Science.gov

Sample records for neutral kaon interferometry

  1. Neutral kaon interferometry in Au+Au collisions at sNN=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B. D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V. V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A. V.; Bravar, A.; Burton, T. P.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R. V.; Cai, X. Z.; Caines, H.; Sánchez, M. Calderón De La Barca; Castillo, J.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J. H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J. P.; Cormier, T. M.; Cosentino, M. R.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; Moura, M. M. De; Dedovich, T. G.; Dephillips, M.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho, P.; Dogra, S. M.; Dong, W. J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J. E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V. B.; Dunlop, J. C.; Mazumdar, M. R. Dutta; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W. R.; Efimov, L. G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J. E.; Gorbunov, Y. G.; Gos, H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S. M.; Guimaraes, K. S. F. F.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T. J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T. W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A. M.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horner, M. J.; Huang, H. Z.; Huang, S. L.; Hughes, E. W.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P. G.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V. Yu.; Kim, B. C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E. M.; Klein, S. R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D. D.; Kollegger, T.; Kopytine, M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kouchpil, V.; Kowalik, K. L.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V. I.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A. I.; Kumar, A.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Lange, S.; Lapointe, S.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, C.-H.; Lehocka, S.; Levine, M. J.; Li, C.; Li, Q.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lin, X.; Lindenbaum, S. J.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Long, H.; Longacre, R. S.; Love, W. A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Lynn, D.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, J. G.; Ma, Y. G.; Magestro, D.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Majka, R.; Mangotra, L. K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Martin, L.; Matis, H. S.; Matulenko, Yu. A.; McClain, C. J.; McShane, T. S.; Melnick, Yu.; Meschanin, A.; Millane, J.; Miller, M. L.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mironov, C.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Moore, C. F.; Morozov, D. A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B. K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Nogach, L. V.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okorokov, V.; Oldenburg, M.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Pal, S. K.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S. Y.; Pavlinov, A. I.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S. C.; Picha, R.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Poljak, N.; Porile, N.; Porter, J.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Potekhin, M.; Potrebenikova, E.; Potukuchi, B. V. K. S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Putschke, J.; Rakness, G.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R. L.; Razin, S. V.; Reinnarth, J.; Relyea, D.; Retiere, F.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M. J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Sazhin, P. S.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmitz, N.; Schweda, K.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shen, W. Q.; Shimanskiy, S. S.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R. N.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sood, G.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Speltz, J.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stock, R.; Stolpovsky, A.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugarbaker, E.; Sumbera, M.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Swanger, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Toledo, A. Szanto De; Tai, A.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M.; Trainor, T. A.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O. D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Buren, G. Van; Kolk, N. Van Der; Leeuwen, M. Van; Molen, A. M. Vander; Varma, R.; Vasilevski, I. M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vernet, R.; Vigdor, S. E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Waggoner, W. T.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Watson, J. W.; Webb, J. C.; Westfall, G. D.; Wetzler, A.; Whitten, C., Jr.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wood, J.; Wu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurevich, V. I.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, W. M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zubarev, A. N.; Zuo, J. X.

    2006-11-01

    We present the first statistically meaningful results from two-Ks0 interferometry in heavy-ion collisions at sNN=200 GeV. A model that takes the effect of the strong interaction into account has been used to fit the measured correlation function. The effects of single and coupled channels were explored. At the mean transverse mass =1.07 GeV, we obtain the values R=4.09±0.46(stat)±0.31(sys) fm and λ=0.92±0.23(stat)±0.13(sys), where R and λ are the invariant radius and chaoticity parameters, respectively. The results are qualitatively consistent with mT systematics established with pions in a scenario characterized by a strong collective flow.

  2. Neutral kaon interferometry in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B. I.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Caines, H.; Catu, O.; Chikanian, A.; Du, F.; Finch, E.; Harris, J. W.; Heinz, M.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Lin, G.; Majka, R.; Nattrass, C.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Smirnov, N.; Witt, R.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Bhati, A. K.

    2006-11-15

    We present the first statistically meaningful results from two-K{sub s}{sup 0} interferometry in heavy-ion collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN})=200 GeV. A model that takes the effect of the strong interaction into account has been used to fit the measured correlation function. The effects of single and coupled channels were explored. At the mean transverse mass =1.07 GeV, we obtain the values R=4.09{+-}0.46(stat){+-}0.31(sys) fm and {lambda}=0.92{+-}0.23(stat){+-}0.13(sys), where R and {lambda} are the invariant radius and chaoticity parameters, respectively. The results are qualitatively consistent with m{sub T} systematics established with pions in a scenario characterized by a strong collective flow.

  3. Neutral Kaon Interferometry in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) =200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B.I.; Adams, J.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Amonett,J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai,Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellingeri-Laurikainen, A.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Bhardwaj, S.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, S.-L.; Bonner, B.E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Brandin, A.V.; Bravar, A.; Bystersky, M.; Cadman, R.V.; Cai,X.Z.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Castillo, J.; Catu,O.; Cebra, D.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen,H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Cosentino, M.R.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford,H.J.; Das, D.; Das, S.; Daugherity, M.; de Moura, M.M.; Dedovich, T.G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Djawotho,P.; Dogra, S.M.; Dong, W.J.; Dong, X.; Draper, J.E.; Du, F.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Dutta Mazumdar, M.R.; Eckardt, V.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov,L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Filimonov, K.; Filip, P.; Finch,E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti,M.S.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gonzalez, J.S.; Gorbunov, Y.G.; Gos,H.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Guo,Y.; Gupta, N.; Gutierrez, T.D.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Hepplemann, S.; Hippolyte,B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horner, M.J.; Huang, H.Z.; Huang, S.L.; Hughes, E.W.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs,P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, P.; Jia, F.; Jiang, H.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kang, K.; Kapitan, J.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kim, B.C.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Kislov, E.M.; Klein,S.R.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; et al.

    2006-08-05

    We present the first statistically meaningful results fromtwo-K0s interferometry in heavy-ion collisions. A model that takes theeffect of the strong interaction into account has been used to fit themeasured correlation function. The effects of single and coupled channelwere explored. At the mean transverse mass m_T = 1.07 GeV, we obtain thevalues R = 4.09 +- 0.46 (stat.) +- 0.31 (sys) fm and lambda = 0.92 +-0.23 (stat) +- 0.13 (sys), where R and lambda are the invariant radiusand chaoticity parameters respectively. The results are qualitativelyconsistent with m_T systematics established with pions in a scenariocharacterized by a strong collective flow.

  4. Electromagnetic charged and neutral kaon form factors

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.D.; Burden, C.J.; Thomson, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    The electromagnetic form factor of the charged and neutral kaon is calculated using the approach applied in the successful study of the pion form factor, described above. The charged kaon form factor will be measured in forthcoming experiments at CEBAF. Our calculation involves the dressed strange quark propagator, to which F{sub {pi}}(q{sup 2}) is not sensitive, and hence it provides us with constraints on the strange-quark sector of QCD. Our preliminary results are encouraging. We find that the strange and up/down quark propagators are not too different, once the change in the current-quark-mass is accounted for. However, the difference that remains is important since it allows {l_angle}{bar s}s{r_angle}<{l_angle}{bar u}u{r_angle}. This calculation is the first to yield a value of f{sub K}/f{sub {pi}} that is in good agreement with experiment and also yields r{sub K+}/r{sub {pi}} in good agreement with experiment. Our calculated charged kaon form factor provides a prediction that will be tested in the forthcoming CEBAF experiments. Our studies also show that K{sup 0} has a negative charge radius, as is to be expected. Our calculated value will be compared with that measured in K{sub s}{sup 0} regeneration from electrons.

  5. Kaon decay interferometry as meson dynamics probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'ambrosio, G.; Paver, N.

    1994-05-01

    We discuss the time-dependent interferences between KL and KS in the decays in 3π and ππγ, to be studied at interferometry machines such as the φ factory and CERN LEAR. We emphasize the possibilities and the advantages of using interferences, in comparision with width measurements, to obtain information both on CP-conserving and CP-violating amplitudes. Comparision with present data and suggestions for future experiments are made.

  6. Probing CPT in transitions with entangled neutral kaons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabeu, J.; Di Domenico, A.; Villanueva-Perez, P.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we present a novel CPT symmetry test in the neutral kaon system based, for the first time, on the direct comparison of the probabilities of a transition and its CPT reverse. The required interchange of in ↔ out states for a given process is obtained exploiting the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of neutral kaon pairs produced at a ϕ-factory. The observable quantities have been constructed by selecting the two semileptonic decays for flavour tag, the ππ and 3 π 0 decays for CP tag and the time orderings of the decay pairs. The interpretation in terms of the standard Weisskopf-Wigner approach to this system, directly connects CPT violation in these observables to the violating ℜδ parameter in the mass matrix of {K}^0-{overline{K}}^0 , a genuine CPT violating effect independent of ΔΓ and not requiring the decay as an essential ingredient.

  7. Testing κ-Poincaré with Neutral Kaons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Buccella, Franco

    In recent work on experimental tests of quantum-gravity-motivated phenomenological models, a significant role has been played by the so-called ``κ'' deformations of Poincaré symmetries. Sensitivity to values of the relevant deformation length λ as small as 5×10-33 m has been achieved in recent analyses comparing the structure of κ-Poincaré symmetries with data on the gamma rays we detect from distant astrophysical sources. We investigate violations of CPT symmetry which may be associated with κ-Poincaré in the physics of the neutral-kaon system. A simple estimate indicates that experiments on the neutral kaons may actually be more λ-sensitive than the corresponding astrophysical experiments, and may already allow to probe values of λ of order the Planck length.

  8. Consistent probabilistic description of the neutral Kaon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabéu, J.; Mavromatos, N. E.; Villanueva-Pérez, P.

    2013-07-01

    The neutral Kaon system has both CP violation in the mass matrix and a non-vanishing lifetime difference in the width matrix. This leads to an effective Hamiltonian which is not a normal operator, with incompatible (non-commuting) masses and widths. In the Weisskopf-Wigner Approach (WWA), by diagonalizing the entire Hamiltonian, the unphysical non-orthogonal "stationary" states KL,S are obtained. These states have complex eigenvalues whose real (imaginary) part does not coincide with the eigenvalues of the mass (width) matrix. In this work we describe the system as an open Lindblad-type quantum mechanical system due to Kaon decays. This approach, in terms of density matrices for initial and final states, provides a consistent probabilistic description, avoiding the standard problems because the width matrix becomes a composite operator not included in the Hamiltonian. We consider the dominant decay channel to two pions, so that one of the Kaon states with definite lifetime becomes stable. This new approach provides results for the time dependent decay rates in agreement with those of the WWA.

  9. Regge-plus-resonance predictions for neutral-kaon photoproduction from the deuteron

    SciTech Connect

    Vancraeyveld, P.; De Cruz, L.; Ryckebusch, J.

    2011-10-24

    We present a Regge-inspired effective-Lagrangian framework for neutral-kaon photo-production from the deuteron. Quasi-free kaon production is investigated using the Regge-plus-resonance elementary operator within the relativistic plane-wave impulse approximation. The Regge-plus-resonance model was developed to describe photoinduced and electroinduced charged-kaon production off protons. We show how this elementary operator can be transformed to account for the production of neutral kaons from both protons and neutrons. Our results compare favourably to the sole {sup 2}H({gamma},K{sup 0})YN dataset published to date.

  10. The Measurement of CP Asymmetries in the Three-Body Charmless Decay Neutral B Meson Decays to Neutral Kaon(S) Neutral Kaon(S) Neutral Kaon(S)

    SciTech Connect

    Hadavand, Haleh K.; /UC, San Diego

    2006-03-28

    In this dissertation, a measurement of CP-violating effects in decays of neutral B mesons is presented. The data sample for this measurement consists of about 272 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} decays collected between 1999 and 2004 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider, located at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. One neutral B meson is fully reconstructed in the CP eigenstate B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0}. The other B meson is determined to be either a B{sup 0} or a {bar B}{sup 0}, at the time of its decay, from the properties of its decay products. The proper time {Delta}t elapsed between the decay of the two mesons is determined by reconstructing their decay vertices, and by measuring the distance between them. A novel technique for determining the B vertex of the decay to the CP eigenstate B{sup 0} {yields} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0} K{sub S}{sup 0} has been applied since the tracks in the final state do not originate from the B decay vertex. The time-dependent CP asymmetry amplitudes are determined by the distributions of {Delta}t in events with a reconstructed B meson in the CP eigenstate. The detector resolution and the b flavor tagging parameters are constrained by the {Delta}t distributions of events with a fully reconstructed flavor eigenstate. Because of the special topology of this decay, the detector resolution on {Delta}t must be checked for consistency with decays with tracks which originate from the B decay. From a maximum likelihood fit to the {Delta}t distributions of all selected events, the value of the CP violating asymmetries are measured to be S{sub 3K{sub S}{sup 0}} = -0.71{sub -0.32}{sup +0.38} {+-} 0.04 and C{sub 3K{sub S}{sup 0}} = -0.34{sub -0.25}{sup +0.28} {+-} 0.05. Fixing C = 0 we measure the time-dependent CP asymmetry amplitude sin 2{beta} = -S{sub 3K{sub S}{sup 0}} = 0.79{sub -0.36}{sup +0.39} {+-} 0.04. The value of sin 2{beta} is

  11. Decay of B mesons into charged and neutral kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, A.; Chen, A.; Goldberg, M.; Horwitz, N.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kooy, H.; Moneti, G.C.; Pistilli, P.; Alam, M.S.; Csorna, S.E.; Fridman, A.; Hicks, R.G.; Panvini, R.S.; Andrews, D.; Avery, P.; Berkelman, K.; Cabenda, R.; Cassel, D.G.; DeWire, J.W.; Ehrlich, R.; Ferguson, T.; Gilchriese, M.G.D.; Gittelman, B.; Hartill, D.L.; Herrup, D.; Herzlinger, M.; Kreinick, D.L.; Mistry, N.B.; Morrow, F.; Nordberg, E.; Perchonok, R.; Plunkett, R.; Shinsky, K.A.; Siemann, R.H.; Silverman, A.; Stein, P.C.; Stone, S.; Talman, R.; Weber, D.; Wilcke, R.; Sadoff, A.J.; Bebek, C.; Haggerty, J.; Hempstead, M.; Izen, J.M.; Longuemare, C.; Loomis, W.A.; MacKay, W.W.; Pipkin, F.M.; Rohlf, J.; Tanenbaum, W.; Wilson, R.; Chadwick, K.; Chauveau, J.; Ganci, P.; Gentile, T.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Melissinos, A.C.; Olsen, S.L.; Poling, R.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rucinski, G.; Thorndike, E.H.; Green, J.; Mueller, J.J.; Sannes, F.; Skubic, P.; Snyder, A.; Stone, R.

    1982-04-19

    Data on inclusive kaon production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilations at energies in the vicinity of the UPSILON(4S) resonance are presented. A clear excess of kaons is observed on the UPSILON(4S) compared to the continuum. Under the assumption that the UPSILON(4S) decays into BB-bar, a total of 3.38 +- 0.34 +- 0.68 kaons per UPSILON(4S) decay is found. In the context of the standard B-decay model this leads to a value for (b..-->..c)/(b..-->..all) of 1.09 +- 0.33 +- 0.13.

  12. The Dynamical Nonlocality of Neutral Kaons and the Kaonic Quantum Eraser

    SciTech Connect

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2011-03-28

    Testing quantum foundations for systems in high energy physics gets currently more and more attention e.g. witnessed for entangled neutral K-mesons by the approved programme of the KLOE collaboration at the accelerator facility DAPHNE (Frascati, Italy). We focus on this quantum system in high energy physics and discuss two topics, Bell inequalities and the kaonic quantum eraser, and show how the neutral kaon system differs from systems of ordinary matter and light. In detail, we show a relation of the imbalance of matter and antimatter to the violation of a Bell inequality and discuss another Bell inequality which is maximally violated for a non-maximally entangled state though neutral kaons can be considered as two state systems. We compare in general this system in high energy physics with bipartite qudits. Last but not least we review the quantum marking and eraser procedure and explain why neutral kaons offer more eraser possibilities than usual quantum systems.

  13. CP violating asymmetries in the neutral kaon decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, G.; Buccella, F.; D'Ambrosio, G.; Gallo, A. R.; Mangano, G.; Miragliuolo, M.

    1992-03-01

    We study the time dependence of the integrated asymmetries in strangeness of kaons in the decays in two and three pions and in two photons with the purpose of disentangling the CP violating effects in the decay amplitudes from the ones related to theK^0 - bar K^0 mass matrix. We find two cases where they are not reduced by the Δ I=1/2 rule or hidden by CP violation in the mass matrix, namely the strangeness-energy correlation of the charged pions in the prompt decay (τ<τ S ) in π+π-π0, and the decays in two photons. The semileptonic decays are also briefly studied.

  14. Photoproduction of neutral kaons on a liquid deuterium target in the threshold region

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukada, K.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, T.; Fujii, Y.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hashimoto, O.; Hirose, K.; Ito, K.; Kameoka, S.; Kanda, H.; Maeda, K.; Matsumura, A.; Miura, Y.; Miyase, H.; Nakamura, S. N.; Nomura, H.; Nonaka, K.; Osaka, T.; Okayasu, Y.; Tamura, H.

    2008-07-15

    The photoproduction process of neutral kaons on a liquid deuterium target is investigated near the threshold region, E{sub {gamma}}=0.8-1.1 GeV. K{sup 0} events are reconstructed from positive and negative pions, and differential cross sections are derived. Experimental momentum spectra are compared with those calculated in the spectator model using a realistic deuteron wave function. Elementary amplitudes as given by recent isobar models and a simple phenomenological model are used to study the effect of the new data on the angular behavior of the elementary cross section. The data favor a backward-peaked angular distribution of the elementary n({gamma},K{sup 0}){lambda} process, which provides additional constraints on current models of kaon photoproduction. The present study demonstrates that the n({gamma},K{sup 0}){lambda} reaction can provide key information on the mechanism of the photoproduction of strangeness.

  15. Measurements of neutral and charged kaon production at high p up to 15 GeV/c at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    STAR Collaboration; Xu, Yichun; STAR Collaboration

    2009-11-01

    We report an extension of charged kaon transverse momentum (p) spectra at mid-rapidity (|y|<0.5) up to 15 GeV/c, neutral kaon p spectra up to 12 GeV/c using events triggered by the Barrel Electro-Magnetic Calorimeter (BEMC) from p+p collisions at s=200GeV. The K±/π± and K0/π± at high p are compared in p+p and Au+Au collisions, and nuclear modification factor (R) for pion, kaon, proton and rho are discussed. The R for kaon in central collisions are consistent with theory calculation having jet conversion in a plasma of quarks and gluons.

  16. Measurements of Direct CP Violation, CPT Symmetry, and Other Parameters in the Neutral Kaon System

    SciTech Connect

    Worcester, Elizabeth Turner; /Chicago U.

    2007-12-01

    The authors present precision measurements of the direct CP violation parameter, Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}), the kaon parameters, {Delta}m and {tau}{sub S}, and the CPT tests, {phi}{sub {+-}} and {Delta}{phi}, in neutral kaon decays. These results are based on the full dataset collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. This dataset contains {approx} 15 million K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} decays and {approx} 69 million K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays. They describe significant improvements to the precision of these measurements relative to previous KTeV analyses. They find Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}) = [19.2 {+-} 1.1(stat) {+-} 1.8(syst)] x 10{sup -4}, {Delta}m = (5265 {+-} 10) x 10{sup 6} hs{sup -1}, and {tau}{sub S} = (89.62 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -12} s. They measure {phi}{sub {+-}} = (44.09 {+-} 1.00){sup o} and {Delta}{phi} = (0.29 {+-} 0.31){sup o}; these results are consistent with CPT symmetry.

  17. Long-lived neutral-kaon flux measurement for the KOTO experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, T.; Ahn, J. K.; Banno, S.; Campbell, M.; Comfort, J.; Duh, Y. T.; Hineno, T.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Inagaki, T.; Iwai, E.; Kawasaki, N.; Kim, E. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Ko, J. W.; Komatsubara, T. K.; Kurilin, A. S.; Lee, G. H.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, S. K.; Lim, G. Y.; Ma, J.; MacFarland, D.; Maeda, Y.; Matsumura, T.; Murayama, R.; Naito, D.; Nakaya, Y.; Nanjo, H.; Nomura, T.; Odani, Y.; Okuno, H.; Ri, Y. D.; Sasao, N.; Sato, K.; Sato, T.; Seki, S.; Shimogawa, T.; Shinkawa, T.; Shiomi, K.; Son, J. S.; Sugiyama, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Tajima, Y.; Takahashi, G.; Takashima, Y.; Tecchio, M.; Togawa, M.; Toyoda, T.; Tung, Y. C.; Wah, Y. W.; Watanabe, H.; Woo, J. K.; Xu, J.; Yamanaka, T.; Yanagida, Y.; Yoshida, H. Y.; Yoshimoto, H.

    2016-01-01

    The KOTO (K^0 at Tokai) experiment aims to observe the CP-violating rare decay K_L rArr π ^0 ν bar {ν } by using a long-lived neutral-kaon beam produced by the 30 GeV proton beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The K_L flux is an essential parameter for the measurement of the branching fraction. Three K_L neutral decay modes, K_L rArr 3π ^0, K_L rArr 2π ^0, and K_L rArr 2γ , were used to measure the K_L flux in the beam line in the 2013 KOTO engineering run. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the detector acceptance for these decays. Agreement was found between the simulation model and the experimental data, and the remaining systematic uncertainty was estimated at the 1.4% level. The K_L flux was measured as (4.183 ± 0.017_{stat.} ± 0.059_{sys.}) × 10^7 K_L per 2× 10^{14} protons on a 66-mm-long Au target.

  18. Ultra-sensitive inertial sensors via neutral-atom interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauser, John F.

    1989-01-01

    Upon looking at the various colossal interferometers, etc., discussed at this conference to test gravitational theory, one cannot avoid feeling that easier approaches exist. The use of low velocity, neutral atom matter waves in place of electromagnetic waves in sensitive inertial interferometer configurations is proposed. For applications, spacecraft experiments to sense a drag-free condition, to measure the Lense-Thirring precession, to measure the gravitomagnetic effect and/or the earth's geopotential (depending on altitude), and to detect long period gravitational waves are considered. Also, a terrestrial precision test of the equivalence principle on spin polarized atoms, capable of detecting effects of the 5th force is considered. While the ideas described herein are preliminary, the orders of magnitude are sufficiently tantalizing to warrant further study. Although existing proposed designs may be adequate for some of these experiments, the use of matter-wave interferometry offers reduced complexity and cost, and an absence of cryogenics.

  19. Energy-charge correlation in the π+π-π0 decay of K L and of tagged neutral kaons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccella, F.; Pisanti, O.; Sannino, F.

    1995-03-01

    We relate the asymmetries in the charged pions energy in the decay into π+π-π0 of K L and of the tagged neutral kaons. The former asymmetry is a given combination ofRe (\\varepsilon ), Im (\\varepsilon ), and üɛ'ü. Moreover, the non-violating CP asymmetry allows a test for theχ PT predictions within the Zel'dovich approach for the final state interaction.

  20. Neutral Kaon Mixing Parameter BK from Unquenched Mixed-action Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Water, R.; Aubin, C; Laiho, J

    2010-01-21

    We calculate the neutral kaon mixing parameter B{sub K} in unquenched lattice QCD using asqtad-improved staggered sea quarks and domain-wall valence quarks. We use the '2+1' flavor gauge configurations generated by the MILC Collaboration, and simulate with multiple valence and sea-quark masses at two lattice spacings of a {approx} 0.12 fm and a {approx} 0.09 fm. We match the lattice determination of B{sub K} to the continuum value using the nonperturbative method of Rome-Southampton, and extrapolate B{sub K} to the continuum and physical quark masses using mixed-action chiral perturbation theory. The 'mixed-action' method enables us to control all sources of systematic uncertainty and therefore to precisely determine B{sub K}; we find a value of B{sub K}{sup MS{sup -},NDR} (2 GeV) = 0.527(6)(21), where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic.

  1. The Neutral kaon mixing parameter B(K) from unquenched mixed-action lattice QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Aubin, Jack Laiho, Ruth S. Van de Water

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the neutral kaon mixing parameter B{sub K} in unquenched lattice QCD using asqtad-improved staggered sea quarks and domain-wall valence quarks. We use the '2+1' flavor gauge configurations generated by the MILC Collaboration, and simulate with multiple valence and sea quark masses at two lattice spacings of a {approx} 0.12 fm and a {approx} 0.09 fm. We match the lattice determination of B{sub K} to the continuum value using the nonperturbative method of Rome-Southampton, and extrapolate B{sub K} to the continuum and physical quark masses using mixed action chiral perturbation theory. The 'mixed-action' method enables us to control all sources of systematic uncertainty and therefore to precisely determine B{sub K}; we find a value of B{sub K}{sup {ovr MS},NDR} (2 GeV) = 0.527(6)(21), where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic.

  2. How to Test Atom and Neutron Neutrality with Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A.; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark

    2008-03-28

    We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{sup -28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{sup -28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds.

  3. How to test atom and neutron neutrality with atom interferometry.

    PubMed

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark

    2008-03-28

    We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{-28}e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{-28}e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds. PMID:18517846

  4. Testing Atom and Neutron Neutrality with Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Dimopoulos, Savas; Geraci, Andrew A.; Hogan, Jason; Kasevich, Mark; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-01-07

    We propose an atom-interferometry experiment based on the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect which detects an atom charge at the 10{sup -28} e level, and improves the current laboratory limits by 8 orders of magnitude. This setup independently probes neutron charges down to 10{sup 28} e, 7 orders of magnitude below current bounds.

  5. Performance of the KTeV high-energy neutral kaon beam at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Bocean, V.

    1998-06-01

    The performance of the primary and secondary beams for the KTeV experiments E832 and E799-II is reviewed. The beam was commissioned in the summer of 1996 and initially operated for approximately one year. The report includes results on the primary beam, target station including primary beam dump and muon sweeping system, neutral beam collimation system, and alignment.

  6. New directions in kaon-nucleus physics

    SciTech Connect

    Dover, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The prospects for nuclear physics with kaons are reviewed including (1) elementary interactions k/sup +-/N; (2) K/sup +/-induced processes on nuclei; (3) resonance physics with K/sup -/ and ..pi../sup +-/ (greater than or equal to 1 GeV/c/); (4) neutral kaon interactions; and (5) hypernuclear physics. Summary of kaon beam requirements is given. (WHK)

  7. Measurement of CP-Violating Asymmetries In Neutral B Meson Decays Into Three Kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Joshua M.

    2008-12-01

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics successfully describes all of the observed interactions of the fundamental particles (with the exception of non-zero neutrino mass). Despite this enormous success, the SM is widely viewed as an incomplete theory. For example, the size of the asymmetry between matter and antimatter is not nearly large enough to account for the abundance of matter observed throughout the universe. It is thus believed that as-yet-unknown physical phenomena must exist that introduce new asymmetries between matter and antimatter. In this thesis, by studying decays that happen only rarely in the SM, we make measurements of asymmetries between matter and antimatter that are potentially sensitive to the existence of processes beyond the SM. At the PEP-II asymmetric-energy B Factory at SLAC, electrons and positrons are collided at the Υ(4S) resonance to create pairs of B mesons. The BABAR detector is used to measure the subsequent decay products. Using 383 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ decays, we study the decay B0 → K+K-K0. In the SM, this decay is dominated by loop amplitudes. Asymmetries between matter and antimatter (CP asymmetries) are extracted by measuring the time-dependence of the complex amplitudes describing the B0 and $\\bar{B}$0 decays as functions of their kinematics. The interference between decays with and without the mixing of neutral B mesons allows for the measurement of the angle βeff, which is a measure of CP violation. We also measure the direct CP asymmetry ACP. Data samples reconstructed from three K0 modes (KS0 → π+π-, KS0 → π0π0, and KL0) are fit simultaneously. They find ACP = -0.015 ± 0.077 ± 0.053 and βeff = 0.352 ± 0.076 ± 0.026 rad, corresponding to a CP violation

  8. Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridgway, Stephen; Wilson, Robert W.; Begelman, Mitchell C.; Bender, Peter; Burke, Bernard F.; Cornwell, Tim; Drever, Ronald; Dyck, H. Melvin; Johnston, Kenneth J.; Kibblewhite, Edward

    1991-01-01

    The following recommended programs are reviewed: (1) infrared and optical interferometry (a ground-based and space programs); (2) compensation for the atmosphere with adaptive optics (a program for development and implementation of adaptive optics); and (3) gravitational waves (high frequency gravitational wave sources (LIGO), low frequency gravitational wave sources (LAGOS), a gravitational wave observatory program, laser gravitational wave observatory in space, and technology development during the 1990's). Prospects for international collaboration and related issues are also discussed.

  9. Kaon Decays from AdS/QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Schvellinger, Martin

    2008-07-28

    We briefly review one of the current applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence known as AdS/QCD and discuss about the calculation of four-point quark-flavour current correlation functions and their applications to the calculation of observables related to neutral kaon decays and neutral kaon mixing processes.

  10. Measurements of CP Violation and Neutral Kaon Charge Radius using K(L) --> pi+pi-e+e- Decays.

    SciTech Connect

    Golossanov, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    CP violation and K{sup 0} charge radius were measured using K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup +}e{sup -} decays. Specifically, a unique CP-violating decay-plane asymmetry was measured along with the parameters of individual contributions to the decay invariant amplitude: (1) CP-conserving magnetic dipole direct emission form factor, (2) CP-conserving K{sup 0} charge radius transition amplitude and (3) an upper limit for the CP-violating electric dipole direct emission amplitude. The measurements were obtained from the data sample accumulated by KTeV experiment at Fermilab. KTeV had two major goals: the measurement of direct CP violation parameter Re({var_epsilon}{prime}/{var_epsilon}) and the study of rare kaon decays. The state of the art detector was constructed, commissioned, operated and maintained by an international collaboration of scientists from fourteen institutions. The K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} e{sup +}e{sup -} data was accumulated over the 1997 and 1999 running periods. During that time hundreds of billions K{sub L} decays took place in the KTeV fiducial decay region.

  11. Neutral kaon and lambda production in electron-positron annihilation at 29 GeV and the Z boson resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Fordham, C.S.

    1990-10-01

    The production of K{sup 0} and {Lambda} in the hadronization of q{bar q} events from e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at 29 GeV and the Z{sup 0} resonance is studied using the Mark II detector as upgraded for running at the Stanford Linear Collider. Hadronization processes cannot presently be calculated with Quantum Chromodynamics; instead, hadronization models must be used in comparisons with data. In these models, hadronization occurs at local energy scales of a few GeV, a level at which small differences in quark and diquark mass significantly affect the production of particles such as K{sup 0} and {Lambda}, the lightest neutral meson and baryon containing strange quarks. Their production and behavior in hadronic events is a test for the accuracy of our understanding of hadronization. Two-charged- particle decays of the K{sup 0} and {Lambda} are isolated within the hadronic event sample. The resulting distribution of K{sup 0} and {Lambda} are corrected for inefficiencies and generalized to include all K{sup 0} and {Lambda}. Various kinematic distributions of the strange particles are examined. These distributions include the momentum and scaled momentum of the particles. The kinematics of the particles with respect to the original quark direction are examined through the distributions of rapidity and momentum transverse to the thrust both in and out of the event plane. The dependence of K{sup 0} and {Lambda} production on the sphericity of the hadronic events is also examined. All these distributions show that the behavior of K{sup 0} and {Lambda} in hadronic events is consistent with the hadronization models.

  12. Velocity distribution of neutral species during magnetron sputtering by Fabry-Perot interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Britun, N.; Han, J. G.; Oh, S.-G.

    2008-04-07

    The velocity distribution of a metallic neutral species sputtered in a dc magnetron discharge was measured using a planar Fabry-Perot interferometer and a hollow cathode lamp as a reference source. The measurement was performed under different angles of view relative to the target surface. The velocity distribution function in the direction perpendicular to the target becomes asymmetrical as the Ar pressure decreases, whereas it remains nearly symmetrical when the line of sight is parallel to the target surface. The average velocity of the sputtered Ti atoms was measured to be about 2 km/s.

  13. RARE KAON DECAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-07-19

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type.

  14. Physics Results from KTeV (E799-II and E832): The Search for Direct CP Violation in 2 PI Decays and Rare Decays of the Neutral Kaon

    DOE Data Explorer

    KTeV includes the study of fundamental symmetries, rare decay processes, weak interactions, and polarization phenomena. A striking asymmetry of our world is the fact that the universe appears to be composed entirely of matter and no astronomical object made of anti-matter has ever been detected. In fact, the only anti-matter we find anywhere is minute quantities produced in high energy particle interactions like those studied at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). At the time of this experiment, only one other place where an asymmetry of this kind, formally called "CP violation," has been observed. This is a tiny effect (about 1 part in 500) in certain decays of a particular elementary particle called the neutral Kaon. KTeV seeks to determine whether or not this effect can be fully understood in the context of the present picture of matter (the "Standard Model"). To do this, high-precision measurements on decays which are known to manifest CP violation are performed in order to study a variety of extremely rare decay processes.[copied with editing from http://ktev.fnal.gov/public/plain_english.html] This website provides access to numeric data and data plots from published papers. Drs Makoto Kobayashi, Toshihide Maskawa, and Yoichiro Nambu share a 2008 Nobel Prize in Physics for their work in this experiment.

  15. Beams for kaon research

    SciTech Connect

    Pile, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    A proposed 1-2 GeV/c kaon beam line for BNL, designed to deliver momentum analyzed negative kaon beams with intensities above 10/sup 6/ per spill, is discussed. The beam intensity is expected to be about an order of magnitude greater than presently available and it is expected to be a clean beam with no more than 1:1 (..pi../sup -/,..mu../sup -/,e/sup -/)/K/sup -/. The beam line will allow a detailed investigation of strangeness -2 systems as well as continued investigations of strangeness -1 systems.

  16. Kaon-nucleus scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Byungsik; Maung, Khin Maung; Wilson, John W.; Buck, Warren W.

    1989-01-01

    The derivations of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and Watson multiple scattering are given. A simple optical potential is found to be the first term of that series. The number density distribution models of the nucleus, harmonic well, and Woods-Saxon are used without t-matrix taken from the scattering experiments. The parameterized two-body inputs, which are kaon-nucleon total cross sections, elastic slope parameters, and the ratio of the real to the imaginary part of the forward elastic scattering amplitude, are presented. The eikonal approximation was chosen as our solution method to estimate the total and absorptive cross sections for the kaon-nucleus scattering.

  17. Kaon Electroproduction on Deuterium

    SciTech Connect

    David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch, Pawel Ambrozewicz; Chris Armstrong; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Kevin Bailey; Oliver K. Baker; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Jinseok Cha; G. Collins; C. Cothran; W.J. Cummings; Samuel Danagoulian; Fraser Duncan; Jim Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; Lars Ewell; H.T. Fortune; Haiyan Gao; Donald Geesaman; Kenneth Gustafsson; Paul Gueye; Jens-Ole Hansen; Wendy Hinton; Hal Jackson; Cynthia Keppel; Andi Klein; D. Koltenok; David Mack; Richard Madey; Pete Markowitz; C.J. Martoff; David Meekins; Joseph Mitchell; R. Mohring; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; S.K. Mtingwa; Tom O'Neill; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; Dave Potterveld; John Price; Philip Roos; Brian Raue; J.J. Reidy; Juerg Reinhold; G. Savage; Reyad Sawafta; J.P. Schiffer; Ralph Segel; Stepan Stepanyan; V. Tadevosian; Liguang Tang; B. Terburg; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Ben Zeidman; Beni Zihlmann

    1998-08-01

    Kaon electroproduction on deuterium and hydrogen targets has been measured at beam energies of 3.245 and 2.445GeV and momentum transfer Q{sup 2}=0.38 and O.5(GeV/c ){sup 2} Associated production off a proton in the deuteron exhibits a quasifree production mechanism. The electroproduction of a Sigma - off the neutron could be extracted for the first time with reasonable errors.

  18. KAON PHYSICS AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    KETTELL,S.H.

    2001-11-20

    The rare kaon decay program at BNL is summarized. A brief review of recent results is provided along with a discussion of prospects for the future of this program. The primary focus is the two golden modes: K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} and K{sub L}{sup o} {yields} {pi}{sup o} {nu}{bar {nu}}. The first step in an ambitious program to precisely measure both branching ratios has been successfully completed with the observation of two K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {nu}{bar {nu}} events by E787. The E949 experiment is poised to reach an order of magnitude further in sensitivity and to observe {approx}10 Standard Model events.

  19. Collins and Sivers asymmetries in muonproduction of pions and kaons off transversely polarised protons

    SciTech Connect

    Adolph, C.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S. U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; N. du Fresne von Hohenesche; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F. H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Höppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jörg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuß, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Krämer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W. -D.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rychter, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schlüter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O. Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2015-05-01

    Measurements of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged pions and charged and neutral kaons produced in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering of high energy muons off transversely polarised protons are presented. The results were obtained using all the available COMPASS proton data, which were taken in the years 2007 and 2010. The Collins asymmetries exhibit in the valence region a non-zero signal for pions and there are hints of non-zero signal also for kaons. The Sivers asymmetries are found to be positive for positive pions and kaons and compatible with zero otherwise.

  20. Kaon Production Off the Nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Simo, I. Ruiz; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2011-10-06

    We have studied the weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos at the low and intermediate energies. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 1.2 to 1.5 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as MINERvA and T2K.

  1. Hints for Enhanced b -> sg From Charm and Kaon Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Rathsman, Johan

    2003-05-09

    Previously, motivation for enhanced b {yields} sg from new flavor physics has centered on discrepancies between theory and experiment. Here two experimental hints are considered: (1) updated measurements of the charm multiplicity and {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar c}s}) at the {Upsilon}(4S) imply {Beta}(B {yields} X{sub no charm}) {approx} 12.4 {+-} 5.6%, (2) the {bar B} {yields} K{sup -}X and {bar B} {yields} K{sup +}/K{sup -}X branching fractions are in excess of conventional {bar B} {yields} X{sub c} {yields} KX yields by about 16.9 {+-} 5.6% and 18 {+-} 5.3%, respectively. JETSET 7.4 was used to estimate kaon yields from s{bar s} popping in {bar B} {yields} X{sub c{bar u}d} decays. JETSET 7.4 Monte Carlos for {Beta}({bar B} {yields} X{sub sg}) {approx} 15% imply that the additional kaon production would lead to 1{sigma} agreement with observed charged and neutral kaon yields. The K{sub s} momentum spectrum would be consistent with recent CLEO bounds in the end point region. Search strategies for enhanced b {yields} sg are discussed in light of large theoretical uncertainty in the standard model fast kaon background from b {yields} s penguin operators.

  2. Progress in kaon physics on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Weonjong

    2006-12-01

    We review recent progress in calculating kaon spectrum, pseudoscalar meson decay constants, B K , ɛ ɛ, K ππ matrix elements, kaon semileptonic form factors, and moments of kaon distribution amplitudes on the lattice. We also address the issue of how best to improve the staggered fermion formulation for the action and operators.

  3. Kaon Electroproduction Experiments with CLAS

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Carman

    2000-05-12

    A program of kaon electroproduction from protons is presently underway with the CLAS spectrometer in Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory. A significant amount of data at beam energies from 2.4 to 4.8 GeV has been acquired during separate run periods in 1998, 1999, and 2000. This talk will provide an overview of the individual experiments and the overall goals of our strangeness-physics program. Preliminary results of our corrected yields and hyperon polarization data are discussed.

  4. Bayesian analysis for kaon photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Marsainy, T. Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We have investigated contribution of the nucleon resonances in the kaon photoproduction process by using an established statistical decision making method, i.e. the Bayesian method. This method does not only evaluate the model over its entire parameter space, but also takes the prior information and experimental data into account. The result indicates that certain resonances have larger probabilities to contribute to the process.

  5. Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au + Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adare, A.; Afanasiev, S.; Aidala, C.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Akiba, Y.; Al-Bataineh, H.; Alexander, J.; Alfred, M.; Aoki, K.; Apadula, N.; Aramaki, Y.; Asano, H.; Atomssa, E. T.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Azmoun, B.; Babintsev, V.; Bai, M.; Baksay, G.; Baksay, L.; Bandara, N. S.; Bannier, B.; Barish, K. N.; Bassalleck, B.; Basye, A. T.; Bathe, S.; Baublis, V.; Baumann, C.; Bazilevsky, A.; Beaumier, M.; Beckman, S.; Belikov, S.; Belmont, R.; Bennett, R.; Berdnikov, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Bickley, A. A.; Blau, D. S.; Bok, J. S.; Boyle, K.; Brooks, M. L.; Bryslawskyj, J.; Buesching, H.; Bumazhnov, V.; Bunce, G.; Butsyk, S.; Camacho, C. M.; Campbell, S.; Chen, C.-H.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Choi, I. J.; Choi, J. B.; Choudhury, R. K.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cianciolo, V.; Citron, Z.; Cole, B. A.; Connors, M.; Constantin, P.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Dahms, T.; Dairaku, S.; Danchev, I.; Danley, D.; Das, K.; Datta, A.; Daugherity, M. S.; David, G.; Deblasio, K.; Dehmelt, K.; Denisov, A.; Deshpande, A.; Desmond, E. J.; Dietzsch, O.; Dion, A.; Diss, P. B.; Do, J. H.; Donadelli, M.; Drapier, O.; Drees, A.; Drees, K. A.; Durham, J. M.; Durum, A.; Dutta, D.; Edwards, S.; Efremenko, Y. V.; Ellinghaus, F.; Engelmore, T.; Enokizono, A.; En'yo, H.; Esumi, S.; Fadem, B.; Feege, N.; Fields, D. E.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fleuret, F.; Fokin, S. L.; Fraenkel, Z.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fujiwara, K.; Fukao, Y.; Fusayasu, T.; Gal, C.; Gallus, P.; Garg, P.; Garishvili, I.; Ge, H.; Giordano, F.; Glenn, A.; Gong, H.; Gonin, M.; Goto, Y.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grau, N.; Greene, S. V.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Gunji, T.; Gustafsson, H.-Å.; Hachiya, T.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, K. I.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamblen, J.; Hamilton, H. F.; Han, R.; Han, S. Y.; Hanks, J.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hasegawa, S.; Haseler, T. O. S.; Hashimoto, K.; Haslum, E.; Hayano, R.; He, X.; Heffner, M.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hester, T.; Hill, J. C.; Hohlmann, M.; Hollis, R. S.; Holzmann, W.; Homma, K.; Hong, B.; Horaguchi, T.; Hornback, D.; Hoshino, T.; Hotvedt, N.; Huang, J.; Huang, S.; Ichihara, T.; Ichimiya, R.; Ide, J.; Ikeda, Y.; Imai, K.; Inaba, M.; Iordanova, A.; Isenhower, D.; Ishihara, M.; Isobe, T.; Issah, M.; Isupov, A.; Ivanishchev, D.; Jacak, B. V.; Jezghani, M.; Jia, J.; Jiang, X.; Jin, J.; Johnson, B. M.; Joo, K. S.; Jouan, D.; Jumper, D. S.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamihara, N.; Kamin, J.; Kanda, S.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Karatsu, K.; Kawall, D.; Kawashima, M.; Kazantsev, A. V.; Kempel, T.; Key, J. A.; Khachatryan, V.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kijima, K. M.; Kim, B. I.; Kim, C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, E.; Kim, E.-J.; Kim, G. W.; Kim, M.; Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y.-J.; Kimelman, B.; Kinney, E.; Kiriluk, K.; Kiss, Á.; Kistenev, E.; Kitamura, R.; Klatsky, J.; Kleinjan, D.; Kline, P.; Koblesky, T.; Kochenda, L.; Komkov, B.; Konno, M.; Koster, J.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kotov, D.; Kozlov, A.; Král, A.; Kravitz, A.; Kunde, G. J.; Kurita, K.; Kurosawa, M.; Kwon, Y.; Kyle, G. S.; Lacey, R.; Lai, Y. S.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, D. M.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. H.; Leitch, M. J.; Leite, M. A. L.; Leitner, E.; Lenzi, B.; Li, X.; Liebing, P.; Lim, S. H.; Linden Levy, L. A.; Liška, T.; Litvinenko, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, M. X.; Love, B.; Luechtenborg, R.; Lynch, D.; Maguire, C. F.; Makdisi, Y. I.; Makek, M.; Malakhov, A.; Malik, M. D.; Manion, A.; Manko, V. I.; Mannel, E.; Mao, Y.; Masui, H.; Matathias, F.; McCumber, M.; McGaughey, P. L.; McGlinchey, D.; McKinney, C.; Means, N.; Meles, A.; Mendoza, M.; Meredith, B.; Miake, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Mikeš, P.; Miki, K.; Milov, A.; Mishra, D. K.; Mishra, M.; Mitchell, J. T.; Miyasaka, S.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, A. K.; Montuenga, P.; Moon, T.; Morino, Y.; Morreale, A.; Morrison, D. P.; Moukhanova, T. V.; Murakami, T.; Murata, J.; Mwai, A.; Nagamiya, S.; Nagashima, K.; Nagle, J. L.; Naglis, M.; Nagy, M. I.; Nakagawa, I.; Nakagomi, H.; Nakamiya, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Nakano, K.; Nattrass, C.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Newby, J.; Nguyen, M.; Niida, T.; Nishimura, S.; Nouicer, R.; Novak, T.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A. S.; O'Brien, E.; Oda, S. X.; Ogilvie, C. A.; Oka, M.; Okada, K.; Onuki, Y.; Orjuela Koop, J. D.; Osborn, J. D.; Oskarsson, A.; Ouchida, M.; Ozawa, K.; Pak, R.; Pantuev, V.; Papavassiliou, V.; Park, I. H.; Park, J.; Park, J. S.; Park, S.; Park, S. K.; Park, W. J.; Pate, S. F.; Patel, M.; Pei, H.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, H.; Perepelitsa, D. V.; Perera, G. D. N.; Peresedov, V.; Peressounko, D. Yu.; Perry, J.; Petti, R.; Pinkenburg, C.; Pinson, R.; Pisani, R. P.; Proissl, M.; Purschke, M. L.; Purwar, A. K.; Qu, H.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramson, B. J.; Ravinovich, I.; Read, K. F.; Reygers, K.; Reynolds, D.; Riabov, V.; Riabov, Y.; Richardson, E.; Rinn, T.; Roach, D.; Roche, G.; Rolnick, S. D.; Rosati, M.; Rosen, C. A.; Rosendahl, S. S. E.; Rosnet, P.; Rowan, Z.; Rubin, J. G.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Ružička, P.; Sahlmueller, B.; Saito, N.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sakashita, K.; Sako, H.; Samsonov, V.; Sano, S.; Sarsour, M.; Sato, S.; Sato, T.; Sawada, S.; Schaefer, B.; Schmoll, B. K.; Sedgwick, K.; Seele, J.; Seidl, R.; Semenov, A. Yu.; Sen, A.; Seto, R.; Sett, P.; Sexton, A.; Sharma, D.; Shein, I.; Shibata, T.-A.; Shigaki, K.; Shimomura, M.; Shoji, K.; Shukla, P.; Sickles, A.; Silva, C. L.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Sim, K. S.; Singh, B. K.; Singh, C. P.; Singh, V.; Slunečka, M.; Snowball, M.; Soltz, R. A.; Sondheim, W. E.; Sorensen, S. P.; Sourikova, I. V.; Sparks, N. A.; Stankus, P. W.; Stenlund, E.; Stepanov, M.; Stoll, S. P.; Sugitate, T.; Sukhanov, A.; Sumita, T.; Sun, J.; Sziklai, J.; Takagui, E. M.; Taketani, A.; Tanabe, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Tannenbaum, M. J.; Tarafdar, S.; Taranenko, A.; Tarján, P.; Themann, H.; Thomas, T. L.; Tieulent, R.; Timilsina, A.; Todoroki, T.; Togawa, M.; Toia, A.; Tomášek, L.; Tomášek, M.; Torii, H.; Towell, C. L.; Towell, R.; Towell, R. S.; Tserruya, I.; Tsuchimoto, Y.; Vale, C.; Valle, H.; van Hecke, H. W.; Vazquez-Zambrano, E.; Veicht, A.; Velkovska, J.; Vértesi, R.; Vinogradov, A. A.; Virius, M.; Vrba, V.; Vznuzdaev, E.; Wang, X. R.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Watanabe, Y. S.; Wei, F.; Wei, R.; Wessels, J.; White, A. S.; White, S. N.; Winter, D.; Wood, J. P.; Woody, C. L.; Wright, R. M.; Wysocki, M.; Xia, B.; Xie, W.; Xue, L.; Yalcin, S.; Yamaguchi, Y. L.; Yamaura, K.; Yang, R.; Yanovich, A.; Ying, J.; Yokkaichi, S.; Yoo, J. H.; Yoon, I.; You, Z.; Young, G. R.; Younus, I.; Yu, H.; Yushmanov, I. E.; Zajc, W. A.; Zelenski, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhou, S.; Zolin, L.; Zou, L.; Phenix Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    We present a systematic study of charged-pion and kaon interferometry in Au +Au collisions at √{s NN}=200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-mass dependence of the oscillations.

  6. Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.

    2015-09-23

    We present a systematic study of charged pion and kaon interferometry in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-mass dependence of the oscillations.

  7. Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Adare, A.

    2015-09-23

    We present a systematic study of charged pion and kaon interferometry in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-massmore » dependence of the oscillations.« less

  8. HBT interferometry and the parton-hadron phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Soff, Sven

    2002-02-23

    The authors discuss predictions for the pion and kaon interferometry measurements in relativistic heavy ion collisions at SPS and RHIC energies. In particular, they confront relativistic transport model calculations that include explicitly a first-order phase transition from a thermalized quark-gluon plasma to a hadron gas with recent data from the RHIC experiments. They critically examine the HBT-puzzle both from the theoretical as well as from the experimental point of view. Alternative scenarios are briefly explained.

  9. Flavor changing kaon decays from hypercp: Measurements of the K+ ---> pi+- mu+ mu- branching ratios

    SciTech Connect

    E. Craig Dukes et al.

    2004-01-12

    The Fermilab HyperCP collaboration is making precision studies of charged hyperon and kaon decays, as well as searches for rare and forbidden hyperon and kaon decays. We report here on measurements of the branching ratios of the flavor-changing neutral-current decays: K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}, and compare our results to theoretical predictions. This is the first observation of the K{sup -} {yields} {pi}{sup -} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -} decay.

  10. Pion and kaon correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.; Wolf, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An upgraded multi-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-pion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au+Au reaction, taken with full event characterization. 35 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. The BNL rare kaon decay program

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1996-12-31

    The rare kaon decay program at Brookhaven National Laboratory is reviewed. Results from the last round of experiments are briefly discussed. The three experiments currently collecting data are described. Prospects for future experiments are discussed.

  12. Subthreshold kaons would reveal density isomers

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnack, C.; Aichelin, J.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W. Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, D-64220 Darmstadt Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, D-60065 Frankfurt )

    1994-06-13

    If density isomers exist they can be detected by measuring the excitation function of subthreshold kaon production. When the system reaches the density where the density isomer has influence on the equation of state (which depends on the beam energy and on the optical potential), we observe a jump in the cross section of the kaons whereas other observables change little. Above threshold [bar [Lambda

  13. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, Mark

    2008-05-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton's constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gyroscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be used to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  14. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Kasevich

    2008-05-07

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  15. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema

    Mark Kasevich

    2010-01-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton?s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  16. Entanglement properties of kaons and tests of hidden-variable models

    SciTech Connect

    Genovese, M.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we discuss entanglement properties of neutral kaons systems and their use for testing local realism. In particular, we analyze a Hardy-type scheme [A. Bramon and G. Garbarino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 160401 (2002)] recently suggested for performing a test of hidden-variable theories against standard quantum mechanics. Our result is that this scheme could, in principle, lead to a conclusive test of local realism, but only if higher identification efficiencies than in today's experiments will be reached.

  17. Quantum Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2000-01-01

    Recently, several researchers, including yours truly, have been able to demonstrate theoretically that quantum photon entanglement has the potential to also revolutionize the entire field of optical interferometry, by providing many orders of magnitude improvement in interferometer sensitivity. The quantum entangled photon interferometer approach is very general and applies to many types of interferometers. In particular, without nonlocal entanglement, a generic classical interferometer has a statistical-sampling shot-noise limited sensitivity that scales like 1/Sqrt[N], where N is the number of particles (photons, electrons, atoms, neutrons) passing through the interferometer per unit time. However, if carefully prepared quantum correlations are engineered between the particles, then the interferometer sensitivity improves by a factor of Sqrt[N] (square root of N) to scale like 1/N, which is the limit imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. For optical (laser) interferometers operating at milliwatts of optical power, this quantum sensitivity boost corresponds to an eight-order-of-magnitude improvement of signal to noise. Applications are to tests of General Relativity such as ground and orbiting optical interferometers for gravity wave detection, Laser Interferometer Gravity Observatory (LIGO) and the European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), respectively.

  18. Kaon condensation in dense stellar matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, M. |

    1995-03-01

    This article combines two talks given by the authors and is based on Works done in collaboration with G.E. Brown and D.P. Min on kaon condensation in dense baryonic medium treated in chiral perturbation theory using heavy-baryon formalism. It contains, in addition to what was recently published, astrophysical backgrounds for kaon condensation discussed by Brown and Bethe, a discussion on a renormalization-group analysis to meson condensation worked out together with H.K. Lee and S.J. Sin, and the recent results of K.M. Westerberg in the bound-state approach to the Skyrme model. Negatively charged kaons are predicted to condense at a critical density 2 {approx_lt} {rho}/{rho}o {approx_lt} 4, in the range to allow the intriguing new phenomena predicted by Brown and Bethe to take place in compact star matter.

  19. Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokberg, Ole J.

    1988-01-01

    The basic principles of electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) are described, stressing its close similarity to hologram interferometry. The technique's applications for vibration and deformation testing within industrial and medical research are outlined. Future developments are discussed.

  20. History of Stellar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the history of stellar interferometry from the suggestion of Fizeau that stellar interferometry was possible,to the use of the Mark I, II and III for astrometry. Photographs, and parts of original articles are presented.

  1. Rare kaon, muon, and pion decay

    SciTech Connect

    Littenberg, L.

    1998-12-01

    The author discusses the status of and prospects for the study of rare decays of kaons, muons, and pions. Studies of rare kaon decays are entering an interesting new phase wherein they can deliver important short-distance information. It should be possible to construct an alternative unitarity triangle to that determined in the B sector, and thus perform a critical check of the Standard Model by comparing the two. Rare muon decays are beginning to constrain supersymmetric models in a significant way, and future experiments should reach sensitivities which this kind of model must show effects, or become far less appealing.

  2. Pion and kaon correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. Annual report, April 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An upgraded multiple-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-ion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au+Au reaction, taken with full event characterization.

  3. PLANS FOR KAON PHYSICS AT BNL.

    SciTech Connect

    REDLINGER,G.

    2004-06-05

    The author gives an overview of current plans for kaon physics at BNL. The program is centered around the rare decay modes K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}} and K{sub L} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}.

  4. Kaon-nuclear scattering at medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenstein, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review of kaon-nucleus scattering is given. The discussion includes an account of recent theoretical interpretations of existing elastic and inelastic data, as well as possible directions for future study. The current experimental facility at Brookhaven is described, and an outline of future progress in this area is presented.

  5. Unified description of kaon electroweak form factors

    SciTech Connect

    A. Afanasev; W. Buck

    1996-06-01

    A calculation of the semileptonic decays of the kaon (K{sub l3}) is presented. The results are direct predictions of a covariant model of the pion and kaon introduced earlier by Ito, Buck, Gross. The weak form factors for K{sub l3} are predicted with absolutely no parameter adjustments of the model. The authors obtained for the form factor parameters: f{sub {minus}}(q{sup 2}=m{sub l}{sup 2})/f{sub +}(q{sup 2}=m{sub l}{sup 2})={minus}0.28 and {lambda}{sub +}= 0.028, both within experimental error bars. Connections of this approach to heavy quark symmetry will also be discussed.

  6. Weak kaon production off the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Rafi Alam, M.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.

    2010-08-01

    The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos is studied at the low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This process is also potentially important for the analysis of proton decay experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The basic parameters of the model are f{sub {pi},} the pion decay constant, Cabibbo's angle, the proton and neutron magnetic moments, and the axial vector coupling constants for the baryons octet, D and F, that are obtained from the analysis of the semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 1.2 to 1.5 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva and T2K.

  7. Pion and kaon freezeout in NA44

    SciTech Connect

    NA44 Collaboration

    1994-12-01

    The NA44 spectrometer is optimized for the study of single and two-particle particle spectra near mid-rapidity for transverse momenta below {approx} 1 GeV/c. A large fraction of all pairs in the spectrometer`s acceptance are at low relative momenta, resulting in small statistical uncertainties on the extracted size parameters. In addition, the spectrometer`s clean particle identification allows the authors to measure correlation functions for pions, kaons, and protons. This contribution will concentrate on the source size parameters determined from pion and kaon correlation functions. These size parameters will be compared to calculations from the RQMD event generator and also interpreted in the context of a hydrodynamic model. Finally, the measured single particle spectra will be examined from the viewpoint of hydrodynamics.

  8. Hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction

    SciTech Connect

    Syukurilla, L. Mart, T.

    2014-09-25

    We have revisited the effect of hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction process by utilizing an isobaric model developed for kaon photoproduction off the proton. The model is able to reproduce the available experimental data nicely as well as to reveal the origin of the second peak in the total cross section, which was the main source of confusion for decades. Different from our previous study, in the present work we explore the possibility of using different hadronic form factors in each of the KΛN vertices. The use of different hadronic form factors, e.g. dipole, Gaussian, and generalized dipole, has been found to produce a more flexible isobar model, which can provide a significant improvement in the model.

  9. Isospin violation in pion-kaon scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubis, Bastian; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2002-03-01

    We consider strong and electromagnetic isospin violation in near-threshold pion-kaon scattering. At tree level, such effects are small for all physical channels. We work out the complete one-loop corrections to the process π-K +→ π0K 0. They come out rather small. We also show that the corresponding radiative cross section is highly suppressed at threshold.

  10. Kaon production and propagation at intermediate relativistic energies

    SciTech Connect

    Larionov, A.B.; Mosel, U.

    2005-07-01

    We systematically study K{sup +} observables in nucleus-nucleus collisions at 1-2A GeV within the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) transport model. We compare our calculations with the KaoS data on the kaon multiplicities and spectra. In addition, the kaon collective flow is computed and compared with the FOPI and KaoS data. We show that the elliptic kaon flow measured recently by the KaoS Collaboration is best described by using the Brown-Rho parametrization of the kaon potential, U{sub K}({rho}{sub 0}){approx_equal}30 MeV.

  11. Kaon-nuclei interaction studies at low energies (the AMADEUS project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piscicchia, Kristian; Bazzi, M.; Berucci, C.; Bosnar, D.; Bragadireanu, A. M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; D'Uffizi, A.; Ghio, F.; Guaraldo, C.; Kienle, P.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Levi Sandri, P.; Marton, J.; Pietreanu, D.; Poli Lener, M.; Rizzo, A.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D. L.; Sirghi, F.; Tatsuno, H.; Tucakovic, I.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2012-12-01

    The AMADEUS experiment aims to perform dedicated precision studies in the sector of low-energy kaon-nuclei interaction at the DAΦNE collider at LNF-INFN. In particular, the experiment plans to perform measurements of the debated deeply bound kaonic nuclear states, to deepen our knowledge about the controversial state Λ(1405) and to measure the low energy cross section of K- on light nuclei. AMADEUS will exploit the process of stopped kaons in cryogenic gaseous targets, measuring both charged and neutral particles produced in a 4π geometry, so performing a full study of the various interaction channels. Taking advantage of the fact that the KLOE drift chamber is mainly filled with 4He (90% helium 10% isobutane) according to Monte Carlo simulations about 0.1% of kaons from DAΦNE should stop in the inner volume of the drift chamber; the analysis of the existing KLOE data (run from 2002 to 2005) is presently going on, searching for hadronic interactions of K- in such an active target. The AMADEUS physics program and preliminary results from the analysis of KLOE data will be discussed.

  12. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Joughin, I. R.; Li, F.; Madsen, S. N.; Rodriguez, E.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry is an imaging technique for measuring the topography of a surface, its changes over time, and other changes in the detailed characteristics of the surface. This paper reviews the techniques of interferometry, systems and limitations, and applications in a rapidly growing area of science and engineering.

  13. Geometric-phase atom optics and interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zygelman, B.

    2015-10-01

    We illustrate how geometric gauge forces and topological phase effects emerge in atomic and molecular systems without employing assumptions that rely on adiabaticity. We show how geometric magnetism may be harnessed to engineer novel quantum devices including a velocity sieve, a component in mass spectrometers, for neutral atoms. We introduce and outline a possible experimental setup that demonstrates topological interferometry for neutral spin-1/2 systems. For that two-level system, we study the transition from Abelian to non-Abelian behavior and explore its relation to the molecular Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  14. Holograph and Interferometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a method to create holograms for use in different interferometry techniques. Students utilize these techniques in experiments to study the structural integrity of a clarinet reed and the effects of temperature on objects. (MDH)

  15. PALSAR SCANSAR SCANSAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Masanobu

    2008-11-01

    We have examined the capability of the PALSAR SCANSAR SCANSAR interferometry by observing the African forest and Sahara desert, both of which are separated 46 days in March and April of 2008. These two paths are well tuned for the orbital tube of 200m and the beam synchronization of the transmission positions in 200m to 500m, we have succeeded the PALSAR SCANSAR SCANSAR interferometry and achieved the detection of the height information. We will report the results in this paper.

  16. Extracting the kaon Collins function from e+e- hadron pair production data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anselmino, M.; Boglione, M.; D'Alesio, U.; Hernandez, J. O. Gonzalez; Melis, S.; Murgia, F.; Prokudin, A.

    2016-02-01

    The latest data released by the BABAR Collaboration on azimuthal correlations measured for pion-kaon and kaon-kaon pairs produced in e+e- annihilations allow, for the first time, a direct extraction of the kaon Collins functions. These functions are then used to compute the kaon Collins asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes, which result in good agreement with the measurements performed by the HERMES and COMPASS collaborations.

  17. Kaon, pion, and proton associated photofission of Bi nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Y.; Margaryan, A.; Acha, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Androic, D.; Asaturyan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Baker, O. K.; Baturin, P.; Benmokhtar, F.; Carlini, R.; Chen, X.; Christy, M.; Cole, L.; Danagoulian, S.; Daniel, A.; Dharmawardane, V.; Egiyan, K.; Elaasar, M.; Ent, R.

    2010-10-15

    The first measurement of proton, pion, and kaon associated fission of Bi nuclei has been performed in a photon energy range 1. 45 < E{sub {gamma}}< 1. 55 GeV. The fission probabilities are compared with an inclusive fission probabilities obtained with photons, protons and pions. The fission probability of Bi nuclei in coincidence with kaons is 0. 18 {+-} 0. 06 which is {approx}3 times larger than the proton and pion associated fission probabilities and {approx}2 times larger than inclusive ones. The kaon associated excess fission events are explained in terms of bound {Lambda} residual states and their weak nonmesonic decays.

  18. Kaon photoproduction and electroproduction near threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, T.

    2011-10-21

    We analyze the electromagnetic production of K{sup +}{Lambda} and K{sup 0}{Lambda} near their production thresholds by using isobar models. In the K{sup +}{Lambda} channel we show that the model can nicely describe the available experimental data. In the K{sup 0}{Lambda} channel we demonstrate that the K{sup 0} charge form factor has sizable effects on the longitudinal cross section. By extending the model up to W = 1730 MeV, we are able to observe the existence of the narrow P{sub 11}(J{sup p} = 1/2{sup +}) resonance in the kaon photoproduction process. It is found that the most convincing mass (width) of this resonance is 1650 MeV(5 MeV).

  19. Searches for very rare decays of kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.

    1997-01-01

    The physics motivation for searches for very rare kaon decays, either forbidden or suppressed within the Standard Model, is briefly discussed. Simple arguments conclude that such searches probe possible new forces at a 200 TeV mass scale or constitute a precision test of the electroweak model. The examples of such process are decays of K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu} {sup {+-}}e{sup -+}, K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {mu}{sup +} e{sup -}, K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}, and K{sup +} {yields} {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. We present the current experimental status and describe the new efforts to reach sensitivities down to one part in 10{sup 12}. The discussion is focused on the experimental program at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where intense beams make such studies possible.

  20. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  1. Rare and forbidden kaon decays at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Kettell, S.

    1997-12-09

    An overview of the Rare Kaon Decay program at the AGS is presented, with particular emphasis on the three major experiments currently running and analyzing data. A brief overview of earlier kaon decay experiments and of the AGs performance improvements is also provided. This review concludes with a discussion of proposed and developing experiments planned to run in the year 2000 and beyond (AGS-2000).

  2. Kaon Thresholds and Two-Flavor Chiral Expansions for Hyperons

    SciTech Connect

    Fu-Jiun Jiang, Brian C. Tiburzi, Andre Walker-Loud

    2011-01-01

    Two-flavor chiral expansions provide a useful perturbative framework to study hadron properties. Such expansions should exhibit marked improvement over the conventional three-flavor chiral expansion. Although one can theoretically formulate two-flavor theories for the various hyperon multiplets, the nearness of kaon thresholds can seriously undermine the effectiveness of the perturbative expansion in practice. We investigate the importance of virtual kaon thresholds on hyperon properties, specifically their masses and isovector axial charges. Using a three-flavor expansion that includes SU(3) breaking effects, we uncover the underlying expansion parameter governing the description of virtual kaon thresholds. For spin-half hyperons, this expansion parameter is quite small. Consequently virtual kaon contributions are well described in the two-flavor theory by terms analytic in the pion mass-squared. For spin three-half hyperons, however, one is closer to the kaon production threshold, and the expansion parameter is not as small. Breakdown of SU(2) chiral perturbation theory is shown to arise from a pole in the expansion parameter associated with the kaon threshold. Estimating higher-order corrections to the expansion parameter is necessary to ascertain whether the two-flavor theory of spin three-half hyperons remains perturbative. We find that, despite higher-order corrections, there is a useful perturbative expansion for the masses and isovector axial charges of both spin-half and spin three-half hyperons.

  3. Interferometry science center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargent, A. I.

    2002-01-01

    The Interferometry Science Center (ISC) is operated jointly by Caltech and JPL and is part of NASA's Navigator Program. The ISC has been created to facilitate the timely and successful execution of scientific investigations within the Navigator program, particularly those that rely on observations from NASA's interferometer projects. Currently, ISC is expected to provide full life cycle support for the Keck Interferometer, the Starlight mission, the Space Interferometry Mission, and the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission. The nature and goals of ISc will be described.

  4. Kaon Nucleus Interaction Studied by the In-Flight (K-, n) Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Ajimura, S.; Minami, S.; Sakaguchi, A.; Shimizu, Y.; Chrien, R. E.; May, M.; Pile, P.; Rusek, A.; Sutter, R.; Noumi, H.; Tamura, H.; Ukai, M.; Miura, Y.; Tanida, K.

    2004-06-01

    The kaon-nucleus interaction was studied by the in-flight (K-, n) reaction. The reaction can place a kaon in a nucleus where the kaon is in an unbound region to deeply bound region depending on the kaon-nucleus potential. The observed missing mass spectra shows that the kaon-nucleus potential is strongly attractive. The interaction is so strong that it could realize the so-called kaon condensation in the core of neutron stars. Although it contradict to many theoretical predictions.

  5. Searches for very rare decays of kaons

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.

    1995-12-31

    The physics motivation for searches for very rare kaon decays, either forbidden or suppressed within the Standard Model, is briefly discussed. Simple arguments conclude that such searches probe possible new forces at a 200 TeV mass scale or constitute a precision test of the electroweak model. The examples of such processes are decays of K{sub L}{sup O}{yields}{mu}{sup {plus_minus}}e{sup {minus_plus}}, K{sup {plus}}{yields}{pi}{sup {plus}}{mu}{sup {plus}}e{sup {minus}}, K{sub L}{sup O}{yields}{mu}{sup {minus}}, and K{sup {plus}}{yields}{pi}{sup {plus}}{nu}{bar {nu}}. We present the current experimental status and describe the new efforts to reach sensitivities down to 1 part in 10{sup 12}. The discussion is focused on the experimental program at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where intense beams make such studies possible.

  6. Multi-K nuclei and kaon condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Gazda, D.; Mares, J.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2008-04-15

    We extend previous relativistic mean-field (RMF) calculations of multi-K nuclei, using vector boson fields with SU(3) PPV coupling constants and scalar boson fields constrained phenomenologically. For a given core nucleus, the resulting K separation energy B{sub K}, as well as the associated nuclear and K-meson densities, saturate with the number {kappa} of K mesons for {kappa}>{kappa}{sub sat}{approx}10. Saturation appears robust against a wide range of variations, including the RMF nuclear model used and the type of boson fields mediating the strong interactions. Because B{sub K} generally does not exceed 200 MeV, it is argued that multi-K nuclei do not compete with multihyperonic nuclei in providing the ground state of strange hadronic configurations and that kaon condensation is unlikely to occur in strong-interaction self-bound strange hadronic matter. Last, we explore possibly self-bound strange systems made of neutrons and K{sup 0} mesons, or protons and K{sup -} mesons, and study their properties.

  7. Kaon and pion femtoscopy at the highest energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) in a hydrokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Karpenko, Iu. A.; Sinyukov, Yu. M.

    2010-05-15

    The hydrokinetic approach that incorporates hydrodynamic expansion of the systems formed in A+A collisions and their dynamical decoupling is applied to restore the initial conditions and space-time picture of the matter evolution in central Au+Au collisions at the top Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energy. The analysis is based on the detailed reproduction of the pion and kaon momentum spectra and femtoscopic data in whole interval of the transverse momenta studied by both the STAR and the PHENIX collaborations. The fitting procedure utilizes the two parameters: the maximal energy density at supposed thermalization time 1 fm/c and the strength of the prethermal flows developed to this time. The quark-gluon plasma and hadronic gas is supposed to be in complete local equilibrium above the chemical freeze-out temperature T{sub ch}=165 MeV with the equation of states (EoS) at high temperatures as in the lattice QCD. Below T{sub ch} the EoS in the expanding and gradually decoupling fluid depends on the composition of the hadron-resonance gas at each space-time point and accounts for decays of resonances into the nonequilibrated medium. A good description of the pion and kaon transverse momentum spectra and interferometry radii is reached at both used initial energy density profiles motivated by the Glauber and color glass condensate models, however, at different initial energy densities. The discussion as for the approximate pion and kaon m{sub T} scaling for the interferometry radii is based on a comparison of the emission functions for these particles.

  8. Simultaneous Immersion Mirau Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyulko, Oleksandra

    The present work describes a novel imaging technique for label-free no-UV vibration-insensitive imaging of live cells in an epi-illumination geometry. This technique can be implemented in a variety of imaging applications. For example, it can be used for cell targeting as a part of a platform for targeted cell irradiations - single-cell microbeam. The goal of microbeam facilities is to provide biological researchers with tools to study the effects of ionizing radiation on live cells. A common way of cell labeling - fluorescent staining - may alter cellular metabolism and UV illumination presents potential damage for the genetic material. The new imaging technique will allow the researchers to separate radiation-induced effects from the effects caused by confounding factors like fluorescent staining or UV light. Geometry of irradiation endstations at some microbeam facilities precludes the use of transmitted light, e.g. in the Columbia University's Radiological Research Accelerator Facility microbeam endstation, where the ion beam exit window is located just below the sample. Imaging techniques used at such endstations must use epi-illumination. Mirau Interferometry is an epi-illumination, non-stain imaging modality suitable for implementation at a microbeam endstation. To facilitate interferometry and to maintain cell viability, it is desirable that cells stay in cell growth medium during the course of an experiment. To accommodate the use of medium, Immersion Mirau Interferometry has been developed. A custom attachment for a microscope objective has been designed and built for interferometric imaging with the possibility of immersion of the apparatus into cell medium. The implemented data collection algorithm is based on the principles of Phase-Shifting Interferometry. The largest limitation of Phase-Shifting Interferometry is its sensitivity to the vertical position of the sample. In environments where vibration isolation is difficult, this makes image

  9. Digitally Enhanced Heterodyne Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaddock, Daniel; Ware, Brent; Lay, Oliver; Dubovitsky, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Spurious interference limits the performance of many interferometric measurements. Digitally enhanced interferometry (DEI) improves measurement sensitivity by augmenting conventional heterodyne interferometry with pseudo-random noise (PRN) code phase modulation. DEI effectively changes the measurement problem from one of hardware (optics, electronics), which may deteriorate over time, to one of software (modulation, digital signal processing), which does not. DEI isolates interferometric signals based on their delay. Interferometric signals are effectively time-tagged by phase-modulating the laser source with a PRN code. DEI improves measurement sensitivity by exploiting the autocorrelation properties of the PRN to isolate only the signal of interest and reject spurious interference. The properties of the PRN code determine the degree of isolation.

  10. A LISA Interferometry Primer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James Ira

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for all gravitational wave detectors in the detection of changes in the fractional difference between pairs of test masses with sufficient precision to measure astrophysical strains with amplitudes on the order of approx.10(exp -21). ln the case of the five million km arms of LISA, this equates to distance measurements on the ten picometer level. LISA interferometry utilizes a decentralized topology, in which each of the sciencecraft houses its own light sources, detectors, and electronics. The measurements made at each of the sciencecraft are then telemetered to ground and combined to extract the strain experienced by the constellation as a whole. I will present an overview of LISA interferometry and highlight some of the key components and technologies that make it possible.

  11. Electroproduction of kaons and light hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Geesaman, D.F.; Jackson, H.E.; Jones, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    A detailed investigation of the basic hyperon-nucleon interactions in nuclei is one of the aims of Experiment 91-016, approved with high priority at CEBAF, to study the electroproduction of kaons on targets of deuterium, {sup 3}He, and {sup 4}He. Inasmuch as both the electron and K{sup +} are particles that interact relatively weakly with nucleons, electroproduction of light hypernuclei provides a low-distortion method for investigating the fundamental interactions between nucleons, {Alpha}`s, and {Epsilon}`s in few-body systems. In particular, the (e,e`K{sup +}) reactions on cryogenic targets of D, {sup 3}He, and {sup 4}He will be studied at incident electron energies near 3 GeV with coincident detection of the emergent e and K{sup +} in the HMS and SOS magnetic spectrometers in Hall C. Construction of the He target, operating at {approximately}10 atm, {approximately}50 K and capable of dissipating {approximately}30 W, is expected to be complete prior to commencement of production runs in Hall C. The first data runs for E91-016, expected to begin late in FY 1995, will also be the basis for a doctoral thesis at Hampton University. In addition to providing new information on the phases of hyperon-nucleon interactions, measurements of cross sections for hypernuclear formation, and interference phenomena, the data may provide evidence for the presence of bound {Epsilon}`s and strange di-baryonic states that are the subject of considerable theoretical discussion.

  12. Investigation of the In-Medium Kaon-Nucleon Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael; CLAS Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    One method to study the strong interaction inside of the nucleus is with the absorption of hadrons. The E01-112 experiment in Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator provided data on the photo-production of the Ks0 in nuclei of deuterium, carbon, iron, and lead. The kaon is interesting since the antikaon-nucleon potential is attractive, leading to predictions of strangeness in a dense environment like a neutron star. On the other hand, the kaon-nucleon potential is repulsive, indicating that kaons should traverse the medium with fewer interactions. The absorption of the Ks0 by a bound nucleon inside a nucleus will indicate how the potential changes; is it strengthened or weakened in the medium. In this talk, I will present preliminary transparency ratios versus mass number.

  13. Null Stellar Intensity Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P. K.; Chia, C. M.; Han, W. D.; Chan, A. H.; Kurtsiefer, C.

    2014-04-01

    Since the discovery of the first exoplanet in 1989, though over 850 candidates have been verified (Schneider 2012), few are similar to our Earth in terms of mass and size. Hence here we would like to propose the revival and improvement of optical intensity interferometry to achieve sub-milliarcsecond resolution, which promises also to be less sensitive to weather conditions, light pollution and optomechanical alignments, yet only requiring baselines <100m.

  14. Valence-quark distribution functions in the kaon and pion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chen; Chang, Lei; Roberts, Craig D.; Wan, Shaolong; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-01

    We describe expressions for pion and kaon dressed-quark distribution functions that incorporate contributions from gluons which bind quarks into these mesons and hence overcome a flaw of the commonly used handbag approximation. The distributions therewith obtained are purely valence in character, ensuring that dressed quarks carry all the meson's momentum at a characteristic hadronic scale and vanish as (1 -x )2 when Bjorken-x →1 . Comparing such distributions within the pion and kaon, it is apparent that the size of S U (3 ) -flavor symmetry breaking in meson parton distribution functions is modulated by the flavor dependence of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. Corrections to these leading-order formulas may be divided into two classes, responsible for shifting dressed-quark momentum into glue and sea quarks. Working with available empirical information, we build an algebraic framework that is capable of expressing the principal impact of both classes of corrections. This enables a realistic comparison with experiment which allows us to identify and highlight basic features of measurable pion and kaon valence-quark distributions. We find that whereas roughly two thirds of the pion's light-front momentum is carried by valence dressed quarks at a characteristic hadronic scale; this fraction rises to 95% in the kaon; evolving distributions with these features to a scale typical of available Drell-Yan data produces a kaon-to-pion ratio of u -quark distributions that is in agreement with the single existing data set, and predicts a u -quark distribution within the pion that agrees with a modern reappraisal of π N Drell-Yan data. Precise new data are essential in order to validate this reappraisal and because a single modest-quality measurement of the kaon-to-pion ratio cannot be considered definitive.

  15. Neutralizer optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Mohajeri, Kayhan

    1991-01-01

    The preliminary results of a test program to optimize a neutralizer design for 30 cm xenon ion thrusters are discussed. The impact of neutralizer geometry, neutralizer axial location, and local magnetic fields on neutralizer performance is discussed. The effect of neutralizer performance on overall thruster performance is quantified, for thruster operation in the 0.5-3.2 kW power range. Additionally, these data are compared to data published for other north-south stationkeeping (NSSK) and primary propulsion xenon ion thruster neutralizers.

  16. Spatial interferometry in optical astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Roddier, Francois; Roddier, Claude

    1990-01-01

    A bibliographic guide is presented to publications of spatial interferometry techniques applied to optical astronomy. Listings appear in alphabetical order, by first author, as well as in specific subject categories listed in chronological order, including imaging theory and speckle interferometry, experimental techniques, and observational results of astronomical studies of stars, the Sun, and the solar system.

  17. Deflectometry vs. interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Häusler, Gerd; Faber, Christian; Olesch, Evelyn; Ettl, Svenja

    2013-04-01

    Quantitative deflectometry is a new tool to measure specular surfaces. The spectrum of measurable surfaces ranges from flat to freeform surfaces with steep slopes, with a size ranging from millimeters to several meters. We illustrate this by several applications: eye glass measurements, measurements of big mirrors, and in-line measurements in ultra-precision manufacturing without unclamping of the sample. We describe important properties of deflectometry and compare its potentials and limitations with interferometry. We discuss which method is superior for which application and how the potential of deflectometry may be developing in the future.

  18. Complex master slave interferometry.

    PubMed

    Rivet, Sylvain; Maria, Michael; Bradu, Adrian; Feuchter, Thomas; Leick, Lasse; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-02-01

    A general theoretical model is developed to improve the novel Spectral Domain Interferometry method denoted as Master/Slave (MS) Interferometry. In this model, two functions, g and h are introduced to describe the modulation chirp of the channeled spectrum signal due to nonlinearities in the decoding process from wavenumber to time and due to dispersion in the interferometer. The utilization of these two functions brings two major improvements to previous implementations of the MS method. A first improvement consists in reducing the number of channeled spectra necessary to be collected at Master stage. In previous MSI implementation, the number of channeled spectra at the Master stage equated the number of depths where information was selected from at the Slave stage. The paper demonstrates that two experimental channeled spectra only acquired at Master stage suffice to produce A-scans from any number of resolved depths at the Slave stage. A second improvement is the utilization of complex signal processing. Previous MSI implementations discarded the phase. Complex processing of the electrical signal determined by the channeled spectrum allows phase processing that opens several novel avenues. A first consequence of such signal processing is reduction in the random component of the phase without affecting the axial resolution. In previous MSI implementations, phase instabilities were reduced by an average over the wavenumber that led to reduction in the axial resolution. PMID:26906857

  19. Time-Delay Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhurandhar, Sanjeev V.; Tinto, Massimo

    2005-07-01

    Equal-arm interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers), the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called Time-Delay Interferometry (TDI). This article provides an overview of the theory and mathematical foundations of TDI as it will be implemented by the forthcoming space-based interferometers such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. We have purposely left out from this first version of our "Living Review" article on TDI all the results of more practical and experimental nature, as well as all the aspects of TDI that the data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the LISA TDI data combinations. Our forthcoming "second edition" of this review paper will include these topics.

  20. Testing the equivalence principle with atomic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Sven; Dittus, Hansjörg; Lämmerzahl, Claus; pre="the" post=""> QUANTUS,

    2012-09-01

    The weak equivalence principle (WEP), that is, the universality of free fall, states that all point-like neutral particles in a gravitational field fall in the same way. This is the basis of the geometrization of the gravitational interaction. Together with further requirements on the behavior of point particles, light propagation and clocks one can show that gravity is modeled by a Riemannian geometry. Since in the quantum domain all objects are extended, it is not clear whether the notion of a WEP in the quantum domain makes sense at all. We show that for matter wave interferometry the notion of WEP still can be given a meaning. We give a short overview over schemes which allows a violation of the WEP and emphasize that there are also schemes which show that there might be violations of the WEP in the quantum regime which are not present classically. This makes a test of the WEP with quantum matter necessary. We also give a brief outline of the efforts made for testing the WEP with interferometry with cold atoms in the Bremen drop tower carried out by the QUANTUS and PRIMUS collaboration.

  1. Intellectual property in holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reingand, Nadya; Hunt, David

    2006-08-01

    This paper presents an overview of patents and patent applications on holographic interferometry, and highlights the possibilities offered by patent searching and analysis. Thousands of patent documents relevant to holographic interferometry were uncovered by the study. The search was performed in the following databases: U.S. Patent Office, European Patent Office, Japanese Patent Office and Korean Patent Office for the time frame from 1971 through May 2006. The patent analysis unveils trends in patent temporal distribution, patent families formation, significant technological coverage within the market of system that employ holographic interferometry and other interesting insights.

  2. Kaon content of three-prong decays of the tau lepton

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J.J.

    1990-12-01

    We present a series of measurements involving the production of charged kaons in three-prong hadronic decays of the {tau} lepton. The data sample was obtained with the TPC/Two-Gamma detector facility at PEP. We set a limit on the branching fraction BR({tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}K{sup 0}) < 0.26% at the 95% confidence level. The process {tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}K{sup 0} is related via SU(3) to the second-class current decay {tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}{pi}{sup {minus}}{eta}. We also present new measurements of the three-prong branching fractions BR({tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} + neutrals) = 0.70 (+0.20/{minus}0.17)% and BR({tau}{sup {minus}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}}K{sup {minus}}K{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} + neutrals) = 0.16 (+0.10/{minus}0.07)%. 68 refs., 29 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. Portable intensity interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, Elliott P.; Camarata, Matthew A.

    2012-07-01

    A limitation of the current generation of long baseline optical interferometers is the need to make the light interfere prior to detection. This is unlike the radio regime where signals can be recorded fast enough to use electronics to accomplish the same result. This paper describes a modern optical intensity interferometer based on electronics with picosecond timing resolution. The instrument will allow for portable optical interferometry with much larger baselines than currently possible by using existing large telescopes. With modern electronics, the limiting magnitude of the technique at a 4-m aperture size becomes competitive with some amplitude-based interferometers. The instrumentation will permit a wireless mode of operation with GPS clocking technology, extending the work to extremely large baselines. We discuss the basic observing strategy, a planned observational program at the Lowell Observatory 1.8-m and 1.0-m telescopes, and the science that can realistically be done with this instrumentation.

  4. Deep frequency modulation interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gerberding, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Laser interferometry with pm/Hz precision and multi-fringe dynamic range at low frequencies is a core technology to measure the motion of various objects (test masses) in space and ground based experiments for gravitational wave detection and geodesy. Even though available interferometer schemes are well understood, their construction remains complex, often involving, for example, the need to build quasi-monolithic optical benches with dozens of components. In recent years techniques have been investigated that aim to reduce this complexity by combining phase modulation techniques with sophisticated digital readout algorithms. This article presents a new scheme that uses strong laser frequency modulations in combination with the deep phase modulation readout algorithm to construct simpler and easily scalable interferometers. PMID:26072834

  5. Shaken lattice interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, Carrie; Yu, Hoon; Anderson, Dana

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we report on progress towards performing interferometry using atoms trapped in an optical lattice. That is, we start with atoms in the ground state of an optical lattice potential V(x) =V0cos [ 2 kx + ϕ(t) ] , and by a prescribed phase function ϕ(t) , transform from one atomic wavefunction to another. In this way, we implement the standard interferometric sequence of beam splitting, propagation, reflection, reverse propagation, and recombination. Through the use of optimal control techniques, we have computationally demonstrated a scalable accelerometer that provides information on the sign of the applied acceleration. Extension of this idea to a two-dimensional shaken-lattice-based gyroscope is discussed. In addition, we report on the experimental implementation of the shaken lattice system.

  6. Spectroscopic Low Coherence Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, T. G.; Aalders, Maurice C.; Hermann, Boris; Drexler, Wolfgang; Faber, Dirk J.

    Low-coherence interferometry (LCI) allows high-resolution volumetric imaging of tissue morphology and provides localized optical properties that can be related to the physiological status of tissue. This chapter discusses the combination of spatial and spectroscopic information by means of spectroscopic OCT (sOCT) and low-coherence spectroscopy (LCS). We describe the theory behind these modalities for the assessment of spatially resolved optical absorption and (back)scattering coefficient spectra. These spectra can be used for the highly localized quantification of chromophore concentrations and assessment of tissue organization on (sub)cellular scales. This leads to a wealth of potential clinical applications, ranging from neonatology for the determination of billibrubin concentrations, to oncology for the optical assessment of the aggressiveness of a cancerous lesion.

  7. Interferometry for rotating sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velle, S.; Mehrabi Pari, S.; Csernai, L. P.

    2016-06-01

    The two particle interferometry method to determine the size of the emitting source after a heavy ion collision is extended. Following the extension of the method to spherical expansion dynamics, here we extend the method to rotating systems. It is shown that rotation of a cylindrically symmetric system leads to modifications, which can be perceived as spatial asymmetry by the "azimuthal HBT" method. We study an exact rotating and expanding solution of the fluid dynamical model of heavy ion reactions. We consider a source that is azimuthally symmetric in space around the axis of rotation, and discuss the features of the resulting two particle correlation function. This shows the azimuthal asymmetry arising from the rotation. We show that this asymmetry leads to results similar to those given by spatially asymmetric sources.

  8. Seismic interferometry for temporal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Norimitsu

    Seismic interferometry, where one computes coherency of waves between two or more receivers and averages over many sources, is a technique of signal processing to reconstruct wavefields. This technique is used in geophysics, especially exploration geophysics and seismology. After more than a half century from the first study related to seismic interferometry (although the name of seismic interferometry has been used for approximately the last 15 years), researchers have developed this technique for many aspects: using multiples for increasing illuminations, enhancement of survey areas, ambient-noise analysis, and removal of the imprint of a complicated overburden. In this dissertation, I focus on the advantages of seismic interferometry for time-lapse measurements. Measurements of temporal changes yield beneficial information of fluid flow, crustal deformation, temperature, and/or stress. Estimation of temporal changes using active sources is, however, technically and economically challenging. Because seismic interferometry reconstruct waves that would have been recorded with a repeatable active sources using only receivers, this technique is appropriate for temporal monitoring. With seismic interferometry, one obtains some advantages that include canceling the complexity of wave propagation to a virtual source, creating virtual shear-wave (S-wave) sources (active S sources are expensive), and using waves that are not usable for active sources (e.g., ambient noise and multiples). I seek applications of seismic interferometry in a variety of topics (i.e., seismology, structural engineering, and exploration geophysics), and develop and/or modify several techniques of seismic interferometry for each application. Some chapters focus on developing techniques of seismic interferometry, and other chapters aim to estimate and interpret temporal changes with the developed techniques. For passive seismic sources, deconvolution-based seismic interferometry has better

  9. Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, P. R.; Malbet, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Optical Long Baseline Interferometry News is a website and forum for scientists, engineers, and students who share an interest in long baseline stellar interferometry. It was established in 1995 and is the focus of activity of the IAU Working Group on Optical/Infrared Interferometry. Here you will find links to projects devoted to stellar interferometry, news items, recent papers and preprints, and resources for further research. The email news forum was established in 2001 to complement the website and to facilitate exchanges and collaborations. The forum includes an email exploder and an archived list of discussions. You are invited to explore the forum and website at http://olbin.jpl.nasa.gov. Work by PRL was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. KTAG: The Kaon Identification Detector for CERN experiment NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    In the study of ultra-rare kaon decays, CERN experiment NA62 exploits an unseparated monochromatic (75 GeV/c) beam of charged particles of flux 800 MHz, of which 50 MHz are K+. Kaons are identified with more than 95% efficiency, a time resolution of better than 100 ps, and misidentification of less than 10-4 using KTAG, a differential, ring-focussed, Cherenkov detector. KTAG utilises 8 sets of 48 Hamamatsu PMTs, of which 32 are of type 9880 and 16 of type 7400, with signals fed directly to the differential inputs of NINO front-end boards and then to TDC cards within the TEL62 system. Leading and trailing edges of the PMT signal are digitised, enabling slewing corrections to be made, and a mean hit rate of 5 MHz per PMT is supported. The electronics is housed within a cooled and insulated Faraday cage with environmental monitoring capabilities.

  11. Kaon fragmentation function from NJL-jet model

    SciTech Connect

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2010-07-27

    The NJL-jet model provides a sound framework for calculating the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory, where the momentum and isospin sum rules are satisfied without the introduction of ad hoc parameters [1]. Earlier studies of the pion fragmentation functions using the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model within this framework showed good qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations. Here we extend the NJL-jet model by including the strange quark. The corrections to the pion fragmentation function and corresponding kaon fragmentation functions are calculated using the elementary quark to quark-meson fragmentation functions from NJL. The results for the kaon fragmentation function exhibit a qualitative agreement with the empirical parameterizations, while the unfavored strange quark fragmentation to pions is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the unfavored light quark's. The results of these studies are expected to provide important guidance for the analysis of a large variety of semi-inclusive data.

  12. The Strange Quark Polarisation from Charged Kaon Production on Deuterons

    SciTech Connect

    Windmolders, R.

    2009-08-04

    The strange quark helicity distribution {delta}s(x) is derived at LO from the semi-inclusive and inclusive spin asymmetries measured by the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The significance of the results is found to depend critically on the ratio of the s-bar and u quark fragmentation functions into kaons {integral}D{sub s-bar}{sup K+}(z)dz/{integral}D{sub u}{sup K+}(z)dz.

  13. Kaon decay studies at CERN SPS in the last decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Goudzovski, E.; Kekelidze, V.; Madigozhin, D.; Potrebenikov, I.

    2016-07-01

    This review summarizes the kaon experimental results obtained in the last 15 years on the basis of data collected on the SPS in CERN with a participance of JINR physicists. These results contribute essentially into the Standard Model checks and search for its extension, fundamental symmetry violations and low energy strong interactions theory development. A progress in the experimental technique and prospects for the future results are also discussed.

  14. Optical Interferometry Motivation and History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    A history and motivation of stellar interferometry is presented. The topics include: 1) On Tides, Organ Pipes, and Soap Bubbles; 2) Armand Hippolyte Fizeau (1819-1896); 3) Fizeau Suggests Stellar Interferometry 1867; 4) Edouard Stephan (1837-1923); 5) Foucault Refractor; 6) Albert A. Michelson (1852-1931); 7) On the Application of Interference Methods to Astronomy (1890); 8) Moons of Jupiter (1891); 9) Other Applications in 19th Century; 10) Timeline of Interferometry to 1938; 11) 30 years goes by; 12) Mount Wilson Observatory; 13) Michelson's 20 ft Interferometer; 14) Was Michelson Influenced by Fizeau? 15) Work Continues in the 1920s and 30s; 16) 50 ft Interferometer (1931-1938); 17) Light Paths in the 50 ft Interferometer; 18) Ground-level at the 50 ft; 19) F.G. Pease (1881-1938); 20) Timeline of Optical Interferometry to 1970; 21) A New Type of Stellar Interferometer (1956); 22) Intensity Interferometer (1963- 1976; 23) Robert Hanbury Brown; 24) Interest in Optical Interferometry in the 1960s; 25) Interferometry in the Early 1970s; and 26) A New Frontier is Opened up in 1974.

  15. Directed Flow of Charged Kaons in Au+Au Collisions from the BES Program at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandit, Yadav; STAR Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    We report the measurement of the directed flow (v1) for charged kaons in Au+Au collisions at =7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4 and 200 GeV as a function of rapidity and compare these results for pions, protons and antiprotons. These new kaon results may help to constrain the medium properties and collision dynamics including the in-medium kaon potential and baryon number transport in these collisions.

  16. Charged Kaon Mass Measurement using the Cherenkov Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, N.; Lebedev, A.; Abrams, R.J.; Akgun, U.; Aydin, G.; Baker, W.; Barnes, P.D., Jr.; Bergfeld, T.; Beverly, L.; Bujak, A.; Carey, D.; /Fermilab /Virginia U. /Iowa U.

    2009-09-01

    The two most recent and precise measurements of the charged kaon mass use X-rays from kaonic atoms and report uncertainties of 14 ppm and 22 ppm yet differ from each other by 122 ppm. We describe the possibility of an independent mass measurement using the measurement of Cherenkov light from a narrow-band beam of kaons, pions, and protons. This technique was demonstrated using data taken opportunistically by the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory which recorded beams of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from +37 GeV/c to +63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 {+-} 1.7 MeV/c{sup 2}, which is within 1.4{sigma} of the world average. An improvement of two orders of magnitude in precision would make this technique useful for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data and may be achievable in a dedicated experiment.

  17. Lattice QCD study of mixed systems of pions and kaons

    SciTech Connect

    William Detmold, Brian Smigielski

    2011-07-01

    The O(100) different ground state energies of N-pion and M-kaon systems for N+M <= 12 are studied in lattice QCD. These energies are then used to extract the various two- and three- body interactions that occur in these systems. These calculations are performed using one ensemble of 2+1 flavor anisotropic lattices with a spatial lattice spacing $a_s$ ~ 0.125 fm, an anisotropy factor $\\xi=a_s/a_t=3.5$, and a spatial volume $L^3\\sim (2.5\\ {\\rm fm})^3$. Particular attention is paid to additional thermal states present in the spectrum because of the finite temporal extent. The quark masses used correspond to pion and kaon masses of $m_\\pi$ ~ 383 MeV and $m_K$ ~ 537 MeV, respectively. The isospin and strangeness chemical potentials of these systems are found to be in the region where chiral perturbation theory and hadronic models predict a phase transition between a pion condensed phase and a kaon condensed phase.

  18. Measurement of the charged kaon mass with the MIPP RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Nicholas J.

    2008-08-01

    The currently accepted value of the charged kaon mass is 493.677 ± 0.013 MeV (26 ppm). It is a weighted average of six measurements, most of which use kaonic atom X-ray energy techniques. The two most recent and precise results dominate the average but differ by 122 ppm. Inconsistency in the data set needs to be resolved, preferably using independent techniques. One possibility uses the Cherenkov effect. A measurement of the charged kaon mass using this technique is presented. The data was taken with the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory using a tagged beam of protons, kaons, and pions ranging in momentum from 37 GeV/c to 63 GeV/c. The measured value is 491.3 ± 1.7 MeV. This is within 1.4σ of the current value. An improvement in precision by a factor of 35 would make this technique competitive for resolving the ambiguity in the X-ray data.

  19. Kaon condensation in baryonic Fermi liquid at high density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeng, Won-Gi; Rho, Mannque

    2015-01-01

    We formulate kaon condensation in dense baryonic matter with antikaons fluctuating from the Fermi-liquid fixed point. This entails that in the Wilsonian renormalization group (RG) approach, the decimation is effectuated in the baryonic sector to the Fermi surface while in the meson sector to the origin. In writing the kaon-baryon (KN) coupling, we take a generalized hidden local symmetry Lagrangian for the meson sector endowed with a "mended symmetry" that has the unbroken symmetry limit at high density in which the Goldstone π , scalar s , and vectors ρ (and ω ) and a1 become massless. The vector mesons ρ (and ω ) and a1 can be identified as emergent (hidden) local gauge fields and the scalar s as the dilaton field of the spontaneously broken scale invariance at chiral restoration. In matter-free space, when the vector mesons and the scalar meson—whose masses are much greater than that of the pion—are integrated out, then the resulting KN coupling Lagrangian consists of the leading chiral order [O (p1) ] Weinberg-Tomozawa term and the next chiral order [O (p2) ] ΣKN term. In addressing kaon condensation in dense nuclear matter in chiral perturbation theory, one makes an expansion in the "small" Fermi momentum kF. We argue that in the Wilsonian RG formalism with the Fermi-liquid fixed point, the expansion is on the contrary in 1 /kF with the "large" Fermi momentum kF. The kaon-quasinucleon interaction resulting from integrating out the massive mesons consists of a "relevant" term from the scalar exchange (analog to the ΣKN term) and an "irrelevant" term from the vector-meson exchange (analog to the Weinberg-Tomozawa term). It is found that the critical density predicted by the latter approach, controlled by the relevant term with the irrelevant term suppressed, is three times less than that predicted by chiral perturbation theory. This would make kaon condensation take place at a much lower density than previously estimated in chiral perturbation theory.

  20. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, K A

    1997-12-01

    EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources

  1. Shaken Lattice Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weidner, Carrie; Yu, Hoon; Anderson, Dana

    2015-05-01

    This work introduces a method to perform interferometry using atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Starting at t = 0 with atoms in the ground state of a lattice potential V(x) =V0cos [ 2 kx + ϕ(t) ] , we show that it is possible to transform from one atomic wavefunction to another by a prescribed shaking of the lattice, i.e., by an appropriately tailored time-dependent phase shift ϕ(t) . In particular, the standard interferometer sequence of beam splitting, propagation, reflection, reverse propagation, and recombination can be achieved via a set of phase modulation operations {ϕj(t) } . Each ϕj(t) is determined using a learning algorithm, and the split-step method calculates the wavefunction dynamics. We have numerically demonstrated an interferometer in which the shaken wavefunctions match the target states to better than 1 % . We carried out learning using a genetic algorithm and optimal control techniques. The atoms remain trapped in the lattice throughout the full interferometer sequence. Thus, the approach may be suitable for use in an dynamic environment. In addition to the general principles, we discuss aspects of the experimental implementation. Supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) and Northrop Grumman.

  2. Highspeed multiplexed heterodyne interferometry.

    PubMed

    Isleif, Katharina-S; Gerberding, Oliver; Köhlenbeck, Sina; Sutton, Andrew; Sheard, Benjamin; Goßler, Stefan; Shaddock, Daniel; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten

    2014-10-01

    Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry is a metrology technique that uses pseudo-random noise codes for modulating the phase of the laser light. Multiple interferometric signals from the same beam path can thereby be isolated based on their propagation delay, allowing one to use advantageous optical layouts in comparison to classic laser interferometers. We present here a high speed version of this technique for measuring multiple targets spatially separated by only a few centimetres. This allows measurements of multiplexed signals using free beams, making the technique attractive for several applications requiring compact optical set-ups like for example space-based interferometers. In an experiment using a modulation and sampling rate of 1.25 GHz we are able to demonstrate multiplexing between targets only separated by 36 cm and we achieve a displacement measurement noise floor of <3 pm/√Hz at 10 Hz between them. We identify a limiting excess noise at low frequencies which is unique to this technique and is probably caused by the finite bandwidth in our measurement set-up. Utilising an active clock jitter correction scheme we are also able to reduce this noise in a null measurement configuration by one order of magnitude. PMID:25322043

  3. Preview of Blackbeard interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.J.

    1992-09-01

    Blackbeard is a broadband VHF measurements satellite experiment designed and built by the Space Science and Technology division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Blackbeard is a piggy-back experiment on the ALEXIS satellite to be launched into a 70 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of 750 km. The satellite experimental operation and data retrieval are controlled through a telemetry link from the Satellite Operations Center (SOC) located at Los Alamos, NM. The primary experimental objectives of Blackbeard are three-fold: (1) Study the dispersion of broad-band impulsive electromagnetic signals -- in particular, the higher-order amplitude and phase distortion due to propagation through the ionosphere. These depend on ionospheric conditions and irregularities. (2) Utilize RF interferometry and scintillation techniques in the low VHF-band to determine the size and extent of ionospheric irregularities and wave structure -- both natural and artificially induced. This narrow-band data will be used to categorize the ionospheric media as undisturbed, oscillatory, or turbulent. These parameters will then be input into transfer function simulations for broad-band propagation and compared with broad-band propagation data from Blackbeard. (3) Survey and characterize background noise in the VHF-band-consisting of (1) cataloging broadcast amplitudes and signatures and mapping their global pattern, and (2) cataloging the signatures of lightning events. Also, correlate emissions in the visible and VHF bands in an attempt to confirm broad-band RF emissions assumed to be associated with lightning.

  4. Preview of Blackbeard interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    Blackbeard is a broadband VHF measurements satellite experiment designed and built by the Space Science and Technology division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Blackbeard is a piggy-back experiment on the ALEXIS satellite to be launched into a 70 degree inclination orbit at an altitude of 750 km. The satellite experimental operation and data retrieval are controlled through a telemetry link from the Satellite Operations Center (SOC) located at Los Alamos, NM. The primary experimental objectives of Blackbeard are three-fold: (1) Study the dispersion of broad-band impulsive electromagnetic signals -- in particular, the higher-order amplitude and phase distortion due to propagation through the ionosphere. These depend on ionospheric conditions and irregularities. (2) Utilize RF interferometry and scintillation techniques in the low VHF-band to determine the size and extent of ionospheric irregularities and wave structure -- both natural and artificially induced. This narrow-band data will be used to categorize the ionospheric media as undisturbed, oscillatory, or turbulent. These parameters will then be input into transfer function simulations for broad-band propagation and compared with broad-band propagation data from Blackbeard. (3) Survey and characterize background noise in the VHF-band-consisting of (1) cataloging broadcast amplitudes and signatures and mapping their global pattern, and (2) cataloging the signatures of lightning events. Also, correlate emissions in the visible and VHF bands in an attempt to confirm broad-band RF emissions assumed to be associated with lightning.

  5. 100-Picometer Interferometry for EUVL

    SciTech Connect

    Sommargren, G E; Phillion, D W; Johnson, M A; Nguyen, N O; Barty, A; Snell, F J; Dillon, D R; Bradsher, L S

    2002-03-18

    Future extreme ultraviolet lithography (EWL) steppers will, in all likelihood, have six-mirror projection cameras. To operate at the diffraction limit over an acceptable depth of focus each aspheric mirror will have to be fabricated with an absolute figure accuracy approaching 100 pm rms. We are currently developing visible light interferometry to meet this need based on modifications of our present phase shifting diffraction interferometry (PSDI) methodology where we achieved an absolute accuracy of 250pm. The basic PSDI approach has been further simplified, using lensless imaging based on computational diffractive back-propagation, to eliminate auxiliary optics that typically limit measurement accuracy. Small remaining error sources, related to geometric positioning, CCD camera pixel spacing and laser wavelength, have been modeled and measured. Using these results we have estimated the total system error for measuring off-axis aspheric EUVL mirrors with this new approach to interferometry.

  6. Three-color differential interferometry.

    PubMed

    Desse, J M

    1997-10-01

    It is shown that differential interferometry using a Wollaston prism and a three-color laser source is an optical technique that has all the advantages of differential interferometry in polarized white light and of classical monochromatic interferometry. The interference fringe pattern obtained is very large and colored and presents a central white fringe that enables easy identification of the zero order of the interferogram. The three-color source is obtained by filtering the unwanted lines of the ionized laser (mixed argon and krypton) and balancing the three red, green, and blue lines by a technique that involves placing birefringent plates between the polarizer and the analyzer, the thickness of which has been calculated to create a natural filter. The unsteady aerodynamic flow downstream of a diamond shape airfoil has been visualized with this technique, which shows that the power of the light source is sufficient to record the interferograms at a high rate. PMID:18264221

  7. Kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Tran Huu Phat; Nguyen Van Long; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Le Viet Hoa

    2008-11-15

    Basing on the Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis effective action approach we formulate a theoretical formalism for studying kaon condensation in the linear sigma model at finite density and temperature. We derive the renormalized effective potential in the Hartree-Fock approximation, which preserves the Goldstone theorem. This quantity is then used to consider physical properties of kaon matter.

  8. Radiative decay width measurements of neutral kaon excitations using the primakoff effect.

    PubMed

    Alavi-Harati, A; Alexopoulos, T; Arenton, M; Arisaka, K; Averitte, S; Barbosa, R F; Barker, A R; Barrio, M; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Belz, J; Bergman, D R; Blucher, E; Bock, G J; Bown, C; Bright, S; Cheu, E; Childress, S; Coleman, R; Corcoran, M D; Corti, G; Cox, B; Cunha, A; Erwin, A R; Ford, R; Glazov, A; Golossanov, A; Graham, G; Graham, J; Halkiadakis, E; Hamm, J; Hanagaki, K; Hidaka, S; Hsiung, Y B; Jejer, V; Jensen, D A; Kessler, R; Kobrak, H G E; LaDue, J; Lath, A; Ledovskoy, A; McBride, P L; Medvigy, D; Mikelsons, P; Monnier, E; Nakaya, T; Nelson, K S; Nguyen, H; O'Dell, V; Pordes, R; Prasad, V; Qi, X R; Quinn, B; Ramberg, E J; Ray, R E; Roodman, A; Schnetzer, S; Senyo, K; Shanahan, P; Shawhan, P S; Shields, J; Slater, W; Solomey, N; Somalwar, S V; Stone, R L; Swallow, E C; Taegar, S A; Tesarek, R J; Thomson, G B; Toale, P A; Tripathi, A; Tschirhart, R; Turner, S E; Wah, Y W; Wang, J; White, H B; Whitmore, J; Winstein, B; Winston, R; Yamanaka, T; Zimmerman, E D

    2002-08-12

    We use K(L)'s in the 100-200 GeV energy range to produce 147 candidate events of the axial vector pair K1(1270)-K1(1400) in the nuclear Coulomb field of a Pb target and determine the radiative widths Gamma(K1(1400)-->K0+gamma)=280.8+/-23.2(stat)+/-40.4(syst) keV and Gamma(K1(1270)-->K0+gamma)=73.2+/-6.1(stat)+/-28.3(syst) keV. These first measurements appear to be lower than the quark-model predictions. We also place upper limits on the radiative widths for K(*)(1410) and K(*)(2)(1430) and find that the latter is vanishingly small in accord with SU(3) invariance in the naive quark model. PMID:12190514

  9. Precise Measurements of Direct CP Violation, CPT Symmetry, and Other Parameters in the Neutral Kaon System

    SciTech Connect

    Abouzaid, E.; Arenton, M.; Barker, A.R.; Barrio, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Blucher, E.; Bock, G.J.; Bown, C.; Cheu, E.; Coleman, R.; Corcoran, M.D.; /Rice U. /Virginia U.

    2010-11-01

    The authors present precise tests of CP and CPT symmetry based on the full dataset of K {yields} {pi}{pi} decays collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. this dataset contains 16 million K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} and 69 million K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} decays. They measure the direct CP violation parameter Re({epsilon}{prime}/{epsilon}) = (19.2 {+-} 2.1) x 10{sup -4}. They find the K{sub L}-K{sub S} mass difference {Delta}m = (5270 {+-} 12) x 10{sup 6} {h_bar}s{sup -1} and the K{sub S} lifetime {tau}{sub S} = (89.62 {+-} 0.05) x 10{sup -12} s. They also measure several parameters that test CPT invariance. They find the difference between the phase of the indirect CP violation parameter, {epsilon}, and the superweak phase, {phi}{sub {epsilon}} - {phi}{sub SW} = (0.40 {+-} 0.56){sup o}. They measure the difference of the relative phases between the CP violating and CP conserving decay amplitudes for K {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} ({phi}{sub +-}) and for K {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} ({phi}{sub 00}), {Delta}{phi} = (0.30 {+-} 0.35){sup o}. From these phase measurements, they place a limit on the mass difference between K{sup 0} and {bar K}{sup 0}, {Delta}M < 4.8 x 10{sup -19} GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% C.L. These results are consistent with those of other experiments, their own earlier measurements, and CPT symmetry.

  10. Coarse frequency comb interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwider, J.

    2008-08-01

    Real wedge interferometers of the Fizeau-type do not allow for fringes in case of a spectral broad band source - or in short: for white light fringes. Here, the use of a suitable frequency comb source will help to overcome this limitation on the one hand and on the other will offer the capability for enhanced phase sensitivity in high precision measurements of surface deviations. Frequency combs can be produced either by using a pulse train from a fs-laser or by passive filtering of the light emitted by a broad band source as a superlum-diode or a fs-laser. The frequency comb produced by a common fs-laser is extremely fine, i.e., the frequency difference of consecutive peaks is very small or the distance of consecutive pulses of the pulse train might be of the order of 1m. Therefore, the coarse pulse train produced by passive filtering of a broad band source is better adapted to the needs of surface testing interferometers. White light fringes are either applied for the profiling of discontinuous surfaces and/or can serve as an indication for the correct choice of multiplication factors in superposition interferometry. During the last decennium it became more and more clear that spatially incoherent sources provide better measuring accuracy in surface measurements due to the reduced influence of dust diffraction patterns. The advantage of laser illumination can nevertheless be maintained if the laser light is made spatially incoherent through moving scatterers in the light path. Here, we will discuss the application of spatially incoherent broad band light frequency filtered through a Fabry-Perot filter. The main applications are in the following fields: (1) surface profiling applications using two-beam Fizeau interferometers, (2) selection of single cavities out of a series of interlaced cavities, and (3) sensitivity enhancement for multi-beam interferometers for planeness or sphericity measurements. Some of the discussed possibilities will be experimentally

  11. Techniques in Broadband Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J

    2004-01-04

    This is a compilation of my patents issued from 1997 to 2002, generally describing interferometer techniques that modify the coherence properties of broad-bandwidth light and other waves, with applications to Doppler velocimetry, range finding, imaging and spectroscopy. Patents are tedious to read in their original form. In an effort to improve their readability I have embedded the Figures throughout the manuscript, put the Figure captions underneath the Figures, and added section headings. Otherwise I have resisted the temptation to modify the words, though I found many places which could use healthy editing. There may be minor differences with the official versions issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office, particularly in the claims sections. In my shock physics work I measured the velocities of targets impacted by flyer plates by illuminating them with laser light and analyzing the reflected light with an interferometer. Small wavelength changes caused by the target motion (Doppler effect) were converted into fringe shifts by the interferometer. Lasers having long coherence lengths were required for the illumination. While lasers are certainly bright sources, and their collimated beams are convenient to work with, they are expensive. Particularly if one needs to illuminate a wide surface area, then large amounts of power are needed. Orders of magnitude more power per dollar can be obtained from a simple flashlamp, or for that matter, a 50 cent light bulb. Yet these inexpensive sources cannot practically be used for Doppler velocimetry because their coherence length is extremely short, i.e. their bandwidth is much too wide. Hence the motivation for patents 1 & 2 is a method (White Light Velocimetry) for allowing use of these powerful but incoherent lamps for interferometry. The coherence of the illumination is modified by passing it through a preparatory interferometer.

  12. Charged kaon and proton production in B-hadron decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegenfeldt, Fredrik Per

    The production of charged kaons and protons in B-hadron decays has been measured in e+e- annihilations at centre-of-mass energies corresponding to the Z0 mass. In total 1.6 million hadronic Z0 decays were analysed, corresponding to about 690000 B-hadron decays. They were collected using the DELPHI detector at the LEP collider at CERN during 1994 and 1995. Events containing B-hadron decays were identified using special characteristics of the B-hadron decay topology. In particular, the long lifetime of the B-hadron leads to decay vertices significantly displaced relative the interaction point. These so called secondary vertices were reconstructed using a powerful micro vertex detector. In order to discriminate B-hadron decay products from fragmentation tracks, a method was used where the impact parameter measured by the vertex detector was employed as a discriminating variable. The tracks were thus divided into two classes, one compatible with the interaction point and the other compatible with a secondary vertex. An unfolding method was used to extract the true B-hadron decay tracks from the two classes. Charged kaons and protons were identified using the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detector and corrected for misidentification using an efficiency matrix. The analysis resulted in charged kaon and proton spectra from B-hadron decays, including previously unmeasured momentum regions. Integrating the spectra yielded the following multiplicities n(B- hadron-->K+/- X)=0.683+/-0.021(stat) +/-0.017(syst) n(B- hadron-->p/p X)=0.127+/-0.013(stat) +/-0.019(syst) where the proton multiplicity does not include Λ baryon decay products.

  13. High-Speed Digital Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Vine, Glenn; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Ware, Brent; Spero, Robert E.; Wuchenich, Danielle M.; Klipstein, William M.; McKenzie, Kirk

    2012-01-01

    Digitally enhanced heterodyne interferometry (DI) is a laser metrology technique employing pseudo-random noise (PRN) codes phase-modulated onto an optical carrier. Combined with heterodyne interferometry, the PRN code is used to select individual signals, returning the inherent interferometric sensitivity determined by the optical wavelength. The signal isolation arises from the autocorrelation properties of the PRN code, enabling both rejection of spurious signals (e.g., from scattered light) and multiplexing capability using a single metrology system. The minimum separation of optical components is determined by the wavelength of the PRN code.

  14. Atom Interferometry on Sounding Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, S. T.; Lachmann, M. D.; Becker, D.; Grosse, J.; Popp, M. A.; Wang, J. B.; Wendrich, T.; Rasel, E. M.; Quantus Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Atom interferometry in microgravity offers the possibility to perform high precision measurements of inertial forces complementary to experiments based on classical test masses. The ultimate goal is to perform these quantum measurements in space on board dedicated satellite missions. To reach this, a series of pathfinder microgravity experiments with cold atoms were build. The latest installment of these are conducted on sounding rockets. Here we give a short motivation of atom interferometry in space, an overview of the techniques used, and an introduction of the current mission MAIUS- 1.

  15. Kaon-nucleon scattering in three-dimensional technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, Agus; Fachruddin, Imam

    2016-03-01

    Kaon-nucleon (KN) scattering is formulated in the three-dimensional (3D) momentum space, in which the basis state is not expanded into partial waves. Based on this basis the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the T-matrix is evaluated. We obtain as final equation for the T-matrix elements a set of two coupled integral equations in two variables, which are the momentum's magnitude and the scattering angle. Calculations for the differential cross section and some spin observables are shown, for which we employ a hadrons exchange model with the second order contributions only.

  16. Kaon condensation, black holes, and cosmological natural selection.

    PubMed

    Brown, G E; Lee, Chang-Hwan; Rho, Mannque

    2008-08-29

    It is argued that a well-measured double neutron-star binary in which the two neutron stars are more than 4% different from each other in mass or a massive neutron star with mass M > or approximately 2M(middle dot in circle) would put in serious doubt or simply falsify the following chain of predictions: (1) a nearly vanishing vector meson mass at chiral restoration, (2) kaon condensation at a density n-3n0, (3) the Brown-Bethe maximum neutron-star mass Mmax approximately 1.5M(middle dot in circle), and (4) Smolin's "cosmological natural selection" hypothesis. PMID:18851598

  17. CEBAF at higher energies and the kaon electromagnetic form factor

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, O.K.

    1994-04-01

    The electromagnetic production of strangeness, the physics of exciting systems having strangeness degrees of freedom (production of hadrons with one or more strange constituent quarks) using electromagnetic probes (real or virtual photons), is one of the frontier areas of research which will be investigated at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) when it becomes operational. CEBAF is expected to have an important impact upon this field of research using its specialized set of detection instruments and high quality electron beam. This paper focusses upon one aspect of the associated production of strangeness - the determination of the kaon electromagnetic form factor at high squared momentum transfers.

  18. Multi-Antikaonic Nuclei and Kaon Condensation in Dense Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Takumi; Maruyama, Toshiki; Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2010-08-12

    The structure of multi-antikaonic nuclei (MKN) is investigated in a relativistic mean-field theory coupled with the nonlinear K{sup -} field by the use of effective chiral Lagrangian. The effects of the {Lambda}(1405) range terms on the structure of the MKN are taken into account. It is shown that baryon number density exceeds three times the normal saturation density in the central region of the MKN that a neutron skin structure becomes remarkable as the number of the embedded K{sup -} mesons increases. The similarity difference between the MKN kaon condensation in neutron stars are discussed.

  19. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton distribution functions.

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.; Bashir, A.; Roberts, C. D.; Tandy, P. C.

    2011-06-16

    A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations, constrained by existing applications to hadron physics, is employed to compute the valence-quark parton distribution functions of the pion and kaon. Comparison is made to {pi}-N Drell-Yan data for the pion's u-quark distribution and to Drell-Yan data for the ratio u{sub K}(x)/u{sub {pi}}(x): the environmental influence of this quantity is a parameter-free prediction, which agrees well with existing data. Our analysis unifies the computation of distribution functions with that of numerous other properties of pseudoscalar mesons.

  20. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Trang; Bashir, Adnan; Roberts, Craig D.; Tandy, Peter C.

    2011-06-15

    A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD's Dyson-Schwinger equations, constrained by existing applications to hadron physics, is employed to compute the valence-quark parton distribution functions of the pion and kaon. Comparison is made to {pi}-N Drell-Yan data for the pion's u-quark distribution and to Drell-Yan data for the ratio u{sub K}(x)/u{sub {pi}}(x): the environmental influence of this quantity is a parameter-free prediction, which agrees well with existing data. Our analysis unifies the computation of distribution functions with that of numerous other properties of pseudoscalar mesons.

  1. Pion and kaon valence-quark parton distribution functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Trang; Bashir, Adnan; Roberts, Craig D.; Tandy, Peter C.

    2011-06-01

    A rainbow-ladder truncation of QCD’s Dyson-Schwinger equations, constrained by existing applications to hadron physics, is employed to compute the valence-quark parton distribution functions of the pion and kaon. Comparison is made to π-N Drell-Yan data for the pion’s u-quark distribution and to Drell-Yan data for the ratio uK(x)/uπ(x): the environmental influence of this quantity is a parameter-free prediction, which agrees well with existing data. Our analysis unifies the computation of distribution functions with that of numerous other properties of pseudoscalar mesons.

  2. Isospin symmetry violating effects and scattering length extraction from kaon decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorkyan, S. R.

    2013-08-15

    The isospin symmetry breaking effects in the charged kaons decays to two or three pions are considered. In semileptonic decay K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}e{sup {+-}}{nu} (called K{sub e4}) these effects turn out to be crucial for correct extraction of {pi}{pi} scattering lengths. Taking in account electromagnetic interaction between the pions in the final state and isospin symmetry breaking due to different masses of charged and neutral pions allows to adjust the values of scattering lengths obtained from experimental data on K{sub e4} decay and predictions of Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT). Final state interactions of pions in the decay K{sup {+-}} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} leading to the anomaly (cusp) in the {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} invariant mass distribution in the vicinity of charged pions' threshold are discussed and recent results of accounting of the electromagnetic interaction among charged pions leading to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} bound states (pioniumatom) just under the charged pions' threshold are presented.

  3. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  4. Meteorology Gauges for Spatial Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gursel, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Heterodyne interferometers have been commercially available for many years. In addition, many versions have been built at JPL for various projects. This activity is aimed at improving the accuracy of such interferometers from the 1-30 nanometer level to the picometer level for use in the proposes Stellar Interferometry Mission (SIM) as metrology gauges.

  5. Status report on CP violation with charge kaons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazuol, G.; NA48/2 Collaboration

    2007-05-01

    The NA48/2 experiment at CERN performed a high precision study of direct CP-violation in charged kaon decays into three pions, using an upgraded NA48 setup and a novel design for simultaneous unseparated K ± beams. The asymmetry in the Dalitz plot linear slopes A=(g-g)/(g+g) is measured to be Agc=(-1.3±2.3)ṡ10 by studying 3.1ṡ10 K→πππ decays and Agn=(2.1±1.9)ṡ10 by studying 91ṡ10 K→π°π°π decays. The unique K ± simultaneuos beam system, the design of the detectors and the method of analysis provide good control of the instrumental charge asymmetries and allow to keep the precision of the result limited by statistics, reaching accuracy one order of magnitude better than in previous experiments. The large amount of charged kaon decays collected allow also precision measurements of several rare decay processes.

  6. Tests of non-local interferences in kaon physics at asymmetric {phi}-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, P.H.

    1993-04-16

    Tests of non-local interference effects in the two-kaon system are proposed. The first kind of tests consists of measuring the amount of destructive interference between K{sub S} {yields} K{sub L} regeneration processes of two distant kaons. The second kind deals with constructive interference. These tests could be performed at an asymmetric {phi}-factory. Estimates are given of the number of events predicted by orthodox quantum mechanics and kaon regeneration theory in various suitable experimental conditions. The impact on local theories if the predictions of quantum mechanics hold is discussed.

  7. Tests of non-local interferences in kaon physics at asymmetric [phi]-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhard, P.H.

    1993-04-16

    Tests of non-local interference effects in the two-kaon system are proposed. The first kind of tests consists of measuring the amount of destructive interference between K[sub S] [yields] K[sub L] regeneration processes of two distant kaons. The second kind deals with constructive interference. These tests could be performed at an asymmetric [phi]-factory. Estimates are given of the number of events predicted by orthodox quantum mechanics and kaon regeneration theory in various suitable experimental conditions. The impact on local theories if the predictions of quantum mechanics hold is discussed.

  8. Optical and Infrared Interferometry IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Jayadev K.; Creech-Eakman, Michelle J.; Malbet, Fabien

    2014-08-01

    Optical and IR Interferometry IV at the SPIE 2014 symposium in Montreal had a strong and vibrant program. After initial fears about budget cuts and travel-funding constraints, the Program Committee had to work hard to accommodate as many quality submissions as possible. Innovative, creative and visionary work ensured that the field has progressed well, despite the bleak funding climate felt in the US, Europe and elsewhere. Montreal proved an excellent venue for this, the largest of Interferometry conferences and the only one that brings together practitioners from the world over. Let us summarize a few highlights to convey a glimpse of the excitement that is detailed in the rest of these Proceedings.

  9. Precision Geodesy via Radio Interferometry.

    PubMed

    Hinteregger, H F; Shapiro, I I; Robertson, D S; Knight, C A; Ergas, R A; Whitney, A R; Rogers, A E; Moran, J M; Clark, T A; Burke, B F

    1972-10-27

    Very-long-baseline interferometry experiments, involving observations of extragalactic radio sources, were performed in 1969 to determine the vector separations between antenna sites in Massachusetts and West Virginia. The 845.130-kilometer baseline was estimated from two separate experiments. The results agreed with each other to within 2 meters in all three components and with a special geodetic survey to within 2 meters in length; the differences in baseline direction as determined by the survey and by interferometry corresponded to discrepancies of about 5 meters. The experiments also yielded positions for nine extragalactic radio sources, most to within 1 arc second, and allowed the hydrogen maser clocks at the two sites to be synchronized a posteriori with an uncertainty of only a few nanoseconds. PMID:17815361

  10. Virtually calibrated projection moire interferometry.

    PubMed

    Kimber, Mark; Blotter, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    Projection moire interferometry (PMI) is an out-of-plane displacement measurement technique that consists of differencing reference and deformed images of a grid pattern projected onto the test object. In conventional PMI, a tedious process of computing the fringe sensitivity coefficient (FSC), which requires moving the test object or the reference plane to known displacements, is used. We present a new technique for computing the FSC values that is called virtually calibrated projection moire interferometry (VCPMI). VCPMI is based on computer simulations of the conventional PMI process and does not require moving the actual test object or reference plane. We validate the VCPMI approach by comparing results for a flat plate and an airfoil with those made by use of other measurement methods. PMID:15881060

  11. One-prong τ decays into charged kaons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buskulic, D.; Casper, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Mattison, T.; Ortue, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Teubert, F.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Widenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Fouque, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Schmidt, M.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Payne, D. G.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Park, H.-J.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Martin, E. B.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quasi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Beddall, A.; Booth, C. N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Koksal, A.; Rankin, C.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Feigl, E.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1994-07-01

    Form a sample of about 75000 τ decays measured in the ALEPH detector, 1-prong charged kaon decays are identified by the dE/ dx measurement in the central detector. The resulting branching ratios for the inclusive and exclusive modes are: B( τ → ντK- ≥ 0 π0 ≥ 0 K0) = (1.60±0.07±0.12)%, B( τ → ντK- = (0.64±0.05±0.05)%, B( τ → ντ-π0 = (0.53±0.05±0.07)% and B( τ → ντK-π0π0) = (0.04±0.03±0.02)%. Exclusive modes are corrected for measured KL0 production. The rate for τ → ντK- agrees well with the prediction based on τ - μ universality.

  12. Decoherence of entangled kaons and its connection to entanglement measures

    SciTech Connect

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2003-07-01

    We study the time evolution of the entangled kaon system by considering the Liouville-von Neumann equation with an additional term which allows for decoherence. We choose, as generators of decoherence, the projectors to the two-particle eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. Then we compare this model with the data of the CPLEAR experiment and find in this way an upper bound on strength {lambda} of the decoherence. We also relate {lambda} to an effective decoherence parameter {zeta} considered previously in literature. Finally we discuss our model in the light of different measures of entanglement, i.e., von Neumann entropy S, entanglement of formation E, and concurrence C, and we relate decoherence parameter {zeta} to the loss of entanglement: 1-E.

  13. Kaon B-parameter from quenched domain-wall QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Y.; Blum, T.; Christ, N.H.; Mawhinney, R.D.

    2006-05-01

    We present numerical results for the kaon B-parameter, B{sub K}, determined in the quenched approximation of lattice QCD. Our simulations are performed using domain-wall fermions and the renormalization group improved, DBW2 gauge action which combine to give quarks with good chiral symmetry at finite lattice spacing. Operators are renormalized nonperturbatively using the RI/MOM scheme. We study scaling by performing the simulation on two different lattices with a{sup -1}=1.982(30) and 2.914(54) GeV. We combine this quenched scaling study with an earlier calculation of B{sub K} using two flavors of dynamical, domain-wall quarks at a single lattice spacing to obtain B{sub K}{sup MSNDR}({mu}=2 GeV)=0.563(21)(39)(30), were the first error is statistical, the second systematic (without quenching errors) and the third estimates the error due to quenching.

  14. Ratio of Pion Kaon Production in Proton Carbon Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Andrey V.; /Harvard U.

    2007-05-01

    The ratio of pion-kaon production by 120 GeV/c protons incident on carbon target is presented. The data was recorded with the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Production ratios of K{sup +}/{pi}{sup +}, K{sup -}/{pi}{sup -}, K{sup -}/K{sup +}, and {pi}{sup -}/{pi}{sup +} are measured in 24 bins in longitudinal momentum from 20 to 90 GeV/c and transverse momentum up to 2 GeV/c. The measurement is compared to existing data sets, particle production Monte Carlo results from FLUKA-06, parametrization of proton-beryllium data at 400/450 GeV/c, and ratios measured by the MINOS experiment on the NuMI target.

  15. Characterization of Large Diameter PMTs for Kaon Cerenkov Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan, Derek

    2014-09-01

    The 12 GeV upgrade at the Jefferson Laboratory allows for unique new opportunities to study hadron structure through kaon production in Hall C, a threshold aerogel detector was constructed at the Catholic University of America. It uses the emission of Cerenkov radiation at different indices of refraction ranging from 1.03 to 1.01 to distinguish pions, kaons, and protons. An important aspect of this detector is the collection of very small amounts of light, in particular as the aerogel refractive index decreases. The Hall C aerogel detector uses the Photonis XP4500 large-diameter photomultiplier tubes (PMT) in order to detect these small traces of light. The purpose of this project is to explore the performance of alternative large-diameter PMTs and compares them to that of the XP4500. The PMT uniformity across the photocathode was characterized through scans along the surface of the PMT with a low-intensity, focused LED, thereby creating a 3D image of the gain at each section. The method of scanning consists of a two axis step motor moving an LED light source on a 100 x 100 grid parallel to the face of the PMT, with 30 pulses of light from the LED at each step. The step motor scans with a resolution of 1.2 mm. Scans conducted in this manner result in high resolution images which pick up most sensitive/non-sensitive spots on the photocathode. In this presentation I will present the results of the characterization and performance test of the XP4500 and comparison to alternative large-diameter PMT models. The 12 GeV upgrade at the Jefferson Laboratory allows for unique new opportunities to study hadron structure through kaon production in Hall C, a threshold aerogel detector was constructed at the Catholic University of America. It uses the emission of Cerenkov radiation at different indices of refraction ranging from 1.03 to 1.01 to distinguish pions, kaons, and protons. An important aspect of this detector is the collection of very small amounts of light, in

  16. Meson interferometry in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: Recent HBT results form CERN experiment NA44; interferometry results from E802/E859/E866; recent results on two particle correlations from E814; source sizes from CERN data; intermittency and interferometry; Bose-Einstein correlations in 200A GeV S+Au collisions; HBT correlations at STAR; HBT interferometry with PHENIX; HBT calculations from ARC; three pion correlations; and pion correlations in proton-induced reactions.

  17. Geometric Landau-Zener interferometry.

    PubMed

    Gasparinetti, S; Solinas, P; Pekola, J P

    2011-11-11

    We propose a new type of interferometry, based on geometric phases accumulated by a periodically driven two-level system undergoing multiple Landau-Zener transitions. As a specific example, we study its implementation in a superconducting charge pump. We find that interference patterns appear as a function of the pumping frequency and the phase bias, and clearly manifest themselves in the pumped charge. We also show that the effects described should persist in the presence of realistic decoherence. PMID:22181761

  18. Quasi-Heterodyne Hologram Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharan, P.

    1985-08-01

    Wider use of hologram interferometry for quantitative measure-ments has been delayed by the fact that interpolation between the fringe maxima and minima to obtain the optical path difference at a particular point in the field is laborious and inaccurate. A solution to this problem is quasi-hetero-dyne interferometry, which permits rapid and accurate measurements simultaneously at a number of points distributed over the interference pattern. In this technique a television camera is used in conjunction with digital electronics to measure and store the irradiance values at points on a rectangular sampling grid covering the real-time interference fringes. The phase difference between the interfering wavefronts at each point is then calculated from the irradiance values obtained from successive scans of the camera made while the phase of one of the wavefronts is shifted either continuously or in steps. A practical system is described with which values of the optical path difference for 10,000 data points can be obtained with an accuracy of +/- A/200 in less than 10 s. The application of quasi-heterodyne hologram interferometry to the measurement of vector displacements and to holographic contouring is discussed.

  19. Stitching interferometry: side effects and PSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, Michael

    1999-11-01

    Stitching Interferometry is rapidly emerging as an alternative to Standard Interferometry, in the measurement of Large Optics -- such as those found in Laser MegaJoule and NIF. Stitching Interferometry involves multiple overlapping sub-aperture measurements over large components, and a computer software to reconstruct the wavefronts. Obviously, the Stitching Interferometer's measurement characteristics have to be different to those of the Standard Interferometer of same nominal measurement area. Two questions emerge: (1) What metric do we choose to express these characteristics? (2) How does Stitching Interferometry compare to Standard Interferometry, using this metric? We choose to use the PSD to illustrate how Stitching Interferometry of large components compares with Standard Large-Size Interferometry, for various lateral scales. Also, we highlight some important characteristics of Stitching Interferometry, which arise from judicious use of the particular configuration of the device. Ignorance of basic propagation phenomena can lead to bad design of the Stitching Interferometer, and loss of any performance advantage over Standard Interferometry. Because many of these effects are not direct consequences of the Stitching process, we call them side effects. In this paper, we provide basic explanation, and keep the mathematics to a low profile -- indeed, it is not necessary to actually compute anything to understand the effects. However, some very basic formulas, a few numerical tables and lots of graphs are presented, in order to provide basis for discussion.

  20. 1 to 2 GeV/c beam line for hypernuclear and kaon research

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-02-15

    A kaon beam line operating in the range from 1.0 to 2.0 GeV/c is proposed. The line is meant for kaon and pion research in a region hitherto inaccessible to experimenters. Topics in hypernuclear and kaon physics of high current interest include the investigation of doubly strange nuclear systems with the K/sup -/,K/sup +/ reaction, searching for dibaryon resonances, hyperon-nucleon interactions, hypernuclear ..gamma.. rays, and associated production of excited hypernuclei. The beam line would provide separated beams of momentum analyzed kaons at intensities greater than 10/sup 6/ particles per spill with a momentum determined to one part in a thousand. This intensity is an order of magnitude greater than that currently available. 63 references.

  1. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize in Experimental Particle Physics Talk: Kaons Redux- Seeking New Physics with Rare Decays of Kaons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryman, Douglas

    2011-04-01

    Studies of rare decays of kaons have been important in establishing the current picture of particle physics and in constraining hypothetical new approaches which go beyond the Standard Model to deal with its known deficiencies. Experimental capabilities have increased in concert with theoretical understanding making this approach to searching for new physics more viable than ever and essential, even in the era of the LHC. In this talk, I will discuss the most interesting and incisive rare kaon decay experiments, particularly K+ -->π+ ν ν andKL0 -->π0 ν ν , emphasizing the prospects for major advancements in the near term and at future high intensity proton accelerators.

  2. Vibration modulated subaperture stitching interferometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chao-Wen; Chang, Hung-Sheng; Lin, Po-Chih; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2013-07-29

    A novel subaperture stitching interferometry is developed to measure the surface deformation of the lens by utilizing the mechanical vibration induced from a motorized stage. The interferograms of different subapertures are acquired on the fly while the tested optics is rotating against its symmetrical axis. The measurement throughput and the subaperture positioning accuracy are improved simultaneously by adopting both the synchronous rotational scanning mechanism and the non-uniform phase shifting algorithm. The experimental measurement shows the stitched phase RMS error of 0.0037 waves proving the feasibility of the proposed phase acquisition method. PMID:23938696

  3. Virtual Reference Interferometry: Theory & Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, Michael Anthony

    This thesis introduces the idea that a simulated interferogram can be used as a reference for an interferometer. This new concept represents a paradigm shift from the conventional thinking, where a reference is the phase of a wavefront that traverses a known path. The simulated interferogram used as a reference is called a virtual reference. This thesis develops the theory of virtual reference interferometry and uses it for the characterization of chromatic dispersion in short length (<1m) fibers and optical components. Characterization of chromatic dispersion on short length fiber and optical components is a very difficult challenge. Accurate measurement of first and second order dispersion is important for applications from optical component design to nonlinear photonics, sensing and communications. Techniques for short-length dispersion characterization are therefore critical to the development of many photonic systems. The current generation of short-length dispersion measurement techniques are either easy to operate but lack sufficient accuracy, or have sufficient accuracy but are difficult to operate. The use of a virtual reference combines the advantages of these techniques so that it is both accurate and easy to operate. Chromatic dispersion measurements based on virtual reference interferometry have similar accuracy as the best conventional measurement techniques due to the ability to measure first and second order dispersion directly from the interference pattern. Unique capabilities of virtual reference interferometry are demonstrated, followed by a derivation of the operational constraints and system parameters. The technique is also applied to the characterization of few-mode fibers, a hot topic in telecommunications research where mode division multiplexing promises to expand network bandwidth. Also introduced is the theory of dispersive virtual reference interferometry, which can be used to overcome the bandwidth limitations associated with the

  4. Interferometry with synthetic gauge fields

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Brandon M.; Taylor, Jacob M.; Galitski, Victor M.

    2011-03-15

    We propose a compact atom interferometry scheme for measuring weak, time-dependent accelerations. Our proposal uses an ensemble of dilute trapped bosons with two internal states that couple to a synthetic gauge field with opposite charges. The trapped gauge field couples spin to momentum to allow time-dependent accelerations to be continuously imparted on the internal states. We generalize this system to reduce noise and estimate the sensitivity of such a system to be S{approx}10{sup -7}(m/s{sup 2}/{radical}(Hz)).

  5. 50 years of holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetson, Karl A.

    2015-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Robert L. Powell and I discovered holographic interferometry while working at the Radar Laboratory of the University of Michigan's Institute of Science and Technology. I have worked in this field for this entire time span, watched it grow from an unexplored technology to become a widespread industrial testing method, and I have contributed to these developments. In this paper, I will trace my history in this field from our discovery to my involvement in its theory and applications. I will conclude with a discussion of digital holography, which is currently replacing photographic holography for most research and industrial applications.

  6. Two-frequency Ramsey interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, D.; Muga, J. G.

    2007-02-15

    We investigate Ramsey interferometry for two separated fields oscillating with different frequencies. It is shown that the interplay between average and relative detuning leads to interference effects not present in the standard, single-frequency setup. For a large free-flight time of ground-state atoms before entering the first field region, the Ramsey fringes with respect to the relative detuning become much narrower than the usual ones. The stability of these effects with respect to phase or velocity fluctuations is discussed.

  7. An Interferometry Imaging Beauty Contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Peter R.; Cotton, William D.; Hummel, Christian A.; Monnier, John D.; Zhaod, Ming; Young, John S.; Thorsteinsson, Hrobjartur; Meimon, Serge C.; Mugnier, Laurent; LeBesnerais, Guy; Thiebaut, Eric; Tuthill, Peter G.; Hani, Christopher A.; Pauls, Thomas; DuvertI, Gilles; Garcia, Paulo; Kuchner, Marc

    2004-01-01

    We present a formal comparison of the performance of algorithms used for synthesis imaging with optical/infrared long-baseline interferometers. Six different algorithms are evaluated based on their performance with simulated test data. Each set of test data is formated in the interferometry Data Exchange Standard and is designed to simulate a specific problem relevant to long-baseline imaging. The data are calibrated power spectra and bispectra measured with a ctitious array, intended to be typical of existing imaging interferometers. The strengths and limitations of each algorithm are discussed.

  8. Golographic interferometry of physical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is devoted to the contribution of Yuri Ostrovsky to holographic interferometry, one of the fundamental scientific and practical applications of holography. The title of this paper is the same as the title of his doctoral thesis that he defended in 1974, and, as it seems to me, reflects most of the specific features of the majority of his scientific publications, viz., an inseparable link of the methods developed by him with the results obtained with the help of these methods in a wide range of investigations of physical processes and phenomena.

  9. Kaon and pion production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.; Larionov, A.B.; Mosel, U.

    2005-03-01

    The Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU) transport model is applied to study strangeness and pion production in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Starting from proton induced reactions, we further investigate Si+Au, Au+Au, and Pb+Pb collisions in the energy range between 2 and 40A GeV and compare the results with data and other transport calculations. The qq-annihilation, or resonance, channel simulated by the string model in meson-nucleon collisions at {radical}(s)>2 GeV is introduced. The importance of this channel for a good description of the proton-nucleus data on K{sup +} production is demonstrated. We further show that meson-meson collisions contribute significantly to the KK{sup lowbar} production in heavy-ion collisions above 5A GeV and improve the agreement with data on the K{sup +}/{pi}{sup +} ratio. Finally, we study the influence of in-medium modifications of the FRITIOF model on pion and kaon production.

  10. Effective kaon masses in dense nuclear and neutron matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waas, T.; Kaiser, N.; Weise, W.

    1996-02-01

    The effective mass and decay width of kaonic modes in baryonic matter are studied within a coupled-channel approach based on the Chiral SU(3) Effective Lagrangian which describes all available low energy data of the coupled overlineKN, π∑, πΛ system. Including Pauli blocking and Fermi motion in the kaon dispersion relation, we find a strong non-linear density dependence of the K - effective mass and decay width in symmetric nuclear matter at densities around 0.1 times normal nuclear matter density ϱ0 due to the in-medium dynamics of the Λ(1405) resonance. At higher densities the K - effective mass decreases slowly but stays above 0.5 mK at least up to densities below 3 ϱ0. In neutron matter the K - effective mass decreases almost linearly with increasing density but remains relatively large ( m K∗ > 0.65 m K) for ϱn ≲ 3 ϱ0. The K + effective mass turns out to increase very slowly with rising density.

  11. Rare and forbidden kaon decays at NA62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Monica

    2015-05-01

    A precision lepton universality test by measurement of the helicity suppressed ratio of leptonic decay rates of the charged kaon with ