while 17 metabolites in the Tph2-/- mice were found to be significantly altered compared with the control mice. These newly identified biomarkers were associated with amino acid, energy, purine, lipid and gut microflora metabolisms. Oxidative stress was also found to be significantly increased in the serotonin deficient mice. These new biomarkers and the overall metabolic pathways may provide new understanding for the serotonin deficiency-associated mechanisms under multiple pathological states. PMID:26154191

  18. Moderate exercise and chronic stress produce counteractive effects on different areas of the brain by acting through various neurotransmitter receptor subtypes: A hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Sarbadhikari, Suptendra N; Saha, Asit K

    2006-01-01

    Background Regular, "moderate", physical exercise is an established non-pharmacological form of treatment for depressive disorders. Brain lateralization has a significant role in the progress of depression. External stimuli such as various stressors or exercise influence the higher functions of the brain (cognition and affect). These effects often do not follow a linear course. Therefore, nonlinear dynamics seem best suited for modeling many of the phenomena, and putative global pathways in the brain, attributable to such external influences. Hypothesis The general hypothesis presented here considers only the nonlinear aspects of the effects produced by "moderate" exercise and "chronic" stressors, but does not preclude the possibility of linear responses. In reality, both linear and nonlinear mechanisms may be involved in the final outcomes. The well-known neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (D) and norepinephrine (NE) all have various receptor subtypes. The article hypothesizes that 'Stress' increases the activity/concentration of some particular subtypes of receptors (designated nts) for each of the known (and unknown) neurotransmitters in the right anterior (RA) and left posterior (LP) regions (cortical and subcortical) of the brain, and has the converse effects on a different set of receptor subtypes (designated nth). In contrast, 'Exercise' increases nth activity/concentration and/or reduces nts activity/concentration in the LA and RP areas of the brain. These effects may be initiated by the activation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) (among others) in exercise and its suppression in stress. Conclusion On the basis of this hypothesis, a better understanding of brain neurodynamics might be achieved by considering the oscillations caused by single neurotransmitters acting on their different receptor subtypes, and the temporal pattern of recruitment of these subtypes. Further, appropriately designed and planned experiments will not only corroborate such theoretical models, but also shed more light on the underlying brain dynamics. PMID:16995950

  19. Cognitive effects of genetic variation in monoamine neurotransmitter systems: A population-based study of COMT, MAOA, and 5HTTLPR

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Jennifer H; Xu, Ke; Heron, Jon; Goldman, David; Jones, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive function are highly heritable and most likely driven by multiple genes of small effect. Well-characterized common functional polymorphisms in the genes MAOA, COMT, and 5HTTLPR each have predictable effects on the availability of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. We hypothesized that 5HTTLPR genotype would show little association with prefrontal cognitive performance, but that COMT and MAOA would have interacting effects on cognition through their shared influence on prefrontal catecholamine availability. We assessed the individual and epistatic effects of functional polymorphisms in COMT, MAOA, and 5HTTLPR on children's prefrontal cognitive function in nearly 6,000 children from the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Neither MAOA nor 5HTTLPR polymorphisms showed significant effects on cognitive function. In boys but not girls, there was a modest but statistically significant interaction between MAOA and COMT genotypes such that increased prefrontal catecholamine availability was associated with better working memory. These results suggest that assessment of multiple genes within functionally related systems may improve our understanding of the genetic basis of cognition. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21302344

  20. Pharmacologic mechanisms of serotonergic regulation of dopamine neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Alex, K.D.; Pehek, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has a long association with normal functions such as motor control, cognition, and reward, as well as a number of syndromes including drug abuse, schizophrenia, and Parkinson’s disease. Studies show that serotonin (5-HT) acts through several 5-HT receptors in the brain to modulate DA neurons in all three major dopaminergic pathways. There are at least 14 5-HT receptor subtypes, many of which have been shown to play some role in mediating 5-HT/DA interactions. Several subtypes, including the 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, act to facilitate DA release, while the 5-HT2C receptor mediates an inhibitory effect of 5-HT on DA release. Most 5-HT receptor subtypes only modulate DA release when 5-HT and/or DA neurons are stimulated, but the 5-HT2C receptor, characterized by high levels of constitutive activity, inhibits tonic as well as evoked DA release. This review summarizes the anatomical evidence for the presence of each 5-HT receptor subtype in dopaminergic regions of the brain and the neuropharmacological evidence demonstrating regulation of each DA pathway. The relevance of 5-HT receptor modulation of DA systems to the development of therapeutics used to treat schizophrenia, depression, and drug abuse is discussed. Lastly, areas are highlighted in which future research would be maximally beneficial to the treatment of these disorders. PMID:17049611

  1. Dirty electricity, chronic stress, neurotransmitters and disease.

    PubMed

    Milham, Samuel; Stetzer, David

    2013-12-01

    Dirty electricity, also called electrical pollution, is high-frequency voltage transients riding along the 50 or 60 Hz electricity provided by the electric utilities. It is generated by arcing, by sparking and by any device that interrupts current flow, especially switching power supplies. It has been associated with cancer, diabetes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in humans. Epidemiological evidence also links dirty electricity to most of the diseases of civilization including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and suicide, beginning at the turn of the twentieth century. The dirty electricity level in a public library was reduced from over 10 000 Graham/Stetzer (G/S) units to below 50 G/S units by installing plug-in capacitive filters. Before cleanup, the urinary dopamine level of only one of seven volunteers was within normal levels, while four of seven phenylethylamine levels were normal. After an initial decline, over the next 18 weeks the dopamine levels gradually increased to an average of over 215 ?g/g creatinine, which is well above 170 ?g/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Average phenylethylamine levels also rose gradually to slightly above 70 ?g/g creatinine, the high normal level for the lab. Neurotransmitters may be biomarkers for dirty electricity and other electromagnetic field exposures. We believe that dirty electricity is a chronic stressor of electrified populations and is responsible for many of their disease patterns. PMID:23323864

  2. Macrocyclic Gd(3+) Complexes with Pendant Crown Ethers Designed for Binding Zwitterionic Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Meudal, Hervé; Landon, Céline; Logothetis, Nikos K; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-07-27

    A series of Gd(3+) complexes exhibiting a relaxometric response to zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters was synthesized. The design concept involves ditopic interactions 1)?between a positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated Gd(3+) chelate and the carboxylate group of the neurotransmitters and 2)?between an azacrown ether appended to the chelate and the amino group of the neurotransmitters. The chelates differ in the nature and length of the linker connecting the cyclen-type macrocycle that binds the Ln(3+) ion and the crown ether. The complexes are monohydrated, but they exhibit high proton relaxivities (up to 7.7?mM(-1) ?s(-1) at 60?MHz, 310?K) due to slow molecular tumbling. The formation of ternary complexes with neurotransmitters was monitored by (1) H relaxometric titrations of the Gd(3+) complexes and by luminescence measurements on the Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) analogues at pH?7.4. The remarkable relaxivity decrease (?80?%) observed on neurotransmitter binding is related to the decrease in the hydration number, as evidenced by luminescence lifetime measurements on the Eu(3+) complexes. These complexes show affinity for amino acid neurotransmitters in the millimolar range, which can be suited to imaging concentrations of synaptically released neurotransmitters. They display good selectivity over non-amino acid neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, and noradrenaline) and hydrogenphosphate, but selectivity over hydrogencarbonate was not achieved. PMID:26118946

  3. The role of serotonin in adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alenina, Natalia; Klempin, Friederike

    2015-01-15

    Serotonin is probably best known for its role in conveying a sense of contentedness and happiness. It is one of the most unique and pharmacologically complex monoamines in both the peripheral and central nervous system (CNS). Serotonin has become in focus of interest for the treatment of depression with multiple serotonin-mimetic and modulators of adult neurogenesis used clinically. Here we will take a broad view of serotonin from development to its physiological role as a neurotransmitter and its contribution to homeostasis of the adult rodent hippocampus. This chapter reflects the most significant findings on cellular and molecular mechanisms from neuroscientists in the field over the last two decades. We illustrate the action of serotonin by highlighting basic receptor targeting studies, and how receptors impact brain function. We give an overview of recent genetically modified mouse models that differ in serotonin availability and focus on the role of the monoamine in antidepressant response. We conclude with a synthesis of the most recent data surrounding the role of serotonin in activity and hippocampal neurogenesis. This synopsis sheds light on the mechanisms and potential therapeutic model by which serotonin plays a critical role in the maintenance of mood. PMID:25125239

  4. Snapshot of antidepressants at work: the structure of neurotransmitter transporter proteins.

    PubMed

    Cuboni, Serena; Hausch, Felix

    2014-05-12

    In the sweet spot: Cocrystal structures of engineered neurotransmitter transporters reveal the binding mode of commonly prescribed antidepressants, providing a basis for a rational drug design for this class of proteins. The picture shows the structure of the dopamine transporter of Drosophila melanogaster in complex with the antidepressant nortriptyline. PMID:24729171

  5. Changes in neurotransmitter receptor expression levels in rat brain after 4-week exposure to 1-bromopropane.

    PubMed

    Mohideen, Sahabudeen Sheik; Ichihara, Sahoko; Banu, Shameema; Liu, Fang; Kitoh, Junzoh; Ichihara, Gaku

    2009-11-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP), an alternative to ozone-depleting solvents, exhibits neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity in animals and humans. The present study investigated the effects of exposure to 1-BP on expression of neurotransmitter receptor genes in the rat brain to explore possible biomarkers for central neurotoxicity and find brain regions sensitive for microarray analysis. Thirty-six F344 rats were divided at random into four equal groups of nine and exposed to 1-BP at 0, 400, 800 and 1000 ppm for 8 h/day; 7 days/week for 4 weeks. Total RNA from different brain regions was extracted and real-time PCR was conducted to quantify the mRNA levels of serotonin, dopamine and GABA receptors. Western blot analysis for specific regions of interest was also carried out to determine the protein levels. The mRNAs of 5HTr2a, D2R and GABAa1 were down regulated in a 1-BP dose-dependent manner in the hippocampus. The mRNA levels of 5HTr1a, 5HTr2a, D1R and GABAa1 were significantly decreased in the cortex of rats exposed to 800 ppm, but not to 1000 ppm. The mRNAs of 5HTr1a and 5HTr3a in the pons-medulla were decreased in rats exposed to 400 ppm or higher concentrations. The mRNA expression of D2R in the hippocampus and 5HTr1a and 5HTr3a in the pons-medulla oblongata were the most sensitive indicators of 1-BP neurotoxicity. The results suggest that mRNA expression analysis is useful in identifying brain regions susceptible to 1-BP, as well as providing potential biomarkers for central nervous system toxicity. PMID:19576243

  6. Circulating serotonin in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Spurej, E

    2005-08-01

    The role of circulating serotonin is unclear and whether or not serotonin is present in the blood of non-mammalian species is not known. This study provides the first evidence for the presence of serotonin in thrombocytes of birds and three reptilian species, the endothermic leatherback sea turtle, the green sea turtle and the partially endothermic American alligator. Thrombocytes from a fresh water turtle, American bullfrog, Yellowfin tuna, and Chinook salmon did not contain serotonin. Serotonin is a vasoactive substance that regulates skin blood flow, a major mechanism for endothermic body temperature regulation, which could explain why circulating serotonin is present in warm-blooded species. The temperature sensitivity of human blood platelets with concomitant changes in serotonin content further supports a link between circulating serotonin and thermoregulation. Phylogenetic comparison of the presence of circulating serotonin indicated an evolutionary divergence within reptilian species that might coincide with the emergence of endothermy. PMID:16041566

  7. Common Drugs Inhibit Human Organic Cation Transporter 1 (OCT1)-Mediated Neurotransmitter Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Boxberger, Kelli H.; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The human organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) is a polyspecific transporter involved in the uptake of positively charged and neutral small molecules in the liver. To date, few endogenous compounds have been identified as OCT1 substrates; more importantly, the effect of drugs on endogenous substrate transport has not been examined. In this study, we established monoamine neurotransmitters as substrates for OCT1, specifically characterizing serotonin transport in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Kinetic analysis yielded a Km of 197 micomolar and a Vmax of 561 pmol/mg protein/minute for serotonin. Furthermore, we demonstrated that serotonin uptake was inhibited by diphenhydramine, fluoxetine, imatinib, and verapamil, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. These results were recapitulated in primary human hepatocytes, suggesting that OCT1 plays a significant role in hepatic elimination of serotonin and that xenobiotics may alter the elimination of endogenous compounds as a result of interactions at the transporter level. PMID:24688079

  8. Brain neurotransmitters in fatigue and overtraining.

    PubMed

    Meeusen, Romain; Watson, Philip; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Roelands, Bart; Piacentini, Maria F

    2007-10-01

    Since the publication of the serotonin hypothesis, numerous theories involving the accumulation or depletion of different substances in the brain have been proposed to explain central fatigue. Although the theoretical rationale for the "serotonin-fatigue hypothesis" is clear, several seemingly well-conducted studies have failed to support a significant role for 5-hydroxytryptamine in the development of fatigue. As brain function appears to be dependent upon the interaction of a number of systems, it is unlikely that a single neurotransmitter system is responsible for central fatigue. Several other mechanisms are involved, with evidence supporting a role for the brain catecholamines. Fatigue is therefore probably an integrated phenomenon, with complex interaction among central and peripheral factors. When prolonged and excessive training happens, concurrent with other stressors and insufficient recovery, performance decrements can result in chronic maladaptations that can lead to the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The mechanism of the OTS could be difficult to examine in detail, perhaps because the stress caused by excessive training load, in combination with other stressors, might trigger different "defence mechanisms" such as the immunological, neuroendocrine, and other physiological systems that all interact and probably therefore cannot be pinpointed as the "sole" cause of the OTS. It might be that, as in other syndromes, the psychoneuroimmunology (study of brain-behavior-immune interrelationships) might shed a light on the possible mechanisms of the OTS, but until there is a definite diagnostic tool, it is of utmost importance to standardize measures that are now thought to provide a good inventory of the training status of the athlete. It is very important to emphasize the need to distinguish the OTS from overreaching and other potential causes of temporary underperformance such as anemia, acute infection, muscle damage, and insufficient carbohydrate intake. PMID:18059610

  9. Harmane: an atypical neurotransmitter?

    PubMed

    Abu Ghazaleh, Haya; Lalies, Maggie D; Nutt, David J; Hudson, Alan L

    2015-03-17

    Harmane is an active component of clonidine displacing substance and a candidate endogenous ligand for imidazoline binding sites. The neurochemistry of tritiated harmane was investigated in the present study examining its uptake and release properties in the rat brain central nervous system (CNS) in vitro. At physiological temperature, [(3)H]harmane was shown to be taken up in rat brain cortex. Further investigations demonstrated that treatment with monoamine uptake blockers (citalopram, nomifensine and nisoxetine) did not alter [(3)H]harmane uptake implicating that the route of [(3)H]harmane transport was distinct from the monoamine uptake systems. Furthermore, imidazoline ligands (rilmenidine, efaroxan, 2-BFI and idazoxan) showed no prominent effect on [(3)H]harmane uptake suggesting the lack of involvement of imidazoline binding sites. Subsequent analyses showed that disruption of the Na(+) gradient using ouabain or choline chloride did not block [(3)H]harmane uptake suggesting a Na(+)-independent transport mechanism. Moreover, higher temperatures (50°C) failed to impede [(3)H]harmane uptake implying a non-physiological transporter. The failure of potassium to evoke the release of preloaded [(3)H]harmane from rat brain cortex indicates that the properties of this putative endogenous ligand for imidazoline binding sites do not resemble that of a conventional neurotransmitter. PMID:25625221

  10. Increased excitability in serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus in the 6-OHDA mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Alexander; Selesnew, Lisa-Marie; Liss, Birgit; Roeper, Jochen; Carlsson, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    The serotonin system has recently been demonstrated to have an important role in Parkinson's disease, in particular in response to L-DOPA treatment. It has been shown that central serotonin neurons convert peripherally administered L-DOPA to dopamine. Striatal dopamine release by these serotonin neurons is believed to be a main player in the induction of the troublesome L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias, which develops in patients within 5-10 years after the use of the drug. Electrophysiological characterization of midbrain dopamine neurons and dorsal raphe nucleus serotonin neurons has further revealed close interaction between these two cells groups. These data indicate that the loss of dopamine neurons and fibers alone and following L-DOPA treatment might change the electrophysiological properties of the serotonin neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Although in vivo data have indicated changes in firing properties following dopamine depletion by 6-OHDA, the data have been conflicting. We therefore investigated the electrophysiological properties of serotonin neurons following dopamine degeneration and L-DOPA treatment in the 6-OHDA-lesion mouse model of Parkinson's disease using in vitro patch clamp technique in acute slices. We found that 6-OHDA lesions alone significantly increased spontaneous and maximal firing discharges of serotonin neurons, which were accompanied by respective changes in the action potential waveforms. L-DOPA treatment did not reverse this increase in spontaneous frequency, but partially normalized AP properties. Our data demonstrate that the intrinsic excitability of serotonin neurons is altered in response to both dopamine degeneration as well as subsequent L-DOPA treatment. This lesion- and treatment-induced plasticity of the serotonin might contribute to its role in L-DOPA induced dyskinesia. PMID:23810738

  11. Neurotransmitter transporters: structure meets function

    PubMed Central

    Focke, Paul; Wang, Xiaoyu; Larsson, H. Peter

    2013-01-01

    Summary At synapses, sodium-coupled transporters remove released neurotransmitters, thereby recycling them and maintaining a low extracellular concentration of the neurotransmitter. The molecular mechanism underlying sodium-coupled neurotransmitter uptake is not completely understood. Several structures of homologues of human neurotransmitter transporters have been solved with X-ray crystallography. These crystal structures have spurred a plethora of computational and experimental work to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying sodium-coupled transport. Here, we compare the structures of GltPh, a glutamate transporter homologue, and LeuT, a homologue of neurotransmitter transporters for the biogenic amines and inhibitory molecules GABA and glycine. We relate these structures to data obtained from experiments and computational simulations, to draw conclusions about the mechanism of uptake by sodium-coupled neurotransmitter transporters. We here propose how sodium and substrate binding is coupled and how binding of sodium and substrate opens and closes the gates in these transporters, thereby leading to an efficient coupled transport. PMID:23664361

  12. New Concepts Receptor Desensitization by Neurotransmitters in Membranes: Are

    E-print Network

    Cantor, Robert S.

    New Concepts Receptor Desensitization by Neurotransmitters in Membranes: Are Neurotransmitters of a neurotransmitter to its receptor that results in activation, the neurotransmitter also acts indirectly is nonspecific: each neurotransmitter will, in principle, affect all receptors in the membrane. For proteins

  13. Unusual reactivity of ?-hydroxy-serotonin, a forgotten serotonin derivative.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Takaaki; Salinger, Jeremy; Hida, Koichi; Takai, Katsuji; Nakamaru-Ogiso, Eiko

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a well-known biogenic amine which regulates mood, sleep, and is involved in muscle contraction and blood coagulation. Based on an analogy to norepinephrine, a ?-hydroxylated derivative of dopamine which has diverse physiological functions, beta-hydroxy-serotonin (?-OH-5-HT) originally encouraged interest as a potential pharmacological agent. Four decades ago, its organic synthesis was attempted. However, due to difficulties with the synthesis and the compound's instability, rigorous identification and characterization of ?-OH-5-HT proved evasive. Here, we successfully synthesized ?-OH-5-HT from 5-HT using a Pseudomonas enzyme, tryptophan side chain oxidase type I (TSOI), and we determined the structure by 2D-NMR and characterized ?-OH-5-HT in detail. The CD spectra showed no optical activity, suggesting a racemic mixture. To separate DL-?-OH-5-HT, we synthesized L-Ala-5-HT and derivatized it into erythro- and threo-L-Ala-?-OH-5-HT with TSOI. Interestingly, both isolated fractions returned to a diastereoisomeric mixture within two hours at pH 5.0. Later, we found that, under acidic conditions, ?-OH-5-HT readily reacted with nucleophiles like alcohols or thiols, yielding a variety of DL-?-substituted-5-HT. The unusual properties of ?-OH-5-HT might be attributed to the unique nature of a ?-hydroxyl group adjacent to an indole ring and amino group. The mechanism for the rapid racemization of ?-OH-5-HT is discussed. PMID:25348598

  14. A Preliminary Study of Gene Polymorphisms Involved in the Neurotransmitters Metabolism of a Homogeneous Spanish Autistic Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calahorro, Fernando; Alejandre, Encarna; Anaya, Nuria; Guijarro, Teresa; Sanz, Yolanza; Romero, Auxiliadora; Tienda, Pilar; Burgos, Rafael; Gay, Eudoxia; Sanchez, Vicente; Ruiz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Twin studies have shown a strong genetic component for autism. Neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and catecholamines, have been suggested to play a role in the disease since they have an essential function in synaptogenesis and brain development. In this preliminary study, polymorphism of genes implicated in the serotonergic and dopaminergic…

  15. The Cytoplasmic Permeation Pathway of Neurotransmitter Transporters†

    PubMed Central

    Rudnick, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Ion-coupled solute transporters are responsible for transporting nutrients, ions and signaling molecules across a variety of biological membranes. Recent high-resolution crystal structures of several transporters from protein families that were previously thought to be unrelated show common structural features indicating a large structural family representing transporters from all kingdoms of life. This review describes studies that led to an understanding of the conformational changes required for solute transport in this family. The first structure in this family showed the bacterial amino acid transporter LeuT, which is homologous to neurotransmitter transporters, in an extracellularly-oriented conformation with a molecule of leucine occluded at the substrate site. Studies with the mammalian serotonin transporter identified positions, buried in the LeuT structure, that defined a potential pathway leading from the cytoplasm to the substrate binding site. Modeling studies utilized an inverted structural repeat within the LeuT crystal structure to predict the conformation of LeuT in which the cytoplasmic permeation pathway, consisting of positions identified in SERT, was open for substrate diffusion to the cytoplasm. From the difference between the model and the crystal structures, a simple “rocking bundle” mechanism was proposed, in which a 4-helix bundle changed its orientation with respect to the rest of the protein to close the extracellular pathway and open the cytoplasmic one. Subsequent crystal structures from structurally related proteins provide evidence supporting this model for transport. PMID:21774491

  16. Serotonin-transporter mediated efflux: A pharmacological analysis of amphetamines and non-amphetamines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Birgit Hilber; Petra Scholze; Mario M. Dorostkar; Walter Sandtner; Marion Holy; Stefan Boehm; Ernst A. Singer; Harald H. Sitte

    2005-01-01

    The physiological function of neurotransmitter transporter proteins like the serotonin transporter (SERT) is reuptake of neurotransmitter that terminates synaptic serotoninergic transmission. SERT can operate in reverse direction and be induced by SERT substrates including 5-HT, tyramine and the positively charged methyl-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), as well as the amphetamine derivatives para-chloroamphetamine (pCA) and methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA). These substrates also induce inwardly directed sodium

  17. Human genetics of plasma dopamine ß-hydroxylase activity: applications to research in psychiatry and neurology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. Cubells; C. P. Zabetian

    2004-01-01

    Rationale Norepinephrine (NE) is a key neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Dopamine ?-hydroxylase (D?H) catalyzes the synthesis of NE from dopamine (DA) and occurs in the plasma as a stable heritable trait. Studies of this trait have been useful in psychiatric and neurological research. Objective To selectively and critically review the literature on plasma D?H, and on

  18. Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids induce sex-specific changes in reinforcer-controlled behaviour and neurotransmitter metabolism in a spontaneously hypertensive rat model of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous reports suggest that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplements may reduce ADHD-like behaviour. Our aim was to investigate potential effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation in an animal model of ADHD. Methods We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR dams were given n-3 PUFA (EPA and DHA)-enriched feed (n-6/n-3 of 1:2.7) during pregnancy, with their offspring continuing on this diet until sacrificed. The SHR controls and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control rats were given control-feed (n-6/n-3 of 7:1). During postnatal days (PND) 25–50, offspring were tested for reinforcement-dependent attention, impulsivity and hyperactivity as well as spontaneous locomotion. The animals were then sacrificed at PND 55–60 and their neostriata were analysed for monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters with high performance liquid chromatography. Results n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly enhanced reinforcement-controlled attention and reduced lever-directed hyperactivity and impulsiveness in SHR males whereas the opposite or no effects were observed in females. Analysis of neostriata from the same animals showed significantly enhanced dopamine and serotonin turnover ratios in the male SHRs, whereas female SHRs showed no change, except for an intermediate increase in serotonin catabolism. In contrast, both male and female SHRs showed n-3 PUFA-induced reduction in non-reinforced spontaneous locomotion, and sex-independent changes in glycine levels and glutamate turnover. Conclusions Feeding n-3 PUFAs to the ADHD model rats induced sex-specific changes in reinforcement-motivated behaviour and a sex-independent change in non-reinforcement-associated behaviour, which correlated with changes in presynaptic striatal monoamine and amino acid signalling, respectively. Thus, dietary n-3 PUFAs may partly ameliorate ADHD-like behaviour by reinforcement-induced mechanisms in males and partly via reinforcement-insensitive mechanisms in both sexes. PMID:23228189

  19. Neurotransmitter detection using corona phase molecular recognition on fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotube sensors.

    PubMed

    Kruss, Sebastian; Landry, Markita P; Vander Ende, Emma; Lima, Barbara M A; Reuel, Nigel F; Zhang, Jingqing; Nelson, Justin; Mu, Bin; Hilmer, Andrew; Strano, Michael

    2014-01-15

    Temporal and spatial changes in neurotransmitter concentrations are central to information processing in neural networks. Therefore, biosensors for neurotransmitters are essential tools for neuroscience. In this work, we applied a new technique, corona phase molecular recognition (CoPhMoRe), to identify adsorbed polymer phases on fluorescent single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that allow for the selective detection of specific neurotransmitters, including dopamine. We functionalized and suspended SWCNTs with a library of different polymers (n = 30) containing phospholipids, nucleic acids, and amphiphilic polymers to study how neurotransmitters modulate the resulting band gap, near-infrared (nIR) fluorescence of the SWCNT. We identified several corona phases that enable the selective detection of neurotransmitters. Catecholamines such as dopamine increased the fluorescence of specific single-stranded DNA- and RNA-wrapped SWCNTs by 58-80% upon addition of 100 ?M dopamine depending on the SWCNT chirality (n,m). In solution, the limit of detection was 11 nM [K(d) = 433 nM for (GT)15 DNA-wrapped SWCNTs]. Mechanistic studies revealed that this turn-on response is due to an increase in fluorescence quantum yield and not covalent modification of the SWCNT or scavenging of reactive oxygen species. When immobilized on a surface, the fluorescence intensity of a single DNA- or RNA-wrapped SWCNT is enhanced by a factor of up to 5.39 ± 1.44, whereby fluorescence signals are reversible. Our findings indicate that certain DNA/RNA coronae act as conformational switches on SWCNTs, which reversibly modulate the SWCNT fluorescence. These findings suggest that our polymer-SWCNT constructs can act as fluorescent neurotransmitter sensors in the tissue-compatible nIR optical window, which may find applications in neuroscience. PMID:24354436

  20. Serotonin and Mental Disorders: A Concise Review on Molecular Neuroimaging Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin is one of the most important neurotransmitters influencing mental health and, thus, is a potential target for pharmaco-logical treatments. Functional neuroimaging techniques, such as positron-emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), could provide persuasive evidence for the association between mental disorders and serotonin. In this concise review, we focus on evidence of the links between serotonin and major depressive disorders, as well as other mood disorders, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, addiction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism. PMID:25598822

  1. Near-infrared surface-enhanced Raman scattering (NIR-SERS) of neurotransmitters in colloidal silver solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Kneipp; Yang Wang; Ramachandra R. Dasari; Michael S. Feld

    1995-01-01

    NIR-SERS spectra are measured for the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine at concentrations as low as 5 × 10?9 M in colloidal silver solutions with accumulation times as short as 25 ms. The detection range and acquisition time are on the order of physiologically relevant concentrations and the time scale of neuronal processes, respectively. The spectra are obtained using a CCD

  2. Divergent effects of norepinephrine, dopamine and substance P on the activation, differentiation and effector functions of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carina Strell; Anne Sievers; Philipp Bastian; Kerstin Lang; Bernd Niggemann; Kurt S Zänker; Frank Entschladen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurotransmitters are important regulators of the immune system, with very distinct and varying effects on different leukocyte subsets. So far little is known about the impact of signals mediated by neurotransmitters on the function of CD8+ T lymphocytes. Therefore, we investigated the influence of norepinephrine, dopamine and substance P on the key tasks of CD8+ T lymphocytes: activation, migration,

  3. (/sup 3/H)Spiroxatrine labels a serotonin/sub 1A/-like site in the rat hippocampus

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, D.L.; Monroe, P.J.; Lambert, G.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-09-28

    (/sup 3/H)Spiroxatrine was examined as a potential ligand for the labeling of 5-HT/sub 1A/ sites in the rat hippocampus. Analysis o the binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine in the absence and presence of varying concentrations of three monoamine neurotransmitters revealed that serotonin (5-HT) had high affinity for the (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine binding sites, consistent with the labeling of 5-HT/sub 1/ sites, while dopamine and norepinephrine had very low affinity. Saturation studies of the binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine revealed a single population of sites with a K/sub d/ = 2.21 nM. Further pharmacologic characterization with the 5-HT/sub 1A/ ligands 8-hydroxy-2-(di-ni-propylamino)tetralin, ipsapirone, and WB4101 and the butyrophenone compounds spiperone and haloperidol gave results that were consistent with (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine labeling 5-HT/sub 1A/ sites. This ligand produced stable, reproducible binding with a good ratio of specific to nonspecific binding. The binding of (/sup 3/H)spiroxatrine was sensitive to GTP, suggesting that this ligand may act as an agonist. 21 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  4. DOPAMINE ELICITS FEEDING MOTOR PROGRAM IN LIlMAx MAXIMUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVEN J. WIELAND; ALAN GELPERIN

    A neural system within the cerebral and buccal ganglia of the terrestrial mollusc Limax maximus responds to lip chemostimulation by emitting a feeding motor program (FMP) in uiuo and in uitro. We have analyzed chemically the cerebral and buccal ganglia of Limax for neurotransmitters involved in controlling expression of FMP. Dopamine was found in clusters of cells and in the

  5. Dendritic release of dopamine in the substantia nigra

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cheramy; V. Leviel; J. Glowinski

    1981-01-01

    Dopamine can be released in the substantia nigra from the dendrites of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurones, to be involved there in the self-regulation of the dopaminergic cells, to control the release of neurotransmitters from nigral afferent fibres and to influence the activity of nigral non-dopaminergic cells.

  6. Larvae of small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, express a novel serotonin receptor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter in vertebrates and invertebrates. It acts in regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioral processes through G protein-coupled receptors. Insects express five 5-HT receptor subtypes that share high simila...

  7. Thyroid hormones, serotonin and mood: of synergy and significance in the adult brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Bauer; A Heinz; P C Whybrow

    2002-01-01

    The use of thyroid hormones as an effective adjunct treatment for affective disorders has been studied over the past three decades and has been confirmed repeatedly. Interaction of the thyroid and monoamine neurotransmitter systems has been suggested as a potential underlying mechanism of action. While catecholamine and thyroid interrelationships have been reviewed in detail, the serotonin system has been relatively

  8. Neurotransmitter Control of Neocortical Neuronal Activity and

    E-print Network

    Huguenard, John R.

    Neurotransmitter Control of Neocortical Neuronal Activity and Excitability David A. McCormick,1 and extracort- ical neurotransmitter systems. Neuronal activity and synaptic processing in the ce- rebral cortex are critically dependent upon the ac- tions of neurotransmitters not only for the rapid com- munication between

  9. Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Rapid neurotransmitter uncaging in spatially defined patterns Shy Shoham1,2,4,5, Daniel H O'Connor1 neurotransmitter in brain slices we can generate precise, complex activity patterns for dendritic integration in the form of photochemical release of caged neurotransmitters and second messengers3,4. In optical uncaging

  10. Surface state of the dopamine RNA aptamer affects specific recognition and binding of dopamine by the aptamer-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Martos, Isabel; Campos, Rui; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2015-06-21

    Specific monitoring of dopamine, in the presence of structurally related neurotransmitters, is critical for diagnosis, treatment and mechanistic understanding of a variety of human neuropathologies, but nevertheless the proper tools are scarce. Recently, an electrochemical aptasensor for specific analysis of dopamine, exploiting dopamine biorecognition by the RNA aptamer electrostatically adsorbed onto a cysteamine-modified electrode, has been reported (Analytical Chemistry85 (2013) 121). However it was not clear which way dopamine biorecognition and binding by such aptamer layers proceed and if they can be improved. Here, we show that the aptamer surface state, in particular the aptamer surface density, in a bell-shaped manner affects the dopamine binding, being maximal for the 3.5 ± 0.3 pmol cm(-2) monolayer coverage of the aptamer molecules lying flat on the surface. Therewith, the aptamer affinity for dopamine increases one order of magnitude due to electrostatically regulated immobilization, with the aptamer-dopamine dissociation constant of 0.12 ± 0.01 ?M versus 1.6 ± 0.17 ?M shown in solution. Under optimal conditions, 0.1-2 ?M dopamine was specifically and 85.4 nA ?M(-1) cm(-2) sensitively detected, with no interference from structurally related catecholamines. The results allow improvement of the robustness of dopamine monitoring by aptamer-modified electrodes in biological systems, within the 0.01-1 ?M dopamine fluctuation range. PMID:25882962

  11. Daily Dose effect of Valerian root extract on some Neurotransmitter contents in different Brain areas of male Albino Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abeer M. Waggas

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the daily effect of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) root extract on epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) , dopamine (DA) , serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) , and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in different brain areas (cerebellum , pons plus medulla oblongata , striatum , cerebral cortex , hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus)

  12. Redox reactions of neurotransmitters possibly involved in the progression of Parkinson's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Linert; G. N. L. Jameson

    2000-01-01

    In Parkinson’s Disease the neuromelanin in the substania nigra is known to contain considerably increased amounts of iron suggesting the presence of free, unprotected iron ions during its formation. Iron(II) is known to interact with peroxide via Fenton’s reaction producing OH-radicals or ferryl (Fe(IV)) species. This can readily oxidize the neurotransmitter dopamine to the neurotoxic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) which is a

  13. Serotonin, Bananas, and Diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Connell, A. M.; Rowlands, E. N.; Wilcox, P. B.

    1960-01-01

    From previous studies on serotonin it seemed possible that it might play a major rôle in determining the rhythm of the bowel in man. This hypothesis was tested, with negative results, by observing the effect of giving bananas, a rich natural source of serotonin, to normal subjects and by measuring the excretion of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in patients with diarrhoea. PMID:13811537

  14. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  15. Biosensors for brain trauma and dual laser doppler flowmetry: enoxaparin simultaneously reduces stroke-induced dopamine and blood flow while enhancing serotonin and blood flow in motor neurons of brain, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Patricia A; Kolodny, Edwin H

    2011-01-01

    Neuromolecular Imaging (NMI) based on adsorptive electrochemistry, combined with Dual Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is presented herein to investigate the brain neurochemistry affected by enoxaparin (Lovenox(®)), an antiplatelet/antithrombotic medication for stroke victims. NMI with miniature biosensors enables neurotransmitter and neuropeptide (NT) imaging; each NT is imaged with a response time in milliseconds. A semiderivative electronic reduction circuit images several NT's selectively and separately within a response time of minutes. Spatial resolution of NMI biosensors is in the range of nanomicrons and electrochemically-induced current ranges are in pico- and nano-amperes. Simultaneously with NMI, the LDF technology presented herein operates on line by illuminating the living brain, in this example, in dorso-striatal neuroanatomic substrates via a laser sensor with low power laser light containing optical fiber light guides. NMI biotechnology with BRODERICK PROBE(®) biosensors has a distinct advantage over conventional electrochemical methodologies both in novelty of biosensor formulations and on-line imaging capabilities in the biosensor field. NMI with unique biocompatible biosensors precisely images NT in the body, blood and brain of animals and humans using characteristic experimentally derived half-wave potentials driven by oxidative electron transfer. Enoxaparin is a first line clinical treatment prescribed to halt the progression of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). In the present studies, BRODERICK PROBE(®) laurate biosensors and LDF laser sensors are placed in dorsal striatum (DStr) dopaminergic motor neurons in basal ganglia of brain in living animals; basal ganglia influence movement disorders such as those correlated with AIS. The purpose of these studies is to understand what is happening in brain neurochemistry and cerebral blood perfusion after causal AIS by middle cerebral artery occlusion in vivo as well as to understand consequent enoxaparin and reperfusion effects actually while enoxaparin is inhibiting blood clots to alleviate AIS symptomatology. This research is directly correlated with the medical and clinical needs of stroke victims. The data are clinically relevant, not only to movement dysfunction but also to the depressive mood that stroke patients often endure. These are the first studies to image brain neurotransmitters while any stroke medications, such as anti-platelet/anti-thrombotic and/or anti-glycoprotein are working in organ systems to alleviate the debilitating consequences of brain trauma and stroke/brain attacks. PMID:22346571

  16. Neurotransmitter Synthesis by Neuroblastoma Clones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takehiko Amano; Elliott Richelson; Marshall Nirenberg

    1972-01-01

    Neuroblastoma clones were examined for choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6), tyrosine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.3.a), acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7), and also for neurite formation. One clone does not form axons or dendrites. Three types of clones were found with respect to neurotransmitter synthesis: cholinergic, adrenergic, and clones that do not synthesize acetylcholine or catechols. All clones contain acetylcholinesterase. These results show that genes

  17. Interactions of ?9Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) with Hypothalamic Neurotransmitters Controlling Luteinizing Hormone and Prolactin Release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Steger; Louis DePaolo; Ricardo H. Asch; Andrew Y. Silverman

    1983-01-01

    The effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) turnover and hypothalamic serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and LHRH content preceding and during a progesterone- (P) induced LH and prolactin (PRL) surge were investigated in ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats. THC had no effect on basal LH levels, but it inhibited basal PRL levels and blocked the surges

  18. Gintonin, a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid receptor ligand, stimulates neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hwan; Choi, Sun-Hye; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Jung, Seok-Won; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Shin, Ho-Chul; Park, Hyun Jin; Park, Keun Hong; Lee, Myung Koo; Nah, Seung-Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Gintonin is a novel ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand. Gintonin elicits an intracellular calcium concentration [Ca(2+)]i transient via activation of LPA receptors and regulates calcium-dependent ion channels and receptors. [Ca(2+)]i elevation by neurotransmitters or depolarization is usually coupled to neurotransmitter release in neuronal cells. Little is known about whether gintonin-mediated [Ca(2+)]i transients are also coupled to neurotransmitter release. The PC12 cell line is derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla and is widely used as a model for catecholamine release. In the present study, we examined the effects of gintonin on dopamine release in PC12 cells. Application of gintonin to PC12 cells induced [Ca(2+)]i transients in concentration-dependent and reversible manners. However, ginsenoside Rg3, another active ingredient of ginseng, induced a lagged and irreversible [Ca(2+)]i increase. The induction of gintonin-mediated [Ca(2+)]i transients was attenuated or blocked by the LPA1/3 receptor antagonist Ki16425, a phospholipase C inhibitor, an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, and an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator. Repeated treatment with gintonin induced homologous desensitization of [Ca(2+)]i transients. Gintonin treatment in PC12 cells increased the release of dopamine in a concentration-dependent manner. Intraperitoneal administration of gintonin to mice also increased serum dopamine concentrations. The present study shows that gintonin-mediated [Ca(2+)]i transients are coupled to dopamine release via LPA receptor activation. Finally, gintonin-mediated [Ca(2+)]i transients and dopamine release via LPA receptor activation might explain one mechanism of gintonin-mediated inter-neuronal modulation in the nervous system. PMID:25445364

  19. Plasma HVA in Adults with Mental Retardation and Stereotyped Behavior: Biochemical Evidence for a Dopamine Deficiency Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of the neurotransmitter dopamine through measurement of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in adult subjects with mental retardation and with high rates of body stereotypy (n=12), compulsive behaviors (n=9), or neither (n=12) found lowest HVA concentrations in the stereotypy group and highest in the compulsive group. (DB)

  20. Biophysics of risk aversion based on neurotransmitter receptor theory

    E-print Network

    Takahashi, Taiki

    2011-01-01

    Decision under risk and uncertainty has been attracting attention in neuroeconomics and neuroendocrinology of decision-making. This paper demonstrated that the neurotransmitter receptor theory-based value (utility) function can account for human and animal risk-taking behavior. The theory predicts that (i) when dopaminergic neuronal response is efficiently coupled to the formation of ligand-receptor complex, subjects are risk-aversive (irrespective of their satisfaction level) and (ii) when the coupling is inefficient, subjects are risk-seeking at low satisfaction levels, consistent with risk-sensitive foraging theory in ecology. It is further suggested that some anomalies in decision under risk are due to inefficiency of the coupling between dopamine receptor activation and neuronal response. Future directions in the application of the model to studies in neuroeconomics of addiction and neuroendocrine modulation of risk-taking behavior are discussed.

