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Sample records for neutral atom beam injection

  1. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  2. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  3. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Matthew; Lazerson, Samuel A.

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of applied 3D fields in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous slowing down, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database. Elementary benchmark calculations are presented to verify the collisionless particle orbits, NBI model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields. Notice: this manuscript has been authored by Princeton University under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  4. EDITORIAL: Negative ion based neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsworth, R. S.

    2006-06-01

    It is widely recognized that neutral beam injection (NBI), i.e. the injection of high energy, high power, beams of H or D atoms, is a flexible and reliable system that has been the main heating system on a large variety of fusion devices, and NBI has been chosen as one of the three heating schemes of the International Tokomak Reactor (ITER). To date, all the NBI systems but two have been based on the neutralization (in a simple gas target) of positive hydrogen or deuterium ions accelerated to <100 keV/nucleon. Above that energy the neutralization of positive ions falls to unacceptably low values, and higher energy neutral beams have to be created by the neutralization of accelerated negative ions (in a simple gas target), as this remains high (approx60%) up to >1 MeV/nucleon. Unfortunately H- and D- are difficult to create, and the very characteristic that makes them attractive, the ease with which the electron is detached from the ion, means that it is difficult to create high concentrations or fluxes of them, and it is difficult to avoid substantial, collisional, losses in the extraction and acceleration processes. However, there has been impressive progress in negative ion sources and accelerators over the past decade, as demonstrated by the two pioneering, operational, multi-megawatt, negative ion based, NBI systems at LHD (180 keV, H0) and JT-60U (500 keV, D0), both in Japan. Nevertheless, the system proposed for ITER represents a substantial technological challenge as an increase is required in beam energy, to 1 MeV, D0, accelerated ion (D-) current, to 40 A, accelerated current density, 200 A m-2 of D-, and pulse length, to 1 h. At the Fourth IAEA Technical Meeting on Negative Ion Based Neutral Beam Injectors, hosted by the Consorzio RFX, Padova, Italy, 9-11 May 2005, the status of the R&D aimed at the realization of the injectors for ITER was presented. Because of the importance of this development to the success of the ITER project, participants at that

  5. Neutralization of beam-emitting spacecraft by plasma injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, S.; Kawashima, N.; Kuriki, K.; Yanagisawa, M.; Obayashi, T.; Roberts, W. T.; Reasoner, D. L.; Taylor, W. W. L.

    1987-01-01

    An impulsive plasma injection has been used to study charge neutralization of the Space Shuttle Orbiter while it was emitting an electron beam into space. This investigation was performed by Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators on Spacelab-1. A plasma consisting of 10 to the 19th argon ion-electron pairs was injected into space for 1 ms while an electron beam was also being emitted into space. The electron beam energy and current were as high as 5 keV and 300 mA. While the orbiter potential was positive before the plasma injection and began to decrease during the plasma injection, it was near zero for 6 to 20 ms after the plasma injection. The recovery time to the initial level of charging varied from 10 to 100 ms. In a laboratory test in a large space chamber using the same flight hardware, the neutralization time was 8-17 ms and the recovery time was 11-20 ms. The long duration of the neutralization effect in space can be explained by a model of diffusion of the cold plasma which is produced near the Orbiter by charge exchange between the neutral argon atoms and the energetic argon ions during plasma injection.

  6. Conceptual Design of Neutral Beam Injection System for EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chundong; NBI Team

    2012-06-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) system with two neutral beam injections will be constructed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in two stages for high power auxiliary plasmas heating and non-inductive current drive. Each NBI can deliver 2~4 MW beam power with 50~80 keV beam energy in 10~100 s pulse length. Each elements of the NBI system are presented in this contribution.

  7. TPX Neutral Beam Injection System design

    SciTech Connect

    von Halle, A.; Bowen, O.N.; Edwards, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    The existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Neutral Beam system is proposed to be modified for long pulse operation on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Day one of TPX will call for one TFTR beamline modified for 1000 second pulse lengths oriented co-directional to the plasma current. The system design will be capable of accommodating an additional co-directional and a single counter directional beamline. For the TPX conceptual design, every attempt was made to use existing Neutral Beam hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary systems, service infrastructure, and control systems. This paper describes the moderate modifications required to the power systems, the ion sources, and the beam impinged surfaces of the ion dumps, the calorimeters, the various beam scrapers, and the neutralizers. Also described are the minimal modifications required to the vacuum, cryogenic, and gas systems and the major modification of replacing the beamline-torus duct in its entirety. Operational considerations for Neutral Beam subsystems over 1000 second pulse lengths will be explored including proposed operating scenarios for full steady state operation.

  8. Studies on Neutral Beam Injection into the SSPX Spheromak Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Jayakumar, R; Pearlstein, L D; Casper, T A; Fowler, T K; Hill, D N; Hudson, B; McLean, H; Moller, J

    2007-10-19

    In the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, (SSPX) ['Improved operation of the SSPX spheromak', R.D. Wood, D.N. Hill, E.B. Hooper, S. Woodruff1, H.S. McLean and B.W. Stallard, Nucl. Fusion 45 1582-1588 (2005)], plasmas with core electron temperatures reaching up to 500 eV at densities of 10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} have been sustained for several milliseconds, making them suitable as targets for neutral beam injection. High performance and further progress in understanding Spheromak plasma physics are expected if neutral beams are injected into the plasma. This paper presents the results of numerical 1.5 D modeling of the plasma to calculate neutral beam current drive and ion and electron heating. The results are presented for varying initial conditions of density, temperatures and profiles and beam energy, injection angle and power. Current drive efficiency (Ampere/Watt of absorbed power) of up to 0.08 can be achieved with best performance SSPX shots as target. Analyses of neutral beam heating indicate that ion temperatures of up to 1.5 keV and electron temperatures of up to 750 eV can be obtained with injection of about 1 MW of neutral beam for 5-10 ms and with diffusivities typically observed in SSPX. Injection targeting near the magnetic axis appears to be the best for heating and current drive. Effect of the current drive and evolution of SSPX equilibrium are discussed.

  9. BEAM TRANSPORT AND STORAGE WITH COLD NEUTRAL ATOMS AND MOLECULES

    SciTech Connect

    Walstrom, Peter L.

    2012-05-15

    A large class of cold neutral atoms and molecules is subject to magnetic field-gradient forces. In the presence of a field, hyperfine atomic states are split into several Zeeman levels. The slopes of these curves vs. field are the effective magnetic moments. By means of optical pumping in a field, Zeeman states of neutral lithium atoms and CaH molecules with effective magnetic moments of nearly {+-} one Bohr magneton can be selected. Particles in Zeeman states for which the energy increases with field are repelled by increasing fields; particles in states for which the energy decreases with field are attracted to increasing fields. For stable magnetic confinement, field-repelled states are required. Neutral-particle velocities in the present study are on the order of tens to hundreds of m/s and the magnetic fields needed for transport and injection are on the order of in the range of 0.01-1T. Many of the general concepts of charged-particle beam transport carry over into neutral particle spin-force optics, but with important differences. In general, the role of bending dipoles in charged particle optics is played by quadrupoles in neutral particle optics; the role of quadrupoles is played by sextupoles. The neutralparticle analog of charge-exchange injection into storage rings is the use of lasers to flip the state of particles from field-seeking to field-repelled. Preliminary tracking results for two neutral atom/molecule storage ring configurations are presented. It was found that orbit instabilities limit the confinment time in a racetrack-shaped ring with discrete magnetic elements with drift spaces between them; stable behavior was observed in a toroidal ring with a continuous sextupole field. An alternative concept using a linear sextupole or octupole channel with solenoids on the ends is presently being considered.

  10. Plasma heating with multi-MeV neutral atom beams

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Eubank, H.P.

    1981-10-01

    We explore the utility and feasibility of neutral beams of greater than or equal to 6 AMU formed from negative ions, and also of D/sup 0/ formed from D/sup -/. The negative ions would be accelerated to approx. 1 to 2 MeV/AMU and neutralized, whereupon the neutral atoms would be used to heat and, perhaps, to drive current in magnetically confined plasmas. Such beams appear feasible and offer the promise of significant advantages relative to conventional neutral beams based on positive deuterium ions at approx. 150 keV.

  11. Conceptual design for the ZEPHYR neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.S.; Elischer, V.P.; Goldberg, D.A.; Hopkins, D.B.; Jacobson, V.L.; Lou, K.H.; Tanabe, J.T.

    1981-03-01

    In June 1980, the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory began a conceptual design study for a neutral beam injection system for the ZEPHYR ignition tokamak proposed by the Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik in Garching, Germany. The ZEPHYR project was cancelled, and the LBL design effort concluded prematurely in January 1981. This report describes the conceptual design as it existed at that time, and gives brief consideration to a schedule, but does not deal with costs.

  12. Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma and Magnetic FieldDiagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton,Fred

    2007-08-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) adiagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters,flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. High protonfraction and small divergence is essential for diagnostic neutral beams.In our design, a neutral hydrogen beam with an 8 cm x 11 cm (or smaller)elliptical beam spot at 2.5 m from the end of the extraction column isproduced. The beam will deliver up to 5 A of hydrogen beam to the targetwith a pulse width of ~;1 s, once every 1 - 2 min. The H1+ ion species ofthe hydrogen beamwill be over 90 percent. For this application, we havecompared two types of RF driven multicusp ion sources operating at 13.56MHz. The first one is an ion source with an external spiral antennabehind a dielectric RF-window. The second one uses an internal antenna insimilar ion source geometry. The source needs to generate uniform plasmaover a large (8 cm x 5 cm) extraction area. We expect that the ion sourcewith internal antenna will be more efficient at producing the desiredplasma density but might have the issue of limited antenna lifetime,depending on the duty factor. For both approaches there is a need forextra shielding to protect the dielectric materials from the backstreaming electrons. The source walls will be made of insulator materialsuch as quartz that has been observed to generate plasma with higheratomic fraction than sources with metal walls. The ion beam will beextracted and accelerated by a set of grids with slits, thus forming anarray of 6 sheet-shaped beamlets. The multiple grid extraction will beoptimized using computer simulation programs. Neutralization of the beamwill be done in neutralization chamber, which has over 70 percentneutralization efficiency.

  13. First neutral beam injection experiments on KSTAR tokamak.

    PubMed

    Jeong, S H; Chang, D H; Kim, T S; In, S R; Lee, K W; Jin, J T; Chang, D S; Oh, B H; Bae, Y S; Kim, J S; Park, H T; Watanabe, K; Inoue, T; Kashiwagi, M; Dairaku, M; Tobari, H; Hanada, M

    2012-02-01

    The first neutral beam (NB) injection system of the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) tokamak was partially completed in 2010 with only 1∕3 of its full design capability, and NB heating experiments were carried out during the 2010 KSTAR operation campaign. The ion source is composed of a JAEA bucket plasma generator and a KAERI large multi-aperture accelerator assembly, which is designed to deliver a 1.5 MW, NB power of deuterium at 95 keV. Before the beam injection experiments, discharge, and beam extraction characteristics of the ion source were investigated. The ion source has good beam optics in a broad range of beam perveance. The optimum perveance is 1.1-1.3 μP, and the minimum beam divergence angle measured by the Doppler shift spectroscopy is 0.8°. The ion species ratio is D(+):D(2)(+):D(3)(+) = 75:20:5 at beam current density of 85 mA/cm(2). The arc efficiency is more than 1.0 A∕kW. In the 2010 KSTAR campaign, a deuterium NB power of 0.7-1.5 MW was successfully injected into the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-90 keV. L-H transitions were observed within a wide range of beam powers relative to a threshold value. The edge pedestal formation in the T(i) and T(e) profiles was verified through CES and electron cyclotron emission diagnostics. In every deuterium NB injection, a burst of D-D neutrons was recorded, and increases in the ion temperature and plasma stored energy were found. PMID:22380259

  14. TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injected power measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Dudek, L.E.; Gammel, G.M.; Johnson, G.A.; Kugel, H.W.; Lagin, L.; O'Connor, T.E.; Shah, P.A.; Sichta, P.

    1989-05-01

    Energy flow within TFTR neutral beamlines is measured with a waterfall calorimetry system capable of simultaneously measuring the energy deposited within four heating beamlines (three ion sources each), or of measuring the energy deposited in a separate neutral beam test stand. Of the energy extracted from the ion source in the well instrumented test stand, 99.5 +- 3.5% can be accounted for. When the ion deflection magnet is energized, however, 6.5% of the extracted energy is lost. This loss is attributed to a spray of devious particles onto unmonitored surfaces. A 30% discrepancy is also observed between energy measurements on the internal beamline calorimeter and energy measurements on a calorimeter located in the test stand target chamber. Particle reflection from the flat plate calorimeter in the target chamber, which the incident beam strikes at a near-grazing angle of 12/degree/, is the primary loss of this energy. A slight improvement in energy accountability is observed as the beam pulse length is increased. This improvement is attributed to systematic error in the sensitivity of the energy measurement to small fluctuations on the supply water temperature. An overall accuracy of 15% is estimated for the total power injected into TFTR. Contributions to this error are uncertainties in the beam neutralization efficiency, reionization and beam scrape-off in the drift duct, and fluctuations in the temperature of the supply water. 28 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Measurement of the force on microparticles in a beam of energetic ions and neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Trottenberg, Thomas; Schneider, Viktor; Kersten, Holger

    2010-10-15

    The force on microparticles in an energetic ion beam is investigated experimentally. Hollow glass microspheres are injected into the vertically upward directed beam and their trajectories are recorded with a charge-coupled device camera. The net force on the particles is determined by means of the measured vertical acceleration. The resulting beam pressures are compared with Faraday cup measurements of the ion current density and calorimetric measurements of the beam power density. Due to the neutral gas background, the beam consists, besides the ions, of energetic neutral atoms produced by charge-exchange collisions. It is found that the measured composition of the drag force by an ion and a neutral atom component agrees with a beam model that takes charge-exchange collisions into account. Special attention is paid to the momentum contribution from sputtered atoms, which is shown to be negligible in this experiment, but should become measurable in case of materials with high sputtering yields.

  16. Fast ion behavior during neutral beam injection in ATF

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, M.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Colchin, R.J.; Rome, J.A.; England, A.C.; Fowler, R.H.; Aceto, S.C.

    1993-09-01

    In stellarators, single-particle confinement properties can be more complex than in their tokamak counterparts. Fast-ion behavior in tokamaks has been well characterized through an abundance of measurements on various devices and in general has been shown to be consistent with classical slowing-down theory, although anomalous ion behavior has been observed during intense beam injection in ISX-B, during fishbone instabilities in PDX, and in experiments on TFR. In contrast, fast ion behavior in stellarators is not as wel established experimentally with the primary experiments to date focusing o near-perpendicular or perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI) on the Wendelstein 7-A stellarator (91 and Heliotron-E. This paper addresses fast-ion confinement properties in a large-aspect-ratio, moderate-shear stellarator, the Advanced Toroidal Facility, during tangential NBI. The primary data used in this study are the experimentally measured energy spectra of charge-exchange neutrals escaping from the plasma, using a two-dimensional scanning neutral particle analyzer. This diagnostic method is well established, having been used on several devices since the early 1970`s. Various aspects of fast-ion behavior are investigated by comparing these data with computed theoretical spectra based on energeticion distributions derived from the fastion Fokker-Planck equation. Ion orbits are studied by computer orbit following, by the computation of J* surfaces, and by Monte Carlo calculations.

  17. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, G. Q.; Lei, G. J.; Cao, J. Y.; Duan, X. R.

    2012-07-15

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage ({approx}100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak.

  18. Optics of ion beams for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zou, G Q; Lei, G J; Cao, J Y; Duan, X R

    2012-07-01

    The ion beam optics for the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak is studied by two- dimensional numerical simulation program firstly, where the emitting surface is taken at 100 Debye lengths from the plasma electrode. The mathematical formulation, computation techniques are described. Typical ion orbits, equipotential contours, and emittance diagram are shown. For a fixed geometry electrode, the effect of plasma density, plasma potential and plasma electron temperature on ion beam optics is examined, and the calculation reliability is confirmed by experimental results. In order to improve ion beam optics, the application of a small pre-acceleration voltage (∼100 V) between the plasma electrode and the arc discharge anode is reasonable, and a lower plasma electron temperature is desired. The results allow optimization of the ion beam optics in the neutral beam injection system on HL-2A Tokomak and provide guidelines for designing future neutral beam injection system on HL-2M Tokomak. PMID:22852685

  19. Neoclassical electron transport in tokamaks with neutral-beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Helander, P.; Akers, R.J.

    2005-04-15

    The collisional interaction between neutral-beam ions and bulk plasma electrons leads to convective transport of particles and energy similar to the well-known Ware pinch. These transport fluxes are calculated, and it is found that the particle flux is outward when the neutral beams are in the same direction as the plasma current and inward otherwise, while the opposite holds for the electron heat transport. This effectively shifts the neutral-beam fueling profile approximately one fast-ion banana width outward during coinjection and inward during counterinjection, and could help to explain why very different plasma behavior is sometimes observed when the direction of the plasma current is reversed.

  20. Neutral Atom Lithography Using a Bright Metastable Helium Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Claire; Reeves, Jason; Corder, Chris; Metcalf, Harold

    2009-05-01

    We have performed neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable 2^3S1 Helium (He*) that is collimated with the bichromatic force, followed by three optical molasses velocity compression stages. Because bichromatic collimation makes such an intense He* beam, our exposure time is measured in minutes instead of hours. We have exploited the focusing and channeling of the He* beam into lines by the dipole force the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of λ = 1083 nm light tuned 500 MHz below the 2^3S1-> 2^3P2 transition. Focused He* atoms damage the molecules of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol by depositing their 20 eV of internal energy on its surface. The undisturbed SAM then protects a 200 å,ayer of gold that has been evaporated onto a prepared Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Samples created with this method have an edge resolution of 63 nm that was observed using an atomic force microscope. The lines are separated by λ/2 and cover the entire exposed length of the substrate, about 3 mm. They are about 3 mm long, corresponding to about twice the beam waist of the laser standing wave. Thus there are ˜6 x10^3 lines of length ˜1500 λ. These results agree with our numerical simulations of the experiment.

  1. NOx reduction by electron beam-produced nitrogen atom injection

    DOEpatents

    Penetrante, Bernardino M.

    2002-01-01

    Deactivated atomic nitrogen generated by an electron beam from a gas stream containing more than 99% N.sub.2 is injected at low temperatures into an engine exhaust to reduce NOx emissions. High NOx reduction efficiency is achieved with compact electron beam devices without use of a catalyst.

  2. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  3. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae-Seong Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-15

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  4. Neutral atom beam technique enhances bioactivity of PEEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoury, Joseph; Kirkpatrick, Sean R.; Maxwell, Melissa; Cherian, Raymond E.; Kirkpatrick, Allen; Svrluga, Richard C.

    2013-07-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is currently gaining popularity in orthopedic and spinal applications but has potential drawbacks in use. PEEK is biocompatible, similar in elasticity to bone, and radiolucent; however, it has been shown to be inert and does not integrate well with bone. Recent efforts have focused on increasing the bioactivity of PEEK by modifying the surface to improve the bone-implant interface. We have employed a novel Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam technique (ANAB) to enhance the bioactivity of PEEK. ANAB employs an intense beam of cluster-like packets of accelerated unbonded neutral argon (Ar) gas atoms. These beams are created by first producing a highly energetic Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) comprised of van der Waals bonded Ar atoms, then transferring energy to the clusters so as to cause release of most of the interatomic bonds, and finally deflecting away the remaining electrically charged cluster cores of still bonded atoms. We identified that ANAB treatment of PEEK results in nanometer scale surface modifications as well as increased surface hydrophilicity. Human osteoblasts seeded onto the surface of ANAB-treated PEEK exhibited enhanced growth as compared to control PEEK as evidenced by cell proliferation assays and microscopy. This increase in bioactivity resulted in cell proliferation levels comparable to native titanium. An in vivo study using a rat calvarial critical size defect model revealed enhanced osseointegration where bone tissue formation was evident only on the ANAB treated PEEK. Taken together, these data suggest that ANAB treatment of PEEK has the potential to enhance its bioactivity, resulting in bone formation and significantly decreasing osseointegration time of orthopedic and spinal implants.

  5. Neutral Atom Lithography Using a Bright Metastable Helium Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, Claire; Reeves, Jason; Metcalf, Harold

    2008-05-01

    We have performed neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable Helium (He*) that is collimated with the bichromatic force followed by two Doppler molasses velocity compression stages. We have previously demonstrated this lithography method using a metal grid to project its image on a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol. The open areas of the grid allow incident He* to damage the SAM molecules by depositing their 20 eV of internal energy on the surface. The undisturbed SAM regions then protect a gold coated Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Samples created with this method have an edge resolution of 63 nm that was observed using an atomic force microscope. We have now achieved focusing of the He* beam into lines by the dipole force that the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of λ = 1083 nm light tuned 500 MHz above the 2^3S1-->2^3P2 transition. The lines are separated by λ/2 and their length is comparable to the laser beam waist. Because bichromatic collimation makes such an intense He* beam, our exposure time can be as short as 10 minutes.

  6. Timing system for neutral beam injection on the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bramson, G.

    1991-11-01

    Eight neutral beam (NB) long pulse sources mounted on four beamlines are in use on the D3-D tokamak, a magnetic confinement fusion experiment at General Atomics. The main purpose of NB injection is to heat the bulk plasma with high energy injected neutral particles which undergo ionizing collisions with plasma ions and electrons. NB injection is also used as a diagnostic tool for charge exchange recombination spectrometry to determine ion temperatures and rotation velocities and for neutral particle exchange spectrometry to determine spatial distributions of beam ions. This paper describes recent modifications to the D3-D central timing system hardware and software to allow more flexible and complex timing waveforms than previously available to control NB injection. In the past, for each plasma discharge, the start time and the pulse duration for each NB source could be set. The new NB timing system allows the experimental session leader to specify more than one pulse for each NB source to make efficient use of multiple physics experiments in a single discharge. Also, pulse trains with programmable duty cycles can be independently specified for each NB source to make NB injection a more useful diagnostic tool. Experimental results using features of the new NB timing system are presented. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Benchmarks of neutral beam injection codes for stellarators

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, R.H.; Rome, J.A.; Morris, R.N.; Hanatani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The 3-dimensional geometry of stellarators/heliotrons make it more difficult to calculate beam deposition and thermalization. Extensive comparisons between the Oak Ridge and Kyoto codes were undertaken, using a simplified model for the Heliotron-E plasma and magnetic field. The perpendicular injection geometry causes most of the energetic fast ions to be helically trapped. The high transform and shear of the heliotron configuration helps to confine these orbits, but energy losses in the model cases ranged from 20 to 50%. Although the codes use different coordinate systems and collision operators, when they solve the same problem, the answers are equivalent. For perpendicular injection, very little, if any, acceleration of the slowing process can be tolerated.

  8. Halo plasma heating by neutral beam injection in TMX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, W.L.; Bauer, W.; Kerst, R.A.; Wilson, K.L.; Simonen, T.C.; Foote, J.H.; Pickles, W.L.

    1985-05-01

    The electron temperature and density of the halo in TMX-U have been measured by Langmuir probes to study the heating of the halo plasma by neutral beam injection. This study is motivated by the recent interest in using a pair of halo recyclers to enhance the halo density and thereby increase halo shielding. In present TMX-U operation, without halo recyclers, a halo density of 2 x 10/sup 12/ cm/sup -3/ with electron temperature of 20 eV has been measured during the heating phase with neutral beam injection only. A halo power balance model incorporating several heating mechanisms resulting from neutral beam injection is described. The model accurately predicts the measured temperatures. At the halo density range that one expects to achieve with halo recyclers, the model predicts the existing TMX-U neutral beam sources to heat the halo to at least 30 eV.

  9. Effects of neutral gas releases on electron beam injection from electrically tethered spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of high neutral densities at low altitudes and/or during thruster firings is known to modify the spacecraft potential during active electron beam injection. Two-dimensional (three velocity) particle simulations are used to investigate the ionization processes including the neutral density required, the modification of the spacecraft potential, beam profile and spatial distribution of the return current into the spacecraft. Three processes are identified: (1) beam-induced ionization, (2) vehicle-induced ionization, and (3) beam plasma discharge. Only in the first two cases does the beam propagate away with little distortion.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Non-Inductive Current Driven Scenario in EAST Using Neutral Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jinfang; Wang, Ji; Hu, Chundong

    2015-01-01

    For achieving the scientific mission of long pulse and high performance operation, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) applies fully superconducting magnet technology and is equiped with high power auxiliary heating system. Besides RF (Radio Frequency) wave heating, neutral beam injection (NBI) is an effective heating and current drive method in fusion research. NBCD (Neutral Beam Current Drive) as a viable non-inductive current drive source plays an important role in quasi-steady state operating scenario for tokamak. The non-inductive current driven scenario in EAST only by NBI is predicted using the TSC/NUBEAM code. At the condition of low plasma current and moderate plasma density, neutral beam injection heats the plasma effectively and NBCD plus bootstrap current accounts for a large proportion among the total plasma current for the flattop time.

  11. Evolution of TFTR scrape-off plasmas with neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Heifetz, D.; Kilpatrick, S.; Manos, D.; Owens, D.K.; Papes, R.; Stangeby, P.; Ulrickson, M.

    1986-09-01

    Langmuir probe radial scans were achieved for several types of neutral-beam-heated 0.8 MA discharges in TFTR. The I(V) characteristics were analyzed to derive N/sub e/ and T/sub e/ profiles and extrapolated to infer the global particle confinement time tau/sub p/(t). A one-dimensional edge model was used to infer transport coefficients before and during neutral beam injection. The model indicates that ionization in the scrape-off increases the ion flux to the limiter by a factor approx.2 and alters the profiles.

  12. Fusion-neutron production in the TFTR with deuterium neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Hendel, H.W.; England, A.C.; Jassby, D.L.; Mirin, A.A.; Nieschmidt, E.B.

    1986-06-01

    We report measurements of the fusion reaction rate in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) covering a wide range of plasma conditions and injected neutral beam powers up to 6.3 MW. The fusion-neutron production rate in beam-injected plasmas decreases slightly with increasing plasma density n/sub e/, even though the energy confinement parameter n/sub e/tau/sub E/ generally increases with density. The measurements indicate and Fokker-Planck simulations show that with increasing density the source of fusion neutrons evolves from mainly beam-beam and beam-target reactions at very low n/sub e/ to a combination of beam-target and thermonuclear reactions at high n/sub e/. At a given plasma current, the reduction in neutron source strength at higher n/sub e/ is due to both a decrease in electron temperature and in beam-beam reaction rate. The Fokker-Planck simulations also show that at low n/sub e/, plasma rotation can appreciably reduce the beam-target reaction rate for experiments with co-injection only. The variation of neutron source strength with plasma and beam parameters is as expected for beam-dominated regimes. However, the Fokker-Planck simulations systematically overestimate the measured source strength by a factor of 2 to 3; the source of this discrepancy has not yet been identified.

  13. Ion transport studies on the PLT tokamak during neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Suckewer, S.; Cavallo, A.; Cohen, S.; Daughney, C.; Denne, B.; Hinnov, E.; Hosea, J.; Hulse, R.; Hwang, D.; Schilling, G.

    1983-12-01

    Radial transport of ions during co- and counter-neutral beam heating in the PLT tokamak has been studied, using molybdenum and scandium ions as tracer elements. The time evolution of the radial profiles of several ionization stages of both elements, injected by laser blowoff during the neutral beam heating, were measured under three significantly different beam-plasma combinations. No noticeable differences in the radial profiles attributable to the beam direction were observed. However, a given injected amount resulted in considerably larger interior concentrations of the tracer element in the counter-beam heating cases, suggesting larger penetration of the plasma periphery. Computer simulation with the MIST code suggests a net inward drift of the order 10/sup 3/ cm/sec superposed to a diffusion coefficient of the order 10/sup 4/ cm/sup 2//sec for both scandium and molybdenum ions. Injection of larger amounts of the tracer element, sufficient to cause measurable central electron temperature changes, resulted in dramatic changes in ion-state distributions, making some appear peaked in the center while others disappeared. This effect could be produced with both co- and counter-beam heating, but with lesser amounts in the latter case. It is interpreted as rearrangement of the ionization balance, rather than any preferential accumulation of the injected element.

  14. Particle and momentum confinement in tokamak plasmas with unbalanced neutral beam injection and strong rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a self-consistent theory of the effects of neutral beam injection on impurity transport in tokamak plasmas. The theory predicts that co-injection drives impurities outward and that counter-injection enhances the normally inward flow of impurities. The theory was applied to carry out a detailed analysis of the large experimental database from the PLT and the ISX-B tokamaks. The theory was found to generally model the experimental data quite well. It is, therefore, concluded that neutral beam co-injection can drive impurities outward to achieve clean central plasmas and a cool radiating edge. Theoretical predictions for future thermonuclear reactors such as INTOR, TIBER II, and ITER indicated that neutral beam driven flow reversal might be an effective impurity control method if the rate of beam momentum deposited per plasma ion is adequate. The external momentum drag, which is a pivotal concept in impurity flow reversal theory, is correctly predicted by the gyroviscous theory of momentum confinement. The theory was applied to analyze experimental data from the PLT and the PDX tokamaks with exact experimental conditions. The theory was found to be in excellent agreement with experiment over a wide range of parameters. It is, therefore, possible to formulate the impurity transport theory from first principles, without resort to empiricism.

  15. Characterization of a 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, J. A.; Linton, R. C.; Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Whitaker, A. F.; Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental effort to characterize an existing 5-eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facility being developed at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is described. This characterization effort includes atomic oxygen flux and flux distribution measurements using a catalytic probe, energy determination using a commercially designed quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and the exposure of oxygen-sensitive materials in this beam facility. Also, comparisons were drawn between the reaction efficiencies of materials exposed in plasma ashers, and the reaction efficiencies previously estimated from space flight experiments. The results of this study show that the beam facility is capable of producing a directional beam of neutral atomic oxygen atoms with the needed flux and energy to simulate low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions for real time accelerated testing. The flux distribution in this facility is uniform to +/- 6 percent of the peak flux over a beam diameter of 6 cm.

  16. Development of ion transportation, extraction and neutralization systems for atomic beam resonance method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagae, Daisuke; Asahi, Koichiro; Miyoshi, Hisanori; Shimada, Kenzi; Yoshimi, Akihiro; Ueno, Hideki; Murata, Jiro; Uchida, Makoto; Kameda, Daisuke; Kato, Go; Emori, Shoken; Kijima, Go; Oshima, Sachiko; Takemura, Makoto; Arai, Takemasa; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Haseyama, Tomohito; Schmidt-Ott, W. D.

    2005-11-01

    A device that produces a low-energy and largely spin polarized RI beam based on the atomic beam resonance method (RIABR) has been developed. We have performed measurements of stopping and drifting an incoming RI ion beam in a gas chamber, extraction of the ions into a vacuum region, and neutralization of the extracted low-energy ion beam. The drift efficiency of RI ions in a gas and the extraction efficiency at a Laval-type glass nozzle were found to be 0.72±0.04 and 0.033, respectively. The result of the experiment for the neutralization is also discussed.

  17. Design of Control Server Application Software for Neutral Beam Injection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qilin; Hu, Chundong; Sheng, Peng; Song, Shihua

    2012-04-01

    For the remote control of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system, a software NBIcsw is developed to work on the control server. It can meet the requirements of data transmission and operation-control between the NBI measurement and control layer (MCL) and the remote monitoring layer (RML). The NBIcsw runs on a Linux system, developed with client/server (C/S) mode and multithreading technology. It is shown through application that the software is with good efficiency.

  18. Neutralization of ion beam by means of transverse injection of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baitin, A. V.; Serebrennikov, K. S.; Sionov, A. B.

    1997-01-01

    Electron beam transverse injection into a region of a positive ion beam propagating between two conducting plates is considered. This problem is important for ion beam propagation in the implanter tracts and for construction of ion beam focusing elements. After the transition stage the formation of different stationary ion-beam plasma states is possible, with electrons being accelerated or decelerated while moving from the wall up to the center of the ion beam. The dependence of the final state on the parameters of the system is obtained. The regime with deceleration is characterized by negative total space charge and can be used for focusing of the ion beam. Temporary evolution of the neutralization process and realization of these stationary states is studied by means of one-dimensional particle-in-cell code simulation. The dynamics of the process in the case of absence of the stationary state and such non-stationary phenomena like sheath and virtual cathode are studied, too. This process comes to a high degree of neutralization due to the electrons being captured by the ion beam space charge potential.

  19. Calculation of Neutral Beam Injected Torque and Its Effective Tangency Major Radius for EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xingquan; Wan, Baonian; Lyu, Bo; Wu, Bin; Wang, Jinfang; Hu, Chundong

    2015-07-01

    Toroidal rotation has been recognized to have significant effects on the transport and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of tokamak plasmas. Neutral beam injection (NBI) is the most effective rotation generation method on current tokamak devices. To estimate the effective injected torque of the first neutral beam injection system on EAST, a simplified analytic method was derived. Calculated beam torque values were validated by those obtained from the NUBEAM code simulation. According to the results, for the collisional torque, the effective tangential radius for torque deposition is close to the beam tangency major radius. However, due to the dielectric property of tokamak plasma, the equivalent tangency major radius of the {{\\rightharpoonup}\\atop J}× {{\\rightharpoonup}\\atop B} torque is equal to the average major radius of the magnetic flux surface. The results will be useful for the research of toroidal momentum confinement and the experimental analysis of momentum transport related with NBI on EAST. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11247302, 11175211, 11175208), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2013GB101001 and 2013GB112004) and International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (No. 2014DFG61950)

  20. Laser-induced fluorescence of metal-atom impurities in a neutral beam

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, C.F.; Pyle, R.V.; Sabetimani, Z.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1984-10-01

    The need to limit impurities in fusion devices to low levels is well known. We have investigated, by the technique of laser-induced fluorescence, the concentration of heavy-metal atoms in a neutral beam caused by their evaporation from the hot filaments in a conventional high-current multifilament hydrogen-ion source.

  1. Neutral atomic oxygen beam produced by ion charge exchange for Low Earth Orbital (LEO) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Rutledge, Sharon; Brdar, Marko; Olen, Carl; Stidham, Curt

    1987-01-01

    A low energy neutral atomic oxygen beam system was designed and is currently being assembled at the Lewis Research Center. The system utilizes a 15 cm diameter Kaufman ion source to produce positive oxygen ions which are charge exchange neutralized to produce low energy (variable from 5 to 150 eV) oxygen atoms at a flux simulating real time low Earth orbital conditions. An electromagnet is used to direct only the singly charged oxygen ions from the ion source into the charge exchange cell. A retarding potential grid is used to slow down the oxygen ions to desired energies prior to their charge exchange. Cryogenically cooled diatomic oxygen gas in the charge exchange cell is then used to transfer charge to the oxygen ions to produce a neutral atomic oxygen beam. Remaining non-charge exchanged oxygen ions are then swept from the beam by electromagnetic or electrostatic deflection depending upon the desired experiment configuration. The resulting neutral oxygen beam of 5 to 10 cm in diameter impinges upon target materials within a sample holder fixture that can also provide for simultaneous heating and UV exposure during the atomic oxygen bombardment.

  2. Surface damage correction, and atomic level smoothing of optics by Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, M.; Chau, K.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Svrluga, R.

    2014-10-01

    Surface damage and surface contamination of optics has long been a source of problems for laser, lithography and other industries. Nano-sized surface defects may present significant performance issues in optical materials for deep UV and EUV applications. The effects of nanometer sized surface damage (scratches, pits, and organics) on the surface of optics made of traditional materials and new more exotic materials is a limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, zinc sulfide, BK7 and others presents a unique set of challenges. Exogenesis Corporation, using its proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and contamination and leaves many material surfaces with roughness typically around one angstrom. This process technology has been demonstrated on nonlinear crystals, and various other high-end optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for various materials that have been processed with ANAB. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply normal forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface contaminants, nano-scale scratches, bumps and other asperities under low energy physical sputtering conditions as the removal action proceeds. ANAB may be used to remove a precisely controlled, uniform thickness of material without any increase of surface roughness, regardless of the total amount of material removed. The ANAB process does not

  3. Rare-earth neutral metal injection into an electron beam ion trap plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, E. W. Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Hell, N.

    2014-11-15

    We have designed and implemented a neutral metal vapor injector on the SuperEBIT high-energy electron beam ion trap at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A horizontally directed vapor of a europium metal is created using a thermal evaporation technique. The metal vapor is then spatially collimated prior to injection into the trap. The source's form and quantity constraints are significantly reduced making plasmas out of metal with vapor pressures ≤10{sup −7} Torr at ≥1000 °C more obtainable. A long pulsed or constant feed metal vapor injection method adds new flexibility by varying the timing of injection and rate of material being introduced into the trap.

  4. Ion source for neutral beam injection meant for plasma and magnetic field diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

    2008-02-15

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory a diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters, flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. The system is designed to have a 90% proton fraction and small divergence with beam current at 5-6 A and a pulse length of {approx}1 s occurring once every 1-2 min. The ion source needs to generate uniform plasma over a large (8x5 cm{sup 2}) extraction area. For this application, we have compared rf driven multicusp ion sources operating with either an external or an internal antenna in similar ion source geometry. The ion beam will be made of an array of six sheet-shaped beamlets. The design is optimized using computer simulation programs.

  5. Ion Source for Neutral beam injection meant for plasma and magnetic field diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

    2007-06-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) a diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters, flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. The systems is designed to have a 90 % proton fraction and small divergence with beam current at 5-6 A and a pulse length of {approx}1 s occurring once every 1-2 min. The ion source needs to generate uniform plasma over a large (8 cm x 5 cm) extraction area. For this application, we have compared RF driven multicusp ion sources operating with either an external or an internal antenna in similar ion source geometry. The ion beam will be made of an array of six sheet-shaped beamlets. The design is optimized using computer simulation programs.

  6. Two Azimuthally Separated Regions of Cusp Ion Injection Observed via Energetic Neutral Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abe, M.; Taguchi, S.; Collier, M. R.; Moore, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The low-energy neutral atom (LENA) imager on the IMAGE spacecraft can detect energetic neutral atoms produced by ion injection into the cusp through a charge exchange with the Earth's hydrogen exosphere. We examined the occurrence of the LENA cusp signal during positive IMF B(sub z) in terms of the arrival direction and the IMF clock angle theta(sub CA). Results of statistical analyses show that the occurrence frequency is high on the postnoon side when theta(sub CA) is between approximately 20 degrees and approximately 50 degrees. This is ascribed to ion injection caused by cusp reconnection typical of positive IMF B(sub z). Our results also show that there is another situation of high occurrence frequency, which can be identified with theta(sub CA) of approximately 30 degrees to approximately 80 degrees. When theta(sub CA) is relatively large (60 degrees - 80 degrees), occurrence frequencies are high at relatively low latitudes over a wide extent spanning both prenoon and postnoon sectors. This feature suggests that the ion injection is caused by reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. Its postnoon side boundary shifts toward the prenoon as theta(sub CA) decreases. When theta(sub CA) is less than approximately 50 degrees, the high occurrence frequency exists well inside the prenoon sector, which is azimuthally separated from the postnoon region ascribed to cusp reconnection. The prenoon region, which is thought due to ion injection caused by dayside reconnection, may explain the recent report that proton aurora brightening occurs in the unanticipated prenoon sector of the northern high-latitude ionosphere for IMF B(sub y) greater than 0 and B(sub z) greater than 0.

  7. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yamada, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    This study briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactormore » program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.« less

  8. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaaki

    2016-03-01

    This paper briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  9. Formation and sustainment of field reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas by spheromak merging and neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    This study briefly reviews a compact toroid reactor concept that addresses critical issues for forming, stabilizing and sustaining a field reversed configuration (FRC) with the use of plasma merging, plasma shaping, conducting shells, neutral beam injection (NBI). In this concept, an FRC plasma is generated by the merging of counter-helicity spheromaks produced by inductive discharges and sustained by the use of neutral beam injection (NBI). Plasma shaping, conducting shells, and the NBI would provide stabilization to global MHD modes. Although a specific FRC reactor design is outside the scope of the present paper, an example of a promising FRC reactor program is summarized based on the previously developed SPIRIT (Self-organized Plasmas by Induction, Reconnection and Injection Techniques) concept in order to connect this concept to the recently achieved the High Performance FRC plasmas obtained by Tri Alpha Energy [Binderbauer et al, Phys. Plasmas 22,056110, (2015)]. This paper includes a brief summary of the previous concept paper by M. Yamada et al, Plasma Fusion Res. 2, 004 (2007) and the recent experimental results from MRX.

  10. Field Reversed Configuration Confinement Enhancement through Edge Biasing and Neutral Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Smirnov, A.; Thompson, M. C.; Korepanov, S.; Akhmetov, T.; Ivanov, A.; Voskoboynikov, R.; Schmitz, L.; Barnes, D.; Binderbauer, M. W.; Brown, R.; Bui, D. Q.; Clary, R.; Conroy, K. D.; Deng, B. H.; Dettrick, S. A.; Douglass, J. D.; Garate, E.; Glass, F. J.; Gota, H.; Guo, H. Y.; Gupta, D.; Gupta, S.; Kinley, J. S.; Knapp, K.; Longman, A.; Hollins, M.; Li, X. L.; Luo, Y.; Mendoza, R.; Mok, Y.; Necas, A.; Primavera, S.; Ruskov, E.; Schroeder, J. H.; Sevier, L.; Sibley, A.; Song, Y.; Sun, X.; Trask, E.; Van Drie, A. D.; Walters, J. K.; Wyman, M. D.

    2012-06-01

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) with high confinement are obtained in the C-2 device by combining plasma gun edge biasing and neutral beam injection. The plasma gun creates an inward radial electric field that counters the usual FRC spin-up. The n=2 rotational instability is stabilized without applying quadrupole magnetic fields. The FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The plasma gun also produces E×B shear in the FRC edge layer, which may explain the observed improved particle transport. The FRC confinement times are improved by factors 2 to 4, and the plasma lifetimes are extended from 1 to up to 4 ms.

  11. Field reversed configuration confinement enhancement through edge biasing and neutral beam injection.

    PubMed

    Tuszewski, M; Smirnov, A; Thompson, M C; Korepanov, S; Akhmetov, T; Ivanov, A; Voskoboynikov, R; Schmitz, L; Barnes, D; Binderbauer, M W; Brown, R; Bui, D Q; Clary, R; Conroy, K D; Deng, B H; Dettrick, S A; Douglass, J D; Garate, E; Glass, F J; Gota, H; Guo, H Y; Gupta, D; Gupta, S; Kinley, J S; Knapp, K; Longman, A; Hollins, M; Li, X L; Luo, Y; Mendoza, R; Mok, Y; Necas, A; Primavera, S; Ruskov, E; Schroeder, J H; Sevier, L; Sibley, A; Song, Y; Sun, X; Trask, E; Van Drie, A D; Walters, J K; Wyman, M D

    2012-06-22

    Field reversed configurations (FRCs) with high confinement are obtained in the C-2 device by combining plasma gun edge biasing and neutral beam injection. The plasma gun creates an inward radial electric field that counters the usual FRC spin-up. The n = 2 rotational instability is stabilized without applying quadrupole magnetic fields. The FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The plasma gun also produces E × B shear in the FRC edge layer, which may explain the observed improved particle transport. The FRC confinement times are improved by factors 2 to 4, and the plasma lifetimes are extended from 1 to up to 4 ms. PMID:23004613

  12. ProVac3D and Application to the Neutral Beam Injection System of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, X.; Dremel, M.; Day, Ch.

    2008-12-31

    In order to heat the confined plasma up to 100 million degrees Celsius and initiate a sustained fusion reaction, ITER will use several heating mechanisms at the same time, of which Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) systems play an important role. The NBI includes several internal gas sources and has to be operated under vacuum conditions. We have developed ProVac3D, a Monte Carlo simulation code, to calculate gas dynamics and the density profiles in volumes of interest inside NBI. This enables us to elaborate our in-situ and state-of-the-art cryogenic pump design and estimate the corresponding pumping speed.

  13. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  14. Prompt Loss of Energetic Ions during Early Neutral Beam Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley; D.S. Darrow; D. Liu; A.L. Roquemore

    2005-03-25

    Early neutral-beam injection is used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to heat the electrons and slow current penetration which keeps q(0) elevated to avoid deleterious MHD activity and at the same time reduces Ohmic flux consumption, all of which aids long-pulse operation. However, the low plasma current (I{sub p} {approx} 0.5 MA) and electron density (n{sub e} {approx} 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}) attending early injection lead to elevated orbit and shine through losses. The inherent orbit losses are aggravated by large excursions in the outer gap width during current ramp-up. An investigation of this behavior using various energetic particle diagnostics on NSTX and TRANSP code analysis is presented.

  15. Current profile redistribution driven by neutral beam injection in a reversed-field pinch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parke, E.; Anderson, J. K.; Brower, D. L.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ding, W. X.; Johnson, C. A.; Lin, L.

    2016-05-01

    Neutral beam injection in reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas on the Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] drives current redistribution with increased on-axis current density but negligible net current drive. Internal fluctuations correlated with tearing modes are observed on multiple diagnostics; the behavior of tearing mode correlated structures is consistent with flattening of the safety factor profile. The first application of a parametrized model for island flattening to temperature fluctuations in an RFP allows inferrence of rational surface locations for multiple tearing modes. The m = 1, n = 6 mode is observed to shift inward by 1.1 ± 0.6 cm with neutral beam injection. Tearing mode rational surface measurements provide a strong constraint for equilibrium reconstruction, with an estimated reduction of q0 by 5% and an increase in on-axis current density of 8% ± 5%. The inferred on-axis current drive is consistent with estimates of fast ion density using TRANSP [Goldston et al., J. Comput. Phys. 43, 61 (1981)].

  16. Power deposition by neutral beam injected fast ions in field-reversed configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toshiki; Kato, Takayuki; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Iwasawa, Naotaka

    2004-08-01

    The effects of Coulomb collisions on neutral beam (NB) injected fast ions into field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas are investigated by calculating the single particle orbits, where the ions are subject to the slowing-down and pitch-angle collisions. The Monte Carlo method is used for the pitch-angle scattering, and the friction term is added to the equation of motion to show the effects of the slowing-down collision, such as the deposited power profile. The calculation parameters used are relevant to the NB injection on the FRC injection experiment device [T. Asai, Y. Suzuki, T. Yoneda, F. Kodera, M. Okubo, and S. Goto, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2294 (2000)]. It is found that the dominant local power deposition occurs in the open field region between the X point and the mirror point because of a concentration of fast ions and a longer duration travel at the mirror reflection point. In the present calculation, the maximum deposited power to the FRC plasma is about 10% of the injected power. Although the pitch-angle scattering by Coulomb collision destroys the mirror confinement of NB injected fast ions, this effect is found to be negligible. The loss mechanism due to nonadiabatic fast ion motion, which is intrinsic in nonuniform FRC plasmas, has a much greater effect than the pitch-angle scattering by Coulomb collision.

  17. Generation of neutral atomic beams utilizing photodetachment by high power diode laser stacks.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, A P; Grussie, F; Bruhns, H; de Ruette, N; Koenning, T P; Miller, K A; Savin, D W; Stützel, J; Urbain, X; Kreckel, H

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of high power diode laser stacks to photodetach fast hydrogen and carbon anions and produce ground term neutral atomic beams. We achieve photodetachment efficiencies of ∼7.4% for H(-) at a beam energy of 10 keV and ∼3.7% for C(-) at 28 keV. The diode laser systems used here operate at 975 nm and 808 nm, respectively, and provide high continuous power levels of up to 2 kW, without the need of additional enhancements like optical cavities. The alignment of the beams is straightforward and operation at constant power levels is very stable, while maintenance is minimal. We present a dedicated photodetachment setup that is suitable to efficiently neutralize the majority of stable negative ions in the periodic table. PMID:26628128

  18. Specific features of measuring the isotopic composition of hydrogen ions in ITER plasma by using neutral particle diagnostics under neutral beam injection conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasyev, V. I.; Goncharov, P. R.; Mironov, M. I.; Nesenevich, V. G. Petrov, M. P.; Petrov, S. Ya.; Sergeev, V. Yu.

    2015-12-15

    Results of numerical simulation of signals from neutral particle analyzers under injection of the heating and diagnostic neutral beams in different operating modes of the ITER tokamak are presented. The distribution functions of fast ions in plasma are simulated, and the corresponding neutral particle fluxes escaping from the plasma along the line of sight of the analyzers are calculated. It is shown that the injection of heating deuterium (D{sup 0}) beams results in the appearance of an intense background signal hampering measurements of the ratio between the densities of deuterium and tritium fuel ions in plasma in the thermal energy range. The injection of a diagnostic hydrogen (H{sup 0}) beam does not affect measurements owing to the high mass resolution of the analyzers.

  19. Specific features of measuring the isotopic composition of hydrogen ions in ITER plasma by using neutral particle diagnostics under neutral beam injection conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, V. I.; Goncharov, P. R.; Mironov, M. I.; Nesenevich, V. G.; Petrov, M. P.; Petrov, S. Ya.; Sergeev, V. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Results of numerical simulation of signals from neutral particle analyzers under injection of the heating and diagnostic neutral beams in different operating modes of the ITER tokamak are presented. The distribution functions of fast ions in plasma are simulated, and the corresponding neutral particle fluxes escaping from the plasma along the line of sight of the analyzers are calculated. It is shown that the injection of heating deuterium (D0) beams results in the appearance of an intense background signal hampering measurements of the ratio between the densities of deuterium and tritium fuel ions in plasma in the thermal energy range. The injection of a diagnostic hydrogen (H0) beam does not affect measurements owing to the high mass resolution of the analyzers.

  20. Modeling and control of plasma rotation for NSTX using neoclassical toroidal viscosity and neutral beam injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Kolemen, E.; Taira, K.

    2016-03-01

    A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.

  1. Data Processing Middleware in a High-Powered Neutral Beam Injection Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Peng; Hu, Chundong; Song, Shihua; Liu, Zhimin; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Xiaodan; Dou, Shaobin

    2013-06-01

    A set of data-processing middleware for a high-powered neutral beam injection (NBI) control system is presented in this paper. The middleware, based on TCP/IP and multi-threading technologies, focuses mainly on data processing and transmission. It separates the data processing and compression from data acquisition and storage. It provides universal transmitting interfaces for different software circumstances, such as WinCC, LabView and other measurement systems. The experimental data acquired on Windows, QNX and Linux platforms are processed by the middleware and sent to the monitoring applications. There are three middleware deployment models: serial processing, parallel processing and alternate serial processing. By using these models, the middleware solves real-time data-processing problems on heterogeneous environmental acquisition hardware with different operating systems and data applications.

  2. Parallel momentum input by tangential neutral beam injections in stellarator and heliotron plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Nishioka, K.

    2015-09-15

    The configuration dependence of parallel momentum inputs to target plasma particle species by tangentially injected neutral beams is investigated in non-axisymmetric stellarator/heliotron model magnetic fields by assuming the existence of magnetic flux-surfaces. In parallel friction integrals of the full Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd collision operator in thermal particles' kinetic equations, numerically obtained eigenfunctions are used for excluding trapped fast ions that cannot contribute to the friction integrals. It is found that the momentum inputs to thermal ions strongly depend on magnetic field strength modulations on the flux-surfaces, while the input to electrons is insensitive to the modulation. In future plasma flow studies requiring flow calculations of all particle species in more general non-symmetric toroidal configurations, the eigenfunction method investigated here will be useful.

  3. New source of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams.

    PubMed

    Ter-Avetisyan, S; Braenzel, J; Schnürer, M; Prasad, R; Borghesi, M; Jequier, S; Tikhonchuk, V

    2016-02-01

    The scenario of "electron-capture and -loss" was recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with MeV kinetic energies. However, it does not explain why the formation of negative ions in a liquid spray is much more efficient than with an isolated atom. The role of atomic excited states in the charge-exchange processes is considered, and it is shown that it cannot account for the observed phenomena. The processes are more complex than the single electron-capture and -loss approach. It is suggested that the shell effects in the electronic structure of the projectile ion and/or target atoms may influence the capture/loss probabilities. PMID:26932016

  4. New source of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter-Avetisyan, S.; Braenzel, J.; Schnürer, M.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2016-02-01

    The scenario of "electron-capture and -loss" was recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with MeV kinetic energies. However, it does not explain why the formation of negative ions in a liquid spray is much more efficient than with an isolated atom. The role of atomic excited states in the charge-exchange processes is considered, and it is shown that it cannot account for the observed phenomena. The processes are more complex than the single electron-capture and -loss approach. It is suggested that the shell effects in the electronic structure of the projectile ion and/or target atoms may influence the capture/loss probabilities.

  5. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Hu, Liqun E-mail: lqhu@ipp.cas.cn; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-15

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey–predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  6. Neutral beam development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, H S

    1980-08-01

    The national plan is presented for developing advanced injection systems for use on upgrades of existing experiments, and use on future facilities such as ETF, to be built in the late 1980's or early 90's where power production from magnetic fusion will move closer to a reality. Not only must higher power and longer pulse length systems be developed , but they must operate reliably; they must be a tool for the experimenter, not the experiment itself. Neutral beam systems handle large amounts of energy and as such, they often are as complicated as the plasma physics experiment itself. This presents a significant challenge to the neutral beam developer.

  7. Efficient, radiation-hardened, 400- and 800-keV neutral-beam injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.A.; Cooper, W.S.; Fink, J.A.; Goldberg, D.A.; Ruby, L.; Soroka, L.; Tanabe, J.

    1983-04-01

    We present designs for two negative-ion based neutral beam lines with reactor-level power output. Both beam lines make use of such technologically advanced features as high-current-density surface-conversion ion sources, transverse-field-focussing (TFF) acceleration and transport, and laser photodetachment. For the second of these designs, we also presented detailed beam and vacuum calculations, as well as a brief description of a proof-of-principle test system currently under development.

  8. Angular-divergence calculation for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak neutral beam injection ion source based on spectroscopic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Yuan; Hu, Chundong; Zhuang, Ge

    2014-02-15

    Calorimetric method has been primarily applied for several experimental campaigns to determine the angular divergence of high-current ion source for the neutral beam injection system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). A Doppler shift spectroscopy has been developed to provide the secondary measurement of the angular divergence to improve the divergence measurement accuracy and for real-time and non-perturbing measurement. The modified calculation model based on the W7AS neutral beam injectors is adopted to accommodate the slot-type accelerating grids used in the EAST's ion source. Preliminary spectroscopic experimental results are presented comparable to the calorimetrically determined value of theoretical calculation.

  9. Fusion neutron generation computations in a stellarator-mirror hybrid with neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, V. E.; Agren, O.

    2012-06-19

    In the paper [Moiseenko V.E., Noack K., Agren O. 'Stellarator-mirror based fusion driven fission reactor' J Fusion Energy 29 (2010) 65.], a version of a fusion driven system (FDS), i.e. a sub-critical fast fission assembly with a fusion plasma neutron source, is proposed. The plasma part of the reactor is based on a stellarator with a small mirror part. Hot ions with high perpendicular energy are assumed to be trapped in the magnetic mirror part. The stellarator part which connects to the mirror part and provides confinement for the bulk (deuterium) plasma. In the magnetic well of the mirror part, fusion reactions occur from collisions between a of hot ion component (tritium) with cold background plasma ions. RF heating is one option to heat the tritium. A more conventional method to sustain the hot ions is neutral beam injection (NBI), which is here studied numerically for the above-mentioned hybrid scheme. For these studies, a new kinetic code, KNBIM, has been developed. The code takes into account Coulomb collisions between the hot ions and the background plasma. The geometry of the confining magnetic field is arbitrary for the code. It is accounted for via a numerical bounce averaging procedure. Along with the kinetic calculations the neutron generation intensity and its spatial distribution are computed.

  10. Characteristics of a long-pulse (30-s), high-power (4-MW) ion source for neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.; Dagenhart, W.K.; Gardner, W.L.; Haselton, H.H.; Moeller, J.A.; Ponte, N.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state ion source has been developed for neutral beam injection applications. It is of the duoPIGatron type designed for delivering 50 A of hydrogen ions at 80 keV for 30-s-long pulses. Ion beams of 40 A at 75 keV were extracted for pulse lengths up to 30 s, maintaining excellent optical quality in the beam for the entire pulse duration. The design features and operational characteristics of the ion source are elaborated.

  11. Low-damage atomic layer modification of self-assembled monolayer using neutral beam process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Yasushi; Samukawa, Seiji; Ishida, Takao

    2006-09-01

    Damage-free surface nitridation of terphenyl methanethiol self-assembled monolayers (TP1-SAMs) was investigated using a novel low-energy N2 neutral beam (NB) irradiation technique. When a conventional inductively coupled plasma process was used, x-ray photoelectron spectra confirmed that the TP1-SAM was quickly broken because ions or ultraviolet (UV) photons enhance the surface decomposition and molecular desorption. Conversely, with the N2 NB radiation process, which is free of ions and UV photons, there was little difference in the atomic ratios of x-ray photoelectron spectra before and after NB irradiation. These results suggest that low-damage surface modification is possible through the authors' NB technique.

  12. Upgrade of Doublet III neutral beam injection to long pulse operation

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, D. W.; McColl, D. B.; Pipkins, J. F.

    1981-10-01

    Long pulse physics questions have been raised for auxiliary heated plasma discharges in Tokamaks. A one-second pulse encloses present experiments and is adequate for studying quasi-steady-state operation, whereas, a 5 to 10 second pulse may be required to examine impurity effects of plasma-wall interaction and current profile relaxation. In order to sustain heating in the multi-second pulse range, neutral beam devices must be capable of the same pulse durations. By upgrading the beam collimators, and ion source components, the Doublet III neutral beam injectors can be made to operate with pulses up to 5 seconds in duration with the interpulse period extended to maintain approximately the same duty factor. The scope of the upgrading includes (1) exchanging the accelerator section of the ion source with one having actively cooled tubular grids, and (2) removing or replacing collimators where necessary to stay below 600/sup 0/C peak temperature. An actively cooled ion dump is necessary for pulses substantially longer than 5 seconds. Effects of drift duct choking and induced eddy currents in the cryopanels were examined and found to have a negligible effect on operating the neutral beam injectors up to 5 second pulse duration.

  13. Development of ion source with a washer gun for pulsed neutral beam injection.

    PubMed

    Asai, T; Yamaguchi, N; Kajiya, H; Takahashi, T; Imanaka, H; Takase, Y; Ono, Y; Sato, K N

    2008-06-01

    A new type of economical neutral beam source has been developed by using a single washer gun, pulsed operation, and a simple electrode system. We replaced the conventional hot filaments for arc-discharge-type plasma formation with a single stainless-steel washer gun, eliminating the entire dc power supply for the filaments and the cooling system for the electrodes. Our initial experiments revealed successful beam extraction up to 10 kV and 8.6 A, based on spatial profile measurements of density and temperature in the plasma source. The system also shows the potential to control the beam profile by controlling the plasma parameters in the ion accumulation chamber. PMID:18601403

  14. Neutral beam monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.

    1981-08-18

    Method and apparatus for monitoring characteristics of a high energy neutral beam. A neutral beam is generated by passing accelerated ions through a walled cell containing a low energy neutral gas, such that charge exchange neutralizes the high energy ion beam. The neutral beam is monitored by detecting the current flowing through the cell wall produced by low energy ions which drift to the wall after the charge exchange. By segmenting the wall into radial and longitudinal segments various beam conditions are further identified.

  15. Modeling and control of plasma rotation for NSTX using Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV) and Neutral Beam Injection (NBI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumiri, Imene; Rowley, Clarence; Sabbagh, Steven; Gates, David; Gerhardt, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    A model-based system to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device is developed to maintain plasma stability for long pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed to control plasma rotation by using momentum from injected neutral beams and viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields as actuators. Based on the data driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed to theoretically sustain the toroidal momentum of the plasma in a stable fashion and to achieve desired plasma rotation profiles. On going work includes extending this method to NSTX Upgrade which has more complete radial coverage of the neutral beams momentum sources which enable simultaneous control of plasma stored energy (Beta control).

  16. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  17. Fast ion confinement and stability in a neutral beam injected reversed field pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Mirnov, V. V.; Morton, L. A.; Nornberg, M. D.; Parke, E.; Reusch, J. A.; Sarff, J. S.; Waksman, J.; Belykh, V.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, A. A.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Tsidulko, Y. A.; Lin, L.; Liu, D.; and others

    2013-05-15

    The behavior of energetic ions is fundamentally important in the study of fusion plasmas. While well-studied in tokamak, spherical torus, and stellarator plasmas, relatively little is known in reversed field pinch plasmas about the dynamics of fast ions and the effects they cause as a large population. These studies are now underway in the Madison Symmetric Torus with an intense 25 keV, 1 MW hydrogen neutral beam injector (NBI). Measurements of the time-resolved fast ion distribution via a high energy neutral particle analyzer, as well as beam-target neutron flux (when NBI fuel is doped with 3–5% D{sub 2}) both demonstrate that at low concentration the fast ion population is consistent with classical slowing of the fast ions, negligible cross-field transport, and charge exchange as the dominant ion loss mechanism. A significant population of fast ions develops; simulations predict a super-Alfvénic ion density of up to 25% of the electron density with both a significant velocity space gradient and a sharp radial density gradient. There are several effects on the background plasma including enhanced toroidal rotation, electron heating, and an altered current density profile. The abundant fast particles affect the plasma stability. Fast ions at the island of the core-most resonant tearing mode have a stabilizing effect, and up to 60% reduction in the magnetic fluctuation amplitude is observed during NBI. The sharp reduction in amplitude, however, has little effect on the underlying magnetic island structure. Simultaneously, beam driven instabilities are observed as repetitive ∼50 μs bursts which coincide with fast particle redistribution; data indicate a saturated core fast ion density well below purely classical predictions.

  18. Neutral-beam-injection fueling for a small, D-3He burning, field-reversed-configuration reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttolph, Michael; Stotler, Daren; Cohen, Samuel

    2013-10-01

    Rocket propulsion powered by the D-3He fusion reaction in a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) has been proposed for a variety of solar-system missions. Two key unique features of this concept are a relatively small, 25-cm-radius, plasma core and a relatively thick (10 cm), dense (1e14 cm3), and cool (100 eV electron temperature) scrape-off layer (SOL). The SOL contains the heated propellant - likely hydrogen, deuterium or helium - and also fusion reaction products at a lower density (ca. 1e12 cm-3). A critical design question is the refueling of the fusion reactants. A moderate energy neutral-beam method is considered. It must be able to penetrate the SOL without significant losses but must be stopped in the core. DEGAS 2, a Monte-Carlo code designed to model neutral transport, was implemented to simulate beam-plasma interactions including ionization and charge exchange of the neutral beam's helium-3 and deuterium atoms by impact in the SOL and core plasma with thermal plasma constituents and fusion reaction products. Operational methods to alleviate the effects deleterious reactions such as deuterium charge-exchange in the SOL are described.

  19. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  20. The influence of plasma horizontal position on the neutron rate and flux of neutral atoms in injection heating experiment on the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornev, V. A.; Chernyshev, F. V.; Melnik, A. D.; Askinazi, L. G.; Wagner, F.; Vildjunas, M. I.; Zhubr, N. A.; Krikunov, S. V.; Lebedev, S. V.; Razumenko, D. V.; Tukachinsky, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    Horizontal displacement of plasma along the major radius has been found to significantly influence the fluxes of 2.45 MeV DD neutrons and high-energy charge-exchange atoms from neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasma of the TUMAN-3M tokamak. An inward shift by Δ R = 1 cm causes 1.2-fold increase in the neutron flux and 1.9-fold increase in the charge-exchange atom flux. The observed increase in the neutron flux is attributed to joint action of several factors-in particular, improved high-energy ion capture and confinement and, probably, decreased impurity inflow from the walls, which leads to an increase in the density of target ions. A considerable increase in the flux of charge-exchange neutrals in inward-shifted plasma is due to the increased number of captured high-energy ions and, to some extent, the increased density of the neutral target. As a result of the increase in the content of high-energy ions, the central ion temperature T i (0) increased from 250 to 350 eV. The dependence of the neutron rate on major radius R 0 should be taken into account when designing compact tokamak-based neutron sources.

  1. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  2. Work function measurements during plasma exposition at conditions relevant in negative ion sources for the ITER neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Gutser, R.; Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2011-02-15

    Cesium seeded sources for surface generated negative hydrogen ions are major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER. The stability and delivered current density depend highly on the work function during vacuum and plasma phases of the ion source. One of the most important quantities that affect the source performance is the work function. A modified photocurrent method was developed to measure the temporal behavior of the work function during and after cesium evaporation. The investigation of cesium exposed Mo and MoLa samples under ITER negative hydrogen ion based neutral beam injection relevant surface and plasma conditions showed the influence of impurities which result in a fast degradation when the plasma exposure or the cesium flux onto the sample is stopped. A minimum work function close to that of bulk cesium was obtained under the influence of the plasma exposition, while a significantly higher work function was observed under ITER-like vacuum conditions.

  3. A High-Reflectivity, Ambient-Stable Graphene Mirror for Neutral Atomic and Molecular Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, P.; Minniti, M.; Albrecht, P.; Farias, D.; Miranda, R.; Sutter, E.

    2011-11-21

    We report a He and H{sub 2} diffraction study of graphene-terminated Ru(0001) thin films grown epitaxially on c-axis sapphire. Even for samples exposed for several weeks to ambient conditions, brief annealing in ultrahigh vacuum restored extraordinarily high specular reflectivities for He and H{sub 2} beams (23% and 7% of the incident beam, respectively). The quality of the angular distributions recorded with both probes exceeds the one obtained from in-situ prepared graphene on Ru(0001) single crystals. Our results for graphene-terminated Ru thin films represent a significant step toward ambient tolerant, high-reflectivity curved surface mirrors for He-atom microscopy.

  4. High-ion temperature experiments with negative-ion-based neutral beam injection heating in Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Morita, S.; Tsumori, K.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Goto, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Ashikawa, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Murakami, S.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Inagaki, S.; Tanaka, K.; Peterson, B. J.; Ida, K.; Kaneko, O.; Komori, A.; LHD Experimental Group

    2005-07-01

    High-Z plasmas have been produced with Ar and/or Ne gas fuelling to increase the ion temperature in Large Helical Device (LHD) plasmas heated with high-energy negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (NBI). Although the electron heating is dominant in the high-energy NBI heating, the direct ion heating power is significantly enhanced in low-density plasmas due to both an increase in the beam absorption (ionization) power and a reduction of the ion density in the high-Z plasmas. Intensive neon- and/or argon-glow discharge cleaning works well to suppress dilution of the high-Z plasmas with wall-absorbed hydrogen. As a result, the ion temperature increases with an increase in the ion heating power normalized by the ion density and reaches 10 keV. An increase in the ion temperature is also observed with the addition of centrally focused electron cyclotron resonance heating to a low-density and high-Z NBI plasma, suggesting improvement of the ion transport. The results obtained in the high-Z plasma experiments with high-energy NBI heating suggest that an increase in the direct ion heating power and improvement of the ion transport are essential to ion temperature rise, and that a high-ion temperature could be obtained as well in hydrogen plasmas with low-energy positive-NBI heating which is planned in the near future in the LHD.

  5. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  6. The effect of off-axis neutral beam injection on sawtooth stability in ASDEX Upgrade and Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, I. T.; de Bock, M. F.; Pinches, S. D.; Turnyanskiy, M. R.

    2009-07-15

    Sawtooth behavior has been investigated in plasmas heated with off-axis neutral beam injection in ASDEX Upgrade [A. Herrmann and O. Gruber, Fusion Sci. Technol. 44, 569 (2003)] and the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak (MAST) [A. Sykes et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1423 (2001)]. Provided that the fast ions are well confined, the sawtooth period is found to decrease as the neutral beam is injected further off-axis. Drift kinetic modeling of such discharges qualitatively shows that the passing fast ions born outside the q=1 rational surface can destabilize the n=1 internal kink mode, thought to be related to the sawtooth instability. This effect can be enhanced by optimizing the deposition of the off-axis beam energetic particle population with respect to the mode location.

  7. Calculation of neutral beam deposition accounting for excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Gianakon, T.A.

    1992-09-01

    Large-scale neutral-beam auxillary heating of plasmas has led to new plasma operational regimes which are often dominated by fast ions injected via the absorption of an energetic beam of hydrogen neutrals. An accurate simulation of the slowing down and transport of these fast ions requires an intimate knowledge of the hydrogenic neutral deposition on each flux surface of the plasma. As a refinement to the present generation of transport codes, which base their beam deposition on ground-state reaction rates, a new set of routines, based on the excited states of hydrogen, is presented as mechanism for computing the attenuation and deposition of a beam of energetic neutrals. Additionally, the numerical formulations for the underlying atomic physics for hydrogen impacting on the constiuent plasma species is developed and compiled as a numerical database. Sample results based on this excited state model are compared with the ground-state model for simple plasma configurations.

  8. Charge steering of laser plasma accelerated fast ions in a liquid spray — creation of MeV negative ion and neutral atom beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schnürer, M.; Abicht, F.; Priebe, G.; Braenzel, J.; Prasad, R.; Borghesi, M.; Andreev, A.; Nickles, P. V.; Jequier, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Ter-Avetisyan, S.

    2013-11-15

    The scenario of “electron capture and loss” has been recently proposed for the formation of negative ion and neutral atom beams with up to MeV kinetic energy [S. Ter-Avetisyan, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 051501 (2011)]. Validation of these processes and of their generic nature is here provided in experiments where the ion source and the interaction medium have been spatially separated. Fast positive ions accelerated from a laser plasma source are sent through a cold spray where their charge is changed. Such formed neutral atom or negative ion has nearly the same momentum as the original positive ion. Experiments are released for protons, carbon, and oxygen ions and corresponding beams of negative ions and neutral atoms have been obtained. The electron capture and loss phenomenon is confirmed to be the origin of the negative ion and neutral atom beams. The equilibrium ratios of different charge components and cross sections have been measured. Our method is general and allows the creation of beams of neutral atoms and negative ions for different species which inherit the characteristics of the positive ion source.

  9. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  10. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  11. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  12. Destabilization of ellipticity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes during ICRF heating and stabilization by negative-ion-based neutral beam injection in JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusama, Y.; Fu, G. Y.; Kramer, G. J.; Saigusa, M.; Oikawa, T.; Ozeki, T.; Moriyama, S.; Tchernychev, F. V.; Nemoto, M.; Kondoh, T.; Hatae, T.; Tobita, K.; Kuriyama, M.; Cheng, C. Z.; Kimura, H.

    1999-09-01

    High-frequency modes in the 525-550 kHz range with toroidal mode numbers n = 3-7 were excited after the sawtooth crash during ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) heating. Based on the stability analysis using the NOVA-K code, these modes were found to be consistent with ellipticity-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (EAEs) excited in the EAE gap located at the q = 1 surface. A change in the safety factor after the sawtooth crash was essential for the excitation of EAEs in the core region of the plasma. The high-frequency modes were stabilized by the neutral beam injection at 350 keV using negative-ion-based neutral beam (NNB) injectors. Stability analysis using the NOVA-K code has shown that NNB-injected ions enhance the damping of the EAEs and tend to stabilize them.

  13. PIC code modeling of spacecraft charging potential during electron beam injection into a background of neutral gas and plasma, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, J. K.; Lin, C. S.; Winglee, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    Injections of nonrelativistic electron beams from an isolated equipotential conductor into a uniform background of plasma and neutral gas were simulated using a 2-D electrostatic particle code. The ionization effects on spacecraft charging are examined by including interactions of electrons with neutral gas. The simulations show that the conductor charging potential decreases with increasing neutral background density due to the production of secondary electrons near the conductor surface. In the spacecraft wake, the background electrons accelerated towards the charged spacecraft produce an enhancement of secondary electrons and ions. Simulations run for longer times indicate that the spacecraft potential is further reduced and short wavelength beam-plasma oscillations appear. The results are applied to explain the spacecraft charging potential measured during the SEPAC experiments from Spacelab 1.

  14. Neutral particle beams for space defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botwin, Robert; Favale, Anthony

    Neutral particle beam (NPB) weapons direct highly focused high energy streams of electrically neutral atomic particles traveling at nearly the speed of light, escaping deflection from the earth's magnetic field and acting on the subatomic structure of a target, destroying it from within. The beam's brief contact with a reentry vehicle produces a nuclear reaction in the latter that yields particle emissions; by detecting and identifying those particles, it becomes possible to effectively distinguish warheads from decoys. Attention is given to the NPB program roles to be played by the Beam Experiment Aboard Rocket and Neutral Particle Beam Integrated Space Experiment projects.

  15. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  16. Neutral injection experiments on the ISX-B tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S.D.

    1983-01-01

    The following topics are described: (1) review of confinement scaling in ISX-B with strong neutral injection in clean plasmas, (2) discussion of observed energy confinement improvement in slightly contaminated discharges (factor less than or equal to 2), and (3) preliminary evaluation of confinement with balanced neutral beam injection. (MOW)

  17. Semiconductor etching by hyperthermal neutral beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K. (Inventor); Giapis, Konstantinos P. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An at-least dual chamber apparatus and method in which high flux beams of fast moving neutral reactive species are created, collimated and used to etch semiconductor or metal materials from the surface of a workpiece. Beams including halogen atoms are preferably used to achieve anisotropic etching with good selectivity at satisfactory etch rates. Surface damage and undercutting are minimized.

  18. Modeling and control of plasma rotation and βn for NSTX-U using Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity and Neutral Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goumiri, Imene; Rowley, Clarence; Sabbagh, Steven; Gates, David; Gerhardt, Stefan; Boyer, Mark

    2015-11-01

    A model-based system is presented allowing control of the plasma rotation profile in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device to maintain plasma stability for long pulse operation. The analysis, using NSTX data and NSTX-U TRANSP simulations, is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using momentum from six injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields as actuators. Based on the momentum diffusion and torque balance model obtained, a feedback controller is designed and predictive simulations using TRANSP will be presented. Robustness of the model and the rotation controller will be discussed.

  19. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H. [Livermore, CA; Frank, Alan M. [Livermore, CA

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process.

  20. Photodetachment process for beam neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Fink, J.H.; Frank, A.M.

    1979-02-20

    A process for neutralization of accelerated ions employing photo-induced charge detachment is disclosed. The process involves directing a laser beam across the path of a negative ion beam such as to effect photodetachment of electrons from the beam ions. The frequency of the laser beam employed is selected to provide the maximum cross-section for the photodetachment process. 2 figs.

  1. Charge exchange produced K-shell x-ray emission from Ar16+ in a tokamak plasma with neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Beiersdorfer, P; Bitter, M; Marion, M; Olson, R E

    2004-12-27

    High-resolution spectroscopy of hot tokamak plasma seeded with argon ions and interacting with an energetic, short-pulse neutral hydrogen beam was used to obtain the first high-resolution K-shell x-ray spectrum formed solely by charge exchange. The observed K-shell emission of Ar{sup 16+} is dominated by the intercombination and forbidden lines, providing clear signatures of charge exchange. Results from an ab initio atomic cascade model provide excellent agreement, validating a semiclassical approach for calculating charge exchange cross sections.

  2. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission.

    PubMed

    Chrystal, C; Burrell, K H; Grierson, B A; Pace, D C

    2015-10-01

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access. PMID:26520957

  3. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission

    SciTech Connect

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Pace, D. C.; Grierson, B. A.

    2015-10-15

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  4. Spatial calibration of a tokamak neutral beam diagnostic using in situ neutral beam emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrystal, C.; Burrell, K. H.; Grierson, B. A.; Pace, D. C.

    2015-10-01

    Neutral beam injection is used in tokamaks to heat, apply torque, drive non-inductive current, and diagnose plasmas. Neutral beam diagnostics need accurate spatial calibrations to benefit from the measurement localization provided by the neutral beam. A new technique has been developed that uses in situ measurements of neutral beam emission to determine the spatial location of the beam and the associated diagnostic views. This technique was developed to improve the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic at the DIII-D tokamak and uses measurements of the Doppler shift and Stark splitting of neutral beam emission made by that diagnostic. These measurements contain information about the geometric relation between the diagnostic views and the neutral beams when they are injecting power. This information is combined with standard spatial calibration measurements to create an integrated spatial calibration that provides a more complete description of the neutral beam-CER system. The integrated spatial calibration results are very similar to the standard calibration results and derived quantities from CER measurements are unchanged within their measurement errors. The methods developed to perform the integrated spatial calibration could be useful for tokamaks with limited physical access.

  5. Neutral particle beam sensing and steering

    DOEpatents

    Maier, II, William B.; Cobb, Donald D.; Robiscoe, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    The direction of a neutral particle beam (NPB) is determined by detecting Ly.alpha. radiation emitted during motional quenching of excited H(2S) atoms in the beam during movement of the atoms through a magnetic field. At least one detector is placed adjacent the beam exit to define an optical axis that intercepts the beam at a viewing angle to include a volume generating a selected number of photons for detection. The detection system includes a lens having an area that is small relative to the NPB area and a pixel array located in the focal plane of the lens. The lens viewing angle and area pixel array are selected to optimize the beam tilt sensitivity. In one embodiment, two detectors are placed coplanar with the beam axis to generate a difference signal that is insensitive to beam variations other than beam tilt.

  6. E × B flow velocity deduced from the poloidal motion of fluctuation patterns in neutral beam injected L-mode plasmas on KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Leem, J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.; Ko, S. H.; Choi, M. J.; Wang, W. X.; Budny, R. V.; Ethier, S.; Park, Y. S.; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Lee, K. D.; Ko, W. H.; Kim, K. W.

    2016-05-01

    A method for direct assessment of the equilibrium E × B flow velocity ( E ×B flow shear is responsible for the turbulence suppression and transport reduction in tokamak plasmas) is investigated based on two facts. The first one is that the apparent poloidal rotation speed of density fluctuation patterns is close to the turbulence rotation speed in the direction perpendicular to the local magnetic field line within the flux surface. And the second "well-known" fact is that the turbulence rotation velocity consists of the equilibrium E × B flow velocity and intrinsic phase velocity of turbulence in the E × B flow frame. In the core region of the low confinement (L-mode) discharges where a strong toroidal rotation is induced by neutral beam injection, the apparent poloidal velocities (and turbulence rotation velocities) are good approximations of the E ×B flow velocities since linear gyrokinetic simulations suggest that the intrinsic phase velocity of the dominant turbulence is significantly lower than the apparent poloidal velocity. In the neutral beam injected L-mode plasmas, temporal and spatial scales of the measured turbulence are studied by comparing with the local equilibrium parameters relevant to the ion-scale turbulence.

  7. Neutralized transport of high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Anders, A.; Sharp, W.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Welch, D.; Rose, D.

    2003-05-01

    The NTX experiment at the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is exploring the performance of neutralized final focus systems for high perveance heavy ion beams. A converging ion beam at the exit of the final focus magnetic system is injected into a neutralized drift section. The neutralization is provided by a metal arc source and an RF plasma source. Effects of a ''plasma plug'', where electrons are extracted from a localized plasma in the upstream end of the drift section, and are then dragged along by the ion potential, as well as the ''volumetric plasma'', where neutralization is provided by the plasma laid down along the ion path, are both studied and their relative effects on the beam spot size are compared. Comparisons with 3-D PIC code predictions will also be presented.

  8. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, J H; Molvik, A W; Turner, W C

    1982-07-07

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane.

  9. Commissioning of heating neutral beams for COMPASS-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Belov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Dranichnikov, A.; Ivanov, A.; Sorokin, A.; Mishagin, V.; Abdrashitov, A.; Kolmogorov, V.; Kondakov, A.

    2012-02-15

    Two neutral beam injectors have been developed for plasma heating on COMPASS-D tokamak (Institute of Plasma Physics, Prague). The 4-electrodes multihole ion-optical system with beam focusing was chosen to provide the low divergence 300 kW power in both deuterium and hydrogen atoms. The accelerating voltage is 40 kV at extracted ion current up to 15 A. The power supply system provides the continuous and modulated mode of the beam injection at a maximal pulse length 300 ms. The optimal arrangement of the cryopanels and the beam duct elements provides sufficiently short-length beamline which reduces the beam losses. The evolution of the impurities and molecular fraction content is studied in the process of the high voltage conditioning of the newly made ion sources. Two injectors of the same type have been successfully tested and are ready for operation at tokamak in IPP, Prague.

  10. On the meniscus formation and the negative hydrogen ion extraction from ITER neutral beam injection relevant ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Ruf, B.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2014-10-01

    The development of a large area (Asource,ITER = 0.9 × 2 m2) hydrogen negative ion (NI) source constitutes a crucial step in construction of the neutral beam injectors of the international fusion reactor ITER. To understand the plasma behaviour in the boundary layer close to the extraction system the 3D PIC MCC code ONIX is exploited. Direct cross checked analysis of the simulation and experimental results from the ITER-relevant BATMAN source testbed with a smaller area (Asource,BATMAN ≈ 0.32 × 0.59 m2) has been conducted for a low perveance beam, but for a full set of plasma parameters available. ONIX has been partially benchmarked by comparison to the results obtained using the commercial particle tracing code for positive ion extraction KOBRA3D. Very good agreement has been found in terms of meniscus position and its shape for simulations of different plasma densities. The influence of the initial plasma composition on the final meniscus structure was then investigated for NIs. As expected from the Child-Langmuir law, the results show that not only does the extraction potential play a crucial role on the meniscus formation, but also the initial plasma density and its electronegativity. For the given parameters, the calculated meniscus locates a few mm downstream of the plasma grid aperture provoking a direct NI extraction. Most of the surface produced NIs do not reach the plasma bulk, but move directly towards the extraction grid guided by the extraction field. Even for artificially increased electronegativity of the bulk plasma the extracted NI current from this region is low. This observation indicates a high relevance of the direct NI extraction. These calculations show that the extracted NI current from the bulk region is low even if a complete ion-ion plasma is assumed, meaning that direct extraction from surface produced ions should be present in order to obtain sufficiently high extracted NI current density. The calculated extracted currents, both ions

  11. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s-1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm-3and 6× {{10}18} cm-3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm-2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  12. Off-axis Neutral Beam Injection as a Tool for Expanding the Operating Space of DIII-D High fNI Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferron, J. R.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A.; Deboo, J. C.; La Haye, R. J.; Holcomb, C. T.; Lanctot, M. J.; Turco, F.; Park, J. M.; in, Y.; Okabayashi, M.

    2011-10-01

    The newly installed capability for 5 MW off-axis neutral beam injection is being utilized to broaden the pressure and current density profiles and raise the minimum q value in DIII-D discharges with noninductive current fraction fNI near 1. Broader pressure is expected to allow stable access to increased βN and increase the bootstrap current density JBS off-axis. Reducing the on-axis current drive allows access to higher qmin, increasing the on-axis JBS and improving tearing mode stability. This is a path toward DIII-D (and a steady-state powerplant) fNI = 1 discharges at q95 = 5 , which require βN >= 4 . Initial experiments have demonstrated qmin maintained above 2 with broader pressure profiles than previously observed. Analysis of the noninductive current profiles and high βN stability of discharges with off-axis beam injection will be presented. Work supported in part by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC05-06OR23100, DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FG02-08ER85195, DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.

    2014-02-15

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm{sup 3}), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented.

  14. Development of a radio frequency ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for neutral beam injection system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kyumin; Jung, Bongki; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y S

    2014-02-01

    Despite of high plasma density, helicon plasma has not yet been applied to a large area ion source such as a driver for neutral beam injection (NBI) system due to intrinsically poor plasma uniformity in the discharge region. In this study, a radio-frequency (RF) ion source with multi-helicon plasma injectors for high plasma density with good uniformity has been designed and constructed for the NBI system of Versatile Experiment Spherical Torus at Seoul National University. The ion source consists of a rectangular plasma expansion chamber (120 × 120 × 120 mm(3)), four helicon plasma injectors with annular permanent magnets and RF power system. Main feature of the source is downstream plasma confinement in the cusp magnetic field configuration which is generated by arranging polarities of permanent magnets in the helicon plasma injectors. In this paper, detailed design of the multi-helicon plasma injector and plasma characteristics of the ion source are presented. PMID:24593595

  15. Transient Enhancement ('Spike-on-Tail') Observed on Neutral-Beam-Injected Energetic Ion Spectra Using the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S. S. Medley; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.

    2010-06-01

    An increase of up to four-fold in the E||B Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) charge exchange neutral flux localized at the Neutral Beam (NB) injection full energy is observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Termed the High-Energy Feature (HEF), it appears on the NB-injected energetic ion spectrum only in discharges where tearing or kink-type modes (f < 10 kHz) are absent, TAE activity (f ~ 10-150 kHz) is weak (δBrms < 75 mGauss) and CAE/GAE activity (f ~ 400 – 1200 kHz) is robust. The feature exhibits a growth time of ~ 20 - 80 ms and occasionally develops a slowing down distribution that continues to evolve over periods of 100's of milliseconds, a time scale long compared with the typical ~ 10's ms equilibration time of the NB injected particles. The HEF is observed only in H-mode (not L-mode) discharges with injected NB power of 4 MW or greater and in the field pitch range v||/v ~ 0.7 – 0.9; i.e. only for passing (never trapped) energetic ions. The HEF is suppressed by vessel conditioning using lithium deposition at rates ~ 100 mg/shot, a level sufficient to suppress ELM activity. Increases of ~ 10 - 30 % in the measured neutron yield and total stored energy are observed to coincide with the feature along with broadening of measured Te(r), Ti(r) and ne(r) profiles. However, TRANSP analysis shows that such increases are driven by plasma profile changes and not the HEF phenomenon itself. Though a definitive mechanism has yet to be developed, the HEF appears to be caused by a form of TAE/CAE wave-particle interaction that distorts of the NB fast ion distribution in phase space.

  16. A preliminary model of ion beam neutralization. [in thruster plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, D. E.; Katz, I.

    1979-01-01

    A theoretical model of neutralized thruster ion beam plasmas has been developed. The basic premise is that the beam forms an electrostatic trap for the neutralizing electrons. A Maxwellian spectrum of electron energies is maintained by collisions between trapped electrons and by collective randomization of velocities of electrons injected from the neutralizer into the surrounding plasma. The theory contains the observed barometric law relationship between electron density and electron temperatures and ion beam spreading in good agreement with measured results.

  17. Low-energy neutral-atom spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, D.E.; Cohen, S.A.

    1982-04-01

    The design, calibration, and performance of a low energy neutral atom spectrometer are described. Time-of-flight analysis is used to measure the energy spectrum of charge-exchange deuterium atoms emitted from the PLT tokamak plasma in the energy range from 20 to 1000 eV. The neutral outflux is gated on a 1 ..mu..sec time scale by a slotted rotating chopper disc, supported against gravity in vacuum by magnetic levitation, and is detected by secondary electron emission from a Cu-Be plate. The energy dependent detection efficiency has been measured in particle beam experiments and on the tokamak so that the diagnostic is absolutely calibrated, allowing quantitative particle fluxes to be determined with 200 ..mu..sec time resolution. In addition to its present application as a plasma diagnostic, the instrument is capable of making a wide variety of measurements relevant to atomic and surface physics.

  18. High Resolution Neutral Atom Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucay, Igal; Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Stratis, Georgios; Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We are developing a high resolution neutral atom microscope based on metastable atom electron spectroscopy (MAES). When a metastable atom of a noble gas is near a solid, a surface electron will tunnel to an empty energy level of the metastable atom, thereby ejecting the excited electron from the atom. The emitted electrons carry information regarding the local topography and electronic, magnetic, and chemical structures of most hard materials. Furthermore, using a chromatic aberration corrected magnetic hexapole lens we expect to attain a spatial resolution below 10 nm. We will use this microscope to investigate how local phenomena can give rise to macroscopic effects in materials that cannot be probed using a scanning tunneling microscope, namely insulating transition metal oxides.

  19. Optimization of neutral atom imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.

    2008-12-01

    : The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80°. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume. Work was supported by grant ACT-05-40 from the ESTO office of NASA

  20. Optimization of Neutral Atom Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80deg. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume.

  1. Neutral atom lithography with metastable helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Claire Shean

    In this dissertation we describe our performance of resist assisted neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable 23S1 Helium (He*). Metastable Helium atoms have 20 eV of internal energy making them easy to detect and able to destroy a resist. The He* is produced by a reverse flow DC discharge source and then collimated with the bichromatic force, followed by three optical molasses velocity compression stages. The atoms in the resulting beam have a mean longitudinal velocity of 1125 m/s and a divergence of 1.1 mrad. The typical beam flux is 2 x 109 atoms/mm2s through a 0.1mm diameter aperture 70 cm away from the source. The internal energy of the atoms damages the molecules of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol. The undisturbed SAM protects a 200 A layer of gold that has been evaporated onto a prepared Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Two methods are used to pattern the He* atoms before they destroy the SAM. First, a Nickel micro mesh was used to protect the SAM. These experiments established an appropriate dosage and etch time for patterning. The samples were analyzed with an atomic force microscope and found to have an edge resolution of 63 nm. Then, patterning was accomplished using the dipole force the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of lambda = 1083nm light tuned 500MHz below the 23S 1 → 23P2 transition. Depending on the intensity of the light, the He* atoms are focused or channeled into lines separated by lambda/2. The lines cover the entire exposed length of the substrate, about 3 mm. They are about 3 mm long, corresponding to about twice the beam waist of the laser standing wave. Thus there are 6 x 10 3 lines of length 5500lambda. These results agree with our numerical simulations of the experiment.

  2. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieddu, Thomas; Gokhroo, Vandna; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2016-05-01

    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom-photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed and, recently, several schemes to implement optical memories have been proposed. We also discuss some possible directions where this research field may head, in particular, in relation to the use of optical nanofibres that can support higher-order modes with an associated orbital angular momentum.

  3. Gyrokinetic Simulation of Global and Local Alfv'en Eigenmodes Driven by Neutral Beam Injection in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, E. M.; Waltz, R. E.

    2012-10-01

    In ITER, convection of fusion-produced alpha particles by energetic particle (EP)-driven Alfv'en eigenmodes (AEs) risks wall damage and loss of alpha heating needed for ignition. We examine beam-excited AEs and induced quasilinear transport in a DIII-D AE experiment using the gyrokinetic code GYRO [1]. Global, linear eigenvalue simulations show reverse-shear AEs (RSAEs), toroidal AEs, and beta-induced AEs interacting over one (equilibrium time scale) RSAE frequency sweep. Eigenfunction modifications over MHD, including a poloidal twist and broad AE footprint observed in electron cyclotron emission imaging [2], show the value of a kinetic approach. Under a simple quasilinear saturation assumption, a sequence of comparatively inexpensive local simulations quantitatively recreates some global features, notably the quasilinear transport footprint. Accordingly, we present here a stiff EP transport model where AEs limit the EP density gradient to the local stability threshold, and a TGLF-driven quasilinear model elsewhere. The model gives some``worst case'' predictions of the AE-limited alpha profile in ITER.[4pt] [1] J. Candy and R.E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 045001 (2003). [2] B.J. Tobias, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 075003 (2011).

  4. Progress of beam diagnosis system for EAST neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. J.; Hu, C. D.; Yu, L.; Liang, L. Z.; Zhang, W. T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X.

    2016-02-01

    Neutral beam injection has been recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating. According to the research plan of the EAST physics experiment, two sets of neutral beam injector (NBI) were built and operational in 2014. The paper presents the development of beam diagnosis system for EAST NBI and the latest experiment results obtained on the test-stand and EAST-NBI-1 and 2. The results show that the optimal divergence angle is (0.62°, 1.57°) and the full energy particle is up to 77%. They indicate that EAST NBI work properly and all targets reach or almost reach the design targets. All these lay a solid foundation for the achievement of high quality plasma heating for EAST.

  5. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-09

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented.

  6. Doppler-shifted neutral beam line shape and beam transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kokatnur, N.; Lagin, L.J.; Newman, R.A.; O`Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.

    1994-04-01

    Analysis of Doppler-shifted Balmer-{alpha} line emission from the TFTR neutral beam injection systems has revealed that the line shape is well approximated by the sum of two Gaussians, or, alternatively, by a Lorentzian. For the sum of two Gaussians, the broad portion of the distribution contains 40% of the beam power and has a divergence five times that of the narrow part. Assuming a narrow 1/e- divergence of 1.3{degrees} (based on fits to the beam shape on the calorimeter), the broad part has a divergence of 6.9{degrees}. The entire line shape is also well approximated by a Lorentzian with a half-maximum divergence of 0.9{degrees}. Up to now, fusion neutral beam modelers have assumed a single Gaussian velocity distribution, at the extraction plane, in each direction perpendicular to beam propagation. This predicts a beam transmission efficiency from the ion source to the calorimeter of 97%. Waterflow calorimetry data, however, yield a transmission efficiency of {approximately}75%, a value in rough agreement with predictions of the Gaussian or Lorentzian models presented here. The broad wing of the two Gaussian distribution also accurately predicts the loss in the neutralizer. An average angle of incidence for beam loss at the exit of the neutralizer is 2.2{degrees}, rather than the 4.95{degrees} subtended by the center of the ion source. This average angle of incidence, which is used in computing power densities on collimators, is shown to be a function of beam divergence.

  7. Imaging space plasmas in energetic neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.; Demajistre, R.; Mitchell, D. G.; C:Son Brandt, P.

    2004-11-01

    Many space plasmas contain energetic singly-charged ions immersed in a cold gas of neutral atoms and molecules. When the energetic ions undergo charge-exchange collisions with the background cold neutrals, they become energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). Thus the space plasma Â"glowsÂ" in the ENAs which escape the plasma on straight-line trajectories. Properly designed 2-dimentsional particle telescopes that deflect ions using electro-static fields become ENA Â"camerasÂ". Such cameras are now operating on the NASA IMAGE spacecraft in orbit around Earth and the NASA/ESA Cassini spacecraft in orbit around Saturn. They are providing all-sky global images of the singly-charged trapped ion populations of these planets with time resolution of a few minutes. Each pixel contains an energy spectra from 10 to 200 keV/nucleon of the major singly-charged ions (protons and O^+), thus providing a quantitative diagnostic of energetic ion injection, acceleration, and transport. ENA imaging has now taken its place as a fundamental tool in magnetospheric research, and new missions are moving forward to apply ENA imaging to the heliosphere itself (the domain of the solar wind) and its termination ˜100 AU from the Sun where it interacts with the local interstellar gas.

  8. Neutral beam dump with cathodic arc titanium gettering

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, A.; Korepanov, S. A.; Putvinski, S.; Krivenko, A. S.; Murakhtin, S. V.; Savkin, V. Ya.

    2011-03-15

    An incomplete neutral beam capture can degrade the plasma performance in neutral beam driven plasma machines. The beam dumps mitigating the shine-through beam recycling must entrap and retain large particle loads while maintaining the beam-exposed surfaces clean of the residual impurities. The cathodic arc gettering, which provides high evaporation rate coupled with a fast time response, is a powerful and versatile technique for depositing clean getter films in vacuum. A compact neutral beam dump utilizing the titanium arc gettering was developed for a field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by 1 MW, 20-40 keV neutral hydrogen beams. The titanium evaporator features a new improved design. The beam dump is capable of handling large pulsed gas loads, has a high sorption capacity, and is robust and reliable. With the beam particle flux density of 5 x 10{sup 17} H/(cm{sup 2}s) sustained for 3-10 ms, the beam recycling coefficient, defined as twice the ratio of the hydrogen molecular flux leaving the beam dump to the incident flux of high-energy neutral atoms, is {approx}0.7. The use of the beam dump allows us to significantly reduce the recycling of the shine-through neutral beam as well as to improve the vacuum conditions in the machine.

  9. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2010-05-21

    Ion beam emission/neutralization is one of the most fundamental problems in spacecraft plasma interactions and electric propulsion. Although ion beam neutralization is readily achieved in experiments, the understanding of the underlying physical process remains at a rather primitive level. No theoretical or simulation models have convincingly explained the detailed neutralization mechanism, and no conclusions have been reached. This paper presents a fully kinetic simulation of ion beam neutralization and plasma beam propagation and discusses the physics of electron-ion coupling and the resulting propagation of a neutralized mesothermal plasma.

  10. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilan, N.; Antoni, V.; De Lorenzi, A.; Chitarin, G.; Veltri, P.; Sartori, E.

    2016-02-01

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming.

  11. A new deflection technique applied to an existing scheme of electrostatic accelerator for high energy neutral beam injection in fusion reactor devices.

    PubMed

    Pilan, N; Antoni, V; De Lorenzi, A; Chitarin, G; Veltri, P; Sartori, E

    2016-02-01

    A scheme of a neutral beam injector (NBI), based on electrostatic acceleration and magneto-static deflection of negative ions, is proposed and analyzed in terms of feasibility and performance. The scheme is based on the deflection of a high energy (2 MeV) and high current (some tens of amperes) negative ion beam by a large magnetic deflector placed between the Beam Source (BS) and the neutralizer. This scheme has the potential of solving two key issues, which at present limit the applicability of a NBI to a fusion reactor: the maximum achievable acceleration voltage and the direct exposure of the BS to the flux of neutrons and radiation coming from the fusion reactor. In order to solve these two issues, a magnetic deflector is proposed to screen the BS from direct exposure to radiation and neutrons so that the voltage insulation between the electrostatic accelerator and the grounded vessel can be enhanced by using compressed SF6 instead of vacuum so that the negative ions can be accelerated at energies higher than 1 MeV. By solving the beam transport with different magnetic deflector properties, an optimum scheme has been found which is shown to be effective to guarantee both the steering effect and the beam aiming. PMID:26932053

  12. Targets for high power neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1980-01-01

    Stopping high-power, long-pulse beams is fast becoming an engineering challenge, particularly in neutral beam injectors for heating magnetically confined plasmas. A brief review of neutral beam target technology is presented along with heat transfer calculations for some selected target designs.

  13. Central electron temperature estimations of TJ-II neutral beam injection heated plasmas based on the soft x ray multi-foil technique

    SciTech Connect

    Baiao, D.; Varandas, C.

    2012-05-15

    The core electron temperature (T{sub e0}) of neutral beam heated plasmas is determined in TJ-II stellarator by using soft x ray detectors with beryllium filters of different thickness, based on the method known as the foil absorption technique. T{sub e0} estimations are done with the impurity code IONEQ, making use of complementary information from the TJ-II soft x ray tomography and the VUV survey diagnostics. When considering the actual electron density and temperature profile shapes, an acceptable agreement is found with Thomson scattering measurements for 8 different magnetic configurations. The impact of the use of both neutral beam injectors on the T{sub e0} measurements is addressed. Also, the behaviour of T{sub e0} during spontaneous profile transitions is presented.

  14. Vacuum ultraviolet laser induced fluorescence on a Si atomic beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brian, T. R.; Lawler, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    A broadly applicable vacuum ultraviolet experiment is described for measuring radiative lifetimes of neutral and singly-ionized atoms in a beam environment to 5-percent accuracy using laser induced fluorescence. First results for neutral Si are reported.

  15. The production of low-energy neutral oxygen beams by grazing-incidence neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albridge, R. G.; Haglund, R. F.; Tolk, N. H.; Daech, A. F.

    1987-01-01

    The Vanderbilt University neutral oxygen facility produces beams of low-energy neutral oxygen atoms by means of grazing-incidence collisions between ion beams and metal surfaces. Residual ions are reflected by applied electric fields. This method can utilize initial ion beams of either O(+) or O2(+) since a very large percentage of molecular oxygen ions are dissociated when they undergo grazing-incidence neutralization. The method of neutralization is applicable to low-energy beams and to all ions. Particular emphasis is on O and N2 beams for simulation of the low Earth orbit space environment. Since the beam is a pure O-neutral beam and since measurements of the interaction of the beam with solid surfaces are made spectroscopically, absolute reaction rates can be determined. The technique permits the beams to be used in conjunction with electron and photon irradiation for studies of synergistic effects. Comparisons of optical spectra of Kapton excited by 2.5-keV O, O(+), and O2(+) show significant differences. Optical spectra of Kapton excited by neutral oxygen beams of less than 1 keV have been recorded.

  16. Atomic oxygen beam source for erosion simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.; Vaughn, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    A device for the production of low energy (3 to 10 eV) neutral atomic beams for surface modification studies is described that reproduces the flux of atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit. The beam is produced by the acceleration of plasma ions onto a negatively biased plate of high-Z metal; the ions are neutralized and reflected by the surface, retaining some fraction of their incident kinetic energy, forming a beam of atoms. The plasma is generated by a coaxial RF exciter which produces a magnetically-confined (4 kG) plasma column. At the end of the column, ions fall through the sheath to the plate, whose bias relative to the plasma can be varied to adjust the beam energy. The source provides a neutral flux approximately equal to 5 x 10(exp 16)/sq cm at a distance of 9 cm and a fluence approximately equal to 10(exp 20)/sq cm in five hours. The composition and energy of inert gas beams was diagnosed using a mass spectometer/energy analyzer. The energy spectra of the beams demonstrate energies in the range 5 to 15 eV, and qualitatively show expected dependences upon incident and reflecting atom species and potential drop. Samples of carbon film, carbon-based paint, Kapton, mylar, and teflon exposed to atomic O beams show erosion quite similar to that observed in orbit on the space shuttle.

  17. Current understanding and issues on electron beam injection in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.

    1988-01-01

    The status of the physics understanding involved in electron beam injection in space is reviewed. The paper examines our understanding of beam plasma interactions and their associated wave and energized particle spectra of the processes involved in the beam plasma discharge, and of the vehicle charge neutralization. 'Strawman' models are presented for comparison with experimental observations.

  18. Intraprostatic injection of neutralized zinc in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fahim, M.S.; Wang, M.; Sutcu, M.F.; Fahim, Z.; Safron, J.A.; Ganjam, V.K. Xian Medical University )

    1991-03-11

    Zinc has been implicated in steroid endocrinology of the prostate gland. The conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5{alpha}-reductase enzyme is believed to express androgenic responses in the prostate. To note the effect of neutralized zinc on the prostate, 50 sexually mature rats, weighing 325 {plus minus} 20 grams, were divided into 5 groups as follows: (1) control, (2) sham, (3) castrated, (4) injected intraprostatically with 10 mg. neutralized zinc, and (5) injected intraprostatically with 20 mg. neutralized zinc. Results in the treated groups indicated significant reduction of prostate weights, 12% and 53% and histologically normal prostate; no significant change in weight and histological structure of testes, epididymides, and seminal vesicles; significant reduction in 5{alpha}-reductase activity and total protein and DNA concentrations in prostate tissue; and no significant effect on progeny of treated animals. These results suggest that direct application of neutralized zinc to the prostate offers a new modality for treatment of prostatitis without affecting spermatogenesis and testosterone production.

  19. Atomic oxygen beam source for erosion simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbertson, J. W.; Langer, W. D.; Motley, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    A device for production of low-energy (5-10 eV) neutral atomic beams for surface modification studies, which recreates the flux of atomic oxygen in LEO, is described. The beam is produced by acceleration of plasma ions onto a negatively biased plate of high-Z metal; the ions are neutralized and reflected by the surface, retaining a large fraction of their incident kinetic energy, forming a beam of atoms. The device is based on a magnetically confined (3-4 kG) coaxial plasma source and the atom energy can be varied by adjusting the bias voltage. The source provides a neutral flux of roughly 5 x 10 to the 16th/sq cm/s at a distance of 10 cm and a fluence of roughly 10 to the 21st/sq cm in five hours. The source has been characterized with plasma diagnostics and by measuring the energy of an atomic argon beam using a mass spectrometer. Samples of carbon film, carbon-based paint, Kapton, Mylar, and Teflon exposed to atomic O beams show erosion quite similar to those observed in orbit on the Space Shuttle.

  20. Nonlinear transient neutralization theory of ion beams with dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical theory of nonlinear neutralization waves generated by injection of electrons from a grid in the direction of a homogeneous ion beam of uniform velocity and infinite extension is presented. The electrons are assumed to interact with the ions through the self-consistent space charge field and by strong collective interactions. The associated nonlinear boundary-value problem is solved in closed form by means of a von Mises transformation. It is shown that the electron gas moves into the ion space in the form of a discontinuous neutralization wave. This periodic wave structure is damped out by intercomponent momentum transfer, i.e., after a few relaxation lengths a quasi-neutral beam results. The relaxation scale in space agrees with neutralization experiments of rarefied ion beams, if the collective momentum transfer between the electron and ion streams is assumed to be of the Buneman type.

  1. Optimized atom injection in a Hall effect thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G.J.M.; Boniface, C.; Boeuf, J.P.

    2004-11-29

    An improvement of the neutral gas injection in order to increase the Hall thruster lifetime capabilities is demonstrated using a two-dimensional model. An additional atom injection through the channel ceramics in a region located between the ionization and the acceleration zones leads to an efficient ionization of the neutral flux, with a flattening of the plasma density and potential profiles in the radial direction. Thanks to this modified injection of the atom flow, a focusing electric field is produced, reducing the ion flux impacting on ceramic walls.

  2. Neutral Beam Ion Confinement in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; S.M. Kaye; S.S. Medley; and A.L. Roquemore

    2001-07-24

    Neutral-beam (NB) heating in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) began in September 2000 using up to 5 MW of 80 keV deuterium (D) beams. An initial assessment of beam ion confinement has been made using neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer (NPA), and a Faraday cup beam ion loss probe. Preliminary neutron results indicate that confinement may be roughly classical in quiescent discharges, but the probe measurements do not match a classical loss model. MHD activity, especially reconnection events (REs) causes substantial disturbance of the beam ion population.

  3. Overview of the negative ion based neutral beam injectors for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunke, B.; Boilson, D.; Chareyre, J.; Choi, C.-H.; Decamps, H.; El-Ouazzani, A.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R.; Kushwah, M.; Roux, K.; Shah, D.; Singh, M.; Svensson, L.; Urbani, M.

    2016-02-01

    The ITER baseline foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beams (HNB's) based on 1 MeV 40 A D- negative ion accelerators, each capable of delivering 16.7 MW of deuterium atoms to the DT plasma, with an optional 3rd HNB injector foreseen as a possible upgrade. In addition, a dedicated diagnostic neutral beam will be injecting ≈22 A of H0 at 100 keV as the probe beam for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The integration of the injectors into the ITER plant is nearly finished necessitating only refinements. A large number of components have passed the final design stage, manufacturing has started, and the essential test beds—for the prototype route chosen—will soon be ready to start.

  4. Overview of the negative ion based neutral beam injectors for ITER.

    PubMed

    Schunke, B; Boilson, D; Chareyre, J; Choi, C-H; Decamps, H; El-Ouazzani, A; Geli, F; Graceffa, J; Hemsworth, R; Kushwah, M; Roux, K; Shah, D; Singh, M; Svensson, L; Urbani, M

    2016-02-01

    The ITER baseline foresees 2 Heating Neutral Beams (HNB's) based on 1 MeV 40 A D(-) negative ion accelerators, each capable of delivering 16.7 MW of deuterium atoms to the DT plasma, with an optional 3rd HNB injector foreseen as a possible upgrade. In addition, a dedicated diagnostic neutral beam will be injecting ≈22 A of H(0) at 100 keV as the probe beam for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The integration of the injectors into the ITER plant is nearly finished necessitating only refinements. A large number of components have passed the final design stage, manufacturing has started, and the essential test beds-for the prototype route chosen-will soon be ready to start. PMID:26932111

  5. Fast ion profiles during neutral beam and lower hybrid heating

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, R.E.; Cavallo, A.; Motley, R.; Schilling, G.; Stevens, J.; Wilson, J.R.

    1985-07-01

    Profiles of the d(d,p)t fusion reaction are measured in the PLT tokamak using an array of collimated 3 MeV proton detectors. During deuterium neutral beam injection, the emission profile indicates that the beam deposition is at least as narrow as predicted by a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code. The fast ion tail formed by lower hybrid waves (at densities above the critical density for current drive) also peaks strongly near the magnetic axis.

  6. TFTR neutral beam control and monitoring for DT operations

    SciTech Connect

    O`Connor, T.; Kamperschroer, J.; Chu, J.

    1995-12-31

    Record fusion power output has recently been obtained in TFTR with the injection of deuterium and tritium neutral beams. This significant achievement was due in part to the controls, software, and data processing capabilities added to the neutral beam system for DT operations. Chief among these improvements was the addition of SUN workstations and large dynamic data storage to the existing Central Instrumentation Control and Data Acquisition (CICADA) system. Essentially instantaneous look back over the recent shot history has been provided for most beam waveforms and analysis results. Gas regulation controls allowing remote switchover between deuterium and tritium were also added. With these tools, comparison of the waveforms and data of deuterium and tritium for four test conditioning pulses quickly produced reliable tritium setpoints. Thereafter, all beam conditioning was performed with deuterium, thus saving the tritium supply for the important DT injection shots. The lookback capability also led to modifications of the gas system to improve reliability and to control ceramic valve leakage by backbiasing. Other features added to improve the reliability and availability of DT neutral beam operations included master beamline controls and displays, a beamline thermocouple interlock system, a peak thermocouple display, automatic gas inventory and cryo panel gas loading monitoring, beam notching controls, a display of beam/plasma interlocks, and a feedback system to control beam power based on plasma conditions.

  7. ALCBEAM - Neutral beam formation and propagation code for beam-based plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Rowan, W. L.; Liao, K. T.

    2012-03-01

    ALCBEAM is a new three-dimensional neutral beam formation and propagation code. It was developed to support the beam-based diagnostics installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The purpose of the code is to provide reliable estimates of the local beam equilibrium parameters: such as beam energy fractions, density profiles and excitation populations. The code effectively unifies the ion beam formation, extraction and neutralization processes with beam attenuation and excitation in plasma and neutral gas and beam stopping by the beam apertures. This paper describes the physical processes interpreted and utilized by the code, along with exploited computational methods. The description is concluded by an example simulation of beam penetration into plasma of Alcator C-Mod. The code is successfully being used in Alcator C-Mod tokamak and expected to be valuable in the support of beam-based diagnostics in most other tokamak environments. Program summaryProgram title: ALCBEAM Catalogue identifier: AEKU_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKU_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 66 459 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 7 841 051 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: IDL Computer: Workstation, PC Operating system: Linux RAM: 1 GB Classification: 19.2 Nature of problem: Neutral beams are commonly used to heat and/or diagnose high-temperature magnetically-confined laboratory plasmas. An accurate neutral beam characterization is required for beam-based measurements of plasma properties. Beam parameters such as density distribution, energy composition, and atomic excited populations of the beam atoms need to be known. Solution method: A neutral beam is initially formed as an ion beam which is extracted from

  8. An autoneutralizing neutral molecular beam gun

    SciTech Connect

    Delmore, J.E.; Appelhans, A.D.; Dahl, D.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A high-energy (up to 28 keV) neutral molecular beam gun has been developed and put into routine use that takes advantage of the autoneutralization properties of the sulfur hexafluoride anion for the production of high-energy sulfur hexafluoride neutral molecules. The anions are produced in an electron-capture source, accelerated, and focused in a lens assembly designed to minimize residence time, allowed to drift at their terminal velocity for a suitable distance during which up to 30% auto-eject an electron, and all remaining charged particles are electrostatically skimmed, resulting in a focused neutral beam. Rasterable neutral beams focused to a 5-mm spot size up to 3 m from the source have been produced with beam currents up to 40 pA equivalent. Spot sizes of 1 mm can be produced with intensity levels of a few picoamperes equivalent.

  9. Distortion of bulk-ion distribution function due to nuclear elastic scattering and its effect on T(d,n){sup 4}He reaction rate coefficient in neutral-beam-injected deuterium-tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.

    2007-05-15

    An effect of nuclear elastic scattering on the rate coefficient of fusion reaction between field deuteron and triton in the presence of neutral beam injection heating is studied. Without assuming a Maxwellian for bulk-ion distribution function, the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (BFP) equations for field (bulk) deuteron, field (bulk) triton, {alpha}-particle, and beam deuteron are simultaneously solved in an ITER-like deuterium-tritium thermonuclear plasma [R. Aymar, Fusion Eng. Des. 55, 107 (2001)]. The BFP calculation shows that enhancement of the reaction rate coefficient due to knock-on tail formation in fuel-ion distribution functions becomes appreciable, especially in the case of low-density operations.

  10. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, O.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    Full particle PIC simulations are performed to study the neutralization of an ion beam in the cohesionless, mesothermal regime. Simulations further confirmed that neutralization is achieved through interactions between the trapped electrons and the potential well established by the propagation of the beam front along the beam direction and is not through plasma instabilities as previous studies suggested. In the transverse direction, the process is similar to that of the expansion of mesothermal plasma into vacuum. Parametric simulations are also performed to investigate the effects of beam radius and domain boundary condition on the neutralization process. The results suggests that, while the qualitative behavior may be similar in ground tests, quantitative parameters such as the beam potential will be affected significantly by the vacuum chamber because of the limits imposed on the expansion process by the finite chamber space.

  11. Focusing and neutralization of intense beams

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Simon S.; Anders, Andre; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, Shmuel; Henestroza, Enrique; Roy, Prabir; Shuman, Derek; Waldron, William; Sharp, William; Rose, Dave; Welch, Dale; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Eric

    2003-05-01

    In heavy ion inertial confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams through the target chamber is essential for the viability of an economically competitive heavy ion fusion power plant. The physics of neutralized drift has been studied extensively with PIC simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the NTX (Neutralized Transport Experiment) as shown in Figure 1. The experiment consists of 3 phases, each with physics issues of its own. Phase 1 is designed to generate a very high brightness potassium beam with variable perveance, using a beam aperturing technique. Phase 2 consists of magnetic transport through four pulsed quadrupoles. Here, beam tuning as well as the effects of phase space dilution through higher order nonlinear fields must be understood. In Phase 3, a converging ion beam at the exit of the magnetic section is transported through a drift section with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we present first results from all 3 phases of the experiment.

  12. Perturbative studies of toroidal momentum transport using neutral beam injection modulation in the Joint European Torus: Experimental results, analysis methodology, and first principles modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Mantica, P.; Ferreira, J. S.; Salmi, A.; Strintzi, D.; Weiland, J.; Brix, M.; Giroud, C.; Corrigan, G.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Tardini, G.

    2010-09-15

    Perturbative experiments have been carried out in the Joint European Torus [Fusion Sci. Technol. 53(4) (2008)] in order to identify the diffusive and convective components of toroidal momentum transport. The torque source was modulated either by modulating tangential neutral beam power or by modulating in antiphase tangential and normal beams to produce a torque perturbation in the absence of a power perturbation. The resulting periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity was modeled using time-dependent transport simulations in order to extract empirical profiles of momentum diffusivity and pinch. Details of the experimental technique, data analysis, and modeling are provided. The momentum diffusivity in the core region (0.2<{rho}<0.8) was found to be close to the ion heat diffusivity ({chi}{sub {phi}/{chi}i{approx}}0.7-1.7) and a significant inward momentum convection term, up to 20 m/s, was found, leading to an effective momentum diffusivity significantly lower than the ion heat diffusivity ({chi}{sub {phi}}{sup eff}/{chi}{sub i}{sup eff{approx}}0.4). These results have significant implications on the prediction of toroidal rotation velocities in future tokamaks and are qualitatively consistent with recent developments in momentum transport theory. Detailed quantitative comparisons with the theoretical predictions of the linear gyrokinetic code GKW [A. G. Peeters et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 180, 2650 (2009)] and of the quasilinear fluid Weiland model [J. Weiland, Collective Modes in Inhomogeneous Plasmas (IOP, Bristol, 2000)] are presented for two analyzed discharges.

  13. Manipulation of single neutral atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chuanwei; Das Sarma, S.; Rolston, S. L.

    2006-10-15

    We analyze a scheme to manipulate quantum states of neutral atoms at individual sites of optical lattices using focused laser beams. Spatial distributions of focused laser intensities induce position-dependent energy shifts of hyperfine states, which, combined with microwave radiation, allow selective manipulation of quantum states of individual target atoms. We show that various errors in the manipulation process are suppressed below 10{sup -4} with properly chosen microwave pulse sequences and laser parameters. A similar idea is also applied to measure quantum states of single atoms in optical lattices.

  14. Formation of positron-atom bound states in collisions between Rydberg Ps and neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, A. R.; Cassidy, D. B.; Deller, A.; Gribakin, G. F.

    2016-05-01

    Predicted 20 years ago, positron binding to neutral atoms has not yet been observed experimentally. A scheme is proposed to detect positron-atom bound states by colliding Rydberg positronium (Ps) with neutral atoms. Estimates of the charge-transfer reaction cross section are obtained using the first Born approximation for a selection of neutral atom targets and a wide range of incident Ps energies and principal quantum numbers. We also estimate the corresponding Ps ionization cross section. The accuracy of the calculations is tested by comparison with earlier predictions for charge transfer in Ps collisions with hydrogen and antihydrogen. We describe an existing Rydberg Ps beam suitable for producing positron-atom bound states and estimate signal rates based on the calculated cross sections and realistic experimental parameters. We conclude that the proposed methodology is capable of producing such states and of testing theoretical predictions of their binding energies.

  15. TPX/TFTR Neutral Beam energy absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlgren, F.; Wright, K.; Kamperschroer, J.; Grisham, L.; Lontai, L.; Peters, C.; VonHalle, A.

    1993-11-01

    The present beam energy absorbing surfaces on the TFTR Neutral Beams such as Ion Dumps, Calorimeters, beam defining apertures, and scrapers, are simple water cooled copper plates which wee designed to absorb (via their thermal inertia) the incident beam power for two seconds with a five minute coal down interval between pulses. These components are not capable of absorbing the anticipated beam power loading for 1000 second TPX pulses and will have to be replaced with an actively cooled design. While several actively cooled energy absorbing designs were considered,, the hypervapotron elements currently being used on the JET beamlines were chosen due to their lower cooling water demands and reliable performance on JET.

  16. Temporal behavior of neutral particle fluxes in TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Gammel, G.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; O'Connor, T.E.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1989-09-01

    Data from an E {parallel} B charge exchange neutral analyzer (CENA), which views down the axis of a neutral beamline through an aperture in the target chamber calorimeter of the TFTR neutral beam test facility, exhibit two curious effects. First, there is a turn-on transient lasting tens of milliseconds having a magnitude up to three times that of the steady-state level. Second, there is a 720 Hz, up to 20% peak-to-peak fluctuation persisting the entire pulse duration. The turn-on transient occurs as the neutralizer/ion source system reaches a new pressure equilibrium following the effective ion source gas throughput reduction by particle removal as ion beam. Widths of the transient are a function of the gas throughput into the ion source, decreasing as the gas supply rate is reduced. Heating of the neutalizer gas by the beam is assumed responsible, with gas temperature increasing as gas supply rate is decreased. At low gas supply rates, the transient is primarliy due to dynamic changes in the neutralizer line density and/or beam species composition. Light emission from the drift duct corroborate the CENA data. At high gas supply rates, dynamic changes in component divergence and/or spatial profiles of the source plasma are necessary to explain the observations. The 720 Hz fluctuation is attributed to a 3% peak-to-peak ripple of 720 Hz on the arc power supply amplified by the quadratic relationship between beam divergence and beam current. Tight collimation by CENA apertures cause it to accept a very small part of the ion source's velocity space, producing a signal linearly proportional to beam divergence. Estimated fluctuations in the peak power density delivered to the plasma under these conditions are a modest 3--8% peak to peak. The efffects of both phenomena on the injected neutral beam can be ameliorated by careful operion of the ion sources. 21 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Efficient Injection of Electron Beams into Magnetic Guide Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Chorny, V.; Cooperstein, G.; Dubyna, V.; Frolov, O.; Harper-Slaboszewicz, V.; Hinshelwood, D.; Schneider, R.; Solovyov, V.; Tsepilov, H.; Vitkovitsky, I.; Ware, K,

    1999-06-08

    Preliminary experimental and modeling study of injection and transport of high current electron beams in current-neutralized background gas has been performed. Initial analysis of the results indicates that high current triaxial ring diode operates very reproducibly in the pinch mode. High current density beam can be injected efficiently into the drift region, using azimuthal guide field with reduced intensity near the injection region. This was shown to improve the effectiveness of capturing the beam for the transport. The transport length was insufficient to measure losses, such as would arise from scattering with the background gas.

  18. Neutral Atom Nanolithography Using a Pulsed Magnetic Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anciaux, Erik; Castillo-Garza, Rodrigo; Gardner, Jamie; Raizen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We present the status of a method of neutral atom lithography that achieves sub-10nm resolution. This method is based on the nanoscale imaging of a beam of metastable atoms with an aberration-corrected hexapole lens. The lens creates a magnetic field gradient that increases with the distance from the center of the lens so as to focus divergent low field seeking atoms toward a single focal spot past the lens. The scheme takes advantage of the narrow velocity distribution of a pulsed supersonic beam as well as an optical pumping and cooling scheme that selects the magnetic state of the atoms and further reduces its velocity dispersion. This method can be used not only to pattern but to spectroscopically probe surfaces with spatial resolution below 10nm. . M. G. R. acknowledges support from the U.S. National Science Foundation, the R. A. Welch Foundation (Grant F-1258), and the Sid W. Richardson Foundation.

  19. Absence of neutral alkali atoms in rhodizite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnay, G.; Thorpe, A.N.; Senftle, F.E.; Sioda, R.

    1966-01-01

    The formula CsB12Be4Al4O28 has been proposed by others for the mineral rhodizite. Electron-spin-resonance and magnetic susceptibility measurements prove the absence of neutral cesium atoms. An ionic formula CsB11Be4Al4O 26(OH)2is proposed.

  20. Using neutral beams as a light ion beam probe (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Fisher, R. K.; Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Austin, M. E.; Hanson, J. M.; Zeng, L.

    2014-11-15

    By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the light ion beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of (1) the in situ, known source of fast ions created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge and (2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast ions) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast ions of various instabilities, e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally imposed 3D fields, e.g., magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast ion loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. In addition, nonlinear interactions between fast ions and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.

  1. Neutral beam processing of semiconductor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, J.; Hoffbauer, M.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The most important challenge facing the US and global microelectronics industry is to identify and develop the next generation of processing technology to produce device structures with dimensions substantially less than 0.25 microns. This project sought to develop controlled, contamination-free etching techniques that are more selective and less damaging than current methods, which are based on inducing surface chemical reactions by rather crude ion-damage mechanisms. The use of non-charged particle etching and cleaning processes in the production of memory and microprocessor chips has been identified by The National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors as a new manufacturing technique that may aid in the quest for feature sizes of 0.1 micron and lower. The Hyperthermal Neutral Beam Facility at Los Alamos has demonstrated significant improvement over ion-assisted etching in experiments using energetic oxygen and chlorine atoms.

  2. Benchmark of 3D halo neutral simulation in TRANSP and FIDASIM and application to projected neutral-beam-heated NSTX-U plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Medley, S. S.; Gorelenkova, M. V.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.

    2014-10-01

    A cloud of halo neutrals is created in the vicinity of beam footprint during the neutral beam injection and the halo neutral density can be comparable with beam neutral density. Proper modeling of halo neutrals is critical to correctly interpret neutral particle analyzers (NPA) and fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) signals since these signals strongly depend on local beam and halo neutral density. A 3D halo neutral model has been recently developed and implemented inside TRANSP code. The 3D halo neutral code uses a ``beam-in-a-box'' model that encompasses both injected beam neutrals and resulting halo neutrals. Upon deposition by charge exchange, a subset of the full, one-half and one-third beam energy components produce thermal halo neutrals that are tracked through successive halo neutral generations until an ionization event occurs or a descendant halo exits the box. A benchmark between 3D halo neural model in TRANSP and in FIDA/NPA synthetic diagnostic code FIDASIM is carried out. Detailed comparison of halo neutral density profiles from two codes will be shown. The NPA and FIDA simulations with and without 3D halos are applied to projections of plasma performance for the National Spherical Tours eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) and the effects of halo neutral density on NPA and FIDA signal amplitude and profile will be presented. Work supported by US DOE.

  3. Neutron measurements from beam-target reactions at the ELISE neutral beam test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Xufei, X. Fan, T.; Nocente, M.; Gorini, G.; Bonomo, F.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Grosso, G.; Tardocchi, M.; Grünauer, F.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2014-11-15

    Measurements of 2.5 MeV neutron emission from beam-target reactions performed at the ELISE neutral beam test facility are presented in this paper. The measurements are used to study the penetration of a deuterium beam in a copper dump, based on the observation of the time evolution of the neutron counting rate from beam-target reactions with a liquid scintillation detector. A calculation based on a local mixing model of deuterium deposition in the target up to a concentration of 20% at saturation is used to evaluate the expected neutron yield for comparison with data. The results are of relevance to understand neutron emission associated to beam penetration in a solid target, with applications to diagnostic systems for the SPIDER and MITICA Neutral Beam Injection prototypes.

  4. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J.

    1992-05-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  5. Intense diagnostic neutral beam development for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Rej, D.J.; Henins, I. ); Fonck, R.J.; Kim, Y.J. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

    1992-01-01

    For the next-generation, burning tokamak plasmas such as ITER, diagnostic neutral beams and beam spectroscopy will continue to be used to determine a variety of plasma parameters such as ion temperature, rotation, fluctuations, impurity content, current density profile, and confined alpha particle density and energy distribution. Present-day low-current, long-pulse beam technology will be unable to provide the required signal intensities because of higher beam attenuation and background bremsstrahlung radiation in these larger, higher-density plasmas. To address this problem, we are developing a short-pulse, intense diagnostic neutral beam. Protons or deuterons are accelerated using magnetic-insulated ion-diode technology, and neutralized in a transient gas cell. A prototype 25-kA, 100-kV, 1-{mu}s accelerator is under construction at Los Alamos. Initial experiments will focus on ITER-related issues of beam energy distribution, current density, pulse length, divergence, propagation, impurity content, reproducibility, and maintenance.

  6. Measurement of neutral beam profiles at DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, H.

    1998-06-01

    The neutral beam systems of DIII-D, a National Fusion Facility at General Atomics, are used both for heating the plasma, and as tools for plasma diagnostics. The spatial distribution (profile) and energy of the beam is used in the absolute calibration of both the Charge Exchange Recombination (CER) and Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostics. In the past, the beam spatial profile used in these calibrations was derived from beam divergence calculations and IR camera observations on the tokamak centerpost target tiles. Two experimental methods are now available to better determine the beam profile. In one method, the Doppler shifted D{sub {alpha}} light from the energetic neutrals are measured, and the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the beam can be inferred from the measured divergence of the D{sub {alpha}} light intensity. The other method for determining the beam profile uses the temperature gradients measured by the thermocouples mounted on the calorimeter. A new iterative fitting routine for the measured thermocouple data has been developed to fit theoretical models on the dispersion of the beam. The results of both methods are compared, and used to provide a new experimental verification of the beam profile.

  7. Stability of High Power Beam Injection in Negative-Ion-Based LHD-NBI

    SciTech Connect

    Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Nakano, H.; Shibuya, M.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Komada, S.; Sekiguchi, H.

    2011-09-26

    We describe the characteristic of stable beam injection in a neutral beam injector (NBI) for Large Helical Device (LHD) in high injection power of more than 6 MW. In the NBI, it takes a week after starting Cs seeding to finish the pre-injection conditioning. The injection starts with the beam power {approx}6.2 MW, and the maximum power reaches {approx}7 MW. The Cs-seeding rate affects the beam stability in such high power injections. By optimizing the rate to 0.65 mg/shot, the success ratio, which is defined as a ratio of actual pulse duration to setting one, increases to 85-90% in the power and energy range of more than 6.2 MW and 185 keV, respectively. The weights of Cs adsorbed on several surfaces in the ion sources of the NBI are measured by means of Inductively-Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and averaged surface densities are calculated by dividing with the several surface areas. The seeded Cs of 99.5% is condensed in the plasma generator, and very tiny amount of Cs reaches the surfaces of the accelerator grids. This very low amount of Cs on the grids is interpreted that most of the Cs atom evaporated from the inner walls is ionized during the arc discharges, and repelled to the source plasmas by the electrostatic field for H- extraction.

  8. Discovery of stationary operation of quiescent H-mode plasmas with net-zero neutral beam injection torque and high energy confinement on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrell, K. H.; Barada, K.; Chen, X.; Garofalo, A. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Muscatello, C. M.; Osborne, T. H.; Petty, C. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.

    2016-05-01

    Recent experiments in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon et al., in Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research 1996 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159] have led to the discovery of a means of modifying edge turbulence to achieve stationary, high confinement operation without Edge Localized Mode (ELM) instabilities and with no net external torque input. Eliminating the ELM-induced heat bursts and controlling plasma stability at low rotation represent two of the great challenges for fusion energy. By exploiting edge turbulence in a novel manner, we achieved excellent tokamak performance, well above the H98y2 international tokamak energy confinement scaling (H98y2 = 1.25), thus meeting an additional confinement challenge that is usually difficult at low torque. The new regime is triggered in double null plasmas by ramping the injected torque to zero and then maintaining it there. This lowers E × B rotation shear in the plasma edge, allowing low-k, broadband, electromagnetic turbulence to increase. In the H-mode edge, a narrow transport barrier usually grows until MHD instability (a peeling ballooning mode) leads to the ELM heat burst. However, the increased turbulence reduces the pressure gradient, allowing the development of a broader and thus higher transport barrier. A 60% increase in pedestal pressure and 40% increase in energy confinement result. An increase in the E × B shearing rate inside of the edge pedestal is a key factor in the confinement increase. Strong double-null plasma shaping raises the threshold for the ELM instability, allowing the plasma to reach a transport-limited state near but below the explosive ELM stability boundary. The resulting plasmas have burning-plasma-relevant βN = 1.6-1.8 and run without the need for extra torque from 3D magnetic fields. To date, stationary conditions have been produced for 2 s or 12 energy confinement times, limited only by external hardware constraints. Stationary operation with

  9. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  10. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O`Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12{degrees}). Beamline calorimeters, of a ``V``-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the ``V``, complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected.

  11. Particle reflection and TFTR neutral beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Kugel, H.W.; O'Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.D.

    1992-04-01

    Determination of two critical neutral beam parameters, power and divergence, are affected by the reflection of a fraction of the incident energy from the surface of the measuring calorimeter. On the TFTR Neutral Beam Test Stand, greater than 30% of the incident power directed at the target chamber calorimeter was unaccounted for. Most of this loss is believed due to reflection from the surface of the flat calorimeter, which was struck at a near grazing incidence (12{degrees}). Beamline calorimeters, of a V''-shape design, while retaining the beam power, also suffer from reflection effects. Reflection, in this latter case, artificially peaks the power toward the apex of the V'', complicating the fitting technique, and increasing the power density on axis by 10 to 20%; an effect of import to future beamline designers. Agreement is found between measured and expected divergence values, even with 24% of the incident energy reflected.

  12. Method for producing uranium atomic beam source

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.

    1976-06-15

    A method for producing a beam of neutral uranium atoms is obtained by vaporizing uranium from a compound UM.sub.x heated to produce U vapor from an M boat or from some other suitable refractory container such as a tungsten boat, where M is a metal whose vapor pressure is negligible compared to that of uranium at the vaporization temperature. The compound, for example, may be the uranium-rhenium compound, URe.sub.2. An evaporation rate in excess of about 10 times that of conventional uranium beam sources is produced.

  13. A concentrated radioactive beam source for atom cooling and trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Maddi, J.; Dinneen, T.; Ghiorso, A.; Gould, H.

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a novel oven to obtain concentrated beams of radioactive atoms. The Orthotropic oven works by ionizing atoms on its interior walls and electrostatically concentrating them on a neutralizer. Once neutralized the atoms can escape from the oven and form a narrow beam. Atoms that fail to escape become ionized again and repeat the cycle. The authors demonstrate the operation of this oven using {sup 221}Fr and compare both the theoretical and experimental efficiency of this source with standard effusive and channeled ovens.

  14. Detailed Atomic Structure of Neutral and Near-Neutral Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Paul; Hibbert, Alan

    2011-05-11

    This paper highlights the issues which need to be addressed in undertaking accurate calculations of multi-electron atoms and ions, particularly at or near the neutral end of an isoelectronic sequence. We illustrate the processes through two calculations--of transitions in Cl I and Sn II--and discuss the convergence of our results as well as updating previous work. In particular, in the case of Cl I, we propose new identifications of the levels involved in certain transitions which are important in determining the abundance of chlorine in the inter-stellar medium (ISM), while in singly ionised tin, our calculations suggest a re-evaluation of the the abundance of tin in the ISM. We also confirm recent identification of Sn II lines seen in tokamak plasmas.

  15. Atomic Transition Probabilities for Neutral Cerium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, J. E.; den Hartog, E. A.; Wood, M. P.; Nitz, D. E.; Chisholm, J.; Sobeck, J.

    2009-10-01

    The spectra of neutral cerium (Ce I) and singly ionized cerium (Ce II) are more complex than spectra of other rare earth species. The resulting high density of lines in the visible makes Ce ideal for use in metal halide (MH) High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamps. Inclusion of cerium-iodide in a lamp dose can improve both the Color Rendering Index and luminous efficacy of a MH-HID lamp. Basic spectroscopic data including absolute atomic transition probabilities for Ce I and Ce II are needed for diagnosing and modeling these MH-HID lamps. Recent work on Ce II [1] is now being augmented with similar work on Ce I. Radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements [2] on neutral Ce are being combined with emission branching fractions from spectra recorded using a Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 14 high resolution spectra are being analyzed to determine branching fractions for 2000 to 3000 lines from 153 upper levels in neutral Ce. Representative data samples and progress to date will be presented. [4pt] [1] J. E. Lawler, C. Sneden, J. J. Cowan, I. I. Ivans, and E. A. Den Hartog, Astrophys. J. Suppl. Ser. 182, 51-79 (2009). [0pt] [2] E. A. Den Hartog, K. P. Buettner, and J. E. Lawler, J. Phys. B: Atomic, Molecular & Optical Physics 42, 085006 (7pp) (2009).

  16. Neutralization efficiency estimation in a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozniy, O. V.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the optimal conditions of neutral beam generation to maintain a high degree of neutralization and focusing during beam energy variation for a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma with a three-grid ion beam acceleration system. The neutral beam energy distribution was estimated by measuring the energy profiles of ions that "survived" the neutralization after reflection. The energy measurements of the primary and reflected ions showed narrow distribution functions, each with only one peak. At higher beam energies, both the ratio of the ion energy loss to the primary energy and the degree of energy divergence decreased, confirming the precise alignment of the neutral beam. The neutralization efficiency of the neutral beam source with a three-grid acceleration system was found to be affected mainly by the beam angle divergence rather than by the particle translation energy.

  17. Neutralization efficiency estimation in a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniy, O. V.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the optimal conditions of neutral beam generation to maintain a high degree of neutralization and focusing during beam energy variation for a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma with a three-grid ion beam acceleration system. The neutral beam energy distribution was estimated by measuring the energy profiles of ions that 'survived' the neutralization after reflection. The energy measurements of the primary and reflected ions showed narrow distribution functions, each with only one peak. At higher beam energies, both the ratio of the ion energy loss to the primary energy and the degree of energy divergence decreased, confirming the precise alignment of the neutral beam. The neutralization efficiency of the neutral beam source with a three-grid acceleration system was found to be affected mainly by the beam angle divergence rather than by the particle translation energy.

  18. Data base on the high heat flux behaviour of metals and carbon materials for plasma facing components: Experiments at the 10 MW neutral beam injection test stand of the IPP Nagoya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolt, H.; Croessmann, C. D.; Miyahara, A.; Kuroda, T.; Oka, Y.

    1987-08-01

    Disruption events in tokamak devices are regarded as one of the main issues governing material and design considerations for in-vessel components. During disruptions heat loads in the order of 100 to 5000 MW/sq m for durations of about 100 microseconds to severl tens of microseconds can cause severe damage to plasma facing components and may possibly lead to their failure. To determine the response of materials to high heat fluxes, an experimental program was carried out on metals and carbon materials using the 10 MW Neutral Beam Injection Test Stand of the IPP Nagoya. Stainless steel, aluminum, copper, and molybdenum samples, 13 grades of fine grain graphites, and pyrolytic carbon samples were subjected to hydrogen beam exposure with power densities of 15 to 120 MW/sq m and pulse durations of 50 to 950 ms. Resulting damage and threshold values for the occurrence of damage were determined and documented. Main damage observed on samples includes melting, erosion, and crack formation. The high heat flux resistance of each material tested is compared comprehensively with that of the others. Processes leading to material damage are discussed. in the case of damage on graphite, models of erosion and cracking processes are given. The implication of the experimental results for material selection and design of first wall components under the high heat flux aspect is discussed.

  19. High speed measurements of neutral beam turn-on and impact of beam modulation on measurements of ion density

    SciTech Connect

    Grierson, B. A. Grisham, L.; Burrell, K. H.; Crowley, B.; Scoville, J. T.

    2014-10-15

    Modulation of neutral beams on tokamaks is performed routinely, enabling background rejection for active spectroscopic diagnostics, and control of injected power and torque. We find that there exists an anomalous initial transient in the beam neutrals delivered to the tokamak that is not accounted for by the accelerator voltage and power supply current. Measurements of the charge-exchange and beam photoemission on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] at high speed (200 μs) reveal that the energy of the beam neutrals is constant, but the density of beam neutrals displays dramatic variation in the first 2–3 ms following beam turn-on. The impact of this beam density variation on inferred ion densities and impurity transport is presented, with suggested means to correct for the anomalous transient.

  20. Interaction between single neutral atoms and an ultracold atomic gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Michael; Kindermann, Farina; Franzreb, Philipp; Gänger, Benjamin; Phieler, Jan; Chakrabarti, Shrabana; Spethmann, Nicolas; Meschede, Dieter; Widera, Artur

    2013-05-01

    Recently hybrid systems immersing single atoms in a many body system have been a subject of intense interest. Here we present an example of controlled doping of an ultracold Rubidium cloud with single neutral Cesium impurity atoms. We observe thermalization of ``hot'' Cs atoms by elastic interaction with an ultracold Rb gas, employing different schemes of measuring the impurities' energy distribution. In addition we present a concept and review the current status of a new setup, which will be capable of breeding an all optical BEC in a few seconds. Our setup will feature mechanisms for independently manipulating and imaging both single atoms and the BEC, thereby providing an unrivaled level of control over impurities in a quantum gas. Possible research directions include the investigation of coherent impurity physics and the creation and characterization of polarons in a BEC. Funded by the ERC, starting grant project QuantumProbe.

  1. Predictive Simulations of ITER Including Neutral Beam Driven Toroidal Rotation

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, Federico D.; Kritz, Arnold H.; Bateman, Glenn; Pankin, Alexei Y.; Budny, Robert V.; McCune, Douglas C.

    2008-06-16

    Predictive simulations of ITER [R. Aymar et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 2002] discharges are carried out for the 15 MA high confinement mode (H-mode) scenario using PTRANSP, the predictive version of the TRANSP code. The thermal and toroidal momentum transport equations are evolved using turbulent and neoclassical transport models. A predictive model is used to compute the temperature and width of the H-mode pedestal. The ITER simulations are carried out for neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas, for ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) heated plasmas, and for plasmas heated with a mix of NBI and ICRF. It is shown that neutral beam injection drives toroidal rotation that improves the confinement and fusion power production in ITER. The scaling of fusion power with respect to the input power and to the pedestal temperature is studied. It is observed that, in simulations carried out using the momentum transport diffusivity computed using the GLF23 model [R.Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2482 (1997)], the fusion power increases with increasing injected beam power and central rotation frequency. It is found that the ITER target fusion power of 500 MW is produced with 20 MW of NBI power when the pedesta temperature is 3.5 keV. 2008 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.2931037

  2. A Method of Slowing and Cooling Molecules and Neutral Atoms Using Time Varying Electric Field Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Harvey; Maddi, Jason; Dinneen, Timothy

    2000-06-01

    Time-invariant electric field gradients have long been used to deflect beams of molecules and neutral atoms. However, time-varying electric field gradients can also be used to accelerate, slow [1,2], cool [2], or bunch these same beams. The possible applications include slowing and cooling thermal beams of molecules and atoms, launching cold atoms from a trap into a fountain, beam transport, and measuring atomic dipole polarizabilities. [1] H.L. Bethlem, G. Berden, and G Meijer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1588 (1999). [2] J. A. Maddi, T.P. Dinneen, and H. Gould, Phys. Rev. A60, 3882 (1999).

  3. The Neutralization of Ion-Rocket Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Harold R.

    1961-01-01

    The experimental ion-beam behavior obtained without neutralizers is compared with both simple collision theory and plasma-wave theory. This comparison indicates that plasma waves play an important part in beam behavior, although the present state of plasma-wave theory does not permit more than a qualitative comparison. The theories of immersed-emitter and electron-trap neutralizer operation are discussed; and, to the extent permitted by experimental data, the theory is compared with experimental results. Experimental data are lacking completely at the present time for operation in space. The results that might be expected in space and the means of simulating such operation in Earth-bound facilities, however, are discussed.

  4. Neutral beam source commercialization study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    King, H.J.

    1980-06-01

    The basic tasks of this Phase II project were to: generate a set of design drawings suitable for quantity production of sources of this design; fabricate a functional neutral beam source incorporating as many of the proposed design changes as proved feasible; and document the procedures and findings developed during the contract. These tasks have been accomplished and represent a demonstrated milestone in the industrialization of this complete device.

  5. Plasma heating with multi-MeV neutral impurity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E.; Eubank, H.P.; Firestone, M.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Singer, C.E.; Weisheit, J.

    1981-03-01

    The utility of neutral beams of A greater than or equal to 6 AMU formed from negative ions, accelerated to approx. 1 MeV/AMU and neutralized, is explored for heating toroidally confined plasmas. Such beams offer the promise of significant advantages relative to conventional neutral beams based upon positive or negative hydrogen ions at 100 to 200 keV/AMU.

  6. Characteristics of confinement and fusion reactivity in JT-60U high-{beta}{rho} and TFTR supershot regimes with deuterium neutral beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.; Bell, M.G.; Yamada, M.

    1995-03-01

    The high performance regimes achieved in JT-60U and TFTR have produced peak DD fusion neutron rates up to 5.6 {times} 10{sup 16}/s for similar heating beam powers, in spite of considerable differences in machine operation and plasma configuration. A common scaling for the DD fusion neutron rate (S{sub DD} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}{sup 2.0} H{sub ne} V{sub p}{sup {minus}0.9}) is obtained, where P{sub abs} and H{sub ne} are the absorbed beam power and beam fueling peaking factor, respectively, and V{sub p} is the plasma volume. The maximum stored energy obtained in each machine has been up to 5.4 MJ in TFTR and 8.7 MJ in JT-60U. Further improvements in the fusion neutron rate and the stored energy are limited by the {beta}-limit in Troyon range, {beta}{sub N} {approximately} 2.0--2.5. A common scaling for the stored energy (W{sub tot} {proportional_to} P{sub abs}V{sub p}H{sub ne}{sup 0.2}) is also proposed.

  7. Neutral Beam Ion Loss Modeling for NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mikkelsen; D.S. Darrow; L. Grisham; R. Akers; S. Kaye

    1999-06-01

    A numerical model, EIGOL, has been developed to calculate the loss rate of neutral beam ions from NSTX and the resultant power density on the plasma facing components. This model follows the full gyro-orbit of the beam ions, which can be a significant fraction of the minor radius. It also includes the three-dimensional structure of the plasma facing components inside NSTX. Beam ion losses from two plasma conditions have been compared: {beta} = 23%, q{sub 0} = 0.8, and {beta} = 40%, q{sub 0} = 2.6. Global losses are computed to be 4% and 19%, respectively, and the power density on the rf antenna is near the maximum tolerable levels in the latter case.

  8. Imager of low energy neutral atoms (ILENA) - Imaging neutrals from the magnetosphere at energies below 20 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, Federico A.; Smith, Mark F.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a new imager suitable for measurements of magnetospheric neutrals with energies from about 100 eV to about 10 keV; an energy range adequate for imaging the plasmasheet neutral atoms out to about 10 R(E). The instrument, an outgrowth of a study of atom-surface collisions in support of satellite drag calculations, separates incident photons from neutral atoms by surface scattering and conversion of the neutrals to ions. Subsequently, the ions formed on the first surface are accelerated through a light rejection section which also disperses the ions according to energy. The dispersed ion beam is then allowed to impact a second surface where a start pulse is generated to obtain ion velocity and energy/charge. The second surface is chosen to give large secondary electron emission without regard to charge state of the particles reflected from it. The data supporting the proposed ILENA design is presented in the first part of the paper.

  9. Neutralizer and sample chamber for the Atomic Oxygen Simulation System (AOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albridge, Royal G.; Barnes, Alan V.; Tolk, Norman H.

    1992-01-01

    A neutralizer system capable of converting a beam of oxygen ions (O(+) or O2(+)) into a beam of low-energy neutral oxygen atoms (O) was developed. The neutralizer system is to be designed to be compatible with the Atomic Oxygen Simulation System (AOSS) located in the Physical Science Branch of MSFC. The Center for Molecular and Atomic Studies at Surfaces (CMASS) at Vanderbilt University has met these objectives by developing a system that neutralizes the ions through electron transfer during a grazing-incidence reflection of an ion beam from a smooth nickel surface. The purpose is to describe the system, provide schematic representations of the system, and to discuss the use of the system in relation to the AOSS at the Physical Science Branch of MSFC.

  10. Beam loss by collimation in a neutralizer duct

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.W.; Willmann, P.A.

    1980-04-03

    Beam fractions lost by collimation in a neutralizer duct are computed in x-x' phase space by using three examples of slab beam distributions under a broad range of duct dimensions, beam half-widths, and beam divergences. The results can be used to design compact neutralizers and to specify beam requirements. The computer code ILOST can be used under a broad range of beam conditions to compute the fraction lost by collimation.

  11. TFTR neutral-beam power system

    SciTech Connect

    Winje, R.A.

    1982-10-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) consists of the accelerator grid power supply and the auxiliary power supplies required to operate the TFTR 120-keV ion sources. The current configuration of the NBPS including the 11-MVA accelerator grid power supply and the Arc and Filament power supplies isolated for operation at accelerator grid voltages up to 120 kV, is described. The prototype NBPS has been assembled at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and has been operated. The results of the initial operation and the description and resolution of some of the technical problems encountered during the commissioning tests are presented.

  12. Implementation of a multiqubit quantum phase gate in a neutral atomic ensemble via the asymmetric Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huai-Zhi; Yang, Zhen-Biao; Zheng, Shi-Biao

    2010-09-01

    We report a scheme for implementing a multiqubit quantum phase gate in a neutral atomic ensemble via an asymmetric Rydberg blockade. The multiqubit gate is successfully realized by following a three-step approach. The neutral-atom qubits are always illuminated by the common laser beams and therefore individual addressing of the atoms is not required. The gate errors induced by atomic spontaneous emission, imperfect excitation blockade, and atomic motion are discussed.

  13. Low energy energetic neutral atom imaging in the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas

    2013-04-01

    We modeled low energy energetic neutral atoms fluxes originating from the interaction of Jovian magnetospheric plasma with the surface of Ganymede and from charge exchange reactions in the Io torus. We then calculated the instrument response of the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer instrument (JNA) to these fluxes. JNA is part of the proposed Particle Environment Package (PEP) for ESA's JUICE mission and is based on the Energetic Neutral Atom instrument (ENA) built for the BepiColombo Magnetospheric Orbiter. JNA is an imaging energetic neutral atom instrument for energies from 10eV to 3.3keV and it provides angular as well as mass resolution for major neutral species. Depending on magnetic field configuration magnetospheric plasma is able to precipitate onto the surface of Ganymede. The plasma surface interaction produces energetic neutral atoms by backscattering and/or sputtering that travel on ballistic trajectories. Imaging of the energetic neutral atoms fluxes allows to remotely study the precipitation pattern onto the surface, its dependence on magnetic field configuration and its evolution over time. Simulated JNA images are shown for typical conditions. Energetic neutral atoms are also generated by charge exchange reactions in the Io torus. Energetic neutral atoms allow us to study torus dynamics remotely. We show expected energetic neutral atoms fluxes and simulated JNA data from imaging the Io torus from a vantage point outside of Europa's orbit well reachable by the JUICE mission.

  14. Beyond ITER: Neutral beams for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, R.

    2014-02-15

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion as an economically sustainable power source, International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently under construction. Beyond ITER is the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) programme in which the physics and engineering aspects of a future fusion power plant will be demonstrated. DEMO will produce net electrical power. The DEMO programme will be outlined and the role of neutral beams for heating and current drive will be described. In particular, the importance of the efficiency of neutral beam systems in terms of injected neutral beam power compared to wallplug power will be discussed. Options for improving this efficiency including advanced neutralisers and energy recovery are discussed.

  15. Beyond ITER: neutral beams for a demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) (invited).

    PubMed

    McAdams, R

    2014-02-01

    In the development of magnetically confined fusion as an economically sustainable power source, International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently under construction. Beyond ITER is the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) programme in which the physics and engineering aspects of a future fusion power plant will be demonstrated. DEMO will produce net electrical power. The DEMO programme will be outlined and the role of neutral beams for heating and current drive will be described. In particular, the importance of the efficiency of neutral beam systems in terms of injected neutral beam power compared to wallplug power will be discussed. Options for improving this efficiency including advanced neutralisers and energy recovery are discussed. PMID:24593596

  16. Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-10-30

    Space-charge neutralization is required to compress and focus a pulsed, high-current ion beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described approaches to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary space-charge compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means, by an array of movable Langmuir probes, by a small single probe, and by evaluating Stark broadening of the Balmer H beta spectral line. In the main approach described here, the plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. It is shown that the plasma is essentially hollow, as determined by the structure of the magnetic field, though the plasma density exceeds 1014 cm-3 in practically all zones of the solenoid volume if the ring electrode is placed a few centimeters off the center of the solenoid. The plasma is non-uniform and fluctuating, however, since its density exceeds the ion beam density it is believed that this approach could provide a practical solution to the space charge neutralization challenge.

  17. Numerical study of beam propagation and plasma properties in the neutralizer and the E-RID of the ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifschitz, A. F.; Revel, A.; Caillault, L.; Minea, T.

    2014-04-01

    Non-ohmic heating will be used in the experimental nuclear fusion reactor ITER to reach thermonuclear temperatures. Two heating mechanism will be implemented, i.e. microwaves resonant with ion and electron cyclotron frequencies and energetic neutral beam injection, which contributes also to the current drive. Each one of the two neutral beam injector planned for ITER will deliver 16 MW of 1 MeV D0 beam. In the injector, negative ions D- coming from a 40 A negative ion source are electrostatically accelerated to 1 MeV, and stripped of their extra electron by collision with a target gas in a structure known as the neutralizer. Residual charged particles are deflected after the neutralizer in an electrostatic ion dump (E-RID). The ionization of the deuterium buffer gas filling the neutralizer induced by the D- beam creates a rarefied plasma which is expected to efficiently screens the Coulomb repulsion of the beam. Moreover, this plasma can eventually escape from the neutralizer and move back in the accelerator, towards the accelerating grids and the negative ion source. The transport of the beam through the neutralizer and the RID and the related plasma properties were studied using a 3D electrostatic particle-in-cell code called OBI-3 (Orsay Beam Injector 3 dimensional). Particle-particle and particle-wall collisions are treated using the Monte Carlo collision approach. Simulations show that the secondary plasma effectively screens the beam space charge preventing beam transverse expansion. Plasma ions created in the neutralizer form an upstream current with a magnitude of ˜0.5% of the negative ion current. Gas breakdown leading to arc formation in the RID was not observed. Finally, results for the propagation of non-ideal beams coming from simulations of the extraction and consecutive acceleration taken from Revel et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 073027 are presented.

  18. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    SciTech Connect

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-11-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format.

  19. Neutral-beam development plan, FY 1982-1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The following chapters are included: (1) status of BNL negative ion source development, (2) source development program plan, (3) status of beam transport and acceleration, (4) accelerator development program plan, (5) neutralizer concepts, (6) neutralization program plan, (7) neutral beam systems, (8) test facilities, (9) program milestones and time schedules, (10) organization and Grumman participation, and (11) funding tables. (MOW)

  20. Augmenting Transition Probabilities for Neutral Atomic Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrazas-Salines, Imelda; Park, Chul; Strawa, Anthony W.; Hartman, G. Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The transition probability values for a number of neutral atomic nitrogen (NI) lines in the visible wavelength range are determined in order to augment those given in the National Bureau of Standards Tables. These values are determined from experimentation as well as by using the published results of other investigators. The experimental determination of the lines in the 410 to 430 nm range was made from the observation of the emission from the arc column of an arc-heated wind tunnel. The transition probability values of these NI lines are determined to an accuracy of +/- 30% by comparison of their measured intensities with those of the atomic oxygen (OI) multiplet at around 615 nm. The temperature of the emitting medium is determined both using a multiple-layer model, based on a theoretical model of the flow in the arc column, and an empirical single-layer model. The results show that the two models lead to the same values of transition probabilities for the NI lines.

  1. Adiabatic Quantum Computation with Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, Grant

    2013-03-01

    We are implementing a new platform for adiabatic quantum computation (AQC)[2] based on trapped neutral atoms whose coupling is mediated by the dipole-dipole interactions of Rydberg states. Ground state cesium atoms are dressed by laser fields in a manner conditional on the Rydberg blockade mechanism,[3,4] thereby providing the requisite entangling interactions. As a benchmark we study a Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO) problem whose solution is found in the ground state spin configuration of an Ising-like model. In collaboration with Lambert Parazzoli, Sandia National Laboratories; Aaron Hankin, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; James Chin-Wen Chou, Yuan-Yu Jau, Peter Schwindt, Cort Johnson, and George Burns, Sandia National Laboratories; Tyler Keating, Krittika Goyal, and Ivan Deutsch, Center for Quantum Information and Control (CQuIC), University of New Mexico; and Andrew Landahl, Sandia National Laboratories. This work was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories

  2. Recent progress of laser cooling for neutral mercury atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kang-Kang; Zhao, Ru-Chen; Fu, Xiao-Hu; Hu, Jin-Meng; Feng, Yan; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-11-01

    Mercury is the heaviest stable atom that could be laser cooled, and have a large nuclear charge number. So it has a distinct advantage in quantum precision measurement such as fine-structure constant α and permanent electric dipole moment. Due to its insensitivity of black body radiation, atomic mercury is a good candidate of optical clock. Here we report our recent development of laser cooling of neutral mercury atom. By cooling the mercury source to about -70°C, an ultra-high vacuum system was realized to produce ultracold mercury atoms. The commercial frequency quadrupled semiconductor laser is locked on the cooling transition (1S0-3P1 transition, wavelength of 253.7 nm) by sub-Doppler frequency modulation spectroscopy. By the modification with feed-forward method, the UV laser becomes faster tunable and more stable. A folded beam configuration was used to realize the magneto-optical trap (MOT) because of the shortage of cooling laser power, and the ultracold mercury atoms were observed by fluorescence detection. All of six rich abundant isotopes have been observed, and the atom number is about 1.5×106 with density of 3.5×109 /cm3 for 202Hg. With optical shutter and the programmable system to control the time sequence, the temperature of ultracold atoms can be measured by time of flight method. To enhance the laser power, a 1014.8 nm fiber laser amplifier was developed, which can work at room temperature. After two stages of frequency doubling, about 75 mW of 253.7 nm UV laser were generated, and the saturated absorption spectroscopy of mercury atom was also observed. More power of UV laser could help to trap more atoms in the future. These works laid a good foundation to realize the mercury lattice clock.

  3. High-resolution spectral analysis of light from neutral beams and ion source plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, D H; Kim, J

    1980-05-01

    The spectral distributions of Balmer alpha emission from 7- and 22-cm-diam neutral hydrogen beams have been measured with a Fabry-Perot interferometer to obtain information on the beam energy, divergence, and species composition. Results of these measurements are compared with other data on the beam properties to evaluate high-resolution spectroscopy as a beam diagnostic technique. Measurements on ion source plasmas and on beam-produced background plasmas yield average neutral atom energies of approximately 0.3 and 2.5 eV, respectively.

  4. Neutral Beam Power System for TPX

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakrishnan, S.; Bowen, O.N.; O`Conner, T.; Edwards, J.; Fromm, N.; Hatcher, R.; Newman, R.; Rossi, G.; Stevenson, T.; von Halle, A.

    1993-11-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will utilize to the maximum extent the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) equipment and facilities. This is particularly true for the TFTR Neutral Beam (NB) system. Most of the NB hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, power systems, service infrastructure, and control systems can be used as is. The major changes in the NB hardware are driven by the new operating duty cycle. The TFTR Neutral Beam was designed for operation of the Sources for 2 seconds every 150 seconds. The TPX requires operation for 1000 seconds every 4500 seconds. During the Conceptual Design Phase of TPX every component of the TFTR NB Electrical Power System was analyzed to verify whether the equipment can meet the new operational requirements with our without modifications. The Power System converts 13.8 kV prime power to controlled pulsed power required at the NB sources. The major equipment involved are circuit breakers, auto and rectifier transformers surge suppression components, power tetrodes, HV Decks, and HVDC power transmission to sources. Thermal models were developed for the power transformers to simulate the new operational requirements. Heat runs were conducted for the power tetrodes to verify capability. Other components were analyzed to verify their thermal limitations. This paper describes the details of the evaluation and redesign of the electrical power system components to meet the TPX operational requirements.

  5. Minimization of first-turn losses by excited neutrals in charge-changing injection of accumulator rings

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, A.J.; Blind, B.; Channel, P.; Wang, Tai-Sen

    1994-07-01

    Substantial beam losses, due to production of excited neutrals by the foil stripper, have been observed to occur immediately after injection in accumulator rings that utilize charge-changing injection. A technique is proposed, based on experimental and theoretical results for excited-state production and stripping, that is potentially capable of reducing such losses by a factor greater than 10{sup 4}. In the technique, foil stripping occurs in a shaped magnetic field that resolves the excited atomic levels into immediately stripped states that are within ring acceptance and those that can be ejected from the ring. An added magnetic-mirror-field configuration is Proposed as an effective means of minimizing interactions between stripped electrons and the foil.

  6. Neutral beam dose and sputtering characteristics in an ion implantation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Ash, R. L.; Berger, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    A technique and instrument design for calorimetric detection of the neutral atom content of a 60 keV argon ion beam. A beam sampling method is used to measure local heat flux to a small platinum wire at steady state; integration of power density profiles leads to a determination of equivalent neutral beam current. The fast neutral production occurs as a result of charge transfer processes in the region of the beam system between analyzing magnet and beam stop where the pressure remains less than .00001 torr. A description of the neutral beam detector is given in section along with a presentation of results. An elementary analysis of sputter material transport from target to substrate was performed; the analysis relates to semiconductor sputtering.

  7. Magnetically operated beam dump for dumping high power beams in a neutral beamline

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-01-27

    It is an object of this invention to provide a beam dump system for a neutral beam generator which lowers the time-averaged power density of the beam dump impingement surface. Another object of this invention is to provide a beam dump system for a neutral particle beam based on reionization and subsequent magnetic beam position modulation of the beam onto a beam dump surface to lower the time-averaged power density of the beam dump ion impingement surface.

  8. Observations of the artificially injected Porcupine xenon ion beam in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeusler, B.; Treumann, R. A.; Bauer, O. H.; Haerendel, G.; Bush, R.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of ion beam injection experiments performed in the auroral ionosphere in connection with the German Sounding Rocket Project Porcupine. A heavy (xenon) ion beam was injected into the collisionless ionospheric plasma approximately perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field at altitudes from 190 km to about 450 km. The beam propagates nearly undistorted across the plasma because it is essentially depolarized; at the same time the beam is not current neutralized. This unexpected behavior poses the interconnected problems of how the beam manages to become charge neutralized, how current closure is maintained, and what is the mechanism of depolarization.

  9. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) neutral beam design

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, T.J.; Brook, J.W.; Spampinato, P.T.; Mueller, J.P.; Luzzi, T.E.; Sedgley, D.W. . Space Systems Div.)

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics on ITER neutral beam design: ion dump; neutralizer and module gas flow analysis; vacuum system; cryogenic system; maintainability; power distribution; and system cost.

  10. Stable Spheromaks Sustained by Neutral Beam Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K; Jayakumar, R; McLean, H S

    2008-05-14

    It is shown that spheromak equilibria, stable at zero-beta but departing from the Taylor state, could be sustained by non-inductive current drive at acceptable power levels. Stability to both ideal MHD and tearing modes is verified using the NIMROD code for linear stability analysis. Non-linear NIMROD calculations with non-inductive current drive and pressure effects could point the way to improved fusion reactors.

  11. Plasma injection and atomic physics models for use in particle simulation codes

    SciTech Connect

    Procassini, R.J. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Electronics Research Lab.)

    1991-06-12

    Models of plasma injection (creation) and charged/neutral atomic physics which are suitable for incorporation into particle simulation codes are described. Both planar and distributed source injection models are considered. Results obtained from planar injection into a collisionless plasma-sheath region are presented. The atomic physics package simulates the charge exchange and impact ionization interactions which occur between charged particles and neutral atoms in a partially-ionized plasma. These models are applicable to a wide range of problems, from plasma processing of materials to transport in the edge region of a tokamak plasma. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Drift compression of an intense neutralized ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Henestroza, E.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.; Eylon, S.; Greenway, W.G.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.; Thoma, C.; Sefkow, A.B.; Gilson, E.P.; Efthimion, P.C.; Davidson, R.C.

    2004-10-25

    Longitudinal compression of a tailored-velocity, intense neutralized ion beam has been demonstrated. The compression takes place in a 1-2 m drift section filled with plasma to provide space-charge neutralization. An induction cell produces a head-to-tail velocity ramp that longitudinally compresses the neutralized beam, enhancing the beam peak current by a factor of 50 and producing a pulse duration of about 3 ns. this measurement has been confirmed independently with two different diagnostic systems.

  13. Observation of Beam Driven Modes during Neutral Beam Heating on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    E.D. Fredrickson; N. Gorelenkov; C.Z. Cheng; R. Bell; D. Darrow; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; B. LeBlanc; J. Menard; S. Kubota; W. Peebles

    2001-10-03

    With the first injection of neutral beams on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), a broad and complicated spectrum of coherent modes was seen between approximately 0.4 MHz and 2.5 MHz [where f(subscript ''ci'')] for deuterium is approximately 2.2 MHz. The modes have been observed with high bandwidth magnetic pick-up coils and with a reflectometer. The parametric scaling of the mode frequency with density and magnetic field is consistent with Alfvenic modes (linear in B, inversely with the square root of density). These modes have been identified as magnetosonic waves or compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE) excited by a cyclotron resonance with the neutral-beam ions. Modes have also been observed in the frequency range 50-150 kHz with toroidal mode numbers n = 1-5. These lower frequency modes are thought to be related to the TAE [Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode] seen commonly in tokamaks and driven by energetic fast ion populations resulting from ICRF [ion cyclotron range of frequency] and NBI [neutral-beam injection] heating. There is no clear indication of enhanced fast ion losses associated with the modes.

  14. A Neutral Beam for the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment Upgrade (LTX-U)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Enrique; Majeski, Richard; Kaita, Robert; Kozub, Thomas; Boyle, Dennis; Schmitt, John; Smirnov, Artem

    2015-11-01

    Neutral beam injection into tokamaks is a proven method of plasma heating and fueling. In LTX, high confinement discharges have been achieved with low-recycling lithium walls. To further improve plasma performance, a neutral beam (NB) will be installed as part of an upgrade to LTX (LTX-U). The NB will provide core plasma fueling with up to 700 kW of injected power. Requirements for accommodating the NB include the addition of injection and beam-dump ports onto the vessel and enhancement of the vacuum vessel pumping capability. Because the NB can also serve as a source of neutrals for charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy, ``active'' spectroscopic diagnostics will also be developed. An overview of these plans and other improvements for upgrading LTX to LTX-U will be presented. Supported by US DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  15. Confinement studies of neutral beam heated discharges in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bell, J.D.; Stauffer, F.; Bell, M.G.; Bitte, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Boody, F.; Britz, N.

    1985-11-01

    The TFTR tokamak has reached its original machine design specifications (I/sub p/ = 2.5 MA and B/sub T/ = 5.2T). Recently, the D/sup 0/ neutral beam heating power has been increased to 6.3 MW. By operating at low plasma current (I/sub p/ approx. = 0.8 MA) and low density anti n/sub e/ approx. = 1 x 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/), high ion temperatures (9 +- keV) and rotation speeds (7 x 10/sup 5/ m/s) have been achieved during injection. At the opposite extreme, pellet injection into high current plasmas has been used to increase the line-average density to 8 x 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/ and the central density to 1.6 x 10/sup 20/m/sup -3// This wide range of operating conditions has enabled us to conduct scaling studies of the global energy confinement time in both ohmically and beam heated discharges as well as more detailed transport studies of the profile dependence. In ohmic discharges, the energy confinement time is observed to scale linearly with density only up to anti n/sub e/ approx. 4.5 x 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/ and then to increase more gradually, achieving a maximum value of approx. 0.45 s. In beam heated discharges, the energy confinement time is observed to decrease with beam power and to increase with plasma current. With P/sub b/ = 5.6 MW, anti n/sub e/ = 4.7 x 10/sup 19/m/sup -3/, I/sub p/ = 2.2 MA and B/sub T = 4.7T, the gross energy confinement time is 0.22 s and T/sub i/(0) = 4.8 keV. Despite shallow penetration of D/sup 0/ beams (at the beam energy less than or equal to 80 keV with low species yield), tau/sub E/(a) values are as large as those for H/sup 0/ injection, but central confinement times are substantially greater. This is a consequence of the insensitivity of the temperature and safety factor profile shapes to the heating profile. The radial variation of tau/sub E/ is even more pronounced with D/sup 0/ injection into high density pellet-injected plasmas. 25 refs.

  16. TFTR neutral-beam test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Turitzin, N.M.; Newman, R.A.

    1981-11-01

    TFTR Neutral Beam System will have thirteen discharge ion sources, each with its own power supply. Twelve of these will be utilized for supplemental heating of the TFTR tokamak plasma, while the thirteenth will be dedicated to an off-machine test chamber for source development and/or conditioning. A test installation for one source was set up using prototype equipment to discover and correct possible deficiencies, and to properly coordinate the equipment. This test facility represents the first opportunity for assembling an integrated system of hardware supplied by diverse vendors, each of whom designed and built his equipment to performance specifications. For the installation and coordination of the different portions of the total system, particular attention was given to personnel safety and safe equipment operation. This paper discusses various system components, their characteristics, interconnection and control. Results of the recently initiated test phase will be reported at a later date.

  17. Neutral atomic jet generation by laser ablation of copper targets

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, J. B. de; Rodrigues, N. A. S.

    2014-08-15

    This work aimed the obtainment of a neutral atomic jet departing from a plume generated by laser ablation of copper targets. A pair of electrodes together with a transducer pressure sensor was used to study the ablated plume charge composition and also to measure the ion extraction from the plasma plume. The neutral beam was produced with this setup and the relative abundance of neutrals in the plasma was measured, it decreases from 30% to 8% when the laser fluence is varied from 20 J/cm{sup 2} to 32 J/cm{sup 2}. The necessary voltage to completely remove the ions from the plume varied from 10 V to 230 V in the same fluence range. TOF analysis resulted in center of mass velocities between 3.4 and 4.6 km/s, longitudinal temperature in the range from 1 × 10{sup 4} K to 2.4 × 10{sup 4} K and a Mach number of M = 2.36, calculated using purely hydrodynamic expansion approximation.

  18. Development of rf plasma generators for neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Vella, M.C.; Ehlers, K.W.; Kippenhan, D.; Pincosy, P.A.; Pyle, R.V.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Fosnight, V.V.

    1984-10-01

    The development of low frequency (1-2 MHz) rf plasma generators for high power neutral beam applications is summarized. Immersed couplers from one to three turns were used. Acceptable plasma profiles, less than or equal to 15% max/min, were obtained in a variety of field-free magnetic bucket and magnetic filter-bucket sources, with 10 x 10 cm or 10 x 40 cm extraction areas. Hydrogen beam properties were measured with a 7 x 10 cm accelerator operated at 80 kV. Atomic fraction and power efficiency were at least as high as with arc plasmas in similar chambers. The potential advantages of an rf plasma source are: ease of operation; reliability; and extended service lifetime.

  19. Kinetic Simulation and Energetic Neutral Atom Imaging of the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced simulation tools and measurement techniques have been developed to study the dynamic magnetosphere and its response to drivers in the solar wind. The Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) is a kinetic code that solves the 3D distribution in space, energy and pitch-angle information of energetic ions and electrons. Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imagers have been carried in past and current satellite missions. Global morphology of energetic ions were revealed by the observed ENA images. We have combined simulation and ENA analysis techniques to study the development of ring current ions during magnetic storms and substorms. We identify the timing and location of particle injection and loss. We examine the evolution of ion energy and pitch-angle distribution during different phases of a storm. In this talk we will discuss the findings from our ring current studies and how our simulation and ENA analysis tools can be applied to the upcoming TRIO-CINAMA mission.

  20. The Mechanism of Atomization Accompanying Solid Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleman, R A , Jr

    1933-01-01

    A brief historical and descriptive account of solid injection is followed by a detailed review of the available theoretical and experimental data that seem to throw light on the mechanism of this form of atomization. It is concluded that this evidence indicates that (1) the atomization accompanying solid injection occurs at the surface of the liquid after it issues as a solid stream from the orifice; and (2) that such atomization has a mechanism physically identical with the atomization which takes place in an air stream, both being due merely to the formation, at the gas-liquid interface, of fine ligaments under the influence of the relative motion of gas and liquid, and to their collapse, under the influence of surface tension, to form the drops in the spray.

  1. The giant ion sources of neutral-beam injectors for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1989-07-01

    All large tokamak fusion experiments today use auxiliary heating by multi-megawatt beams of neutral isotopes of hydrogen injected with energies in the neighborhood of 100 keV per atom. This requires reliable operation of large ion sources, each delivering many tens of amperes of protons or deuterons, and soon even tritons. For meaningful experiments these sources must operate with pulse durations measured in seconds, although the duty factor may still be small. It is remarkable that the successful sources developed in Europe, Japan and the US are all very similar in basic design: the plasma is produced by diffuse low-pressure high-current discharges in magnetic multipole buckets'' was distributed thermionically emitting cathodes. This paper briefly reviews the principal considerations and the basic physics of these sources, and summarizes the collective experience to date and describes the impressive recent performance of the US Common Long Pulse Source, as a specific example. 20 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Requirements for neutral beam current drive in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Dory, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains viewgraphs on the use of neutral beam current drive in future tokamaks. Current profiles, slowing down distributions, beam destabilization of alfven waves and plasma parameters are some items covered in this paper. (DWL)

  3. The influence of stray magnetic fields on ion beam neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feng, Y.-C.; Wilbur, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental investigation is described of a comparison between the ion beam neutralization characteristics of a local neutralizer (within approximately 5 cm of the beam edge) and those associated with a distant one (approximately 1 meter away from the thruster). The influence of magnetic fields in the vicinity of the neutralizer cathode orifice which are either parallel or normal to the neutralizer axis is assessed. The plasma property profiles which reflect the influence of the magnetic fields are measured. The results suggest that magnetic fields at the region of a neutralizer cathode orifice influence its ability to couple to the ion beam. They reveal that there is a potential jump from the neutralizer cathode orifice to the plasma which exists close to the orifice. This potential drop is found to increase as the axial component of magnetic flux density increases. A magnetic field perpendicular to the neutralizer axis induces a potential rise a few centimeters downstream from the neutralizer cathode.

  4. Neutral Beam Ion Loss Modelling for NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrow, D. S.; Akers, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Mikkelsen, D. R.

    1999-11-01

    The loss of 80 keV D neutral beam ions to the walls has been modeled for a range of plasma conditions in NSTX using the EIGOL code[1]. Initial results of the code are in reasonable agreement with those from the LOCUST code[2]. Both codes predict loss fractions of 20% for a discharge with β_T=40% and q_0=2.6. Losses are strongly concentrated on the front face and edges of the high-harmonic fast wave antenna as it projects farther inward than other internal structures at the midplane. The edges of the passive stabilizer plates near the midplane are also subject to a large flux of lost beam ions under some conditions. The dependence of the loss upon the plasma density profile, I_p, and BT will be presented. [1] D. S. Darrow, et al., in Proceedings of the 26th EPS Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 14-18 June 1999. [2] R. Akers, et al., ibid.

  5. Injected Beam Dynamics in SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, Jeff; Fisher, Alan; Huang, Xiaobiao; Safranek, James; Westerman, Stuart; Cheng, Weixing; Mok, Walter; /Unlisted

    2012-06-21

    For the top-off operation it is important to understand the time evolution of charge injected into the storage ring. The large-amplitude horizontal oscillation quickly filaments and decoheres, and in some cases exhibits non-linear x-y coupling before damping to the stored orbit. Similarly, in the longitudinal dimension, any mismatch in beam arrival time, beam energy or phase-space results in damped, non-linear synchrotron oscillations. In this paper we report on measurements of injection beam dynamics in the transverse and longitudinal planes using turn-by-turn BPMs, a fast-gated, image-intensified CCD camera and a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera.

  6. RAMI Analyses of Heating Neutral Beam and Diagnostic Neutral Beam Systems for ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D. H.; Lee, S.; Hemsworth, R.; van Houtte, D.; Okayama, K.; Sagot, F.; Schunke, B.; Svensson, L.

    2011-09-01

    A RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Inspectability) analysis has been performed for the heating (& current drive) neutral beam (HNB) and diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) systems of the ITER device [1-3]. The objective of these analyses is to implement RAMI engineering requirements for design and testing to prepare a reliability-centred plan for commissioning, operation, and maintenance of the system in the framework of technical risk control to support the overall ITER Project. These RAMI requirements will correspond to the RAMI targets for the ITER project and the compensating provisions to reach them as deduced from the necessary actions to decrease the risk level of the function failure modes. The RAMI analyses results have to match with the procurement plan of the systems.

  7. Magnetospheric imaging with low-energy neutral atoms.

    PubMed Central

    McComas, D J; Barraclough, B L; Elphic, R C; Funsten, H O; Thomsen, M F

    1991-01-01

    Global imaging of the magnetospheric charged particle population can be achieved by remote measurement of the neutral atoms produced when magnetospheric ions undergo charge exchange with cold exospheric neutral atoms. Previously suggested energetic neutral atom imagers were only able to measure neutral atoms with energies typically greater than several tens of keV. A laboratory prototype has been built and tested for a different type of space plasma neutral imaging instrument, which allows neutral atoms to be imaged down to <1 keV. Such low-energy measurements provide greater sensitivity for imaging the terrestrial magnetosphere and allow the bulk of the magnetospheric ion distribution, typically centered below 10 keV, to be observed rather than just the high-energy tail of the distribution. The low-energy neutral atom measurements are made possible by utilizing charge state modifications that occur when an initially neutral atom passes through an ultrathin carbon foil. Oxygen, for example, is highly electronegative, and for energies of approximately 10-30 keV, the O- yield is approximately 30%, essentially independent of the charge state of the incident oxygen atom. These ions are energy per charge analyzed, and the UV background is rejected by using an electrostatic analyzer. Imaging of other ion species, such as hydrogen, could also be accomplished by using ultrathin foil-induced charge state modifications. The technique described in this paper provides a method for imaging charge exchange neutrals from the terrestrial magnetosphere and would also have applications for similar imaging in other planetary or cometary environs. The Inner Magnetosphere Imaging Mission, which the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is presently considering, would provide a nearly ideal platform for low-energy neutral atom imaging, and such measurements would substantially enhance the scientific yield of this mission. PMID:11607229

  8. Modified 180/sup 0/ separation magnet for DIII-Big Dee neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, R.; Colleraine, A.P.; Fasolo, J.; Kim, J.; Phillips, J.

    1985-07-01

    Neutral beam injection systems for heating the plasma of a fusion research device utilize a deflection magnet to separate the unneutralized residual ions from the neutral particles and steer them into an ion dump. Performance of the separation magnet is crucial in that its failure will cause serious damage to beamline components. A technique using wire orbit simulations was successfully applied to test the performance of the modified 180/sup 0/ separation magnet for DIII-Big Dee neutral beam injectors. It simulated the stable ion trajectories, and showed the fringe field effects and the proper range of operating magnet field strength to be determined.

  9. Energetic neutral atoms emitted from ice by ion bombardment under Ganymede surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wurz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Magnetospheric or solar wind ions directly interacting with a planetary surface result in backscattering or sputtering of energetic neutral atoms. One example is the solar wind interaction with the surface of the Moon, where the produced energetic neutral atoms were observed by the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer instrument (SARA) on Chandrayaan-1. At Jupiter, magnetospheric plasma interacts in a similar way with the surface of the Galilean moons. However, the emission of energetic neutral atoms from "dirty" ices as found e.g. on Ganymede's surface is poorly understood. We set up an experiment to study the ion to surface interaction under Ganymede surface environment conditions using the unique capabilities of the MEFISTO test facility at University of Bern. Ions of various species and energies up to 33 keV/q were impacted on a block of ice made from a mixture of water, NaCl and dry ice. The energetic neutral atoms produced by the interaction were detected with the prototype of the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer instrument (JNA.) JNA is proposed as part of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) for ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter and instrument is based on the Energetic Energetic Neutral Atom instrument (ENA) built for the BepiColombo Magnetospheric Orbiter. We present energy spectra for different ion beam species and energetic neutral atom species combinations. The data show high yields for energetic neutral atoms up to the upper end of the instrument energy range of 3.3 keV. The energy spectra of the neutral atom flux emitted from the ice could only partially be fitted by the Sigmund-Thompson formula. In some cases, but not all, a Maxwellian distribution provides a reasonable description of the data.

  10. Gas Flow Measurements of a Novel Geometry for Neutral Beam Neutralizers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkle, David Ross

    The gas flow characteristics of a novel geometry (pumped neutralizer) for decreasing the flow of gas from neutral beam neutralizers were measured and compared with a conventional (passive) neutralizer. A passive neutralizer is typically a duct attached to the ion source. For the pumped neutralizer the top and bottom surfaces of the duct are replaced by a Venetian blind geometry which opens into ballast vacuum pumping volumes. With guidance from a Monte Carlo program which models gas flow at low pressure, a one-half scale model with pumped neutralizer geometry was built and compared to a passive neutralizer with comparable dimensions. With the vanes on the pumped neutralizer opened to 55 degrees, the line density of the pumped neutralizer was 1.6 times less than the passive neutralizer. The amount of gas flowing from the exit of the pumped neutralizer was from 2 to 5 times less than the amount flowing from the pumped neutralizer. Hence, the pumped neutralizer geometry appears to be a promising method of limiting the flow of gas from neutral beam gas cell neutralizers.

  11. Intense ion beam neutralization using underdense background plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Berdanier, William; Roy, Prabir K.; Kaganovich, Igor

    2015-01-15

    Producing an overdense background plasma for neutralization purposes with a density that is high compared to the beam density is not always experimentally possible. We show that even an underdense background plasma with a small relative density can achieve high neutralization of intense ion beam pulses. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we show that if the total plasma electron charge is not sufficient to neutralize the beam charge, electron emitters are necessary for effective neutralization but are not needed if the plasma volume is so large that the total available charge in the electrons exceeds that of the ion beam. Several regimes of possible underdense/tenuous neutralization plasma densities are investigated with and without electron emitters or dense plasma at periphery regions, including the case of electron emitters without plasma, which does not effectively neutralize the beam. Over 95% neutralization is achieved for even very underdense background plasma with plasma density 1/15th the beam density. We compare results of particle-in-cell simulations with an analytic model of neutralization and find close agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations. Further, we show experimental data from the National Drift Compression experiment-II group that verifies the result that underdense plasma can neutralize intense heavy ion beams effectively.

  12. Neutral Beam Current Drive in Spheromak plasma and plasma stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlstein, L. D.; Jayakumar, R. J.; Hudson, B.; Hill, D. N.; Lodestro, L. L.; McLean, H. S.; Fowler, T. K.; Casper, T. A.

    2007-11-01

    A key question for the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) is understanding how spheromaks can be sustained by other current drive tools such as neutral beam current drive. Another question is whether the present relationship between current and maximum spheromak magnetic field (plasma beta) is related to Alcator-like ohmic confinement limit or is a stability limit. Using the code CORSICA, the fraction of neutral beam current drive that can be achieved has been calculated for different injection angles with a fixed equilibrium. It is seen that relaxing the equilibrium with this drive simply drives the core safety factor to low values. Other equilibria where the NBI may give aligned current drive are being explored. Free-boundary equilibria calculations are underway to see what hyper-resistivity model gives the observed sustained SSPX performance and include that in the NBI calculations. Work performed under the auspices of the US DOE by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  13. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  14. Experimental Studies of Ion Beam Neutralization: Preliminary Results

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Polansky, J.; Downey, R.; Wang, J.

    2011-05-20

    A testing platform is designed to study ion beam neutralization in the mesothermal, collisionless region. In the experimental setup, argon neutrals were ionized in a microwave cavity and accelerated by a plasma lens system which was biased to 2500 V above the system ground. Electrons were boiled off from two hot tungsten filaments to neutralize the ion beam. The plasma is diagnosed using Langmuir probe and Faraday probe. A 3-D traversing system and a complete data acquisition loop were developed to efficiently measure 3-D beam profile. Preliminary measurements of beam profiles are presented for different operating conditions.

  15. Statistical Analysis of the Heavy Neutral Atoms Measured by IBEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeewoo; Kucharek, Harald; Möbius, Eberhard; Galli, André; Livadiotis, George; Fuselier, Steve A.; McComas, David J.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the directional distribution of heavy neutral atoms in the heliosphere by using heavy neutral maps generated with the IBEX-Lo instrument over three years from 2009 to 2011. The interstellar neutral (ISN) O&Ne gas flow was found in the first-year heavy neutral map at 601 keV and its flow direction and temperature were studied. However, due to the low counting statistics, researchers have not treated the full sky maps in detail. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the statistical significance of each pixel in the heavy neutral maps to get a better understanding of the directional distribution of heavy neutral atoms in the heliosphere. Here, we examine three statistical analysis methods: the signal-to-noise filter, the confidence limit method, and the cluster analysis method. These methods allow us to exclude background from areas where the heavy neutral signal is statistically significant. These methods also allow the consistent detection of heavy neutral atom structures. The main emission feature expands toward lower longitude and higher latitude from the observational peak of the ISN O&Ne gas flow. We call this emission the extended tail. It may be an imprint of the secondary oxygen atoms generated by charge exchange between ISN hydrogen atoms and oxygen ions in the outer heliosheath.

  16. Heat-exchanger concepts for neutral-beam calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, C. C.; Polk, D. H.; McFarlin, D. J.; Stone, R.

    1981-10-01

    Advanced cooling concepts that permit the design of water cooled heat exchangers for use as calorimeters and beam dumps for advanced neutral beam injection systems were evaluated. Water cooling techniques ranging from pool boiling to high pressure, high velocity swirl flow were considered. Preliminary performance tests were carried out with copper, inconel and molybdenum tubes ranging in size from 0.19 to 0.50 in. diameter. Coolant flow configurations included: (1) smooth tube/straight flow; (2) smooth tube with swirl flow created by tangential injection of the coolant; and (3) axial flow in internally finned tubes. Additionally, the effect of tube L/D was evaluated. A CO2 laser was employed to irradiate a sector of the tube exterior wall; the laser power was incrementally increased until burnout occurred. Absorbed heat fluxes were calculated by dividing the measured coolant heat load by the area of the burn spot on the tube surface. Two six element thermopiles were used to accurately determine the coolant temperature rise. A maximum burnout heat flux near 14 kW/sq cm was obtained for the molybdenum tube swirl flow configuration.

  17. Space Charge Neutralization in the ITER Negative Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Surrey, Elizabeth

    2007-08-10

    A model of the space charge neutralization of negative ion beams, developed from the model due to Holmes, is applied to the ITER heating and diagnostic beams. The Holmes model assumed that the plasma electron temperature was derived from the stripped electrons. This is shown to be incorrect for the ITER beams and the plasma electron temperature is obtained from the average creation energy upon ionization. The model shows that both ITER beams will be fully space charge compensated in the drift distance between the accelerator and the neutralizer. Inside the neutralizer, the plasma over compensates the space charge to the extent that a significant focusing force is predicted. At a certain position in the neutraliser this force balances the defocusing force due to the ions' transverse energy. Under these conditions the beam distribution function can change from Gaussian to Bennett and evidence of such a distribution observed in a multi-aperture, neutralized negative ion beam is presented.

  18. Neutral-beam systems for magnetic-fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J. H.

    1981-08-10

    Neutral beams for magnetic fusion reactors are at an early stage of development, and require considerable effort to make them into the large, reliable, and efficient systems needed for future power plants. To optimize their performance to establish specific goals for component development, systematic analysis of the beamlines is essential. Three ion source characteristics are discussed: arc-cathode life, gas efficiency, and beam divergence, and their significance in a high-energy neutral-beam system is evaluated.

  19. Development of neutral atom traps based on a microfabricated waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu; Lee, Jongmin; Biedermann, Grant; Siddiqui, Aleem; Eichenfield, Matt; Dougla, Erica

    2016-05-01

    Implementation of trapping neutral atoms in the evanescent fields generated by a nano-structure, such as a nanofiber or a microfabricated nano-waveguide, will naturally enable strong atom-photon interactions, which serve the key mechanisms for different type of quantum controls. At Sandia National Labs, we are aiming to develop a platform based on this concept to eventually trap cesium atoms with a microfabricated waveguide. Although, neutral atom traps using optical nanofiber has been demonstrated, there are several key issues that need to be resolved to realize trapping atoms with microfabricated structure. The subjects include the material for making the waveguide, optical power handling capability, surface adsorption of alkali-metal atoms, surface roughness of the nano-structure, cold-atom source for loading the atoms into the evanescent-field traps, etc. We will discuss our studies on these related subjects and report our latest progress.

  20. Surface conversion techniques for low energy neutral atom imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    This investigation has focused on development of key technology elements for low energy neutral atom imaging. More specifically, we have investigated the conversion of low energy neutral atoms to negatively charged ions upon reflection from specially prepared surfaces. This 'surface conversion' technique appears to offer a unique capability of detecting, and thus imaging, neutral atoms at energies of 0.01 - 1 keV with high enough efficiencies to make practical its application to low energy neutral atom imaging in space. Such imaging offers the opportunity to obtain the first instantaneous global maps of macroscopic plasma features and their temporal variation. Through previous in situ plasma measurements, we have a statistical picture of large scale morphology and local measurements of dynamic processes. However, with in situ techniques it is impossible to characterize or understand many of the global plasma transport and energization processes. A series of global plasma images would greatly advance our understanding of these processes and would provide the context for interpreting previous and future in situ measurements. Fast neutral atoms, created from ions that are neutralized in collisions with exospheric neutrals, offer the means for remotely imaging plasma populations. Energy and mass analysis of these neutrals provides critical information about the source plasma distribution. The flux of neutral atoms available for imaging depends upon a convolution of the ambient plasma distribution with the charge exchange cross section for the background neutral population. Some of the highest signals are at relatively low energies (well below 1 keV). This energy range also includes some of the most important plasma populations to be imaged, for example the base of the cleft ion fountain.

  1. Studies of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    Space-charge forces limit the possible transverse compression of high perveance ion beams that are used in ion-beam-driven high energy density physics applications; the minimum radius to which a beam can be focused is an increasing function of perveance. The limit can be overcome if a plasma is introduced in the beam path between the focusing element and the target in order to neutralize the space charge of the beam. This concept has been implemented on the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX) at LBNL using Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPS). In our experiment at PPPL, we propagate a perveance-dominated ion beam through a FEPS to study the effect of the neutralizing plasma on the beam envelope and its evolution in time. A 30-60 keV space-charge-dominated Argon beam is focused with an Einzel lens into a FEPS located at the beam waist. The beam is intercepted downstream from the FEPS by a movable Faraday cup that provides time-resolved 2D current density profiles of the beam spot on target. We report results on: (a) dependence of charge neutralization on FEPS plasma density; (b) effects on beam emittance, and (c) time evolution of the beam envelope after the FEPS pulse. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Modelling neutral beams in fusion devices: Beamlet-based model for fast particle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asunta, O.; Govenius, J.; Budny, R.; Gorelenkova, M.; Tardini, G.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Salmi, A.; Sipilä, S.

    2015-03-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) will be one of the main sources of heating and non-inductive current drive in ITER. Due to high level of injected power the beam induced heat loads present a potential threat to the integrity of the first wall of the device, particularly in the presence of non-axisymmetric perturbations of the magnetic field. Neutral beam injection can also destabilize Alfvén eigenmodes and energetic particle modes, and act as a source of plasma rotation. Therefore, reliable and accurate simulation of NBI is important for making predictions for ITER, as well as for any other current or future fusion device. This paper introduces a new beamlet-based neutral beam ionization model called BBNBI. It takes into account the fine structure of the injector, follows the injected neutrals until ionization, and generates a source ensemble of ionized NBI test particles for slowing down calculations. BBNBI can be used as a stand-alone model but together with the particle following code ASCOT it forms a complete and sophisticated tool for simulating neutral beam injection. The test particle ensembles from BBNBI are found to agree well with those produced by PENCIL for JET, and those produced by NUBEAM both for JET and ASDEX Upgrade plasmas. The first comprehensive comparisons of beam slowing down profiles of interest from BBNBI + ASCOT with results from PENCIL and NUBEAM/TRANSP, for both JET and AUG, are presented. It is shown that, for an axisymmetric plasma, BBNBI + ASCOT and NUBEAM agree remarkably well. Together with earlier 3D studies, these results further validate using BBNBI + ASCOT also for studying phenomena that require particle following in a truly three-dimensional geometry.

  3. An atomic model for neutral and singly ionized uranium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maceda, E. L.; Miley, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the atomic levels above ground state in neutral, U(0), and singly ionized, U(+), uranium is described based on identified atomic transitions. Some 168 states in U(0) and 95 in U(+) are found. A total of 1581 atomic transitions are used to complete this process. Also discussed are the atomic inverse lifetimes and line widths for the radiative transitions as well as the electron collisional cross sections.

  4. Neutralization tests on the SERT II spacecraft. [of ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Orbit precession returned the SERT II spacecraft to continuous sunlight in January 1979 for the first time since early 1972, and new experiments were planned and conducted. Neutralization of an ion beam was accomplished by a second neutralizer cathode located 1 meter away. Plasma potential measurements were made of the plasma surrounding the ion beam and connecting the beam to the second neutralizer. When the density of the connecting plasma was increased by turning on the main discharge of a neighboring ion thruster, the neutralization of the ion beam occurred with improved (lower) coupling voltage. These and other tests reported should aid in the future design of spacecraft using electric thruster systems. Data taken indicate that cross neutralization of ion thrusters in a multiple thruster array should occur readily.

  5. Implementation of a quasi-realtime display of DIII-D neutral beam heating waveforms

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.C.

    1993-10-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam system employs eight 80 keV ion sources mounted on four beamlines to provide plasma heating to the DIII-D tokamak. The neutral beam system is capable of injecting over 20 MW of deuterium power with flexibility in terms of timing and modulation of the individual neutral beams. To maintain DIII-D`s efficient tokamak shot cycle and make informed control decisions, it is important to be able to determine which beams fired, and exactly when, by the time the tokamak shot is over. Previously this information was available in centralized form only after a several minute wait. A cost-effective alternative to the traditional eight-channel storage oscilloscope has been implemented using off the shelf PC hardware and software. The system provides a real time display of injected neutral beam accelerator voltages and tokamak plasma current, as well an a summation waveform indicative of the total injected power as a function of time. The hardware consists of a Macintosh Centris 650 PC with a Motorola 68040 microprocessor. Data acquisition is accomplished using a National Instrument`s 16-channel analog to digital conversion board for the Macintosh. The color displays and functionality were developed using National Instruments` LabView environment. Because the price of PCs has been decreasing rapidly and their capabilities increasing, this system is far less expensive than an eight-channel storage oscilloscope. As a flexible combination of PC and software, the system also provides much more capability than a dedicated oscilloscope, acting as the neutral beam coordinator`s logbook, recording comments and availability statistics. Data such as shot number and neutral beam parameters are obtained over the local network from other computers and added to the display. Waveforms are easily archived to disk for future recall. Details of the implementation will be discussed along with samples of the displays and a description of the system`s function and capabilities.

  6. Atom beams split by gentle persuasion

    SciTech Connect

    Pool, R.

    1994-02-25

    Two different research teams have taken a big step toward atom interferometry. They have succeeded in splitting atomic beams by using atoms in spin states that neither absorb nor reemit laser light. By proper adjustment of experimental conditions, atoms are changed from one spin state to another, without passing through the intermediary excited state. The atoms in essence absorb momentum from the laser photons, without absorption or emission of photons. The change in momentum deflects atoms in the proper spin state.

  7. Performance of single qubit gates in an array of neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Kumar, Aishwarya; Zhang, Xianli; Corcovilos, Theodore A.; Weiss, David S.

    2015-05-01

    We have demonstrated arbitrary single qubit gates on neutral atoms trapped in a 5 ×5 ×5 3D optical lattice. We will describe two types of gates, both based on a combination of Stark-shifting target atoms with crossed optical beams and microwave pulses. Our poster will discuss gate quality, gate times, scalability issues and cross talk. Supported by DARPA, QUEST and ARO.

  8. A microwave plasma cathode electron gun for ion beam neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusellier, C.; Wartski, L.; Aubert, J.; Schwebel, C.; Coste, Ph.; Chabrier, A.

    1998-02-01

    It is well known that there exist two distinct types of ion beam neutralization, viz., charge and current neutralization. We have designed and studied a versatile and compact microwave plasma (MP) cathode electron gun dedicated to charge as well as current neutralization. Unlike the conventional hot cathode neutralizer, this MP cathode allows operation of the electron gun in a reactive gaseous environment when it is eventually associated with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion gun. Charge neutralization can be easily carried out by extracting from the MP cathode through a 1 mm diameter hole, a 35 mA electron beam under a 20 V voltage; the MP cathode being fed with a 75 W microwave power at 2.45 GHz. Higher beam intensities could be obtained using a multiaperture thin plate. Electron beam intensities as high as 300 mA and energies of 2 keV needed for current neutralization, e.g., when an ion beam impinges onto a thick dielectric surface, are obtained via a two-stage arrangement including an anodic chamber associated with a set of three monoaperture plates for the electron beam extraction. Transport of 200-2000 eV electron beams is ensured using focusing optics composed of three aligned tubes 6 cm in diameter and unsymmetrically polarized.

  9. Demonstration of a Neutral Atom Controlled-NOT Quantum Gate

    SciTech Connect

    Isenhower, L.; Urban, E.; Zhang, X. L.; Gill, A. T.; Henage, T.; Johnson, T. A.; Walker, T. G.; Saffman, M.

    2010-01-08

    We present the first demonstration of a CNOT gate between two individually addressed neutral atoms. Our implementation of the CNOT uses Rydberg blockade interactions between neutral atoms held in optical traps separated by >8 {mu}m. Using two different gate protocols we measure CNOT fidelities of F=0.73 and 0.72 based on truth table probabilities. The gate was used to generate Bell states with fidelity F=0.48+-0.06. After correcting for atom loss we obtain an a posteriori entanglement fidelity of F=0.58.

  10. Automation of neutral beam source conditioning with artificial intelligence techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.R.; Canales, T.W.; Lager, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a system that automates neutral beam source conditioning. The system achieves this with artificial intelligence techniques. The architecture of the system is presented followed by a description of its performance.

  11. Neutralization of a fast negative-ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Mowat, J.R.; Stearns, J.W.; Gohil, P.; Pyle, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    Neutralization of a fast negative-ion beam, primarily H/sup -/, is discussed in terms of competing one- and two-electron detachment processes in a variety of media: gas (vapor), plasma, liquid sheet, solid foil.

  12. AC electric trapping of neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marian, Adela; Schlunk, Sophie; Schoellkopf, Wieland; Meijer, Gerard

    2008-05-01

    We have demonstrated trapping of ultracold ground-state ^87Rb atoms in a macroscopic ac electric trap [1]. Trapping by ac electric fields has been previously achieved for polar molecules [2], as well as Sr atoms on a chip [3], and recently for Rb atoms in a three-phase electric trap [4]. Similar to trapping of ions in a Paul trap, three-dimensional confinement in an ac electric trap is obtained by switching between two saddle-point configurations of the electric field. For the first time, this dynamic confinement is directly visualized with absorption images taken at different phases of the ac switching cycle. Stable electric trapping is observed in a narrow range of switching frequencies around 60 Hz, in agreement with trajectory calculations. In a typical experiment, about 3 x 10^5 Rb atoms are trapped with lifetimes on the order of 9 s and trap depths of about 10 μK. Additionally, we show that the atoms can be used to sensitively probe the electric fields in the trap by imaging the cloud while the fields are still on. References: 1. S. Schlunk et al., PRL 98, 223002 (2007) 2. H. L. Bethlem et al., PRA 74, 063403 (2006) 3. T. Kishimoto et al., PRL 96, 123001 (2006) 4. T. Rieger et al., PRL 99, 063001 (2007)

  13. Feedback Cooling of a Single Neutral Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Markus; Sames, Christian; Kubanek, Alexander; Apel, Matthias; Balbach, Maximilian; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Rempe, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate feedback cooling of the motion of a single rubidium atom trapped in a high-finesse optical resonator to a temperature of about 160μK. Time-dependent transmission and intensity-correlation measurements prove the reduction of the atomic position uncertainty. The feedback increases the 1/e storage time into the 1 s regime, 30 times longer than without feedback. Feedback cooling therefore rivals state-of-the-art laser cooling, but with the advantages that it requires less optical access and exhibits less optical pumping.

  14. Sawtooth stability in neutral beam heated plasmas in TEXTOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, I. T.; Pinches, S. D.; Koslowski, H. R.; Liang, Y.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; TEXTOR Team; de Bock, M.

    2008-03-01

    The experimental sawtooth behaviour in neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas in TEXTOR is described. It is found that the sawtooth period is minimized with a low NBI power oriented in the same direction as the plasma current. As the beam power is increased in the opposite direction to the plasma current, the sawtooth period increases to a maximum before it begins to shorten once more. Results from both magnetohydrodynamic stability modelling including toroidal flows and modelling of the kinetic effects of the fast ions resulting from NBI heating are also presented. This model combining the gyroscopic and kinetic effects upon the stability of the n = 1 internal kink mode—thought to be associated with sawtooth oscillations—qualitatively recovers the sawtooth behaviour exhibited in the experiment. It is proposed that the sawtooth period is minimized in the co-NBI direction at the point at which the stabilization of the kink mode due to rotation is weakest. This occurs when the plasma rotation induced by the NBI balances the intrinsic rotation of the plasma. The sawtooth behaviour in the counter-NBI regime is attributed to a subtle balance of the competing stabilization from the toroidal rotation and destabilization from the presence of energetic ions.

  15. Neutral atomic carbon in dense molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.; Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.; Goldhaber, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    The 370 micron 3P2-3P1 fine-structure line of neutral carbon was detected in seven sources: OMC 1, NGC 2024, S140, W3, DR 21, M17, and W51. Simultaneous analysis of J = 2-1 data and available observations of the J = 1-0 line make it possible to deduce optical depths and excitation temperatures for these lines. These data indicate that both C I lines are likely to be optically thin, and that the ratio of C I to CO column densities in these clouds is typically about 0.1.

  16. Neutral beam species measurements using in situ Rutherford backscatter spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.; Gammel, G.; Williams, M.D.

    1984-12-01

    This work describes a new in situ method for measuring the neutral particle fractions in high power deuterium neutral beams, used to heat magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Deuterium beams, of variable energies, pulse lengths, and powers up to 47 keV, 100 msec, 1.6 MW, were Rutherford backscattered at 135/sup 0/ from TiC inner neutral beam armor of the PDX, and detected using an electrostatic analyzer with microchannel plates. Complete energy scans were made every 20 msec and data were obtained simultaneously from five different positions across the beam profile. The neutral particle fractions were measured to be D/sup 0/(E):D/sup 0/(E/2):D/sup 0/(E/3)=53:32:15. The corresponding neutral power fractions were P/sup 0/(E):P/sup 0/(E/2):P/sup 0/(E/3)=72:21:7, and the associated ionic fractions at the output of the ion source were D/sub 1//sup +/(E):D/sub 2//sup +/(E):D/sub 3//sup +/(E)=74:20:6. The measured neutral particle fractions were relatively constant over more than 70% of the beam power distribution. A decrease in the yield of the full energy component in the outer regions of the beam was observed. Other possible experimental configurations and geometries are discussed.

  17. Studies on Beam Formation in an Atomic Beam Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nass, A.; Steffens, E.; Stancari, M.

    2009-08-04

    Atomic beam sources (ABS) are widely used workhorses producing polarized atomic beams for polarized gas targets and polarized ion sources. Although they have been used for decades the understanding of the beam formation processes is crude. Models were used more or less successfully to describe the measured intensity and beam parameters. ABS's are also foreseen for future experiments, such as PAX [1]. An increase of intensity at a high polarization would be beneficial. A direct simulation Monte-Carlo method (DSMC)[2] was used to describe the beam formation of a hydrogen or deuterium beam in an ABS. For the first time a simulation of a supersonic gas expansion on a molecular level for this application was performed. Beam profile and Time-of-Flight measurements confirmed the simulation results. Furthermore a new method of beam formation was tested, the Carrier Jet method [3], based on an expanded beam surrounded by an over-expanded carrier jet.

  18. Loss cone boundary measurement using diagnostic neutral beam and neutral particle analyzer in a compact helical system

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, H.; Ida, K.; Okamura, S.; Isobe, M.; Akiyama, R.; Yoshimura, Y.

    2004-10-01

    A horizontally scannable diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) has been installed on the compact helical system (CHS) in order to study the confinement of energetic ions with different pitch angles by varying the injection angle. The DNB has been designed to provide energetic ions as a test particle source with (1) no heating to background plasma and (2) small divergence angle. A charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer (NPA) to measure energetic ions injected by the DNB is also scannable and varies the observation angle on the equatorial plane in CHS. A combination of horizontally scannable DNB and NPA provides information on whether the energetic ions with different pitch angle are confined in the plasma or immediately lost. The experimental results are consistent with the prediction of single particle full orbit calculation in CHS.

  19. Modeling and simulation of a beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic for the ITER prototype neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Barbisan, M. Zaniol, B.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2014-11-15

    A test facility for the development of the neutral beam injection system for ITER is under construction at Consorzio RFX. It will host two experiments: SPIDER, a 100 keV H{sup −}/D{sup −} ion RF source, and MITICA, a prototype of the full performance ITER injector (1 MV, 17 MW beam). A set of diagnostics will monitor the operation and allow to optimize the performance of the two prototypes. In particular, beam emission spectroscopy will measure the uniformity and the divergence of the fast particles beam exiting the ion source and travelling through the beam line components. This type of measurement is based on the collection of the H{sub α}/D{sub α} emission resulting from the interaction of the energetic particles with the background gas. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the spectrum of the collected emissions in order to design this diagnostic and to study its performance. The paper describes the model at the base of the simulations and presents the modeled H{sub α} spectra in the case of MITICA experiment.

  20. Quantum Network of Atom Clocks: A Possible Implementation with Neutral Atoms.

    PubMed

    Kómár, P; Topcu, T; Kessler, E M; Derevianko, A; Vuletić, V; Ye, J; Lukin, M D

    2016-08-01

    We propose a protocol for creating a fully entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state of neutral atoms in spatially separated optical atomic clocks. In our scheme, local operations make use of the strong dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg excitations, which give rise to fast and reliable quantum operations involving all atoms in the ensemble. The necessary entanglement between distant ensembles is mediated by single-photon quantum channels and collectively enhanced light-matter couplings. These techniques can be used to create the recently proposed quantum clock network based on neutral atom optical clocks. We specifically analyze a possible realization of this scheme using neutral Yb ensembles. PMID:27541452

  1. Quantum Network of Atom Clocks: A Possible Implementation with Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kómár, P.; Topcu, T.; Kessler, E. M.; Derevianko, A.; Vuletić, V.; Ye, J.; Lukin, M. D.

    2016-08-01

    We propose a protocol for creating a fully entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state of neutral atoms in spatially separated optical atomic clocks. In our scheme, local operations make use of the strong dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg excitations, which give rise to fast and reliable quantum operations involving all atoms in the ensemble. The necessary entanglement between distant ensembles is mediated by single-photon quantum channels and collectively enhanced light-matter couplings. These techniques can be used to create the recently proposed quantum clock network based on neutral atom optical clocks. We specifically analyze a possible realization of this scheme using neutral Yb ensembles.

  2. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established ˜5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. It is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.

  3. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-27

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15V before neutralization to 0.3 V,more » implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established similar to –5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-mu s surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of mu s after the high voltage pulse is applied. Lastly, it is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.« less

  4. Development of francium atomic beam for the search of the electron electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tomoya; Ando, S.; Aoki, T.; Arikawa, H.; Ezure, S.; Harada, K.; Hayamizu, T.; Inoue, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Itoh, M.; Kato, K.; Kato, T.; Kawamura, H.; Nataraj, H. S.; Uchiyama, A.; Aoki, T.; Furukawa, T.; Hatakeyama, A.; Hatanaka, K.; Imai, K.; Murakami, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Wakasa, T.; Yoshida, H. P.; Sakemi, Y.

    2014-03-01

    For the measurement of the electron electric dipole moment using Fr atoms, a Fr ion-atom conversion is one of the most critical process. An ion-atom converter based on the "orthotropic" type of Fr source has been developed. This converter is able to convert a few keV Fr ion beam to a thermal atomic beam using a cycle of the surface ionization and neutralization. In this article, the development of the converter is reported.

  5. Association of Energetic Neutral Atom Bursts and Magnetospheric Substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, A. M.; Kepko, L.; Henderson, M. G.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Sigwarth, J. B.; Frank, L. A.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present evidence that short-lived bursts of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) observed with the Comprehensive Energetic Particle and Pitch Angle Distribution/Imaging Proton Spectrometer (CEPPAD/IPS) instrument on the Polar spacecraft are signatures of substorms. The IPS was designed primarily to measure ions in situ, with energies between 17.5 and 1500 keV. However, it has also proven to be a very capable ENA imager in the range 17.5 keV to a couple hundred keV. It was expected that some ENA signatures of the storm time ring current would be observed. Interestingly, IPS also routinely measures weaker, shorter-lived, and more spatially confined bursts of ENAs with duration from a few tens of minutes to a few hours and appearing once or twice a day. One of these bursts was quickly associated with magnetospheric and auroral substorm activity and has been reported in the literature [Henderson et al., 19971. In this paper we characterize ENA bursts observed from Polar and establish statistically their association with classic substorm signatures (global auroral onsets, electron and ion injections, AL drops, and Pi2 onsets). We conclude that -90% of the observed ENA bursts are associated with classic substorms and thus represent a new type of substorm signature.

  6. How to Test Atom and Neutron Neutrality with Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A.; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark

    2008-03-28

    We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{sup -28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{sup -28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds.

  7. How to test atom and neutron neutrality with atom interferometry.

    PubMed

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark

    2008-03-28

    We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{-28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{-28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds. PMID:18517846

  8. Testing Atom and Neutron Neutrality with Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A.; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-01-07

    We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{sup -28} e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{sup 28} e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds.

  9. Observation of Doppler-shifted T{alpha} emission from TFTR tritium neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Grisham, L.R.; Lagin, L.J.; O`Connor, T.E.; Newman, R.A.; Stevenson, T.N.; von Halle, A.; Wright, K.E.

    1994-06-01

    195 tritium ion source shots were injected into TFTR high power plasmas during December 1993--March 1994. In addition, four highly diagnosed pulses were fired into the calorimeter. Analysis of the Doppler-shifted T{alpha} emission of the beam in the neutralizer has revealed that the extracted ion composition for deuterium and tritium are indistinguishable: 0.72{plus_minus}0.04 D{sup +}, 0.22{plus_minus}0.02 D{sub 2}{sup +}, 0.07{plus_minus}0.01 D{sub 3}{sup +} compared to 0.72{plus_minus}0.04 T{sup +}, 0.23{plus_minus}0.02 T{sub 2}{sup +}, 0.05{plus_minus}0.01 T{sub 3}{sup +}. The resultant tritium full-energy neutral fraction is higher than for deuterium due the increased neutralization efficiency at lower velocity. To conserve tritium, it was used only for injection and a few calorimeter test shots, never for ion source conditioning. When used, the gas species was switched to tritium only for the shot in question. This resulted in an approximately 2% deuterium contamination of the tritium beam and vice versa for the first deuterium pulse following tritium. Data from the calorimeter shots indicates that tritium contamination of the deuterium beam cleans up in 5--6 beam pulses, and is reduced to immeasurable quantities prior to deuterium beam injection.

  10. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited).

    PubMed

    Kraus, W; Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Fröschle, M; Heinemann, B; Riedl, R; Wünderlich, D

    2012-02-01

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions. PMID:22380261

  11. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Wuenderlich, D.

    2012-02-15

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions.

  12. Low activation energy, high-quality oxidation of Si and Ge using neutral beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Akira; Endo, Kazuhiko; Masahara, Meishoku; Huang, Chi-Hsien; Samukawa, Seiji

    2011-05-01

    In this letter, we investigated the mechanism that forms thin silicon and germanium oxide films with a high-quality interface using a low-temperature neutral beam oxidation (NBO) process. Because NBO has high reactivity due to bombardment by energetic oxygen-neutral beams even at low substrate temperatures, we found that an extremely low activation energy for the atomic layer oxidation reaction could be achieved during the process itself. As a result, there was little suboxide at the interface between the oxide films and the semiconductor, and device characteristics with a high performance were observed.

  13. Progress in computer-assisted diagnosis and control of neutral beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Theil, E.; Elischer, V.; Fiddler, J.; Jacobs, N.J.D.; Jacobson, V.; Lawhorn, R.; Uber, D.; Wilner, D.

    1980-09-01

    This paper discusses the principles that have guided the development of a computerized diagnostic and control system for both the Neutral Beam Systems Test Facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the Doublet III neutral beams at the General Atomic Company. The emphasis is not on the particular details of the implementation, but on general considerations which have influenced the design criteria for the system. Foremost among these are the requirements of an appropriate human interface to the system, and effective use of a relational data base. Examples are used to illustrate how these principles are carried out in practice. A systems view of diagnostic programs is suggested in the light of our experience.

  14. Plasma effects of active ion beam injections in the ionosphere at rocket altitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoldy, R. L.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.; Kintner, P. M.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Data from ARCS rocket ion beam injection experiments are primarily discussed. There are three results from this series of active experiments that are of particular interest in space plasma physics. These are the transverse acceleration of ambient ions in the large beam volume, the scattering of beam ions near the release payload, and the possible acceleration of electrons very close to the plasma generator which produce intense high frequency waves. The ability of 100 ma ion beam injections into the upper E and F regions of the ionosphere to produce these phenomena appear to be related solely to the process by which the plasma release payload and the ion beam are neutralized. Since the electrons in the plasma release do not convect with the plasma ions, the neutralization of both the payload and beam must be accomplished by large field-aligned currents (milliamperes/square meter) which are very unstable to wave growth of various modes.

  15. Fokker-Planck/Transport model for neutral beam driven tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.; Mirin, A.A.; McCoy, M.G.

    1980-01-01

    The application of nonlinear Fokker-Planck models to the study of beam-driven plasmas is briefly reviewed. This evolution of models has led to a Fokker-Planck/Transport (FPT) model for neutral-beam-driven Tokamaks, which is described in detail. The FPT code has been applied to the PLT, PDX, and TFTR Tokamaks, and some representative results are presented.

  16. Negative ion based neutral beam injector for JT-60U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Araki, M.; Hanada, M.; Inoue, T.; Kunieda, S.; Kuriyama, M.; Matsuoka, M.; Mizuno, M.; Ohara, Y.; Tanaka, M.; Watanabe, K.

    1992-10-01

    A 500 keV, 10 MW neutral beam injector is to be constructed in JT-60 Upgrade for the experiments of current drive and heating of heat density core plasmas. This is the first neutral beam injector in the world using negative ions as the primary ions. In the design, D- ion beams of 44 A, 500 keV are produced by two ion sources (22 A/each ion source) and neutralized in a long gas neutralizer. The total system efficiency is about 40%. The ion source is a cesium-seeded multicusp volume source having a three stage electrostatic accelerator. To reduce the stripping loss of D- ions in the accelerator, the ion source should be operated at a low pressure of 0.3 Pa with a current density of 13 mA/cm2. The first test of the full-size negative ion source is scheduled from middle of 1993.

  17. Anisotropy of the energetic neutral atom flux in the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruntman, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the energetic neutral atoms born at the heliospheric interface are considered for plasma flow structure resulting from a two-shock model of the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. The energy distributions of heliospheric energetic neutral atoms (HELENAs) are calculated and it is shown that the HELENA flux is highly anisotropic at the earth's orbit. The characteristics of the HELENA flux are highly sensitive to the size of the heliosphere. This supports the conclusion that measurements of HELENAs from the earth's orbit would provide an efficient tool to remotely study the heliosphere.

  18. Universal gates based on targeted phase shifts in a 3D neutral atom array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aishwarya; Wang, Yang; Wu, Tsung-Yao; Weiss, David

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to making targeted single qubit gates using Cesium atoms in a 5x5x5 3D neutral atom array. It combines targeted AC Zeeman phase shifts with global microwave pulses to produce arbitrary single qubit gates. Non-targeted atoms are left virtually untouched by the gates. We have addressed 48 sites, targeted individually, in a 40% full array. We have also performed Randomized Benchmarking to characterize the fidelity and crosstalk errors of this gate. These gates are highly insensitive to addressing beam imperfections and can be applied to other systems and geometries. Supported by NSF.

  19. Effective Electron Beam Injection With Broad Energy Initial Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J.H.; Hubbard, R.F.; Gordon, D.F.; Ting, A.; Sprangle, P.; Zigler, A.

    2004-12-07

    Laser Wakefield Accelerators (LWFA), in the resonant regime, require use of an injected electron beam. Several optical methods for generating electron bunches exist e.g., Laser Ionization and Ponderomotive Acceleration (LIPA) and Self-Modulated LWFA among others. Each of these schemes produces an electron bunch with a characteristic energy distribution. We examine the trapping characteristics in a resonant LWFA for an injection electron beam with a broad energy spread that can be characterized using a Boltzmann distribution with an 'effective temperature'. We present results of both analytic calculations and simulations which provide a methodology for optimizing the resulting accelerated electron bunch characteristics i.e., energy and energy spread, for a given LWFA configuration.

  20. Traps for neutral atoms. Annual summary report, 1 September 1987-31 August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.E.

    1989-06-07

    The author concentrated on radio-frequency resonance experiments on magnetically trapped neutral atoms. R.F. resonance of trapped atoms is valuable for at least three reasons: as a high-resolution diagnostic of the atoms' individual and collective behavior, as a tool to selectively manipulate the magnetic quantum states of the trapped atoms, and potentially for ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy of isolated atomic systems. Following the successful demonstration of r.f. induced transitions on trapped neutral atoms, he proceeded to increase the number (approx. x 10{sup 10}) and confinement time (tau{sub 1/e} = 30 minutes) of trapped sodium atoms so that he had sufficient signal to time to perform r.f. resonance measurements as a diagnostic of the effects of Doppler cooling on the atoms' energy distribution. An r.f. resonance curve for a hyperfine transition was obtained by measuring the relative peak heights of the fluoresence spectrum for the two states as function of the frequency of the applied r.f. resonance curve for 'hot' atoms (after initial loading of the trap) were much wider than that of 'cool' atoms after application of longitudinal Doppler cooling. The author found that Doppler cooling of the sample required a very weak standing wave laser beam to avoid excess heating of the transverse degree of freedom.

  1. Long Range Interactions With Laser Cooled Neutral Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gattobigio, Giovanni Luca; Michaud, Franck; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Kaiser, Robin; Loureiro, Jorge; Mendonca, Jose Tito; Tercas, Hugo; Pohl, Thomas

    2008-09-07

    Multiple scattering of light in a trap of laser cooled neutral atoms leads to repulsion forces between the atoms. The corresponding interactions have long range behavior in 1/r{sup 2} and are thus similar to Coulomb interaction in an one component confined plasma. Consequences of these interactions will be described in this paper, including the limitation of the spatial density one can obtain in such systems and self-sustained oscillations of the cloud.

  2. Deterministic entanglement of two neutral atoms via Rydberg blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Isenhower, L.; Gill, A. T.; Walker, T. G.; Saffman, M.

    2010-09-15

    We demonstrate the deterministic entanglement of two individually addressed neutral atoms using a Rydberg blockade mediated controlled-not gate. Parity oscillation measurements reveal a Bell state fidelity of F=0.58{+-}0.04, which is above the entanglement threshold of F=0.5, without any correction for atom loss, and F=0.71{+-}0.05 after correcting for background collisional losses. The fidelity results are shown to be in good agreement with a detailed error model.

  3. Facility for intense diagnostic neutral beam (IDNB) development

    SciTech Connect

    Kasik, R.J.; Hinckley, W.B.; Bartsch, R.R.; Rej, D.J.; Henins, I.; Greenly, J.B.

    1993-08-01

    An intense, pulsed neutral beam source is under development for use as a probe beam on hot, burning plasmas such as in the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) which is presently in the planning stage. A pulsed, neutral hydrogen beam of 10s of kilo amperes of current can have an alpha particle, charge-exchange-recombination-spectroscopy (alpha-CHERS) signal-to-noise ratio of {approximately} 10. This beam would allow the measurement, on a single pulse of a few hundred nanoseconds duration, of the local alpha particle distribution function as well as other features of the tokamak plasma such as current density profile, impurity density, and microturbulence spectrum. The cross-sections for the CHERS diagnostic dictate operation with proton energies greater than {approximately}50keV. A pulsed neutral hydrogen source of this voltage and intensity can be achieved by neutralizing the ion flux from a magnetized ion-diode. The cross-sections for attachment and stripping, when coupled with scaling from Child-Langmiur, space-charge-limited, ion-current flow imply operation below - 100keV for maximum neutral fluence. The development of a flashover-anode, ion source for forthcoming evaluation of a neutralizing section is described below. This source operates in the accelerator voltage range 70 to 100keV. Eventually, the flashover-anode, magnetized ion-diode will be replaced with a plasma-anode, magnetized ion-diode.

  4. Neutral Atom Imaging of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, A.; Plainaki, C.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Barabash, S.; Leoni, R.; Selci, S.; Dandouras, I.; Kallio, E.; Wurz, P.; De Angelis, A.

    2012-04-01

    In many planetary environments of the solar system (Mercury, Moon, icy satellites, and more), direct solar wind precipitation results in neutral particle release via ion-sputtering (IS) process, as well as plasma reflection and neutralization (Backscattering, BS). In particular, solar wind sputtering is one of the most important agents for the surface erosion of a near-Earth asteroid (NEA), acting together with other surface release processes, such as photon stimulated desorption, thermal desorption and micrometeoroid impact vaporization. Detection and analysis of high-energy sputtered atoms gives important information on surface-loss processes as well as on surface elemental composition. RAMON (Released Atoms and Ions MONitor) proposed as payload for the MarcoPolo-R Mission, consists of two neutral atom sensors and an ion monitor: 1) SHEAMON (Sputtered High-Energy Atoms MONitor) will investigate the ion-sputtering and backscattering process by detecting neutral atoms between ~10 eV and ~3 keV and determining their direction and velocity; 2) GASP (GAs SPectrometer) will analyse the mass of the low-energy (below 10 eV) neutral atoms released by different surface processes; 3) MIM (Miniaturized Ion Monitor) will measure the flux and energy spectra of precipitating and backscattered solar wind protons, which originate the Ion Sputtering and Backscattering processes investigated by SHEAMON. By combining the measurements made by all three units, RAMON experiment will investigate on a) the processes happening on the surface of the NEA as a result of its exposure to space environment and collisions, b) the role of the surface release processes in the body evolution, c) the surface mineralogy and chemistry, derived from the composition of the released material, d) the magnitude of the erosion due to space weathering, e) the efficiency of each process as a function of environment conditions, and f) the possible non-uniform over the surface efficiency in particle release

  5. Results and analysis of the TMX electron-beam injection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, P.; Grubb, D.P.

    1980-08-01

    Electron beams (e-beams) were injected into the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX) plasma in order to investigate the effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations of the plasma. The power level of the e-beams was comparable to that of the injected neutral beams. It was found that injection of the e-beams produced no significant effect on the ion cyclotron fluctuations, the measured plasma parameters, or the particle and power flow of the plasma. The increase in bulk electron temperature and the production of mirror-confined electrons found in previous experiments in which e-beams were injected into a mirror-confined plasma were not observed in this experiment. Analysis of the regions and frequencies of wave creation and absorption within the plasma shows that the plasma density and magnetic field profiles through the plasma strongly affect the resonances encountered by the waves. The steep axial density profiles produced by neutral-beam injection in the TMX experiment are not conducive to efficient coupling of the e-beam energy to the plasma.

  6. Electron beam injection during active experiments. II - Collisional effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    During active beam experiments, the presence of high neutral densities at low altitudes and/or during thruster firings has been observed to modify the spacecraft charging and the properties of the beam. Two-dimensional (three-velocity) electromagnetic particle simulations with ionizing collisions incorporated are used to investigate the modification of the beam-plasma interaction as the neutral density is increased. It is shown that when the spacecraft is uniformly immersed in a neutral cloud, most of the ionization is produced by direct ionization by the beam and its secondaries, rather than via vehicle-induced or wave-induced ionization for the neutral densities considered.

  7. Etching Semiconductors With Beams Of Reactive Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K.; Giapis, Konstantinos P.; Moore, Teresa A.

    1995-01-01

    Method of etching semiconductors with energetic beams of electrically neutral, but chemically reactive, species undergoing development. Enables etching of straight walls into semiconductor substrates at edges of masks without damage to underlying semiconductor material. In addition to elimination of charge damage, technique reduces substrate bombardment damage because translational energy of neutral species in range 2-12 eV, below damage threshold of many semiconductor materials. Furthermore, low-energy neutrals cause no mask erosion allowing for etching features with very high aspect ratios.

  8. Effects of MHD instabilities on neutral beam current drive

    SciTech Connect

    Podestà, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; White, R. B.

    2015-04-17

    One of the primary tools foreseen for heating, current drive (CD) and q-profile control in future fusion reactors such as ITER and a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility is the neutral beam injection (NBI). However, fast ions from NBI may also provide the drive for energetic particle-driven instabilities (e.g. Alfvénic modes (AEs)), which in turn redistribute fast ions in both space and energy, thus hampering the control capabilities and overall efficiency of NB-driven current. Based on experiments on the NSTX tokamak (M. Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557), the effects of AEs and other low-frequency magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities on NB-CD efficiency are investigated. When looking at the new fast ion transport model, which accounts for particle transport in phase space as required for resonant AE perturbations, is utilized to obtain consistent simulations of NB-CD through the tokamak transport code TRANSP. It is found that instabilities do indeed reduce the NB-driven current density over most of the plasma radius by up to ~50%. Moreover, the details of the current profile evolution are sensitive to the specific model used to mimic the interaction between NB ions and instabilities. Finally, implications for fast ion transport modeling in integrated tokamak simulations are briefly discussed.

  9. Effects of MHD instabilities on neutral beam current drive

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Podestà, M.; Gorelenkova, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; White, R. B.

    2015-04-17

    One of the primary tools foreseen for heating, current drive (CD) and q-profile control in future fusion reactors such as ITER and a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility is the neutral beam injection (NBI). However, fast ions from NBI may also provide the drive for energetic particle-driven instabilities (e.g. Alfvénic modes (AEs)), which in turn redistribute fast ions in both space and energy, thus hampering the control capabilities and overall efficiency of NB-driven current. Based on experiments on the NSTX tokamak (M. Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557), the effects of AEs and other low-frequency magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities on NB-CDmore » efficiency are investigated. When looking at the new fast ion transport model, which accounts for particle transport in phase space as required for resonant AE perturbations, is utilized to obtain consistent simulations of NB-CD through the tokamak transport code TRANSP. It is found that instabilities do indeed reduce the NB-driven current density over most of the plasma radius by up to ~50%. Moreover, the details of the current profile evolution are sensitive to the specific model used to mimic the interaction between NB ions and instabilities. Finally, implications for fast ion transport modeling in integrated tokamak simulations are briefly discussed.« less

  10. Cold-atom dynamics in crossed-laser-beam waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Torrontegui, E.; Muga, J. G.; Echanobe, J.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Guery-Odelin, D.

    2010-10-15

    We study the dynamics of neutral cold atoms in an L-shaped crossed-beam optical waveguide formed by two perpendicular red-detuned lasers of different intensities and a blue-detuned laser at the corner. The motion in one sense is optimized, and the motion in the other sense may be suppressed even if it is energetically allowed. Quantum and classical simulations are performed and give similar results. Complemented with a vibrational cooling process we find a range of parameters for which this setting works as a one-way device or 'atom diode'.

  11. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  12. Neutral atoms behave much like classical spherical capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenbogen, James C.

    2006-09-15

    The scaling of the capacitance with radius is explored in detail for neutral atoms, and it is found that they behave much like macroscopic spherical capacitors. The quantum capacitances of atoms scale as a linear function of the mean radii of their highest occupied orbitals. The slopes of the linear scaling lines include a dimensionless constant of proportionality {kappa} that is somewhat analogous to a dielectric constant, but for individual atoms. The slope and {kappa} assume discrete values characteristic of elements in different regions of the periodic table. These observations provide a different, electrostatics-based way of understanding the periodic behavior of the elements.

  13. Instrumentation system for long-pulse MFTF neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Risch, D.M.

    1981-09-30

    The instrumentation system for long pulse neutral beams for MFTFS consists of monitoring and protective circuitry. Global synchronization of high speed monitoring data across twenty-four neutral beams is achieved via an experiment wide fiber optic timing system. Fiber optics are also used as a means of isolating signals at elevated voltages. An excess current monitor, interrupt monitor, sparkdown detector, spot detector and gradient grid ratio detector form the primary protection for the neutral beam source. A unique hierarchical interlocking scheme allows other protective devices to be factored into the shutdown circuitry of the power supply so that the initiating cause of a shutdown can be isolated and even allows some non-critical devices to be safely ignored for a period of time.

  14. Hyperthermal neutral beam sources for material processing (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, S. J.; Kim, D. C.; Joung, M.; Kim, J. S.; Lee, B. J.; Oh, K. S.; Kim, K. U.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, Y. W.; Choi, S. W.; Son, H. J.; Park, Y. C.; Jang, J.-N.; Hong, M. P.

    2008-02-15

    Hyperthermal neutral beams have a great potential for material processes, especially for etching and thin film deposition for semiconductor and display fabrication as well as deposition for various thin film applications. Plasma-induced damage during plasma etching is a serious problem for manufacturing deep submicron semiconductor devices and is expected to be a problem for future nanoscale devices. Thermal and plasma-induced damage is also problematic for thin film depositions such as transparent conductive oxide films on organic light emitting diodes or flexible displays due to high temperature processes in plasma environments. These problems can be overcome by damage-free and low-temperature processes with hyperthermal neutral beams. We will present the status of the hyperthermal neutral beam development and the applications, especially, in semiconductor and display fabrication and introduce potential applications of thin film growing for optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes.

  15. Fast ground state manipulation of neutral atoms in microscopic optical traps.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, D D; Kulatunga, P B; Urban, E; Johnson, T A; Proite, N; Henage, T; Walker, T G; Saffman, M

    2006-02-17

    We demonstrate Rabi flopping at MHz rates between ground hyperfine states of neutral 87Rb atoms that are trapped in two micron sized optical traps. Using tightly focused laser beams we demonstrate high fidelity, site specific Rabi rotations with cross talk on neighboring sites separated by 8 microm at the level of 10(-3). Ramsey spectroscopy is used to measure a dephasing time of 870 micros, which is approximately 5000 longer than the time for a pi/2 pulse. PMID:16605988

  16. Laser cooling, trapping, and Rydberg spectroscopy of neutral holmium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetter, James Allen

    This thesis focuses on progress towards using ensembles of neutral holmium for use in quantum computing operations. We are particularly interested in using a switchable interaction between neutral atoms, the Rydberg blockade, to implement a universal set of quantum gates in a collective encoding scheme that presents many benefits over quantum computing schemes which rely on physically distinct qubits. We show that holmium is uniquely suited for operations in a collective encoding basis because it has 128 ground hyperfine states, the largest number of any stable, neutral atom. Holmium is a rare earth atom that is very poorly described for our purposes as it has never been cooled and trapped, its spectrum is largely unknown, and it presents several unique experimental challenges related to its complicated atomic structure and short wavelength transitions. We demonstrate important progress towards overcoming these challenges. We produce the first laser cooling and trapping of holmium into a MOT. Because we use a broad cooling transition, our cooling technique does not require the use of a Zeeman slower. Using MOT depletion spectroscopy, we provide precise measurements of holmium's Rydberg states and its ionization potential. Our work continues towards cooling holmium into a dipole trap by calculating holmium's AC polarizability and demonstrating the results of early attempts at an optical dipole trap. We provide details of future upgrades to the experimental apparatus and discuss interesting potential for using holmium in quantum computing using single atoms in a magnetically trapped lattice. This thesis shows several promising indicators for continued work in this field.

  17. Manipulating Neutral Atoms in Chip-Based Magnetic Traps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aveline, David; Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Yu, Nan; Kohel, James

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques for manipulating neutral atoms (more precisely, ultracold clouds of neutral atoms) in chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides have been demonstrated. Such traps and waveguides are promising components of future quantum sensors that would offer sensitivities much greater than those of conventional sensors. Potential applications include gyroscopy and basic research in physical phenomena that involve gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The developed techniques make it possible to control atoms with greater versatility and dexterity than were previously possible and, hence, can be expected to contribute to the value of chip-based magnetic traps and atomic waveguides. The basic principle of these techniques is to control gradient magnetic fields with suitable timing so as to alter a trap to exert position-, velocity-, and/or time-dependent forces on atoms in the trap to obtain desired effects. The trap magnetic fields are generated by controlled electric currents flowing in both macroscopic off-chip electromagnet coils and microscopic wires on the surface of the chip. The methods are best explained in terms of examples. Rather than simply allowing atoms to expand freely into an atomic waveguide, one can give them a controllable push by switching on an externally generated or a chip-based gradient magnetic field. This push can increase the speed of the atoms, typically from about 5 to about 20 cm/s. Applying a non-linear magnetic-field gradient exerts different forces on atoms in different positions a phenomenon that one can exploit by introducing a delay between releasing atoms into the waveguide and turning on the magnetic field.

  18. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam ChargeNeutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry; Davidson,Ronald C.; Yu, Simon; Waldron, William; Logan, B. Grant

    2005-10-01

    Plasmas are employed as a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length {approx} 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce one-meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being developed. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic, and high voltage ({approx} 1-5 kV) applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long has produced plasma densities of 5 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. The source was integrated into the previous Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX), and successfully charge neutralized the K{sup +} ion beam. Presently, the one-meter source is being fabricated. The source is being characterized and will be integrated into NDCX for charge neutralization experiments.

  19. Equilibrium and Stability Measurements via Neutral Beam Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinecke, E. A.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Olig, A. D.; Thorson, T. A.

    2000-10-01

    An optical neutral beam spectroscopy system is being designed to provide plasma density, local temperature, internal structure of large-scale MHD instabilities, and magnetic field structure for the PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment. Time resolved, spatially localized measurements of the plasma density are determined by the intensity gradient of the beam fluorescence. Ratios of line intensities of a helium beam provide the electron temperature profile. Spectrally resolved measurements of the charge-exchange recombination emission of impurities determine the local ion temperature. Plasma stability is studied with localized MHD measurements via the beam emission spectroscopy (BES) technique. Motional Stark broadening of deuterium beam emission provide the magnitude (mod-B) and direction of the total field by analyzing the amplitude and phase delay of an oscillating spectral linewidth driven by a rotating polarizer. Present efforts are focused on refurbishing the beam hardware (25 kV, 4 A) and exploring the feasibility of a compact pencil beam.

  20. Entangling two transportable neutral atoms via local spin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, A. M.; Lester, B. J.; Foss-Feig, M.; Wall, M. L.; Rey, A. M.; Regal, C. A.

    2015-11-01

    To advance quantum information science, physical systems are sought that meet the stringent requirements for creating and preserving quantum entanglement. In atomic physics, robust two-qubit entanglement is typically achieved by strong, long-range interactions in the form of either Coulomb interactions between ions or dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms. Although such interactions allow fast quantum gates, the interacting atoms must overcome the associated coupling to the environment and cross-talk among qubits. Local interactions, such as those requiring substantial wavefunction overlap, can alleviate these detrimental effects; however, such interactions present a new challenge: to distribute entanglement, qubits must be transported, merged for interaction, and then isolated for storage and subsequent operations. Here we show how, using a mobile optical tweezer, it is possible to prepare and locally entangle two ultracold neutral atoms, and then separate them while preserving their entanglement. Ground-state neutral atom experiments have measured dynamics consistent with spin entanglement, and have detected entanglement with macroscopic observables; we are now able to demonstrate position-resolved two-particle coherence via application of a local gradient and parity measurements. This new entanglement-verification protocol could be applied to arbitrary spin-entangled states of spatially separated atoms. The local entangling operation is achieved via spin-exchange interactions, and quantum tunnelling is used to combine and separate atoms. These techniques provide a framework for dynamically entangling remote qubits via local operations within a large-scale quantum register.

  1. Developing Density of Laser-Cooled Neutral Atoms and Molecules in a Linear Magnetic Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasquez, Joe, III; Walstrom, Peter; di Rosa, Michael

    2013-05-01

    In this poster we show that neutral particle injection and accumulation using laser-induced spin flips may be used to form dense ensembles of ultracold magnetic particles, i.e., laser-cooled paramagnetic atoms and molecules. Particles are injected in a field-seeking state, are switched by optical pumping to a field-repelled state, and are stored in the minimum-B trap. The analogous process in high-energy charged-particle accumulator rings is charge-exchange injection using stripper foils. The trap is a linear array of sextupoles capped by solenoids. Particle-tracking calculations and design of our linear accumulator along with related experiments involving 7Li will be presented. We test these concepts first with atoms in preparation for later work with selected molecules. Finally, we present our preliminary results with CaH, our candidate molecule for laser cooling. This project is funded by the LDRD program of Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  2. MHD Induced Neutral Beam Ion Loss from NSTX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, A.L. Roquemore, and K. Shinohara

    2007-12-13

    Bursts of ~60 kHz activity on Mirnov coils occur frequently in NSTX plasmas and these are accompanied by bursts of neutral beam ion loss over a range in pitch angles. These losses have been measured with a scintillator type loss probe imaged with a high speed (>10,000 frames/s) video camera, giving the evolution of the energy and pitch angle distributions of the lost neutral beam ions over the course of the events. The instability occurs below the TAE frequency in NSTX (~100 kHz) in high beta plasmas and may be a beta driven Alfvén acoustic (BAAE) mode.

  3. Method for producing an atomic oxygen beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Outlaw, Ronald A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing an atomic oxygen beam is provided by the present invention. First, a material 10' is provided which dissociates molecular oxygen and dissolves atomic oxygen into its bulk. Next, molecular oxygen is exposed to entrance surface 11' of material 10'. Next, material 10' is heated by heater 17' to facilitate the permeation of atomic oxygen through material 10' to the UHV side 12'. UHV side 12' is interfaced with an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) environment provided by UHV pump 15'. The atomic oxygen on the UHV side 12' is excited to a non-binding state by exciter 14' thus producing the release of atomic oxygen to form an atomic oxygen beam 35'.

  4. Entangling transportable neutral atoms via local spin-exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Adam; Lester, Brian; Luick, Niclas; Regal, Cindy

    2015-05-01

    Building on our recent work preparing indistinguishable atoms and performing an atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment, we now use these techniques to create controlled spin-entanglement between two neutral atoms. We demonstrate the full toolset for using local spin-exchange to create non-local entanglement. Starting with two spatially separated atoms, we controllably apply a tunnel-coupling to load the atoms into the same optical tweezer but in distinct motional states. By initially preparing the atoms in opposing spin-states, contact interactions between the atoms, along with their quantum statistics, yield entangling spin-swapping dynamics. We experimentally verify that upon separating the atoms subsequent to these dynamics, the entanglement achieved prior is retained. We will also present our recent realization of deterministic loading of 87Rb atoms into an optical tweezer via the techniques developed in Ref.; we achieve fast loading with up to 91% probability. In combination, these techniques demonstrate a novel platform using mobile optical tweezers for loading uniform atom arrays for quantum-information applications.

  5. Seeking to Improve Low Energy Neutral Atom Detection in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Herrero, F.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2007-01-01

    The detection of energetic neutral atoms allows for the remote examination of the interactions between plasmas and neutral populations in space. Before these neutral atoms can be measured, they must first be converted to ions. For the low energy end of this spectrum, interaction with a conversion surface is often the most efficient method to convert neutrals into ions. It is generally thought that the most efficient surfaces are low work functions materials. However, by their very nature, these surfaces are highly reactive and unstable, and therefore are not suitable for space missions where conditions cannot be controlled as they are in a laboratory. We therefore are looking to optimize a stable surface for conversion efficiency. Conversion efficiency can be increased either by changing the incident angle of the neutral particles to be grazing incidence and using stable surfaces with high conversion efficiencies. We have examined how to increase the angle of incidence from -80 degrees to -89 degrees, while maintaining or improving the total active conversion surface area without increasing the overall volume of the instrument. We are developing a method to micro-machine silicon, which will reduce the volume to surface area ratio by a factor of 60. We have also examined the material properties that affect the conversion efficiency of the surface for stable surfaces. Some of the parameters we have examined are work function, smoothness, and bond structure. We find that for stable surfaces, the most important property is the smoothness of the surface.

  6. Nonlinear theory of electron neutralization waves in ions beams with dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical theory of nonlinear neutralization waves generated by injection of electrons from a grid in the direction of a homogeneous ion beam of uniform velocity and infinite extension is presented. The electrons are assumed to interact with the ions through the self-consistent space charge field and by strong collective interactions, while diffusion in the pressure gradient is disregarded (zero-temperature approximation). The associated nonlinear boundary-value problem is solved in closed form by means of a von Mises transformation. It is shown that the electron gas moves into the ion space in the form of a discontinuous neutralization wave, which exhibits a periodic field structure (incomplete neutralization). This periodic wave structure is damped out by intercomponent momentum transfer - i.e., after a few relaxation lengths a quasi-neutral plasma results.

  7. Production of high brightness H- beam by charge exchange of hydrogen atom beam in sodium jet

    SciTech Connect

    Davydenko, V.; Zelenski, A.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.

    2010-11-16

    Production of H{sup -} beam for accelerators applications by charge exchange of high brightness hydrogen neutral beam in a sodium jet cell is experimentally studied in joint BNL-BINP experiment. In the experiment, a hydrogen-neutral beam with 3-6 keV energy, equivalent current up to 5 A and 200 microsecond pulse duration is used. The atomic beam is produced by charge exchange of a proton beam in a pulsed hydrogen target. Formation of the proton beam is performed in an ion source by four-electrode multiaperture ion-optical system. To achieve small beam emittance, the apertures in the ion-optical system have small enough size, and the extraction of ions is carried out from the surface of plasma emitter with a low transverse ion temperature of {approx}0.2 eV formed as a result of plasma jet expansion from the arc plasma generator. Developed for the BNL optically pumped polarized ion source, the sodium jet target with recirculation and aperture diameter of 2 cm is used in the experiment. At the first stage of the experiment H{sup -} beam with 36 mA current, 5 keV energy and {approx}0.15 cm {center_dot} mrad normalized emittance was obtained. To increase H{sup -} beam current ballistically focused hydrogen neutral beam will be applied. The effects of H{sup -} beam space-charge and sodium-jet stability will be studied to determine the basic limitations of this approach.

  8. SYSTEM DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE RECENT DIII-D NEUTRAL BEAM COMPUTER UPGRADE

    SciTech Connect

    PHILLIPS,J.C; PENAFLOR,B.G; PHAM,N.Q; PIGLOWSKI,D.A

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 This operating year marks an upgrade to the computer system charged with control and data acquisition for neutral beam injection system's heating at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, funded by the US Department of Energy and operated by General Atomics (GA). This upgrade represents the third and latest major revision to a system which has been in service over twenty years. The first control and data acquisition computers were four 16 bit mini computers running a proprietary operating system. Each of the four controlled two ion source over dedicated CAMAC highway. In a 1995 upgrade, the system evolved to be two 32 bit Motorola mini-computers running a version of UNIX. Each computer controlled four ion sources with two CAMAC highways per CPU. This latest upgrade builds on this same logical organization, but makes significant advances in cost, maintainability, and the degree to which the system is open to future modification. The new control and data acquisition system is formed of two 2 GHz Intel Pentium 4 based PC's, running the LINUX operating system. Each PC drives two CAMAC serial highways using a combination of Kinetic Systems PCI standard CAMAC Hardware Drivers and a low-level software driver written in-house expressly for this device. This paper discusses the overall system design and implementation detail, describing actual operating experience for the initial six months of operation.

  9. Single qubit gates on neutral atoms in a 3d Optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Aishwarya; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xianli; Corcovilos, Theodore A.; Weiss, David S.

    2015-05-01

    Neutral atoms are especially promising candidates for quantum computing because of their inherent scalability. To realize this scalability requires being able to manipulate the quantum information at target qubits with high fidelity and low crosstalk. We will present two single qubit gate addressing protocols. We have experimentally applied them both to targeted sites in a 5 × 5 × 5 3D array. The two distinct approaches both use crossed MEMS-mirror directed addressing beams along with microwave pulses to target atoms at single sites, while having minimal impact on the quantum information at non-target sites. Supported by DARPA, QUEST and ARO.

  10. Performance of positive ion based high power ion source of EAST neutral beam injector.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chundong; Xie, Yahong; Xie, Yuanlai; Liu, Sheng; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Jiang, Caichao; Li, Jun; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-02-01

    The positive ion based source with a hot cathode based arc chamber and a tetrode accelerator was employed for a neutral beam injector on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). Four ion sources were developed and each ion source has produced 4 MW @ 80 keV hydrogen beam on the test bed. 100 s long pulse operation with modulated beam has also been tested on the test bed. The accelerator was upgraded from circular shaped to diamond shaped in the latest two ion sources. In the latest campaign of EAST experiment, four ion sources injected more than 4 MW deuterium beam with beam energy of 60 keV into EAST. PMID:26932029

  11. A continuous cold atomic beam interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hongbo; Feng, Yanying Yan, Xueshu; Jiang, Zhikun; Chen, Shu; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhou, Zhaoying

    2015-03-07

    We demonstrate an atom interferometer that uses a laser-cooled continuous beam of {sup 87}Rb atoms having velocities of 10–20 m/s. With spatially separated Raman beams to coherently manipulate the atomic wave packets, Mach–Zehnder interference fringes are observed at an interference distance of 2L = 19 mm. The apparatus operates within a small enclosed area of 0.07 mm{sup 2} at a bandwidth of 190 Hz with a deduced sensitivity of 7.8×10{sup −5} rad/s/√(Hz) for rotations. Using a low-velocity continuous atomic source in an atom interferometer enables high sampling rates and bandwidths without sacrificing sensitivity and compactness, which are important for applications in real dynamic environments.

  12. National negative-ion-based neutral-beam development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, W.S.; Pyle, R.V.

    1983-08-01

    The plan covers facilities required, program milestones, and decision points. It includes identification of applications, experiments, theoretical research areas, development of specific technologies and reactor development and demonstration facilities required to bring about the successful application of negative-ion-based neutral beams. Particular emphasis is placed on those activities leading to use on existing plasma confinement experiments or their upgrades.

  13. Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II

    SciTech Connect

    1989-12-31

    The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.

  14. Cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays

    DOEpatents

    Kireev, Vassili [Sunnyvale, CA; Liu, Yun; Protopopescu, Vladimir [Knoxville, TN; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge, TN

    2008-10-21

    The invention provides a cascaded injection resonator for coherent beam combining of laser arrays. The resonator comprises a plurality of laser emitters arranged along at least one plane and a beam sampler for reflecting at least a portion of each laser beam that impinges on the beam sampler, the portion of each laser beam from one of the laser emitters being reflected back to another one of the laser emitters to cause a beam to be generated from the other one of the laser emitters to the beam reflector. The beam sampler also transmits a portion of each laser beam to produce a laser output beam such that a plurality of laser output beams of the same frequency are produced. An injection laser beam is directed to a first laser emitter to begin a process of generating and reflecting a laser beam from one laser emitter to another laser emitter in the plurality. A method of practicing the invention is also disclosed.

  15. Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II

    SciTech Connect

    1991-12-31

    We are requesting support for a postdoctoral person to participate in H{sup -} studies at Los Alamos. In addition, we are requesting funding for a state-of-the-art YAG laser system that would allow us to obtain data at three times our present rate with improved beam quality.

  16. Theory of direct scattering of neutral and charged atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, V.

    1979-01-01

    The theory for direct elastic and inelastic collisions between composite atomic systems formulated within the framework of the Glauber approximation is presented. It is shown that the phase-shift function is the sum of a point Coulomb contribution and of an expression in terms of the known electron-hydrogen-atom and proton-hydrogen-atom phase shift function. The scattering amplitude is reexpressed, the pure Coulomb scattering in the case of elastic collisions between ions is isolated, and the exact optical profile function is approximated by a first-order expansion in Glauber theory which takes into account some multiple collisions. The approximate optical profile function terms corresponding to interactions involving one and two electrons are obtained in forms of Meijer G functions and as a one-dimensional integral, and for collisions involving one or two neutral atoms, the scattering amplitude is further reduced to a simple closed-form expression.

  17. Magic Traps for Clock Transitions in Neutral Cesium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Alexander; Saffman, Mark

    2014-05-01

    In a system of trapped atoms errors in quantum gates and precision spectroscopy can arise from a differential shift in atomic transitions caused by gradients in the electric and magnetic fields. The thermal motion of an atom in a trap allows it to sample changes in these two fields resulting in a constantly shifting transition frequency. ``Magic'' traps minimize this source of noise by finding experimental conditions where the first-order sensitivity to gradients is nulled. We present refinements to calculations of the Zeeman and A.C. Stark Shift for qubit states in the ground hyperfine state manifold of neutral Cesium atoms. We follow this with a discussion of implications for traps insensitive to electric fields, magnetic fields or both simultaneously.

  18. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , {approximately} 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ``Sun-Earth Connections`` science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science.

  19. A New Instrument Design for Imaging Low Energy Neutral Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, John W.; Collier, Michael R.; Chornay, Dennis; Rozmarynowski, Paul; Getty, Stephanie; Cooper, John F.; Smith, Billy

    2007-01-01

    The MidSTAR-2 satellite, to be built at the US Naval Academy as a follow-on to the successful MidSTAR-1 satellite (http://web.ew.usna.edu/midstar/), will launch in 2011 and carry three Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) experiments developed under Goddard's Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program. One of these GSFC instruments, the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) builds on the heritage of the Goddard-developed Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in 2000. MINI-ME features a Venetian-blind conversion surface assembly that improves both light rejection and conversion efficiency in a smaller and lighter package than LENA making this an highly effective instrument for viewing solar wind charge exchange with terrestrial and planetary exospheres. We will describe the MINI-ME prototyping effort and its science targets.

  20. H sup minus beam characterization using laser-induced neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, V.W.; Garcia, R.; Johnson, K.F.; Saadatmand, K.; Sander, O.R.; Sandoval, D.; Shinas, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Laser-induced neutralization techniques, LINDA, is important as a noninterceptive diagnostic for quantitatively measuring beam emittance values. It is also valuable for its capability to characterize, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the performance and match of linac components. In this paper we present LINDA experimental results that show how the output beam of a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and drift-tube linac (DTL) combination changes with the variation of RFQ-DTL relative phase and of DTL cavity power. We also present results showing the effect of a longitudinal buncher on beam emissions. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Diagnostics of the ITER neutral beam test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Agostini, M.; Brombin, M.; Dalla Palma, M.; Gazza, E.; Pomaro, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Spolaore, M.; Zaniol, B.; Sonato, P.; De Muri, M.; Croci, G.; Gorini, G.

    2012-02-15

    The ITER heating neutral beam (HNB) injector, based on negative ions accelerated at 1 MV, will be tested and optimized in the SPIDER source and MITICA full injector prototypes, using a set of diagnostics not available on the ITER HNB. The RF source, where the H{sup -}/D{sup -} production is enhanced by cesium evaporation, will be monitored with thermocouples, electrostatic probes, optical emission spectroscopy, cavity ring down, and laser absorption spectroscopy. The beam is analyzed by cooling water calorimetry, a short pulse instrumented calorimeter, beam emission spectroscopy, visible tomography, and neutron imaging. Design of the diagnostic systems is presented.

  2. Impact of Planetary Gravitation on High Precision Neutral Atom Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharek, H.; Galli, A.; Wurz, P.; Moebius, E.; Lee, M. A.; Park, J.; Fuselier, S. A.; Bzowski, M.; Schwadron, N.; McComas, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) have been extremely successful in providing very important information on physical processes inside and outside our heliosphere. For instance, recent IBEX observations provided new insights into the local interstellar environment and improved measurements of the interstellar He temperature, velocity, and direction of the interstellar flow vector. Since particle collisions are rare and radiation pressure is negligible for these neutrals, gravitational forces mainly determine the trajectories of neutral He atoms. Depending on the distance of an ENA to the source of a gravitational field and its relative speed and direction this can result in a significant deflection and acceleration. In this presentation we study the impact of the gravitational effects of the Earth, Moon, and Jupiter on ENA measurements performed in Earth orbit. We show that planetary gravitational effects do not significantly affect the interstellar neutral gas parameters obtained from IBEX observations. We further study the possibility whether the He focusing cone of the Sun or Jupiter could be measured by IBEX, and whether these cones could be used as an independent measure of the interstellar He temperature. These topics are of particular importance for future missions such as IMAP, which will provide ENA images for a broader energy range and with better sensitivity and resolution.

  3. Cooling of cesium atomic beam with light from spectrally broadened diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yat; Bhaskar, Natarajan D.

    1995-12-01

    We have used spectrally broadened counterpropagating radiation from tunable diode lasers to cool an atomic beam of cesium. This produces a continuous beam of cold atoms. The injection current to the single-mode diode laser is modulated at 10 MHz, resulting in spectrally broadened light for atomic cooling and optical pumping. The atomic beam is probed with a weak single-mode laser. This is a simple and relatively inexpensive method for producing a continuous supply of cold atoms. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  4. Studies on space charge neutralization and emittance measurement of beam from microwave ion source.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anuraag; Goswami, A; Sing Babu, P; Srivastava, S; Pandit, V S

    2015-11-01

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source together with a beam transport system has been developed at VECC to study the problems related with the injection of high current beam into a compact cyclotron. This paper presents the results of beam profile measurement of high current proton beam at different degrees of space charge neutralisation with the introduction of neon gas in the beam line using a fine leak valve. The beam profiles have been measured at different pressures in the beam line by capturing the residual gas fluorescence using a CCD camera. It has been found that with space charge compensation at the present current level (∼5 mA at 75 keV), it is possible to reduce the beam spot size by ∼34%. We have measured the variation of beam profile as a function of the current in the solenoid magnet under the neutralised condition and used these data to estimate the rms emittance of the beam. Simulations performed using equivalent Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky beam envelope equations with space charge neutralization factor are also presented to interpret the experimental results. PMID:26628123

  5. Studies on space charge neutralization and emittance measurement of beam from microwave ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Anuraag; Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Srivastava, S.; Pandit, V. S. E-mail: vspandit12@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source together with a beam transport system has been developed at VECC to study the problems related with the injection of high current beam into a compact cyclotron. This paper presents the results of beam profile measurement of high current proton beam at different degrees of space charge neutralisation with the introduction of neon gas in the beam line using a fine leak valve. The beam profiles have been measured at different pressures in the beam line by capturing the residual gas fluorescence using a CCD camera. It has been found that with space charge compensation at the present current level (∼5 mA at 75 keV), it is possible to reduce the beam spot size by ∼34%. We have measured the variation of beam profile as a function of the current in the solenoid magnet under the neutralised condition and used these data to estimate the rms emittance of the beam. Simulations performed using equivalent Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky beam envelope equations with space charge neutralization factor are also presented to interpret the experimental results.

  6. A simulation study of interactions of space-shuttle generated electron beams with ambient plasma and neutral gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to conduct large scale simulations of electron beams injected into space. The study of the active injection of electron beams from spacecraft is important, as it provides valuable insight into the plasma beam interactions and the development of current systems in the ionosphere. However, the beam injection itself is not simple, being constrained by the ability of the spacecraft to draw current from the ambient plasma. The generation of these return currents is dependent on several factors, including the density of the ambient plasma relative to the beam density, the presence of neutrals around the spacecraft, the configuration of the spacecraft, and the motion of the spacecraft through the plasma. Two dimensional (three velocity) particle simulations with collisional processes included are used to show how these different and often coupled processes can be used to enhance beam propagation from the spacecraft. To understand the radial expansion mechanism of an electron beam injected from a highly charged spacecraft, two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations were conducted for a high density electron beam injected parallel to magnetic fields from an isolated equipotential conductor into a cold background plasma. The simulations indicate that charge build-up at the beam stagnation point causes the beam to expand radially to the beam electron gyroradius.

  7. Plasma neutralization models for intense ion beam transport in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; O'Rourke, Sean; Lee, Edward P.

    2003-05-01

    Plasma neutralization of an intense ion pulse is of interest for many applications, including plasma lenses, heavy ion fusion, cosmic ray propagation, etc. An analytical electron fluid model has been developed based on the assumption of long charge bunches (l{sub b} >> r{sub b}). Theoretical predictions are compared with the results of calculations utilizing a particle-in-cell (PIC) code. The cold electron fluid results agree well with the PIC simulations for ion beam propagation through a background plasma. The analytical predictions for the degree of ion beam charge and current neutralization also agree well with the results of the numerical simulations. The model predicts very good charge neutralization (>99%) during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration {tau}{sub b} is much longer than the electron plasma period 2{pi}/{omega}{sub p}, where {omega}{sub p} = (4{pi}e{sup 2}n{sub p}/m){sup 1/2} is the electron plasma frequency, and n{sub p} is the background plasma density. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. The analytical formulas derived in this paper can provide an important benchmark for numerical codes, and provide scaling relations for different beam and plasma parameters.

  8. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A.; Korepanov, S.; Mishagin, V.; Smirnov, A.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  9. Emittance Analysis of the DIII-D Neutral Beam Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, N. A.; Crowley, B.

    2014-10-01

    In a high powered neutral beam system ions are extracted from a low temperature plasma, through apertures in the arc chamber, by application of a potential to an external electrode. It has been determined that to increase the beam energy of the DIII-D neutral beam system beyond 95 keV the accelerator must be reconfigured to avoid excessive electrical breakdown in the grid gaps. Deciding exactly what modifications are to be made requires modeling and experimental effort. A basic problem is to find a geometry with which the extracted beam is intense, low divergence, free of aberrations, and does not strike the focusing electrodes. We present the results of modeling proposed reconfigurations to the accelerator geometry and source conditions. The quality of the beam produced from the various accelerator configurations is quantified through metrics such as the beam emittance and the average divergence per beamlet. By comparing the beam quality and power delivered for each proposed reconfiguration an optimal design is selected and recommended. Work supported in part by the National Undergraduate Fellowship Program in Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy Sciences and the US DOE under DE-FG02-94ER54235, DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  10. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating.

    PubMed

    Deichuli, P; Davydenko, V; Ivanov, A; Korepanov, S; Mishagin, V; Smirnov, A; Sorokin, A; Stupishin, N

    2015-11-01

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction. PMID:26628137

  11. Low energy, high power hydrogen neutral beam for plasma heating

    SciTech Connect

    Deichuli, P.; Davydenko, V.; Ivanov, A. Mishagin, V.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N.; Korepanov, S.; Smirnov, A.

    2015-11-15

    A high power, relatively low energy neutral beam injector was developed to upgrade of the neutral beam system of the gas dynamic trap device and C2-U experiment. The ion source of the injector produces a proton beam with the particle energy of 15 keV, current of up to 175 A, and pulse duration of a few milliseconds. The plasma emitter of the ion source is produced by superimposing highly ionized plasma jets from an array of four arc-discharge plasma generators. A multipole magnetic field produced with permanent magnets at the periphery of the plasma box is used to increase the efficiency and improve the uniformity of the plasma emitter. Multi-slit grids with 48% transparency are fabricated from bronze plates, which are spherically shaped to provide geometrical beam focusing. The focal length of the Ion Optical System (IOS) is 3.5 m and the initial beam diameter is 34 cm. The IOS geometry and grid potentials were optimized numerically to ensure accurate beam formation. The measured angular divergences of the beam are ±0.01 rad parallel to the slits and ±0.03 rad in the transverse direction.

  12. Mass spectrograph for imaging low-energy neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ghielmetti, A.G.; Shelley, E.G.; Fuselier, S.A. ); Wurz, P.; Bochsler, P. . Physikalisches Inst.); Herrero, F.A.; Smith, M.F. . NASA Goddard Space Flight Center); Stephen, T.S. . Physics Dept.)

    1994-02-01

    The authors describe an instrument concept for measuring low-energy neutral H and O atoms with kinetic energies ranging from about 10 eV to several hundred. The instrument makes use of a low work function surface to convert neutral atoms to negative ions. These ions are then accelerated away from the surface and brought to an intermediate focus by a large aperture lens. After deflection in a spherical electrostatic analyzer, the ions are postaccelerated to [approximately]25-keV final energy into a carbon-foil time-of-flight mass analyzer. Mass resolution is adequate to resolve H, D, He, and O. Energy and azimuth angle information is obtained by means of position imaging the secondary electrons produced at the carbon foil. A large geometric factor combined with simultaneous angle-energy-mass imaging that eliminates the need for duty cycles provide the necessary high sensitivity. From a spinning spacecraft this instrument is capable of producing a 2-D map of low-energy neutral atom fluxes.

  13. High-flux source of low-energy neutral beams using reflection of ions from metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbertson, John W.; Motley, Robert W.; Langer, William D.

    1992-01-01

    Reflection of low-energy ions from surfaces can be applied as a method of producing high-flux beams of low-energy neutral particles, and is an important effect in several areas of plasma technology, such as in the edge region of fusion devices. We have developed a beam source based on acceleration and reflection of ions from a magnetically confined coaxial RF plasma source. The beam provides a large enough flux to allow the energy distribution of the reflected neutrals to be measured despite the inefficiency of detection, by means of an electrostatic cylindrical mirror analyzer coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Energy distributions have been measured for oxygen, nitrogen, and inert gas ions incident with from 15 to 70 eV reflected from amorphous metal surfaces of several compositions. For ions of lighter atomic mass than the reflecting metal, reflected beams have peaked energy distributions; beams with the peak at 4-32 eV have been measured. The energy and mass dependences of the energy distributions as well as measurements of absolute flux, and angular distribution and divergence are reported. Applications of the neutral beams produced are described.

  14. BEAM DIAGNOSTICS USING BPM SIGNALS FROM INJECTED AND STORED BEAMS IN A STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.M.; Shaftan; T.; Cheng; W.X.; Fliller; R.; Heese; R.; Singh; O.; Willeke; F.

    2011-03-28

    Many modern light sources are operating in top-off injection mode or are being upgraded to top-off injection mode. The storage ring always has the stored beam and injected beam for top-off injection mode. So the BPM data is the mixture of both beam positions and the injected beam position cannot be measured directly. We propose to use dedicated wide band BPM electronics in the NSLS II storage ring to retrieve the injected beam trajectory with the singular value decomposition (SVD) method. The beam position monitor (BPM) has the capability to measure bunch-by-bunch beam position. Similar electronics can be used to measure the bunch-by-bunch beam current which is necessary to get the injection beam position. The measurement precision of current needs to be evaluated since button BPM sum signal has position dependence. The injected beam trajectory can be measured and monitored all the time without dumping the stored beam. We can adjust and optimize the injected beam trajectory to maximize the injection efficiency. We can also measure the storage ring acceptance by mapping the injected beam trajectory.

  15. Using neutral beams as a light ion beam probe (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Heidbrink, W. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Pace, D. C.; Petty, C. C.; Austin, M. E.; Fisher, R. K.; Hanson, J. M.; Nazikian, R.; Zeng, L.

    2014-11-01

    By arranging the particle first banana orbits to pass near a distant detector, the light ion beam probe (LIBP) utilizes orbital deflection to probe internal fields and field fluctuations. The LIBP technique takes advantage of (1) the in situ, known source of fast ions created by beam-injected neutral particles that naturally ionize near the plasma edge and (2) various commonly available diagnostics as its detector. These born trapped particles can traverse the plasma core on their inner banana leg before returning to the plasma edge. Orbital displacements (the forces on fast ions) caused by internal instabilities or edge perturbing fields appear as modulated signal at an edge detector. Adjustments in the q-profile and plasma shape that determine the first orbit, as well as the relative position of the source and detector, enable studies under a wide variety of plasma conditions. This diagnostic technique can be used to probe the impact on fast ions of various instabilities, e.g., Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) and neoclassical tearing modes, and of externally imposed 3D fields, e.g., magnetic perturbations. To date, displacements by AEs and by externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation fields have been measured using a fast ion loss detector. Comparisons with simulations are shown. In addition, nonlinear interactions between fast ions and independent AE waves are revealed by this technique.

  16. Long Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.; Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.

    2008-06-01

    Plasmas are a source of unbound electrons for charge neutralizing intense heavy ion beams to focus them to a small spot size and compress their axial length. The plasma source should operate at low neutral pressures and without strong externally-applied fields. To produce long plasma columns, sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics with large dielectric coefficients have been developed. The source utilizes the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO{sub 3} to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) is covered with ceramic material. High voltage ({approx} 8 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramics. A BaTiO{sub 3} source comprised of five 20-cm-long sources has been tested and characterized, producing relatively uniform plasma in the 5 x 10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} density range. The source was integrated into the NDCX device for charge neutralization and beam compression experiments, and yielded current compression ratios {approx} 120. Present research is developing multi-meter-long and higher density sources to support beam compression experiments for high energy density physics applications.

  17. Neutral particle beam scoring system proof-of-principle experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tichenor, D.A.; Pontau, A.E.; Antolak, A.J.

    1986-10-01

    A method of scoring a ground-based neutral particle beam pointing experiment is described. Beam scoring in this context means performing beam direction measurements in the near field (tens of meters) sufficient to determine whether energy would be concentrated on a far-field target as desired in a pointing experiment. The principle of operation is to impress a high-resolution spatial modulation on the beam by inserting an array of shadow wires into the beam upstream of the steering magnet. At the downstream end of the beam line the shadows are detected using one or more scintillation screens and video cameras. Beam direction is determined by measuring the location of the shadows at a known distance downstream of the point of steering. A proof-of-principle experiment demonstrates that: (1) wire shadows can be created in a 50 MeV beam and propagate over the distances required; (2) images of sufficient brightness and resolution can be formed on scintillating screens excited by 50 MeV protons; and (3) CCD array cameras can operate in the radiation environment created near the beam line.

  18. Recent improvements to the DIII-D neutral beam instrumentation and control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.

    1997-11-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam (NB) instrumentation and control (I and C) system provides for operational control and synchronization of the eight DIII-D neutral beam injection systems, as well as for pertinent data acquisition and safety interlocking. Recently, improvements were made to the I and C system. With the replacement of the NB control computers, new signal interfacing was required to accommodate the elimination of physical operator panels, in favor of graphical user interface control pages on computer terminal screens. The program in the mode control (MC) programmable logic controller (PLC), which serves as a logic-processing interface between the NB control computers and system hardware, was modified to improve the availability of NB heating of DIII-D plasmas in the event that one or more individual beam systems suddenly become unavailable while preparing for a tokamak experimental shot sequences. An upgraded computer platform was adopted for the NB control system operator interface and new graphical user interface pages were developed to more efficiently display system status data. A failure mode of the armor tile infrared thermometers (pyrometers), which serve to terminate beam pulsing if beam shine-through overheats wall thermal shielding inside the DIII-D tokamak, was characterized such that impending failures can be detected and repairs effected to mitigate beam system down-time. The hardware that controls gas flow to the beamline neutralizer cells was upgraded to reduce susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and interlocking was provided to terminate beam pulsing in the event of insufficient neutralizer gas flow. Motivation, implementation, and results of these improvements are presented.

  19. Multiple track Doppler-shift spectroscopy system for TFTR neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kamperschroer, J.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Reale, M.A.; Hayes, S.L.; Johnson, G.A.; Lowrance, J.L.; Shah, P.A.; Sichta, P.; Sleaford, B.W.; Williams, M.D.; Zucchino, P.M.

    1986-09-01

    A Doppler-shift spectroscopy system has been installed on the TFTR neutral beam injection system to measure species composition during both conditioning and injection pulses. Two intensified vidicon detectors and two spectrometers are utilized in a system capable of resolving data from up to twelve ion sources simultaneously. By imaging the light from six ion sources onto one detector, a cost-effective system has been achieved. Fiber optics are used to locate the diagnostic in an area remote from the hazards of the tokamak test cell allowing continuous access, and eliminating the need for radiation shielding of electronic components. Automatic hardware arming and interactive data analysis allow beam composition to be computed between tokamak shots for use in analyzing plasma heating experiments. Measurements have been made using lines of sight into both the neutralizer and the drift duct. Analysis of the data from the drift duct is both simpler and more accurate since only neutral particles are present in the beam at this location. Comparison of the data taken at these two locations reveals the presence of partially accelerated particles possessing an estimated 1/e half-angle divergence of 15/sup 0/ and accounting for up to 30% of the extracted power.

  20. Measuring electric fields from surface contaminants with neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Obrecht, J. M.; Wild, R. J.; Cornell, E. A.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we demonstrate a technique of utilizing magnetically trapped neutral {sup 87}Rb atoms to measure the magnitude and direction of stray electric fields emanating from surface contaminants. We apply an alternating external electric field that adds to (or subtracts from) the stray field in such a way as to resonantly drive the trapped atoms into a mechanical dipole oscillation. The growth rate of the oscillation's amplitude provides information about the magnitude and sign of the stray field gradient. Using this measurement technique, we are able to reconstruct the vector electric field produced by surface contaminants. In addition, we can accurately measure the electric fields generated from adsorbed atoms purposely placed onto the surface and account for their systematic effects, which can plague a precision surface-force measurement. We show that baking the substrate can reduce the electric fields emanating from adsorbate and that the mechanism for reduction is likely surface diffusion, not desorption.

  1. Stochastic Orbit Loss of Neutral Beam Ions From NSTX Due to Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode Avalanches

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D S; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; Gorelenkova, M; Kubota, S; Medley, S S; Podesta, M; Shi, L

    2012-07-11

    Short toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) avalanche bursts in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) cause a drop in the neutron rate and sometimes a loss of neutral beam ions at or near the full injection energy over an extended range of pitch angles. The simultaneous loss of wide ranges of pitch angle suggests stochastic transport of the beam ions occurs. When beam ion orbits are followed with a guiding center code that incorporates plasma's magnetic equilibrium plus the measured modes, the predicted ranges of lost pitch angle are similar to those seen in the experiment, with distinct populations of trapped and passing orbits lost. These correspond to domains where the stochasticity extends in the orbit phase space from the region of beam ion deposition to the loss boundary.

  2. Scalable neutral atom quantum computing with MEMS micromirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoernschild, Caleb; Lu, Felix; Ryu, Hoon; Feng, Michael; Kim, Jungsang

    2010-03-01

    In order to realize a useful atom-based quantum computer, a means to efficiently distribute critical laser resources to multiple trap locations is essential. Optical micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) can provide the scalability, flexibility, and stability needed to help bridge the gap between fundamental demonstrations of quantum gates to large scale quantum computing of multiple qubits. Using controllable, broadband micromirrors, an arbitrary atom in a 1, 2, or 3 dimensional optical lattice can be addressed with a single laser source. It is straightforward to scale this base system to address n arbitrary set of atoms simultaneously using n laser sources. We explore on-demand addressability of individual atoms trapped in a 1D lattice, as well as investigate the effect the micromirrors have on the laser beam quality and phase stability.

  3. Beam Quality of a Nonideal Atom Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Riou, J.-F.; Guerin, W.; Le Coq, Y.; Fauquembergue, M.; Josse, V.; Bouyer, P.; Aspect, A.

    2006-02-24

    We study the propagation of a noninteracting atom laser distorted by the strong lensing effect of the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) from which it is outcoupled. We observe a transverse structure containing caustics that vary with the density within the residing BEC. Using the WKB approximation, Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral formalism, and ABCD matrices, we are able to describe analytically the atom-laser propagation. This allows us to characterize the quality of the nonideal atom-laser beam by a generalized M{sup 2} factor defined in analogy to photon lasers. Finally we measure this quality factor for different lensing effects.

  4. A simulation study of interactions of Space-Shuttle generated electron beams with ambient plasma and neutral gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The object was to conduct large scale simulations of electron beams injected into space. The study of active injection of electron beams from spacecraft is important since it provides valuable insight into beam-plasma interactions and the development of current systems in the ionosphere. However, the beam injection itself is not simple, being constrained by the ability of the spacecraft to draw return current from the ambient plasma. The generation of these return currents is dependent on several factors, including the density of the ambient plasma relative to the beam density, the presence of neutrals around the spacecraft, the configuration of the spacecraft, and the motion of the spacecraft through the plasma. Two dimensional particle simulations with collisional processes included are used to show how these different and often coupled processes can be utilized to enhance beam propagation from the spacecraft. To understand the radical expansion of mechanism of an electron beam from a highly charged spacecraft, two dimensional particle in cell simulations were conducted for a high density electron beam injected parallel to magnetic fields from an isolated equipotential conductor into a cold background plasma. The simulations indicate that charge buildup at the beam stagnation point causes the beam to expand radially to the beam electron gyroradius.

  5. Neutral beam heating of detached plasmas in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, C.E.; Strachan, J.D.; Schivell, J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Taylor, G.; Grek, B.; Budny, R.; McNeill, D.H.; Bell, M.G.; Boody, F.P.

    1989-05-01

    Detached plasmas on TFTR have been heated with neutral beam auxiliary power for the first time. At beam powers above 2 MW the detached plasmas in TFTR expand and reattach to the limiters. Deuterium and/or impurity gas puffing can be used to maintain plasmas in the detached state at powers of over 5 MW. Transient events were observed in a number of these plasmas, including a confinement-related delay in evolution of the edge emissivity and some phenomena which appear similar to those seen in the H-mode. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Observations of neutral atoms in the Rho Ophiuchi cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, T. P.; Joseph, C. L.; Meyer, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    New observations of lines from neutral atoms in the lines of sight to three stars in the Rho Oph cloud are combined with literature data to look for evidence of density-enhanced regions with higher elemental depletions than those characterizing the cloud as a whole. The depletions inferred from neutral species, however, are comparable to those measured directly from observations of ions, suggesting that no strong density enhancements exist in the observed lines of sight. This conclusion is supported by electron densities derived from the observed ionization fractions, which also show no evidence for a strong variation of density with depth in the cloud. It appears that the overall density (and overall level of depletion) in the cloud is higher than in typical diffuse clouds, despite the apparent lack of strong condensations with enhanced relative depletions.

  7. Charge-exchange and fusion reaction measurements during compression experiments with neutral beam heating in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kaita, R.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hammett, G.W.; Chan, A.A.; England, A.C.; Hendel, H.W.; Medley, S.S.; Nieschmidt, E.; Roquemore, A.L.; Scott, S.D.

    1986-04-01

    Adiabatic toroidal compression experiments were performed in conjunction with high power neutral beam injection in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Acceleration of beam ions to energies nearly twice the injection energy was measured with a charge-exchange neutral particle analyzer. Measurements were also made of 2.5 MeV neutrons and 15 MeV protons produced in fusion reactions between the deuterium beam ions and the thermal deuterium and /sup 3/He ions, respectively. When the plasma was compressed, the d(d,n)/sup 3/He fusion reaction rate increased a factor of five, and the /sup 3/He(d,p)/sup 4/He rate by a factor of twenty. These data were simulated with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck program, which assumed conservation of angular momentum and magnetic moment during compression. The results indicate that the beam ion acceleration was consistent with adiabatic scaling.

  8. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-02-04

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  9. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, Henry W.; Hand, Jr, Samuel W.; Ksayian, Haig

    1986-01-01

    For use in a tokamak fusion reactor having a midplane magnetic coil on the inner wall of an evacuated toriodal chamber within which a neutral beam heated, fusing plasma is magnetically confined, a neutral beam armor shield and plasma limiter is provided on the inner wall of the toroidal chamber to shield the midplane coil from neutral beam shine-thru and plasma deposition. The armor shield/plasma limiter forms a semicircular enclosure around the midplane coil with the outer surface of the armor shield/plasma limiter shaped to match, as closely as practical, the inner limiting magnetic flux surface of the toroidally confined, indented, bean-shaped plasma. The armor shield/plasma limiter includes a plurality of semicircular graphite plates each having a pair of coupled upper and lower sections with each plate positioned in intimate contact with an adjacent plate on each side thereof so as to form a closed, planar structure around the entire outer periphery of the circular midplane coil. The upper and lower plate sections are adapted for coupling to heat sensing thermocouples and to a circulating water conduit system for cooling the armor shield/plasma limiter.The inner center portion of each graphite plate is adapted to receive and enclose a section of a circular diagnostic magnetic flux loop so as to minimize the power from the plasma confinement chamber incident upon the flux loop.

  10. RF plasma source for heavy ion beam charge neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Efthimion, Philip C.; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, Larry; Davidson, Ronald C.; Yu, Simon S.; Logan, B. Grant

    2003-05-01

    Highly ionized plasmas are being used as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams in order to focus the ion beam to a small spot size. A radio frequency (RF) plasma source has been built at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in support of the joint Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to study ion beam neutralization with plasma. The goal is to operate the source at pressures {approx} 10{sup -5} Torr at full ionization. The initial operation of the source has been at pressures of 10{sup -4}-10{sup -1} Torr and electron densities in the range of 10{sup 8}-10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Recently, pulsed operation of the source has enabled operation at pressures in the 10{sup -6} Torr range with densities of 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Near 100% ionization has been achieved. The source has been integrated with the NTX facility and experiments have begun.

  11. Effect of a neutral N2 cloud on the electrical charging of an electron beam-emitting rocket in the ionosphere - Echo IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israelson, G. A.; Winckler, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of 114 moles of neutral N2 and a 40-kV, 80 mA electron beam was studied during the Echo IV rocket flight. Neutralizing return currents to the rocket body preferentially followed a route back through the region where the electron beam interacted with the cloud. Photometric observations of a complex luminous discharge accompanying beam injection are reported. Observations of 3914-A emission produced by the beam indicated a maximum neutral N2 number density of nearly 10 to the 15th power per cu cm. An oscillatory discharge with a frequency somewhat lower than the N2 (+) ion gyrofrequency was noted at one point.

  12. Nanoscale atomic lithography with a cesium atomic beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lison, F.; Adams, H.-J.; Haubrich, D.; Kreis, M.; Nowak, S.; Meschede, D.

    1997-09-01

    We have demonstrated the lithographic production of a periodic nanostructure by focusing a transversely laser cooled cesium atomic beam with a standing-wave light field. With a self-assembled monolayer used as the resist on a gold surface, exposure to cesium atoms locally changes the wetability. Subsequently a wet-etching process transfers the pattern to the underlying gold film. We have generated lines with a separation of half the wavelength of the cesium D2 line (852 nm) and a width of about 120 nm and covering a large area of approximately 1 mm2.

  13. Electrostatic charging of spacecraft in response to electron beam injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Hwang, K. S.

    1989-01-01

    Electron beam injections from spacecraft now constitute a major activity in space research. Here, the charging level of a conducting surface when an electron beam is injected from it is investigated. Injections into both vacuum and an ambient plasma are considered. When a Maxwellian beam is injected into vacuum, the surface changes to a potential much greater than the average beam energy. The dependence of this excess is examined by considering beams with water-bag types of velocity distribution functions in which no electron has a velocity V(max) above a certain value. The electric field distribution in the electron sheath near the surface is determined by the pressure distribution. Thus, the surface potential is determined not only by V(max) but by all the beam parameters. The ambient plasma reduces the charging level and causes an oscillation in the surface potential. The oscillation frequency is the electron-plasma frequency associated with the ambient plasma.

  14. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    SciTech Connect

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  15. Direct plasma injection scheme with various ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.

    2010-09-15

    The laser ion source is one of the most powerful heavy ion sources. However, it is difficult to obtain good stability and to control its intense current. To overcome these difficulties, we proposed a new beam injection scheme called 'direct plasma injection scheme'. Following this it was established to provide various species with desired charge state as an intense accelerated beam. Carbon, aluminum and iron beams have been tested.

  16. Instrumentation and control of the Doublet III Neutral Beam Injector System

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, J.C.; Moore, C.D.; Drobnis, D.D.; Elischer, V.P.; Kilgore, R.; Uber, D.

    1980-03-01

    The hardware and software required for the operation of the Doublet III Neutral Beam Injector System (NBIS) are described. Development and implementation of this Instrumentation and Control System was divided between the major participants - General Atomic Company and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The subdivision of responsibilities and the coordination of the participants' activities are described with reference to hardware and software requirements in support of the entire system. Included are a description of the operators' consoles, the interlock system and the CAMAC system. One feature of the control software is source modeling. This feature includes feedback on a shot to shot basis and adaptive control. Adaptive control permits the computer system to automatically adjust parameters after a shot, and to control the system to automatically compensate for time varying NBIS components. The Neutral Beam Power Supply features power supply modeling, fiber optic transmission of analog signals and digital control of power supply power-up/interlocks.

  17. Ultra-sensitive inertial sensors via neutral-atom interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauser, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Upon looking at the various colossal interferometers, etc., discussed at this conference to test gravitational theory, one cannot avoid feeling that easier approaches exist. The use of low velocity, neutral atom matter waves in place of electromagnetic waves in sensitive inertial interferometer configurations is proposed. For applications, spacecraft experiments to sense a drag-free condition, to measure the Lense-Thirring precession, to measure the gravitomagnetic effect and/or the earth's geopotential (depending on altitude), and to detect long period gravitational waves are considered. Also, a terrestrial precision test of the equivalence principle on spin polarized atoms, capable of detecting effects of the 5th force is considered. While the ideas described herein are preliminary, the orders of magnitude are sufficiently tantalizing to warrant further study. Although existing proposed designs may be adequate for some of these experiments, the use of matter-wave interferometry offers reduced complexity and cost, and an absence of cryogenics.

  18. Optical Frequency Standards Based on Neutral Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz; Helmcke, Juergen

    The current status and prospects of optical frequency standards based on neutral atomic and molecular absorbers are reviewed. Special attention is given to an optical frequency standard based on cold Ca atoms which are interrogated with a pulsed excitation scheme leading to resolved line structures with a quality factor Q > 10^12. The optical frequency was measured by comparison with PTB's primary clock to be νCa = 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a total relative uncertainty of 2.5 x10^-13. After a recent recommendation of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM), this frequency standard now represents one of the most accurate realizations of the length unit.

  19. 200-mm-diameter neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma etcher and silicon etching

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Tomohiro; Nukaga, Osamu; Ueki, Shinji; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Inamoto, Yoshimasa; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji

    2010-09-15

    The authors developed a neutral beam source consisting of a 200-mm-diameter inductively coupled plasma etcher and a graphite neutralization aperture plate based on the design of a neutral beam source that Samukawa et al. [Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 40, L779 (2001)] developed. They measured flux and energy of neutral particles, ions, and photons using a silicon wafer with a thermocouple and a Faraday cup and calculated the neutralization efficiency. An Ar neutral beam flux of more than 1 mA/cm{sup 2} in equivalent current density and a neutralization efficiency of more than 99% were obtained. The spatial uniformity of the neutral beam flux was within {+-}6% within a 100 mm diameter. Silicon etching using a F{sub 2}-based neutral beam was done at an etch rate of about 47 nm/min, while Cl{sub 2}-based neutral beam realized completely no undercut. The uniformity of etch rate was less than {+-}5% within the area. The etch rate increased by applying bias power to the neutralization aperture plate, which shows that accelerated neutral beam was successfully obtained. These results indicate that the neutral beam source is scalable, making it possible to obtain a large-diameter and uniform neutral beam, which is inevitable for application to mass production.

  20. A new atomic beam source: The ''candlestick''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, Lene Vestergaard; Golovchenko, J. A.; Burns, Michael M.

    1994-12-01

    The design of a novel-type of atomic beam source which provides for long term, stable operation at high emission rates is reported. The heart of the design is the ``candlestick'' where liquid source material is transported by capillary action to a localized hot emission region. A surrounding cavity kept at the melting point for the source material shields the vacuum chamber walls from this region. The atomic beam escaping from the source is collimated, and uncollimated atoms are transported back to the liquid reservoir at the bottom of the ``candlestick'' by capillary action. This design has advantages over traditional oven designs: localized heating provides for large emission rates under high vacuum conditions, collimation is combined with recycling and conservation of source material, and the use of capillarity allows any orientation of the beam source. The source has been tested with sodium, and we believe that the design is useful for a broad range of applications including thin-film evaporation, molecular beam epitaxy, and semiconductor surface doping. With the low thermal mass of the emission section, the source could be optimized for pulsed mode operation. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the design ideas presented here could form the basis for a supersonic source with very high Mach numbers.

  1. Projection of diffraction patterns for use in cold-neutral-atom trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Gillen, Glen D.

    2010-12-15

    Scalar diffraction theory is combined with beam-propagation techniques to investigate the projection of near-field diffraction patterns to spatial locations away from the aperture for use in optically trapping cold neutral alkali-metal atoms. Calculations show that intensity distributions with localized bright and dark spots usually found within a millimeter of the diffracting aperture can be projected to a region free from optical components such as a cloud of cold atoms within a vacuum chamber. Calculations also predict that the critical properties of the optical dipole atom traps are not only maintained for the projected intensity patterns but also can be manipulated and improved by adjustment of the optical components outside the vacuum chamber.

  2. Laser cooling of an indium atomic beam enabled by magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klöter, B.; Weber, C.; Haubrich, D.; Meschede, D.; Metcalf, H.

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate magnetic field enabled optical forces on a neutral indium atomic beam in a light field consisting of five frequencies. The role of dark magnetic ground state sublevels is studied and enables us to cool the atomic beam transversely to near the Doppler limit with laser frequencies tuned above the atomic resonance. The effect of laser cooling can be explained with transient effects in the light potential created by the standing wave light field where the atoms are optically pumped into the dark states and recycled by Larmor precession.

  3. Injection of large transverse emittance EBIS beams in booster

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.

    2011-10-10

    During the commissioning of EBIS beams in Booster in November 2010 and in April, May and June 2011, it was found that the transverse emittances of the EBIS beams just upstream of Booster were much larger than expected. Beam emittances of 11{pi} mm milliradians had been expected, but numbers 3 to 4 times larger were measured. Here and throughout this note the beam emittance, {pi}{epsilon}{sub 0}, is taken to be the area of the smallest ellipse that contains 95% of the beam. We call this smallest ellipse the beam ellipse. If the beam distribution is gaussian, the rms emittance of the distribution is very nearly one sixth the area of the beam ellipse. The normalized rms emittance is the rms emittance times the relativistic factor {beta}{gamma} = 0.06564. This amounts to 0.12{pi} mm milliradians for the 11{pi} mm milliradian beam ellipse. In [1] we modeled the injection and turn-by-turn evolution of an 11{pi} mm milliradian beam ellipse in the horizontal plane in Booster. It was shown that with the present injection system, up to 4 turns of this beam could be injected and stored in Booster without loss. In the present note we extend this analysis to the injection of larger emittance beams. We consider only the emittance in the horizontal plane. Emittance in the vertical plane and the effects of dispersion are treated in [2].

  4. Satellite observations and instrumentation for imaging energetic neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Henry D.; Mobilia, Joseph; Collin, Henry L.; Imhof, William L.

    1992-06-01

    Direct measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) and ions have been obtained with the cooled solid state detectors on the low altitude (220 km) three-axis stabilized S81-1/SEEP satellite and on the spinning 400 km X 5.5 Re CRRES satellite. During magnetic storms ENA and ion precipitation (E > 10 keV) is evident over the equatorial region from the LE spectrometer on the SEEP payload (ONR 804). The spinning motion of the CRRES satellite allows for simple mapping of the magnetosphere using the IMS-HI (ONR 307-8-3) neutral spectrometer. This instrument covers the energy range from 20 to 1000 keV and uses a 7 kG magnetic field to screen out protons less than about 50 MeV. ENA and the resulting low- altitude ion belt have been observed with the IMS-HI instrument. Recently, an advanced spectrometer (SEPS) has been developed to image electrons, ions, and neutrals on the despun platform of the POLAR satellite (approximately 1.8 X 9 Re) for launch in the mid-90's as part of the NASA ISTP/GGS program. For this instrument a 256 element solid state pixel array has been developed that interfaces to 256 amplifier strings using a custom 16 channel microcircuit chip. In addition, this instrument features a motor controlled iris wheel and anticoincidence electronics.

  5. Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2015-01-28

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.

  6. Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert L.; Hankin, Aaron M.; Jau, Yuan -Yu; Biedermann, Grant W.; Deutsch, Ivan H.

    2015-01-28

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a σ+/σ- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces actingmore » on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. As a result, for reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in < 10 μs with error probability on the order of 10-3.« less

  7. Dynamics of neutral atoms in artificial magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zi-Fa; Hu, Fang-Qi; Zhang, Ai-Xia; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2016-02-01

    Cyclotron dynamics of neutral atoms in a harmonic trap potential with artificial magnetic field is studied theoretically. The cyclotron orbit is obtained analytically and confirmed numerically. When the external harmonic potential is absent, artificial magnetic field can result in the singly periodic circular motion of Bose gas with the emergence of a Lorentz-like force, which is similar to particles with electric charge moving in a magnetic field. However, the coupling between artificial magnetic field and harmonic trap potential leads to rich and complex cyclotron trajectory, which depends on √{B2 + 1 }, where B is the rescaled artificial magnetic field. When √{B2 + 1 } is a rational number, the cyclotron orbit is multiply periodic and closed. However, when √{B2 + 1 } is an irrational number, the cyclotron orbit is quasiperiodic, i.e., the cyclotron motion of Bose gas is limited in a annular region, and eventually, the motion is ergodic in this region. Furthermore, the cyclotron orbits also depend on the initial conditions of Bose gas. Thus, the cyclotron dynamics of Bose gas can be manipulated in a controllable way by changing the artificial magnetic field, harmonic trap potential and initial conditions. Our results provide a direct theoretical evidence for the cyclotron dynamics of neutral atoms in the artificial gauge field.

  8. A New Instrument Design for Imaging Low Energy Neutral Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. W.; Collier, M. R.; Chornay, D.; Roz, P.; Getty, S.; Cooper, J. F.; Smith, B.

    2007-12-01

    The MidSTAR-2 satellite, to be built at the US Naval Academy as a follow-on to the successful MidSTAR-1 satellite, will launch in 2011 and carry three Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) experiments developed under Goddard's Internal Research and Development (IRAD) program. One of these GSFC instruments, the Miniature Imager for Neutral Ionospheric atoms and Magnetospheric Electrons (MINI-ME) builds on the heritage of the Goddard-developed Low-Energy Neutral Atom (LENA) imager launched on the IMAGE spacecraft in 2000. MINI- ME features a Venetian-blind conversion surface assembly that improves both light rejection and conversion efficiency in a smaller and lighter package than LENA making this an highly effective instrument for viewing solar wind charge exchange with terrestrial and planetary exospheres. We will describe the MINI-ME prototyping effort and its science targets, also including time variability of ENA fluxes and charge-exchange interactions in the upper atmosphere from the terrestrial ring current source.

  9. Modeling the response of a fast ion loss detector using orbit tracing techniques in a neutral beam prompt-loss study on the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Pace, D. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Zhu, Y. B.; Fisher, R. K.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Nazikian, R.

    2010-10-15

    A numerical model describing the expected measurements of neutral beam prompt-losses by a newly commissioned fast ion loss detector (FILD) in DIII-D is presented. This model incorporates the well understood neutral beam deposition profiles from all eight DIII-D beamlines to construct a prompt-loss source distribution. The full range of detectable ion orbit phase space available to the FILD is used to calculate ion trajectories that overlap with neutral beam injection footprints. Weight functions are applied to account for the level of overlap between these detectable orbits and the spatial and velocity (pitch) properties of ionized beam neutrals. An experimental comparison is performed by firing each neutral beam individually in the presence of a ramping plasma current. Fast ion losses determined from the model are in agreement with measured losses.

  10. Interactions between anionic and neutral bromine and rare gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Buchachenko, Alexei A.; Grinev, Timur A.; Wright, Timothy G.; Viehland, Larry A.

    2008-02-14

    High-quality, ab initio potential energy functions are obtained for the interaction of bromine atoms and anions with atoms of the six rare gases (Rg) from He to Rn. The potentials of the nonrelativistic {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} and {sup 2}{pi} electronic states arising from the ground-state Br({sup 2}P)-Rg interactions are computed over a wide range of internuclear separations using a spin-restricted version of the coupled cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative correction to triple excitations [RCCSD(T)] with an extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, from basis sets of d-aug-cc-pVQZ and d-aug-cc-pV5Z quality. These are compared with potentials derived previously from experimental measurements and ab initio calculations. The same approach is used also to refine the potentials of the Br{sup -}-Rg anions obtained previously [Buchachenko et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064305 (2006)]. Spin-orbit coupling in the neutral species is included both ab initio and via an atomic approximation; deviations between two approaches that are large enough to affect the results significantly are observed only in the Br-Xe and Br-Rn systems. The resulting relativistic potentials are used to compute anion zero electron kinetic energy photoelectron spectra, differential scattering cross sections, and the transport coefficients of trace amounts of both anionic and neutral bromine in the rare gases. Comparison with available experimental data for all systems considered proves a very high precision of the present potentials.

  11. Beam transport of low temperature atomic hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, W. A.

    1993-12-01

    Analytic calculations and particle tracking simulations are presented for a polarized atomic hydrogen beam produced by extraction from an ultra-cold (T=300 mK) helium film coated cell in a large solenoidal magnetic field (12 T). Initial focusing of states 1 and 2 by the solenoidal field and subsequent focusing by a sextupole are examined within the constraints imposed by the requirements of the polarized jet for the experiments NEPTUN and NEPTUN-A at UNK.

  12. Low-energy energetic neutral atom imaging of Io plasma and neutral tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wieser, Martin; Wieser, Gabriella S.; Wurz, Peter; Krupp, Norbert; Brandt, Pontus C.:son

    2015-04-01

    Io's plasma and neutral tori play significant roles in the Jovian magnetosphere. We present feasibility studies of measuring low-energy energetic neutral atoms (LENAs) generated from the Io tori. We calculate the LENA flux between 10 eV and 3 keV. The energy range includes the corotational plasma flow energy. The expected differential flux at Ganymede distance is typically 103-105 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 eV-1 near the energy of the corotation. It is above the detection level of the planned LENA sensor that is to be flown to the Jupiter system with integration times of 0.01-1 s. The flux has strong asymmetry with respective to the Io phase. The observations will exhibit periodicities, which can be attributed to the Jovian magnetosphere rotation and the rotation of Io around Jupiter. The energy spectra will exhibit dispersion signatures, because of the non-negligible flight time of the LENAs from Io to the satellite. In 2030, the Jupiter exploration mission JUICE will conduct a LENA measurement with a LENA instrument, the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer (JNA). From the LENA observations collected by JNA, we will be able to derive characteristic quantities, such as the density, velocity, velocity distribution function, and composition of plasma-torus particles. We also discuss the possible physics to be explored by JNA in addition to the constraints for operating the sensor and analyzing the obtained dataset.

  13. Design of Experimental Data Publishing Software for Neutral Beam Injector on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Hu, Chundong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wu, Deyun

    2015-02-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) is one of the most effective means for plasma heating. Experimental Data Publishing Software (EDPS) is developed to publish experimental data to get the NBI system under remote monitoring. In this paper, the architecture and implementation of EDPS including the design of the communication module and web page display module are presented. EDPS is developed based on the Browser/Server (B/S) model, and works under the Linux operating system. Using the data source and communication mechanism of the NBI Control System (NBICS), EDPS publishes experimental data on the Internet.

  14. TOROID ROTATION IN NEUTRAL BEAM HEATED DISCHARGES IN DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. deGRASSIE; D.R. BAKER; K.H. BURRELL; P. GOHIL; C.M. GREENFIELD; R.J. GROEBNER; D.M. THOMAS

    2002-08-01

    It is known that the toroidal angular momentum and the ion thermal energy are correlated in tokamak discharges heated by neutral beam injection. Here, data from ten years of measurements on DIII-D are considered, for representative discharges from all types and all conditions. The ratio of simple replacement times for momentum and energy is found to order this correlation indicating that these times are approximately equal, across the minor radius. Representative discharges of several types are discussed in more detail, as well as transport analysis results for the momentum and thermal ion diffusivities.

  15. Beam injection improvement for electron cyclotron resonance charge breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T.

    2012-02-15

    The injection of a 1+ beam into an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) charge breeder is classically performed through a grounded tube placed on its axis at the injection side. This tube presents various disadvantages for the operation of an ECR charge breeder. First experiments without a grounded tube show a better use of the microwave power and a better charge breeding efficiency. The optical acceptance of the charge breeder without decelerating tube allows the injection of high intensity 1+ ion beams at high energy, allowing metals sputtering inside the ion source. The use of this method for refractory metallic ion beams production is evaluated.

  16. Simulation of ion beam injection and extraction in an EBIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Kim, J. S.

    2016-02-01

    An example simulation of Au+ charge breeding using FAR-TECH's integrated EBIS (electron beam ion source) modeling toolset is presented with the emphasis on ion beam injection and extraction. The trajectories of injected ions are calculated with PBGUNS (particle beam gun simulation) self-consistently by including the space charges from both ions and electrons. The ion beam, starting with initial conditions within the 100% acceptance of the electron beam, is then tracked by EBIS-PIC (particle-in-cell EBIS simulation code). In the trap, the evolution of the ion charge state distribution is estimated by charge state estimator. The extraction of charge bred ions is simulated with PBGUNS. The simulations of the ion injections show significant ion space charge effects on beam capture efficiency and the ionization efficiency.

  17. Cryosorption Pumps for a Neutral Beam Injector Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dremel, M.; Mack, A.; Day, C.; Jensen, H.

    2006-04-27

    We present the experiences of the manufacturing and the operating of a system of two identical cryosorption pumps used in a neutral beam injector test facility for fusion reactors. Calculated and measured heat loads of the cryogenic liquid helium and liquid nitrogen circuits of the cryosorption pumps are discussed. The design calculations concerning the thermo-hydraulics of the helium circuit are compared with experiences from the operation of the cryosorption pumps. Both cryopumps are integrated in a test facility of a neutral beam injector that will be used to heat the plasma of a nuclear fusion reactor with a beam of deuterium or hydrogen molecules. The huge gas throughput into the vessel of the test facility results in challenging needs on the cryopumping system.The developed cryosorption pumps are foreseen to pump a hydrogen throughput of 20 - 30 mbar{center_dot}l/s. To establish a mean pressure of several 10-5 mbar in the test vessel a pumping speed of about 350 m3/s per pump is needed. The pressure conditions must be maintained over several hours pumping without regeneration of the cryopanels, which necessitates a very high pumping capacity. A possibility to fulfill these requirements is the use of charcoal coated cryopanels to pump the gasloads by adsorption. For the cooling of the cryopanels, liquid helium at saturation pressure is used and therefore a two-phase forced flow in the cryopump system must be controlled.

  18. Atomic beam scattering from single crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankl, Daniel R.

    Application of atom-scattering to a variety of surface problems is expanding rapidly, owing in large part to the extreme surface- sensitivity of this probe. Helium is particularly useful because of its low mass and chemical inertness. Beams with velocity spreads of less than one percent and wavelength of the order of one Angstrom can be formed by nozzle expansion. The scattered flux from a clean, well-ordered crystal surface contains elastic and inelastic, coherent and incoherent, components. The coherent elastic component (i.e., the specular and diffracted beams) contains information about the crystallographic structure of the outer- most atomic layer of the crystal and about the interaction potential between the crystal and the scattered particle. The latter manifests itself in the form of resonances between the incoming free-particle state, and the two-dimensional Bloch states bound in the potential well at the surface. Elastic scattering theory has reached the point where the resonance signatures in the various diffracted beams can be predicted accurately. Crystallographic information resides in the diffracted beam intensities. Theoretical interpretation is less well advanced, though some progress has been made with “hard-wall” models. Experimental studies of reconstructed surfaces and chemisorbed overlayers appear very promising. In inelastic scattering, energy resolution has been achieved by both time-of-flight and diffraction methods. High-resolution studies on alkali halide surfaces have led to experimental determination of Rayleighwave dispersion relations over the full Brillouin zone. Preliminary results have also been obtained on some metals.

  19. Beam Phase Space of an Intense Ion Beam in a Neutralizing Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Bazouin, Guillaume; Beneytout, Alice; Lidia, Steven M.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Grote, David P.

    2011-10-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-I) generates high intensity ion beams to explore warm dense matter physics. Transverse final focusing is accomplished with an 8-Tesla, 10-cm long pulsed solenoid magnet combined with a background neutralizing plasma to effectively cancel the space charge field of the ion beam. We report on phase space measurements of the beam before the neutralization channel and of the focused ion beam at the target plane. These are compared to WARP particle-in-cell simulations of the ion beam propagation through the focusing system and neutralizing plasma. Due to the orientation of the plasma sources with respect to the focusing magnet, the plasma distribution within the final focusing lens is strongly affected by the magnetic field, an effect which can influence the peak intensity at the target and which is included in the model of the experiment. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL, LBNL under Contracts DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC02-05CH1123.

  20. Neutral beam injectors for the Big Dee vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Doll, D.W.; Bailey, E.; Colleraine, A.; Fasolo, J.; Hager, R.; Peuron, A.; Rawls, J.; Sanchez, H.

    1983-12-01

    The four neutral beam injectors built for Doublet III will be modified to reoptimize beam transmission into the Big Dee vessel. All beamline components will be remounted 90/sup 0/ to their original position in the cylindrical vacuum vessel. This will permit optimum alignment with the available port opening. While these modifications are being incorporated into the disassembled injectors, it is planned that improvements and upgrading features will be added at the least possible cost. The calorimeter will be replaced by two independently driven calorimeters, thus decoupling the operation of the two ion sources. The beam path is being opened up to accommodate a long pulse (cw) source and all beam absorbing surfaces are being increased in size to withstand up to 5 s of operation with heat fluxes up to 700 W/cm/sup 2/. By opening up the apertures along the beam trajectory, an increase in power transmission into the plasma of 33% is realized compared with the present Doublet III performance.

  1. Degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by neutral oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Cvelbar, U.; Mozetic, M.; Hauptman, N.; Klanjsek-Gunde, M.

    2009-11-15

    The degradation of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria during treatment with neutral oxygen atoms was monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Experiments were performed in an afterglow chamber made from borosilicate glass. The source of oxygen atoms was remote inductively coupled radiofrequency oxygen plasma. The density of atoms at the samples was 8x10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. The treatment was performed at room temperature. The first effect was the removal of dried capsule. Capsule on exposed parts of bacteria was removed after receiving the dose of 6x10{sup 23} at./m{sup 2}, while the parts of capsule filling the gaps between bacteria were removed after receiving the dose of 2.4x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. After removing the capsule, degradation continued as etching of bacterial cell wall. The etching was rather nonuniform as holes with diameter of several 10 nm were observed. The cell wall was removed after receiving the dose of about 7x10{sup 24} m{sup -2}. The etching probabilities were about 2x10{sup -5} for the capsule and 2x10{sup -6} for the cell wall. The results were explained by different compositions of capsule and the cell wall.

  2. Low-energy neutral-atom imaging techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funsten, Herbert O.; McComas, David J.; Scime, Earl E.

    1993-07-01

    The potential scientific return from low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging of the magnetosphere is extraordinary. The technical challenges of LENA detection include (1) removal of LENAs from the tremendous ambient UV without losing information of their incident trajectories, (2) quantification of their trajectories, and (3) obtaining high sensitivity measurements. Two techniques that have been proposed for this purpose are based on fundamentally different atomic interaction mechanisms between LENAs and a solid: LENA transmission through an ultrathin foil and LENA reflection from a solid surface. Both of these methods provide LENA ionization (for subsequent removal from the UV by electrostatic deflection) and secondary electron emission (for start pulse generation for time-of-flight and/or coincidence). We present a comparative study of the transmission and reflection techniques based on differences in atomic interactions with solids and surfaces. We show that transmission yield an order of magnitude greater secondary electron emission than reflection methods. Transmission methods are shown to be sufficient for LEAN energies of approximately 1 keV to greater than 30 keV.

  3. Ion Beam Neutralization Using FEAs and Mirror Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaescu, Dan; Sakai, Shigeki; Gotoh, Yasuhito; Ishikawa, Junzo

    2011-01-01

    Advanced implantation systems used for semiconductor processing require transportation of ion beams which are quasi-parallel and have low energy, such as (11B+,31P+,75As+) with energy in the range Eion = 200-1000 eV. Compensation of ion beam divergence may be obtained through electron injection and confinement in regions of non-uniform magnetic fields. Field emitter arrays with special properties are used as electron sources. The present study shows that electron confinement takes place in regions of gradient magnetic field, such as nearby analyzing, collimator and final energy magnets of the ion beam line. Modeling results have been obtained using Opera3D/Tosca/Scala. In regions of gradient magnetic field, electrons have helical trajectories which are confined like a cloud inside curved "magnetic bottles". An optimal range of positions with respect to the magnet for placing electron sources in gradient magnetic field has been shown to exist.

  4. The development of the radio frequency driven negative ion source for neutral beam injectors (invited)a)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, W.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Fröschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R.; Wünderlich, D.

    2012-02-01

    Large and powerful negative hydrogen ion sources are required for the neutral beam injection (NBI) systems of future fusion devices. Simplicity and maintenance-free operation favors RF sources, which are developed intensively at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP) since many years. The negative hydrogen ions are generated by caesium-enhanced surface conversion of atoms and positive ions on the plasma grid surface. With a small scale prototype the required high ion current density and the low fraction of co-extracted electrons at low pressure as well as stable pulses up to 1 h could be demonstrated. The modular design allows extension to large source dimensions. This has led to the decision to choose RF sources for the NBI of the international fusion reactor, ITER. As an intermediate step towards the full size ITER source at IPP, the development will be continued with a half-size source on the new ELISE testbed. This will enable to gain experience for the first time with negative hydrogen ion beams from RF sources of these dimensions.

  5. Absorption spectroscopy characterization measurements of a laser-produced Na atomic beam

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, C.H.; Bailey, J.E.; Lake, P.W.; Filuk, A.B.; Adams, R.G.; McKenney, J.

    1996-06-01

    This work describes a pulsed Na atomic beam source developed for spectroscopic diagnosis of a high-power ion diode on the Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II. The goal is to produce a {approximately} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3}-density Na atomic beam that can be injected into the diode acceleration gap to measure electric and magnetic fields from the Stark and Zeeman effects through laser-induced-fluorescence or absorption spectroscopy. A {approximately} 10 ns fwhm, 1.06 {micro}m, 0.6 J/cm{sup 2} laser incident through a glass slide heats a Na-bearing thin film, creating a plasma that generates a sodium vapor plume. A {approximately} 1 {micro}sec fwhm dye laser beam tuned to 5,890 {angstrom} is used for absorption measurement of the Na I resonant doublet by viewing parallel to the film surface. The dye laser light is coupled through a fiber to a spectrograph with a time-integrated CCD camera. A two-dimensional mapping of the Na vapor density is obtained through absorption measurements at different spatial locations. Time-of-flight and Doppler broadening of the absorption with {approximately} 0.1 {angstrom} spectral resolution indicate that the Na neutral vapor temperature is about 0.5 to 2 eV. Laser-induced-fluorescence from {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 12}-cm{sup {minus}3} Na I 3s-3p lines observed with a streaked spectrograph provides a signal level sufficient for {approximately} 0.06 {angstrom} wavelength shift measurements in a mock-up of an ion diode experiment.

  6. [Activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rat organs under cobalt and mercury chloride injection].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2003-01-01

    The activity of Ca(2+)-dependent neutral proteinases in rats under cobalt and mercury chloride injection was investigated. The calpains activity increase in the lungs, heart, liver and kidneys was revealed after 2 h cobalt chloride action. The mercury chloride gives a reliable increase of calcium-dependent neutral proteinases only in the kidneys. PMID:14574747

  7. Low energy neutral atoms in the earth's magnetosphere: Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.R.; McComas, D.J.; Funsten, H.O.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Detection of low energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by the interaction of the Earth's geocorona with ambient space plasma has been proposed as a technique to obtain global information about the magnetosphere. Recent instrumentation advances reported previously and in these proceedings provide an opportunity for detecting LENAs in the energy range of <1 keV to {approximately}50 keV. In this paper, we present results from a numerical model which calculates line of sight LENA fluxes expected at a remote orbiting spacecraft for various magnetospheric plasma regimes. This model uses measured charge exchange cross sections, either of two neural hydrogen geocorona models, and various empirical modes of the ring current and plasma sheet to calculate the contribution to the integrated directional flux from each point along the line of sight of the instrument. We discuss implications for LENA imaging of the magnetosphere based on these simulations. 22 refs.

  8. Experimental implementation of Grover's search algorithm with neutral atom qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuan; Lichtman, Martin; Baker, Kevin; Saffman, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Grover's algorithm for searching an unsorted data base provides a provable speedup over the best possible classical search and is therefore a test bed for demonstrating the power of quantum computation. The algorithm has been demonstrated with NMR, trapped ion, photonic, and superconducting hardware, but only with two qubits encoding a four element database. We report on progress towards experimental demonstration of Grover's algorithm using two and three neutral atom qubits encoding a database with up to eight elements. Our approach uses a Rydberg blockade Ck NOT gate for efficient implementation of the Grover iterations. Quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the algorithm performance that account for gate errors and decoherence rates are compared with experimental results. Work supported by the IARPA MQCO program.

  9. Forces on neutral atoms due to electromagnetic fields. Annual summary report, 1 September 1986-31 August 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, D.E.

    1987-09-01

    The construction of the superconducting magnetic trap was completed and, as a major breakthrough in the field, was used to trap approx. 10/sup 9/ of neutral sodium atoms for periods of several minutes. This represented an advance of several orders of magnitude compared to previous neutral-trapping experiments, both in numbers of trapped atoms, and in trapping times achieved. The continuous loading process pioneered in this experiment has represented an important advance over previous pulsed loading schemes, as it has permitted the accumulation of much larger numbers of atoms in the trap. The fluorescence spectra of the trapped atoms is studied using a weak-probe laser beam (I =(I sub sat/10,000), which does not affect the trapped atoms appreciably. Doppler cooling of the trapped atoms is studied using this spectrum to measure the temperature of the atomic sample. Observed, for the first time, is the effect of gravity on trapped atoms: the trapped atoms do not accumulate at the minimum of the magnetic field, but at the minimum of the total mechanical potential obtained when including the effect of gravity. RF resonance will be used to study the trapped atoms, and optical-RF cyclic cooling of the atoms will be used to attempt to achieve sample temperatures < or = .000001 K.

  10. Intensification of liquid jet atomization through injection into the exit channel of the atomizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gel'Fand, B. E.; Dranovskii, M. L.; Novikov, A. G.; Pikalov, V. P.

    The injection of a gas jet into the liquid flow at the exit of an atomizer nozzle, directly before the liquid is discharged into the ambient atmosphere, was investigated experimentally as a possible method of improving the quality of atomization. The atomizer used in the experiments had transparent side walls and a nozzle of rectangular (2 x 4 mm) cross section; the relative length of the nozzle was 1.5-1.6. It is shown that gas injection not only improves the quality of atomization but also makes it possible to lower the liquid supply pressure and to increase the atomizer nozzle diameter.

  11. Disorder-induced heating of ultracold neutral plasmas created from atoms in partially filled optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D; Sparkes, B M

    2016-08-01

    We quantify the disorder-induced heating (DIH) of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCNPs) created from cold atoms in optical lattices with partial filling fractions, using a conservation of energy model involving the spatial correlations of the initial state and the equation of state in thermal equilibrium for a one-component plasma. We show, for experimentally achievable filling fractions, that the ionic Coulomb coupling parameter could be increased to a degree comparable to other proposed DIH-mitigation schemes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed with compensation for finite-size and periodic boundary effects, which agree with calculations using the model. Reduction of DIH using optical lattices will allow for the study of strongly coupled plasma physics using low-density, low-temperature, laboratory-based plasmas, and lead to improved brightness in UCNP-based cold electron and ion beams, where DIH is otherwise a fundamental limitation to beam focal sizes and diffraction imaging capability. PMID:27627236

  12. Disorder-induced heating of ultracold neutral plasmas created from atoms in partially filled optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, D.; Sparkes, B. M.

    2016-08-01

    We quantify the disorder-induced heating (DIH) of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCNPs) created from cold atoms in optical lattices with partial filling fractions, using a conservation of energy model involving the spatial correlations of the initial state and the equation of state in thermal equilibrium for a one-component plasma. We show, for experimentally achievable filling fractions, that the ionic Coulomb coupling parameter could be increased to a degree comparable to other proposed DIH-mitigation schemes. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed with compensation for finite-size and periodic boundary effects, which agree with calculations using the model. Reduction of DIH using optical lattices will allow for the study of strongly coupled plasma physics using low-density, low-temperature, laboratory-based plasmas, and lead to improved brightness in UCNP-based cold electron and ion beams, where DIH is otherwise a fundamental limitation to beam focal sizes and diffraction imaging capability.

  13. A Space-Charge-Neutralizing Plasma for Beam Drift Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Anders, A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Coleman, J.E.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.; Grote, D.P.; Jung, J.Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Sefkow, A.B.; Waldron, W.L.; Welch, D.R.

    2008-08-01

    Simultaneous radial focusing and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams are being studied to heat matter to the warm dense matter, or strongly coupled plasma regime. Higher compression ratios can be achieved if the beam compression takes place in a plasma-filled drift region in which the space-charge forces of the ion beam are neutralized. Recently, a system of four cathodic arc plasma sources has been fabricated and the axial plasma density has been measured. A movable plasma probe array has been developed to measure the radial and axial plasma distribution inside and outside of a {approx} 10 cm long final focus solenoid (FFS). Measured data show that the plasma forms a thin column of diameter {approx} 5 mm along the solenoid axis when the FFS is powered with an 8T field. Measured plasma density of {ge} 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} meets the challenge of n{sub p}/Zn{sub b} > 1, where n{sub p} and n{sub b} are the plasma and ion beam density, respectively, and Z is the mean ion charge state of the plasma ions.

  14. Comparison of fast ion confinement during on-axis and off-axis neutral beam experiments on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hao, G. Z.; Podesta, M.; Darrow, D. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Medley, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    A second and more tangential neutral beam line is a major upgrade component of the National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade (NSTX-U) with the purpose of improving neutral beam current drive efficiency and providing more flexibility in current/pressure profile control. Good fast ion confinement is essential to achieve the anticipated improvements in performance. In a planed ``sanity check'' experiment, various short and long (relative to fast ion slowing-down time) neutral beam (NB) pulses with different source mixes will be injected into quiescent L-mode plasmas to characterize the fast ion confinement and distribution function produced by the new and the existing NBI lines. The neutron rate decay after the turn-off of short NB pulses will be used to estimate the fast ion confinement time and to investigate its dependence on NB source/geometry, injection energy, and plasma current. The newly installed Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) and Fast-Ion D-Alapha (FIDA) diagnostics will be described and will be used to measure fast ion slowing-down distribution function and spatial profile during the injection of relatively long NB pulses. Fast ion prompt losses will be monitored with a scintillator Fast Lost Ion Probe (sFLIP) diagnostic. The experimental techniques, measurements of fast ion confinement time and distribution function, and comparisons with classical predictions from NUBEAM modeling will be presented in detail. Work supported by US DOE.

  15. The HERMES Polarized Atomic Beam Source

    SciTech Connect

    Nass, A.

    2003-07-30

    The atomic beam source (ABS) provides nuclear polarized hydrogen or deuterium atoms for the HERMES target at flow rates of about 6.5 {center_dot} 1016H-vector/s (hydrogen in two hyperfine substates) and 6.0 {center_dot} 1016D-vector/s (deuterium in three hyperfine substates). The degree of dissociation of 93% for H (95% for D) at the entrance of the storage cell and the nuclear polarization of around 0.97 (H) and 0.92 (D) have been found to be constant within a a couple of percent over the whole running period of the HERMES experiment. A new dissociator (MWD) based on a microwave discharge at 2.45 GHz has been developed and installed into the HERMES-ABS in 2000. Since the velocity distribution of the MWD differs from that of the RFD the intensity could be increased further with a modified sextupole magnet system. For this purpose the way for a new start generator for sextupole tracking calculations was opened. Monte-Carlo simulations were successfully used to describe the gas expansion between nozzle, skimmer and collimator. A new type of beam monitor was used to study the beam formation after the nozzle.

  16. Improved confinement with counter neutral injection into ASDEX

    SciTech Connect

    Gehre, O.; Gruber, O.; Murmann, H.D.; Roberts, D.E.; Wagner, F.; Bomba, B.; Eberhagen, A.; Fahrbach, H.U.; Fussmann, G.; Gernhardt, J.; and others

    1988-04-11

    Counter injection into ASDEX leads to good particle, momentum, and also energy confinement with tau/sub E/ = 80 ms at 1 MW (43 ms for co-injection). The improved confinement develops gradually during the heating phase and correlates with a simultaneous peaking of the density profile. The ion heat transport has to be reduced for a consistent transport analysis, in agreement with theoretical expectations. The sawtooth instability flattens the density profile and transiently reduces the energy content.

  17. Turbulent electron beams generated by magnetron injection guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinin, Yu. A.; Starodubov, A. V.; Mushtakov, A. V.

    2011-06-01

    A detailed experimental investigation of oscillators based on a magnetron injection gun is carried out. Experimental data show that such oscillators offer a considerable advantage over other similar devices; namely, they are capable of generating powerful wideband noiselike microwave oscillations. This is because magnetron injection guns generate turbulent electron beams at their exit.

  18. VUV absorption spectroscopy measurements of the role of fast neutral atoms in high-power gap breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    FILUK,A.B.; BAILEY,JAMES E.; CUNEO,MICHAEL E.; LAKE,PATRICK WAYNE; NASH,THOMAS J.; NOACK,DONALD D.; MARON,Y.

    2000-03-20

    The maximum power achieved in a wide variety of high-power devices, including electron and ion diodes, z pinches, and microwave generators, is presently limited by anode-cathode gap breakdown. A frequently-discussed hypothesis for this effect is ionization of fast neutral atoms injected throughout the anode-cathode gap during the power pulse. The authors describe a newly-developed diagnostic tool that provides the first direct test of this hypothesis. Time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy is used to directly probe fast neutral atoms with 1 mm spatial resolution in the 10 mm anode-cathode gap of the SABRE 5 MV, 1 TW applied-B ion diode. Absorption spectra collected during Ar RF glow discharges and with CO{sub 2} gas fills confirm the reliability of the diagnostic technique. Throughout the 50--100 ns ion diode pulses no measurable neutral absorption is seen, setting upper limits of 0.12--1.5 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup {minus}3} for ground state fast neutral atom densities of H, C, N, O, F. The absence of molecular absorption bands also sets upper limits of 0.16--1.2 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup {minus}3} for common simple molecules. These limits are low enough to rule out ionization throughout the gap as a breakdown mechanism. This technique can now be applied to quantify the role of neutral atoms in other high-power devices.

  19. Inner-shell Photoionization Studies of Neutral Atomic Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, W. C.; Jonauskas, V.; Lindle, D. W.; Sant'Anna, M. M.; Savin, D. W.

    2016-02-01

    Inner-shell ionization of a 1s electron by either photons or electrons is important for X-ray photoionized objects such as active galactic nuclei and electron-ionized sources such as supernova remnants. Modeling and interpreting observations of such objects requires accurate predictions for the charge state distribution (CSD), which results as the 1s-hole system stabilizes. Due to the complexity of the complete stabilization process, few modern calculations exist and the community currently relies on 40-year-old atomic data. Here, we present a combined experimental and theoretical study for inner-shell photoionization of neutral atomic nitrogen for photon energies of 403-475 eV. Results are reported for the total ion yield cross section, for the branching ratios for formation of N+, {{{N}}}2+, and {{{N}}}3+, and for the average charge state. We find significant differences when comparing to the data currently available to the astrophysics community. For example, while the branching ratio to {{{N}}}2+ is somewhat reduced, that for N+ is greatly increased, and that to {{{N}}}3+, which was predicted to be zero, grows to ≈ 10% at the higher photon energies studied. This work demonstrates some of the shortcomings in the theoretical CSD data base for inner-shell ionization and points the way for the improvements needed to more reliably model the role of inner-shell ionization of cosmic plasmas.

  20. Scheme for Low Energy Beam Transport with a Non-Neutralized Section

    SciTech Connect

    Shemyakin, A.; Prost, L.

    2015-04-23

    A typical Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) design relies on dynamics with nearly complete beam space charge neutralization over the entire length of the LEBT. This paper argues that, for a beam with modest perveance and uniform current density distribution when generated at the source, a downstream portion of the LEBT can be un-neutralized without significant emittance growth.

  1. Measuring parity nonconservation with a single trapped atomic ion or with trapped neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Fortson, E.N.

    1993-05-01

    We have begun a measurement of atomic party nonconservation (PNC) by a new approach that utilizes the remarkable sensitivity of a single trapped atomic ion. A Ba{sup +} ion in the 6{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} ground state, trapped in an RF electric potential well and cooled to an orbit much smaller than optical wavelengths, is illuminated with intense laser light tuned to the 6S-5D electric quadrupole transition at 2.05 {mu}m. PNC interference causes a light shift of the Larmor precession frequency of order 0.3 Hz, creating a detectable rotation of the electron spin in the ground state. The accuracy may be sufficient to provide a valuable test of electroweak theory either with a single barium isotope or with a string of isotopes to cancel the uncertainties in PNC due to atomic structure. The current status of the barium ion experiment will be discussed, together with the prospects for applying the PNC light shift technique also to neutral atoms with long lived excited states, such as cooled, optically confined neutral barium.

  2. Performance of the KTeV high-energy neutral kaon beam at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bocean, V.

    1998-06-01

    The performance of the primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E832 and E799-II is reviewed. The beam was commissioned in the summer of 1996 and initially operated for approximately one year. The report includes results on the primary beam, target station including primary beam dump and muon sweeping system, neutral beam collimation system, and alignment.

  3. Designing Neutralized Drift Compression for Focusing of Intense Ion Beam Pulses in a Background Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kaganovich, I.D.; Davidson, R.C.; Dorf, M.; Startsev, E.A.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Lee, E.P.; Lidia, S.M.; Logan, B.G.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Welch, D.R.; Sefkow, A.B.

    2009-04-28

    Neutralized drift compression offers an effective method for particle beam focusing and current amplification. In neutralized drift compression, a linear radial and longitudinal velocity drift is applied to a beam pulse, so that the beam pulse compresses as it drifts in the drift-compression section. The beam intensity can increase more than a factor of 100 in both the radial and longitudinal directions, resulting in more than 10,000 times increase in the beam number density during this process. The self-electric and self-magnetic fields can prevent tight ballistic focusing and have to be neutralized by supplying neutralizing electrons. This paper presents a survey of the present theoretical understanding of the drift compression process and plasma neutralization of intense particle beams. The optimal configuration of focusing and neutralizing elements is discussed in this paper.

  4. Negative hydrogen ion source for TOKAMAK neutral beam injector (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okumura, Y.; Fujiwara, Y.; Kashiwagi, M.; Kitagawa, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Morishita, T.; Hanada, M.; Takayanagi, T.; Taniguchi, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2000-02-01

    Intense negative ion source producing multimegawatt hydrogen/deuterium negative ion beams has been developed for the neutral beam injector (NBI) in TOKAMAK thermonuclear fusion machines. Negative ions are produced in a cesium seeded multi-cusp plasma generator via volume and surface processes, and accelerated with a multistage electrostatic accelerator. The negative ion source for JT-60U has produced 18.5 A/360 keV (6.7 MW) H- and 14.3 A/380 keV (5.4 MW) D- ion beams at average current densities of 11 mA/cm2 (H-) and 8.5 mA/cm2 (D-). A high energy negative ion source has been developed for the next generation TOKAMAK such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The source has demonstrated to accelerate negative ions up to 1 MeV, the energy required for ITER. Higher negative ion current density of more than 20 mA/cm2 was obtained in the ITER concept sources. It was confirmed that the consumption rate of cesium is small enough to operate the source for a half year in ITER-NBI without maintenance.

  5. Electron beam injection during active experiments. I - Electromagnetic wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winglee, R. M.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The wave emissions produced in Echo 7 experiment by active injections of electron beams were investigated to determine the properties of the electromagnetic and electrostatic fields for both the field-aligned and cross-field injection in such experiments and to evaluate the sources of free energy and relative efficiencies for the generation of the VLF and HF emissions. It is shown that, for typical beam energies in active experiments, electromagnetic effects do not substantially change the bulk properties of the beam, spacecraft charging, and plasma particle acceleration. Through simulations, beam-generated whistlers; fundamental z-mode and harmonic x-mode radiation; and electrostatic electron-cyclotron, upper-hybrid, Langmuir, and lower-hybrid waves were identified. The characteristics of the observed wave spectra were found to be sensitive to both the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the cyclotron frequency and the angle of injection relative to the magnetic field.

  6. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-10-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.

  7. Comparison of experimental data and 3D simulations of ion beam neutralization from the neutralized transport experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Thoma, C.; Welch, D.R.; Yu, S.S.; Henestroza, E.; Roy, P.K.; Eylon, S.; Gilson, E.P.

    2004-09-22

    The Neutralized Transport Experiment (NTX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been designed to study the final focus and neutralization of high perveance ion beams for applications in heavy ion fusion (HIF) and high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments. Pre-formed plasmas in the last meter before the target of the scaled experiment provide a source of electrons which neutralize the ion current and prevent the space-charge induced spreading of the beam spot. NTX physics issues are discussed and experimental data is analyzed and compared with 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Along with detailed target images, 4D phase-space data of the NTX at the entrance of the neutralization region has been acquired. This data is used to provide a more accurate beam distribution with which to initialize the simulation. Previous treatments have used various idealized beam distributions which lack the detailed features of the experimental ion beam images. Simulation results are compared with NTX experimental measurements for 250 keV K{sup +} ion beams with dimensionless perveance of 1-7 x 10{sup -4}. In both simulation and experiment, the deduced beam charge neutralization is close to the predicted maximum value.

  8. Thermal effects in high power cavities for photoneutralization of D- beams in future neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Donatella; Feng, Jiatai; Pichot, Mikhaël; Chaibi, Walid

    2015-04-01

    Photoneutralization may represent a key issue in the neutral beam injectors for future fusion reactors. In fact, photodetachment based neutralization combined with an energy recovery system increase the injector overall efficiency up to 60%. This is the SIPHORE injector concept in which photoneutralization is realized in a refolded cavity [1]. However, about 1 W of the several megaWatts intracavity power is absorbed by the mirrors coatings and gives rise to important thermoelastic distortions. This is expected to change the optical behavior of the mirrors and reduce the enhancement factor of the cavity. In this paper, we estimate these effects and we propose a thermal system to compensate it.

  9. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, N.C.; Limbach, P.A.; Shomo, R.E. II; Marshall, A.G. ); Appelhans, A.D.; Delmore, J.E. )

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF{sup {minus}}{sub 6} fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H){sup +} ions) of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with {ital tetra}-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol{sup ( )} sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon{sup ( )}. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  10. Fast neutral beam ion source coupled to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Nicholas C.; Limbach, Patrick A.; Shomo, Ronald E., II; Marshall, Alan G.; Appelhans, Anthony D.; Delmore, James E.

    1991-11-01

    The coupling of an autoneutralizing SF-6 fast ion-beam gun to a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT/ICR) mass spectrometer is described. The fast neutral beam provides for secondary-ion-type FT/ICR mass analysis [e.g., production of abundant pseudomolecular (M+H)+ ions] of involatile samples without the need for external ion injection, since ions are formed at the entrance to the ICR ion trap. The design, construction, and testing of the hybrid instrument are described. The feasibility of the experiment (for both broadband and high-resolution FT/ICR positive-ion mass spectra) is demonstrated with tetra-butylammonium bromide and a Tylenol■ sample. The ability to analyze high molecular weight polymers with high mass resolution is demonstrated for Teflon■. All of the advantages of the fast neutral beam ion source previously demonstrated with quadrupole mass analysis are preserved, and the additional advantages of FT/ICR mass analysis (e.g., high mass resolving power, ion trapping) are retained.

  11. Measurements of the toroidal plasma rotation velocity in TFTR major-radius compression experiments with auxiliary neutral beam heating

    SciTech Connect

    Bitter, M.; Scott, S.; Wong, K.L.; Goldston, R.J.; Grek, B.; von Goeler, S.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, D.

    1986-07-01

    The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted TiXXI-K..cap alpha.. line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range from 2.1 to 3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range from 1.8 to 3.0 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -2/. The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is in agreement with results from modeling calculations which assume classical slowing-down of the injected fast deuterium ions and momentum damping at the rate established in the precompression plasma.

  12. Implementation of a 3D halo neutral model in the TRANSP code and application to projected NSTX-U plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medley, S. S.; Liu, D.; Gorelenkova, M. V.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.

    2016-02-01

    A 3D halo neutral code developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and implemented for analysis using the TRANSP code is applied to projected National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U plasmas). The legacy TRANSP code did not handle halo neutrals properly since they were distributed over the plasma volume rather than remaining in the vicinity of the neutral beam footprint as is actually the case. The 3D halo neutral code uses a ‘beam-in-a-box’ model that encompasses both injected beam neutrals and resulting halo neutrals. Upon deposition by charge exchange, a subset of the full, one-half and one-third beam energy components produce first generation halo neutrals that are tracked through successive generations until an ionization event occurs or the descendant halos exit the box. The 3D halo neutral model and neutral particle analyzer (NPA) simulator in the TRANSP code have been benchmarked with the Fast-Ion D-Alpha simulation (FIDAsim) code, which provides Monte Carlo simulations of beam neutral injection, attenuation, halo generation, halo spatial diffusion, and photoemission processes. When using the same atomic physics database, TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations achieve excellent agreement on the spatial profile and magnitude of beam and halo neutral densities and the NPA energy spectrum. The simulations show that the halo neutral density can be comparable to the beam neutral density. These halo neutrals can double the NPA flux, but they have minor effects on the NPA energy spectrum shape. The TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations also suggest that the magnitudes of beam and halo neutral densities are relatively sensitive to the choice of the atomic physics databases.

  13. Current neutralization and focusing of intense ion beams with a plasma-filled solenoidal lens. I

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, B.V.; Sudan, R.N.

    1996-12-01

    The response of the magnetized plasma in an axisymmetric, plasma-filled, solenoidal magnetic lens, to intense light ion beam injection is studied. The lens plasma fill is modeled as an inertialess, resistive, electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) fluid since characteristic beam times {tau} satisfy 2{pi}/{omega}{sub {ital pe}},2{pi}/{Omega}{sub {ital e}}{lt}{tau}{le}2{pi}/{Omega}{sub {ital i}} ({omega}{sub {ital pe}} is the electron plasma frequency and {Omega}{sub {ital e},{ital i}} are the electron, ion gyrofrequencies). When the electron collisionality satisfies {nu}{sub {ital e}}{lt}{Omega}{sub {ital e}}, the linear plasma response is determined by whistler wave dynamics. In this case, current neutralization of the beam is reduced on the time scale for whistler wave transit across the beam. The transit time is inversely proportional to the electron density and proportional to the angle of incidence of the beam with respect to the applied solenoidal field. In the collisional regime ({nu}{sub {ital e}}{gt}{Omega}{sub {ital e}}) the plasma return currents decay on the normal diffusive time scale determined by the conductivity. The analysis is supported by two-and-one-half dimensional hybrid particle-in-cell simulations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Neutral beam system for the C-2-Upgrade Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Sergey; Smirnov, Artem; Clary, Ryan; Dunaevsky, Alexandr; Isakov, Ivan; Magee, Richard; Matvienko, Vasily; van Drie, Alan; Deichuli, Petr; Ivanov, Alexandr; Pirogov, Konstantin; Sorokin, Aleksey; Stupishin, Nickolay; Vakhrushev, Roman; TAE Team; Budker Team

    2015-11-01

    In the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment, tangential neutral beam injection (NBI), coupled with electrically-biased plasma guns at the plasma ends and advanced surface conditioning, led to dramatic reductions in turbulence-driven losses. Under such conditions, highly reproducible, macroscopically stable, hot FRCs with a significant fast-ion population, total plasma temperature of ~ 1 keV and record lifetimes were achieved. To further improve the FRC sustainment and provide a better coupling with beams, the C-2 device has been upgraded with a new NBI system, which can deliver up to a total of 10 MW of hydrogen beam power (15 keV, 8 ms pulse), by far the largest ever used in compact toroid plasma experiments. The NBI system consists of six positive-ion based injectors featuring flexible, modular design. This presentation will provide an overview of the C-2U NBI system, including: 1) NBI test facility, beam characterization, and acceptance tests, 2) integration with the machine and operating experience, 3) improvements in plasma performance with increased beam power.

  15. Cold atomic beam ion source for focused ion beam applications

    SciTech Connect

    Knuffman, B.; Steele, A. V.; McClelland, J. J.

    2013-07-28

    We report measurements and modeling of an ion source that is based on ionization of a laser-cooled atomic beam. We show a high brightness and a low energy spread, suitable for use in next-generation, high-resolution focused ion beam systems. Our measurements of total ion current as a function of ionization conditions support an analytical model that also predicts the cross-sectional current density and spatial distribution of ions created in the source. The model predicts a peak brightness of 2 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1} and an energy spread less than 0.34 eV. The model is also combined with Monte-Carlo simulations of the inter-ion Coulomb forces to show that the source can be operated at several picoamperes with a brightness above 1 × 10{sup 7} A m{sup −2} sr{sup −1} eV{sup −1}. We estimate that when combined with a conventional ion focusing column, an ion source with these properties could focus a 1 pA beam into a spot smaller than 1 nm. A total current greater than 5 nA was measured in a lower-brightness configuration of the ion source, demonstrating the possibility of a high current mode of operation.

  16. High intensity ion beam injection into the 88-inch cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Wutte, Daniela; Clark, Dave J.; Laune, Bernard; Leitner,Matthaeus A.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    2000-05-31

    Low cross section experiments to produce super-heavyelements have increased the demand for high intensity heavy ion beams atenergies of about 5 MeV/nucleon at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory. Therefore, efforts are underway to increasethe overall ion beam transmission through the axial injection line andthe cyclotron. The ion beam emittance has been measured for various ionmasses and charge states. Beam transport simulations including spacecharge effects were performed for both of the injection line and the ionsource extraction. The relatively low nominal injection voltage of 10 kVwas found to be the main factor for ion beam losses, because of beam blowup due to space charge forces at higher intensities. Consequently,experiments and simulations have been performed at higherinjectionenergies, and it was demonstrated that the ion beams could still becentered in the cyclotron at these energies. Therefore, the new injectorion source VENUS and its ion beam transport system (currently underconstruction at the 88-Inch Cyclotron) are designed for extractionvoltages up to 30 kV.

  17. Compact, maintainable 80-KeV neutral beam module

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.; Molvik, Arthur W.

    1980-01-01

    A compact, maintainable 80-keV arc chamber, extractor module for a neutral beam system immersed in a vacuum of <10.sup.-2 Torr, incorporating a nested 60-keV gradient shield located midway between the high voltage ion source and surrounding grounded frame. The shield reduces breakdown or arcing path length without increasing the voltage gradient, tends to keep electric fields normal to conducting surfaces rather than skewed and reduces the peak electric field around irregularities on the 80-keV electrodes. The arc chamber or ion source is mounted separately from the extractor or ion accelerator to reduce misalignment of the accelerator and to permit separate maintenance to be performed on these systems. The separate mounting of the ion source provides for maintaining same without removing the ion accelerator.

  18. Selective in-plane nitrogen doping of graphene by an energy-controlled neutral beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Takeru; Samukawa, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene promises to improve current electronic devices, sensors, and energy-based devices. To this end, the bonding states between carbon and nitrogen atoms can be manipulated to tailor the properties of the doped graphene. For example, graphitic nitrogen is known to promote desired catalytic activities in graphene fuel-cell systems, resulting from a four-electron reaction. However, established nitrogen-doping methods lack selectivity in dopant chemical identity and in dopant location; both are key factors in graphene property design because the properties depend on the chemical identity and location of the dopant. Here, we utilize a nitrogen neutral beam (NB) technique—with exquisite beam energy control—to dope graphene with nitrogen. Using x-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy, we show that the energy of the nitrogen NB not only determines the chemistry of the nitrogen dopant introduced to graphene, but it also dictates the doping locations within graphene layers.

  19. Selective in-plane nitrogen doping of graphene by an energy-controlled neutral beam.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takeru; Samukawa, Seiji

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphene promises to improve current electronic devices, sensors, and energy-based devices. To this end, the bonding states between carbon and nitrogen atoms can be manipulated to tailor the properties of the doped graphene. For example, graphitic nitrogen is known to promote desired catalytic activities in graphene fuel-cell systems, resulting from a four-electron reaction. However, established nitrogen-doping methods lack selectivity in dopant chemical identity and in dopant location; both are key factors in graphene property design because the properties depend on the chemical identity and location of the dopant. Here, we utilize a nitrogen neutral beam (NB) technique-with exquisite beam energy control-to dope graphene with nitrogen. Using x-ray photoelectron and Raman spectroscopy, we show that the energy of the nitrogen NB not only determines the chemistry of the nitrogen dopant introduced to graphene, but it also dictates the doping locations within graphene layers. PMID:26559390

  20. Emission of energetic neutral atoms from water ice under Ganymede surface-like conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Wurz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The co-rotating plasma around Jupiter precipitates on the surfaces of the jovian moons, where it is not hindered by a local magnetic field. Precipitating ions lead to the emission of energetic neutral atoms, which are produced via backscattering and sputtering processes, from the surface. The European Space Agency's JUICE mission to Jupiter carries as part of the Particle Environment Package experiment an imaging energetic neutral atom spectrometer called the jovian Neutrals Analyzer (JNA). When it is in orbit around Ganymede, JNA will measure the energetic neutral atom flux emitted from the surface of Ganymede in the energy range from 10 eV to 3300 eV. The surface of Ganymede consists of a large fraction of water ice. To characterize the expected energetic neutral atom fluxes from water ice due to precipitating jovian plasma, we impacted protons and singly charged oxygen ions with energies up to 33 keV on a salty water ice target kept at Ganymede surface conditions. Emitted energetic atoms were measured energy- and mass-resolved using the JNA prototype instrument. The data show high yields for energetic neutral atoms per incident ion in the JNA energy range. For incident protons, energetic neutral atom yields between 0.28 at 1 keV and ∼40 at 33 keV were observed. For incident singly charged oxygen ions, the observed energetic neutral atom yield ranged from 0.8 for at 3 keV to ∼170 at 23 keV.

  1. A new type of rocket-borne neutral atom analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asamura, K.; Mukai, T.; Saito, Y.; Kazama, Y.; Machida, S.

    2000-08-01

    A new-type analyzer for measurement of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) in an energy range of 4-40 keV is described. Incoming ENAs are ionized by electron stripping at passage of an ultrathin carbon foil. After post-acceleration (by 3 kV), the particles are guided to a time-of-flight (TOF) section over a wide energy-per-charge bandwidth by means of electrostatic deflection without any potential sweeping for electrodes. Then, their velocity is measured by the TOF technique, with which species can also be identified, because the particle energies are limited to a certain range by the electrostatic deflector and acceleration upon entering the TOF section. A unique feature in the present analyzer is in the rejection method of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) contamination. In contrast to conventional usage of serrated electrodes for EUV attenuation, one of the electrostatic deflection plates is machined to be so flat that EUV photons are guided to a photon trap regardless of wavelength. The TOF device can also be used in a coincidence mode for noise suppression. The present instrument was flown on a sounding rocket, and has successfully measured ENAs precipitating into the low-latitude upper atmosphere from the magnetosphere.

  2. Compact electron-beam source for formation of neutral beams of very low vapor pressure materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutherford, J. A.; Vroom, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    In order to form metal vapors for neutral beam studies, an electron-beam heater and a power supply have been designed. The source, which measures about 30 x 50 x 70 mm, consists of a filament, accelerating plate (defined by pole pieces), and a supported target. The electrons from the filament are focused by the field penetration through a 2 mm slit in the high-voltage cage. They are then accelerated to about 5 kV to a ground plate. The electrons then follow a path in the magnetic field and strike the sample to be heated on its front surface. The assembly is attached to a water-cooled base plate. The electron beam source has produced beams of Ta and C particles with densities of about 10 to the 8th power/cu cm.

  3. Positive and negative ion beam merging system for neutral beam production

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Reijonen, Jani

    2005-12-13

    The positive and negative ion beam merging system extracts positive and negative ions of the same species and of the same energy from two separate ion sources. The positive and negative ions from both sources pass through a bending magnetic field region between the pole faces of an electromagnet. Since the positive and negative ions come from mirror image positions on opposite sides of a beam axis, and the positive and negative ions are identical, the trajectories will be symmetrical and the positive and negative ion beams will merge into a single neutral beam as they leave the pole face of the electromagnet. The ion sources are preferably multicusp plasma ion sources. The ion sources may include a multi-aperture extraction system for increasing ion current from the sources.

  4. The Timing System of the Neutral Beam Injector on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Peng; Hu, Chundong; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Cui, Qinglong; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wu, Deyun; Zhang, Rui; Lin, Yulian

    2015-05-01

    In order to synchronize the elements of the EAST Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) spatially located in several places, a distributed Timing System (TS) is developed in this paper. The timing system provides a clock reference for synchronization and an interlock protection of the EAST NBI system. It sends timing signals to field devices, controls the pulse widths of the timing sequences, and provides a sampling clock for the Data Acquisition System (DAS). The timing system also generates analog waveforms to control power supplies and gas supplies according to the operator's configuration. The timing system is developed on a PXI (PCI eXtensions for Instrumentation) platform consisting of a LabVIEW workstation and a timing control terminal. The timing control terminal consists of a timing node and several control interface crates. Two timing nodes are configured in one beam line. Each node is responsible for the timing sequence, analog generation and feedback control for one ion source. The architecture and implementation of the timing system are presented in this paper.

  5. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandri, S.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.; Poggi, C.

    2011-12-01

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  6. Radiation Safety System for SPIDER Neutral Beam Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sandri, S.; Poggi, C.; Coniglio, A.; D'Arienzo, M.

    2011-12-13

    SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF Plasma only) and MITICA (Megavolt ITER Injector Concept Advanced) are the ITER neutral beam injector (NBI) testing facilities of the PRIMA (Padova Research Injector Megavolt Accelerated) Center. Both injectors accelerate negative deuterium ions with a maximum energy of 1 MeV for MITICA and 100 keV for SPIDER with a maximum beam current of 40 A for both experiments. The SPIDER facility is classified in Italy as a particle accelerator. At present, the design of the radiation safety system for the facility has been completed and the relevant reports have been presented to the Italian regulatory authorities. Before SPIDER can operate, approval must be obtained from the Italian Regulatory Authority Board (IRAB) following a detailed licensing process. In the present work, the main project information and criteria for the SPIDER injector source are reported together with the analysis of hypothetical accidental situations and safety issues considerations. Neutron and photon nuclear analysis is presented, along with special shielding solutions designed to meet Italian regulatory dose limits. The contribution of activated corrosion products (ACP) to external exposure of workers has also been assessed. Nuclear analysis indicates that the photon contribution to worker external exposure is negligible, and the neutron dose can be considered by far the main radiation protection issue. Our results confirm that the injector has no important radiological impact on the population living around the facility.

  7. DIII-D Neutral Beam control system operator interface

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.J.; Campbell, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    A centralized graphical user interface has been added to the DIII-D Neutral Beam (NB) control systems for status monitoring and remote control applications. This user interface provides for automatic data acquisition, alarm detection and supervisory control of the four NB programmable logic controllers (PLC) as well as the Mode Control PLC. These PLCs are used for interlocking, control and status of the NB vacuum pumping, gas delivery, and water cooling systems as well as beam mode status and control. The system allows for both a friendly user interface as well as a safe and convenient method of communicating with remote hardware that formerly required interns to access. In the future, to enable high level of control of PLC subsystems, complete procedures is written and executed at the touch of a screen control panel button. The system consists of an IBM compatible 486 computer running the FIX DMACS{trademark} for Windows{trademark} data acquisition and control interface software, a Texas Instruments/Siemens communication card and Phoenix Digital optical communications modules. Communication is achieved via the TIWAY (Texas Instruments protocol link utilizing both fiber optic communications and a copper local area network (LAN). Hardware and software capabilities will be reviewed. Data and alarm reporting, extended monitoring and control capabilities will also be discussed.

  8. Laboratory studies of the charge neutralization of a rocket payload during electron beam emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, W.; Whalen, B. A.; Harris, F. R.; Mcnamara, A. G.; Konradi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The charge neutralization of an electrically-isolated rocket payload emitting an energetic electron beam has been studied in experiments in the large vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center. The introduction of an RF-discharge-produced ambient plasma density (10,000 to 50,000 per cu cm) reduces the payload potential to 200 V for low current (1 and 10 ma) beams. The ignition of the beam-plasma discharge provides an efficient neutralization process for higher current beams.

  9. ATOMIC BEAM STUDIES IN THE RHIC H-JET POLARIMETER.

    SciTech Connect

    MAKDISI,Y.; ZELENSKI,A.; GRAHAM,D.; KOKHANOVSKI,S.; MAHLER,G.; NASS,A.; RITTER,J.; ZUBETS,V.; ET AL.

    2005-01-28

    The results of atomic beam production studies are presented. Improved cooling of the atoms before jet formation in the dissociator cold nozzle apparently reduces the atomic beam velocity spread and improves beam focusing conditions. A carefully designed sextupole separating (and focusing) magnet system takes advantage of the high brightness source. As a result a record beam intensity of a 12.4 {center_dot} 10{sup 16} atoms/s was obtained within 10 mm acceptance at the collision point. The results of the polarization dilution factor measurements (by the hydrogen molecules at the collision point) are also presented.

  10. Global Energetic Neutral Atom Map of the Lunar Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, Audrey; Wurz, Peter; Barabash, Stas; Wieser, Martin; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Lue, Charles; Holmström, Mats; Bhardwaj, Anil; Dhanya, Mb; Asamura, Kazushi

    2013-04-01

    Until recently, it was tacitly assumed that the solar wind ions that impinge onto the lunar surface are almost completely absorbed ( < 1% reflection). This assumption has been invalidated by recent observations made by IBEX and SARA/Chandrayaan-1, which showed an average global energetic neutral atom (ENA) albedo of 10% - 20% (e.g. McComas et al. [GRL 2009] and Wieser et al. [PSS, 2009]). Having analysed all available measurements from the Chandrayaan-1 Energetic Neutral Analyzer (SARA/CENA), we present two global ENA maps of the lunar surface. The low energy map contains ENAs in the energy range (7 eV - 169 eV) and the high energy map contains ENAs in the energy range (169 eV - 3.5 keV). Together, the maps contain all ENAs within SARA/CENA's complete energy range (7 eV - 3.5 keV). The maps cover ~82% of the lunar surface, with almost complete coverage of the lunar farside. In the high energy part of the lunar ENA map several magnetic anomalies can be identified, whereas in the low energy part only the large magnetic anomaly associated with the South Pole-Aitken basin is clearly observed. By comparing SARA/CENA ENA maps to different lunar magnetic field maps, we found that they correlate better with the surface crustal magnetic field map than with the map showing the magnetic field at an altitude of 30 km. This implies that the main interaction between the solar wind plasma and the Moon occurs close to surface. Our high energy ENA map exhibits a strong anti-correlation with the map showing the flux of lunar deflected protons (Lue et al. [GRL 2011]) and appears to be an inverted image thereof. In addition, features in the ENA maps correlate with albedo features of swirls in the South Pole-Aitken basin. No obvious correlation with either the lunar topography or lunar geology map was found. The strength of ENA imaging together with ion reflection imaging lies in the fact that details of solar wind interaction with surfaces in the presence of electric and magnetic

  11. The global morphology of the Europa neutral torus from Cassini Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) observations and implications for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, P. C.; Mauk, B.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C.; Barabash, S. V.

    2013-12-01

    From about December 2000 to January 2001 the Ion Neutral Camera (INCA) on board the Cassini spacecraft imaged Jupiter in Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) that are created when singly charged ions charge exchange with neutral gas atoms or molecules. The INCA observations were obtained from a distance of about 137-250 Jovian planetary radii (RJ) over an energy range from about 10 to 300 keV. We present underlying neutral torus gas morphologies by simulating INCA images using an empirical ion distribution model and a range of theoretical gas model distributions. Just like Mauk et al. (2003), who used a different analysis technique, we find that the INCA images are consistent with a neutral torus at the orbital distance of Europa (9.5 RJ). However, within the limitations of instrument resolution, we present also possible solutions of a longitudinally asymmetric torus distribution and its implication for neutral gas release and loss rates from Europa. The Jovian Energetic Neutral and Ions (JENI) camera is the second generation ENA camera based on INCA and was selected for the science payload of the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE) mission, planned for launch around 2022 and orbit insertion around Jupiter in 2030. Using the same forward simulation technique as above, we use the INCA observations to demonstrate what we expect the JENI camera to observe in orbit around Jupiter and Ganymede.

  12. An Introduction to the Supersonic Molecular Beam Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, En-yao

    2001-04-01

    Recently a new fuelling method with supersonic molecular beam injection (MBI) has been developed and used in the tokamaks experiments successfully. It is economical to develop and maintain. The advantages of supersonic MBI compared with the conventional of gas-puffing method are as follows: Deep deposition of fuel, better fuelling efficiency, reduced recycling and pure plasma. Particle and energy confinement can be improved and density limit extended. This review described the Laval nozzle molecular beam and a simple collective model for the injection of a supersonic MBI into the tokamak plasma.

  13. TMX-Upgrade neutral-beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, B.; Kane, R.J.; Wong, R.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Moore, T.L.

    1981-10-05

    The TMX experiment proved that axial confinement of central-cell ions is improved ninefold by the electrostatic potential of end-cell plasmas. The TMX Upgrade task is to improve this confinement further. This paper discusses the injector system aspects of the TMX Upgrade.

  14. Continuous beam of laser-cooled Yb atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathod, K. D.; Singh, Alok K.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2013-05-01

    We demonstrate the launching of laser-cooled Yb atoms in a continuous atomic beam. The continuous cold beam has significant advantages over the more-common pulsed fountain, which was also demonstrated by us recently. The cold beam is formed in the following steps: i) atoms from a thermal beam are first Zeeman-slowed to a small final velocity; ii) the slowed atoms are captured in a two-dimensional magneto-optic trap (2D-MOT); and iii) atoms are launched continuously in the vertical direction using two sets of moving-molasses beams, inclined at ±15° to the vertical. The cooling transition used is the strongly allowed {^1S}_0 \\rightarrow {^1P}_1 transition at 399 nm. We capture about 7 × 106 atoms in the 2D-MOT, and then launch them with a vertical velocity of 13 m/s at a longitudinal temperature of 125(6) mK.

  15. Arc discharge regulation of a megawatt hot cathode bucket ion source for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Yahong; Hu Chundong; Liu Sheng; Jiang Caichao; Li Jun; Liang Lizhen; Collaboration: NBI Team

    2012-01-15

    Arc discharge of a hot cathode bucket ion source tends to be unstable what attributes to the filament self-heating and energetic electrons backstreaming from the accelerator. A regulation method, which based on the ion density measurement by a Langmuir probe, is employed for stable arc discharge operation and long pulse ion beam generation. Long pulse arc discharge of 100 s is obtained based on this regulation method of arc power. It establishes a foundation for the long pulse arc discharge of a megawatt ion source, which will be utilized a high power neutral beam injection device.

  16. Compact, Continuous Beam Cold Atom Clock for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buell, Walter

    2000-06-01

    Highly stable atomic frequency standards are of increasing importance for a variety of space applications, ranging from communication to navigation and time transfer to tests of fundamental science. The requirements for an atomic clock vary significantly depending on the application, and for many space systems compactness and robust design are at a premium and stability dominates over absolute accuracy. We report on progress with our design for a compact Cs beam atomic clock suitable for space applications and featuring a cold atomic beam source based on a single beam, conical mirror MOT with a hole at the apex to produce a low velocity high flux atomic beam. This cold atomic beam is then used in a laser-pumped Ramsey clock, with the clock signal derived from either a microwave C-field or alternatively by Raman resonance between the Ramsey fields. The cold atom source produces a continuous beam, which relaxes requirements on the local oscillator as compared with pulsed sources. In order to reduce light shifts from the MOT light and improve signal-to-noise, the atomic beam is optically deflected and transversely cooled upon exiting the MOT's conical reflector. We estimate that the shot-noise-limited stability achievable with this physics package can be two to three orders of magnitude better than current cesium beam atomic clocks used in space applications. We present our latest experimental progress towards a working frequency standard.

  17. Elegant impulser developed for flat beam injection

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, M. J., LLNL

    1998-05-26

    The following report describes the design, construction, and checkout of a high-voltage (HV) impulser built for the heavy ion fusion (HIF) project [1]. The purpose of this impulser is to provide an adjustable diode voltage source of sufficient quality and level to allow the optimization of beam transport and accelerator sections of HIF [2, 3]. An elegant, low-impedance, high-energy storage capacitor circuit has been selected for this application. Circuit parameters of the retrofit to the diode region [4] have been included to provide the controlled rise time. The critical part of this circuit that is common to all candidates is the impedance matching component. The following report provides a description of the implemented circuit, the basic circuit variables for wave shaping, screening techniques revealing the weakest circuit component, and the resulting output of the injector.

  18. Development progresses of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector in fusion devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D. H.; Jeong, S. H.; Kim, T. S.; Park, M.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.

    2014-02-01

    A large-area RF (radio frequency)-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER and DEMO. RF ion sources for the production of positive hydrogen (deuterium) ions have been successfully developed for the neutral beam heating systems at IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Germany. The first long-pulse ion source has been developed successfully with a magnetic bucket plasma generator including a filament heating structure for the first NBI system of the KSTAR tokamak. There is a development plan for an RF ion source at KAERI to extract the positive ions, which can be applied for the KSTAR NBI system and to extract the negative ions for future fusion devices such as the Fusion Neutron Source and Korea-DEMO. The characteristics of RF-driven plasmas and the uniformity of the plasma parameters in the test-RF ion source were investigated initially using an electrostatic probe.

  19. Development progresses of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector in fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Chang, D H; Jeong, S H; Kim, T S; Park, M; Lee, K W; In, S R

    2014-02-01

    A large-area RF (radio frequency)-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER and DEMO. RF ion sources for the production of positive hydrogen (deuterium) ions have been successfully developed for the neutral beam heating systems at IPP (Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics) in Germany. The first long-pulse ion source has been developed successfully with a magnetic bucket plasma generator including a filament heating structure for the first NBI system of the KSTAR tokamak. There is a development plan for an RF ion source at KAERI to extract the positive ions, which can be applied for the KSTAR NBI system and to extract the negative ions for future fusion devices such as the Fusion Neutron Source and Korea-DEMO. The characteristics of RF-driven plasmas and the uniformity of the plasma parameters in the test-RF ion source were investigated initially using an electrostatic probe. PMID:24593580

  20. A compact system for single site atom loading of a neutral atom qubit array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Brad; Hughes, Steven; McBride, Sterling; Michalchuk, Joey; Anderson, Dana

    2013-05-01

    We present progress towards single atom loading from a magneto optical trap reservoir to a bottle beam (BoB) array trap site for use in quantum computation. Our procedure involves vertically transporting cesium atoms via a moving molasses MOT from a 3D MOT chamber into a six sided, AR-coated, high optical access UHV science chamber. The cesium atoms are to be horizontally displaced 100 μm to a 7 × 7 array of blue-detuned BoB traps. Displacement of the atoms will be accomplished by means of a moving standing wave dipole trap. The single-site loading experiment will take place in the Atomic Qubit Array Cell (AQuA Cell) which is a compact, high performance UHV system that utilizes new miniature silicon and glass ion pump technology. The entire AQuA Cell is 0.6 liters. The cell, cooling, and transport optomechanics is incorporated in a package occupying about 0.028 cubic meters.

  1. A compact system for single site atom loading of a neutral atom qubit array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Brad; Hughes, Steven; McBride, Sterling; Michalchuk, Joey; Anderson, Dana Z.

    2015-05-01

    We present progress towards single atom loading from a magneto optical trap reservoir to a bottle beam (BoB) array trap site for use in quantum computation. Our procedure involves vertically transporting cesium atoms via a moving molasses MOT from a 3D MOT chamber into a six sided, AR-coated, high optical access UHV science chamber. The cesium atoms are to be horizontally displaced 100 μm to a 7 × 7 array of blue-detuned BoB traps. Displacement of the atoms will be accomplished by means of a moving standing wave dipole trap. The single-site loading experiment will take place in the Atomic Qubit Array Cell (AQuA Cell) which is a compact, high performance UHV system that utilizes new miniature silicon and glass ion pump technology. The entire AQuA Cell is 0.6 liters. The cell, cooling, and transport optomechanics is incorporated in a package occupying about 0.028 cubic meters. Funding provided by IARPA MQCO.

  2. Precision measurements on the photoionization of neutral atomic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolte, Wayne

    2016-05-01

    In contrast to studies on rare gas atoms, experimental studies of open-shell atoms offers very challenging problems, such as creation of the atom, low signal, purity and stability. Because of this, studies of inner-shell excitations for open shell atoms are limited. In this talk I will discuss precision experimental measurements for photoionization of atomic oxygen, nitrogen, and chlorine over the last two decades on various beamlines at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories, Advanced Light Source.

  3. Transport of neutral atoms and molecules in TFCX

    SciTech Connect

    Boley, C.D.

    1984-09-01

    The distribution of neutrals in the proposed reactor TFCX has been modeled by the 3-D Monte Carlo neutral transport code DEGAS, which has been run in conjunction with the 1-1/2-D time-dependent plasma transport code WHIST. The former code contains the best available treatment of neutral-particle physics, including a selection of wall reflection models. The latter code has a comprehensive set of plasma transport coefficients, an MHD equilibrium package, and provision for source terms such as those involving neutrals. It has a simple scrape-off model involving sound-speed flow to the neutralizer plates. The codes are run in iteration, so that the flux-surface averaged particle and energy sources due to interactions with neutrals are consistent with the plasma profiles. The design considered here has a bottom limiter with a pumping plenum. Results are given for the power balance, the mutually consistent plasma and neutral distributions set up in the edge region, the neutral density in the plenum, and the charge-exchange power deposition and erosion along the limiter.

  4. Development of a plasma generator for a long pulse ion source for neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kim, B. R.; Seo, C. S.; Jin, J. T.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.; Oh, B. H.; Kim, J.; Bae, Y. S.

    2011-06-01

    A plasma generator for a long pulse H+/D+ ion source has been developed. The plasma generator was designed to produce 65 A H+/D+ beams at an energy of 120 keV from an ion extraction area of 12 cm in width and 45 cm in length. Configuration of the plasma generator is a multi-cusp bucket type with SmCo permanent magnets. Dimension of a plasma chamber is 25 cm in width, 59 cm in length, and 32.5 cm in depth. The plasma generator was designed and fabricated at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Source plasma generation and beam extraction tests for hydrogen coupling with an accelerator of the KSTAR ion source have been performed at the KSTAR neutral beam test stand under the agreement of Japan-Korea collaborative experiment. Spatial uniformity of the source plasma at the extraction region was measured using Langmuir probes and ±7% of the deviation from an averaged ion saturation current density was obtained. A long pulse test of the plasma generation up to 200 s with an arc discharge power of 70 kW has been successfully demonstrated. The arc discharge power satisfies the requirement of the beam production for the KSTAR NBI. A 70 keV, 41 A, 5 s hydrogen ion beam has been extracted with a high arc efficiency of 0.9 -1.1 A/kW at a beam extraction experiment. A deuteron yield of 77% was measured even at a low beam current density of 73 mA/cm2.

  5. Development of a plasma generator for a long pulse ion source for neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, K.; Dairaku, M.; Tobari, H.; Kashiwagi, M.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; Kim, T. S.; Kim, B. R.; Seo, C. S.; Jin, J. T.; Lee, K. W.; In, S. R.; Oh, B. H.; Kim, J.; Bae, Y. S.

    2011-06-15

    A plasma generator for a long pulse H{sup +}/D{sup +} ion source has been developed. The plasma generator was designed to produce 65 A H{sup +}/D{sup +} beams at an energy of 120 keV from an ion extraction area of 12 cm in width and 45 cm in length. Configuration of the plasma generator is a multi-cusp bucket type with SmCo permanent magnets. Dimension of a plasma chamber is 25 cm in width, 59 cm in length, and 32.5 cm in depth. The plasma generator was designed and fabricated at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Source plasma generation and beam extraction tests for hydrogen coupling with an accelerator of the KSTAR ion source have been performed at the KSTAR neutral beam test stand under the agreement of Japan-Korea collaborative experiment. Spatial uniformity of the source plasma at the extraction region was measured using Langmuir probes and {+-}7% of the deviation from an averaged ion saturation current density was obtained. A long pulse test of the plasma generation up to 200 s with an arc discharge power of 70 kW has been successfully demonstrated. The arc discharge power satisfies the requirement of the beam production for the KSTAR NBI. A 70 keV, 41 A, 5 s hydrogen ion beam has been extracted with a high arc efficiency of 0.9 -1.1 A/kW at a beam extraction experiment. A deuteron yield of 77% was measured even at a low beam current density of 73 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  6. Dual-Beam Atom Laser Driven by Spinor Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Robert; Lundblad, Nathan; Maleki, Lute; Aveline, David

    2007-01-01

    An atom laser now undergoing development simultaneously generates two pulsed beams of correlated Rb-87 atoms. (An atom laser is a source of atoms in beams characterized by coherent matter waves, analogous to a conventional laser, which is a source of coherent light waves.) The pumping mechanism of this atom laser is based on spinor dynamics in a Bose-Einstein condensate. By virtue of the angular-momentum conserving collisions that generate the two beams, the number of atoms in one beam is correlated with the number of atoms in the other beam. Such correlations are intimately linked to entanglement and squeezing in atomic ensembles, and atom lasers like this one could be used in exploring related aspects of Bose-Einstein condensates, and as components of future sensors relying on atom interferometry. In this atom-laser apparatus, a Bose-Einstein condensate of about 2 x 10(exp 6) Rb-87 atoms at a temperature of about 120 micro-K is first formed through all-optical means in a relatively weak singlebeam running-wave dipole trap that has been formed by focusing of a CO2-laser beam. By a technique that is established in the art, the trap is loaded from an ultrahigh-vacuum magnetooptical trap that is, itself, loaded via a cold atomic beam from an upstream two-dimensional magneto-optical trap that resides in a rubidium-vapor cell that is differentially pumped from an adjoining vacuum chamber, wherein are performed scientific observations of the beams ultimately generated by the atom laser.

  7. Neutral Atom Diffusion in a Partially Ionized Prominence Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2010-01-01

    The support of solar prominences is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized. it is necessary to consider in addition the support of the neutral component of the prominence plasma. This support is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material,

  8. Note: Determining the detection efficiency of excited neutral atoms by a microchannel plate detector

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Ben; Zohrabi, M.; Hayes, D.; Ablikim, U.; Jochim, Bethany; Severt, T.; Carnes, K. D.; Ben-Itzhak, I.

    2015-04-15

    We present a method for determining the detection efficiency of neutral atoms relative to keV ions. Excited D* atoms are produced by D{sub 2} fragmentation in a strong laser field. The fragments are detected by a micro-channel plate detector either directly as neutrals or as keV ions following field ionization and acceleration by a static electric field. Moreover, we propose a new mechanism by which neutrals are detected. We show that the ratio of the yield of neutrals and ions can be related to the relative detection efficiency of these species.

  9. Ion internal transport barrier in neutral beam heated plasmas on HL-2A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D. L.; Wei, Y. L.; Liu, L.; Dong, J. Q.; Ida, K.; Itoh, K.; Sun, A. P.; Cao, J. Y.; Shi, Z. B.; Wang, Z. X.; Xiao, Y.; Yuan, B. S.; Du, H. R.; He, X. X.; Chen, W. J.; Ma, Q.; Itoh, S.-I.; Zhao, K. J.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhong, W. L.; Li, Y. G.; Gao, J. M.; Deng, W.; Liu, Yi; Xu, Y.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Ding, X. T.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Yong; HL-2A Team

    2016-05-01

    Ion internal transport barriers (iITBs) are first observed in neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas at the HL-2A tokamak. The position of the barrier foot, in the stationary state, coincides with the q  =  1 surface within its uncertainty of measurement. iITBs can develop more easily at the beginning of NBI heating. Also, iITBs are unstable for the sawtooth plasma. Simulations reveal that the thermal diffusivity of ions (χ i) inside the barrier can be as low as the neoclassical level. It is observed that the flow shear in the stationary iITB state reaches the level required for suppressing the ion temperature gradient mode instability, which indicates the important role of flow shear in sustaining the iITB.

  10. Review of energy confinement and local transport scaling results in neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.

    1985-05-01

    Over the past several years, tokamak neutral beam injection experiments have evolved from the brute force study of the effects of global discharge characteristics (I/sub p/, anti n/sub e/, P/sub heat/, etc.) on energy confinement to the appreciation that there are effects more subtle, yet controllable, that may influence confinement dramatically. While this evolution from first to second generation experiments is derived from an empirical understanding of low and high energy confinement modes and how to achieve them operationally, the underlying physics is still unknown. Several theories with different physical bases appear to describe the global scaling of the low confinement mode discharges quite well. On the other hand, little agreement has been found between theoretical and experimentally deduced values of local transport coefficients. While it is known operationally how to achieve any one of several types of high confinement mode discharges, here too, the underlying physics of the transport associated with these modes is poorly understood.

  11. Sparking protection for MFTF-B neutral beam power supplies

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, D.B.

    1983-11-30

    This paper describes the upgrade of MFTF-B Neutral Beam Power Supplies for sparking protection. High performance ion sources spark repeatedly so ion source power supplies must be insensitive to sparking. The hot deck houses the series tetrode, arc and filament supplies, and controls. Hot deck shielding has been upgraded and a continuous shield around the arc, filament, gradient grid, and control cables now extends from the hot deck, through the core snubber, to the source. The shield carries accelerating current and connects only to the source. Shielded source cables go through an outer duct which now connects to a ground plane under the hot deck. This hybrid transmission line is a low inductance path for sparks discharging the stray capacitance of the hot deck and isolation transformers, reducing coupling to building steel. Parallel dc current return cables inside the duct lower inductance to reduce inductive turn-off transients. MOVs to ground further limit surges in the remote power supply return. Single point grounding is at the source. No control or rectifier components have been damaged nor are there any known malfunctions due to sparking up to 80 kV output.

  12. Performance of Doublet III neutral beam injector cryopumping system

    SciTech Connect

    Langhorn, A.R.; Kim, J.; Tupper, M.L.; Williams, J.P.; Fasolo, J.

    1984-04-01

    The Doublet III neutral beam injector system is based on three beamlines; each beamline employs two 80 kV/80 A hydrogen ion sources. Two liquid helium (LHe) cooled cryopanel arrays were designed as an integral part of the beamline in order to provide high differential pumping of hydrogen gas along the beamline. The cryopanel arrays consist of a front (nearer to the torus) disk panel (3 m/sup 2/ each side) with liquid nitrogen (LN/sub 2/) cooled chevrons and a rear cylindrical panel of modified Santeler panels (8 m/sup 2/) which also employs LN/sub 2/ cooled surfaces shielding LHe cooled surfaces. These cryopanels are piped in series. The LHe delivery is based on a closed-loop, forced-flow scheme intended for variable panel temperatures (3.7 to 4.3 K). It uses small tubes for mechanical flexibility and thermal resiliency providing ease of economic defrosting. The cryogenic system consists of a liquefier (100 l/h), a large Dewar, a heat exchanger, and a liquid ring pump. Three beamlines are serviced simultaneously by the system. Pumping speeds measured locally at ionization gauges, were well in excess of the 1.4 x 10/sup 6/ l/s design goal.

  13. Global energy confinement scaling for neutral-beam-heated tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, S.M.; Goldston, R.J.

    1984-10-01

    A total of 677 representative discharges from seven neutral-beam-heated tokamaks has been used to study the parametric scaling of global energy confinement time. Contributions to this data base were from ASDEX, DITE, D-III, ISX-B, PDX, PLT, and TFR, and were taken from results of gettered, L-mode type discharges. Assuming a power law dependence of tau/sub E/ on discharge parameters kappa, I/sub p/, B/sub t/, anti n/sub e/ P/sub tot/, a, and R/a, standard multiple linear regression techniques were used in two steps to determine the scaling. The results indicate that the discharges used in the study are well described by the scaling tau/sub E/ ..cap alpha.. kappa/sup 0.28/ B/sub T//sup -0.09/ I/sub p//sup 1.24/anti n/sub e//sup -0.26/ P/sub tot//sup -0.58/ a/sup 1.16/ (R/a)/sup 1.65/.

  14. Toroidal midplane neutral beam armor and plasma limiter

    DOEpatents

    Kugel, H.W.; Hand, S.W. Jr.; Ksayian, H.

    1985-05-31

    This invention contemplates an armor shield/plasma limiter positioned upon the inner wall of a toroidal vacuum chamber within which is magnetically confined an energetic plasma in a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor. The armor shield/plasma limiter is thus of a general semi-toroidal shape and is comprised of a plurality of adjacent graphite plates positioned immediately adjacent to each other so as to form a continuous ring upon and around the toroidal chamber's inner wall and the reactor's midplane coil. Each plate has a generally semi-circular outer circumference and a recessed inner portion and is comprised of upper and lower half sections positioned immediately adjacent to one another along the midplane of the plate. With the upper and lower half sections thus joined, a channel or duct is provided within the midplane of the plate in which a magnetic flux loop is positioned. The magnetic flux loop is thus positioned immediately adjacent to the fusing toroidal plasma and serves as a diagnostic sensor with the armor shield/plasma limiter minimizing the amount of power from the energetic plasma as well as from the neutral particle beams heating the plasma incident upon the flux loop.

  15. Scattering of dilute thermal atom clouds on optical Weber beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Cedillo, C. L.; Bernon, S.; Hattermann, H.; Fortágh, J.; Jáuregui, R.

    2013-02-01

    We report the experimental observation and a theoretical description of the scattering of free falling dilute thermal clouds of 87Rb atoms by microscopically structured light beams with parabolic-cylindrical symmetry. These structured beams are known in the literature as Weber beams. High-fidelity Weber beams are generated by means of a spatial light modulator and an annular spatial filtering process, which yields a quasipropagation-invariant electromagnetic field in the region of interaction with the atom cloud. The dynamics of the atomic density profile and the phase space distribution of the scattered atoms is explored. A natural dynamical variable of Weber modes is the product of the angular momentum along the axis of propagation of the beam with a component of linear momentum perpendicular to that axis. To pave the way of the understanding about the transfer of this variable, we study the evolution of the analogous atomic variable.

  16. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-15

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density, heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. Transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. It is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.

  17. Comparisons between tokamak fueling of gas puffing and supersonic molecular beam injection in 2D simulations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Y. L.; Wang, Z. H.; Xu, X. Q.; Li, H. D.; Feng, H.; Sun, W. G.

    2015-01-09

    Plasma fueling with high efficiency and deep injection is very important to enable fusion power performance requirements. It is a powerful and efficient way to study neutral transport dynamics and find methods of improving the fueling performance by doing large scale simulations. Furthermore, two basic fueling methods, gas puffing (GP) and supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI), are simulated and compared in realistic divertor geometry of the HL-2A tokamak with a newly developed module, named trans-neut, within the framework of BOUT++ boundary plasma turbulence code [Z. H. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 043019 (2014)]. The physical model includes plasma density,more » heat and momentum transport equations along with neutral density, and momentum transport equations. In transport dynamics and profile evolutions of both plasma and neutrals are simulated and compared between GP and SMBI in both poloidal and radial directions, which are quite different from one and the other. It finds that the neutrals can penetrate about four centimeters inside the last closed (magnetic) flux surface during SMBI, while they are all deposited outside of the LCF during GP. Moreover, it is the radial convection and larger inflowing flux which lead to the deeper penetration depth of SMBI and higher fueling efficiency compared to GP.« less

  18. High current H- ion sources for the large helical device neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Osakabe, M.; Asano, E.; Kawamoto, T.; Akiyama, R.

    1998-02-01

    Two large helical device-neutral beam injector (LHD-NBI) ion sources were fabricated and tested in the test stand for producing a beam of 180 keV×40 A with H- ions. They are Cesiated multicusp ion sources with a rectangular discharge chamber and a single stage multihole accelerator. These are scaled up from the 16 A H- ion sources in the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS). A plasma source with a high aspect ratio was operated stably with an arc power up to ˜300 kW for 10 s, after balancing of the electron emission from the filaments was made. A satisfactorily dense and uniform plasma without mode flip was produced. Electrons accompanied by H- ions were reduced by an extraction grid with the electron trap, instead of straight holes. The electron beam component caused by the stripping of electrons from H- ions was detected with an array of calorimeters at the bottom of the connecting duct. At the first stage of the test, one of the five segment grids of the accelerator was installed. An H- ion current of 5.5 A with a current density of 27.5 mA/cm2 for 0.6 s was obtained with an arc power of 135 kW with Cs introduction. A high arc power efficiency for H- ions was observed. The intense cusp field is considered to be the important factor to improve this. The beam divergence angle at 10.4 m downstream was ˜10 mrad. Since these results satisfied our design, a full segment accelerator was tested in the next stage. Beam conditioning for five segment grids is underway. So far, an H- current of 21.0 A has been obtained at 106 keV for 0.6 s. As a result, we had good prospects for achieving the full specification of LHD-NBI ion sources, especially for achieving higher current and focused beam as well as for long pulse. The neutral beam injection experiment for the LHD is scheduled to start in the middle of 1998.

  19. Stochastic orbit loss of neutral beam ions from NSTX due to toroidal Alfvén eigenmode avalanches

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D. S.; Crocker, N.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Gorelenkova, M.; Kubota, S.; Medley, S. S.; Podestà, M.; Shi, L.; White, R. B.

    2012-12-17

    Short toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) avalanche bursts in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) cause a drop in the neutron rate and could also cause a loss of neutral beam ions at or near the full injection energy over an extended range of pitch angles. The simultaneous loss of wide ranges of pitch angle suggests stochastic transport of the beam ions takes place. When beam ion orbits are followed with a guiding centre code that incorporates the plasma's magnetic equilibrium plus the measured modes, the predicted ranges of lost pitch angle are like those seen in the experiment, with distinct populations of trapped and passing orbits lost. These correspond to domains where the stochasticity extends in the orbit phase space from the region of beam ion deposition to the loss boundary and the trajectories along which modes may transport particles extend from the deposition volume to the loss boundary.

  20. High energy, high current neutral beam injector operation with single stage and two-stage multi-aperture extraction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becherer, R.; Desmons, M.; Fumelli, M.; Raimbault, P.; Valckx, F. P. G.

    1982-12-01

    Neutral beam development for JET injections at FAR laboratory has led to the study of properties of a single stage (triode) and a two-stage (tetrode) multi-aperture extraction system at ion beam powers exceeding the megawatt level and up to 80 keV beam energy. The results of the experimental measurements and of a numerical study of the beam optical qualities and grid power loadings of these systems are presented. Grid power loading levels of less than 1% of the high-voltage drain power were measured in both the triode and the tetrode accelerators. This would allow long pulse operation (10 s with water-cooling) as required for JET. The beam divergence angle (α ≅ 0.7°) and the transmission characteristics were almostidentical. At the same energy, higher current densities, at optimum perveance, were obtained with the triode at a lower electric field stress on the high-voltage gap. The triode offers the additional advantage of being simpler from the mechanical and electrical points of view. Operation of the injection line with an electrostatic beam dump associated with a grounded source is also demonstrated for a 25 ion beam up to 60 keV.

  1. Fast wave current drive in neutral beam heated plasmas on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, C.C.; Forest, C.B.; Pinsker, R.I.

    1997-04-01

    The physics of non-inductive current drive and current profile control using the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak. In non-sawtoothing discharges formed by neutral beam injection (NBI), the radial profile of the fast wave current drive (FWCD) was determined by the response of the loop voltage profile to co, counter, and symmetric antenna phasings, and was found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. The application of counter FWCD increased the magnetic shear reversal of the plasma and delayed the onset of sawteeth, compared to co FWCD. The partial absorption of fast waves by energetic beam ions at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency was also evident from a build up of fast particle pressure near the magnetic axis and a correlated increase in the neutron rate. The anomalous fast particle pressure and neutron rate increased with increasing NBI power and peaked when a harmonic of the deuterium cyclotron frequency passed through the center of the plasma. The experimental FWCD efficiency was highest at 2 T where the interaction between the fast waves and the beam ions was weakest; as the magnetic field strength was lowered, the FWCD efficiency decreased to approximately half of the maximum theoretical value.

  2. High-brilliance Zeeman-slowed cesium atomic beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lison, F.; Schuh, P.; Haubrich, D.; Meschede, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have built a Zeeman-slower apparatus which produces a slow and cold cesium atomic beam. The atomic beam has a mean velocity in the range 35-120 m/s and a high atomic current of more than 2×1010 cold atoms/s. A small longitudinal velocity spread was achieved by optimizing the termination of the slowing process. The measured value of less than 1 m/s is consistent with a numerical simulation of the slowing process. With a magnetic lens and a tilted two-dimensional optical molasses stage, the slow atomic beam is transversely compressed, collimated, and deflected. We achieve a transverse temperature below the Doppler limit. The brilliance of this beam has been determined to be 7×1023 atoms s-1m-2 sr-1. By optical pumping the slow atomic beam can be polarized in the outermost magnetic substates F=4,mF=+/-4, of the cesium ground state. This brilliant beam is an ideal source for experiments in atom optics and atom lithography.

  3. A Fiber Optic Catalytic Sensor for Neutral Atom Measurements in Oxygen Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zaplotnik, Rok; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran

    2012-01-01

    The presented sensor for neutral oxygen atom measurement in oxygen plasma is a catalytic probe which uses fiber optics and infrared detection system to measure the gray body radiation of the catalyst. The density of neutral atoms can be determined from the temperature curve of the probe, because the catalyst is heated predominantly by the dissipation of energy caused by the heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral atoms. The advantages of this sensor are that it is simple, reliable, easy to use, noninvasive, quantitative and can be used in plasma discharge regions. By using different catalyst materials the sensor can also be applied for detection of neutral atoms in other plasmas. Sensor design, operation, example measurements and new measurement procedure for systematic characterization are presented. PMID:22666005

  4. Characteristics of long-pulse negative-ion source in the neutral beam injector of Large Helical Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Oka, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O.; Asano, E.; Kondo, T.; Sato, M.; Shibuya, M.; Komada, S.

    2006-03-01

    The injection duration has been extended beyond 100 s with a high-power hydrogen negative-ion source in a negative-ion-based neutral beam injector of the Large Helical Device superconducting fusion machine. The ion source is a cesium-seeded source with a thermally insulated plasma grid (PG), and optimized for a short-pulse operation of 2-3 s. The negative-ion production efficiency is strongly dependent on the PG temperature, and in the long-pulse operation it exceeds an appropriate temperature range of 200-300 °C, at which the optimum cesium coverage is formed on the PG surface. By making the PG temperature rise slower with a reduced arc power, the injection duration was extended to 110 s with an injection power of 110 kW. To extend the injection duration further with a higher injection power, stainless-steel cooling tubes have been mechanically attached to the PG for suppression of the PG temperature rise in the long-pulse operation. As a result, a long-pulse injection with an injection power of 200 kW was extended to 128 s until it was manually stopped due to the plasma collapse. However, the beam duration could be limited to around 3 min because the PG temperature rise was not saturated due to a low thermal conductivity with the thickness of the stainless-steel tube determined so that the short-pulse operation is also possible. On the other hand, the longitudinal beam distribution in a grid area of 25×125cm2 is observed to be more uniform than that with the uncooled PG. The temperature distribution of the individual grid parts becomes more uniform with the cooled PG, which should contribute to the improvement of the beam uniformity.

  5. Heliospheric Neutral Atom Spectra Between 0.01 and 6 keV fom IBEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuselier, S. A.; Allegrini, F.; Bzowski, M.; Funsten, H. O.; Ghielmetti, A. G.; Gloeckler, G.; Heirtzler, D.; Janzen, P.; Kubiak, M.; Kucharek, H.; McComas, D. J.; Moebius, E.; Moore, T. E.; Petrinec, S. M.; Quinn, M.; Reisenfeld, D.; Saul, L. A.; Scheer, J. A.; Schwardron, N.; Trattner, K. J.; Vanderspek, R.; Wurz, P.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008 December, the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has been making detailed observations of neutrals from the boundaries of the heliosphere using two neutral atom cameras with overlapping energy ranges. The unexpected, yet defining feature discovered by IBEX is a Ribbon that extends over the energy range from about 0.2 to 6 keV. This Ribbon is superposed on a more uniform, globally distributed heliospheric neutral population. With some important exceptions, the focus of early IBEX studies has been on neutral atoms with energies greater than approx. 0.5 keV. With nearly three years of science observations, enough low-energy neutral atom measurements have been accumulated to extend IBEX observations to energies less than approx. 0.5 keV. Using the energy overlap of the sensors to identify and remove backgrounds, energy spectra over the entire IBEX energy range are produced. However, contributions by interstellar neutrals to the energy spectrum below 0.2 keV may not be completely removed. Compared with spectra at higher energies, neutral atom spectra at lower energies do not vary much from location to location in the sky, including in the direction of the IBEX Ribbon. Neutral fluxes are used to show that low energy ions contribute approximately the same thermal pressure as higher energy ions in the heliosheath. However, contributions to the dynamic pressure are very high unless there is, for example, turbulence in the heliosheath with fluctuations of the order of 50-100 km/s.

  6. Stark and Zeeman Deceleration of Neutral Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, S. D.; Vliegen, E.; Sprecher, D.; Vanhaecke, N.; Andrist, M.; Schmutz, H.; Meier, U.; Meier, B. H.; Merkt, F.

    2008-04-01

    Argon and hydrogen atoms excited to Rydberg Stark states in supersonic expansions have been decelerated using inhomogeneous electric fields. In the case of hydrogen, the atoms have been decelerated from an initial velocity of 700 m/s to zero velocity in the lab frame using time-dependent inhomogeneous electric fields and subsequently stored in two- and three-dimensional traps. The dynamics of the Rydberg atoms in the traps and the phase-space characteristics of the decelerated atoms have been characterized by pulsed field ionization and imaging techniques. Multi-stage Zeeman deceleration of ground state H and D atoms has been demonstrated. Using this technique H atoms, traveling at 420 m/s, have been decelerated to half of their initial kinetic energy.

  7. Ta2O5-based redox memory formed by neutral beam oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeo; Samukawa, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    A room temperature neutral beam oxidation process using a tantalum (Ta) metal film was used to obtain a high quality Ta oxide (Ta2O5) film. After irradiation of a Ta metal film with a neutral oxygen beam, a nanometer-thick Ta2O5 film with a film density of 7.5 g/cm3 was obtained. We also confirmed that the fabricated Cu/Ta2O5/Pt redox memory structure shows a bipolar resistive switching characteristic. This result demonstrates the great potential of neutral beam metal oxidation for the development of redox-based memory devices.

  8. Three-dimensional particle trajectories and waste beam losses in injection dump beam line of SNS accumulator ring

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Plum, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    The SNS ring injection dump beam line has been suffering high beam losses since its commissioning. In order to understand the mechanisms of the beam losses, we have performed 3D simulation studies of the beam line. The 3D models consist of three injection chicane dipoles and one injection dump septum magnet. 3D particle trajectories in the models are computed. We then extend particle optics calculations to the injection dump. Our studies have clearly shown some design and operation problems, that cause beam losses in the injection dump beam line. These include incorrect chicane dipole settings, incorrect position of a chicane dipole, too small aperture of injection dump septum, and inadequate focusing downstream. This paper reports our findings and the remedies to the injection beam loss problems.

  9. A Compact, High-Flux Cold Atom Beam Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, James R.; Kohel, James M.; Thompson, Robert J.; Aveline, David C.; Yu, Nan; Schlippert, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The performance of cold atom experiments relying on three-dimensional magneto-optical trap techniques can be greatly enhanced by employing a highflux cold atom beam to obtain high atom loading rates while maintaining low background pressures in the UHV MOT (ultra-high vacuum magneto-optical trap) regions. Several techniques exist for generating slow beams of cold atoms. However, one of the technically simplest approaches is a two-dimensional (2D) MOT. Such an atom source typically employs at least two orthogonal trapping beams, plus an additional longitudinal "push" beam to yield maximum atomic flux. A 2D atom source was created with angled trapping collimators that not only traps atoms in two orthogonal directions, but also provides a longitudinal pushing component that eliminates the need for an additional push beam. This development reduces the overall package size, which in turn, makes the 2D trap simpler, and requires less total optical power. The atom source is more compact than a previously published effort, and has greater than an order of magnitude improved loading performance.

  10. Charge neutralized low energy beam transport at Brookhaven 200 MeV linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raparia, D.; Alessi, J.; Atoian, G.; Zelenski, A.

    2016-02-01

    The H- magnetron source provides about 100 mA H- beam to be match into the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator. As H- beam traverses through low energy transport, it ionizes the residual gas and electrons are repelled and positive ions are trapped in the beam, due to negative potential of the beam, providing charge neutralization for the H- beam. The neutralization time for the critical density depends upon the background gas and its pressure. Critical density for xenon gas at 35 keV is about 43 times smaller than that of hydrogen and stripping cross section is only 5 times than that of hydrogen gas. We are using xenon gas to reduce neutralization time and to improve transmission through the 200 MeV linac. We are also using pulse nitrogen gas to improve transmission and stability of polarized H- beam from optically pumped polarized ion source.

  11. Charge neutralized low energy beam transport at Brookhaven 200 MeV linac.

    PubMed

    Raparia, D; Alessi, J; Atoian, G; Zelenski, A

    2016-02-01

    The H(-) magnetron source provides about 100 mA H(-) beam to be match into the radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator. As H(-) beam traverses through low energy transport, it ionizes the residual gas and electrons are repelled and positive ions are trapped in the beam, due to negative potential of the beam, providing charge neutralization for the H(-) beam. The neutralization time for the critical density depends upon the background gas and its pressure. Critical density for xenon gas at 35 keV is about 43 times smaller than that of hydrogen and stripping cross section is only 5 times than that of hydrogen gas. We are using xenon gas to reduce neutralization time and to improve transmission through the 200 MeV linac. We are also using pulse nitrogen gas to improve transmission and stability of polarized H(-) beam from optically pumped polarized ion source. PMID:26932107

  12. Analysis of Fuel Injection and Atomization of a Hybrid Air-Blast Atomizer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Peter; Esclape, Lucas; Buschhagen, Timo; Naik, Sameer; Gore, Jay; Lucht, Robert; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Fuel injection and atomization are of direct importance to the design of injector systems in aviation gas turbine engines. Primary and secondary breakup processes have significant influence on the drop-size distribution, fuel deposition, and flame stabilization, thereby directly affecting fuel conversion, combustion stability, and emission formation. The lack of predictive modeling capabilities for the reliable characterization of primary and secondary breakup mechanisms is still one of the main issues in improving injector systems. In this study, an unstructured Volume-of-Fluid method was used in conjunction with a Lagrangian-spray framework to conduct high-fidelity simulations of the breakup and atomization processes in a realistic gas turbine hybrid air blast atomizer. Results for injection with JP-8 aviation fuel are presented and compared to available experimental data. Financial support through the FAA National Jet Fuel Combustion Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  13. Transverse laser cooled Lithium atomic beam for plasma edge diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthwal, S.; Ajmathulla; Mahender, N.; Vudayagiri, A.; Kumar, A.

    2016-05-01

    We have built a set up to achieve a collimated atomic Lithium beam to be used for plasma edge diagnostics. The collimation is achieved by two-dimensional laser cooling, and such a beam could be very useful to obtain electron density at the edge of a plasma with very high spatial resolution. We present in this manuscript the details of this setup, including details of the oven we designed for the Lithium source. We present the metrics of the beam, including the transverse velocity profile of the atomic beam.

  14. Pattern generation with cesium atomic beams at nanometer scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, M.; Lison, F.; Haubrich, D.; Meschede, D.; Nowak, S.; Pfau, T.; Mlynek, J.

    1996-12-01

    We have demonstrated that a cesium atomic beam can be used to pattern a gold surface using a self assembling monolayer (SAM) as a resist. A 12.5 μm period mesh was used as a proximity mask for the atomic beam. The cesium atoms locally change the wetability of the SAM, which allows a wet etching reagent to remove the underlying gold in the exposed regions. An edge resolution of better than 100 nm was obtained. The experiment suggests that this method can either be used as a sensitive position detector with nanometer resolution in atom optics, or for nanostructuring in a resist technique.

  15. Ionization, stopping, and thermalization of hydrogen and boron beams injected in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifschitz, Agustín F.; Farengo, Ricardo; Arista, Nestor R.

    2000-07-01

    The ionization, stopping, and thermalization of hydrogen and boron beams, injected, respectively, in boron and hydrogen plasmas, is studied. The evolution of the charge state populations of the neutral beams is described considering the various ionization, excitation, and charge exchange channels. The interaction of the beam with the plasma is described in terms of the Fokker-Planck equation, which is numerically solved to show in detail the evolution of the beam until final thermalization is reached. Beam energies of 640 keV/u (maximum of the cross section for the p-B11 fusion reaction) and 200 keV/u, and various plasma temperatures are considered. It is seen that, due to an important perpendicular-diffusion effect, high energy beams reach effective peak temperatures which are much higher than the plasma temperature, before equilibrium is established. The fraction of fusioned particles is also calculated. Some implications of interest for recently proposed p-B11 fusion reactor systems are drawn out.

  16. Demonstration of a cold atom beam splitter on atom chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaojun; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Haichao; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    We report an experimental demonstration of a new scheme to split cold atoms on an atom chip. The atom chip consists of a U-wire and a Z-wire. The cold atom cloud is initially loaded and prepared in the Z-trap, which is split into two separate parts by switching on the current of the U-wire. The two separate atom clouds have a distance more than one millimeter apart from each other and show almost symmetrical profiles, corresponding to about a 50/50 splitting ratio. Project supported by the State Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921504) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91536107).

  17. Entanglement of Two Individual Neutral Atoms Using Rydberg Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, T.; Gaeetan, A.; Evellin, C.; Wolters, J.; Miroshnychenko, Y.; Grangier, P.; Browaeys, A.

    2010-01-08

    We report the generation of entanglement between two individual {sup 87}Rb atoms in hyperfine ground states |F=1,M=1> and |F=2,M=2> which are held in two optical tweezers separated by 4 {mu}m. Our scheme relies on the Rydberg blockade effect which prevents the simultaneous excitation of the two atoms to a Rydberg state. The entangled state is generated in about 200 ns using pulsed two-photon excitation. We quantify the entanglement by applying global Raman rotations on both atoms. We measure that 61% of the initial pairs of atoms are still present at the end of the entangling sequence. These pairs are in the target entangled state with a fidelity of 0.75.

  18. First plasma of megawatt high current ion source for neutral beam injector of the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak on the test bed

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Chundong; Xie Yahong; Liu Sheng; Xie Yuanlai; Jiang Caichao; Song Shihua; Li Jun; Liu Zhimin

    2011-02-15

    High current ion source is the key part of the neutral beam injector. In order to develop the project of 4 MW neutral beam injection for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) on schedule, the megawatt high current ion source is prestudied in the Institute of Plasma Physics in China. In this paper, the megawatt high current ion source test bed and the first plasma are presented. The high current discharge of 900 A at 2 s and long pulse discharge of 5 s at 680 A are achieved. The arc discharge characteristic of high current ion source is analyzed primarily.

  19. Neutral beam current driven operation of the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, T.C.; Bhadra, D.K.; Burrell, K.H.; Callis, R.W.; Chance, M.S.; Chu, M.S.; Colleraine, A.P.; Greene, J.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Harvey, R.W.; Hill, D.N.; Kim, J.; Lao, L.; Matsuoka, M.; Petersen, P.I.; Porter, G.D.; St. John, H.; Stallard, B.W.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.

    1988-03-01

    Neutral beam current drive experiment in the DII-D tokamak with a single null poloidal divertor are described. A plasma current of 0.34 MA has been sustained entirely by neutral beams with H-mode quality energy confinement. Poloidal beta values reach 3.5 without disruption or coherent magnetic activity, suggesting that these plasmas may be entering the second stability regime. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Angular emission distributions of neutrals and ions in laser ablated particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thum-Jager, Andrea; Rohr, Klaus

    1999-11-01

    The present work represents investigations of angular emission distributions in laser-produced particle beams resolved for the different ion groups (up to q=4) and the neutral particle component. The measurements are for a spectrum of target masses: 12 C, 27Al, 48 Ti, 59Ni, 96Mo and 181Ta. The plasma was produced by obliquely incident Q-switched pulses (TAU=5~ns and LAMBDA=1.06~MU m) of a Nd-YAG laser focused to energy densities ranging from about 20 to 180~J~cm-2. For the first time the results reveal in detail that the emission distributions systematically depend on the degree of ionization of the particles in the cloud. While for the neutral particles the angular emission is always dominated by a broad background with an additional, but less pronounced, peaked component, the background component rapidly but continuously diminishes with the increasing charge state of the ions. If, in the usual way, the emission distribution is approximated by the superposition of a cosine and a cosn fit function, the distribution of ions with qgeq 2 can already be well fitted by a cosn function alone. It seems highly probable, that this behaviour essentially is a result of the recombination dynamics during the expansion. It was found that the effect holds for all atomic masses investigated, whereby the mass dependence of the exponent n for all species behaves alike, approximately following a A3/4 law.

  1. Measurement of Rydberg atom formation in low-density ultracold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Witte, Craig; Roberts, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Rydberg atoms are formed in ultracold neutral plasmas primarily through three-body recombination for typical experimental conditions. At low densities the relative importance of electron-Rydberg state-changing collisions in the dynamical evolution of the Rydberg atom state populations is increased, leading to temperature scalings significantly different from the usual T - 9 / 2 scaling associated with the three-body recombination rate. We report our measurement of Rydberg atoms in low-density ultracold neutral plasmas and discuss their utility in calibrating the electron temperature and determining the amount of heating due to continuum lowering that occurs during the formation of the ultracold plasma. This work supported by the AFOSR.

  2. Progress toward fully noninductive discharge operation in DIII-D using off-axis neutral beam injectiona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferron, J. R.; Holcomb, C. T.; Luce, T. C.; Park, J. M.; Politzer, P. A.; Turco, F.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Doyle, E. J.; Hanson, J. M.; Hyatt, A. W.; In, Y.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Okabayashi, M.; Petrie, T. W.; Petty, C. C.; Zeng, L.

    2013-09-01

    The initial experiments on off-axis neutral beam injection into high noninductive current fraction (fNI), high normalized pressure (βN) discharges in DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] have demonstrated changes in the plasma profiles that increase the limits to plasma pressure from ideal low-n instabilities. The current profile is broadened and the minimum value of the safety factor (qmin) can be maintained above 2 where the profile of the thermal component of the plasma pressure is found to be broader. The off-axis neutral beam injection results in a broadening of the fast-ion pressure profile. Confinement of the thermal component of the plasma is consistent with the IPB98(y,2) scaling, but global confinement with qmin>2 is below the ITER-89P scaling, apparently as a result of enhanced transport of fast ions. A 0-D model is used to examine the parameter space for fNI=1 operation and project the requirements for high performance steady-state discharges. Fully noninductive solutions are found with 4<βN<5 and bootstrap current fraction near 0.5 for a weak shear safety factor profile. A 1-D model is used to show that a fNI=1 discharge at the top of this range of βN that is predicted stable to n =1, 2, and 3 ideal MHD instabilities is accessible through further broadening of the current and pressure profiles with off-axis neutral beam injection and electron cyclotron current drive.

  3. Novel neutralized-beam intense neutron source for fusion technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Osher, J.E.; Perkins, L.J.

    1983-07-08

    We describe a neutralized-beam intense neutron source (NBINS) as a relevant application of fusion technology for the type of high-current ion sources and neutral beamlines now being developed for heating and fueling of magnetic-fusion-energy confinement systems. This near-term application would support parallel development of highly reliable steady-state higher-voltage neutral D/sup 0/ and T/sup 0/ beams and provide a relatively inexpensive source of fusion neutrons for materials testing at up to reactor-like wall conditions. Beam-target examples described incude a 50-A mixed D-T total (ions plus neutrals) space-charge-neutralized beam at 120 keV incident on a liquid Li drive-in target, or a 50-A T/sup 0/ + T/sup +/ space-charge-neutralized beam incident on either a LiD or gas D/sub 2/ target with calculated 14-MeV neutron yields of 2 x 10/sup 15//s, 7 x 10/sup 15//s, or 1.6 x 10/sup 16//s, respectively. The severe local heat loading on the target surface is expected to limit the allowed beam focus and minimum target size to greater than or equal to 25 cm/sup 2/.

  4. BNL development of H/sup -//D/sup -/ sources for fusion reactor neutral beam lines

    SciTech Connect

    Prelec, K

    1980-01-01

    The long range program of the BNL Neutral Beam Development Group is to design a neutral beam system based on neutralization of negative ions, with an energy of 200 keV or higher, a D/sup -/ beam current of 10 A and operating in pulses of 5 s duration or longer; the beam system would be used on fusion devices for plasma heating. Presently, work is concentrated on the development of an H/sup -/ or D/sup -/ ion source, to deliver about 1 A of beam current, at an energy of at least 10 keV and operating in pulses longer than 5 s. A source of the magnetron type was designed and fabricated and is to be tested soon; the paper describes the background experiments that were necessary for the source design, the source parameters and design features, as well as a method under consideration that would improve the gas efficiency by an order of magnitude.

  5. Concepts for the magnetic design of the MITICA neutral beam test facility ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Chitarin, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2012-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector concept advancement neutral injector test facility will be constituted by a RF-driven negative ion source and by an electrostatic Accelerator, designed to produce a negative Ion with a specific energy up to 1 MeV. The beam is then neutralized in order to obtain a focused 17 MW neutral beam. The magnetic configuration inside the accelerator is of crucial importance for the achievement of a good beam efficiency, with the early deflection of the co-extracted and stripped electrons, and also of the required beam optic quality, with the correction of undesired ion beamlet deflections. Several alternative magnetic design concepts have been considered, comparing in detail the magnetic and beam optics simulation results, evidencing the advantages and drawbacks of each solution both from the physics and engineering point of view.

  6. Steady-state operation of a large-area high-power RF ion source for the neutral beam injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Doo-Hee; Park, Min; Jeong, Seung Ho; Kim, Tae-Seong; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang Ryul

    2014-10-01

    A large-area high-power RF-driven ion source is being developed in Germany for the heating and current drive (H&CD) of an ITER device. Negative hydrogen ion sources are the major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion devices such as an the ITER and the DEMO. The first and the second long-pulse ion sources (LPIS-1 and LPIS-2) have been successfully developed with a magnetic-bucket plasma generator, including a filament heating structure for the first NBI (NBI-1) system of the KSTAR tokamak. A development plan exists for a large-area high-power RF ion source for steady-state operation (more than 300 seconds) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to extract positive ions, which can be used for the NBI heating and current drive systems, and to extract negative ions for future fusion devices such as a Fusion Neutron Source and Korea — DEMO. The RF ion source consists of a driver region, including a helical antenna and a discharge chamber, and an expansion region (magnetic bucket of the prototype LPIS-1). RF power can be transferred at up to 10 kW with a fixed frequency of 2 MHz through an optimized RF matching system. An actively water-cooled Faraday shield is located inside the driver region of the ion source for stable and steady-state operation of the RF discharge. The uniformities of the plasma parameters are measured at the lowest area of the expansion bucket by using two RF-compensated electrostatic probes along the directions of the short and the long dimensions of the expansion region.

  7. Metastable atom probe for measuring electron beam density profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, J. M.; Zorn, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Metastable atom probe was developed for measuring current density in electron beam as function of two arbitrary coordinates, with spatial resolution better than 0.5 mm. Probe shows effects of space charge, magnetic fields, and other factors which influence electron current density, but operates with such low beam densities that introduced perturbation is very small.

  8. Powerloads on the front end components and the duct of the heating and diagnostic neutral beam lines at ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. J.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Urbani, M.; Dlougach, E.; Krylov, A.; Schunke, B.; Chareyre, J.

    2015-04-01

    The heating and current drive beam lines (HNB) at ITER are expected to deliver ˜16.7 MW power per beam line for H beams at 870 keV and D beams at 1 MeV during the H-He and the DD/DT phases of ITER operation respectively. On the other hand the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) line shall deliver ˜2 MW power for H beams at 100 keV during both the phases. The path lengths over which the beams from the HNB and DNB beam lines need to be transported are 25.6 m and 20.7 m respectively. The transport of the beams over these path lengths results in beam losses, mainly by the direct interception of the beam with the beam line components and reionisation. The lost power is deposited on the surfaces of the various components of the beam line. In order to ensure the survival of these components over the operational life time of ITER, it is important to determine to the best possible extent the operational power loads and power densities on the various surfaces which are impacted by the beam in one way or the other during its transport. The main factors contributing to these are the divergence of the beamlets and the halo fraction in the beam, the beam aiming, the horizontal and vertical misalignment of the beam, and the gas profile along the beam path, which determines the re-ionisation loss, and the re-ionisation cross sections. The estimations have been made using a combination of the modified version of the Monte Carlo Gas Flow code (MCGF) and the BTR code. The MCGF is used to determine the gas profile in the beam line and takes into account the active gas feed into the ion source and neutraliser, the HNB-DNB cross over, the gas entering the beamline from the ITER machine, the additional gas atoms generated in the beam line due to impacting ions and the pumping speed of the cryopumps. The BTR code has been used to obtain the power loads and the power densities on the various surfaces of the front end components and the duct modules for different scenarios of ITER operation

  9. Powerloads on the front end components and the duct of the heating and diagnostic neutral beam lines at ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Urbani, M.; Schunke, B.; Chareyre, J.; Dlougach, E.; Krylov, A.

    2015-04-08

    The heating and current drive beam lines (HNB) at ITER are expected to deliver ∼16.7 MW power per beam line for H beams at 870 keV and D beams at 1 MeV during the H-He and the DD/DT phases of ITER operation respectively. On the other hand the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) line shall deliver ∼2 MW power for H beams at 100 keV during both the phases. The path lengths over which the beams from the HNB and DNB beam lines need to be transported are 25.6 m and 20.7 m respectively. The transport of the beams over these path lengths results in beam losses, mainly by the direct interception of the beam with the beam line components and reionisation. The lost power is deposited on the surfaces of the various components of the beam line. In order to ensure the survival of these components over the operational life time of ITER, it is important to determine to the best possible extent the operational power loads and power densities on the various surfaces which are impacted by the beam in one way or the other during its transport. The main factors contributing to these are the divergence of the beamlets and the halo fraction in the beam, the beam aiming, the horizontal and vertical misalignment of the beam, and the gas profile along the beam path, which determines the re-ionisation loss, and the re-ionisation cross sections. The estimations have been made using a combination of the modified version of the Monte Carlo Gas Flow code (MCGF) and the BTR code. The MCGF is used to determine the gas profile in the beam line and takes into account the active gas feed into the ion source and neutraliser, the HNB-DNB cross over, the gas entering the beamline from the ITER machine, the additional gas atoms generated in the beam line due to impacting ions and the pumping speed of the cryopumps. The BTR code has been used to obtain the power loads and the power densities on the various surfaces of the front end components and the duct modules for different scenarios of ITER

  10. Continuous loading of an atom beam into an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Vladyslav V.

    I propose a method of deceleration and continuous loading of an atom beam into a far-off-resonance optical lattice. The loading of moving atoms into a conservative far-off-resonance potential requires the removal of the atom's excess kinetic energy. Here this is achieved by the Sisyphus cooling method, where a differential lattice-induced ac Stark shift is utilized. The proposed method is described for the case of ytterbium atoms. Numerical simulations demonstrate the possibility of reaching cold and dense samples in a continuous manner on the example of ytterbium atoms.

  11. Cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of Yb atoms with a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus.

    PubMed

    Song, Minsoo; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2013-02-01

    We present a transportable effusive atomic beam apparatus for cascaded two-photon spectroscopy of the dipole-forbidden transition (6s(2)(1)S0↔ 6s7s (1)S0) of Yb atoms. An ohmic-heating effusive oven is designed to have a reservoir volume of 1.6 cm(3) and a high degree of atomic beam collimation angle of 30 mrad. The new atomic beam apparatus allows us to detect the spontaneously cascaded two-photons from the 6s7s(1)S0 state via the intercombination 6s6p(3)P1 state with a high signal-to-noise ratio even at the temperature of 340 °C. This is made possible in our apparatus because of the enhanced atomic beam flux and superior detection solid angle. PMID:23464193

  12. Influence of injection beam emittance on beam transmission efficiency in a cyclotron

    SciTech Connect

    Kurashima, Satoshi Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Miyawaki, Nobumasa; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi; Okumura, Susumu

    2014-02-15

    The JAEA AVF cyclotron accelerates various kinds of high-energy ion beams for research in biotechnology and materials science. Beam intensities of an ion species of the order of 10{sup −9}–10{sup −6} ampere are often required for various experiments performed sequentially over a day. To provide ion beams with sufficient intensity and stability, an operator has to retune an ion source in a short time. However, the beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron rarely increases in proportion to the intensity at the ion source. To understand the cause of this beam behavior, transmission efficiencies of a {sup 12}C{sup 5+} beam from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source to the cyclotron were measured for various conditions of the ion source. Moreover, a feasible region for acceleration in the emittance of the injection beam was clarified using a transverse-acceptance measuring system. We confirmed that the beam emittance and profile were changed depending on the condition of the ion source and that matching between the beam emittance and the acceptance of the cyclotron was degraded. However, after fine-tuning to improve the matching, beam intensity downstream of the cyclotron increased.

  13. Suppression of beam steering in an injection-locked laser diode array

    SciTech Connect

    Brewer, L.R. )

    1991-12-09

    Experimental measurements were made to demonstrate that the degree of beam steering in an injection-locked laser diode array is related to the divergence of the master laser beam. For a collimated master laser beam the beam steering was suppressed. The injection-locked laser diode array beam steers with the master laser wavelength because only a portion of the divergent master laser beam satisfies the round trip mode condition.

  14. The design of multi-megawatt actively cooled beam dumps for the Neutral-Beam Engineering Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, J. A.; Koehler, G.; Wells, R. P.

    1981-10-01

    To test neutral beam sources up to 170 keV, 65 Amps, with 30 second beam on times, actively cooled beam dumps for both the neutral and ionized particles are required. The dumps should be able to dissipate a wide range of power density profiles by utilizing a standard modular panel design which is incorporated into a moveable support structure. The thermal hydraulic design of the panels permit the dissipation of 2 kW/sq cm anywhere on the panel surface. The water requirements of the dumps are optimized by restricting the flow to panel sections where the heat flux falls short of the design value. The mechanical design of the beam-dump structures is described along with tests performed on two different panel designs. The dissipation capabilities of the panels were tested at the critical regions to verify their use in the beam dump assemblies.

  15. Energy Spread of the Proton Beam in the Fermilab Booster at its Injection Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C. M.; Chase, B. E.; Chaurize, S. J.; Garcia, F. G.; Seiya, K.; Pellico, W. A.; Sullivan, T. M.; Triplett, A. K.

    2015-04-27

    We have measured the energy spread of the Booster beam at its injection energy of 400 MeV by three different methods: (1) creating a notch of about 40 nsec wide in the beam immediately after multiple turn injection and measuring the slippage time required for high and low momentum particles for a grazing touch in line-charge distribution, (2) injecting partial turn beam and letting it to debunch, and (3) comparing the beam profile monitor data with predictions from MAD simulations for the 400 MeV injection beam line. The measurements are repeated under varieties of conditions of rf systems in the ring and in the beam transfer line.

  16. Three-dimensional cooling of a single atom by a pair of counter-propagating tightly focused beams.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Tiancai

    2015-09-01

    A light beam tightly focused by a high numerical-aperture lens system contains longitudinal components with polarization parallel to the propagation axis. By numerically analyzing the polarization distribution around the focal region in one pair of confocally aligned counter-propagating tightly focused light beams with orthogonal linear polarizations, we found that there exists a three-dimensional polarization gradient pattern similar to that used in cooling neutral atoms. This can be used to three-dimensionally cool atoms trapped in a far-off-resonant trap with only one pair of counter-propagating beams in one dimension. This new cooling scheme can be used to individually cool single atoms in an addressable two-dimensional single-atom array for quantum information processing and be applied to perform readouts of qubit encoded in these atoms without losing them. PMID:26368455

  17. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  18. Preparation of thin films for use in generating neutral particle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, W.S.; Zevenbergen, L.A.; Adair, H.L.

    1986-01-01

    Large-area, thin aluminum foils were prepared for use in beam neutralization experiments. The foils were made using either electron beams of resistance heating. Foil thickness and uniformity were determined using alpha particles. The foils perform very well when bombarded by energetic H/sup -/ ions. (DLC)

  19. Phase conjugation of a quantum-degenerate atomic fermion beam.

    PubMed

    Search, Chris P; Meystre, Pierre

    2003-09-01

    We discuss the possibility of phase conjugation of an atomic Fermi field via nonlinear wave mixing in an ultracold gas. It is shown that for a beam of fermions incident on an atomic phase-conjugate mirror, a time-reversed backward propagating fermionic beam is generated similar to the case in nonlinear optics. By adopting an operational definition of the phase, we show that it is possible to infer the presence of the phase-conjugate field by the loss of the interference pattern in an atomic interferometer. PMID:14525466

  20. Slowing and Stopping Supersonic Beams with an Atomic Coilgun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libson, Adam; Narevicius, Edvardas; Parthey, Christian G.; Chavez, Isaac; Narevicius, Julia; Even, Uzi; Raizen, Mark G.

    2008-05-01

    We report the stopping of a supersonic beam of metastable neon using an atomic coilgun. The coilgun relies on the Zeeman effect, and uses pulsed magnetic fields of up to 5.2 T to bring atoms from 446 m/s to near rest. Additionally, we have implemented the coilgun to slow a supersonic beam of molecular oxygen from 458 m/s to 238 m/s. This method can be applied to stop and trap any paramagnetic atom or molecule. Future applications will be discussed.