  1. Visualizing neurotransmitter secretion at individual synapses.

    PubMed

    Sames, Dalibor; Dunn, Matthew; Karpowicz, Richard J; Sulzer, David

    2013-05-15

    To advance understanding of the brain, the ability to measure both nerve cell electrical spiking and chemical neurotransmission with high spatial resolution is required. In comparison to the development of voltage sensors and Ca(2+) indicator dyes over the past several decades, high resolution imaging of neurotransmitter (NT) release at single synapses has not been possible. In this Viewpoint, we discuss two recent developments toward this goal, namely, the design of fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFNs) and optical neurotransmitter sensors. PMID:23862751

  2. Chronic clozapine, but not haloperidol, alters the response of mesoprefrontal dopamine neurons to stress and clozapine challenges in rats.

    PubMed

    Morrow, B A; Rosenberg, S J; Roth, R H

    1999-10-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that serotonin-lesioned rats had an enhanced mesoprefrontal dopaminergic response to restraint stress. This study attempted to extend our knowledge regarding this serotonin/dopamine interaction by seeing if suppression of serotonin metabolism by chronic administration of the atypical antipsychotic, clozapine, would have similar effects. Both typical and atypical neuroleptics require chronic administration in humans before antipsychotic activity is seen. Rats treated for 21 days with clozapine or haloperidol, a typical antipsychotic without significant binding affinity for serotonergic receptors, showed lowered basal dopamine metabolism in the medial prefrontal cortex, the nucleus accumbens, and the striatum, as expected. Basal serotonin metabolism in the prefrontal cortex was also lowered by clozapine treatment, but not haloperidol. One of two challenges were given to chronically treated rats: 30 min of restraint stress or an acute challenge of clozapine. When corrected for baseline differences, both challenges significantly elevated dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex of the clozapine group more than the saline or haloperidol groups. No hyperresponsiveness was seen with serotonin metabolism in the prefrontal cortex or either dopamine or serotonin metabolism in the nucleus accumbens in clozapine-treated, challenged rats. Additionally, this augmentation of the dopaminergic stress response was not seen with a single, acute administration of clozapine. The significance of the clozapine-induced hyperresponsiveness of the mesoprefrontal dopamine system is discussed with regard to clinical efficacy of clozapine. PMID:10459169

  3. Metabolic sensing in brain dopamine systems.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Ivan E; Ren, Xueying; Ferreira, Jozélia G

    2010-01-01

    The gustatory system allows the brain to monitor the presence of chemicals in the oral cavity and initiate appropriate responses of acceptance or rejection. Among such chemicals are the nutrients that must be rapidly recognized and ingested for immediate oxidation or storage. In the periphery, the gustatory system consists of a highly efficient sensing mechanism, where distinct cell types express receptors that bind specifically to chemicals associated with one particular taste quality. These specialized receptors connect to the brain via dedicated pathways, the stimulation of which triggers stereotypic behavioral responses as well as neurotransmitter release in brain reward dopamine systems. However, evidence also exists in favor of the concept that the critical regulators of long-term nutrient choice are physiological processes taking place after ingestion and independently of gustation. We will appraise the hypothesis that organisms can develop preferences for nutrients independently of oral taste stimulation. Of particular interest are recent findings indicating that disrupting nutrient utilization interferes with activity in brain dopamine pathways. These findings establish the metabolic fate of nutrients as previously unanticipated reward signals that regulate the reinforcing value of foods. In particular, it suggests a role for brain dopamine reward systems as metabolic sensors, allowing for signals generated by the metabolic utilization of nutrients to regulate neurotransmitter release and food reinforcement. PMID:20865373

  4. Oxidative and stepwise grafting of dopamine inner-sphere redox couple onto electrode material: electron transfer activation of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Ghilane, Jalal; Hauquier, Fanny; Lacroix, Jean-Christophe

    2013-12-01

    The immobilization of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, onto macroelectrode and microelectrode surfaces has been performed following two strategies. The first consists of a one-step grafting based on electrochemical oxidation of an amino group in acidic media. The second is a stepwise process starting with electrochemical grafting of diazonium, leading to the attachment of aryl layer bearing an acidic headgroup, followed by chemical coupling leading to immobilized dopamine molecules onto the electrode surface. Electrochemical, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses evidence that both methods are suitable for the immobilization of dopamine onto millimetric and micronic electrodes. The electrochemical responses of modified electrodes demonstrate that the electroactivity of the attached dopamine layer appears unaffected by the nature of the spacer, alkyl or aryl layers, suggesting that the communication, through tunneling, between the attached dopamine and the electrode is possible. More interestingly, the dopamine-modified electrode exhibits electron transfer activation toward dopamine in solution. As a result, not only does the dopamine modified electrode yield a fast electron transfer with lower ?E(p) (30 mV) than the majority of pretreatment procedures but also the ?E(p) is as small as that observed for more complex surface treatments. PMID:24171668

  5. Molecular cloning of genomic DNA and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the enzyme for catecholamine and serotonin biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi-Ichinose, Chiho (Nagoya Univ. (Japan)); Ichinose, Hiroshi; Nagatsu, Toshiharu (Fujita Health Univ., Aichi (Japan)); Takahashi, Eiichi; Hori, Tadaaki (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-03-03

    Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of both L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and L-5-hydroxytryptophan to dopamine and serotonin, respectively, which are major mammalian neurotransmitters and hormones belonging to catecholamines and indoleamines. This report describes the organization of the human AADC gene. The authors proved that the gene of human AADC consists of 15 exons spanning more than 85 kilobases and exists as a single copy in the haploid genome. The boundaries between exon and intron followed the AG/GT rule. The sizes of exons and introns ranged from 20 to 400 bp and from 1.0 to 17.7 kb, respectively, while the sizes of four introns were not determined. Untranslated regions located in the 5{prime} region of mRNA were encoded by two exons, exons 1 and 2. The transcriptional starting point was determined around G at position {minus}111 by primer extension and S1 mapping. There were no typical TATA box' and CAAT box' within 540 bp from the transcriptional starting point. The human AADC gene was mapped to chromosome band 7p12.1-p12.3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. This is the first report on the genomic structure and chromosomal localization of the AADC gene in mammals.

  6. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays critical roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding. Neurons immunoreactive (IR)to 5-HT were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the larval and adult stages of the stab...

  7. Neurotransmitters in the CNS control of breathing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Bonham

    1995-01-01

    This review summarises our current understanding of the neurotransmitters involved in the generation, transmission and modulation of respiratory rhythm. The principal neurotransmitters involved in generating and transmitting respiratory rhythm include glutamate, GABA, and glycine. Glutamate acts primarily at non-NMDA receptors within the network to generate respiratory rhythm in neonatal in vitro preparations, but it may also engage NMDA receptors in

  8. Influence of Repeated Levodopa Administration on Rabbit Striatal Serotonin Metabolism, and Comparison Between Striatal and CSF Alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Loeffler; P. A. LeWitt; P. L. Juneau; D. M. Camp; A. J. DeMaggio; M. K. Havaich; P. E. Milbury; W. R. Matson

    1998-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by decreased striatal dopamine, but serotonin (5-HT) is also reduced. Because 5-HT\\u000a decreases following a single levodopa injection, levodopa has been suggested to contribute to PD's serotonergic deficits.\\u000a However, in a recent study, rat striatal serotonin levels were reported to increase following 15-day levodopa administration.\\u000a To address this issue, we administered levodopa (50 mg\\/kg) to

  9. Signaling Pathways Take Aim at Neurotransmitter Transporters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael B. Robinson (University of Pennsylvania; Departments of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia REV)

    2003-11-04

    Neurotransmitter transporters are the target of various pharmacological agents used to treat psychological or cognitive conditions, such as depression and attention-deficit disorder. In addition, some of the effects of stimulant-type drugs of abuse result from inhibition of neurotransmitter transporters. Robinson describes the intersection between neurotransmitter transporters and signaling pathways. Neurotransmitter transporters can be regulated by altering the rate of internalization and insertion into the plasma membrane to control cell surface expression or by altering the activity of the transporters within the membrane. As the mechanisms governing regulation of these transporters become elucidated, new potential therapeutic targets may be revealed, given the many processes affected by the activity of neurotransmitter transporters.

  10. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Open Access Kinetic analysis of [11

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for the degradation of different neurotransmitters and is implicated in several neurologic and psychiatric illnesses) is a mitochondrial enzyme re- sponsible for the degradation of several neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, serotonin

  11. Serotonin Could Play a Large Role in Bone Loss

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    APS Communications Office (American Physiological Society Communications Office)

    2012-02-21

    Press release - Scientists have long known that calcium leaches from the bones both during lactation and in certain types of cancer. The driver behind these phenomena is a molecule called parathyroid hormone related protein (PTHrP), which is secreted by the mammary glands. The signal that regulates the secretion of PTHrP, and where this other unknown molecule exerts its influence, has remained a mystery. Now, in a new study using cells and tissues from mice, cows, and people, a team of researchers at the University of Cincinnati have identified this mystery molecule as serotonin, a neurotransmitter most often recognized for its role in happiness and well-being. The scientists also identified the specific receptor that serotonin acts on in mammary tissue. Understanding these two findings more deeply could lead to better ways to combat bone loss, potentially by using drugs that affect serotonin signaling. The study is entitled Â?Mammary Gland Serotonin Regulates Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein and Other Bone-Related SignalsÂ?. It appears in the Articles in PresS section of the American Journal of Physiology Â? Endocrinology and Metabolism, published by the American Physiological Society (APS).

  12. Serotonin and Social Norms

    PubMed Central

    Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Brown, Gordon D. A.; Read, Judi; Woolrich, Mark; Cowen, Phillip J.; Behrens, Tim E. J.

    2014-01-01

    How do people sustain resources for the benefit of individuals and communities and avoid the tragedy of the commons, in which shared resources become exhausted? In the present study, we examined the role of serotonin activity and social norms in the management of depletable resources. Healthy adults, alongside social partners, completed a multiplayer resource-dilemma game in which they repeatedly harvested from a partially replenishable monetary resource. Dietary tryptophan depletion, leading to reduced serotonin activity, was associated with aggressive harvesting strategies and disrupted use of the social norms given by distributions of other players’ harvests. Tryptophan-depleted participants more frequently exhausted the resource completely and also accumulated fewer rewards than participants who were not tryptophan depleted. Our findings show that rank-based social comparisons are crucial to the management of depletable resources, and that serotonin mediates responses to social norms. PMID:24815611

  13. Dopamine precursor depletion improves punishment prediction during reversal learning in healthy females but not males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver J. Robinson; Holly R. Standing; Elise E. DeVito; Roshan Cools; Barbara J. Sahakian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  The neurotransmitter dopamine has frequently been implicated in reward processing but is also, increasingly, implicated in\\u000a punishment processing. We have previously shown that both patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy individuals with low\\u000a dopamine (DA) synthesis are better at reversal learning based on punishment than reward. Here, we extend these prior findings\\u000a by examining the effects of artificially reducing DA

  14. 5HT Modulation of Dopamine Release in Basal Ganglia in Psilocybin-Induced Psychosis in Man—A PET Study with [11C]raclopride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz X Vollenweider; Peter Vontobel; Daniel Hell; Klaus L Leenders

    1999-01-01

    The modulating effects of serotonin on dopamine neurotransmission are not well understood, particularly in acute psychotic states. Positron emission tomography was used to examine the effect of psilocybin on the in vivo binding of [11C]raclopride to D2-dopamine receptors in the striatum in healthy volunteers after placebo and a psychotomimetic dose of psilocybin (n = 7). Psilocybin is a potent indoleamine

  15. Distinct effects of the serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors milnacipran and venlafaxine on rat pineal monoamines.

    PubMed

    Muneoka, Katsumasa; Kuwagata, Makiko; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-06-17

    Monoamine systems are involved in the pathology and therapeutic mechanism of depression. The pineal gland contains large amounts of serotonin as a precursor for melatonin, and its activity is controlled by noradrenergic sympathetic nerves. Pineal diurnal activity and its release of melatonin are relevant to aberrant states observed in depression. We investigated the effects on pineal monoamines of serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, which are widely used antidepressants. Four days of milnacipran treatment led to an increase in noradrenaline and serotonin levels, whereas 4 days of venlafaxine treatment reduced 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels; both agents induced an increase in dopamine levels. Our data suggest that milnacipran increases levels of the precursor for melatonin synthesis by facilitating the noradrenergic regulation of pineal activity and that venlafaxine inhibits serotonin reuptake into noradrenergic terminals on the pineal gland. PMID:26016648

  16. Chronic desipramine and fluoxetine differentially affect extracellular dopamine in the rat prefrontal cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianluigi Tanda; Roberto Frau; Gaetano Di Chiara

    1996-01-01

    The effect of chronic administration of desipramine or fluoxetine (10 mg\\/kg IP once a day for 2 weeks) on extracellular noradrenaline,\\u000a serotonin and dopamine in the rat prefrontal cortex was studied by transcerebral microdialysis. Chronic desipramine increased\\u000a extracellular noradrenaline and dopamine by three-fold as compared to saline controls. Acute challenge with 10 mg\\/kg desipramine\\u000a increased by more than three-fold extracellular

  17. Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Satinder K; Yamashita, Atsuko; Gouaux, Eric

    2007-08-23

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 A above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational design of new inhibitors. PMID:17687333

  18. Antidepressant Binding Site in a Bacterial Homologue of Neurotransmitter Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    Singh,S.; Yamashita, A.; Gouaux, E.

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds, including diuretics, anticonvulsants and antidepressants, many of which have also become indispensable tools in biochemical experiments designed to probe antagonist binding sites and to elucidate transport mechanisms. Steady-state kinetic data have revealed that both competitive and noncompetitive modes of inhibition exist. Antagonist dissociation experiments on the serotonin transporter (SERT) have also unveiled the existence of a low-affinity allosteric site that slows the dissociation of inhibitors from a separate high-affinity site. Despite these strides, atomic-level insights into inhibitor action have remained elusive. Here we screen a panel of molecules for their ability to inhibit LeuT, a prokaryotic homologue of mammalian neurotransmitter sodium symporters, and show that the tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) clomipramine noncompetitively inhibits substrate uptake. Cocrystal structures show that clomipramine, along with two other TCAs, binds in an extracellular-facing vestibule about 11 {angstrom} above the substrate and two sodium ions, apparently stabilizing the extracellular gate in a closed conformation. Off-rate assays establish that clomipramine reduces the rate at which leucine dissociates from LeuT and reinforce our contention that this TCA inhibits LeuT by slowing substrate release. Our results represent a molecular view into noncompetitive inhibition of a sodium-coupled transporter and define principles for the rational design of new inhibitors.

  19. A neurobiological hypothesis of treatment-resistant depression - mechanisms for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor non-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Coplan, Jeremy D; Gopinath, Srinath; Abdallah, Chadi G; Berry, Benjamin R

    2014-01-01

    First-line treatment of major depression includes administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), yet studies suggest that remission rates following two trials of an SSRI are <50%. The authors examine the putative biological substrates underlying "treatment resistant depression (TRD)" with the goal of elucidating novel rationales to treat TRD. We look at relevant articles from the preclinical and clinical literature combined with clinical exposure to TRD patients. A major focus was to outline pathophysiological mechanisms whereby the serotonin system becomes impervious to the desired enhancement of serotonin neurotransmission by SSRIs. A complementary focus was to dissect neurotransmitter systems, which serve to inhibit the dorsal raphe. We propose, based on a body of translational studies, TRD may not represent a simple serotonin deficit state but rather an excess of midbrain peri-raphe serotonin and subsequent deficit at key fronto-limbic projection sites, with ultimate compromise in serotonin-mediated neuroplasticity. Glutamate, serotonin, noradrenaline, and histamine are activated by stress and exert an inhibitory effect on serotonin outflow, in part by "flooding" 5-HT1A autoreceptors by serotonin itself. Certain factors putatively exacerbate this scenario - presence of the short arm of the serotonin transporter gene, early-life adversity and comorbid bipolar disorder - each of which has been associated with SSRI-treatment resistance. By utilizing an incremental approach, we provide a system for treating the TRD patient based on a strategy of rescuing serotonin neurotransmission from a state of SSRI-induced dorsal raphe stasis. This calls for "stacked" interventions, with an SSRI base, targeting, if necessary, the glutamatergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and histaminergic systems, thereby successively eliminating the inhibitory effects each are capable of exerting on serotonin neurons. Future studies are recommended to test this biologically based approach for treatment of TRD. PMID:24904340

  20. A linear model for estimation of neurotransmitter response profiles from dynamic PET data

    PubMed Central

    Normandin, M.D.; Schiffer, W.K.; Morris, E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The parametric ntPET model (p-ntPET) estimates the kinetics of neurotransmitter release from dynamic PET data with receptor-ligand radiotracers. Here we introduce a linearization (lp-ntPET) that is computationally efficient and can be applied to single-scan data. lp-ntPET employs a non-invasive reference region input function and extends the LSRRM of Alpert et al. (2003) using basis functions to characterize the time course of neurotransmitter activation. In simulation studies, the temporal precision of neurotransmitter profiles estimated by lp-ntPET was similar to that of p-ntPET (standard deviation ~3 min for responses early in the scan) while computation time was reduced by several orders of magnitude. Violations of model assumptions such as activation-induced changes in regional blood flow or specific binding in the reference tissue have negligible effects on lp-ntPET performance. Application of the lp-ntPET method is demonstrated on [11C]raclopride data acquired in rats receiving methamphetamine, which yielded estimated response functions that were in good agreement with simultaneous microdialysis measurements of extracellular dopamine concentration. These results demonstrate that lp-ntPET is a computationally efficient, linear variant of ntPET that can be applied to PET data from single or multiple scan designs to estimate the time course of neurotransmitter activation. PMID:21767654

  1. Waterborne lead affects circadian variations of brain neurotransmitters in fathead minnows

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, R.E. [Nova Southeastern Univ., Dania, FL (United States); Russo, A.C. [California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States); Weber, D.N. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Lead is a potent neurotoxin affecting brain levels of a number of vertebrate neurotransmitters. Reports on these effects are, however, not consistent either among or within species. For example, with lead-intoxicated rats there are reports of decreased acetylcholine (ACh) release and decreased ACh brain levels as well as reports of increased levels or no change in levels. Also, with rats there are reports of increased levels, decreased levels, or no change in brain catecholamines, with lead producing similar changes in both norephinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in some cases and differences in response between the two in others. Although most early reports dealt with whole brain levels, reports on neurotransmitter levels in specific brain regions can be equally conflicting. Similar sorts of discrepancies exist among studies with fishes. Much of the variation among studies on lead effects on neurotransmitters is, no doubt, due to differences among the studies in variables such as: species, age, dosage and duration, route of administration. However, lead can apparently affect circadian locomotor rhythms of both rats and fishes. Therefore, another possible cause for the variation among studies is that there is an interaction among dosage, sampling time and endogenous rhythms. A lead-produced phase shift or disruption in endogenous neurotransmitter rhythms could in turn elicit a host of varying results and interpretations depending on the circadian time of sampling. We elected to examine this possibility in the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, a freshwater species widely used for toxicity studies. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Tyrosine 402 Phosphorylation of Pyk2 Is Involved in Ionomycin-Induced Neurotransmitter Release

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhao; Zhang, Yun; Mou, Zheng; Chu, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaoyu; He, Wenbin; Guo, Xiaofeng; Yuan, Yuhe; Takahashi, Masami; Chen, Naihong

    2014-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinases, which are highly expressed in the central nervous system, are implicated in many neural processes. However, the relationship between protein tyrosine kinases and neurotransmitter release remains unknown. In this study, we found that ionomycin, a Ca2+ ionophore, concurrently induced asynchronous neurotransmitter release and phosphorylation of a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2), in clonal rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and cerebellar granule cells, whereas introduction of Pyk2 siRNA dramatically suppressed ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release. Further study indicated that Tyr-402 (Y402) in Pyk2, instead of other tyrosine sites, underwent rapid phosphorylation after ionomycin induction in 1 min to 2 min. We demonstrated that the mutant of Pyk2 Y402 could abolish ionomycin-induced dopamine (DA) release by transfecting cells with recombinant Pyk2 and its mutants (Y402F, Y579F, Y580F, and Y881F). In addition, Src inhibition could prolong phosphorylation of Pyk2 Y402 and increase DA release. These findings suggested that Pyk2 was involved in ionomycin-induced neurotransmitter release through phosphorylation of Y402. PMID:24718602

  3. The physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2011-03-01

    G protein-coupled dopamine receptors (D1, D2, D3, D4, and D5) mediate all of the physiological functions of the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine, ranging from voluntary movement and reward to hormonal regulation and hypertension. Pharmacological agents targeting dopaminergic neurotransmission have been clinically used in the management of several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Huntington's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD(1)), and Tourette's syndrome. Numerous advances have occurred in understanding the general structural, biochemical, and functional properties of dopamine receptors that have led to the development of multiple pharmacologically active compounds that directly target dopamine receptors, such as antiparkinson drugs and antipsychotics. Recent progress in understanding the complex biology of dopamine receptor-related signal transduction mechanisms has revealed that, in addition to their primary action on cAMP-mediated signaling, dopamine receptors can act through diverse signaling mechanisms that involve alternative G protein coupling or through G protein-independent mechanisms via interactions with ion channels or proteins that are characteristically implicated in receptor desensitization, such as ?-arrestins. One of the future directions in managing dopamine-related pathologic conditions may involve a transition from the approaches that directly affect receptor function to a precise targeting of postreceptor intracellular signaling modalities either directly or through ligand-biased signaling pharmacology. In this comprehensive review, we discuss dopamine receptor classification, their basic structural and genetic organization, their distribution and functions in the brain and the periphery, and their regulation and signal transduction mechanisms. In addition, we discuss the abnormalities of dopamine receptor expression, function, and signaling that are documented in human disorders and the current pharmacology and emerging trends in the development of novel therapeutic agents that act at dopamine receptors and/or on related signaling events. PMID:21303898

  4. Intermolecular Association Provides Specific Optical and NMR Signatures for Serotonin at Intravesicular Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Suman; Balaji, J.; Madhu, P. K.; Maiti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Neurotransmitter vesicles contain biomolecules at extraordinarily high concentrations (hundreds of millimoles/liter). Such concentrations can drive intermolecular associations, which may affect vesicular osmolarity and neuronal signaling. Here we investigate whether aqueous serotonin (a monoamine neurotransmitter) forms oligomers at intravesicular concentrations and whether these oligomers have specific spectroscopic signatures that can potentially be used for monitoring neuronal storage and release. We report that, as serotonin concentration is increased from 60 ?M to 600 mM, the normalized fluorescence spectrum of serotonin displays a growing long-wavelength tail, with an isoemissive point at 376 nm. The fluorescence decay is monoexponential with a lifetime of 4 ns at low concentrations but is multiexponential with an average lifetime of 0.41 ns at 600 mM. A 600 mM serotonin solution has 30% less osmolarity than expected for monomeric serotonin, indicating oligomer formation. The proton NMR chemical shifts move upfield by as much as 0.3 ppm at 600 mM compared to those at 10 mM, indicating a stacking of the serotonin indole moieties. However, no intermolecular crosspeak is evident in the two-dimensional NMR rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy spectrum even at 600 mM, suggesting that oligomeric structures are possibly weakly coupled. The appearance of a single peak for each proton suggests that the rate of interconversion between the monomeric and the oligomeric structures is faster than 240 Hz. A stopped-flow kinetic experiment also confirms that the rate of dissociation is faster than 100 ms. We conclude that serotonin forms oligomers at intravesicular concentrations but becomes monomeric quickly on dilution. NMR signatures of the oligomers provide potential contrast agents for monitoring the activity of serotonergic neurons in vivo. PMID:18234835

  5. Acrylamide increases dopamine levels by affecting dopamine transport and metabolism related genes in the striatal dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoqi; Guo, Xiongxiong; Xiong, Fei; Cheng, Guihong; Lu, Qing; Yan, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Dopaminergic system dysfunction is proved to be a possible mechanism in acrylamide (ACR) -induced neurotoxicity. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) has an increasingly important role in the dopaminergic system. Thus, the goal of this study is to evaluate effects of ACR on dopamine and its metabolite levels, dopamine transport and metabolic gene expression in dopaminergic neurons. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were dosed orally with ACR at 0 (saline), 20, 30, and 40mg/kg/day for 20 days. Splayed hind limbs, reduced tail flick time and abnormal gait which preceded other neurologic parameters were observed in the above rats. ACR significantly increased dopamine levels, decreased 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanilic acid (HVA) contents in an area dependent manner in rat striatum. Immunohistochemical staining of the striatum revealed that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive cells significantly increased, while monoamine oxidase (MAO) positive cells were drastically reduced, which was consistent with changes in their mRNA and protein expressions. In addition, dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) expression levels were both down-regulated in the striatum. These results suggest that dopamine levels increase significantly in response to ACR, presumably due to changes in the dopamine transport and metabolism related genes expression in the striatal dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25943760

  6. Polymorphism C in the Serotonin Transporter Gene in Depression-Free Elderly Patients with Vascular Dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Seripa; Maria Giovanna Matera; Grazia D’Onofrio; Daniele Sancarlo; Alessandra Bizzarro; Leandro Cascavilla; Francesco Paris; Carolina Gravina; Loriana Bonghi; Cristiano Capurso; Vincenzo Solfrizzi; Antonio Daniele; Carlo Masullo; Francesco Panza; Alberto Pilotto

    2010-01-01

    Background: Genotypes of the solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter, serotonin) member 4 (SLC6A4) have been variously associated with depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, memory impairment, and anxiety. Less clear are data regarding their association with severe dementia, in particular with vascular dementia (VaD). Aims: To evaluate the possible involvement of different SLC6A4 genotypes\\/haplotypes in VaD. Methods: The analysis of the 3

  7. Serotonin and the sleep\\/wake cycle: special emphasis on microdialysis studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara M Portas; Bjørn Bjorvatn; Reidun Ursin

    2000-01-01

    Several areas in the brainstem and forebrain are important for the modulation and expression of the sleep\\/wake cycle. Even if the first observations of biochemical events in relation to sleep were made only 40years ago, it is now well established that several neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and neurohormones are involved in the modulation of the sleep\\/wake cycle.Serotonin has been known for many

  8. Visualisation of serotonin-1A (5HT 1A ) receptors in the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Passchier; Aren van Waarde

    2001-01-01

    The 5-HT1A subtype of receptors for the neurotransmitter serotonin is predominantly located in the limbic forebrain and is involved in the modulation of emotion and the function of the hypothalamus. Since 5-HT1A receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety, depression, hallucinogenic behaviour, motion sickness and eating disorders, they are an important target for drug therapy. Here, we review the

  9. Context-dependent fluctuation of serotonin in the auditory midbrain: the influence of sex, reproductive state and experience

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jessica L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of changing behavioral situations, plasticity of sensory systems can be a valuable mechanism to facilitate appropriate behavioral responses. In the auditory system, the neurotransmitter serotonin is an important messenger for context-dependent regulation because it is sensitive to both external events and internal state, and it modulates neural activity. In male mice, serotonin increases in the auditory midbrain region, the inferior colliculus (IC), in response to changes in behavioral context such as restriction stress and social contact. Female mice have not been measured in similar contexts, although the serotonergic system is sexually dimorphic in many ways. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sex, experience and estrous state on the fluctuation of serotonin in the IC across contexts, as well as potential relationships between behavior and serotonin. Contrary to our expectation, there were no sex differences in increases of serotonin in response to a restriction stimulus. Both sexes had larger increases in second exposures, suggesting experience plays a role in serotonergic release in the IC. In females, serotonin increased during both restriction and interactions with males; however, the increase was more rapid during restriction. There was no effect of female estrous phase on the serotonergic change for either context, but serotonin was related to behavioral activity in females interacting with males. These results show that changes in behavioral context induce increases in serotonin in the IC by a mechanism that appears to be uninfluenced by sex or estrous state, but may depend on experience and behavioral activity. PMID:24198252

  10. Presence, formation and putative biological activities of N-acyl serotonins, a novel class of fatty-acid derived mediators, in the intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; Voortman, Trudy; Balvers, Michiel G J; Hendriks, Henk F J; M Wortelboer, Heleen; Witkamp, Renger F

    2011-10-01

    Following the discovery of the endocannabinoid arachidonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide) and other N-acyl-ethanolamines, several other compounds have been found in which amino acids or neurotransmitters rather than ethanolamide are linked to fatty acids. Studies have shown that the local availability of fatty acid precursors, which in turn is modulated by dietary intake of lipids, determines the pattern of conjugates formed. Less information is available whether the same might be true for the amines or neurotransmitters involved. We hypothesized that N-arachidonoyl-serotonin (AA-5-HT) and its analogs could be endogenously present in those tissues that have high contents of serotonin. We investigated the endogenous presence of N-acyl serotonins in different parts of the gastro-intestinal tract of pigs and mice. We discovered that AA-5-HT, oleoyl-serotonin, palmitoyl-serotonin, and stearoyl-serotonin were endogenously present, particularly in the jejunum and ileum. Their formation in vitro was stimulated by the addition of serotonin to intestinal tissue incubations. Furthermore, in a mouse study we showed that the pattern of formation is dependent on the relative amount of fatty acids in the diet. The formation of docosahexaenoyl-serotonin and eicosapentaenoyl-serotonin was elevated in mice fed with a diet containing fish oil. Preliminary data showed that several of the serotonin conjugates are able to inhibit glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and FAAH activity in vitro. Taken together, our data suggest that N-acyl serotonins are a novel class of lipid mediators present in the gut with highly promising biological properties. PMID:21798367

  11. Disease-specific expression of the serotonin-receptor 5-HT(2C) in natural killer cells in Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Martins, Luiza Conceição Amorim; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Torres, Karen Cecília Lima; Dos Santos, Rodrigo Ribeiro; França, Giselle Sabrina; de Moraes, Edgar Nunes; Mukhamedyarov, Marat Alexandrovich; Zefirov, Andrey Lvovich; Rizvanov, Albert Anatolyevich; Kiyasov, Andrey Pavlovich; Vieira, Luciene Bruno; Guimarães, Melissa Monteiro; Yalvaç, Mehmet Emir; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Bicalho, Maria Aparecida Camargo; Janka, Zoltán; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio; Palotás, András; Reis, Helton José

    2012-10-15

    Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is a degenerative brain disorder characterized mainly by cholinergic failure, but other neuro-transmitters are also deficient especially at late stages of the disease. Misfolded ?-amyloid peptide has been identified as a causative agent, however inflammatory changes also play a pivotal role. Even though the most prominent pathology is seen in the cognitive functions, specific abnormalities of the central nervous system (CNS) are also reflected in the periphery, particularly in the immune responses of the body. The aim of this study was to characterize the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in AD, which are also markedly disrupted along with the hallmark acetyl-choline dysfunction. Peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) from demented patients were judged against comparison groups including individuals with late-onset depression (LOD), as well as non-demented and non-depressed subjects. Cellular sub-populations were evaluated by mono-clonal antibodies against various cell surface receptors: CD4/CD8 (T-lymphocytes), CD19 (B-lymphocytes), CD14 (monocytes), and CD56 (natural-killer (NK)-cells). The expressions of dopamine D(3) and D(4), as well as serotonin 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) were also assessed. There were no significant differences among the study groups with respect to the frequency of the cellular sub-types, however a unique profound increase in 5-HT(2C) receptor exclusively in NK-cells was observed in AD. The disease-specific expression of 5-HT(2C), as well as the NK-cell cyto-toxicity, has been linked with cognitive derangement in dementia. These changes not only corroborate the existence of bi-directional communication between the immune system and the CNS, but also elucidate the role of inflammatory activity in AD pathology, and may serve as potential biomarkers for less invasive and early diagnostic purposes as well. PMID:22766135

  12. Identification of coffee components that stimulate dopamine release from pheochromocytoma cells (PC12)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Walker; B. Rohm; R. Lang; M. W. Pariza; T. Hofmann; V. Somoza

    Coffee and caffeine are known to affect the limbic system, but data on the influence of coffee and coffee constituents on neurotransmitter release is limited. We investigated dopamine release and Ca2+-mobilization in pheochromocytoma cells (PC-12 cells) after stimulation with two lyophilized coffee beverages prepared from either Coffea arabica (AR) or Coffea canephora var. robusta (RB) beans and constituents thereof. Both

  13. Defining the dopamine transporter proteome by convergent biochemical and in silico analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Maiya; I. Ponomarev; K. D. Linse; R. A. Harris; R. D. Mayfield

    2006-01-01

    Monoamine transporters play a key role in neuronal signaling by mediating reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synapse. The function of the dopamine trans- porter (DAT), an important member of this family of transporters, is regulated by multiple signaling mechan- isms, which result in altered cell surface trafficking of DAT. Protein-protein interactions are likely critical for this mode of transporter regulation.

  14. Evaluation of hydrogenated physically small carbon electrodes in resisting fouling during voltammetric detection of dopamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subbiah Alwarappan; K. Scott A. Butcher; Danny K. Y. Wong

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a hydrogenated film deposited on physically small carbon cylinder electrodes was used to minimise electrode fouling that is commonly encountered during electrochemical detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine in vivo. Electrode fouling generally arises from the inhibition of electron transfer reactions on an electrode surface covered by hydrophilic surface active agents including proteins, peptides and lipids present in

  15. Low Extracellular Dopamine Levels Are Maintained in the Anoxic Turtle (Trachemys scripta) Striatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah L. Milton; Peter L. Lutz

    1998-01-01

    The uncontrolled increase of extracellular dopamine (DA) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypoxic\\/ischemic damage in the mammalian brain. But unlike the harmful release of excitatory neurotransmitters such as glutamate and aspartate, which occurs on brain depolarization, excessive extracellular DA levels occur even with mild hypoxia in the mammalian brain. The purpose of this study was to determine whether

  16. Blink Rate in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome: Preliminary Evidence for Altered Dopamine Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, J. E.; Symons, F. J.; Johnson, A.-M.; Hatton, D. D.; Boccia, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in motor and cognitive functioning, can be non-invasively measured via observation of spontaneous blink rates. Blink rates have been studied in a number of clinical conditions including schizophrenia, autism, Parkinsons, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder with results implicating either…

  17. Effect of manganese treatment on the levels of neurotransmitters, hormones, and neuropeptides: modulation by stress

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.S.; Jung, C.R.; Seth, P.K.; Mason, G.; Bondy, S.C.

    1984-08-01

    Six weeks of daily intraperitoneal injection with manganese chloride (15 mg/kg body wt) reduced the normal weight gain of male Fischer-344 rats. This treatment depressed plasma testosterone and corticosterone levels, but prolactin levels were unaffected. The only significant changes in the levels of a variety of neuropeptides assayed in several regions were increases in the levels of hypothalamic substance P and pituitary neurotensin. Striatal serotonin, dopamine, and their metabolites were unchanged in manganese-exposed rats relative to saline-injected controls. However, the stress of injection combined with the effect of manganese appeared to significantly increase concentrations of striatal monoamines relative to uninjected controls.

  18. Serotonin selectively influences moral judgment and behavior through effects on harm aversion

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Molly J.; Clark, Luke; Hauser, Marc D.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2010-01-01

    Aversive emotional reactions to real or imagined social harms infuse moral judgment and motivate prosocial behavior. Here, we show that the neurotransmitter serotonin directly alters both moral judgment and behavior through increasing subjects’ aversion to personally harming others. We enhanced serotonin in healthy volunteers with citalopram (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and contrasted its effects with both a pharmacological control treatment and a placebo on tests of moral judgment and behavior. We measured the drugs' effects on moral judgment in a set of moral 'dilemmas' pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person). Enhancing serotonin made subjects more likely to judge harmful actions as forbidden, but only in cases where harms were emotionally salient. This harm-avoidant bias after citalopram was also evident in behavior during the ultimatum game, in which subjects decide to accept or reject fair or unfair monetary offers from another player. Rejecting unfair offers enforces a fairness norm but also harms the other player financially. Enhancing serotonin made subjects less likely to reject unfair offers. Furthermore, the prosocial effects of citalopram varied as a function of trait empathy. Individuals high in trait empathy showed stronger effects of citalopram on moral judgment and behavior than individuals low in trait empathy. Together, these findings provide unique evidence that serotonin could promote prosocial behavior by enhancing harm aversion, a prosocial sentiment that directly affects both moral judgment and moral behavior. PMID:20876101

  19. Pharmacological and signalling properties of a D2-like dopamine receptor (Dop3) in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, Heleen; Vleugels, Rut; Verdonck, Rik; Urlacher, Elodie; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Mercer, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and invertebrates. Despite their evolutionary distance, striking parallels exist between deuterostomian and protostomian dopaminergic systems. In both, signalling is achieved via a complement of functionally distinct dopamine receptors. In this study, we investigated the sequence, pharmacology and tissue distribution of a D2-like dopamine receptor from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (TricaDop3) and compared it with related G protein-coupled receptors in other invertebrate species. The TricaDop3 receptor-encoding cDNA shows considerable sequence similarity with members of the Dop3 receptor class. Real time qRT-PCR showed high expression in both the central brain and the optic lobes, consistent with the role of dopamine as neurotransmitter. Activation of TricaDop3 expressed in mammalian cells increased intracellular Ca(2+) signalling and decreased NKH-477 (a forskolin analogue)-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in a dose-dependent manner. We studied the pharmacological profile of the TricaDop3 receptor and demonstrated that the synthetic vertebrate dopamine receptor agonists, 2 - amino- 6,7 - dihydroxy - 1,2,3,4 - tetrahydronaphthalene hydrobromide (6,7-ADTN) and bromocriptine acted as agonists. Methysergide was the most potent of the antagonists tested and showed competitive inhibition in the presence of dopamine. This study offers important information on the Dop3 receptor from Tribolium castaneum that will facilitate functional analyses of dopamine receptors in insects and other invertebrates. PMID:25449128

  20. Serotonin and Hallucinogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Aghajanian; G. J. Marek

    1999-01-01

    This brief review traces the serotonin (5-HT) hypothesis of the action of hallucinogenic drugs from the early 1950 s to the present day. There is now converging evidence from biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral studies that the two major classes of psychedelic hallucinogens, the indoleamines (e.g., LSD) and the phenethylamines (e.g., mescaline), have a common site of action as partial agonists

  1. Serotonin and colonic motility.

    PubMed

    Kendig, D M; Grider, J R

    2015-07-01

    The role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) in gastrointestinal motility has been studied for over 50 years. Most of the 5-HT in the body resides in the gut wall, where it is located in subsets of mucosal cells (enterochromaffin cells) and neurons (descending interneurons). Many studies suggest that 5-HT is important to normal and dysfunctional gut motility and drugs affecting 5-HT receptors, especially 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, have been used clinically to treat motility disorders; however, cardiovascular side effects have limited the use of these drugs. Recently studies have questioned the importance and necessity of 5-HT in general and mucosal 5-HT in particular for colonic motility. Recent evidence suggests the importance of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors for initiation and generation of one of the key colonic motility patterns, the colonic migrating motor complex (CMMC), in rat. The findings suggest that 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors are differentially involved in two different types of rat CMMCs: the long distance contraction (LDC) and the rhythmic propulsive motor complex (RPMC). The understanding of the role of serotonin in colonic motility has been influenced by the specific motility pattern(s) studied, the stimulus used to initiate the motility (spontaneous vs induced), and the route of administration of drugs. All of these considerations contribute to the understanding and the controversy that continues to surround the role of serotonin in the gut. PMID:26095115

  2. Role of central serotonin and melanocortin systems in the control of energy balance.

    PubMed

    Marston, Oliver J; Garfield, Alastair S; Heisler, Lora K

    2011-06-11

    Body weight homeostasis is critically dependent upon the convergence and integration of multiple central and peripheral signalling systems that collectively function to detect and elicit physiological and behavioural responses to nutritional state. To date, only a minority of these signals have been pharmacologically targeted for the treatment of human obesity. One signal that has been effectively manipulated to reduce body weight is the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT); however, the relevant downstream signalling pathways are incompletely understood. Recently, the melanocortin system, a nexus for multiple modulators of energy balance, has emerged as one key mediator of serotonin's effects on appetite. Here we review the serotonin and melanocortin systems with reference to their roles in energy balance and discuss the evidence that the two systems are functionally linked. PMID:21216242

  3. Modeling Dopamine and Serotonin Systems in a Visual Recognition Network

    E-print Network

    goals are, and we have to figure out how to accomplish these goals. Humans learn through a developmental have proposed agents that do not learn through a developmental cycle. The programmer gives the agent to run. The agent interacts with its environment and uses its developmental program to help it learn new

  4. Intrahippocampal Infusions of Anisomycin Produce Amnesia: Contribution of Increased Release of Norepinephrine, Dopamine, and Acetylcholine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Zhenghan; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Intra-amygdala injections of anisomycin produce large increases in the release of norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin in the amygdala. Pretreatment with intra-amygdala injections of the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia without reversing the inhibition of protein synthesis, and…

  5. Developmental origins of brain disorders: roles for dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Money, Kelli M.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as dopamine, participate in a wide range of behavioral and cognitive functions in the adult brain, including movement, cognition, and reward. Dopamine-mediated signaling plays a fundamental neurodevelopmental role in forebrain differentiation and circuit formation. These developmental effects, such as modulation of neuronal migration and dendritic growth, occur before synaptogenesis and demonstrate novel roles for dopaminergic signaling beyond neuromodulation at the synapse. Pharmacologic and genetic disruptions demonstrate that these effects are brain region- and receptor subtype-specific. For example, the striatum and frontal cortex exhibit abnormal neuronal structure and function following prenatal disruption of dopamine receptor signaling. Alterations in these processes are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and emerging studies of neurodevelopmental disruptions may shed light on the pathophysiology of abnormal neuronal circuitry in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24391541

  6. Transcriptional coordination of synaptogenesis and neurotransmitter signaling.

    PubMed

    Kratsios, Paschalis; Pinan-Lucarré, Bérangère; Kerk, Sze Yen; Weinreb, Alexis; Bessereau, Jean-Louis; Hobert, Oliver

    2015-05-18

    During nervous system development, postmitotic neurons face the challenge of generating and structurally organizing specific synapses with appropriate synaptic partners. An important unexplored question is whether the process of synaptogenesis is coordinated with the adoption of specific signaling properties of a neuron. Such signaling properties are defined by the neurotransmitter system that a neuron uses to communicate with postsynaptic partners, the neurotransmitter receptor type used to receive input from presynaptic neurons, and, potentially, other sensory receptors that activate a neuron. Elucidating the mechanisms that coordinate synaptogenesis, neuronal activation, and neurotransmitter signaling in a postmitotic neuron represents one key approach to understanding how neurons develop as functional units. Using the SAB class of Caenorhabditis elegans motor neurons as a model system, we show here that the phylogenetically conserved COE-type transcription factor UNC-3 is required for synaptogenesis. UNC-3 directly controls the expression of the ADAMTS-like protein MADD-4/Punctin, a presynaptically secreted synapse-organizing molecule that clusters postsynaptic receptors. UNC-3 also controls the assembly of presynaptic specializations and ensures the coordinated expression of enzymes and transporters that define the cholinergic neurotransmitter identity of the SAB neurons. Furthermore, synaptic output properties of the SAB neurons are coordinated with neuronal activation and synaptic input, as evidenced by UNC-3 also regulating the expression of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors and putative stretch receptors. Our study shows how synaptogenesis and distinct, function-defining signaling features of a postmitotic neuron are hardwired together through coordinated transcriptional control. PMID:25913400

  7. Dopamine D3 and 5-HT1B receptor dysregulation as a result of psychostimulant intake and forced abstinence: Implications for medications development

    PubMed Central

    Neisewander, Janet L.; Cheung, Timothy H. C.; Pentkowski, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants, including cocaine and amphetamine, is associated with dysregulation of dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter systems. Neuroadaptations in these systems vary depending on the stage of the drug taking-abstinence-relapse cycle. Consequently, the effects of potential treatments that target these systems may vary depending on whether they are given during abstinence or relapse. In this review, we discuss evidence that dopamine D3 receptors (D3Rs) and 5-HT1B receptors (5-HT1BRs) are dysregulated in response to both chronic psychostimulant use and subsequent abstinence. We then review findings from preclinical self-administration models which support targeting D3Rs and 5-HT1BRs as potential medications for psychostimulant dependence. Potential side effects of the treatments are discussed and attention is given to studies reporting positive treatment outcomes that depend on: 1) whether testing occurs during abstinence versus relapse, 2) whether escalation of drug self-administration has occurred, 3) whether the treatments are given repeatedly, and 4) whether social factors influence treatment outcomes. We conclude that D3/D2 agonists may decrease psychostimulant intake; however, side effects of D3/D2R full agonists may limit their therapeutic potential, whereas D3/D2R partial agonists likely have fewer undesirable side effects. D3-selective antagonists may not reduce psychostimulant intake during relapse, but nonetheless, may decrease motivation for seeking psychostimulants with relatively few side-effects. 5-HT1BR agonists provide a striking example of treatment outcomes that are dependent on the stage of the addiction cycle. Specifically, these agonists initially increase cocaine’s reinforcing effects during maintenance of self-administration, but after a period of abstinence they reduce psychostimulant seeking and the resumption of self-administration. In conclusion, we suggest that factors contributing to dysregulation of monoamine systems, including drug history, abstinence, and social context, should be considered when evaluating potential treatments to better model treatment effects in humans. PMID:23973315

  8. Imaging the serotonin transporter with positron emission tomography: initial human studies with [ 11 C]DAPP and [ 11 C]DASB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Houle; N. Ginovart; D. Hussey; J. H. Meyer; A. A. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    Two novel radioligands, N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-methoxyphenylthio)benzylamine (DAPP) and (N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)benzylamine (DASB), were radiolabeled with carbon-11 and evaluated as in vivo probes of the serotonin transporter (SERT) using positron emission tomography (PET). Both compounds are highly selective, with nanomolar affinity for the serotonin transporter and micromolar affinity for the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. Six volunteers were imaged twice, once with each of the two

  9. Imaging the serotonin transporter with positron emission tomography: initial human studies with [ 11 C]DAPP and [ 11 C]DASB

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Houle; N. Ginovart; D. Hussey; J. H. Meyer; A. A. Wilson

    2000-01-01

    Two novel radioligands, N,N-dimethyl-2-(2- amino-4-methoxyphenylthio)benzylamine (DAPP) and (N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)benzyl- amine (DASB), were radiolabeled with carbon-11 and evaluated as in vivo probes of the serotonin transporter (SERT) using positron emission tomography (PET). Both compounds are highly selective, with nanomolar affinity for the serotonin transporter and micromolar af- finity for the dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. Six volunteers were imaged twice, once with each

  10. Synthesis on accumulation of putative neurotransmitters by cultured neural crest cells

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.; Rafford, C.E.

    1982-07-01

    The events mediating the differentiation of embryonic neural crest cells into several types of neurons are incompletely understood. In order to probe one aspect of this differentiation, we have examined the capacity of cultured quail trunk neural crest cells to synthesize, from radioactive precursors, and store several putative neurotransmitter compounds. These neural crest cultures develop the capacity to synthesize and accumulate acetylcholine and the catecholamines norepinephrine and dopamine. In contrast, detectable but relatively little synthesis and accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine gamma-aminobutyric acid, or octopamine from the appropriate radiolabeled precursors were observed. The capacity for synthesis and accumulation of radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines is very low or absent at 2 days in vitro. Between 3 and 7 days in vitro, there is a marked rise in both catecholamine and acetylcholine accumulation in the cultures. These findings suggest that, under the particular conditions used in these experiments, the development of neurotransmitter biosynthesis in trunk neural crest cells ijs restricted and resembles, at least partially, the pattern observed in vivo. The development of this capacity to synthesize and store radiolabeled acetylcholine and catecholamines from the appropriate radioactive precursors coincides closely with the development of the activities of the synthetic enzymes choline acetyltransferase and dopamine beta-hydroxylase reported by others.

  11. Effects of their nutrient precursors on the synthesis and release of serotonin, the catecholamines, and acetylcholine - Implications for behavioral disorders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtman, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Authentic foods affect brain serotonin synthesis by modifying brain tryptophan levels, carbohydrates increasing and proteins decreasing these levels. The carbohydrate-induced rise in brain serotonin tends to diminish the likelihood that one carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor meal or snack will be followed by another. This mechanism is apparently disturbed in carbohydrate-craving obesity, which may explain why this syndrome responds well to d-fenfluramine, a serotoninergic drug. Pure nutrients like tyrosine or choline can also affect the rates at which their neurotransmitter products, the catecholamines and acetylcholine, are synthesized in and released from nerve terminals, suggesting that these compounds may find uses as drugs.

  12. Dopamine Modulates Reward-Related Vigor

    PubMed Central

    Beierholm, Ulrik; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Economides, Marcos; Chowdhury, Rumana; Düzel, Emrah; Dolan, Ray; Dayan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Subjects routinely control the vigor with which they emit motoric responses. However, the bulk of formal treatments of decision-making ignores this dimension of choice. A recent theoretical study suggested that action vigor should be influenced by experienced average reward rate and that this rate is encoded by tonic dopamine in the brain. We previously examined how average reward rate modulates vigor as exemplified by response times and found a measure of agreement with the first suggestion. In the current study, we examined the second suggestion, namely the potential influence of dopamine signaling on vigor. Ninety healthy subjects participated in a double-blind experiment in which they received one of the following: placebo, L-DOPA (which increases dopamine levels in the brain), or citalopram (which has a selective, if complex, effect on serotonin levels). Subjects performed multiple trials of a rewarded odd-ball discrimination task in which we varied the potential reward over time in order to exercise the putative link between vigor and average reward rate. Replicating our previous findings, we found that a significant fraction of the variance in subjects' responses could be explained by our experimentally manipulated changes in average reward rate. Crucially, this relationship was significantly stronger under L-Dopa than under Placebo, suggesting that the impact of average reward levels on action vigor is indeed subject to a dopaminergic influence. PMID:23419875

  13. Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans Serotonin Reuptake Transporter MOD-5 Reveal Serotonin-Dependent and -Independent

    E-print Network

    Horvitz, H. Robert

    Mutations in the Caenorhabditis elegans Serotonin Reuptake Transporter MOD-5 Reveal Serotonin the only sero- tonin reuptake transporter (SERT) in C. elegans. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; fluoxetine; serotonin; reuptake; modulation of behavior; SSRI The activity of serotonin (5-HT), a key

  14. Detection and Quantification of Neurotransmitters in Dialysates

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.; Denoroy, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Sensitive analytical methods are needed for the separation and quantification of neurotransmitters obtained in microdialysate studies. This unit describes methods that permit quantification of nanomolar concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites (high-pressure liquid chromatography electrochemical detection), acetylcholine (HPLC-coupled to an enzyme reactor), and amino acids (HPLC-fluorescence detection; capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection). PMID:19575473

  15. Lipid raft microdomains and neurotransmitter signalling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Allen; Robyn A. Halverson-Tamboli; Mark M. Rasenick

    2006-01-01

    Lipid rafts are specialized structures on the plasma membrane that have an altered lipid composition as well as links to the cytoskeleton. It has been proposed that these structures are membrane domains in which neurotransmitter signalling might occur through a clustering of receptors and components of receptor-activated signalling cascades. The localization of these proteins in lipid rafts, which is affected

  16. Introducing "neurotransmitters" to a neural network

    E-print Network

    .g. a genetic algorithm) would be a good next step · With a better understanding of how these neurotransmitters AI[4] · Medical data analysis[3][4] 2 What is a neural network?1 · An imitation of the way neurons in animal brains function to remember and analyze information · Basically, each neuron has "input" from many

  17. RESPONSES OF NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEMS TO TOXICANT EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As technology has become more refined and available in recent years, a major focus for neurotoxicologists has been the evaluation of toxicant effects on neuronal function. This interest will probably increase as the number of new chemical messengers (i.e., neurotransmitters and n...

  18. Presynaptic inhibition of elicited neurotransmitter release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling-Gang Wu; Peter Saggau

    1997-01-01

    Activation of presynaptic receptors for a variety of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators inhibits transmitter release at many synapses. Such presynaptic inhibition might serve as a means of adjusting synaptic strength or preventing excessive transmitter release, or both. Previous evidence showed that presynaptic modulators inhibit Ca2+ channels and activate K+ channels at neuronal somata. These modulators also inhibit spontaneous transmitter release by

  19. Microfabrication of biosensors for neurotransmitter analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihong Tan; Julia Cordek; Xiaojing Liu; Brooks Gross; Bernd Liesenfeld

    1999-01-01

    We have developed ultrasensitive biosensors for the analysis of neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA and lactate. These sensors have micrometer to submicrometer sizes. They are based on biomolecule immobilization on optical fiber probe surfaces. The miniaturized fiber probes are fabricated by either pulling or etching conventional optical fibers. For example, surface immobilized glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is being used for glutamate

  20. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Li; Dong, Shaojun

    2008-03-01

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 × 10-7 M, 3.5 × 10-7 M, 4.1 × 10-7 M, and 7.7 × 10-7 M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields.

  1. Larvae of the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, express a novel serotonin receptor.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yi-Xiang; Xia, Ren-Ying; Wu, Ya-Su; Stanley, David; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2014-12-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a neurotransmitter in vertebrates and invertebrates. It acts in regulation and modulation of many physiological and behavioral processes through G-protein-coupled receptors. Five 5-HT receptor subtypes have been reported in Drosophila that share high similarity with mammalian 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT7 receptors. We isolated a cDNA (Pr5-HT8 ) from larval Pieris rapae, which shares relatively low similarity to the known 5-HT receptor classes. After heterologous expression in HEK293 cells, Pr5-HT8 mediated increased [Ca(2+)]i in response to low concentrations (< 10 nM) of 5-HT. The receptor did not affect [cAMP]i even at high concentrations (> 10 ?M) of 5-HT. Dopamine, octopamine, and tyramine did not influence receptor signaling. Pr5-HT8 was also activated by various 5-HT receptor agonists including 5-methoxytryptamine, (±)-8-Hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino) tetralin, and 5-carboxamidotryptamine. Methiothepin, a non-selective 5-HT receptor antagonist, activated Pr5-HT8 . WAY 10635, a 5-HT1A antagonist, but not SB-269970, SB-216641, or RS-127445, inhibited 5-HT-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases. We infer that Pr5-HT8 represents the first recognized member of a novel 5-HT receptor class with a unique pharmacological profile. We found orthologs of Pr5-HT8 in some insect pests and vectors such as beetles and mosquitoes, but not in the genomes of honeybee or parasitoid wasps. This is likely to be an invertebrate-specific receptor because there were no similar receptors in mammals. We isolated a cDNA (Pr5-HT8) from larval Pieris rapae, which shares relatively low similarity to the known GPCRs. After heterologous expression in HEK293 cells, Pr5-HT8 mediated increased [Ca(2+)]i in response to low concentrations (< 10 nM) of 5-HT and various 5-HT receptor agonists. We found orthologs of Pr5-HT8 in some insect pests and vectors such as beetles and mosquitoes, but not in the genomes of honeybee, parasitoid wasps, or mammals. PMID:25187179

  2. Microwave-induced post-exposure hyperthermia: Involvement of endogenous opioids and serotonin

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Chou, C.K.; Guy, A.W.; Horita, A.

    1984-08-01

    Acute exposure to pulsed microwaves (2450 MHz, 1 mW/ cm/sup 2/, SAR 0.6 W/kg, 2-..mu..s pulses, 500 pulses/s) induces a transient post-exposure hyperthermia in the rat. The hyperthermia was attenuated by treatment with either the narcotic antagonist naltrexone or one of the serotonin antagonists cinanserin, cyproheptadine, or metergoline. It was not affected, however, by treatment with the peripheral serotonin antagonist xylamidine nor the dopamine antagonist haloperidol. It thus appears that both endogenous opioids and central serotonin are involved. It is proposed that pulsed microwaves activate endogenous opioid systems, and that they in turn activate a serotonergic mechanism that induces the rise in body temperature.

  3. Rapid, sensitive detection of neurotransmitters at microelectrodes modified with self-assembled SWCNT forests

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Ning; Venton, B. Jill

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) modification of microelectrodes can result in increased sensitivity without compromising time response. However, dip coating CNTs is not very reproducible and the CNTs tend to lay flat on the electrode surface which limits access to the electroactive sites on the ends. In this study, aligned CNT forests were formed using a chemical self-assembly method, which resulted in more exposed CNT ends to the analyte. Shortened, carboxylic acid functionalized single-walled CNTs were assembled from a DMF suspension onto a carbon-fiber disk microelectrode modified with a thin iron hydroxide-decorated Nafion film. The modified electrodes were highly sensitive, with 36-fold higher oxidation currents for dopamine using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry than bare electrodes and 34-fold more current than electrodes dipped in CNTs. The limit of detection for dopamine was 17 ± 3 nM at a 10 Hz repetition rate and 65 ± 7 nM at 90 Hz. The LOD at 90 Hz was the same as a bare electrode at 10 Hz, allowing a 9-fold increase in temporal resolution without a decrease in sensitivity. Similar increases were observed for other cationic catecholamine neurotransmitters and the increases in current were greater than for anionic interferents such as ascorbic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC). The CNT forest electrodes had high sensitivity at 90 Hz repetition rate when stimulated dopamine release was measured in Drosophila. The sensitivity, temporal resolution, and spatial resolution of these CNT forest modified disk electrodes facilitate enhanced electrochemical measurements of neurotransmitters release in vivo. PMID:22823497

  4. Physiologically Relevant Changes in Serotonin Resolved by Fast Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Online microdialysis is a sampling and detection method that enables continuous interrogation of extracellular molecules in freely moving subjects under behaviorally relevant conditions. A majority of recent publications using brain microdialysis in rodents report sample collection times of 20–30 min. These long sampling times are due, in part, to limitations in the detection sensitivity of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). By optimizing separation and detection conditions, we decreased the retention time of serotonin to 2.5 min and the detection threshold to 0.8 fmol. Sampling times were consequently reduced from 20 to 3 min per sample for online detection of serotonin (and dopamine) in brain dialysates using a commercial HPLC system. We developed a strategy to collect and to analyze dialysate samples continuously from two animals in tandem using the same instrument. Improvements in temporal resolution enabled elucidation of rapid changes in extracellular serotonin levels associated with mild stress and circadian rhythms. These dynamics would be difficult or impossible to differentiate using conventional microdialysis sampling rates. PMID:23614776

  5. Imaging neurotransmitter uptake and depletion in astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, W. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); [Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7200 (United States); Haydon, P.G. [Department of Zoology and Genetics, Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Department of Zoology and Genetics, Laboratory of Cellular Signaling, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Yeung, E.S. [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Chemistry, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1997-08-01

    An ultraviolet (UV) laser-based optical microscope and charge-coupled device (CCD) detection system was used to obtain chemical images of biological cells. Subcellular structures can be easily seen in both optical and fluorescence images. Laser-induced native fluorescence detection provides high sensitivity and low limits of detection, and it does not require coupling to fluorescent dyes. We were able to quantitatively monitor serotonin that has been taken up into and released from individual astrocytes on the basis of its native fluorescence. Different regions of the cells took up different amounts of serotonin with a variety of uptake kinetics. Similarly, we observed different serotonin depletion dynamics in different astrocyte regions. There were also some astrocyte areas where no serotonin uptake or depletion was observed. Potential applications include the mapping of other biogenic species in cells as well as the ability to image their release from specific regions of cells in response to external stimuli. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital Society for Applied Spectroscopy}

  6. Serotonin metabolism in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Partington, M W; Ferguson, A C

    1977-01-01

    The average blood serotonin level of 67 children with cystic fibrosis was found to be about twice that of age-matched normal children. There was no corresponding increase in the urinary excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). Children with cystic fibrosis were well able to metabolize serotonin taken by mouth. No significant correlations were found between the blood serotonin level and the platelet count, height, weight, skinfold thickness, and pulmonary function test, 5 out of 44 patients had raised serum IgE levels, and their mean blood serotonin was higher than in those with normal IgE levels. No explanation for this emerged. Comparable findings (raised blood serotonin normal platelet count, normal urinary 5-HIAA) have been reported only in severe mental retardation. Further study of this phenomenon is warranted because (a) a raised blood serotonin level is sufficiently characteristic of cystic fibrosis to explore its use in diagnosis, and (b) it may help to explain the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis and (c) the metabolism and function of serotonin. PMID:869568

  7. Native Serotonin Membrane Receptors Recognize 5-Hydroxytryptophan-Functionalized Substrates: Enabling Small-Molecule Recognition

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recognition of small diffusible molecules by large biomolecules is ubiquitous in biology. To investigate these interactions, it is important to be able to immobilize small ligands on substrates; however, preserving recognition by biomolecule-binding partners under these circumstances is challenging. We have developed methods to modify substrates with serotonin, a small-molecule neurotransmitter important in brain function and psychiatric disorders. To mimic soluble serotonin, we attached its amino acid precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan, via the ancillary carboxyl group to oligo(ethylene glycol)-terminated alkanethiols self-assembled on gold. Anti-5-hydroxytryptophan antibodies recognize these substrates, demonstrating bioavailability. Interestingly, 5-hydroxytryptophan-functionalized surfaces capture membrane-associated serotonin receptors enantiospecifically. By contrast, surfaces functionalized with serotonin itself fail to bind serotonin receptors. We infer that recognition by biomolecules evolved to distinguish small-molecule ligands in solution requires tethering of the latter via ectopic moieties. Membrane proteins, which are notoriously difficult to isolate, or other binding partners can be captured for identification, mapping, expression, and other purposes using this generalizable approach. PMID:22778841

  8. Drosophila 5-HT2 serotonin receptor: coexpression with fushi-tarazu during segmentation.

    PubMed Central

    Colas, J F; Launay, J M; Kellermann, O; Rosay, P; Maroteaux, L

    1995-01-01

    Serotonin, first described as a neurotransmitter in invertebrates, has been investigated mostly for its functions in the mature central nervous system of higher vertebrates. Serotonin receptor diversity has been described in the mammalian brain and in insects. We report the isolation of a cDNA coding for a Drosophila melanogaster serotonin receptor that displays a sequence, a gene organization, and pharmacological properties typical of the mammalian 5-HT2 serotonin receptor subtype. Its mRNA can be detected in the adult fly; moreover, a high level of expression occurs at 3 hr of Drosophila embryogenesis. This early embryonic expression is surprisingly organized in a seven-stripe pattern that appears at the cellular blastoderm stage. In addition, this pattern is in phase with that of the even-parasegment-expressed pair-rule gene fushi-tarazu and is similarly modified by mutations affecting segmentation genes. Simultaneously with this pair-rule expression, the complete machinery of serotonin synthesis is present and leads to a peak of ligand concomitant with a peak of 5-HT2-specific receptor sites in blastoderm embryos. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7777527

  9. ASTROCYTIC NEUROTRANSMITTER RECEPTORS IN SITU AND IN VIVO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES T PORTER; KEN D MCCARTHY

    1997-01-01

    In the brain, astrocytes are associated intimately with neurons and surround synapses. Due to their close proximity to synaptic clefts, astrocytes are in a prime location for receiving synaptic information from released neurotransmitters. Cultured astrocytes express a wide range of neurotransmitter receptors, but do astrocytes in vivo also express neurotransmitter receptors and, if so, are the receptors activated by synaptically

  10. Glutamate is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the Drosophila olfactory system

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Rachel

    Glutamate is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the Drosophila olfactory system Wendy W. Liu acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the antennal lobe, broadly similar to the role of GABA is concen- trated within glomeruli, these neurotransmitters may act on different spatial and temporal scales

  11. Case Study 1: Determining Key Binding Interactions Between the Neurotransmitter

    E-print Network

    Stoltz, Brian M.

    Case Study 1: Determining Key Binding Interactions Between the Neurotransmitter and the Receptor ·Neurotransmitters generally carry a positive charge ·We have established that in several systems, that positive - the neurotransmitter - is ACh The nAChR also responds to nicotine, and the initial chemical event in nicotine addiction

  12. A novel method for noninvasive detection of neuromodulatory changes in specific neurotransmitter systems

    E-print Network

    Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.

    A novel method for noninvasive detection of neuromodulatory changes in specific neurotransmitter measurements targeting neurotransmitters and specific receptor populations. Cognitive activation increases neuronal firing rate, increasing the endogenous neurotransmitter level. The increased neurotransmitter

  13. Vasopressin indirectly excites dorsal raphe serotonin neurons through activation of the vasopressin1A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rood, Benjamin D.; Beck, Sheryl G.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin (AVP) is produced in a handful of brain nuclei located in the hypothalamus and extended amygdala and is released both peripherally as a hormone and within the central nervous system as a neurotransmitter. Central projections have been associated with a number of functions including regulation of physiological homeostasis, control of circadian rhythms, and modulation of social behavior. The AVP neurons located in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala (i.e., extended amygdala) in particular have been associated with affiliative social behavior in multiple species. It was recently demonstrated that in the mouse AVP projections emanating from extended amygdala neurons innervate a number of forebrain and midbrain brain regions including the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR), the site of origin of most forebrain projecting serotonin neurons. Based on the presence of AVP fibers in the DR, we hypothesized that AVP would alter the physiology of serotonin neurons via AVP 1A receptor (V1AR) activation. Using whole cell electrophysiology techniques, we found that AVP increased the frequency and amplitude of excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in serotonin neurons of male mice. The indirect stimulation of serotonin neurons was AMPA/kainate receptor dependent and blocked by the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin, suggesting an effect of AVP on glutamate neurons. Further, the increase in EPSC frequency induced by AVP was blocked by selective V1AR antagonists. Our data suggest that AVP had an excitatory influence on serotonin neurons. This work highlights a new target (i.e., V1AR) for manipulating serotonin neuron excitability. In light of our data, we propose that some of the diverse effects of AVP on physiology and behavior, including social behavior, may be due to activation of the dorsal raphe serotonin system. PMID:24345477

  14. Dynamic changes in accumbens dopamine correlate with learning during intracranial self-stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Owesson-White, Catarina A.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Beyene, Manna; Carelli, Regina M.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an important neurotransmitter for reward-seeking behaviors such as intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), although its precise role remains unclear. Here, dynamic fluctuations in extracellular dopamine were measured during ICSS in the rat NAc shell with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes. Rats were trained to press a lever to deliver electrical stimulation to the substantia nigra (SNc)/ventral tegmental area (VTA) after the random onset of a cue that predicted reward availability. Latency to respond after cue onset significantly declined across trials, indicative of learning. Dopamine release was evoked by the stimulation but also developed across trials in a time-locked fashion to the cue. Once established, the cue-evoked dopamine transients continued to grow in amplitude, although they were variable from trial to trial. The emergence of cue-evoked dopamine correlated with a decline in electrically evoked dopamine release. Extinction of ICSS resulted in a significant decline in goal-directed behavior coupled to a significant decrease in cue-evoked phasic dopamine across trials. Subsequent reinstatement of ICSS was correlated with a return to preextinction transient amplitudes in response to the cue and reestablishment of ICSS behavior. The results show the dynamic nature of chemical signaling in the NAc during ICSS and provide new insight into the role of NAc dopamine in reward-related behaviors. PMID:18689678

  15. Action of novel antipsychotics at human dopamine D3 receptors coupled to G protein and ERK1/2 activation.

    PubMed

    Bruins Slot, Liesbeth A; Palmier, Christiane; Tardif, Stéphanie; Cussac, Didier

    2007-08-01

    The effects of new generation antipsychotic drugs (APDs) targeting dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors were compared with typical and atypical APDs on phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and measures of G protein activation in CHO cell lines stably expressing the human dopamine D(3) receptor. The preferential dopamine D(3) agonists (+)-7-OH-DPAT and PD128907, like dopamine and quinelorane, efficaciously stimulated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation at dopamine D(3) receptors. In contrast, in [(35)S]GTPgammaS binding experiments, (+)-7-OH-DPAT exhibited partial agonist properties, while PD128907 and quinelorane maintained full agonist properties. The preferential dopamine D(3) ligand BP 897 and the antidyskinetic sarizotan partially activated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation while exerting no agonist activity on GTPgammaS binding, suggesting signal amplification at the MAP kinase level. Antipsychotics differed in their ability to inhibit both agonist-stimulated GTPgammaS binding and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation, but all typical and atypical compounds tested acted as dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists with the exception of n-desmethylclozapine, the active metabolite of clozapine, which partially activated dopamine D(3) receptor-mediated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. Among the new generation dopamine D(2)/serotonin 5-HT(1A) antipsychotics, only F 15063 and SLV313 acted as pure dopamine D(3) receptor antagonists, bifeprunox was highly efficacious whereas SSR181507 and aripiprazole showed marked partial agonist properties for ERK 1/2 phosphorylation. In contrast, in the GTPgammaS binding study, aripiprazole was devoid of agonist properties and bifeprunox, and to an even lesser extent SSR181507, only weakly stimulated GTPgammaS binding. In summary, these findings underline the differences of dopamine D(3) properties of new generation antipsychotics which may need to be considered in understanding their diverse therapeutic actions. PMID:17588617

  16. Trans-blood brain barrier delivery of dopamine-loaded nanoparticles reverses functional deficits in parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, Richa; Seth, Kavita; Shukla, Anshi; Shukla, Rajendra Kumar; Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Chauhan, Lalit Kumar Singh; Saxena, Prem Narain; Arun, Jharna; Chaudhari, Bhushan Pradosh; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Shukla, Rakesh; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar; Gupta, Kailash Chand

    2015-05-26

    Sustained and safe delivery of dopamine across the blood brain barrier (BBB) is a major hurdle for successful therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), a neurodegenerative disorder. Therefore, in the present study we designed neurotransmitter dopamine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (DA NPs) to deliver dopamine to the brain. These nanoparticles slowly and constantly released dopamine, showed reduced clearance of dopamine in plasma, reduced quinone adduct formation, and decreased dopamine autoxidation. DA NPs were internalized in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and striatum, regions affected in PD. Treatment with DA NPs did not cause reduction in cell viability and morphological deterioration in SH-SY5Y, as compared to bulk dopamine-treated cells, which showed reduced viability. Herein, we report that these NPs were able to cross the BBB and capillary endothelium in the striatum and substantia nigra in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of PD. Systemic intravenous administration of DA NPs caused significantly increased levels of dopamine and its metabolites and reduced dopamine-D2 receptor supersensitivity in the striatum of parkinsonian rats. Further, DA NPs significantly recovered neurobehavioral abnormalities in 6-OHDA-induced parkinsonian rats. Dopamine delivered through NPs did not cause additional generation of ROS, dopaminergic neuron degeneration, and ultrastructural changes in the striatum and substantia nigra as compared to 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Interestingly, dopamine delivery through nanoformulation neither caused alterations in the heart rate and blood pressure nor showed any abrupt pathological change in the brain and other peripheral organs. These results suggest that NPs delivered dopamine into the brain, reduced dopamine autoxidation-mediated toxicity, and ultimately reversed neurochemical and neurobehavioral deficits in parkinsonian rats. PMID:25825926

  17. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO?) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO?, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO?, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, p<0.05). The combination of caffeine and exercise increased Tcore, VO?, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain. PMID:24726708

  18. Serotonin Modulates Developmental Microglia via 5-HT2B Receptors: Potential Implication during Synaptic Refinement of Retinogeniculate Projections.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczak, Marta; Béchade, Catherine; Gervasi, Nicolas; Irinopoulou, Theano; Banas, Sophie M; Cordier, Corinne; Rebsam, Alexandra; Roumier, Anne; Maroteaux, Luc

    2015-07-15

    Maturation of functional neuronal circuits during central nervous system development relies on sophisticated mechanisms. First, axonal and dendritic growth should reach appropriate targets for correct synapse elaboration. Second, pruning and neuronal death are required to eliminate redundant or inappropriate neuronal connections. Serotonin, in addition to its role as a neurotransmitter, actively participates in postnatal establishment and refinement of brain wiring in mammals. Brain resident macrophages, that is, microglia, also play an important role in developmentally regulated neuronal death as well as in synaptic maturation and elimination. Here, we tested the hypothesis of cross-regulation between microglia and serotonin during postnatal brain development in a mouse model of synaptic refinement. We found expression of the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor on postnatal microglia, suggesting that serotonin could participate in temporal and spatial synchronization of microglial functions. Using two-photon microscopy, acute brain slices, and local delivery of serotonin, we observed that microglial processes moved rapidly toward the source of serotonin in Htr2B(+/+) mice, but not in Htr2B(-/-) mice lacking the 5-HT2B receptor. We then investigated whether some developmental steps known to be controlled by serotonin could potentially result from microglia sensitivity to serotonin. Using an in vivo model of synaptic refinement during early brain development, we investigated the maturation of the retinal projections to the thalamus and observed that Htr2B(-/-) mice present anatomical alterations of the ipsilateral projecting area of retinal axons into the thalamus. In addition, activation markers were upregulated in microglia from Htr2B(-/-) compared to control neonates, in the absence of apparent morphological modifications. These results support the hypothesis that serotonin interacts with microglial cells and these interactions participate in brain maturation. PMID:25857335

  19. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Serotonin Signaling.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Terrell; González-Maeso, Javier

    2015-07-15

    Histone modifications and DNA methylation represent central dynamic and reversible processes that regulate gene expression and contribute to cellular phenotypes. These epigenetic marks have been shown to play fundamental roles in a diverse set of signaling and behavioral outcomes. Serotonin is a monoamine that regulates numerous physiological responses including those in the central nervous system. The cardinal signal transduction mechanisms via serotonin and its receptors are well established, but fundamental questions regarding complex interactions between the serotonin system and heritable epigenetic modifications that exert control on gene function remain a topic of intense research and debate. This review focuses on recent advances and contributions to our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms of serotonin receptor-dependent signaling, with focus on psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression. PMID:25734378

  20. Serotonin signaling in C. elegans

    E-print Network

    Gustafson, Megan Alyse

    2007-01-01

    Wild-type animals that have been acutely food deprived slow their locomotory rate upon encountering bacteria more than do well-fed animals. This behavior, called the enhanced slowing response, is partly serotonin (5-HT) ...

  1. Regulation of systemic energy homeostasis by serotonin in adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Myung; Namkung, Jun; Go, Younghoon; Shong, Ko Eun; Kim, Kyuho; Kim, Hyeongseok; Park, Bo-Yoon; Lee, Ho Won; Jeon, Yong Hyun; Song, Junghan; Shong, Minho; Yadav, Vijay K.; Karsenty, Gerard; Kajimura, Shingo; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Sangkyu; Kim, Hail

    2015-01-01

    Central serotonin (5-HT) is an anorexigenic neurotransmitter in the brain. However, accumulating evidence suggests peripheral 5-HT may affect organismal energy homeostasis. Here we show 5-HT regulates white and brown adipose tissue function. Pharmacological inhibition of 5-HT synthesis leads to inhibition of lipogenesis in epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT), induction of browning in inguinal WAT and activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice with inducible Tph1 KO in adipose tissues exhibit a similar phenotype as mice in which 5-HT synthesis is inhibited pharmacologically, suggesting 5-HT has localized effects on adipose tissues. In addition, Htr3a KO mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and reduced weight gain when fed a high-fat diet. Treatment with an Htr2a antagonist reduces lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These data suggest important roles for adipocyte-derived 5-HT in controlling energy homeostasis. PMID:25864946

  2. Membrane receptors for hormones and neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Receptors for peptide hormones and neurotransmitters are integral components of the plasma membrane of cells which serve to couple the external milieu to the intracellular regulators of metabolism. These macromolecules are usually high molecular weight glycoproteins, and in many cases appear to have more than one subunit capable of binding the hormone. The interaction of the hormone or neurotransmitter with its receptor is rapid, reversible, and of high affinity and specificity. Many receptors exhibit cooperative properties in hormone binding or biological function. The concentration of receptors on the membrane is a function of continued synthesis and degradation, and may be altered by a variety of factors including the hormone itself. The fluid mosaic nature of the membrane may allow hormone receptors and effectors to exist in free floating states. Further investigations of the hormone- receptor interaction will no doubt yield new insights into both the mechanism of hormone action and membrane structure and function. PMID:7569

  3. Oral fish oil restores striatal dopamine release after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Shin, Samuel S; Dixon, C Edward

    2011-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid administration can affect the release of neurotransmitters and reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, but its use in traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been described extensively. We investigated the effect of 7 day oral fish oil treatment in the recovery of potassium evoked dopamine release after TBI. Sham rats and TBI rats were given either olive oil or fish oil by oral gavage and were subject to cerebral microdialysis. Olive oil treated TBI rats showed significant dopamine release deficit compared to sham rats, and this deficit was restored with oral fish oil treatment. There was no effect of fish oil treatment on extracellular levels of dopamine metabolites such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid. These results suggest the therapeutic potential of omega-3 fatty acids in restoring dopamine neurotransmission deficits after TBI. PMID:21514362

  4. Isolated horizontal cells from carp retina demonstrate dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Van Buskirk, R; Dowling, J E

    1981-01-01

    Horizontal cells of the carp retina were separated from other retinal cell types by using enzymatic dissociation and velocity sedimentation at unit gravity. Fractions containing horizontal cells were tested for their ability to accumulate cyclic AMP in the presence of various putative neurotransmitters. Micromolar concentrations of dopamine, when added in the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in these isolated cells. The dopamine-dependent accumulation of cyclic AMP in intact isolated horizontal cells was blocked by nanomolar concentrations of dopamine antagonists such as haloperidol, (+)-butaclamol, and fluphenazine. The results indicate that there is a postsynaptic dopamine receptor on carp horizontal cells that is associated with adenylate cyclase [ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1]. Images PMID:6278491

  5. Local 5HT 3 receptors mediate fluoxetine but not desipramine-induced increase of extracellular dopamine in the prefrontal cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tanda; R. Frau; G. Chiara

    1995-01-01

    Fluoxetine and desipramine, two antidepressants that block selectively the serotonin and the noradrenaline carrier, increase extracellular dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex of freely-moving rats. This effect is calcium dependent and is prevented, in the case of fluoxetine but not desipramine, by systemic pretreatment with low doses or by low concentrations in the dialyzing Ringer of the potent 5-HT3 antagonist

  6. Effects of Delta9Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabinol and Cannabidiol, Alone and in Combinations, on Luteinizing Hormone and Prolactin Release and on Hypothalamic Neurotransmitters in the Male Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura L. Murphy; Richard W. Steger; Susan Smith; Andrzej Bartke

    1990-01-01

    The acute effects of low oral doses of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) administered alone or in combinations on LH and prolactin (PRL) secretion and on hypothalamic norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HI) dynamics were examined in adult male rats. Plasma LH levels were significantly reduced 60 min after administration of 0.5 mgTHC\\/kg body weight and 30,

  7. Creating Dynamic Images of Short-lived Dopamine Fluctuations with lp-ntPET: Dopamine Movies of Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Evan D.; Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Wang, Shuo; Normandin, Marc D.; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Cosgrove, Kelly P.

    2014-01-01

    We describe experimental and statistical steps for creating dopamine movies of the brain from dynamic PET data. The movies represent minute-to-minute fluctuations of dopamine induced by smoking a cigarette. The smoker is imaged during a natural smoking experience while other possible confounding effects (such as head motion, expectation, novelty, or aversion to smoking repeatedly) are minimized. We present the details of our unique analysis. Conventional methods for PET analysis estimate time-invariant kinetic model parameters which cannot capture short-term fluctuations in neurotransmitter release. Our analysis - yielding a dopamine movie - is based on our work with kinetic models and other decomposition techniques that allow for time-varying parameters 1-7. This aspect of the analysis – temporal-variation- is key to our work. Because our model is also linear in parameters, it is practical, computationally, to apply at the voxel level. The analysis technique is comprised of 5 main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and visualization. Preprocessing is applied to the PET data with a unique ‘HYPR’ spatial filter 8 that reduces spatial noise but preserves critical temporal information. Modeling identifies the time-varying function that best describes the dopamine effect on 11C-raclopride uptake. The statistical step compares the fit of our (lp-ntPET) model 7 to a conventional model 9. Masking restricts treatment to those voxels best described by the new model. Visualization maps the dopamine function at each voxel to a color scale and produces a dopamine movie. Interim results and sample dopamine movies of cigarette smoking are presented. PMID:23963311

  8. Creating dynamic images of short-lived dopamine fluctuations with lp-ntPET: dopamine movies of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Morris, Evan D; Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M; Wang, Shuo; Normandin, Marc D; Constantinescu, Cristian C; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2013-01-01

    We describe experimental and statistical steps for creating dopamine movies of the brain from dynamic PET data. The movies represent minute-to-minute fluctuations of dopamine induced by smoking a cigarette. The smoker is imaged during a natural smoking experience while other possible confounding effects (such as head motion, expectation, novelty, or aversion to smoking repeatedly) are minimized. We present the details of our unique analysis. Conventional methods for PET analysis estimate time-invariant kinetic model parameters which cannot capture short-term fluctuations in neurotransmitter release. Our analysis--yielding a dopamine movie--is based on our work with kinetic models and other decomposition techniques that allow for time-varying parameters. This aspect of the analysis--temporal-variation--is key to our work. Because our model is also linear in parameters, it is practical, computationally, to apply at the voxel level. The analysis technique is comprised of five main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and visualization. Preprocessing is applied to the PET data with a unique 'HYPR' spatial filter that reduces spatial noise but preserves critical temporal information. Modeling identifies the time-varying function that best describes the dopamine effect on 11C-raclopride uptake. The statistical step compares the fit of our (lp-ntPET) model to a conventional model. Masking restricts treatment to those voxels best described by the new model. Visualization maps the dopamine function at each voxel to a color scale and produces a dopamine movie. Interim results and sample dopamine movies of cigarette smoking are presented. PMID:23963311

  9. Intrinsic vascular dopamine – a key modulator of hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in splanchnic vessels

    PubMed Central

    Pfeil, Uwe; Kuncova, Jitka; Brüggmann, Doerthe; Paddenberg, Renate; Rafiq, Amir; Henrich, Michael; Weigand, Markus A; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Mewe, Marco; Middendorff, Ralf; Slavikova, Jana; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine not only is a precursor of the catecholamines noradrenaline and adrenaline but also serves as an independent neurotransmitter and paracrine hormone. It plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension and is a potent vasodilator in many mammalian systemic arteries, strongly suggesting an endogenous source of dopamine in the vascular wall. Here we demonstrated dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in rat aorta and superior mesenteric arteries (SMA) by radioimmunoassay. Chemical sympathectomy with 6-hydroxydopamine showed a significant reduction of noradrenaline and adrenaline, while dopamine levels remained unaffected. Isolated endothelial cells were able to synthesize and release dopamine upon cAMP stimulation. Consistent with these data, mRNAs coding for catecholamine synthesizing enzymes, i.e. tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, and dopamine-?-hydroxylase were detected by RT-PCR in cultured endothelial cells from SMA. TH protein was detected by immunohistochemisty and Western blot. Exposure of endothelial cells to hypoxia (1% O2) increased TH mRNA. Vascular smooth muscle cells partially expressed catecholaminergic traits. A physiological role of endogenous vascular dopamine was shown in SMA, where D1 dopamine receptor blockade abrogated hypoxic vasodilatation. Experiments on SMA with endothelial denudation revealed a significant contribution of the endothelium, although subendothelial dopamine release dominated. From these results we conclude that endothelial cells and cells of the underlying vascular wall synthesize and release dopamine in an oxygen-regulated manner. In the splanchnic vasculature, this intrinsic non-neuronal dopamine is the dominating vasodilator released upon lowering of oxygen tension. PMID:24535440

  10. Fluorescent dopamine tracer resolves individual dopaminergic synapses and their activity in the brain.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pamela C; Pereira, Daniela B; Borgkvist, Anders; Wong, Minerva Y; Barnard, Candace; Sonders, Mark S; Zhang, Hui; Sames, Dalibor; Sulzer, David

    2013-01-15

    We recently introduced fluorescent false neurotransmitters (FFNs) as optical tracers that enable the visualization of neurotransmitter release at individual presynaptic terminals. Here, we describe a pH-responsive FFN probe, FFN102, which as a polar dopamine transporter substrate selectively labels dopamine cell bodies and dendrites in ventral midbrain and dopaminergic synaptic terminals in dorsal striatum. FFN102 exhibits greater fluorescence emission in neutral than acidic environments, and thus affords a means to optically measure evoked release of synaptic vesicle content into the extracellular space. Simultaneously, FFN102 allows the measurement of individual synaptic terminal activity by following fluorescence loss upon stimulation. Thus, FFN102 enables not only the identification of dopamine cells and their processes in brain tissue, but also the optical measurement of functional parameters including dopamine transporter activity and dopamine release at the level of individual synapses. As such, the development of FFN102 demonstrates that, by bringing together organic chemistry and neuroscience, molecular entities can be generated that match the endogenous transmitters in selectivity and distribution, allowing for the study of both the microanatomy and functional plasticity of the normal and diseased nervous system. PMID:23277566

  11. Autoradiographic localization of /sup 3/H-paroxetine-labeled serotonin uptake sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, E.B.; Kuyatt, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake into neurons. Serotonin uptake sites have been identified, localized, and quantified in rat brain by autoradiography with 3H-paroxetine; 3H-paroxetine binding in slide-mounted sections of rat forebrain was of high affinity (KD = 10 pM) and the inhibition affinity constant (Ki) values of various drugs in competing 3H-paroxetine binding significantly correlated with their reported potencies in inhibiting synaptosomal serotonin uptake. Serotonin uptake sites labeled by 3H-paroxetine were highly concentrated in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, central gray, superficial layer of the superior colliculus, lateral septal nucleus, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, and the islands of Calleja. High concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in brainstem areas containing dopamine (substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) and norepinephrine (locus coeruleus) cell bodies. Moderate concentrations of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were present in laminae I and IV of the frontal parietal cortex, primary olfactory cortex, olfactory tubercle, regions of the basal ganglia, septum, amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and some brainstem areas including the interpeduncular, trigeminal, and parabrachial nuclei. Lower densities of 3H-paroxetine binding sites were found in other regions of the neocortex and very low to nonsignificant levels of binding were present in white matter tracts and in the cerebellum. Lesioning of serotonin neurons with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine caused large decreases in 3H-paroxetine binding. The autoradiographic distribution of 3H-paroxetine binding sites in rat brain corresponds extremely well to the distribution of serotonin terminals and cell bodies as well as with the pharmacological sites of action of serotonin.

  12. The Serotonin-6 Receptor as a Novel Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyung-Mun

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important neurotransmitter that is found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. 5-HT mediates its diverse physiological responses through 7 different 5-HT receptor families: 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3, 5-HT4, 5-HT5, 5-HT6, and 5-HT7 receptors. Among them, the 5-HT6 receptor (5-HT6R) is the most recently cloned serotonin receptor and plays important roles in the central nervous system (CNS) and in the etiology of neurological diseases. Compared to other 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT6R has been considered as an attractive CNS therapeutic target because it is expressed exclusively in the CNS and has no known isoforms. This review evaluates in detail the role of the 5-HT6R in the physiology and pathophysiology of the CNS and the potential usefulness of 5-HT6R ligands in the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of CNS disorders. Preclinical studies provide support for the use of 5-HT6R ligands as promising medications to treat the cognitive dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease, obesity, depression, and anxiety. PMID:22355260

  13. Changes in hypothalamic neurotransmitter and prostanoid levels in response to NMDA, CRF, and GLP-1 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Fumio; Tachi, Masahiko; Gosho, Masahiko; Fukayama, Minoru; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Okada, Shoshiro

    2015-07-01

    Determination of neuroactive substances, such as neurotransmitters and prostanoids, in the extracellular space of the living brain is a very important technique in neuroscience. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is one of the most important autonomic control centers in the brain. Recently, we demonstrated that thromboxane (Tx) A2 in the PVN may play an important role in adrenomedullary outflow evoked by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulation using microdialysis sampling and liquid chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ITMS(n)). In the present study, we investigated whether centrally administered NMDA, CRF, and GLP-1 can release five neurotransmitters, acetylcholine (ACh), histamine, glutamate (Glu), ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and serotonin (5-HT), along with six prostanoids, TxB2, prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGD2, 15-deoxy-?(12,14) (15d)-PGJ2, 6-keto-PGF1?, and PGF2? in rat PVN microdialysates after optimization of LC-ITMS(n) conditions . All stimulations increased the levels of 5-HT, TxB2, PGE2, and PGF2? (except for 5-HT stimulated with GLP-1). Only NMDA increased the levels of ACh, Glu, and GABA. Treatment with dizocilpine maleate (MK-801), a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, attenuated the NMDA-induced increase in the levels of neuroactive substances except for Glu. This is the first study to use LC-ITMS(n) to analyze neurotransmitters and prostanoids in the same microdialysates from rat PVN. PMID:25633219

  14. Polymorphisms of serotonin neurotransmission and their effects on antipsychotic drug action.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; McGowan, Olga O; Reynolds, Gavin P

    2014-01-01

    The receptor pharmacology of many antipsychotic drugs includes actions at various serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) receptors. The 5-HT neurotransmitter system is thought to be involved in many of the consequences of treatment with antipsychotic drugs, including both symptom response, primarily of negative and depressive symptoms, and adverse effects, notably extrapyramidal side effects and weight gain. There is substantial interindividual variability in these drug effects, to which genetic variability contributes. We review here the influence of functional polymorphisms in genes associated with 5-HT function, including the various processes of neurotransmitter synthesis, receptors, transporters and metabolism, on the clinical response to, and adverse effects of, antipsychotic drugs. The relatively young field of epigenetics also contributes to the variability of 5-HT-related genes in influencing drug response. Several of these findings inform our understanding of the mechanisms of antipsychotic drug action, and also provide the opportunity for the development of genetic testing for personalized medicine. PMID:25340734

  15. Brain serotonin determines maternal behavior and offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Angoa-Pérez, M; Kane, M J; Sykes, C E; Perrine, S A; Church, M W; Kuhn, D M

    2014-09-01

    Maternal care is an indispensable component of offspring survival and development in all mammals and necessary for reproductive success. Although brain areas regulating maternal behaviors are innervated by serotonergic afferents, very little is known about the role of this neurotransmitter in these behaviors. To evaluate the contribution of serotonin to maternal care, we used mice with a null mutation in the gene for tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), which results in a genetic depletion of brain serotonin, and tested them in a wide range of maternal behavior paradigms. We found that litters born to and reared by TPH2(-/-) mothers showed decreased survival, lower weaning weights and increased cannibalization. In addition, TPH2(-/-) mothers performed poorly in pup retrieval, huddling, nest construction and high-arched back nursing. Aggression in TPH2(-/-) dams was not triggered by lactation and was steadily high. Survival and weaning weight deficits of TPH2(-/-) pups were rescued by cross-fostering and in litters of mixed genotype (TPH2(-/-) and TPH2(-/+) ). However, the maternal behaviors of TPH2(-/-) dams did not improve when rearing either TPH2(+/+) pups or mixed-genotype litters. In addition, TPH2(-/-) pups significantly worsened the behavior of TPH2(+/+) dams with respect to cannibalism, weaning weight and latency to attack. Olfactory and auditory functions of TPH2(-/-) females or anxiety-like behaviors did not account for these maternal alterations as they were equal to their TPH2(+/+) counterparts. These findings illustrate a profound influence of brain serotonin on virtually all elements of maternal behavior and establish that TPH2(-/-) pups can engender maladaptive mothering in dams of both genotypes. PMID:25077934

  16. Dopamine D(3) receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: role of hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; Newman, Amy H; Nielsen, Shannon M; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-06-01

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. PMID:24685638

  17. Dopamine D3 receptors contribute to methamphetamine-induced alterations in dopaminergic neuronal function: Role of hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G.; Newman, Amy H.; Nielsen, Shannon M.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Methamphetamine administration causes long-term deficits to dopaminergic systems that, in humans, are thought to be associated with motor slowing and memory impairment. Methamphetamine interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT) and increases extracellular concentrations of dopamine that, in turn, binds to a number of dopamine receptor subtypes. Although the relative contribution of each receptor subtype to the effects of methamphetamine is not fully known, non-selective dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonists can attenuate methamphetamine-induced changes to dopamine systems. The present study extended these findings by testing the role of the dopamine D3 receptor subtype in mediating the long-term dopaminergic, and for comparison serotonergic, deficits caused by methamphetamine. Results indicate that the dopamine D3 receptor selective antagonist, PG01037, attenuated methamphetamine-induced decreases in striatal DAT, but not hippocampal serotonin (5HT) transporter (SERT), function, as assessed 7 days after treatment. However, PG01037 also attenuated methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. When methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia was maintained by treating rats in a warm ambient environment, PG01037 failed to attenuate the effects of methamphetamine on DAT uptake. Furthermore, PG01037 did not attenuate methamphetamine-induced decreases in dopamine and 5HT content. Taken together, the present study demonstrates that dopamine D3 receptors mediate, in part, the long-term deficits in DAT function caused by methamphetamine, and that this effect likely involves an attenuation of methamphetamine-induced hyperthermia. PMID:24685638

  18. Monoamine Neurotransmitters as Substrates for Novel Tick Sulfotransferases, Homology Modeling, Molecular Docking, and Enzyme Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Emine Bihter; Stangl, Hubert; Pichu, Sivakamasundari; Mather, Thomas N.; King, Roberta S.

    2010-01-01

    Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis) transmit the causative agent of Lyme disease in the Northeastern and upper Midwestern US. Current research focuses on elucidating biochemical pathways which may be disrupted to prevent pathogen transmission, thereby preventing disease. A genome screening process reported transcripts coding for two putative sulfotransferases in salivary glands of adult Ixodes scapularis and in whole tick extracts of the nymphal and larval stages. Sulfotransferases are known to sulfonate phenolic and alcoholic receptor agonists such as 17?-estradiol, thereby inactivating the receptor ligands. We used bioinformatic approaches to predict substrates for these two sulfotransferases (designated Ixosc Sult 1 and Ixosc Sult 2), and tested the predictions with biochemical assays. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that Ixosc Sult 1 and 2 are members of the cytosolic sulfotransferase superfamily. Homology models of 3D-protein structure were prepared for each tick sulfotransferase based on sulfotransferase X-ray crystal structures. Visualization of the electrostatic surface of the ligand binding cavities showed regions of negative electrostatic charge. Molecular docking identified potential substrates including dopamine, R-octopamine and S-octopamine, which docked into Ixosc Sult 1 with favorable binding affinity and correct conformation for sulfonation. Dopamine, but not R- or S-octopamine, also docked into Ixosc Sult 2 in a catalytic binding mode. Other molecules including 17?-estradiol, pregnenolone and serotonin, did not dock in catalytically active position to either protein. The predictions were tested and confirmed using cytosolic fractions of extracts of whole ticks. Dopamine was found to be a good substrate (Km 0.1 – 0.4 ?M) for the native Ixodes scapularis sulfotransferases from larval and nymphal stages regardless of their fed/unfed status. Octopamine–sulfonation was only detected after feeding when gene expression data suggests that only Ixosc Sult 1 is present. These results agree with the docking predictions that octopamine is sulfonated only by Ixosc Sult 1, whereas dopamine is sulfonated by both Ixosc Sult 1 and Sult 2. Because dopamine is known to stimulate salivation in ticks through receptor stimulation, these results imply that the function/s of Ixosc Sult 1 or Sult 2 in the Ixodid tick may include inactivation of the salivation signal via sulfonation of dopamine and/or octopamine. PMID:21043483

  19. Determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulation using enhanced luminescence from europium complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabaidur, Saikh Mohammad; ALOthman, Zeid Abdullah; Naushad, Mu.

    Biologically important compound dopamine plays an important role in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Insufficient dopamine level due to the loss of dopamine producing cells may lead to disease called Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Hence, a simple and fast detection of dopamine is necessary to study in the fields of neurophysiology and clinical medicine. An enhanced fluorimetric determination of dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid is achieved using photoluminescence of europium complex, Eu(III)-dipicolinic acid. In order to obtain better responses, several operational parameters have been investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the method showed good stability and reproducibility. The application of this method for the determination of dopamine neurotransmitters was satisfactory. Linear response was found down to 3.0 × 10-7 M with limit of detection 1.0 × 10-8 M. The relative standard deviation was found to be 3.33% from 20 independent measurements for 1.0 × 10-5 M of dopamine.

  20. Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of serotonin derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoon Kang; Sangkyu Park; Young Soon Kim; Sungbeom Lee; Kyoungwhan Back

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin derivatives belong to a class of phenylpropanoid amides found at low levels in a wide range of plant species. Representative\\u000a serotonin derivatives include feruloylserotonin (FS) and 4-coumaroylserotonin (CS). Since the first identification of serotonin\\u000a derivatives in safflower seeds, their occurrence, biological significance, and pharmacological properties have been reported.\\u000a Recently, serotonin N-hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (SHT), which is responsible for the synthesis

  1. Pathological gambling induced by dopamine antagonists: a case report.

    PubMed

    Grötsch, Philipp; Lange, Claudia; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Lang, Undine

    2015-03-01

    Pathological gambling is defined as inappropriate, persistent, and maladaptive gambling behaviour. It is a non-pharmacological addiction classified as an impulse control disorder. However, pathological gambling has been associated with dopamine agonist use. Here we report of a 28-year-old man with a first major depressive episode and a post-traumatic stress disorder who has been treated with a combination of the serotonine/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor duloxetine and the tricyclic antidepressant maprotiline. The administration of antipsychotic flupentixole (up to 7 mg) turned this slight online poker gambler into an excessive gambler. Only after the discontinuation of the antidopaminergic agents and the switch to bupropion did this gambling behaviour stop which suggests a causal relationship between dopamine antagonists and pathological gambling. PMID:24356928

  2. Serotonin depletion-induced maladaptive aggression requires the presence of androgens.

    PubMed

    Studer, Erik; Näslund, Jakob; Andersson, Erik; Nilsson, Staffan; Westberg, Lars; Eriksson, Elias

    2015-01-01

    The sex hormone testosterone and the neurotransmitter serotonin exert opposite effects on several aspects of behavior including territorial aggression. It is however not settled if testosterone exerts its pro-aggressive effects by reducing serotonin transmission and/or if the anti-aggressive effect of serotonin requires the presence of the androgen. Using the resident intruder test, we now show that administration of the serotonin synthesis inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (300 mg/kg x 3 days) increases the total time of attack as well as the percentage amount of social behavior spent on attack but not that spent on threat - i.e. that it induces a pattern of unrestricted, maladaptive aggression - in gonadectomized C57Bl/6 male mice receiving testosterone replacement; in contrast, it failed to reinstate aggression in those not given testosterone. Whereas these results suggest the pro-aggressive effect of testosterone to be independent of serotonin, and not caused by an inhibition of serotonergic activity, the pCPA-induced induction of maladaptive aggression appears to require the presence of the hormone. In line with these findings, pCPA enhanced the total time of attack as well the relative time spent on attacks but not threats also in wild-type gonadally intact male C57Bl/6 mice, but failed to reinstate aggression in mice rendered hypo-aggressive by early knock-out of androgen receptors in the brain (ARNesDel mice). We conclude that androgenic deficiency does not dampen aggression by unleashing an anti-aggressive serotonergic influence; instead serotonin seems to modulate aggressive behavior by exerting a parallel-coupled inhibitory role on androgen-driven aggression, which is irrelevant in the absence of the hormone, and the arresting of which leads to enhanced maladaptive aggression. PMID:25978464

  3. The effect of "facteur thymique serique" (FTS) on catecholamine and serotonin neurotransmission in discrete brain regions of mice.

    PubMed

    Vécsei, L; Faludi, M; Najbauer, J

    1987-01-01

    The dose-related effect of Facteur Thymique Serique (FTS) on hypothalamic, mesencephalic and striatal neurotransmission were investigated after intracerebroventricular (icv) administration. FTS pretreatment with dose of 1 microgram (icv) increased the mesencephalic serotonin content, while failed to influence the hypothalamic and striatal serotonin levels. The nonapeptide in a dose of 0.1 microgram (icv) decreased the hypothalamic, while in a dose of 1 microgram the hypothalamic and also the mesencephalic dopamine content, but did not influence the striatal dopamine level. FTS in a dose of 1 microgram (icv) significantly decreased the hypothalamic noradrenaline level, but did not influence the noradrenaline content of the mesencephalon and striatum. These results suggest that FTS is able to modify central neurotransmission. PMID:3591350

  4. The Dopamine Metabolite 3-Methoxytyramine Is a Neuromodulator

    PubMed Central

    Sotnikova, Tatyana D.; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Masri, Bernard; Zhang, Xiaodong; Salahpour, Ali; Barak, Larry S.; Caron, Marc G.; Gainetdinov, Raul R.

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) is a well-known catecholamine neurotransmitter involved in multiple physiological functions including movement control. Here we report that the major extracellular metabolite of dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), can induce behavioral effects in a dopamine-independent manner and these effects are partially mediated by the trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Unbiased in vivo screening of putative trace amine receptor ligands for potential effects on the movement control revealed that 3-MT infused in the brain is able to induce a complex set of abnormal involuntary movements in mice acutely depleted of dopamine. In normal mice, the central administration of 3-MT caused a temporary mild hyperactivity with a concomitant set of abnormal movements. Furthermore, 3-MT induced significant ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the mouse striatum, signaling events generally related to PKA-mediated cAMP accumulation. In mice lacking TAAR1, both behavioral and signaling effects of 3-MT were partially attenuated, consistent with the ability of 3-MT to activate TAAR1 receptors and cause cAMP accumulation as well as ERK and CREB phosphorylation in cellular assays. Thus, 3-MT is not just an inactive metabolite of DA, but a novel neuromodulator that in certain situations may be involved in movement control. Further characterization of the physiological functions mediated by 3-MT may advance understanding of the pathophysiology and pharmacology of brain disorders involving abnormal dopaminergic transmission, such as Parkinson's disease, dyskinesia and schizophrenia. PMID:20976142

  5. The dopamine metabolite 3-methoxytyramine is a neuromodulator.

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Masri, Bernard; Zhang, Xiaodong; Salahpour, Ali; Barak, Larry S; Caron, Marc G; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine) is a well-known catecholamine neurotransmitter involved in multiple physiological functions including movement control. Here we report that the major extracellular metabolite of dopamine, 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT), can induce behavioral effects in a dopamine-independent manner and these effects are partially mediated by the trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). Unbiased in vivo screening of putative trace amine receptor ligands for potential effects on the movement control revealed that 3-MT infused in the brain is able to induce a complex set of abnormal involuntary movements in mice acutely depleted of dopamine. In normal mice, the central administration of 3-MT caused a temporary mild hyperactivity with a concomitant set of abnormal movements. Furthermore, 3-MT induced significant ERK and CREB phosphorylation in the mouse striatum, signaling events generally related to PKA-mediated cAMP accumulation. In mice lacking TAAR1, both behavioral and signaling effects of 3-MT were partially attenuated, consistent with the ability of 3-MT to activate TAAR1 receptors and cause cAMP accumulation as well as ERK and CREB phosphorylation in cellular assays. Thus, 3-MT is not just an inactive metabolite of DA, but a novel neuromodulator that in certain situations may be involved in movement control. Further characterization of the physiological functions mediated by 3-MT may advance understanding of the pathophysiology and pharmacology of brain disorders involving abnormal dopaminergic transmission, such as Parkinson's disease, dyskinesia and schizophrenia. PMID:20976142

  6. Serotonin and depression: pathophysiological mechanism or

    E-print Network

    Alford, Simon

    Serotonin and depression: pathophysiological mechanism or marketing myth? Philip J. Cowen serotonin (5-HT) function can lead to clinical depression has a long history but is still controversial a simplistic biological model of depression to market selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs

  7. Platelet-Derived Serotonin Mediates Liver Regeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mickael Lesurtel; Rolf Graf; Boris Aleil; Diego J. Walther; Yinghua Tian; Wolfram Jochum; Christian Gachet; Michael Bader; Pierre-Alain Clavien

    2006-01-01

    The liver can regenerate its volume after major tissue loss. In a mouse model of liver regeneration, thrombocytopenia, or impaired platelet activity resulted in the failure to initiate cellular proliferation in the liver. Platelets are major carriers of serotonin in the blood. In thrombocytopenic mice, a serotonin agonist reconstituted liver proliferation. The expression of 5-HT2A and 2B subtype serotonin receptors

  8. Serotonin syndrome resulting from drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Chan, B S; Graudins, A; Whyte, I M; Dawson, A H; Braitberg, G; Duggin, G G

    1998-11-16

    We describe six patients diagnosed with serotonin syndrome after exposure to drugs with serotonergic activity. Drug interactions occurred as a result of a combination of tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Management included supportive care and the use of non-specific serotonin antagonists (cyproheptadine, benzodiazepines and chlorpromazine). All patients made uneventful recoveries. PMID:9861909

  9. Intracellular Injection of Protein Kinase Inhibitor Blocks the Serotonin-Induced Increase in K+ Conductance in Aplysia Neuron R15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, William B.; Levitan, Irwin B.

    1982-06-01

    Previous work has shown that serotonin induces an increase in membrane K+ conductance in Aplysia neuron R15 and that this response is mediated by cAMP. The present study examines the role of protein phosphorylation in the response to serotonin. A specific inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase was injected intracellularly into neuron R15. The injection blocked the serotonin-induced increase in K+ conductance completely for at least 4 hours. The blockage was selective because the cell's response to dopamine was not inhibited. Furthermore, the blockage was specifically produced by protein kinase inhibitor because injection of other proteins (? -bungarotoxin and bovine serum albumin) did not affect the serotonin response. The serotonin response recovered fully 5-13 hours after the injection, presumably as a result of intracellular proteolysis of the protein kinase inhibitor. The results indicate that protein phosphorylation is a necessary step in the process that leads to activation of K+ channels by serotonin in neuron R15.

  10. Pharmacophore design and database searching for selective monoamine neurotransmitter transporter ligands.

    PubMed

    Macdougall, Iain J A; Griffith, Renate

    2008-04-01

    Neuronal monoamine transporters (MATs) are involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of mental health conditions such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Various structural classes of compounds have been synthesized and tested in vitro for activity against transporters of three monoamine signaling molecules: noradrenaline (NET); serotonin (SERT) and dopamine (DAT). We have developed and validated a number of pharmacophore models describing the interaction of two classes of compounds with each of these three MATs. These pharmacophores explain the selectivity of binding to the MATs for various compound classes and have been used to search in silico databases for novel, potentially selective ligands. These ligands, after confirmation of their activities, will provide tools for investigating the function of MATs as well as the potential for new therapeutic agents in mental health applications. The database searches also retrieved close analogues of known MAT ligands, further validating the approach. PMID:18023378

  11. Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  12. Serotonin's role in piglet mortality and thriftiness.

    PubMed

    Dennis, R L; McMunn, K A; Cheng, H W; Marchant-Forde, J N; Lay, D C

    2014-11-01

    Improving piglet survivability rates is of high priority for swine production as well as for piglet well-being. Dysfunction in the serotonin (5-HT) system has been associated with growth deficiencies, infant mortalities, or failure to thrive in human infants. The aim of this research was to determine if a relationship exists between infant mortality and failure to thrive (or unthriftiness), and umbilical 5-HT concentration in piglets. Umbilical blood was collected from a total of 60 piglets from 15 litters for analysis of 5-HT and tryptophan (Trp; the AA precursor to 5-HT) concentrations. Behavior was scan sampled for the first 2 days after birth. Brain samples were also taken at 8 h after birth from healthy and unthrifty piglets (n = 4/group). The raphe nucleus was dissected out and analyzed for 5-HT and dopamine concentrations as well as their major metabolites 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Piglets that died within 48 h of birth (n = 14) had significantly lower umbilical blood 5-HT concentrations at the time of their birth compared to their healthy counterparts (n = 46, P = 0.003). However, no difference in Trp was detected (P 0.38). Time spent under the heat lamp and sleeping were positively correlated with umbilical 5-HT levels (P = 0.004 and P = 0.02, respectively), while inactivity had a negative correlation with 5-HT levels (P = 0.04). In the raphe nucleus, the center for brain 5-HT biosynthesis, unthrifty piglets had a greater concentration of 5-HIAA (P = 0.02) and a trend for higher concentrations of 5-HT (P = 0.07) compared with healthy piglets. Dopamine levels did not differ between thrifty and unthrifty piglets (P = 0.45); however, its metabolite HVA tended to be greater in unthrifty piglets (P = 0.05). Our results show evidence of serotonergic dysfunction, at both the central and peripheral levels, accompanying early piglet mortalities. These data suggest a possible route for intervention, via the 5-HT system, to improve piglet survivability. However, further research is required to validate this hypothesis. PMID:25349339

  13. Synthesis and Structure-Activity Studies of Benzyl Ester Meperidine and Normeperidine Derivatives as Selective Serotonin Transporter Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaobo; Izenwasser, Sari; Wade, Dean; Housman, Amy; Gulasey, Gerard; Rhoden, Jill B.; Savoie, Christopher D.; Mobley, David L.; Lomenzo, Stacey A.; Trudell, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    A series of benzyl esters of meperidine and normeperidine were synthesized and evaluated for binding affinity at serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine transporters. The 4-methoxybenzyl ester 8b and 4-nitrobenzyl ester 8c in the meperidine series and 4-methoxybenzyl ester 14a in the normeperidine series exhibited low nanomolar binding affinities at the SERT (Ki values < 2 nM) and high SERT selectivity (DAT/SERT >1500 and NET/SERT > 1500). PMID:20980153

  14. Correlation of 3-Mercaptopropionic Acid Induced Seizures and Changes in Striatal Neurotransmitters Monitored by Microdialysis

    PubMed Central

    Crick, Eric W.; Osorio, Ivan; Frei, Mark; Mayer, Andrew P.; Lunte, Craig E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to use a status epilepticus steady-state chemical model in rats using the convulsant, 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA), and to compare the changes in striatal neurotransmission on a slow (5 minute) and fast (60 second) timescale. In vivo microdialysis was combined with electrophysiological methods in order to provide a complete evaluation of the dynamics of the results obtained. Objective To compare the effects of a steady-state chemical model pof status epilepticus on striatal amino-acid and amine neurotransmitters contents, as measured via in vivo microdialysis combined with electrophysiological methods. Measurements were performed on samples collected every 60 seconds and every 5 minutes. “Fast” (60s) and “slow” (5 min.) sampling timescales were selected, to gain more insight into the dynamics of GABA synthesis inhibition and of its effects on other neurotransmitters and on cortical electrical activity. Methods 3-MPA was administered in the form of an intra-venous load(60 mg/kg) followed by a constant infusion (50 mg/kg/min) for min. Microdialysis samples were collected from the striatum at intervals of 5 minutes and 60 seconds and analyzed for biogenic amine and amino acid neurotransmitters. ECoG activity was monitored via screws placed over the cortex. Results In the 5 minute samples, glutamate (Glu) increased and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) decreased monotonically while changes in dopamine (DA) concentration were bimodal. In the sixty second samples, Glu changes were bimodal, a feature that was not apparent with the five minute samples. ECoG activity was indicative of status epilepticus. Conclusions This study describes the combination of in vivo microdialysis with electrophysiology to monitor the effect of 3-MPA on neurotransmission in the brain. This led to a better understanding of the chemical changes in the striatum due to the applied 3-MPA chemical model of status epilepticus. PMID:24462767

  15. The effects of age on dopamine receptors measured by positron tomography in the living human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.F.; Wagner, E.N. Jr.; Dannals, R.F.; Frost, J.J.; Ravert, H.V.; Links, J.M.; Folstein, M.F.; Jensen, B.A.; Kuhar, M.J.; Toung, J.T.

    1984-01-01

    C-11 n-methylspiperone has been used to measure dopamine (D2) receptors in the caudate and putamen of 30 normal persons. In vitro studies in rodent brain revealed a high affinity for dopamine (D2) receptors and five fold less for serotonin (S2) receptors. In vivo drug competition studies in rodents demonstrated that 90% of striatal binding is to dopamine receptors. In the frontal cortex, the majority of receptor binding is to serotonin receptors. Thirty normal volunteers aged 19 to 73 years were screened for normality by medical, neurological and neuropsychological examinations. Positron tomography was performed serially for 2 hours after injection. In 10 subjects there was good agreement between activity in arterial samples and that in venous samples from a heated hand. Binding in the dopamine rich caudate and putamen progressively increased while binding in the dopamine poor cerebellum decreased. The dopamine receptor density was estimated by the ratio of the caudate-to-cerebellar mean counts/pixel (Ca/Cb) and putamen-to-cerebellar mean counts/pixel (Pu/Cb). The ratios (Ca/Cb, Pu/Cb) increased linearly with time (r>0.95) for each subject. There was a decrease (Ca/Cb) with age (0.8%/yr) that could be approximated with a linear fit: (Ca/Cb = -.02 age + 3.92, r=.6). For the 21 males alone, the decrease was (1.1%/yr, r=.7 , p <.01), while for the 9 females there was no significant decrease with age. Similar findings were noted in the putamen. This decline in dopamine receptor density with age has been reported in rodent and human autopsy studies, but never before in the living human brain.

  16. MicroRNA-132 dysregulation in Toxoplasma gondii infection has implications for dopamine signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jianchun; Li, Ye; Prandovszky, Emese; Karuppagounder, Senthilkumar S.; Talbot, C. Conover; Dawson, Valina L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Yolken, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis and toxoplasmic encephalitis can be associated with severe neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, which host cell processes are regulated and how Toxoplasma gondii affects these changes remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA sequences critical to neurodevelopment and adult neuronal processes by coordinating the activity of multiple genes within biological networks. We examined the expression of over 1000 miRNAs in human neuroepithelioma cells in response to infection with Toxoplasma. MiR-132, a cyclic AMP-responsive element binding (CREB)-regulated miRNA, was the only miRNA that was substantially upregulated by all three prototype Toxoplasma strains. The increased expression of miR-132 was also documented in mice following infection with Toxoplasma. To identify cellular pathways regulated by miR-132, we performed target prediction followed by pathway enrichment analysis in the transcriptome of Toxoplasma-infected mice. This led us to identify 20 genes and dopamine receptor signaling was their strongest associated pathway. We then examined myriad aspects of the dopamine pathway in the striatum of Toxoplasma infected mice 5 days after infection. Here we report decreased expression of D1-like dopamine receptors (DRD1, DRD5), metabolizing enzyme (MAOA) and intracellular proteins associated with the transduction of dopamine-mediated signaling (DARPP-32 phosphorylation at Thr34 and Ser97). Increased concentrations of dopamine and its metabolites, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were documented by HPLC analysis; however, the metabolism of dopamine was decreased and serotonin metabolism was unchanged. Our data show that miR-132 is upregulated following infection with Toxoplasma and is associated with changes in dopamine receptor signaling. Our findings provide a possible mechanism for how the parasite contributes to the neuropathology of infection. PMID:24657774

  17. Platelet-Derived Serotonin Mediates Liver Regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesurtel, Mickael; Graf, Rolf; Aleil, Boris; Walther, Diego J.; Tian, Yinghua; Jochum, Wolfram; Gachet, Christian; Bader, Michael; Clavien, Pierre-Alain

    2006-04-01

    The liver can regenerate its volume after major tissue loss. In a mouse model of liver regeneration, thrombocytopenia, or impaired platelet activity resulted in the failure to initiate cellular proliferation in the liver. Platelets are major carriers of serotonin in the blood. In thrombocytopenic mice, a serotonin agonist reconstituted liver proliferation. The expression of 5-HT2A and 2B subtype serotonin receptors in the liver increased after hepatectomy. Antagonists of 5-HT2A and 2B receptors inhibited liver regeneration. Liver regeneration was also blunted in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of peripheral serotonin. This failure of regeneration was rescued by reloading serotonin-free platelets with a serotonin precursor molecule. These results suggest that platelet-derived serotonin is involved in the initiation of liver regeneration.

  18. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  19. CURRENT LITERATURE NEUROTRANSMITTER SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN EPILEPSY

    E-print Network

    Huguenard, John R.

    CURRENT LITERATURE NEUROTRANSMITTER SUPPLY AND DEMAND IN EPILEPSY Block of Glutamate Contributes to Neurotransmitter GABA Synthesis and Epilepsy Sepkuty JP, Cohen AS, Eccles C, Rafiq A, Behar K and thus could cause epilepsy in rats when inactivated. Reduced ex- pression of EAAC1 by antisense

  20. Secondary Abnormalities of Neurotransmitters in Infants with Neurological Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Cazorla, A.; Serrano, M.; Perez-Duenas, B.; Gonzalez, V.; Ormazabal, A.; Pineda, M.; Fernandez-Alvarez, E.; Campistol, J. M. D.; Artuch, R. M. D.

    2007-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are essential in young children for differentiation and neuronal growth of the developing nervous system. We aimed to identify possible factors related to secondary neurotransmitter abnormalities in pediatric patients with neurological disorders. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and biogenic amine metabolites in 56 infants…

  1. Distinct pools of synaptic vesicles in neurotransmitter release

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent A. Pieribone; Oleg Shupliakov; Lennart Brodin; Sabine Hilfiker-Rothenfluh; Andrew J. Czernik; Paul Greengard

    1995-01-01

    NERVE terminals are unique among cellular secretory systems in that they can sustain vesicular release at a high rate. Although little is known about the mechanisms that account for the distinctive features of neurotransmitter release, it can be assumed that neuron-specific proteins are involved. One such protein family, the synapsins, are believed to regulate neurotransmitter release through phosphorylation-dependent interactions with

  2. Double barrier quantal model of neurotransmitter release.

    PubMed

    Melkonian, D S

    1991-11-01

    As an extension of the particle concept in the quantitative descriptive of an entire neurotransmitter population, which participates in quanta release from the terminal, an improved system of quantal postulates is suggested. An essential aspect of the corresponding double barrier quantal model is its nonstationarity, resulting from combined application of binomial and Yule-Furry statistics. Results of the computer simulations show that the model combines enough ingredients to reproduce, with fair accuracy, the main characteristic features of short-term changes of synaptic efficacy under the different conditions of presynaptic stimulation. With quantitative analysis and simulation of short-term facilitation, the synaptic resonance phenomenon is theoretically predicted: different resonant frequencies are found at different levels of facilitation. PMID:1687358

  3. Serotonin does not mediate anxiolytic effects of buspirone in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm: comparison with 8-OH-DPAT and ipsapirone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Davis; J. V. Cassella; J. H. Kehne

    1988-01-01

    The present study evaluated the role of various neurotransmitter systems in mediating buspirone's blockade of the fear-potentiated startle effect, where acoustic startle amplitude is normally increased in the presence of a light previously paired with a shock. Large lesions of the dorsal and median raphe nuclei or IP injections of the serotonin antagonists cinanserin (10 mg\\/kg) or cyproheptadine (5 mg\\/kg)

  4. Endogenous release of prostaglandin F?[a?lpha] during the postpartum period and its relationship with resumption of ovarian activity in mature Brahman cows 

    E-print Network

    Velez, Juan Santiago

    1991-01-01

    suppress gonadotropin secretion (Williams, 1990) . The later is probably mediated through several neurotransmitters such as endogenous opiod peptides (EOP), dopamine and serotonin, all of which have an inverse effect on the secretion of prolactin...

  5. Role of 5-ht2c receptor density on behaviour in mice 

    E-print Network

    Stevenson, Paula Louise

    2011-07-05

    The neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) play roles in eating disorders, mood disorders, such as depression and anxiety, and in the regulation of locomotion. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of fourteen 5-HT receptor subtypes...

  6. Ligand-Gated Chloride Channels Are Receptors for Biogenic Amines in C. elegans

    E-print Network

    Ringstad, Niels

    Biogenic amines such as serotonin and dopamine are intercellular signaling molecules that function widely as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. We have identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans three ligand-gated ...

  7. Sources of Cognitive Exploration: Genetic Variation in the Prefrontal Dopamine System Predicts Openness/Intellect

    PubMed Central

    DeYoung, Colin G.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Gray, Jeremy R.; Eastman, Maria; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2011-01-01

    The personality trait Openness/Intellect reflects the tendency to be imaginative, curious, perceptive, artistic, and intellectual—all characteristics that involve cognitive exploration. Little is known about the biological basis of Openness/Intellect, but the trait has been linked to cognitive functions of prefrontal cortex, and the neurotransmitter dopamine plays a key role in motivation to explore. The hypothesis that dopamine is involved in Openness/Intellect was supported by examining its association with two genes that are central components of the prefrontal dopaminergic system. In two demographically different samples (children: N = 608; adults: N = 214), variation in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) predicted Openness/Intellect, as main effects in the child sample and in interaction in adults. PMID:21804655

  8. The structure and function of the dopamine transporter and its role in CNS diseases.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Patrick C; Buckley, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore the basic science of the dopamine transporter (DAT), an integral component of a system that regulates dopamine homeostasis. Dopamine is a key neurotransmitter for several brain functions including locomotor control and reward systems. The transporter structure, function, mechanism of action, localization, and distribution, in addition to gene regulation, are discussed. Over many years, a wealth of information concerning the DAT has been accrued and has led to increased interest in the role of the DAT in a plethora of central nervous system diseases. These DAT characteristics are explored in relation to a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, with a particular focus on the genetics of the DAT. In addition, we discuss the pharmacology of the DAT and how this relates to disease and addiction. PMID:25817874

  9. SERS-active Au@Ag nanorod dimers for ultrasensitive dopamine detection.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lijuan; Li, Si; Han, Fei; Liu, Liqiang; Xu, Liguang; Ma, Wei; Kuang, Hua; Li, Aike; Wang, Libing; Xu, Chuanlai

    2015-09-15

    Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter which plays a key role in the life science. Self-assembled Au@Ag nanorod dimers based on aptamers were developed for ultrasensitive dopamine detection. The electronic field was significantly enhanced by the addition of silver shell coating on the surface of Au NR dimer. The results displayed that Au@Ag NR dimers were ideal building blocks for constructing the SERS substrates with prominent Raman enhancement effects. It was found that with using this Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-encoded this sensing system, a limit of detection of 0.006pM and a wide linear range of 0.01-10pM for dopamine detection were obtained. Our work open up a new avenue for the diagnosis and drug-discovery programs. PMID:25880832

  10. VLSI Potentiostat Array with Oversampling Gain Modulation for Wide-Range Neurotransmitter

    E-print Network

    Stanacevic, Milutin

    1 VLSI Potentiostat Array with Oversampling Gain Modulation for Wide-Range Neurotransmitter Sensing of neurotransmitter concentration. Index Terms-- Potentiostat, biomedical instrumentation, cur- rent measurement, require real- time and sensitive detection and monitoring of neurotransmit- ters. Neurotransmitters

  11. Reduced model of neurotransmitter transport in the presence of generic receptors and transporters

    E-print Network

    Steele, Brian

    Reduced model of neurotransmitter transport in the presence of generic receptors and transporters L, neurotransmitters, glutamate transport, synaptic cleft, effective diffusion, receptors, transporters 1. Introduction We consider a general reduction procedure for a model of neurotransmitter transport in the presence

  12. LETTER Communicated by Laurence Abbott An Algorithm for Modifying Neurotransmitter Release

    E-print Network

    Senn, Walter

    LETTER Communicated by Laurence Abbott An Algorithm for Modifying Neurotransmitter Release learning algorithm provides a general framework for reg- ulating neurotransmitter release probability. 1 in the probability of neurotransmitter release (Tsodyks & Markram, 1997). The experiments of Markram et al. (1997

  13. Muscle Dystroglycan Organizes the Postsynapse and Regulates Presynaptic Neurotransmitter Release at the

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Muscle Dystroglycan Organizes the Postsynapse and Regulates Presynaptic Neurotransmitter Release Dystroglycan Organizes the Postsynapse and Regulates Presynaptic Neurotransmitter Release at the Drosophila

  14. Serotonin in fear conditioning processes.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Elizabeth P

    2015-01-15

    This review describes the latest developments in our understanding of how the serotonergic system modulates Pavlovian fear conditioning, fear expression and fear extinction. These different phases of classical fear conditioning involve coordinated interactions between the extended amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortices. Here, I first define the different stages of learning involved in cued and context fear conditioning and describe the neural circuits underlying these processes. The serotonergic system can be manipulated by administering serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists, as well as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and these can have significant effects on emotional learning and memory. Moreover, variations in serotonergic genes can influence fear conditioning and extinction processes, and can underlie differential responses to pharmacological manipulations. This research has considerable translational significance as imbalances in the serotonergic system have been linked to anxiety and depression, while abnormalities in the mechanisms of conditioned fear contribute to anxiety disorders. PMID:25078294

  15. Serotonin in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To assess the role of serotonin and its control in the manifestations and treatment of lower functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Recent literature has explored several novel concepts in the association of serotonin and symptoms, alterations in tissue levels of serotonin and its reuptake protein (SERT), aspects of the genetic determinants of serotonergic function (particularly 5-HTTLPR) and its relationship to gastrointestinal motor and sensory functions, and novel serotonergic agents used in therapy of lower FGID. The most consistent findings are the increase in plasma 5-HT in diarrheal diseases and reduction in constipation. The SERT in platelets impacts on the circulating level of 5-HT. Meta-analysis shows that 5-HTTLPR genotype is not significantly associated with IBS in Caucasians or Asians. New 5-HT3 antagonists and 5-HT4 agonists are efficacious and promise to provide relief for patients if they can pass regulatory hurdles. Summary While the most relevant implication for clinical practice remains the evidence that serotonergic agents are efficacious in the treatment of chronic constipation, chronic diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, the role of genetic control of 5-HT and its receptors is the subject of ongoing research, and is likely to enhance understanding of the mechanisms and treatment of these diseases. PMID:19115522

  16. Real-time, Spatially Resolved Analysis of Serotonin Transporter Activity And Regulation Using the Fluorescent Substrate, ASP+

    PubMed Central

    Oz, M.; Libby, T.; Kivell, B.; Jaligam, V.; Ramamoorthy, S.; Shippenberg, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) mediates clearance of serotonin from the synapse, thereby, regulating extracellular serotonin concentrations. Radioligand uptake techniques are typically used to assess SERT function in tissue and heterologous expression systems. The need for sufficient protein in samples, however, requires use of homogenate preparations, potentially masking effects limited to specific cell populations. 4-(4-(dimethylamino)-styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP+) is a fluorescent monoamine transporter substrate that has been used for real-time monitoring of dopamine and norepinephrine transporter function in single cells. The present live cell imaging studies examine the utility of ASP+ for quantifying hSERT function in HEK-293 and neuroblastoma cells. We show rapid membrane binding and intracellular ASP+ accumulation in hSERT expressing cells. Accumulation is saturable; dependent on temperature and the presence of sodium and chloride in the media, and attenuated by serotonin. Acute or prolonged exposure of cells to serotonin re-uptake inhibitors produces a concentration-dependent decrease in accumulation. Similar effects are produced by PKC activation whereas p38MAPK activation increases ASP+ accumulation. These data demonstrate the validity of ASP+ as a probe for monitoring SERT function in living cells. Alterations in SERT binding and uptake can be quantified in the same cell and use of a within cell design permits analysis of time-related alterations in SERT function. PMID:20524964

  17. Obsessive compulsive disorder, response to serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the serotonin transporter gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E A Billett; M A Richter; N King; A Heils; K P Lesch; J L Kennedy

    1997-01-01

    Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common illness, characterized by anxiety- provoking thoughts and the need to perform rituals. OCD is most commonly treated with a class of pharmacological agents known as serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). SRIs block the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) into the presynaptic neuron, a process mediated by the serotonin transporter (5-HTT). The successful use of SRIs

  18. Developmental origins of neurotransmitter and transcriptome alterations in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wirbisky, Sara E; Weber, Gregory J; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Xiao, Changhe; Cannon, Jason R; Freeman, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Atrazine is an herbicide applied to agricultural crops and is indicated to be an endocrine disruptor. Atrazine is frequently found to contaminate potable water supplies above the maximum contaminant level of 3?g/L as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The developmental origin of adult disease hypothesis suggests that toxicant exposure during development can increase the risk of certain diseases during adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression are still unknown. In this study, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30?g/L atrazine throughout embryogenesis. Larvae were then allowed to mature under normal laboratory conditions with no further chemical treatment until 7 days post fertilization (dpf) or adulthood and neurotransmitter analysis completed. No significant alterations in neurotransmitter levels was observed at 7dpf or in adult males, but a significant decrease in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and serotonin turnover was seen in adult female brain tissue. Transcriptomic analysis was completed on adult female brain tissue to identify molecular pathways underlying the observed neurological alterations. Altered expression of 1928, 89, and 435 genes in the females exposed to 0.3, 3, or 30?g/L atrazine during embryogenesis were identified, respectively. There was a high level of overlap between the biological processes and molecular pathways in which the altered genes were associated. Moreover, a subset of genes was down regulated throughout the serotonergic pathway. These results provide support of the developmental origins of neurological alterations observed in adult female zebrafish exposed to atrazine during embryogenesis. PMID:25929836

  19. Serotonin and vasoactive intestinal peptide antagonists attenuate rotavirus diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Kordasti, S; Sjövall, H; Lundgren, O; Svensson, L

    2004-01-01

    Background and aims: The mechanisms underlying intestinal secretion in rotavirus diarrhoea remain to be established. We previously reported that rotavirus evokes intestinal fluid and electrolyte secretion by activation of the enteric nervous system. We now report that antagonists for the 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 receptor (5-HT3) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor, but not antagonists for 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor or the muscarinic receptor, attenuate rotavirus induced diarrhoea. Methods: Neurotransmitter antagonists were administered to wild-type or neurokinin 1 receptor knockout mice infected with homologous (EDIM) or heterologous (RRV) rotavirus. Results: While RRV infected mice had diarrhoea for 3.3 (0.2) days (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04–3.56), the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist (granisetron) and the VIP receptor antagonist (4Cl-D-Phe6,Leu17)-VIP both reduced the total number of days of RRV induced diarrhoea to 2.1 (0.3) (95% CI 1.31–2.9) (p<0.01). EDIM infected mice treated with granisetron had a significantly shorter duration of diarrhoea (5.6 (0.4) days) compared with untreated mice (8.0 (0.4) days; p<0.01). Experiments with neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists suggest that this receptor may possibly be involved in the secretory response to rotavirus. On the other hand, rotavirus diarrhoea was not attenuated in the neurokinin 1 receptor knockout mice. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the neurotransmitters serotonin and VIP are involved in rotavirus diarrhoea; observations that could imply new principles for treatment of this disease with significant global impact. PMID:15194642

  20. Challenges and recent advances in mass spectrometric imaging of neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Gemperline, Erin; Chen, Bingming; Li, Lingjun

    2014-02-01

    Mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool that grants the ability to investigate a broad mass range of molecules, from small molecules to large proteins, by creating detailed distribution maps of selected compounds. To date, MSI has demonstrated its versatility in the study of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides of different classes toward investigation of neurobiological functions and diseases. These studies have provided significant insight in neurobiology over the years and current technical advances are facilitating further improvements in this field. Herein, we briefly review new MSI studies of neurotransmitters, focusing specifically on the challenges and recent advances of MSI of neurotransmitters. PMID:24568355

  1. Improved techniques for examining rapid dopamine signaling with iontophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Natalie R.; Wightman, Robert Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is utilized in brain circuits associated with reward processing and motor activity. Advances in microelectrode techniques and cyclic voltammetry have enabled its extracellular concentration fluctuations to be examined on a subsecond time scale in the brain of anesthetized and freely moving animals. The microelectrodes can be attached to micropipettes that allow local drug delivery at the site of measurement. Drugs that inhibit dopamine uptake or its autoreceptors can be evaluated while only affecting the brain region directly adjacent to the electrode. The drugs are ejected by iontophoresis in which an electrical current forces the movement of molecules by a combination of electrical migration and electroosmosis. Using electroactive tracer molecules, the amount ejected can be measured with cyclic voltammetry. In this review we will give an introduction to the basic principles of iontophoresis, including a historical account on the development of iontophoresis. It will also include an overview of the use of iontophoresis to study neurotransmission of dopamine in the rat brain. It will close by summarizing the advantages of iontophoresis and how the development of quantitative iontophoresis will facilitate future studies. PMID:23276986

  2. Microfluidic Systems for Studying Neurotransmitters and Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Croushore, Callie A.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators are molecules within the nervous system that play key roles in cell-to-cell communication. Upon stimulation, neurons release these signaling molecules, which then act at local or distant locations to elicit a physiological response. Ranging from small molecules, such as diatomic gases and amino acids, to larger peptides, these chemical messengers are involved in many functional processes including growth, reproduction, memory and behavior. Understanding signaling molecules and the conditions that govern their release in healthy or damaged networks promises to deliver insights into neural network formation and function. Microfluidic devices can provide optimal cell culture conditions, reduced volume systems, and precise control over the chemical and physical nature of the extracellular environment, making them well-suited for studying neurotransmission and other forms of cell-to-cell signaling. Here we review selected microfluidic approaches that are suitable for monitoring cell-to-cell signaling molecules. We highlight devices that improve in vivo sample collection as well as compartmentalized devices designed to isolate individual neurons or co-cultures in vitro, including a focus on systems used for studying neural injury and regeneration, and devices that allow selective chemical stimulations and the characterization of released molecules. PMID:23474943

  3. Microfabrication of biosensors for neurotransmitter analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Weihong; Cordek, Julia; Liu, Xiaojing; Gross, Brooks; Liesenfeld, Bernd

    1999-06-01

    We have developed ultrasensitive biosensors for the analysis of neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA and lactate. These sensors have micrometer to submicrometer sizes. They are based on biomolecule immobilization on optical fiber probe surfaces. The miniaturized fiber probes are fabricated by either pulling or etching conventional optical fibers. For example, surface immobilized glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is being used for glutamate analysis. GDH has been directly immobilized onto an optical fiber probe surface through a new optical fiber sensor fabrication technique using covalent binding mechanisms. None of the direct or indirect physical confinement methods, such as mechanical confinement, gel trapping or membrane immobilization, has been used for the sensor preparation. An optical fiber surface is initially activated by silanization, which adds amine groups (-NH2) to the surface. We then affix functional groups -CHO to the optical fiber surface by employing a bifunctional cross-linking agent, glutaraldehyde. The amino acids of GDH enzyme molecules (or other biomolecules) readily attach to these free -CHO groups on the fiber surface. The sensor is able to detect its substrate, glutamate, by monitoring the fluorescence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), a product of the reaction between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and glutamate. Similar procedures and principle have been used for the development of lactate and GABA sensors. Our biomolecule based biosensors have been applied to the study of single living cell neurophysiological responses.

  4. First Experimental Evidence of Dopamine Interactions with Negatively Charged Model Biomembranes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine is essential for receptor-related signal transduction in mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. Weak interactions between the neurotransmitter and neuronal membranes have been suggested to modulate synaptic transmission; however, binding forces between dopamine and neuronal membranes have not yet been quantitatively described. Herein, for the first time, we have explained the nature of dopamine interactions with model lipid membranes assembled from neutral 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC), negatively charged 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (DMPG), and the mixture of these two lipids using isothermal titration calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dopamine binding to anionic membranes is a thermodynamically favored process with negative enthalpy and positive entropy, quantitatively described by the mole ratio partition coefficient, K. K increases with membrane charge to reach its maximal value, 705.4 ± 60.4 M–1, for membrane composed from pure DMPG. The contribution of hydrophobic effects to the binding process is expressed by the intrinsic partition coefficient, K0. The value of K0 = 74.7 ± 6.4 M–1 for dopamine/DMPG interactions clearly indicates that hydrophobic effects are 10 times weaker than electrostatic forces in this system. The presence of dopamine decreases the main transition temperature of DMPG, but no similar effect has been observed for DMPC. Basing on these results, we propose a simple electrostatic model of dopamine interactions with anionic membranes with the hydrophobic contribution expressed by K0. We suggest that dopamine interacts superficially with phospholipid membranes without penetrating into the bilayer hydrocarbon core. The model is physiologically important, since neuronal membranes contain a large (even 20%) fraction of anionic lipids. PMID:23662798

  5. In vitro pharmacology of aripiprazole, its metabolite and experimental dopamine partial agonists at human dopamine D2 and D3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tadori, Yoshihiro; Forbes, Robert A; McQuade, Robert D; Kikuchi, Tetsuro

    2011-10-15

    Aripiprazole is the first dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor partial agonist successfully developed and ultimately approved for treatment of a broad spectrum of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Aripiprazole's dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist activities have been postulated to confer clinical efficacy without marked sedation, and a relatively favorable overall side-effect profile. Using aripiprazole's unique profile as a benchmark for new dopamine partial agonist development may facilitate discovery of new antipsychotics. We conducted an in vitro comparative analysis between aripiprazole, and its human metabolite OPC-14857 (7-(4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl)butoxy)-2(1H)-quinolinone)); RGH-188 (trans-1-[4-[2-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)piperazine-1-yl]ethyl]cyclohexyl]-3,3-dimethylurea), and its metabolite didesmethyl-RGH-188 (DDM-RGH-188); as well as bifeprunox, sarizotan, N-desmethylclozapine (NDMC; clozapine metabolite), and SDZ 208-912 (N-[(8?)-2-chloro-6-methylergolin-8-yl]-2,2-dimethylpropanamide). In vitro pharmacological assessment included inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation and the reversal of dopamine-induced inhibition in clonal Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing D(2S), D(2L), D(3) Ser-9 and D(3) Gly-9 for human dopamine receptors. All test compounds behaved as dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor partial agonists. Aripiprazole's intrinsic activity at dopamine D(2S) and D(2L) receptors was similar to that of OPC-14857 and RGH-188; lower than that of dopamine and bifeprunox; and higher than that of DDM-RGH-188, SDZ 208-912, sarizotan, and NDMC. Aripiprazole's intrinsic activity at dopamine D(3) Ser-9 and D(3) Gly-9 receptors was similar to that of OPC-14857 and sarizotan; lower than that of dopamine, bifeprunox, RGH-188 and DDM-RGH-188; and higher than that of SDZ 208-912 and NDMC. A consolidated assessment of these findings may help defining the most appropriate magnitude of intrinsic activity at dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors for clinical efficacy and safety. PMID:21816144

  6. The cytochrome P450 2D-mediated formation of serotonin from 5-methoxytryptamine in the brain in vivo: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Haduch, Anna; Bromek, Ewa; Kot, Marta; Kami?ska, Katarzyna; Go?embiowska, Krystyna; Daniel, Wladyslawa A

    2015-04-01

    The cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) mediates synthesis of serotonin from 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), shown in vitro for cDNA-expressed CYP2D-isoforms and liver and brain microsomes. We aimed to demonstrate this synthesis in the brain in vivo. We measured serotonin tissue content in brain regions after 5-MT injection into the raphe nuclei (Model-A), and its extracellular concentration in rat frontal cortex and striatum using an in vivo microdialysis (Model-B) in male Wistar rats. Naïve rats served as control animals. 5-MT injection into the raphe nuclei of PCPA-(tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor)-pretreated rats increased the tissue concentration of serotonin (from 40 to 90% of the control value, respectively, in the striatum), while the CYP2D inhibitor quinine diminished serotonin level in some brain structures of those animals (Model-A). 5-MT given locally through a microdialysis probe markedly increased extracellular serotonin concentration in the frontal cortex and striatum (to 800 and 1000% of the basal level, respectively) and changed dopamine concentration (Model-B). Quinine alone had no effect on serotonin concentration; however, given jointly with 5-MT, it prevented the 5-MT-induced increase in cortical serotonin in naïve rats and in striatal serotonin in PCPA-treated animals. These results indicate that the CYP2D-catalyzed alternative pathway of serotonin synthesis from 5-MT is relevant in the brain in vivo, and set a new target for the action of psychotropics. PMID:25581337

  7. Review: Could neurotransmitters influence neurogenesis and neurorepair after stroke?

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Mendoza, E; Bellver-Landete, V; Merino, J J; González, M P; Martínez-Murillo, R; Oset-Gasque, M J

    2013-12-01

    Brain ischaemia and reperfusion produce alterations in the microenvironment of the parenchyma, including ATP depletion, ionic homeostasis alterations, inflammation, release of multiple cytokines and abnormal release of neurotransmitters. As a consequence, the induction of proliferation and migration of neural stem cells is redirected towards the peri-infarct region. The success of new neurorestorative treatments for damaged brain implies the need to describe with greater accuracy the mechanisms in charge of regulating adult neurogenesis, under both physiological and pathological conditions. Recent evidence demonstrates that many neurotransmitters, glutamate in particular, control the subventricular zone (SVZ), thus being part of the complex signal network that exerts a remarkable influence on the production of new neurones. Neurotransmitters provide a link between brain activity and SVZ neurogenesis. Therefore, a deeper knowledge of the role of neurotransmitters systems, such as glutamate and its transporters, in adult neurogenesis, may prove a valuable tool to be utilized as a neurorestorative therapy in this pathology. PMID:23941684

  8. Diffusion cannot govern the discharge of neurotransmitter in fast synapses.

    PubMed Central

    Khanin, R; Parnas, H; Segel, L

    1994-01-01

    In the present work we show that diffusion cannot provide the observed fast discharge of neurotransmitter from a synaptic vesicle during neurotransmitter release, mainly because it is not sufficiently rapid nor is it sufficiently temperature-dependent. Modeling the discharge from the vesicle into the cleft as a continuous point source, we have determined that discharge should occur in 50-75 microseconds, to provide the observed high concentrations of transmitter at the critical zone. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:7811953

  9. Autism spectrum disorder associated with low serotonin in CSF and mutations in the SLC29A4 plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) gene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have low brain serotonin concentrations as reflected by the serotonin end-metabolite 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5HIAA) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods We sequenced the candidate genes SLC6A4 (SERT), SLC29A4 (PMAT), and GCHFR (GFRP), followed by whole exome analysis. Results The known heterozygous p.Gly56Ala mutation in the SLC6A4 gene was equally found in the ASD and control populations. Using a genetic candidate gene approach, we identified, in 8 patients of a cohort of 248 with ASD, a high prevalence (3.2%) of three novel heterozygous non-synonymous mutations within the SLC29A4 plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) gene, c.86A?>?G (p.Asp29Gly) in two patients, c.412G?>?A (p.Ala138Thr) in five patients, and c.978 T?>?G (p.Asp326Glu) in one patient. Genome analysis of unaffected parents confirmed that these PMAT mutations were not de novo but inherited mutations. Upon analyzing over 15,000 normal control chromosomes, only SLC29A4 c.86A?>?G was found in 23 alleles (0.14%), while neither c.412G?>?A (<0.007%) nor c.978 T?>?G (<0.007%) were observed in all chromosomes analyzed, emphasizing the rareness of the three alterations. Expression of mutations PMAT-p.Ala138Thr and p.Asp326Glu in cellulae revealed significant reduced transport uptake activity towards a variety of substrates including serotonin, dopamine, and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), while mutation p.Asp29Gly had reduced transport activity only towards MPP+. At least two ASD subjects with either the PMAT-Ala138Thr or the PMAT-Asp326Glu mutation with altered serotonin transport activity had, besides low 5HIAA in CSF, elevated serotonin levels in blood and platelets. Moreover, whole exome sequencing revealed additional alterations in these two ASD patients in mainly serotonin-homeostasis genes compared to their non-affected family members. Conclusions Our findings link mutations in SLC29A4 to the ASD population although not invariably to low brain serotonin. PMAT dysfunction is speculated to raise serotonin prenatally, exerting a negative feedback inhibition through serotonin receptors on development of serotonin networks and local serotonin synthesis. Exome sequencing of serotonin homeostasis genes in two families illustrated more insight in aberrant serotonin signaling in ASD. PMID:25802735

  10. Who's flying the plane: Serotonin levels, aggression and free will

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Allan; Douard, John

    2010-01-01

    The present paper addresses the philosophical problem raised by current causal neurochemical models of impulsive violence and aggression: to what extent can we hold violent criminal offenders responsible for their conduct if that conduct is the result of deterministic biochemical processes in the brain. This question is currently receiving a great deal of attention among neuroscientists, legal scholars and philosophers. We examine our current knowledge of neuroscience to assess the possible roles of deterministic factors which induce impulsive aggression, and the extent to which this behavior can be controlled by neural conditioning mechanisms. Neural conditioning mechanisms, we suggest, may underlie what we consider the basis of responsible (though not necessarily moral) behavior: the capacity to give and take reasons. The models we first examine are based in part upon the role played by the neurotransmitter, serotonin, in the regulation of violence and aggression. Collectively, these results would appear to argue in favor of the view that low brain serotonin levels induce impulsive aggression which overrides mechanisms related to rational decision making processes. We next present an account of responsibility as based on the capacity to exercise a certain kind of reason-responsive control over one's conduct. The problem with such accounts of responsibility, however, is that they fail to specify a neurobiological realization of such mechanisms of control. We present a neurobiological, and weakly determinist, framework for understanding how persons can exercise guidance control over their conduct. This framework is based upon classical conditioning of neurons in the prefrontal cortex that allow for a decision making mechanism that provides for prefrontal cortical control of the sites in the brain which express aggressive behavior that include the hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray. The authors support the view that, in many circumstances, neural conditioning mechanisms provide the basis for the control of human aggression in spite of the presence of brain serotonin levels that might otherwise favor the expression of impulsive aggressive behavior. Indeed if those neural conditioning mechanisms underlie the human capacity to exercise control, they may be the neural realization of reason-responsiveness generally. PMID:21112635

  11. Comparison of Psychological Symptoms and Serum Levels of Neurotransmitters in Shanghai Adolescents with and without Internet Addiction Disorder: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Xia; Jiang, Wen-Qing; Lin, Zhi-Guang; Du, Ya-Song; Vance, Alasdair

    2013-01-01

    Background Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is now recognized internationally and is known to be linked with academic and social impairment. To date, we know little about its associated main biological factors. This study aimed to collect a carefully defined group of adolescents with IAD and an age- and gender-matched typically developing comparison group. We hypothesized that the young people with IAD would have higher rates of self-reported anxiety and depressive symptoms, have altered levels of peripheral blood dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin. In addition, we hypothesized the hours spent online are correlated with the severity of depression and anxiety among these young people with IAD. Methodology/Principal Finding A cross-sectional study of 20 adolescents who met Beard’s criteria for IAD and 15 typically developing adolescents (comparison group) was conducted. All the participants completed the Self Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), and the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED). Peripheral blood dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine were assayed. The mean level of norepinephrine was lower in the IAD group than that in the typically developing participants, while dopamine and serotonin levels did not differ. The SDS, SAS and SCARED symptom scores were increased in the adolescents with IAD. A logistic regression analysis revealed that a higher SAS score and lower level of norepinephrine independently predicted IAD group membership. There was no significant correlation between hours spent online and scores of SAS/SDS in IAD group. Conclusions/Significance Increased self-reported anxiety and lower peripheral blood norepinephrine are independently associated with IAD. PMID:23658801

  12. Serotonin: Modulator of a Drive to Withdraw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tops, Mattie; Russo, Sascha; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Tucker, Don M.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin is a fundamental neuromodulator in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems, with a suspected role in many human mental disorders. Yet, because of the complexity of serotonergic function, researchers have been unable to agree on a general theory. One function suggested for serotonin systems is the avoidance of threat. We propose…

  13. Peptides and neurotransmitters that affect renin secretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganong, W. F.; Porter, J. P.; Bahnson, T. D.; Said, S. I.

    1984-01-01

    Substance P inhibits renin secretion. This polypeptide is a transmitter in primary afferent neurons and is released from the peripheral as well as the central portions of these neurons. It is present in afferent nerves from the kidneys. Neuropeptide Y, which is a cotransmitter with norepinephrine and epinephrine, is found in sympathetic neurons that are closely associated with and presumably innervate the juxtagolmerular cells. Its effect on renin secretion is unknown, but it produces renal vasoconstriction and natriuresis. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a cotransmitter with acetylocholine in cholinergic neurons, and this polypeptide stimulates renin secretion. We cannot find any evidence for its occurence in neurons in the kidneys, but various stimuli increase plasma VIP to levels comparable to those produced by doses of exogenous VIP which stimulated renin secretion. Neostigmine increases plasma VIP and plasma renin activity, and the VIP appears to be responsible for the increase in renin secretion, since the increase is not blocked by renal denervation or propranolol. Stimulation of various areas in the brain produces sympathetically mediated increases in plasma renin activity associated with increases in blood pressure. However, there is pharmacological evidence that the renin response can be separated from the blood pressure response. In anaesthetized dogs, drugs that increase central serotonergic discharge increase renin secretion without increasing blood pressure. In rats, activation of sertonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus increases renin secretion by a pathway that projects from this nucleus to the ventral hypothalamus, and from there to the kidneys via the sympathetic nervous system. The serotonin releasing drug parachloramphetamine also increases plasma VIP, but VIP does not appear to be the primary mediator of the renin response. There is preliminary evidence that the serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus are part of the pathway by which psychosocial stimuli increase renin secretion.

  14. Synapse Model Neurotransmitter is released into cleft between axonal button and dendritic spine

    E-print Network

    Boahen, Kwabena

    Synapse Model Neurotransmitter is released into cleft between axonal button and dendritic spine;Dumping neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter concentration in cleft increases rapidly and then decays slowly In[1]:= d X dt Ileak with X 0 Q In[1]:= X t Q Ileak t Neurotransmitter remains in the cleft for some

  15. Nanopipet-Based Liquid-Liquid Interface Probes for the Electrochemical Detection of Acetylcholine, Tryptamine, and Serotonin via Ionic Transfer.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Michelle L; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Shen, Mei

    2015-05-19

    A nanoscale interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) provides a unique analytical platform for the detection of ionic species of biological interest such as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, especially those that are otherwise difficult to detect directly on a carbon electrode without electrode modification. We report the detection of acetylcholine, serotonin, and tryptamine on nanopipet electrode probes with sizes ranging from a radius of ?7 to 35 nm. The transfer of these analytes across a 1,2-dichloroethane/water interface was studied by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. Well-defined sigmoidal voltammograms were observed on the nanopipet electrodes within the potential window of artificial seawater for acetylcholine and tryptamine. The half wave transfer potential, E1/2, of acetylcholine, tryptamine, and serotonin were found to be -0.11, -0.25, and -0.47 V vs E1/2,TEA (term is defined later in experimental), respectively. The detection was linear in the range of 0.25-6 mM for acetylcholine and of 0.5-10 mM for tryptamine in artificial seawater. Transfer of serotonin was linear in the range of 0.15-8 mM in LiCl solution. The limit of detection for serotonin in LiCl on a radius ?21 nm nanopipet electrode was 77 ?M, for acetylcholine on a radius ?7 nm nanopipet electrode was 205 ?M, and for tryptamine on a radius ?19 nm nanopipet electrode was 86 ?M. Nanopipet-supported ITIES probes have great potential to be used in nanometer spatial resolution measurements for the detection of neurotransmitters. PMID:25877788

  16. Nanopipet-Based Liquid–Liquid Interface Probes for the Electrochemical Detection of Acetylcholine, Tryptamine, and Serotonin via Ionic Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Michelle L.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Shen, Mei

    2015-01-01

    A nanoscale interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (ITIES) provides a unique analytical platform for the detection of ionic species of biological interest such as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, especially those that are otherwise difficult to detect directly on a carbon electrode without electrode modification. We report the detection of acetylcholine, serotonin, and tryptamine on nanopipet electrode probes with sizes ranging from a radius of ?7 to 35 nm. The transfer of these analytes across a 1,2-dichloroethane/water interface was studied by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry. Well-defined sigmoidal voltammograms were observed on the nanopipet electrodes within the potential window of artificial seawater for acetylcholine and tryptamine. The half wave transfer potential, E1/2, of acetylcholine, tryptamine, and serotonin were found to be ?0.11, ?0.25, and ?0.47 V vs E1/2,TEA (term is defined later in experimental), respectively. The detection was linear in the range of 0.25–6 mM for acetylcholine and of 0.5–10 mM for tryptamine in artificial seawater. Transfer of serotonin was linear in the range of 0.15–8 mM in LiCl solution. The limit of detection for serotonin in LiCl on a radius ?21 nm nanopipet electrode was 77 ?M, for acetylcholine on a radius ?7 nm nanopipet electrode was 205 ?M, and for tryptamine on a radius ?19 nm nanopipet electrode was 86 ?M. Nanopipet-supported ITIES probes have great potential to be used in nanometer spatial resolution measurements for the detection of neurotransmitters. PMID:25877788

  17. Dopamine and Effort-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Dolan, Ray J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational theories of choice focus on the influence of goal values and strength of reinforcement to explain behavior. By contrast relatively little is known concerning how the cost of an action, such as effort expended, contributes to a decision to act. Effort-based decision making addresses how we make an action choice based on an integration of action and goal values. Here we review behavioral and neurobiological data regarding the representation of effort as action cost, and how this impacts on decision making. Although organisms expend effort to obtain a desired reward there is a striking sensitivity to the amount of effort required, such that the net preference for an action decreases as effort cost increases. We discuss the contribution of the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) toward overcoming response costs and in enhancing an animal's motivation toward effortful actions. We also consider the contribution of brain structures, including the basal ganglia and anterior cingulate cortex, in the internal generation of action involving a translation of reward expectation into effortful action. PMID:21734862

  18. “Is dopamine involved in Alzheimer's disease?”

    PubMed Central

    Martorana, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive decline and dementia. Recent advances indicate that AD pathogenesis appears more complex than its mere neuropathology. Changes in synaptic plasticity, neuronal disarray and cell death are pathways commonly recognized as pathogenic mechanisms of AD. It is thought that the altered metabolism of certain membrane proteins may lead to the production of amyloid (A?) oligomers that are characterized by an highly toxic effect on neurotransmission pathways, such as those mediated by Acetylcholine. The interaction of A? oligomers with these neurotansmitters systems would in turn induce cell dysfunction, neurotransmitters signaling imbalance and finally lead to the appearance of neurological signs. In this perspective, it is still debated how and if these mechanisms may also engage the dopaminergic system in AD. Recent experimental work revealed that the dopaminergic system may well be involved in the occurrence of cognitive decline, often being predictive of rapidly progressive forms of AD. However, a clear idea on the role of the dopamine system in AD is still missing. Here we review the more recent evidences supporting the notion that the dopaminergic dysfunction has a pathogenic role in cognitive decline symptoms of AD. PMID:25309431

  19. M100,907, a selective 5HT 2A antagonist, attenuates dopamine release in the rat medial prefrontal cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Pehek; H. G. McFarlane; K. Maguschak; B. Price; C. P. Pluto

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that serotonin 5-HT2A receptors modulate the functioning of the mesocortical dopamine (DA) pathway. However, the specific role of 5-HT2A receptors localized within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is not known. The present study employed in vivo microdialysis to examine the role of this receptor in the modulation of basal and K+-stimulated (Ca2+-dependent) DA release. The selective

  20. Effects of dopamine D 1 - or D 2 -like receptor antagonists on the hypermotive and discriminative stimulus effects of (+)MDMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcy J. Bubar; Kami M. Pack; Paul S. Frankel; Kathryn A. Cunningham

    2004-01-01

    RationaleBoth dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) release are evoked by (+)-MDMA; however, little is known of the contribution of DA D 1- and D 2-like receptors (D 1R and D 2R, respectively) in the behavioral effects of (+)-MDMA.ObjectivesTo test the hypothesis that a D 1R or D 2R antagonist would attenuate the hypermotive or discriminative stimulus effects of (+)-MDMA.MethodsMale Sprague-Dawley

  1. Dopamine functions as an antiherbivore defense in the temperate green alga Ulvaria obscura.

    PubMed

    Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Nelson, Amorah V; Vyvyan, James R; Cancilla, Devon A

    2006-06-01

    On northeastern Pacific coasts, Ulvaria obscura is a dominant component of subtidal "green tide" blooms, which can be harmful to marine communities, fisheries, and aquaculture facilities. U. obscura is avoided by herbivores relative to many other locally common macrophytes, which may contribute to its ability to form persistent blooms. We used a bioassay-guided fractionation method to experimentally determine the cause of reduced feeding on Ulvaria by echinoderms, molluscs, and arthropods. Our results indicated that dopamine, which constituted an average of 4.4% of the alga's dry mass, was responsible for decreased feeding by sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis). Subsequent experiments demonstrated that dopamine also reduced the feeding rates of snails (Littorina sitkana) and isopods (Idotea wosnesenskii). Dopamine is a catecholamine that is a common neurotransmitter in animals. The catecholamines dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine also occur in at least 44 families of higher plants. The functions of catecholamines in plants are less well known than in animals but are likely to be diverse and include both physiological and ecological roles. Our results are the first experimental demonstration of a plant or algal catecholamine functioning as a feeding deterrent. This novel use of dopamine by Ulvaria may contribute to the formation and persistence of harmful Ulvaria blooms in northeastern Pacific coastal waters. PMID:16489461

  2. Preliminary investigation of the influence of dopamine regulating genes on social working memory

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Sarah K. G.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Meyer, Meghan L.; Lieberman, Matthew D.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Working memory (WM) refers to mental processes that enable temporary retention and manipulation of information, including information about other people (“social working memory”). Previous studies have demonstrated that nonsocial WM is supported by dopamine neurotransmission. Here, we investigated in 131 healthy adults whether dopamine is similarly involved in social WM by testing whether social and nonsocial WM are influenced by genetic variants in three genes coding for molecules regulating the availability of dopamine in the brain: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), dopamine active transporter (DAT), and monoamine-oxidase A (MAOA). An advantage for the Met allele of COMT was observed in the two standard WM tasks and in the social WM task. However, the influence of COMT on social WM performance was not accounted for by its influence on either standard WM paradigms. There was no main effect of DAT1 or MAOA, but a significant COMT × DAT1 interaction on social WM performance. This study provides novel preliminary evidence of effects of genetic variants of the dopamine neurotransmitter system on social cognition. The results further suggest that the effects observed on standard WM do not explain the genetic effects on effortful social cognition. PMID:24889756

  3. Dopamine complexes of iron in the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Arreguin, Shelly; Nelson, Paul; Padway, Shelby; Shirazi, Matthew; Pierpont, Cortlandt

    2009-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimers. The main pathological hallmark of Parkinson's is the deterioration and death of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine. Much of the neuronal damage takes place in the substantia nigra, a small region of the midbrain that contains the cell bodies of neurons that produce dopamine. The deterioration and death of dopaminergic neurons are directly associated with misfolding and aggregation of proteins, principally alpha-synuclein, that are natively unfolded. Present also in the substantia nigra is an unusually high concentration of vestigial iron. Protein misfolding in non-genetic (sporadic) cases of PD has been associated with reactive oxygen species formed as products of O(2) reduction by the combination of dopamine and iron. Combinations of Fe(3+), dopamine hydrochloride (DA(H+)Cl), and various ancillary ligands have been studied as a function of pH in aqueous solution to determine the optimum pH for complex formation. With ancillary ligands (L(4)) derived from nitrilotriacetic acid and ethylenediamine diacetic acid spectral changes are consistent with the formation of L(4)Fe(DA(H+)) species that reach a maximum concentration at pH 7.2. With edta as the ancillary ligand, spectral features at pH 7 resemble those of Fe(3+)-catecholate complexes that contain catecholate ligands bonded through a single oxygen. This demonstrates the ability of the dopamine catechol functionality to penetrate the coordination sphere of even exceptionally stable iron chelates. PMID:18976814

  4. Disposition of methylenedioxymethamphetamine and three metabolites in the brains of different rat strains and their possible roles in acute serotonin depletion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Chu; Yoshito Kumagai; Emma W. DiStefano; Arthur K. Cho

    1996-01-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) affects both dopamine and serotonin (5-HT) systems. One of its acute actions is to cause a reversible fall in steady-state brain 5-HT concentrations. To investigate the chemical basis of this acute effect, the brain levels of the parent compound and three major metabolites, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (DHMA) and 6-hydroxy-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (6-OHMDMA), were monitored, together with 5-HT levels, over a

  5. Dopamine receptors - IUPHAR Review 13.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as ?-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  6. A functional polymorphism in the MAOA gene promoter (MAOA-LPR) predicts central dopamine function and body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ducci, F; Newman, T K; Funt, S; Brown, G L; Virkkunen, M; Goldman, D

    2006-09-01

    Variation in brain monoaminergic activity is heritable and modulates risk of alcoholism and other addictions, as well as food intake and energy expenditure. Monoamine oxidase A deaminates the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine (DA), and noradrenaline. The monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene (Xp11.5) contains a length polymorphism in its promoter region (MAOA-LPR) that putatively affects transcriptional efficiency. Our goals were to test (1) whether MAOA-LPR contributes to interindividual variation in monoamine activity, assessed using levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monoamine metabolites; and (2) whether MAOA-LPR genotype influences alcoholism and/or body mass index (BMI). Male, unrelated criminal alcoholics (N=278) and controls (N=227) were collected from a homogeneous Finnish source population. CSF concentration of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) were available from 208 participants. Single allele, hemizygous genotypes were grouped according to inferred effect of the MAOA alleles on transcriptional activity. MAOA-LPR genotypes had a significant effect on CSF HVA concentration (P=0.01) but explained only 3% of the total variance. There was a detectable but nonsignificant genotype effect on 5-HIAA and no effects on MHPG. Specifically, the genotype conferring high MAOA activity was associated with lower HVA levels in both alcoholics and controls, a finding that persisted after accounting for the potential confounds of alcoholism, BMI, height, and smoking. MAOA-LPR genotype predicted BMI (P<0.005), with the high-activity genotype being associated with lower BMI. MAOA-LPR genotypes were not associated with alcoholism or related psychiatric phenotypes in this data set. Our results suggest that MAOA-LPR allelic variation modulates DA turnover in the CNS, but does so in a manner contrary to our prior expectation that alleles conferring high activity would predict higher HVA levels in CSF. Our results are consistent with an emerging literature that suggests greater complexity in how variation in MAOA expression alters monoaminergic function. Finally, our work suggests that MAOA may be involved in the regulation of BMI. Independent samples are necessary to confirm this preliminary finding. PMID:16770335

  7. Midbrain dopamine neurons sustain inhibitory transmission using plasma membrane uptake of GABA, not synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tritsch, Nicolas X; Oh, Won-Jong; Gu, Chenghua; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic transmission between midbrain dopamine neurons and target neurons in the striatum is essential for the selection and reinforcement of movements. Recent evidence indicates that nigrostriatal dopamine neurons inhibit striatal projection neurons by releasing a neurotransmitter that activates GABAA receptors. Here, we demonstrate that this phenomenon extends to mesolimbic afferents, and confirm that the released neurotransmitter is GABA. However, the GABA synthetic enzymes GAD65 and GAD67 are not detected in midbrain dopamine neurons. Instead, these cells express the membrane GABA transporters mGAT1 (Slc6a1) and mGAT4 (Slc6a11) and inhibition of these transporters prevents GABA co-release. These findings therefore indicate that GABA co-release is a general feature of midbrain dopaminergic neurons that relies on GABA uptake from the extracellular milieu as opposed to de novo synthesis. This atypical mechanism may confer dopaminergic neurons the flexibility to differentially control GABAergic transmission in a target-dependent manner across their extensive axonal arbors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01936.001 PMID:24843012

  8. The predicted 3D structure of the human D2 dopamine receptor and the binding site and binding affinities for agonists and antagonists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalani, M. Yashar S.; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E.; Trabanino, Rene J.; Freddolino, Peter L.; Kalani, Maziyar A.; Floriano, Wely B.; Tak Kam, Victor Wai; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-03-01

    Dopamine neurotransmitter and its receptors play a critical role in the cell signaling process responsible for information transfer in neurons functioning in the nervous system. Development of improved therapeutics for such disorders as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia would be significantly enhanced with the availability of the 3D structure for the dopamine receptors and of the binding site for dopamine and other agonists and antagonists. We report here the 3D structure of the long isoform of the human D2 dopamine receptor, predicted from primary sequence using first-principles theoretical and computational techniques (i.e., we did not use bioinformatic or experimental 3D structural information in predicting structures). The predicted 3D structure is validated by comparison of the predicted binding site and the relative binding affinities of dopamine, three known dopamine agonists (antiparkinsonian), and seven known antagonists (antipsychotic) in the D2 receptor to experimentally determined values. These structures correctly predict the critical residues for binding dopamine and several antagonists, identified by mutation studies, and give relative binding affinities that correlate well with experiments. The predicted binding site for dopamine and agonists is located between transmembrane (TM) helices 3, 4, 5, and 6, whereas the best antagonists bind to a site involving TM helices 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7 with minimal contacts to TM helix 5. We identify characteristic differences between the binding sites of agonists and antagonists.

  9. The developmental role of serotonin: news from mouse molecular genetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Cases; Luc Maroteaux; Patricia Gaspar

    2003-01-01

    New genetic models that target the serotonin system show that transient alterations in serotonin homeostasis cause permanent changes to adult behaviour and modify the fine wiring of brain connections. These findings have revived a long-standing interest in the developmental role of serotonin. Molecular genetic approaches are now showing us that different serotonin receptors, acting at different developmental stages, modulate different

  10. Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Platelet Serotonin Level Predicts Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Luc Dupuis1,2 *, Odile. Methodology: Platelet and plasma unconjugated concentrations of serotonin and plasma 5-HIAA, the major: Platelet serotonin levels were significantly decreased in ALS patients. Platelet serotonin levels did

  11. [Possible role of serotonin 5-HT2 receptors in mechanism of afobazole anxiolytic action: neurochemical study of inter-line differences in mice].

    PubMed

    Raevski?, K S; Narkevich, V B; Klodt, P M; Kudrin, V S

    2011-01-01

    Effects of separate and combined introduction of afobazole and SB-200646A (highly selective 5-HT2B/2C receptor antagonist) on the content of monoamines and their metabolites in brain structures of mice of C57/Bl/6 and BALB/C lines have been studied using neurochemical methods and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Afobazole (5 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly increased dopamine (DA) level in hypothalamus and amygdala of C57/Bl/6 mice, while no changes of DA content were observed in BALB/C mice. At the same time, the concentrations of DA metabolites dioxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) in the same structures as well as in striatum were decreased compared to control. Afobazole also led to a decrease in the content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-HIAA/5-HT index in frontal cortex and amygdala of C57/Bl/6 mice; analogous decrease in the latter parameter was observed in striatum of BALB/C mice. The introduction of SB-200646A (10 mg/kg, i.p.) almost did not influence the neurochemical indices of the content and metabolism of monoamines, except for an increase in the HVA content in amygdala and the DOPAC and 5-HIAA concentrations in striatum of C57/Bl/6 mice. The joint introduction of afobazole and SB-200646A led to an increase in the content of norepinephrine (NE) in striatum of BALB/C mice and in hippocamp of mice of both lines. The data obtained may be indicative of the involvement of NE- and DA-ergic neurotransmitter systems in the mechanisms of afobazole action. Enhanced anxiolytic effect of the joint introduction of afobazole and SB-200646A can be interpreted as a positive modulation of the anxiolytic drug action related to the blocking of 5-HT2-type serortonin receptors. The results also reveal inter-line differences of neurochemical responses induced by combination of afobazole and selective antagonist of serotonin. PMID:22379873

  12. Clozapine functions through the prefrontal cortex serotonin 1A receptor to heighten neuronal activity via calmodulin kinase II-NMDA receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Sudarshana; Ford, Jason; Kanjilal, Baishali; Diallo, Souleymane; Del Rosario Inigo, Joseph; Neuwirth, Lorenz; El Idrissi, Abdeslem; Ahmed, Zaghloul; Wieraszko, Andrzej; Azmitia, Efrain C; Banerjee, Probal

    2012-02-01

    Aberrant dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is believed to underlie schizophrenia, but the mechanistic pathway through which a widely used antipsychotic, clozapine (Clz), evokes neurotransmitter-releasing electrical stimulation is unclear. We analyzed Clz-evoked regulation of neuronal activity in the PFC by stimulating axons in layers IV and V and recording the electrical effect in the post-synaptic pyramidal cells of layers II and III. We observed a Clz-evoked increase in population spike (PS), which was mediated by serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT(1A)-R), phospholipase C?, and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Immunoblotting demonstrated that the Clz-activation of CaMKII was 5-HT(1A)-R-mediated. Intriguingly, the NMDA receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist (±)2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) eliminated the Clz-mediated increase in PS, suggesting that the 5-HT(1A)-R, NMDA-R and CaMKII form a synergistic triad, which boosts excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP), thereby enhancing PS. In corroboration, Clz as well as NMDA augmented field EPSP (fEPSP), and WAY100635 (a 5-HT(1A)-R antagonist), APV, and a CaMKII inhibitor eliminated this increase. As previously shown, CaMKII binds to the NMDA-R 2B (NR2B) subunit to become constitutively active, thereby inducing ?-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptor recruitment to the post-synaptic membrane and an increase in fEPSP. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Clz potentiates interactions among CaMKII, NR2B, and 5-HT(1A)-R, possibly in the membrane rafts of the post-synaptic density (PSD), because pretreatment with methyl-?-cyclodextrin (MCD), an agent that disrupts rafts, inhibited both co-immunoprecipitation as well as fEPSP. In summary, Clz functions in the PFC by orchestrating a synergism among 5-HT(1A)-R, CaMKII, and NMDA-R, which augments excitability in the PFC neurons of layers II/III. PMID:22044428

  13. Kinetic diversity of dopamine transmission in the dorsal striatum.

    PubMed

    Taylor, I Mitch; Nesbitt, Kathryn M; Walters, Seth H; Varner, Erika L; Shu, Zhan; Bartlow, Kathleen M; Jaquins-Gerstl, Andrea S; Michael, Adrian C

    2015-05-01

    Dopamine (DA), a highly significant neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, operates on multiple time scales to affect a diverse array of physiological functions. The significance of DA in human health is heightened by its role in a variety of pathologies. Voltammetric measurements of electrically evoked DA release have brought to light the existence of a patchwork of DA kinetic domains in the dorsal striatum (DS) of the rat. Thus, it becomes necessary to consider how these domains might be related to specific aspects of DA's functions. Responses evoked in the fast and slow domains are distinct in both amplitude and temporal profile. Herein, we report that responses evoked in fast domains can be further classified into four distinct types, types 1-4. The DS, therefore, exhibits a total of at least five distinct evoked responses (four fast types and one slow type). All five response types conform to kinetic models based entirely on first-order rate expressions, which indicates that the heterogeneity among the response types arises from kinetic diversity within the DS terminal field. We report also that functionally distinct subregions of the DS express DA kinetic diversity in a selective manner. Thus, this study documents five response types, provides a thorough kinetic explanation for each of them, and confirms their differential association with functionally distinct subregions of this key DA terminal field. The dorsal striatum is composed of five significantly different dopamine domains (types 1-4 and slow, average ± SEM responses to medial forebrain bundle (MFB) stimulation are shown in the figure). Responses from each of these five domains exhibit significantly different ascending and descending kinetic profiles and return to a long lasting elevated dopamine state, termed the dopamine hang-up. All features of these responses are modeled with high correlation using first-order modeling as well as our recently published restricted diffusion model of evoked dopamine overflow. We also report that functionally distinct subregions of the dorsal striatum express selective dopamine kinetic diversity. PMID:25683259

  14. The serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist tandospirone improves executive function in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Baba, Satoko; Murai, Takeshi; Nakako, Tomokazu; Enomoto, Takeshi; Ono, Michiko; Shimizu, Isao; Ikeda, Kazuhito

    2015-07-01

    Previous pilot clinical studies have shown that the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist tandospirone has beneficial effect on cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. In the present study, we evaluated the cognitive efficacy of tandospirone, given alone or in combination with the antipsychotic blonanserin, risperidone or haloperidol, on executive function in marmosets using the object retrieval with detour (ORD) task. Treatment with tandospirone alone at 20 and 40mg/kg increased the number of correct responses in the difficult trial, while risperidone (0.3mg/kg) and haloperidol (0.3mg/kg) decreased the number of correct responses in this trial. On the other hand, blonanserin (0.1-0.3mg/kg), an atypical antipsychotic highly selective for dopamine D2/D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors, did not affect the number of correct responses in both the easy and difficult trials. Co-treatment with tandospirone (20mg/kg) and risperidone (0.1-0.3mg/kg) or haloperidol (0.1-0.3mg/kg) did not improve animals' performance in the difficult trial. However, co-treatment with tandospirone and blonanserin (0.1-0.3mg/kg) increased the number of correct responses in the difficult trial. In addition, treatment with the dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF-81297 at 1mg/kg increased marmosets correct responses in the difficult trial. These results suggest that tandospirone is a promising candidate for the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia and that adjunctive treatment with tandospirone and blonanserin is more appropriate for cognitive deficits than combination therapy with tandospirone and risperidone or haloperidol. The results of this study also indicate that the putative mechanism of action of tandospirone might be related to enhancement of dopamine neurotransmission via activation of the 5-HT1A receptor. PMID:25804359

  15. Association of Changes in Norepinephrine and Serotonin Transporter Expression with the Long-Term Behavioral

    E-print Network

    antidepressants, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs), norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (NRIs), and serotonin­norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), this results from inhibition of the norepinephrine or serotonin transporters

  16. Peculiarities of serotonin metabolism during allergic reactions.

    PubMed

    Cibas, P; Padegimas, B; Kondrotas, A

    1982-01-01

    Patients with mixed, infectious-allergic bronchial asthma and allergodermatoses showed suppression of serotonin metabolism. Allergic reactions in experimental animals were accompanied by changes in the activity of 5-hydroxytryptophandecarboxylase, mitochondrial and blood serum monoaminoxydase, and ceruloplasmin. These changes differed during primary and repeated anaphylactic shock. Quantitative changes in tissue serotonin varied with the activity of the enzymes taking part in its metabolism. During the 1st, 2nd, 5th and 7th days of the post-shock period, serotonin metabolism did not return to normal. PMID:7080993

  17. Salsolinol modulation of dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guiqin; Krnjevi?, Krešimir; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Salsolinol, a tetrahydroisoquinoline present in the human and rat brains, is the condensation product of dopamine and acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol. Previous evidence obtained in vivo links salsolinol with the mesolimbic dopaminergic (DA) system: salsolinol is self-administered into the posterior of the ventral tegmental area (pVTA) of rats; intra-VTA administration of salsolinol induces a strong conditional place preference and increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, the underlying neuronal mechanisms are unclear. Here we present an overview of some of the recent research on this topic. Electrophysiological studies reveal that DA neurons in the pVTA are a target of salsolinol. In acute brain slices from rats, salsolinol increases the excitability and accelerates the ongoing firing of dopamine neurons in the pVTA. Intriguingly, this action of salsolinol involves multiple pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms, including: (1) depolarizing dopamine neurons; (2) by activating ? opioid receptors on the GABAergic inputs to dopamine neurons – which decreases GABAergic activity – dopamine neurons are disinhibited; and (3) enhancing presynaptic glutamatergic transmission onto dopamine neurons via activation of dopamine type 1 receptors, probably situated on the glutamatergic terminals. These novel mechanisms may contribute to the rewarding/reinforcing properties of salsolinol observed in vivo. PMID:23745110

  18. Dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity in striatum during in vivo development

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ka-Choi; Low, Malcolm J.; Grandy, David K.; Lovinger, David M.

    2001-01-01

    The neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and glutamate in the striatum play key roles in movement and cognition, and they are implicated in disorders of the basal ganglia such as Parkinson's disease. Excitatory synapses in striatum undergo a form of developmental plasticity characterized by a decrease in glutamate release probability. Here we demonstrate that this form of synaptic plasticity is DA and DA D2 receptor dependent. Analysis of spontaneous synaptic responses indicates that a presynaptic mechanism involving inhibition of neurotransmitter release underlies the developmental plasticity. We suggest that a major role of DA in the striatum is to initiate mechanisms that regulate the efficacy of excitatory striatal synapses, producing a decrease in glutamate release. PMID:11158626

  19. Exposure to methylmercury in utero: effects on biochemical development of catecholamine neurotransmitter systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolome, J.; Whitmore, W.L.; Seidler, F.J.; Slotkin, T.A.

    1984-08-06

    Administration of methylmercury to pregnant rats resulted in major alterations in synaptic dynamics of brain dopamine systems in the offspring which were prominent even at doses of the organomercurial which did not produce acute toxicity, fetal or neonatal death, low birth weight or reduced litter sizes. The abnormalities were typified by shortfalls in both the levels and turnover rate of the transmitter in vivo, accompanied by elevations in synaptic uptake as assessed in synaptosomal preparations in vitro. These effects were not apparent in the immediate postnatal period but instead showed a delayed onset beginning at about the time of weaning. Methylmercury exposure displayed selectivity in that central noradrenergic systems showed only the synaptic uptake alterations without changes in transmitter levels or turnover; targeted interactions were also apparent in peripheral sympathetic pathways to the heart and kidney. The threshold dose required to elicit damage to biochemical development of neurotransmitter systems was the same as that to alter more generalized cellular development, as assessed through measurements of brain ornithine decarboxylase activity. These studies indicate that neurochemical damage produced by prenatal exposure of the developing organism to methylmercury involves transmitter-selective alterations in synaptic dynamics and function which may contribute to adverse hehavioral outcomes; the underlying mechanisms, however, do not necessarily reflect actions of the organomercurial which are primary or specific to these particular neutronal tissues.

  20. Electrochemical performance of porous diamond-like carbon electrodes for sensing hormones, neurotransmitters, and endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Silva, Tiago A; Zanin, Hudson; May, Paul W; Corat, Evaldo J; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2014-12-10

    Porous diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrodes have been prepared, and their electrochemical performance was explored. For electrode preparation, a thin DLC film was deposited onto a densely packed forest of highly porous, vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VACNT). DLC deposition caused the tips of the carbon nanotubes to clump together to form a microstructured surface with an enlarged surface area. DLC:VACNT electrodes show fast charge transfer, which is promising for several electrochemical applications, including electroanalysis. DLC:VACNT electrodes were applied to the determination of targeted molecules such as dopamine (DA) and epinephrine (EP), which are neurotransmitters/hormones, and acetaminophen (AC), an endocrine disruptor. Using simple and low-cost techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, analytical curves in the concentration range from 10 to 100 ?mol L(-1) were obtained and excellent analytical parameters achieved, including high analytical sensitivity, good response stability, and low limits of detection of 2.9, 4.5, and 2.3 ?mol L(-1) for DA, EP, and AC, respectively. PMID:25402230

  1. Preparation of Graphene-Modified Acupuncture Needle and Its Application in Detecting Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lina; Du, Danxin; Yang, Fan; Liang, Zhong; Ning, Yong; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We report a unique nanosensing platform by combining modern nanotechnology with traditional acupuncture needle to prepare graphene-modified acupuncture needle (G-AN), and using it for sensitive detection of neurotransmitters via electrochemistry. An electrochemical deposition method was employed to deposit Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the tip surface of the traditional acupuncture needle, while the other part of the needle was coated with insulation paste. Subsequently, the G-AN was obtained by cyclic voltammetry reduction of a graphene oxide solution on the surface of the AuNPs. To investigate the sensing property of the G-AN, pH dependence was measured by recording the open circuit potential in the various pH buffer solutions ranging from 2.0 to 10.0. What’s more, the G-AN was further used for detection of dopamine (DA) with a limit of detection of 0.24??M. This novel G-AN exhibited a good sensitivity and selectivity, and could realize direct detection of DA in human serum. PMID:26112773

  2. Preparation of Graphene-Modified Acupuncture Needle and Its Application in Detecting Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lina; Du, Danxin; Yang, Fan; Liang, Zhong; Ning, Yong; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We report a unique nanosensing platform by combining modern nanotechnology with traditional acupuncture needle to prepare graphene-modified acupuncture needle (G-AN), and using it for sensitive detection of neurotransmitters via electrochemistry. An electrochemical deposition method was employed to deposit Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the tip surface of the traditional acupuncture needle, while the other part of the needle was coated with insulation paste. Subsequently, the G-AN was obtained by cyclic voltammetry reduction of a graphene oxide solution on the surface of the AuNPs. To investigate the sensing property of the G-AN, pH dependence was measured by recording the open circuit potential in the various pH buffer solutions ranging from 2.0 to 10.0. What's more, the G-AN was further used for detection of dopamine (DA) with a limit of detection of 0.24??M. This novel G-AN exhibited a good sensitivity and selectivity, and could realize direct detection of DA in human serum. PMID:26112773

  3. The relationship between problem behavior and neurotransmitter deficiency in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiaoqin; Wang, Hongxing; Zheng, Lei; Chen, Dingyan; Wang, Zengzhen

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association of problem behavior with neurotransmitter deficiency in adolescents, which would provide new insights into behavioral problems. A total of 1259 students of the seventh grade from 4 middle schools in Wuhan city located in the central China were recruited. With the approval of school and parents, they were invited to complete the Youth Self-Report (YSR) questionnaire and Symptom Scale of Neurotransmitter Deficiency (SSND) questionnaire. Pearson's bivariate correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients between each subscale of YSR and SSND ranged from 0.24 to 0.61 with all P<0.01. Canonical correlation analysis indicated that anxiety/depression was interrelated with insufficiency of GABA and 5-HT; aggressive behavior was associated with inadequate GABA; famine of DA influenced the attention problems. It was concluded that neurotransmitter deficiency may cause a series of behavioral and mental problems. PMID:21181360

  4. Infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of protonated neurotransmitters in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, N. A.; Simons, J. P.

    2007-03-01

    Protonated neurotransmitters have been produced in the gas phase via a novel photochemical scheme: complexes of the species of interest, 1-phenylethylamine, 2-amino-1-phenylethanol and the diastereo-isomers, ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, with a suitable proton donor, phenol (or indole), are produced in a supersonic expansion and ionized by resonant two photon ionization of the donor. Efficient proton transfer generates the protonated neurotransmitters, complexed to a phenoxy radical. Absorption of infrared radiation, and subsequent evaporation of the phenoxy tag, coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry, provides vibrational spectra of the protonated (and also hydrated) complexes for comparison with the results of quantum chemical computation. Comparison with the conformational structures of the neutral neurotransmitters (established previously) reveals the effect of protonation on their structure. The photochemical proton transfer strategy allows spectra to be recorded from individual laser shots and their quality compares favourably with that obtained using electro-spray or matrix assisted laser desorption ion sources.

  5. Pharmacological profile of the abeorphine 201-678, a potent orally active and long lasting dopamine agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jaton, A.L.; Giger, R.K.A.; Vigouret, J.M.; Enz, A.; Frick, W.; Closse, A.; Markstein, R.

    1986-01-13

    The central dopaminergic effects of an abeorphine derivative 201-678 were compared to those of apomorphine and bromocriptine in different model systems. After oral administration, this compound induced contralateral turning in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced nigral lesions and exhibited strong anti-akinetic properties in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced hypothalamic lesions. It decreased dopamine metabolism in striatum and cortex, but did not modify noradrenaline and serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. 201-678 counteracted the in vivo increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by ..gamma..-butyrolactone. In vitro it stimulated DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase and inhibited acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices. This compound had high affinity for /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-clonidine binding sites. These results indicate that 201-678 is a potent, orally active dopamine agonist with a long duration of action. Furthermore it appears more selective than other dopaminergic drugs. 29 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Benzodiazepine receptor and neurotransmitter studies in the brain of suicides

    SciTech Connect

    Manchon, M.; Kopp, N.; Rouzioux, J.J.; Lecestre, D.; Deluermoz, S.; Miachon, S.

    1987-12-14

    The characteristics of benzodiazepine binding sites were studied on frozen sections of hippocampus of 7 suicides and 5 controls subjects, using biochemical and autoradiographic techniques. /sup 3/H flunitrazepam was used as ligand, clonazepam and CL 218,872 as displacing agents. Some neurotransmitters or their derivatives were evaluated quantitatively in parallel in the hippocampal tissue by liquid chromatography. The authors observed mainly an increase in the Ki of CL 218,872 subtype I binding sites in suicides, and an increase in % of type I binding sites. Among neurotransmitters, only norepinephrine differed significantly between controls and suicides. 36 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Neurotransmitter Co-release: Mechanism and Physiological Role

    PubMed Central

    Hnasko, Thomas S.; Edwards, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurotransmitter identity is a defining feature of all neurons because it constrains the type of information they convey, but it has become clear that many neurons in fact release multiple transmitters. Although the physiological role for co-release has remained poorly understood, the vesicular uptake of one transmitter can regulate filling with the other by influencing expression of the H+ electrochemical driving force. In addition, the sorting of vesicular neurotransmitter transporters and other synaptic vesicle proteins into different vesicle pools suggests the potential for distinct modes of release. Co-release thus serves multiple roles in synaptic transmission. PMID:22054239

  8. Role of dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmitters in behavioral alterations observed in rodent model of hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Dhanda, Saurabh; Sandhir, Rajat

    2015-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the role of biogenic amines in behavioral alterations observed in rat model of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following bile duct ligation (BDL). Male Wistar rats subjected to BDL developed biliary fibrosis after four weeks which was supported by altered liver function tests, increased ammonia levels and histological staining (Sirius red). Animals were assessed for their behavioral performance in terms of cognitive, anxiety and motor functions. The levels of dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), epinephrine and norepinephrine (NE) were estimated in different regions of brain viz. cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum using HPLC along with activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Cognitive assessment of BDL rats revealed a progressive decline in learning, memory formation, retrieval, exploration of novel environment and spontaneous locomotor activity along with decrease in 5-HT and NE levels. This was accompanied by an increase in MAO activity. Motor functions of BDL rats were also altered which were evident from decrease in the time spent on the rotating rod and higher foot faults assessed using narrow beam walk task. A global decrease was observed in the DA content along with an increase in MAO activity. Histopathological studies using hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and cresyl violet exhibited marked neuronal degeneration, wherein neurons appeared more pyknotic, condensed and damaged. The results reveal that dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways are disturbed in chronic liver failure post-BDL which may be responsible for behavioral impairments observed in HE. PMID:25639545

  9. Neurotransmitter and neuromodulator genes associated with a history of depressive symptoms in individuals with alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kertes, Darlene A.; Kalsi, Gursharan; Prescott, Carol A.; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Patterson, Diana G.; Walsh, Dermot; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Riley, Brien P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms are common among individuals with alcohol use disorders and impact treatment outcome. Substantial overlap exists among the neurobiological systems proposed in the pathophysiology of depressive and alcohol use disorders; however, specific genetic effects contributing to risk for depressive comorbidity remain poorly understood. Methods This study examines the association of depressive symptom scores for lifetime depression (the sum of DSM-IV MD co-endorsed criteria for lifetime depression) with markers in 120 candidate genes in 554 alcohol dependent individuals. The candidate genes code for molecules involved in dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, GABA, and opioid neurotransmission, cell signaling, pharmacokinetics, stress biology and behavioral control. Analyses were conducted at the single marker level with experimentwise permutation to control for multiple testing. Results Results revealed nominal associations for markers in 20 genes. Following experimentwise permutation, markers in the corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein (CRHBP) the ?-opioid receptor (OPRM1) and the ?1 subunit of gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors (GABRB1) met or exceeded the significance threshold. None of the markers associated with depressive symptom scores were significantly associated with alcohol dependence symptom scores. Conclusion These findings suggest potential risk genes for depressive symptoms in alcohol dependent individuals. PMID:21143246

  10. Clinical chemistry of serotonin and metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ido P Kema; Elisabeth G. E de Vries; Frits A. J Muskiet

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of serotonin and other 5-hydroxyindoles, such as its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan and major metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), are indispensable for the elucidation of their (patho)physiological roles. In clinical chemistry attention is mainly focused on the diagnosis and follow-up of carcinoid tumours. For this most laboratories routinely measure urinary 5-HIAA. More recently, measurements of serotonin in platelets and urine have been

  11. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and myocardial infarction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Sauer; Jesse A. Berlin; Stephen E. Kimmel

    2002-01-01

    Background—Depression is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction (MI). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may reduce this risk through attenuation of serotonin-mediated platelet activation in addition to treatment of depression itself. Methods and Results—A case-control study of first MI in smokers 30 to 65 years of age was conducted among all 68 hospitals in an 8-county area during a

  12. Serotonin 5-HT2 and 5-HT1A-like receptors differentially modulate aggressive behaviors in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Oralee; Becnel, Jaime; Nichols, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widespread throughout the animal kingdom, and is a complex social behavior influenced by both genetics and environment. Animals typically fight over resources that include food, territory, and sexual partners. Of all the neurotransmitters, serotonin has been the most implicated in modulating aggressive behaviors in mammalian systems. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, the involvement of serotonin itself in aggressive behaviors has been recently established, however, the underlying mechanisms have largely remained elusive. Here we describe the influence of different serotonin receptor subtypes on aggressive behaviors in Drosophila. Drosophila express homologs of three mammalian serotonin receptors: the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2, and 5-HT7 receptors. Significantly, these receptors mediate important behaviors in mammalian systems ranging from feeding, aggression, and sleep, to cognition. To examine the role of the 5-HT2Dro receptor, we utilized the selective 5-HT2 receptor agonist (R)-1-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl]-2-aminopropane (DOI), and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin. To examine the role of 5-HT1A-like receptors we used the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT), and the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635. We find that activation of 5-HT2 receptors with (R)-DOI appears to decrease overall aggression, whereas activation of 5-HT1A-like receptors with 8-OH-DPAT increases overall aggression. Furthermore, the different serotonin receptor circuitries appear to mediate different aspects of aggression: 5-HT2 receptor manipulation primarily alters lunging and boxing, whereas 5-HT1A-like receptor manipulation primarily affects wing threats and fencing. Elucidating the effects of serotonergic systems on aggression in the fly is a significant advancement not only in establishing the fly as a system to study aggression, but as a system relevant to elucidating molecular mechanisms underlying aggression in mammals, including humans. PMID:19041376

  13. Distinct electrophysiological effects of paliperidone and risperidone on the firing activity of rat serotonin and norepinephrine neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliyahu Dremencov; Mostafa El Mansari; Pierre Blier

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  Paliperidone (9-OH-risperidone) is the main metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic risperidone. While both drugs are potent\\u000a dopamine (D)2 antagonists, they have quantitative differential affinities for serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) receptor binding\\u000a sites.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The present study aimed to determine if paliperidone exerts distinct effects on 5-HT and NE neuronal activity from those of\\u000a risperidone.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Risperidone and paliperidone were

  14. Quantal release of serotonin from platelets.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shencheng; White, James G; Haynes, Christy L

    2009-04-15

    Even though platelets are known to play a critical role in hemostasis, mediated in part by their uptake, storage, and release of serotonin, there are many unexplored aspects of this process. Herein, single-cell amperometry is employed to characterize the dynamic secretion of serotonin from platelet dense-body granules. On the basis of a three-dimensional random walk simulation that estimates detection efficiency with varied spacing between the carbon-fiber microelectrode and the platelet, it is clear that the detected charge likely represents complete oxidation of the released granule contents and, thus, is a good method to calculate the serotonin concentration in each granule. Using the measured charge and volume estimates based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data, the granular concentration of serotonin is approximately 0.5 M. The simulated spike widths are significantly narrower than most of the measured amperometric spikes, clearly indicating that the stored serotonin is highly associated with an aggregate rather than freely diffusible within the dense-body granule. Additionally, by varying extracellular buffer temperature and pH to adjust the driving forces for serotonin delivery from the dense-body granules to the extracellular space, it is clear that, although platelet chemical messenger storage and secretion is similar to that of other secretory cells, there are some important distinctions. PMID:19364141

  15. A glutamatergic reward input from the dorsal raphe to ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jia; Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wang, Huikun; de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Jose; Hoffman, Alexander F.; Lupica, Carl R.; Seal, Rebecca P.; Morales, Marisela

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe (DR) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) activates the fibers of the same reward pathway but the phenotype of this pathway and the direction of the reward-relevant fibers have not been determined. Here we report rewarding effects following activation of a DR-originating pathway consisting of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3) containing neurons that form asymmetric synapses onto VTA dopamine neurons that project to nucleus accumbens. Optogenetic VTA activation of this projection elicits AMPA-mediated synaptic excitatory currents in VTA mesoaccumbens dopaminergic neurons and causes dopamine release innucleus accumbens. Activation also reinforces instrumental behavior and establishes conditioned place preferences. These findings indicate that the DR-VGluT3 pathway to VTA utilizes glutamate as a neurotransmitter and is a substrate linking the DR—one of the most sensitive reward sites in the brain—to VTA dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25388237

  16. Multiple functionalization of fluorescent nanoparticles for specific biolabeling and drug delivery of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Malvindi, Maria Ada; Di Corato, Riccardo; Curcio, Annalisa; Melisi, Daniela; Rimoli, Maria Grazia; Tortiglione, Claudia; Tino, Angela; George, Chandramohan; Brunetti, Virgilio; Cingolani, Roberto; Pellegrino, Teresa; Ragusa, Andrea

    2011-12-01

    The development of fluorescent biolabels for specific targeting and controlled drug release is of paramount importance in biological applications due to their potential in the generation of novel tools for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in several neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the controlled delivery of its agonists already proved to have beneficial effects both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we report the synthesis and multiple functionalization of highly fluorescent CdSe/CdS quantum rods for specific biolabeling and controlled drug release. After being transferred into aqueous media, the nanocrystals were made highly biocompatible through PEG conjugation and covered by a carbohydrate shell, which allowed specific GLUT-1 recognition. Controlled attachment of dopamine through an ester bond also allowed hydrolysis by esterases, yielding a smart nanotool for specific biolabeling and controlled drug release. PMID:22037807

  17. Striatal Dopamine and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Rayhan; O'Neil, James P.; Baker, Suzanne; Jagust, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized the importance of dopamine projections to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) for working memory (WM) function, although this system has rarely been studied in humans in vivo. However, dopamine and PFC activity can be directly measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), respectively. In this study, we examined WM capacity, dopamine, and PFC function in healthy older participants in order to test the hypothesis that there is a relationship between these 3 factors. We used the PET tracer 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine to measure dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum (caudate, putamen), and event-related fMRI to measure brain activation during different epochs (cue, delay, probe) of a WM task. Caudate (but not putamen) dopamine correlated positively with WM capacity, whereas putamen (but not caudate) dopamine correlated positively with motor speed. In addition, delay-related fMRI activation in a left inferior prefrontal region was related to both caudate dopamine and task accuracy, suggesting that this may be a critical site for the integration of WM maintenance processes. These results provide new evidence that striatal dopaminergic function is related to PFC-dependent functions, particularly brain activation and behavioral performance during WM tasks. PMID:18550595

  18. Effects of central cholinergic blockade on striatal dopamine release measured with positron emission tomography in normal human subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Dewey, S L; Smith, G S; Logan, J; Brodie, J D; Simkowitz, P; MacGregor, R R; Fowler, J S; Volkow, N D; Wolf, A P

    1993-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that positron emission tomography (PET) can be used to measure changes in the concentrations of synaptic dopamine and acetylcholine. Whether induced directly or indirectly through interactions with other neurotransmitters, these studies support the use of PET for investigating the functional responsiveness of a specific neurotransmitter to a pharmacologic challenge. In an extension of these findings to the human brain, PET studies designed to measure the responsiveness of striatal dopamine release to central cholinergic blockade were conducted in normal male volunteers using high-resolution PET and [11C]raclopride, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. [11C]Raclopride scans were performed prior to and 30 min after systemic administration of the potent muscarinic cholinergic antagonist, scopolamine (0.007 mg/kg). After scopolamine administration, [11C]raclopride binding decreased in the striatum (specific binding) but not in the cerebellum (nonspecific binding) resulting in a significant decrease, exceeding the test/retest variability of this ligand (5%), in the ratio of the distribution volumes of the striatum to the cerebellum (17%). Furthermore, scopolamine administration did not alter the systemic rate of [11C]raclopride metabolism or the metabolite-corrected plasma input function. These results are consistent not only with the known inhibitory influence that acetylcholine exerts on striatal dopamine release but also with our initial 18F-labeled N-methylspiroperidol and benztropine studies. Thus these data support the use of PET for measuring the functional responsiveness of an endogenous neurotransmitter to an indirect pharmacologic challenge in the living human brain. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8265632

  19. Kinetics and pharmacology of the D1- and D2-like dopamine receptors in Japanese quail brain.

    PubMed

    Kubíková, Lubica; Výboh, Pavel; Kostál, Lubor

    2009-09-01

    Although the avian brain dopamine system and its functions have been studied much less than the mammalian one, there is an increasing interest in the role of dopamine and its receptors in a wide variety of motor, cognitive and emotional functions in birds with implications for basic research, medicine or agriculture. Pharmacological characterisation of the avian dopamine receptors has had little attention. In this paper we characterise the two classes of dopamine receptors in Japanese quail brain by radioligand binding techniques using [(3)H]SCH 23390 (D(1)) and [(3)H]spiperone (D(2)). Association, dissociation and saturation analyses showed that the binding of both radioligands is time- and concentration-dependent, saturable and reversible. Apparent dissociation constants determined for [(3)H]SCH 23390 and [(3)H]spiperone from concentration isotherms were 1.07 and 0.302 nM and the maximum binding capacities were 89.3 and 389.3 fmol per mg of protein, respectively. Using competitive binding studies with a spectrum of dopamine and other neurotransmitter receptor agonists/antagonists, the [(3)H]SCH 23390 and [(3)H]spiperone binding sites were characterised pharmacologically. Pharmacological profiles of quail dopamine receptors showed a high degree of pharmacological homology with other vertebrate dopamine receptors. The data presented extend the knowledge of kinetics and pharmacology of D(1)- and D(2)-like dopamine receptors in birds, provide data for avian psychopharmacological and comparative studies and represent an important complement to studies using cell expression systems. PMID:19330447

  20. Maternal hypothyroxinemia disrupts neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes in developing brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I M Evans; A K Sinha; M R Pickard; P R Edwards; A J Leonard; R P Ekins

    1999-01-01

    Maternal thyroid status influences early brain development and, consequently, cognitive and motor function in humans and rats. The biochemical targets of maternal thyroid hormone (TH) action in fetal brain remain poorly defined. A partially thyroidectomized rat dam model was therefore used to investigate the influence of maternal hypothyroxinemia on the specific activities of cholinergic and monoaminergic neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes in

  1. Calcium channel modulation by neurotransmitters, enzymes and drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harald Reuter

    1983-01-01

    Calcium channels in excitable membranes are of great importance for many cellular functions. Modulation of these channels by neurotransmitters and drugs regulates calcium influx into the cell and thereby alters the functional state of the cell. Recently it has become possible to measure properties of single calcium channels directly and to obtain evidence on mechanisms of their modulation.

  2. Selective inhibition of monoamine neurotransmitter transporters by synthetic local anesthetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Sato; Shigeo Kitayama; Chieko Mitsuhata; Tetsurou Ikeda; Katsuya Morita; Toshihiro Dohi

    2000-01-01

    Synthetic local anesthetics (LAs) have been found to have cocaine-like characteristics with some psychotomimetic action, possibly through monoaminergic neurotransmission. To gain insight into the relation between LA action and monoamine transporters, we investigated the effect of synthetic LAs on neurotransmitter transporters, including monoamine transporters. We used cloned transporter cDNAs and examined transient functional expression in COS cells and stable expression

  3. GABA as an Inhibitory Neurotransmitter in Human Cerebral Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID A. MCCORMICK

    1989-01-01

    1. The possible role of y-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as an in- hibitory neurotransmitter in the human cerebral cortex was in- vestigated with the use of intracellular recordings from neocorti- cal slices maintained in vitro. 2. Electrical stimulation of afferents to presumed pyramidal cells resulted in an initial excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) followed by fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs).

  4. Acetylcholine in mind: a neurotransmitter correlate of consciousness?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elaine Perry; Matthew Walker; Jan Grace; Robert Perry

    1999-01-01

    The cholinergic system is one of the most important modulatory neurotransmitter systems in the brain and controls activities that depend on selective attention, which are an essential component of conscious awareness. Psychopharmacological and pathological evidence supports the concept of a ‘cholinergic component' of conscious awareness. Drugs that antagonize muscarinic receptors induce hallucinations and reduce the level of consciousness, while the

  5. Tunable Molecular Logic Gates Designed for Imaging Released Neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Klockow, Jessica L; Hettie, Kenneth S; Secor, Kristen E; Barman, Dipti N; Glass, Timothy E

    2015-08-01

    Tunable dual-analyte fluorescent molecular logic gates (ExoSensors) were designed for the purpose of imaging select vesicular primary-amine neurotransmitters that are released from secretory vesicles upon exocytosis. ExoSensors are based on the coumarin-3-aldehyde scaffold and rely on both neurotransmitter binding and the change in environmental pH associated with exocytosis to afford a unique turn-on fluorescence output. A pH-functionality was directly integrated into the fluorophore ?-system of the scaffold, thereby allowing for an enhanced fluorescence output upon the release of labeled neurotransmitters. By altering the pH-sensitive unit with various electron-donating and -withdrawing sulfonamide substituents, we identified a correlation between the pKa of the pH-sensitive group and the fluorescence output from the activated fluorophore. In doing so, we achieved a twelvefold fluorescence enhancement upon evaluating the ExoSensors under conditions that mimic exocytosis. ExoSensors are aptly suited to serve as molecular imaging tools that allow for the direct visualization of only the neurotransmitters that are released from secretory vesicles upon exocytosis. PMID:26119241

  6. Drebrin depletion alters neurotransmitter receptor levels in protein complexes, dendritic spine morphogenesis and memory-related synaptic plasticity in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jung, Gangsoo; Kim, Eun-Jung; Cicvaric, Ana; Sase, Sunetra; Gröger, Marion; Höger, Harald; Sialana, Fernando Jayson; Berger, Johannes; Monje, Francisco J; Lubec, Gert

    2015-07-01

    Drebrin an actin-bundling key regulator of dendritic spine genesis and morphology, has been recently proposed as a regulator of hippocampal glutamatergic activity which is critical for memory formation and maintenance. Here, we examined the effects of genetic deletion of drebrin on dendritic spine and on the level of complexes containing major brain receptors. To this end, homozygous and heterozygous drebrin knockout mice generated in our laboratory and related wild-type control animals were studied. Level of protein complexes containing dopamine receptor D1/dopamine receptor D2, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1A (5-HT1A R), and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 (5-HT7R) were significantly reduced in hippocampus of drebrin knockout mice whereas no significant changes were detected for GluR1, 2, and 3 and NR1 as examined by native gel-based immunoblotting. Drebrin depletion also altered dendritic spine formation, morphology, and reduced levels of dopamine receptor D1 in dendritic spines as evaluated using immunohistochemistry/confocal microscopy. Electrophysiological studies further showed significant reduction in memory-related hippocampal synaptic plasticity upon drebrin depletion. These findings provide unprecedented experimental support for a role of drebrin in the regulation of memory-related synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter receptor signaling, offer relevant information regarding the interpretation of previous studies and help in the design of future studies on dendritic spines. We examined effect of genetic deletion of drebrin, which an actin-bundling key regulator of dendritic spine genesis and morphology, on dendritic spine density, maturity, level of complexes containing major brain receptors and also, in synaptic plasticity. These findings support for a role of drebrin in the regulation of memory-related synaptic plasticity and neurotransmitter receptors signaling in dendritic spines. PMID:25865831

  7. Transient calcium and dopamine increase PKA activity and DARPP-32 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Maria; Kim, MyungSook; Wikström, Martin A; Blackwell, Kim T; Kotaleski, Jeanette Hellgren

    2006-09-01

    Reinforcement learning theorizes that strengthening of synaptic connections in medium spiny neurons of the striatum occurs when glutamatergic input (from cortex) and dopaminergic input (from substantia nigra) are received simultaneously. Subsequent to learning, medium spiny neurons with strengthened synapses are more likely to fire in response to cortical input alone. This synaptic plasticity is produced by phosphorylation of AMPA receptors, caused by phosphorylation of various signalling molecules. A key signalling molecule is the phosphoprotein DARPP-32, highly expressed in striatal medium spiny neurons. DARPP-32 is regulated by several neurotransmitters through a complex network of intracellular signalling pathways involving cAMP (increased through dopamine stimulation) and calcium (increased through glutamate stimulation). Since DARPP-32 controls several kinases and phosphatases involved in striatal synaptic plasticity, understanding the interactions between cAMP and calcium, in particular the effect of transient stimuli on DARPP-32 phosphorylation, has major implications for understanding reinforcement learning. We developed a computer model of the biochemical reaction pathways involved in the phosphorylation of DARPP-32 on Thr34 and Thr75. Ordinary differential equations describing the biochemical reactions were implemented in a single compartment model using the software XPPAUT. Reaction rate constants were obtained from the biochemical literature. The first set of simulations using sustained elevations of dopamine and calcium produced phosphorylation levels of DARPP-32 similar to that measured experimentally, thereby validating the model. The second set of simulations, using the validated model, showed that transient dopamine elevations increased the phosphorylation of Thr34 as expected, but transient calcium elevations also increased the phosphorylation of Thr34, contrary to what is believed. When transient calcium and dopamine stimuli were paired, PKA activation and Thr34 phosphorylation increased compared with dopamine alone. This result, which is robust to variation in model parameters, supports reinforcement learning theories in which activity-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity requires paired glutamate and dopamine inputs. PMID:16965177

  8. Photoaffinity labeling of the dopamine reuptake carrier protein with 3-azido sup 3 H GBR-12935

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, S.P.; Martenson, R.E.; Laing, P.; Thurkauf, A.; Decosta, B.; Rice, K.C.; Paul, S.M. (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-04-01

    A high affinity tritiated azido-diphenylpiperazine derivative, 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935, was synthesized as a potential photoaffinity probe of the dopamine transporter. Initially, the reversible binding of 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 to crude synaptosomal membranes from the rat striatum was characterized. Specific binding was sodium dependent and inhibited by a variety of drugs that are known to potently inhibit dopamine uptake. Other neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors, as well as cis-flupenthixol, a potent inhibitor of {sup 3}H GBR-12935 binding to piperazine binding sites, failed to inhibit specific binding at concentrations of less than or equal to 10 microM. A good correlation was observed between the relative potencies of these drugs in inhibiting dopamine uptake into synaptosomes and in inhibiting specific 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 binding to rat striatal membranes. These data suggest that 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935, like other diphenylpiperazines such as {sup 3}H GBR-12935 and {sup 3}H GBR-12909, binds primarily to the dopamine transporter under defined assay conditions. After UV photolysis of crude synaptosomal membranes preincubated with 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 (1-2 nM), a single radiolabeled polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 80 kDa was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Photoincorporation of 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 into this polypeptide was inhibited selectively by compounds that inhibit the uptake of dopamine and was completely dependent on the presence of Na+. No photolabeled proteins were observed when cerebellar membranes were substituted for striatal membranes. Essentially complete adsorption of the radiolabeled 80-kDa polypeptide to wheat germ agglutinin and elution with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine strongly suggest that the dopamine transporter polypeptide photolabeled by 3-azido {sup 3}H GBR-12935 is glycosylated.

  9. Interaction between diffusion and Michaelis-Menten uptake of dopamine after iontophoresis in striatum.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, C

    1995-05-01

    A quantitative description of the behavior of a neurotransmitter in the brain extracellular microenvironment requires an understanding of the relative importance of diffusion versus uptake processes. This paper models the behavior of dopamine released from a small iontophoresis electrode and its voltammetric detection by a carbon fiber sensor 100 microns away as a basis for developing a new paradigm for measuring dopamine kinetics in intact rat neostriatum. The diffusion equation incorporating uptake, characterized by a maximum velocity Vmax and a Michaelis-Menten constant Km, was transformed to an integral equation and solved numerically for the dopamine concentration, C. Analytical solutions were derived for limiting cases of a steady-state free-boundary problem when C > Km and the linear time-dependent problem when C < Km. These solutions were compared with complete numerical solutions, both for normal uptake (Vmax = 0.2 or 0.8 microM s-1; Km = 0.15 microM), and in the presence of the uptake blocker nomifensine (Km = 6 microM). The results suggest that an experimental strategy for the quantitative analysis of dopamine, and other compounds, in living tissue is to fit a family of concentration versus time curves generated with different iontophoretic current strengths and recorded with a microsensor, to the numerical solution of the diffusion-uptake equation. PMID:7612814

  10. Dopamine Does Not Appear to Affect Mental Rotation in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Crucian, Gregory P.; Armaghani, Sheyan; Armaghani, Avan; Foster, Paul S.; Burks, David W.; Skoblar, Barry; Drago, Valeria; Heilman, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) often have deficits with mental rotation (MR). The neuropathological factors underlying these deficits, however, remain to be elucidated. One hypothesis suggests that dopamine depletion in nigro-striatal systems adversely influences MR. Another hypothesis suggests that deterioration of cortical (fronto-temporo-parietal basal ganglia) networks that mediate this function are responsible for this deficit. The goal of this study was to test the dopamine hypothesis by determining if dopamine abstinence negatively influences MR performance. Methods Thirty three non-demented right-handed individuals with PD were assess for their ability to perform a pencil and paper MR test while “on” and “off” dopaminergic medications. Dopamine abstinence followed the typical overnight withdrawal procedures. Results No differences in mental rotation abilities were found between “on” and “off” dopaminergic medications. Conclusions These results suggest that other neuropathological factors, such as cortical-basal ganglia neurodegeneration, or dysfunction of other neurotransmitters systems, might account for these cognitive deficits and future research will have to test these alternative hypotheses. PMID:25360231

  11. Interaction between diffusion and Michaelis-Menten uptake of dopamine after iontophoresis in striatum.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, C

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative description of the behavior of a neurotransmitter in the brain extracellular microenvironment requires an understanding of the relative importance of diffusion versus uptake processes. This paper models the behavior of dopamine released from a small iontophoresis electrode and its voltammetric detection by a carbon fiber sensor 100 microns away as a basis for developing a new paradigm for measuring dopamine kinetics in intact rat neostriatum. The diffusion equation incorporating uptake, characterized by a maximum velocity Vmax and a Michaelis-Menten constant Km, was transformed to an integral equation and solved numerically for the dopamine concentration, C. Analytical solutions were derived for limiting cases of a steady-state free-boundary problem when C >> Km and the linear time-dependent problem when C << Km. These solutions were compared with complete numerical solutions, both for normal uptake (Vmax = 0.2 or 0.8 microM s-1; Km = 0.15 microM), and in the presence of the uptake blocker nomifensine (Km = 6 microM). The results suggest that an experimental strategy for the quantitative analysis of dopamine, and other compounds, in living tissue is to fit a family of concentration versus time curves generated with different iontophoretic current strengths and recorded with a microsensor, to the numerical solution of the diffusion-uptake equation. PMID:7612814

  12. Neurotransmitter inactivation is important for the origin of nerve system in animal early evolution: A suggestion from genomic comparison

    E-print Network

    Gu, Xun

    Neurotransmitter inactivation is important for the origin of nerve system in animal early evolution and precise informational transmission performed by numerous synapses in neuron system. Neurotransmitter function. The result showed that the majority of genes related to neurotransmitter inactivation

  13. Neurotransmitter Signaling & Pharmacology (PHRM 510 / NGG 510) TIME: Mondays & Tuesdays, 9 -10:30 AM Fall 2013

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    Neurotransmitter Signaling & Pharmacology (PHRM 510 / NGG 510) TIME: Mondays & Tuesdays, 9 - 10 573-2991 reyestm@upenn.edu GOALS: A) Provide in-depth information on neurotransmitters and critically evaluate the current literature in neurotransmitter signaling and neuropharmacology. REQUIREMENTS

  14. Dopamine transporter: involvement in selective dopaminergic neurotoxicity and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Storch, A; Ludolph, A C; Schwarz, J

    2004-10-01

    The carrier molecule that transports dopamine (DA) into dopamine neurons by an electrogenic, Na(+)- and Cl(-)-transport-coupled mechanism is known as the dopamine transporter (DAT). This uptake system is exclusively expressed in DA neurons with significantly higher levels of DAT expression in cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta than those of the ventral tegmental area and arcuate hypothalamic neurons. The expression density of DAT strongly correlates with the extent of DA cell loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). There are also DAT gene polymorphisms associated with PD. These data suggest a role of the DAT in the pathogenesis of PD. Though selective for its respective neurotransmitter, the DAT can also transport synthetic/natural analogues of the transmitter. Should such compounds interact with vital intracellular structures, their penetration into the neuron might have significant consequences. This sequence of toxic events could indeed demonstrated for the synthetic toxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), which produces selective degeneration of DA neurons characteristic of PD. Dopaminergic toxicity of its active metabolite 1-methyl-4-pyridinium (MPP(+)) is mediated by the DAT through accumulation into DA neurons, where it inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. Various endogenous and exogenous heterocyclic molecules, which are structurally related to MPTP/MPP(+), such as isoquinolines and beta-carbolines, have been reported to exhibit similar toxic properties on DA cells, which are conferred by their uptake by the DAT. Taken together, there is large body of evidence from morphological, molecular biological and toxicological studies indicating that the DAT might be responsible for the selectivity of DA cell death in PD. PMID:15480838

  15. Serotonin-transporter mediated efflux: a pharmacological analysis of amphetamines and non-amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Hilber, Birgit; Scholze, Petra; Dorostkar, Mario M; Sandtner, Walter; Holy, Marion; Boehm, Stefan; Singer, Ernst A; Sitte, Harald H

    2005-11-01

    The physiological function of neurotransmitter transporter proteins like the serotonin transporter (SERT) is reuptake of neurotransmitter that terminates synaptic serotoninergic transmission. SERT can operate in reverse direction and be induced by SERT substrates including 5-HT, tyramine and the positively charged methyl-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), as well as the amphetamine derivatives para-chloroamphetamine (pCA) and methylene-dioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA). These substrates also induce inwardly directed sodium currents that are predominantly carried by sodium ions. Efflux via SERT depends on this sodium flux that is believed to be a prerequisite for outward transport. However, in recent studies, it has been suggested that substrates may be distinct in their properties to induce efflux. Therefore, the aim of the present study was a pharmacological characterization of different SERT substrates in uptake experiments, their abilities to induce transporter-mediated efflux and currents. In conclusion, the rank order of affinities in uptake and electrophysiological experiments correlate well, while the potencies of the amphetamine derivatives for the induction of efflux are clearly higher than those of the other substrates. These discrepancies can be only explained by mechanisms that can be induced by amphetamines. Therefore, based on our pharmacological observations, we conclude that amphetamines distinctly differ from non-amphetamine SERT substrates. PMID:16185723

  16. The Evolution of Dopamine Systems in Chordates

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kei; Vernier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the central nervous system (CNS) is found throughout chordates, and its emergence predates the divergence of chordates. Many of the molecular components of DA systems, such as biosynthetic enzymes, transporters, and receptors, are shared with those of other monoamine systems, suggesting the common origin of these systems. In the mammalian CNS, the DA neurotransmitter systems are diversified and serve for visual and olfactory perception, sensory–motor programming, motivation, memory, emotion, and endocrine regulations. Some of the functions are conserved among different vertebrate groups, while others are not, and this is reflected in the anatomical aspects of DA systems in the forebrain and midbrain. Recent findings concerning a second tyrosine hydroxylase gene (TH2) revealed new populations of DA-synthesizing cells, as evidenced in the periventricular hypothalamic zones of teleost fish. It is likely that the ancestor of vertebrates possessed TH2 DA-synthesizing cells, and the TH2 gene has been lost secondarily in placental mammals. All the vertebrates possess DA cells in the olfactory bulb, retina, and in the diencephalon. Midbrain DA cells are abundant in amniotes while absent in some groups, e.g., teleosts. Studies of protochordate DA cells suggest that the diencephalic DA cells were present before the divergence of the chordate lineage. In contrast, the midbrain cell populations have probably emerged in the vertebrate lineage following the development of the midbrain–hindbrain boundary. The functional flexibility of the DA systems, and the evolvability provided by duplication of the corresponding genes permitted a large diversification of these systems. These features were instrumental in the adaptation of brain functions to the very variable way of life of vertebrates. PMID:21483723

  17. Immunomodulatory effects mediated by serotonin.

    PubMed

    Arreola, Rodrigo; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Cruz-Fuentes, Carlos; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Garcés-Alvarez, María Eugenia; Hurtado-Alvarado, Gabriela; Quintero-Fabian, Saray; Pavón, Lenin

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) induces concentration-dependent metabolic effects in diverse cell types, including neurons, entherochromaffin cells, adipocytes, pancreatic beta-cells, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, epithelial cells, and leukocytes. Three classes of genes regulating 5-HT function are constitutively expressed or induced in these cells: (a) membrane proteins that regulate the response to 5-HT, such as SERT, 5HTR-GPCR, and the 5HT3-ion channels; (b) downstream signaling transduction proteins; and (c) enzymes controlling 5-HT metabolism, such as IDO and MAO, which can generate biologically active catabolites, including melatonin, kynurenines, and kynurenamines. This review covers the clinical and experimental mechanisms involved in 5-HT-induced immunomodulation. These mechanisms are cell-specific and depend on the expression of serotonergic components in immune cells. Consequently, 5-HT can modulate several immunological events, such as chemotaxis, leukocyte activation, proliferation, cytokine secretion, anergy, and apoptosis. The effects of 5-HT on immune cells may be relevant in the clinical outcome of pathologies with an inflammatory component. Major depression, fibromyalgia, Alzheimer disease, psoriasis, arthritis, allergies, and asthma are all associated with changes in the serotonergic system associated with leukocytes. Thus, pharmacological regulation of the serotonergic system may modulate immune function and provide therapeutic alternatives for these diseases. PMID:25961058

  18. A Role for Serotonin (5-HT) in Hepatic Stellate Cell Function and Liver Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ruddell, Richard G.; Oakley, Fiona; Hussain, Ziafat; Yeung, Irene; Bryan-Lluka, Lesley J.; Ramm, Grant A.; Mann, Derek A.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are key cellular components of hepatic wound healing and fibrosis. There is emerging evidence that the fibrogenic function of HSCs may be influenced by neurochemical and neurotrophic factors. This study addresses the potential for the serotonin (5-HT) system to influence HSC biology. Rat and human HSCs express the 5-HT1B, 5-HT1F 5-HT2A 5-HT2B, and 5-HT7 receptors, with expression of 5-HT1B 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B being induced on HSC activation. Induction of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B was 106 ± 39- and 52 ± 8.5-fold that of quiescent cells, respectively. 5-HT2B was strongly associated with fibrotic tissue in diseased rat liver. Treatment of HSCs with 5-HT2 antagonists suppressed proliferation and elevated their rate of apoptosis; by contrast 5-HT was protective against nerve growth factor-induced apoptosis. 5-HT synergized with platelet-derived growth factor to stimulate increased HSC proliferation. HSCs were shown to express a functional serotonin transporter and to participate in both active uptake and release of 5-HT. We conclude that HSCs express key regulatory components of the 5-HT system enabling them to store and release 5-HT and to respond to the neurotransmitter in a profibrogenic manner. Antagonists that selectively target the 5-HT class of receptors may be exploited as antifibrotic drugs. PMID:16936262

  19. Comparison of the monoamine transporters from human and mouse in their sensitivities to psychostimulant drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawn D Han; Howard H Gu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters terminate neurotransmissions by the reuptake of the released neurotransmitters. The transporters for the monoamines dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin (DAT, NET, and SERT) are targets for several popular psychostimulant drugs of abuse. The potencies of the psychostimulant on the monoamine transporters have been studied by several laboratories. However, there are significant discrepancies in the reported

  20. Immunomodulation Mechanism of Antidepressants: Interactions between Serotonin/Norepinephrine Balance and Th1/Th2 Balance

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Matteo; Rocchi, Giulio; Escelsior, Andrea; Fornaro, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and hormones regulate major immune functions, including the selection of T helper (Th)1 or Th2 cytokine responses, related to cell-mediated and humoral immunity, respectively. A role of imbalance and dynamic switching of Th1/Th2 system has been proposed, with relative displacement of the immune reserve in relation to complex interaction between Th1/Th2 and neuro-hormonal balance fluctuations, in the pathogenesis of various chronic human diseases, probably also including psychiatric disorders. Components of the stress system such as norepinephrine (NE) and glucocorticoids appear to mediate a Th2 shift, while serotonin (5-HT) and melatonin might mediate a Th1 shift. Some antidepressants would occur affecting these systems, acting on neurotransmitter balance (especially the 5-HT/NE balance) and expression levels of receptor subtypes, which in turn affect cytokine production and relative Th1/Th2 balance. It could be therefore hypothesized that the antidepressant-related increase in NE tone enhances the Th2 response, while the decrease in NE tone or the increase in 5-HT tone enhances the Th1 response. However, the neurotransmitter and Th1/Th2 balance modulation could be relative, aiming to restore physiological levels a previous imbalance in receptor sensitivity and cytokine production. The considerations on neuro-immunomodulation could represent an additional aid in the study of pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and in the choice of specific antidepressants in specific clusters of symptoms, especially in comorbidity with internal pathologies. Furthermore limited data, reviewed here, have shown the effectiveness of some antidepressants as pure immunomodulators. However, these considerations are tentative and require experimental confirmation or refutation by future studies. PMID:23204981

  1. The Met receptor tyrosine kinase prevents zebrafish primary motoneurons from expressing an incorrect neurotransmitter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Tallafuss; Judith S Eisen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Expression of correct neurotransmitters is crucial for normal nervous system function. How neurotransmitter expression is regulated is not well-understood; however, previous studies provide evidence that both environmental signals and intrinsic differentiation programs are involved. One environmental signal known to regulate neurotransmitter expression in vertebrate motoneurons is Hepatocyte growth factor, which acts through the Met receptor tyrosine kinase and also

  2. Deep brain stimulation and simultaneous neurotransmitter Marek, Litza, Institute for Signal Processing, University of Luebeck, Germany

    E-print Network

    Lübeck, Universität zu

    Deep brain stimulation and simultaneous neurotransmitter detection Marek, Litza, Institute deep brain stimulation (DBS) and neurotransmitter detection in an in vivo animal model. A simple of dialysate were analysed offline by HPLC and ECD. The detection of neurotransmitters in these samples

  3. Signal Integrity Analysis of a 2-D and 3-D Integrated Potentiostat for Neurotransmitter Sensing

    E-print Network

    Stanacevic, Milutin

    Signal Integrity Analysis of a 2-D and 3-D Integrated Potentiostat for Neurotransmitter Sensing for neurotransmitter sensing are investigated and compared. The potentiostat is implemented as current integrating with the neurotransmitter sensing circuit to generate an entire model to analyze signal integrity. Contrary

  4. Synapse Model Neurotransmitter is released into cleft between axonal button and dendritic spine

    E-print Network

    Boahen, Kwabena

    « 1 of 14 Synapse Model Neurotransmitter is released into cleft between axonal button affinity « 2 of 14 Dumping neurotransmitter Spike Q X(t) Axon XQ xmtt Printed from the Mathematica Help Browser 1 ©1988-2006 Wolfram Research, Inc. All rights reserved. #12;Neurotransmitter concentration

  5. Neuropsychopharmacologia huNgarica 2013. XV. Vf. 3. szm 165 Network Analysis of Neurotransmitter Related Human

    E-print Network

    Pluhár, András

    Neuropsychopharmacologia huNgarica 2013. XV. éVf. 3. szám 165 Network Analysis of Neurotransmitter a merged interactome dataset, we analyzed the network of these Neurotransmitter Related Human Kinase Genes, neurotransmitter zoltaN Brys1 , aNdras pluhar2 , JaNos tiBor Kis3 , Bela Buda4 aNd attila szaBo5 1 Literatura

  6. Expression of neurotransmitter transporters for structural and biochemical studies Yael Elbaz a,1

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Expression of neurotransmitter transporters for structural and biochemical studies Yael Elbaz a,1 a b s t r a c t Neurotransmitter transporters play essential roles in the process of neurotransmission that involves the exchange of lumenal H+ for cytoplasmic transmitter. Retrieval of the neurotransmitter from

  7. Nat Neurosci. Author manuscript RIM1 confers sustained activity and neurotransmitter vesicle anchoring to

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nat Neurosci. Author manuscript Page /1 15 RIM1 confers sustained activity and neurotransmitter@sbchem.kyoto-u.ac.jp> Abstract The molecular organization of presynaptic active zones (AZs) is central to neurotransmitter components, RIM1 and voltage-dependent2+ Ca channels (VDCCs), that controls neurotransmitter release. RIM1

  8. The effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior1-3

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    tt623 The effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior1-3 Ha"is R"Lieberman. Ph The neurotransmitter JlRCUI'SOntryptophan and tyrosine a~ present in a varietl of foods. In order to document possible:sknown to influence the availability of their neurotransmitters. Ingestion of tryptophan increases the CNS

  9. RIM1 confers sustained activity and neurotransmitter vesicle anchoring to presynaptic Ca2+ channels

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    RIM1 confers sustained activity and neurotransmitter vesicle anchoring to presynaptic Ca2+ channels is important for the neurotransmitter release that is triggered by depolarization-induced Ca21 influx. Here, we and voltage-dependent Ca21 channels (VDCCs), that controls neurotransmitter release in mammalian neurons. RIM1

  10. Maximum likelihood estimation for germinationgrowth processes with application to neurotransmitters data

    E-print Network

    Molchanov, Ilya

    to neurotransmitters data S. N. Chiu,1, I. S. Molchanov,2 and M. P. Quine,3 1Department of Mathematics, Hong Kong with unnormalised gamma intensity and is also applied to data on release of neurotransmitter at a synapse. Keywords for analysing data of autoinhibited release of neurotransmitters at a synapse. The mechanism has been suggested

  11. Dopamine, affordance and active inference.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl J; Shiner, Tamara; FitzGerald, Thomas; Galea, Joseph M; Adams, Rick; Brown, Harriet; Dolan, Raymond J; Moran, Rosalyn; Stephan, Klaas Enno; Bestmann, Sven

    2012-01-01

    The role of dopamine in behaviour and decision-making is often cast in terms of reinforcement learning and optimal decision theory. Here, we present an alternative view that frames the physiology of dopamine in terms of Bayes-optimal behaviour. In this account, dopamine controls the precision or salience of (external or internal) cues that engender action. In other words, dopamine balances bottom-up sensory information and top-down prior beliefs when making hierarchical inferences (predictions) about cues that have affordance. In this paper, we focus on the consequences of changing tonic levels of dopamine firing using simulations of cued sequential movements. Crucially, the predictions driving movements are based upon a hierarchical generative model that infers the context in which movements are made. This means that we can confuse agents by changing the context (order) in which cues are presented. These simulations provide a (Bayes-optimal) model of contextual uncertainty and set switching that can be quantified in terms of behavioural and electrophysiological responses. Furthermore, one can simulate dopaminergic lesions (by changing the precision of prediction errors) to produce pathological behaviours that are reminiscent of those seen in neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease. We use these simulations to demonstrate how a single functional role for dopamine at the synaptic level can manifest in different ways at the behavioural level. PMID:22241972

  12. Medullary serotonin neurons are CO2 sensitive in situ

    PubMed Central

    Richerson, George B.; Harris, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Brainstem central chemoreceptors are critical to the hypercapnic ventilatory response, but their location and identity are poorly understood. When studied in vitro, serotonin-synthesizing (5-HT) neurons within the rat medullary raphé are intrinsically stimulated by CO2/acidosis. The contributions of these neurons to central chemosensitivity in vivo, however, are controversial. Lacking is documentation of CO2-sensitive 5-HT neurons in intact experimental preparations and understanding of their spatial and proportional distribution. Here we test the hypothesis that 5-HT neurons in the rat medullary raphé are sensitive to arterial hypercapnia. We use extracellular recording and hypercapnic challenge of spontaneously active medullary raphé neurons in the unanesthetized in situ perfused decerebrate brainstem preparation to assess chemosensitivity of individual cells. Juxtacellular labeling of a subset of recorded neurons and subsequent immunohistochemistry for the 5-HT-synthesizing enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) identify or exclude this neurotransmitter phenotype in electrophysiologically characterized chemosensitive and insensitive cells. We show that the medullary raphé houses a heterogeneous population, including chemosensitive and insensitive 5-HT neurons. Of 124 recorded cells, 16 cells were juxtacellularly filled, visualized, and immunohistochemically identified as 5-HT synthesizing, based on TPH-immunoreactivity. Forty-four percent of 5-HT cells were CO2 stimulated (increased firing rate with hypercapnia), while 56% were unstimulated. Our results demonstrate that medullary raphé neurons are heterogeneous and clearly include a subset of 5-HT neurons that are excited by arterial hypercapnia. Together with data identifying intrinsically CO2-sensitive 5-HT neurons in vitro, these results support a role for such cells as central chemoreceptors in the intact system. PMID:24047906

  13. Effect of cerium oxide nanoparticles on intestinal serotonin in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Özel, R?fat Emrah; Hayat, Akhtar; Wallace, Kenneth N.; Andreescu, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles or nanoceria are emerging as a new and promising class of nanoparticle technology for biomedical applications. The safe implementation of these particles in clinical applications requires evaluation of their redox properties and reactivity that might cause neurotoxic effects by interacting with redox components of the physiological environment. We report in vitro and in vivo studies to evaluate the impact of nanoceria exposure on serotonin (5-HT), an important neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in various physiological processes including motility and secretion in the digestive system. In vitro studies of 5-HT in the presence of nanoceria using spectroscopic, electrochemical and surface characterization methods demonstrate that nanoceria interacts with 5-HT and forms a surface adsorbed 5-HT-nanoceria complex. Further in vivo studies in live zebrafish embryos indicate depletion of the 5-HT level in the intestine for exposure periods longer than three days. Intestinal 5-HT was assessed quantitatively in live embryos using implantable carbon fiber microelectrodes and the results were compared to immunohistochemistry of the dissected intestine. 20 and 50 ppm nanoparticle exposure decreased the 5-HT level to 20.5 (±1.3) and 5.3 (±1.5) nM respectively as compared to 30.8 (±3.4) nM for unexposed control embryos. The results suggest that internalized nanoceria particles can concentrate 5-HT at the nanoparticle accumulation site depleting it from the surrounding tissue. This finding might have long term implications in the neurophysiology and functional development of organisms exposed to these particles through intended or unintended exposure. PMID:24015353

  14. Nonexocytotic serotonin release tonically suppresses serotonergic neuron activity.

    PubMed

    Mlinar, Boris; Montalbano, Alberto; Baccini, Gilda; Tatini, Francesca; Berlinguer Palmini, Rolando; Corradetti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    The firing activity of serotonergic neurons in raphe nuclei is regulated by negative feedback exerted by extracellular serotonin (5-HT)o acting through somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors. The steady-state [5-HT]o, sensed by 5-HT1A autoreceptors, is determined by the balance between the rates of 5-HT release and reuptake. Although it is well established that reuptake of 5-HTo is mediated by 5-HT transporters (SERT), the release mechanism has remained unclear. It is also unclear how selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants increase the [5-HT]o in raphe nuclei and suppress serotonergic neuron activity, thereby potentially diminishing their own therapeutic effect. Using an electrophysiological approach in a slice preparation, we show that, in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), continuous nonexocytotic 5-HT release is responsible for suppression of phenylephrine-facilitated serotonergic neuron firing under basal conditions as well as for autoinhibition induced by SSRI application. By using 5-HT1A autoreceptor-activated G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels of patched serotonergic neurons as 5-HTo sensors, we show substantial nonexocytotic 5-HT release under conditions of abolished firing activity, Ca(2+) influx, vesicular monoamine transporter 2-mediated vesicular accumulation of 5-HT, and SERT-mediated 5-HT transport. Our results reveal a cytosolic origin of 5-HTo in the DRN and suggest that 5-HTo may be supplied by simple diffusion across the plasma membrane, primarily from the dense network of neurites of serotonergic neurons surrounding the cell bodies. These findings indicate that the serotonergic system does not function as a sum of independently acting neurons but as a highly interdependent neuronal network, characterized by a shared neurotransmitter pool and the regulation of firing activity by an interneuronal, yet activity-independent, nonexocytotic mechanism. PMID:25712017

  15. Expression of serotonin receptors in human lower esophageal sphincter

    PubMed Central

    LI, HE-FEI; LIU, JUN-FENG; ZHANG, KE; FENG, YONG

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter and vasoactive amine that is involved in the regulation of a large number of physiological functions. The wide variety of 5-HT-mediated functions is due to the existence of different classes of serotonergic receptors in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of multiple types of 5-HT receptor (5-HT1AR, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT3AR, 5-HT4R, 5-HT5AR, 5-HT6R and 5-HT7R) in sling and clasp fibers from the human lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Muscle strips of sling and clasp fibers from the LES were obtained from patients undergoing esophagogastrectomy, and circular muscle strips from the esophagus and stomach were used as controls. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative PCR and western blotting were used to investigate the expression of the various 5-HT receptor types. Messenger RNA for all seven 5-HT receptor types was identified in the sling and clasp fibers of the LES. At the mRNA level, the expression levels were highest for 5-HT3AR and 5-HT4R, and lowest for 5-HT5AR, 5-HT6R and 5-HT7R. At the protein level, the expression levels were highest for 5-HT3AR and 5-HT4R, followed by 5-HT1AR and 5-HT2AR; 5-HT7R was also detected at a low level. The expression of 5-HT5AR and 5-HT6R proteins was not confirmed. The results indicate that a variety of 5-HT receptor types can be detected in the human LES and probably contribute to LES function. PMID:25452775

  16. Prenatal Cocaine Disrupts Serotonin Signaling-Dependent Behaviors: Implications for Sex Differences, Early Stress and Prenatal SSRI Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah K; Lauder, Jean M; Johns, Josephine M

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine (PC) exposure negatively impacts the developing nervous system, including numerous changes in serotonergic signaling. Cocaine, a competitive antagonist of the serotonin transporter, similar to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), also blocks dopamine and norepinephrine transporters, leaving the direct mechanism through which cocaine disrupts the developing serotonin system unclear. In order to understand the role of the serotonin transporter in cocaine’s effect on the serotonergic system, we compare reports concerning PC and prenatal antidepressant exposure and conclude that PC exposure affects many facets of serotonergic signaling (serotonin levels, receptors, transporters) and that these effects differ significantly from what is observed following prenatal SSRI exposure. Alterations in serotonergic signaling are dependent on timing of exposure, test regimens, and sex. Following PC exposure, behavioral disturbances are observed in attention, emotional behavior and stress response, aggression, social behavior, communication, and like changes in serotonergic signaling, these effects depend on sex, age and developmental exposure. Vulnerability to the effects of PC exposure can be mediated by several factors, including allelic variance in serotonergic signaling genes, being male (although fewer studies have investigated female offspring), and experiencing the adverse early environments that are commonly coincident with maternal drug use. Early environmental stress results in disruptions in serotonergic signaling analogous to those observed with PC exposure and these may interact to produce greater behavioral effects observed in children of drug-abusing mothers. We conclude that based on past evidence, future studies should put a greater emphasis on including females and monitoring environmental factors when studying the impact of PC exposure. PMID:22379462

  17. Effects of exercise on stress-induced changes of norepinephrine and serotonin in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Xuewei; Zhang, Na; Ma, Qiang

    2013-10-31

    Exercise is beneficial to brain and can attenuate stress-induced hippocampal damages. However, the details involved monoamine neurotransmitter in exercise to counteract stress have not been well elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine exercise-induced responses of the norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) systems in counteracting stress-induced hippocampal damages. Rats were divided into exercise (four weeks of voluntary wheel running), stress (three weeks of restraint stress), exercise-stress (three weeks of stress following four weeks of exercise), and control groups. Levels of NE and 5-HT were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mRNA expression was detected with real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase reaction (FQ-RT-PCR) and proteins associated with 5-HT?? receptors (5-HT??-R) and ??-adrenergic receptors (??-AR) were analyzed by western blotting. 5-HT levels were highest (P < 0.01) in the exercised group, lowest (P < 0.05) in the stressed rats, and were similar (P = 0.065) in stressed and exercise-stressed rats. NE levels were highest (P < 0.01) in the exercised group, and higher in the exercise-stressed than the stressed rats (P < 0.01). 5-HT?A-R mRNA expression was highest (P < 0.01) in the exercised group, lowest in the stressed group. The 5-HT??-R protein expression changed in the same tendency as its mRNA levels. The ??-AR mRNA was highest in exercised rats (P < 0.05), and its protein expression was higher in the exercised and exercise-stress rats than in the control and stress rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, norepinephrine may represent endophenotypic features of exercise states. Serotonin levels may be more susceptible to stress and responsible for deleterious stress-induced effects. Norepinephrine and serotonin may both contribute to counteraction of stress-induced hippocampal damages of physical exercises. PMID:24032709

  18. Amphetamine actions at the serotonin transporter rely on the availability of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Buchmayer, Florian; Schicker, Klaus; Steinkellner, Thomas; Geier, Petra; Stübiger, Gerald; Hamilton, Peter J.; Jurik, Andreas; Stockner, Thomas; Yang, Jae-Won; Montgomery, Therese; Holy, Marion; Hofmaier, Tina; Kudlacek, Oliver; Matthies, Heinrich J. G.; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Bochkov, Valery; Galli, Aurelio; Boehm, Stefan; Sitte, Harald H.

    2013-01-01

    Nerve functions require phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) that binds to ion channels, thereby controlling their gating. Channel properties are also attributed to serotonin transporters (SERTs); however, SERT regulation by PIP2 has not been reported. SERTs control neurotransmission by removing serotonin from the extracellular space. An increase in extracellular serotonin results from transporter-mediated efflux triggered by amphetamine-like psychostimulants. Herein, we altered the abundance of PIP2 by activating phospholipase-C (PLC), using a scavenging peptide, and inhibiting PIP2-synthesis. We tested the effects of the verified scarcity of PIP2 on amphetamine-triggered SERT functions in human cells. We observed an interaction between SERT and PIP2 in pull-down assays. On decreased PIP2 availability, amphetamine-evoked currents were markedly reduced compared with controls, as was amphetamine-induced efflux. Signaling downstream of PLC was excluded as a cause for these effects. A reduction of substrate efflux due to PLC activation was also found with recombinant noradrenaline transporters and in rat hippocampal slices. Transmitter uptake was not affected by PIP2 reduction. Moreover, SERT was revealed to have a positively charged binding site for PIP2. Mutation of the latter resulted in a loss of amphetamine-induced SERT-mediated efflux and currents, as well as a lack of PIP2-dependent effects. Substrate uptake and surface expression were comparable between mutant and WT SERTs. These findings demonstrate that PIP2 binding to monoamine transporters is a prerequisite for amphetamine actions without being a requirement for neurotransmitter uptake. These results open the way to target amphetamine-induced SERT-dependent actions independently of normal SERT function and thus to treat psychostimulant addiction. PMID:23798435

  19. Putamen–midbrain functional connectivity is related to striatal dopamine transporter availability in patients with Lewy body diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rieckmann, A.; Gomperts, S.N.; Johnson, K.A.; Growdon, J.H.; Van Dijk, K.R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Prior work has shown that functional connectivity between the midbrain and putamen is altered in patients with impairments in the dopamine system. This study examines whether individual differences in midbrain–striatal connectivity are proportional to the integrity of the dopamine system in patients with nigrostriatal dopamine loss (Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies). We assessed functional connectivity of the putamen during resting state fMRI and dopamine transporter (DAT) availability in the striatum using 11C-Altropane PET in twenty patients. In line with the hypothesis that functional connectivity between the midbrain and the putamen reflects the integrity of the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system, putamen–midbrain functional connectivity was significantly correlated with striatal DAT availability even after stringent control for effects of head motion. DAT availability did not relate to functional connectivity between the caudate and thalamus/prefrontal areas. As such, resting state functional connectivity in the midbrain–striatal pathway may provide a useful indicator of underlying pathology in patients with nigrostriatal dopamine loss.

  20. Glutamate and NMDA receptors activation leads to cerebellar dysfunction and impaired motor coordination in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned Parkinson’s rat: functional recovery with bone marrow cells, serotonin and GABA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Nandhu; Jes Paul; Korah P. Kuruvila; Pretty M. Abraham; Sherin Antony; C. S. Paulose

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterised by a profound and selective\\u000a loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. In Parkinson’s disease, degeneration of dopaminergic neurons involves motor structures\\u000a including basal ganglia and cerebellum. Glutamate-mediated degeneration of the cerebellum contributes to motor dysfunction\\u000a in Parkinson’s disease. Targeting neurotransmitter system beyond the dopamine system is of important, both for

  1. Role of serotonin 5HT 1A and opioid receptors in the antiallodynic effect of tramadol in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Esther Berrocoso; M. Dolores De Benito; Juan A. Mico

    2007-01-01

    Rationale  Tramadol (1RS, 2RS)-2-[(dimethylamino)-methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl)-cyclohexanol) is an atypical centrally acting analgesic agent with weak opioid\\u000a receptor affinity that, like some antidepressants, enhances the extraneuronal concentrations of the monoamine neurotransmitters,\\u000a noradrenaline and serotonin, by interfering with their re-uptake and release mechanisms.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential role of 5-HT1A receptors and opioids receptors in the analgesic effect of tramadol

  2. Oscillatory Serotonin Function in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Salomon, Ronald M.; Cowan, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Oscillations in brain activities with periods of minutes to hours may be critical for normal mood behaviors. Ultradian (faster than circadian) rhythms of mood behaviors and associated central nervous system activities are altered in depression. Recent data suggest that ultradian rhythms in serotonin (5HT) function also change in depression. In two separate studies, 5HT metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were measured every 10 m for 24 h before and after chronic antidepressant treatment. Antidepressant treatments were associated with enhanced ultradian amplitudes of CSF metabolite levels. Another study used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)to measure amplitudes of dorsal raphé activation cycles following sham or active dietary depletions of the 5HT precursor (tryptophan). During depletion, amplitudes of dorsal raphé activation cycles increased with rapid 6 s periods (about 0.18 Hz)while functional connectivity weakened between dorsal raphé and thalamus at slower periods of 20 s (0.05 Hz). A third approach studied MDMA (ecstasy) users because of their chronically diminished 5HT function compared to non-MDMA polysubstance users (Karageorgiou et al., 2009). Compared to a non-MDMA using cohort, MDMA users showed diminished fMRI intra-regional coherence in motor regions along with altered functional connectivity, again suggesting effects of altered 5HT oscillatory function. These data support a hypothesis that qualities of ultradian oscillations in 5HT function may critically influence moods and behaviors. Dysfunctional 5HT rhythms in depression may be a common endpoint and biomarker for depression, linking dysfunction of slow brain network oscillators to 5HT mechanisms affected by commonly available treatments. 5HT oscillatory dysfunction may define illness subtypes and predict responses to serotonergic agents. Further studies of 5HT oscillations in depression are indicated. PMID:23592367

  3. Relationship between whole blood serotonin and repetitive behaviors in autism.

    PubMed

    Kolevzon, Alexander; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Kryzak, Lauren; Chaplin, William; Watner, Dryden; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J; Cook, Edwin H; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2010-02-28

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between whole blood serotonin level and behavioral symptoms in 78 subjects with autism. No significant associations were found between serotonin level and the primary behavioral outcome measures. However, a significant inverse relationship between serotonin level and self-injury was demonstrated. PMID:20044143

  4. Bioisosteric Matrices for Ligands of Serotonin Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Warszycki, Dawid; Mordalski, Stefan; Staro?, Jakub; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2015-01-01

    The concept of bioisosteric replacement matrices is applied to explore the chemical space of serotonin receptor ligands, aiming to determine the most efficient ways of manipulating the affinity for all 5-HT receptor subtypes. Analysis of a collection of over 1?million bioisosteres of compounds with measured activity towards serotonin receptors revealed that an average of 31?% of the ligands for each target are mutual bioisosteres. In addition, the collected dataset allowed the development of bioisosteric matrices—qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the biological effects of each predefined type of bioisosteric substitution, providing favored paths of modifying the compounds. The concept exemplified here for serotonin receptor ligands can likely be more broadly applied to other target classes, thus representing a useful guide for medicinal chemists designing novel ligands. PMID:25772514

  5. Transgenic Mouse Models in the Analysis of Neurotransmitter Release Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Brose; J. Rettig

    \\u000a The release of neurotransmitter molecules from synaptic vesicles is of outmost importance for the communication between cells\\u000a in the nervous system. Before their fusion with the plasma membrane, vesicles undergo a multistep process which is tightly\\u000a regulated by a large number of proteins. After fusion, a similarly complex protein machinery is involved in the recycling\\u000a of the vesicle membrane. In

  6. Determining the Neurotransmitter Concentration Profile at Active Synapses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annalisa Scimemi; Marco Beato

    2009-01-01

    Establishing the temporal and concentration profiles of neurotransmitters during synaptic release is an essential step towards\\u000a understanding the basic properties of inter-neuronal communication in the central nervous system. A variety of ingenious attempts\\u000a has been made to gain insights into this process, but the general inaccessibility of central synapses, intrinsic limitations\\u000a of the techniques used, and natural variety of different

  7. Neurotransmitters decrease the calcium component of sensory neurone action potentials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Dunlap; Gerald D. Fischbach

    1978-01-01

    RELEASE of neurotransmitters from presynaptic axon terminals requires the influx of Ca2+ ions during the nerve terminal action potential1. Action potentials recorded in some neurone cell bodies exhibit a relatively large Ca2+ component, and it has been suggested that these soma Ca2+ spikes may provide a model for Ca2+ influx across the less accessible nerve terminal membrane2. Recent data support

  8. Antidepressant binding site in a bacterial homologue of neurotransmitter transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satinder K. Singh; Atsuko Yamashita; Eric Gouaux

    2007-01-01

    Sodium-coupled transporters are ubiquitous pumps that harness pre-existing sodium gradients to catalyse the thermodynamically unfavourable uptake of essential nutrients, neurotransmitters and inorganic ions across the lipid bilayer. Dysfunction of these integral membrane proteins has been implicated in glucose\\/galactose malabsorption, congenital hypothyroidism, Bartter's syndrome, epilepsy, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Sodium-coupled transporters are blocked by a number of therapeutically important compounds,

  9. Wireless Multichannel Integrated Potentiostat for Distributed Neurotransmitter Sensing

    E-print Network

    Cauwenberghs, Gert

    a potentiostat and a power harvesting and telemetry module. The potentiostat features 16 channels with multiple scales from microamperes to picoamperes. The wireless module is able to harvest power through inductively- time multi-channel acquisition of dopamine concentration in vitro is performed with carbon fiber

  10. New evidence for neurotransmitter influences on brain development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pat Levitt; John A. Harvey; Eitan Friedman; Kenny Simansky; E. Hazel Murphy

    1997-01-01

    The early appearance of monoamine systems in the developing mammalian CNS suggests that they play a role in neural development. We review data from two model systems that provide compelling new evidence of this role. In one model system – in utero exposure to cocaine – specific and robust alterations are seen in dopamine-rich areas of the cerebral cortex, such

  11. Electrochemical Techniques for Subsecond Neurotransmitter Detection in Live Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hascup, Kevin N; Hascup, Erin R

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in neurotransmission have been implicated in numerous neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, epilepsy, and schizophrenia. Unfortunately, few techniques support the measurement of real-time changes in neurotransmitter levels over multiple days, as is essential for ethologic and pharmacodynamic testing. Microdialysis is commonly used for these research paradigms, but its poor temporal and spatial resolution make this technique inadequate for measuring the rapid dynamics (milliseconds to seconds) of fast signaling neurotransmitters, such as glutamate and acetylcholine. Enzymatic microelectrode arrays (biosensors) coupled with electrochemical recording techniques have demonstrated fast temporal resolution (less than 1 s), excellent spatial resolution (micron-scale), low detection limits (?200 nM), and minimal damage (50 to 100 µm) to surrounding brain tissue. Here we discuss the benefits, methods, and animal welfare considerations of using platinum microelectrodes on a ceramic substrate for enzyme-based electrochemical recording techniques for real-time in vivo neurotransmitter recordings in both anesthetized and awake, freely moving rodents. PMID:25296011

  12. Investigation of serotonin-1A receptor function in the human psychopharmacology of MDMA.

    PubMed

    Hasler, F; Studerus, E; Lindner, K; Ludewig, S; Vollenweider, F X

    2009-11-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) release is the primary pharmacological mechanism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') action in the primate brain. Dopamine release and direct stimulation of dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors also contributes to the overall action of MDMA. The role of 5-HT1A receptors in the human psychopharmacology of MDMA, however, has not yet been elucidated. In order to reveal the consequences of manipulation at the 5-HT1A receptor system on cognitive and subjective effects of MDMA, a receptor blocking study using the mixed beta-adrenoreceptor blocker/5-HT1A antagonist pindolol was performed. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subject design, 15 healthy male subjects were examined under placebo (PL), 20 mg pindolol (PIN), MDMA (1.6 mg/kg b.wt.), MDMA following pre-treatment with pindolol (PIN-MDMA). Tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery were used for the assessment of cognitive performance. Psychometric questionnaires were applied to measure effects of treatment on core dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness, mood and state anxiety. Compared with PL, MDMA significantly impaired sustained attention and visual-spatial memory, but did not affect executive functions. Pre-treatment with PIN did not significantly alter MDMA-induced impairment of cognitive performance and only exerted a minor modulating effect on two psychometric scales affected by MDMA treatment ('positive derealization' and 'dreaminess'). Our findings suggest that MDMA differentially affects higher cognitive functions, but does not support the hypothesis from animal studies, that some of the MDMA effects are causally mediated through action at the 5-HT1A receptor system. PMID:18635693

  13. Receptor mediation of exaggerated responses to serotonin-enhancing drugs in serotonin transporter (SERT)-deficient mice

    E-print Network

    Champagne, Frances A.

    . In SERT À/À mice, the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) tranylcypromine (1 mg/kg) or the serotonin and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI), even when given weeks apart, can result in the development). In rodents, the serotonin syndrome can be induced by serotonin-enhancing drugs including SRIs, MAOIs

  14. Dopamine gates sensory representations in cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Ju

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) maintains information about relevant sensory stimuli, in a process thought to rely on dopamine release. In a recent paper, Jacob et al. (J Neurosci 33: 13724–13734, 2013) demonstrated one way in which dopamine might facilitate this process. The authors recorded from PFC neurons in monkeys during local application of dopamine. They found that dopamine increases the gain of sensory-evoked responses in putative pyramidal neurons in PFC, potentially by inhibiting local interneurons. PMID:24401705

  15. No association between schizophrenia and polymorphisms within the genes for debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) and the dopamine transporter (DAT)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J.; Williams, J.; Asherson, P.; McGuffin, P.; Owen, M. [Univ of Wales College of Medicine, Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-27

    It has been suggested that the cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase, debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, is involved in the catabolism and processing of neurotransmitters subsequent to their reuptake into target cells. It is also thought to be related to the dopamine transporter that acts to take released dopamine back up into presynaptic terminals. The present study used the association approach to test the hypothesis that mutations in the genes for debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase (CYP2D6) and the dopamine transporter (DAT) confer susceptibility to schizophrenia. There were no differences in allele or genotype frequencies between patients and controls in the mutations causing the poor metaboliser phenotype in CYP2D6. In addition there was no association found between schizophrenia and a 48 bp repeat within the 3{prime} untranslated region of DAT. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Antidepressant Specificity of Serotonin Transporter Suggested by Three LeuT-SSRI Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Z.; Zhen, J; Karpowich, N; Law, C; Reith, M; Wang, D

    2009-01-01

    Sertraline and fluoxetine are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that are widely prescribed to treat depression. They exert their effects by inhibiting the presynaptic plasma membrane serotonin transporter (SERT). All SSRIs possess halogen atoms at specific positions, which are key determinants for the drugs' specificity for SERT. For the SERT protein, however, the structural basis of its specificity for SSRIs is poorly understood. Here we report the crystal structures of LeuT, a bacterial SERT homolog, in complex with sertraline, R-fluoxetine or S-fluoxetine. The SSRI halogens all bind to exactly the same pocket within LeuT. Mutation at this halogen-binding pocket (HBP) in SERT markedly reduces the transporter's affinity for SSRIs but not for tricyclic antidepressants. Conversely, when the only nonconserved HBP residue in both norepinephrine and dopamine transporters is mutated into that found in SERT, their affinities for all the three SSRIs increase uniformly. Thus, the specificity of SERT for SSRIs is dependent largely on interaction of the drug halogens with the protein's HBP.

  17. Interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with the serotonin 5HT 2C receptor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E.-P. Pälvimäki; H. Majasuo; A. Laakso; M. Kuoppamäki; E. Syvälahti; B. L. Roth; J. Hietala

    1996-01-01

    Interactions of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram, fluoxetine and its main metabolite norfluoxetine, and the tricyclic anti-depressant (TCA) imipramine with the rat serotonin 5-HT2C receptor in a clonal cell line and in the rat choroid plexus were investigated by radioligand binding and phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis assays. For comparison, the affinities of a variety of other antidepressants of different

  18. Specific interactions between the human serotonin transporter and serotonin analogs at the solution\\/air interface

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Dalençon; V. Rosilio; P. Manivet; J.-M. Launay; A. Baszkin

    1997-01-01

    Purified serotonin transporter protein (SERT) was spread at the buffer solution\\/air interface. The monolayers appeared to be stable and exhibited an inflection point at ?m = 15 mN m?1 and Am = 3302 A?2 which has been considered as the maximum pressure below which the protein preserved its initial conformation.Specific interactions between SERT and serotonin (5-HT) or its analogs (5-HTP,

  19. Serotonin control of sleep-wake behavior.

    PubMed

    Monti, Jaime M

    2011-08-01

    Based on electrophysiological, neurochemical, genetic and neuropharmacological approaches, it is currently accepted that serotonin (5-HT) functions predominantly to promote wakefulness (W) and to inhibit REM (rapid eye movement) sleep (REMS). Yet, under certain circumstances the neurotransmitter contributes to the increase in sleep propensity. Most of the serotonergic innervation of the cerebral cortex, amygdala, basal forebrain (BFB), thalamus, preoptic and hypothalamic areas, raphe nuclei, locus coeruleus and pontine reticular formation comes from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The 5-HT receptors can be classified into at least seven classes, designated 5-HT(1-7). The 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(1B) receptor subtypes are linked to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, and their activation evokes a membrane hyperpolarization. The actions of the 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptor subtypes are mediated by the activation of phospholipase C, with a resulting depolarization of the host cell. The 5-HT(3) receptor directly activates a 5-HT-gated cation channel which leads to the depolarization of monoaminergic, aminoacidergic and cholinergic cells. The primary signal transduction pathway of 5-HT(6) and 5-HT(7) receptors is the stimulation of adenylate cyclase which results in the depolarization of the follower neurons. Mutant mice that do not express 5-HT(1A) or 5-HT(1B) receptor exhibit greater amounts of REMS than their wild-type counterparts, which could be related to the absence of a postsynaptic inhibitory effect on REM-on neurons of the laterodorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei (LDT/PPT). 5-HT(2A) and 5-HT(2C) receptor knock-out mice show a significant increase of W and a reduction of slow wave sleep (SWS) which has been ascribed to the increase of catecholaminergic neurotransmission involving mainly the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Sleep variables have been characterized, in addition, in 5-HT(7) receptor knock-out mice; the mutants spend less time in REMS that their wild-type counterparts. Direct infusion of the 5-HT(1A) receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and flesinoxan into the DRN significantly enhances REMS in the rat. In contrast, microinjection of the 5-HT(1B) (CP-94253), 5-HT(2A/2C) (DOI), 5-HT(3) (m-chlorophenylbiguanide) and 5-HT(7) (LP-44) receptor agonists into the DRN induces a significant reduction of REMS. Systemic injection of full agonists at postsynaptic 5-HT(1A) (8-OH-DPAT, flesinoxan), 5-HT(1B) (CGS 12066B, CP-94235), 5-HT(2C) (RO 60-0175), 5-HT(2A/2C) (DOI, DOM), 5-HT(3) (m-chlorophenylbiguanide) and 5-HT(7) (LP-211) receptors increases W and reduces SWS and REMS. Of note, systemic administration of the 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonists ritanserin, ketanserin, ICI-170,809 or sertindole at the beginning of the light period has been shown to induce a significant increase of SWS and a reduction of REMS in the rat. Wakefulness was also diminished in most of these studies. Similar effects have been described following the injection of the selective 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonists volinanserin and pruvanserin and of the 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonist nelotanserin in rodents. In addition, the effects of these compounds have been studied on the sleep electroencephalogram of subjects with normal sleep. Their administration was followed by an increase of SWS and, in most instances, a reduction of REMS. The administration of ritanserin to poor sleepers, patients with chronic primary insomnia and psychiatric patients with a generalized anxiety disorder or a mood disorder caused a significant increase in SWS. The 5-HT(2A) receptor inverse agonist APD-125 induced also an increase of SWS in patients with chronic primary insomnia. It is known that during the administration of benzodiazepine (BZD) hypnotics to patients with insomnia there is a further reduction of SWS and REMS, whereas both variables tend to remain decreased during the use of non-BZD derivatives (zolpidem, zopiclone, eszopiclone, zaleplon). Thus, the association of 5-HT(2A) antagonists or 5-HT(2A) inverse agonists with BZD and non-BZD hypnoti

  20. Mechanism of the Association between Na+ Binding and Conformations at the Intracellular Gate in Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Chunfeng; Gotfryd, Kamil; Khelashvili, George; Gether, Ulrik; Loland, Claus J; Javitch, Jonathan A; Noskov, Sergei; Weinstein, Harel; Shi, Lei

    2015-05-29

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) terminate neurotransmission by Na(+)-dependent reuptake of released neurotransmitters. Previous studies suggested that Na(+)-binding reconfigures dynamically coupled structural elements in an allosteric interaction network (AIN) responsible for function-related conformational changes, but the intramolecular pathway of this mechanism has remained uncharted. We describe a new approach for the modeling and analysis of intramolecular dynamics in the bacterial NSS homolog LeuT. From microsecond-scale molecular dynamics simulations and cognate experimental verifications in both LeuT and human dopamine transporter (hDAT), we apply the novel method to identify the composition and the dynamic properties of their conserved AIN. In LeuT, two different perturbations disrupting Na(+) binding and transport (i.e. replacing Na(+) with Li(+) or the Y268A mutation at the intracellular gate) affect the AIN in strikingly similar ways. In contrast, other mutations that affect the intracellular gate (i.e. R5A and D369A) do not significantly impair Na(+) cooperativity and transport. Our analysis shows these perturbations to have much lesser effects on the AIN, underscoring the sensitivity of this novel method to the mechanistic nature of the perturbation. Notably, this set of observations holds as well for hDAT, where the aligned Y335A, R60A, and D436A mutations also produce different impacts on Na(+) dependence. Thus, the detailed AIN generated from our method is shown to connect Na(+) binding with global conformational changes that are critical for the transport mechanism. That the AIN between the Na(+) binding sites and the intracellular gate in bacterial LeuT resembles that in eukaryotic hDAT highlights the conservation of allosteric pathways underlying NSS function. PMID:25869126

  1. Mechanism of the Association between Na+ Binding and Conformations at the Intracellular Gate in Neurotransmitter:Sodium Symporters*

    PubMed Central

    Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Chunfeng; Gotfryd, Kamil; Khelashvili, George; Gether, Ulrik; Loland, Claus J.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Noskov, Sergei; Weinstein, Harel; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) terminate neurotransmission by Na+-dependent reuptake of released neurotransmitters. Previous studies suggested that Na+-binding reconfigures dynamically coupled structural elements in an allosteric interaction network (AIN) responsible for function-related conformational changes, but the intramolecular pathway of this mechanism has remained uncharted. We describe a new approach for the modeling and analysis of intramolecular dynamics in the bacterial NSS homolog LeuT. From microsecond-scale molecular dynamics simulations and cognate experimental verifications in both LeuT and human dopamine transporter (hDAT), we apply the novel method to identify the composition and the dynamic properties of their conserved AIN. In LeuT, two different perturbations disrupting Na+ binding and transport (i.e. replacing Na+ with Li+ or the Y268A mutation at the intracellular gate) affect the AIN in strikingly similar ways. In contrast, other mutations that affect the intracellular gate (i.e. R5A and D369A) do not significantly impair Na+ cooperativity and transport. Our analysis shows these perturbations to have much lesser effects on the AIN, underscoring the sensitivity of this novel method to the mechanistic nature of the perturbation. Notably, this set of observations holds as well for hDAT, where the aligned Y335A, R60A, and D436A mutations also produce different impacts on Na+ dependence. Thus, the detailed AIN generated from our method is shown to connect Na+ binding with global conformational changes that are critical for the transport mechanism. That the AIN between the Na+ binding sites and the intracellular gate in bacterial LeuT resembles that in eukaryotic hDAT highlights the conservation of allosteric pathways underlying NSS function. PMID:25869126

  2. Serotonin syndrome caused by olanzapine and clomipramine.

    PubMed

    Verre, M; Bossio, F; Mammone, A; Piccirillo, M; Tancioni, F; Tortorella, V; Varano, M

    2008-01-01

    We describe a case of severe serotonin syndrome. The patient was simultaneously taking the atypical antidepressant olanzapine and a tricyclical antidepressant, clomipramine. Symptoms included altered mental state resulting in coma, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, diaphoresis, diarrhoea, disorientation and fever. After suspension of antidepressant drugs, intensive symptomatic treatment and administration of biperiden and cyproheptadine, the patient's condition improved. PMID:18004234

  3. Pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christoph Hiemke; Sebastian Härtter

    2000-01-01

    The five selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, and citalopram, have similar antidepressant efficacy and a similar side effect profile. They differ, however, in their pharmacokinetic properties. Under steady-state concentrations, their half-lives range between 1 and 4 days for fluoxetine (7 and 15 days for norfluoxetine) and between 21 (paroxetine) and 36 (citalopram) hr for the other

  4. Serotonin in Autism and Pediatric Epilepsies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chugani, Diane C.

    2004-01-01

    Serotonergic abnormalities have been reported in both autism and epilepsy. This association may provide insights into underlying mechanisms of these disorders because serotonin plays an important neurotrophic role during brain development--and there is evidence for abnormal cortical development in both autism and some forms of epilepsy. This…

  5. Serotonin Activates Human Monocytes and Prevents Apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fujiko Soga; Norito Katoh; Tomoko Inoue; Saburo Kishimoto

    2007-01-01

    Monocytes play a critical role in chronic atopic dermatitis (AD) and are the primary leukocytes that interact with activated platelets. Although activated platelets release a variety of mediators, the role of platelets in cutaneous allergic inflammation remains unclear. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is one of the prototypic mediators produced by activated platelets. We examined the effect of 5-HT on the function

  6. l-Menthone confers antidepressant-like effects in an unpredictable chronic mild stress mouse model via NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated inflammatory cytokines and central neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jinsong; Li, Hongyan; Deng, Xueyang; Ma, Zhanqiang; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Shiping

    2015-07-01

    l-Menthone (MTN) is a Chinese old remedy extracted from the genus Mentha. It has been widely used as a cooling agent and a counterirritant for pain relief, although its antidepressant-like effects have not yet been reported. The present study was designed to investigate whether MTN confers an antidepressant-like effect in mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and to explore its potential mechanisms. The effects of MTN on mouse behavioral changes were investigated in our study. We determined the levels of the nucleotide binding, oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, inflammatory cytokines and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus of mice. Behavioral tests, including the sucrose preference test (SPT), open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) revealed that MTN (15 and 30mg/kg) treatments for 3weeks alleviated the depression symptoms of UCMS in mice. Mice receiving MTN treatments exhibited reduced levels of NLRP3 and caspase-1. Moreover, MTN treatments reversed the UCMS-induced alterations in the concentrations of neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (5-HT) and inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (PIC) interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? in the hippocampus of mice. Taken together, our findings suggested that MTN may play a potential antidepressant-like role in the UCMS mouse model by regulating the NLRP3 inflammasome and mediating inflammatory cytokines and central neurotransmitters, which together provide insight towards the development of novel therapeutic treatments for depression. PMID:25937574

  7. Relationship between the thymus and neurochemical changes in the hypothalamus–preoptic area and prefrontal cortex in female rats with delayed puberty fn2 fn2 Abbreviations:adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); analysis of variance (ANOVA); corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH); 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC); dopamine (DA); follicle stimulating hormone (FSH); growth hormone (GH); high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA); hypothalamus preopticpreoptic area (HY-PA); luteinizing hormone (LH); luteinizing hormone releasing factor (LHRH); one way analysis of variance (ANOVA); prefrontal cortex (PFC); prolactin (PRL); serotonin (5HT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Antoniou; Z Papadopoulou-Daifotis; K Kanelakis; D. D Varonos; A Sfikakis

    1997-01-01

    In female rats, aged 55–58 days with delayed puberty due to deficient growth and environmental stress, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels and serotonin turnover rate in the hypothalamus–preoptic area as well as body weight, body weight gain and relative weight of ovaries, uterus, adrenals and preputial glands were lower while serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the prefrontal cortex were higher when

  8. Catecholamine modulatory effects of nepicastat (RS-25560-197), a novel, potent and selective inhibitor of dopamine-?-hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, William C; Li, Bin; Bonhaus, Douglas W; Johnson, Lowell G; Lee, Keiho; Porter, Seth; Walker, Keith; Martinez, Greg; Eglen, Richard M; Whiting, Roger L; Hegde, Sharath S

    1997-01-01

    Inhibitory modulation of sympathetic nerve function may have a favourable impact on the progression of congestive heart failure. Nepicastat is a novel inhibitor of dopamine-?-hydroxylase, the enzyme which catalyses the conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline in sympathetic nerves. The in vitro pharmacology and in vivo catecholamine modulatory effects of nepicastat were investigated in the present study. Nepicastat produced concentration-dependent inhibition of bovine (IC50=8.5±0.8?nM) and human (IC50=9.0±0.8??nM)dopamine-?-hydroxylase. The corresponding R-enantiomer (RS-25560-198) was approximately 2–3 fold less potent than nepicastat. Nepicastat had negligible affinity (>10??M) for twelve other enzymes and thirteen neurotransmitter receptors. Administration of nepicastat to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) (three consecutive doses of either 3, 10, 30 or 100?mg?kg?1, p.o.; 12?h apart) or beagle dogs (0.05, 0.5, 1.5 or 5?mg?kg?1, p.o.; b.i.d., for 5 days) produced dose-dependent decreases in noradrenaline content, increases in dopamine content and increases in dopamine/noradrenaline ratio in the artery (mesenteric or renal), left ventricle and cerebral cortex. At the highest dose studied, the decreases in tissue noradrenaline were 47%, 35% and 42% (in SHRs) and 88%, 91% and 96% (in dogs) in the artery, left ventricle and cerebral cortex, respectively. When tested at 30?mg?kg?1, p.o., in SHRs, nepicastat produced significantly greater changes in noradrenaline and dopamine content, as compared to the R-enantiomer (RS-25560-198), in the mesenteric artery and left ventricle. Administration of nepicastat (2?mg?kg?1, b.i.d, p.o.) to beagle dogs for 15 days produced significant decreases in plasma concentrations of noradrenaline and increases in plasma concentrations of dopamine and dopamine/noradrenaline ratio. The peak reduction (52%) in plasma concentration of noradrenaline and the peak increase (646%) in plasma concentration of dopamine were observed on day-6 and day-7 of dosing, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that nepicastat is a potent, selective and orally active inhibitor of dopamine-?-hydroxylase which produces gradual modulation of the sympathetic nervous system by inhibiting the biosynthesis of noradrenaline. This drug may, therefore, be of value in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders associated with over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system, such as congestive heart failure. PMID:9283721

  9. ANOMALOUS DOPAMINE RELEASE ASSOCIATED WITH A HUMAN DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER CODING VARIANT

    PubMed Central

    Mazei-Robison, M.S.; Bowton, E.; Holy, M.; Schmudermaier, M.; Freissmuth, M.; Sitte, H.H.; Galli, A.; Blakely, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) signaling at synapses is tightly coordinated through opposing mechanisms of vesicular fusion-mediated DA release and transporter-mediated DA clearance. Altered brain DA signaling is suspected to underlie multiple brain disorders including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease, bipolar disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We identified a pedigree containing two male children diagnosed with ADHD who share a rare human DA transporter (DAT, SLC6A3) coding variant, Ala559Val. Among over 1000 control and affected subjects, the Val559 variant has only been isolated once previously, in a female subject with bipolar disorder. Although hDAT Ala559Val supports normal DAT protein and cell surface expression, as well as normal DA uptake, the variant exhibits anomalous DA efflux from DA loaded cells. We also demonstrate that hDAT Ala599Val exhibits increased sensitivity to intracellular Na+, but not intracellular DA, and displays exaggerated DA efflux at depolarized potentials. Remarkably, the two most common ADHD medications, amphetamine and methylphenidate, both block hDAT Ala559Val-mediated DA efflux, whereas these drugs have opposite actions at wildtype hDAT. Our findings reveal that DA efflux, typically associated with amphetamine-like psychostimulants, can be produced through a heritable change in hDAT structure. As multiple gene products are known to coordinate to support amphetamine-mediated DA efflux, the properties of hDAT Ala559Val may have broader significance in identifying a new mechanism through which DA signaling disorders arise. Additionally, they suggest that block of inappropriate neurotransmitter efflux may be an unsuspected mechanism supporting the therapeutic actions of existing transporter-directed medications. PMID:18614672

  10. Dissociable effects of noradrenaline, dopamine, and serotonin uptake blockade on stop task performance in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Bari; Dawn M. Eagle; Adam C. Mar; Emma S. J. Robinson; Trevor W. Robbins

    2009-01-01

    Rationale  The stop-signal paradigm measures the ability to stop a motor response after its execution has been initiated. Impairments\\u000a in inhibiting inappropriate behavior and prolonged stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs) are characteristic of several psychiatric\\u000a disorders, most notably attention deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder. While there is relative consensus regarding the anatomical\\u000a substrates of behavioral inhibition, the neurochemical imbalance responsible for the deficits in stopping

  11. Some derivatives of 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone influencing neurotransmission of dopamine and serotonin.

    PubMed

    Chilmonczyk, Z; Krzywda, J; Cybulski, J; Iskra-Jopa, J

    1997-02-01

    The influence of 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone derivatives 1-9 on dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission was tested. It was found that all tested compounds exhibited modulating activity on one (or both) of the neurotransmissions, the effect being dependent on the aromatic ring substituent. PMID:9122275

  12. Ibogaine and Cocaine Abuse: Pharmacological Interactions at Dopamine and Serotonin Receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Sershen; Audrey Hashim; Abel Lajtha

    1997-01-01

    Ibogaine is an indole alkaloid that has been of interest in recent years due to its putative efficacy in the treatment of drug dependence. For the most part, animal data have shown attenuation of some of the effects of stimulant drugs, for example, motor stimulation and self-administration. The mechanism of this inhibition of drug-induced behavior seems to suggest the action

  13. 1Benzyl1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline, an Endogenous Parkinsonism-Inducing Toxin, Strongly Potentiates MAO-Dependent Dopamine Oxidation and Impairs Dopamine Release: Ex vivo and In vivo Neurochemical Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnieszka W?sik; Irena Roma?ska; Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk

    2009-01-01

    1-Benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1BnTIQ), an endogenous neurotoxin, is known to cause a parkinsonism-like syndrome\\u000a in rodents and primates. In this study we evaluated the effects of single and multiple 1BnTIQ (50 mg\\/kg i.p.) administration\\u000a on the concentrations of dopamine, serotonin, and respective metabolites (homovanillic acid, HVA; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic\\u000a acid, DOPAC; 3-methoxytyramine, 3-MT; and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, 5-HIAA), in substantia nigra, striatum (STR), and nucleus\\u000a accumbens

  14. A Mechanism for Discharge of Charged Excitatory Neurotransmitter

    PubMed Central

    Khanin, Raya; Parnas, Hanna; Segel, Lee

    1997-01-01

    Excitatory neurotransmitter is charged, so that emptying of a transmitter-containing vesicle (discharge) would seem to require considerable energy. Even if the energy problem is surmounted and discharge thereby made possible, there is still a problem of making the discharge fast enough (considerably less than 1 ms). Proposed here is a mechanism wherein discharge of charged transmitter is accompanied by the influx of cocharged ions or coefflux of counter-charged particles (ion interchange). It is shown theoretically that ion interchange obviates the necessity for a separate energy source and can provide the observed rapid vesicle discharge. ImagesFIGURE 8 PMID:9017182

  15. Simultaneous measurement and quantitation of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and dopamine with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mimi; Kaplan, Sam V; Raider, Kayla D; Johnson, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Caged compounds have been used extensively to investigate neuronal function in a variety of preparations, including cell culture, ex vivo tissue samples, and in vivo. As a first step toward electrochemically measuring the extent of caged compound photoactivation while also measuring the release of the catecholamine neurotransmitter, dopamine, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes (FSCV) was used to electrochemically characterize 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4HPAA) in the absence and presence of dopamine. 4HPAA is a by-product formed during the process of photoactivation of p-hydroxyphenacyl-based caged compounds, such as p-hydroxyphenylglutamate (pHP-Glu). Our data suggest that the oxidation of 4HPAA occurs through the formation of a conjugated species. Moreover, we found that a triangular waveform of -0.4 V to +1.3 V to -0.4 V at 600 V s(-1), repeated every 100 ms, provided an oxidation current of 4HPAA that was enhanced with a limit of detection of 100 nM, while also allowing the detection and quantitation of dopamine within the same scan. Along with quantifying 4HPAA in biological preparations, the results from this work will allow the electrochemical measurement of photoactivation reactions that generate 4HPAA as a by-product as well as provide a framework for measuring the photorelease of electroactive by-products from caged compounds that incorporate other chromophores. PMID:25785694

  16. MRI sensing of neurotransmitters with a crown ether appended Gd(3+) complex.

    PubMed

    Oukhatar, Fatima; Même, Sandra; Même, William; Szeremeta, Frédéric; Logothetis, Nikos K; Angelovski, Goran; Tóth, Éva

    2015-02-18

    Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approaches that detect biomarkers associated with neural activity would allow more direct observation of brain function than current functional MRI based on blood-oxygen-level-dependent contrast. Our objective was to create a synthetic molecular platform with appropriate recognition moieties for zwitterionic neurotransmitters that generate an MR signal change upon neurotransmitter binding. The gadolinium complex (GdL) we report offers ditopic binding for zwitterionic amino acid neurotransmitters, via interactions (i) between the positively charged and coordinatively unsaturated metal center and the carboxylate function and (ii) between a triazacrown ether and the amine group of the neurotransmitters. GdL discriminates zwitterionic neurotransmitters from monoamines. Neurotransmitter binding leads to a remarkable relaxivity change, related to a decrease in hydration number. GdL was successfully used to monitor neural activity in ex vivo mouse brain slices by MRI. PMID:25496344

  17. DOPAMINE DEPLETION SLOWS RETINAL TRANSMISSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In male hooded rats, depletion of norepinephrine and dopamine by a-methyl-paratyrosine (AMT) significantly increased the latencies of early peaks in flash-evoked potentials recorded from the visual cortex, lateral geniculate nucleus, and optic tract. These effects were not produc...

  18. Sex Differences in the Brain's Dopamine Signature of Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Wang, Shuo; Kim, Su-Jin; McGovern, Erin; Nabulsi, Nabeel; Gao, Hong; Labaree, David; Tagare, Hemant D.; Sullivan, Jenna M.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health danger. Women and men smoke for different reasons and cessation treatments, such as the nicotine patch, are preferentially beneficial to men. The biological substrates of these sex differences are unknown. Earlier PET studies reported conflicting findings but were each hampered by experimental and/or analytical limitations. Our new image analysis technique, lp-ntPET (Normandin et al., 2012; Morris et al., 2013; Kim et al., 2014), has been optimized for capturing brief (lasting only minutes) and highly localized dopaminergic events in dynamic PET data. We coupled our analysis technique with high-resolution brain scanning and high-frequency motion correction to create the optimal experiment for capturing and characterizing the effects of smoking on the mesolimbic dopamine system in humans. Our main finding is that male smokers smoking in the PET scanner activate dopamine in the right ventral striatum during smoking but female smokers do not. This finding—men activating more ventrally than women—is consistent with the established notion that men smoke for the reinforcing drug effect of cigarettes whereas women smoke for other reasons, such as mood regulation and cue reactivity. lp-ntPET analysis produces a novel multidimensional endpoint: voxel-level temporal patterns of neurotransmitter release (“DA movies”) in individual subjects. By examining these endpoints quantitatively, we demonstrate that the timing of dopaminergic responses to cigarette smoking differs between men and women. Men respond consistently and rapidly in the ventral striatum whereas women respond faster in a discrete subregion of the dorsal putamen. PMID:25505336

  19. Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model system to study neurotransmitter transporters

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Ciara A.; Krantz, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The model genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, uses many of the same neurotransmitters as mammals and very similar mechanisms of neurotransmitter storage, release and recycling. This system offers a variety of powerful molecular-genetic methods for the study of transporters, many of which would be difficult in mammalian models. We review here progress made using Drosophila to understand the function and regulation of neurotransmitter transporters and discuss future directions for its use. PMID:24704795

  20. Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model system to study neurotransmitter transporters.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ciara A; Krantz, David E

    2014-07-01

    The model genetic organism Drosophila melanogaster, commonly known as the fruit fly, uses many of the same neurotransmitters as mammals and very similar mechanisms of neurotransmitter storage, release and recycling. This system offers a variety of powerful molecular-genetic methods for the study of transporters, many of which would be difficult in mammalian models. We review here progress made using Drosophila to understand the function and regulation of neurotransmitter transporters and discuss future directions for its use. PMID:24704795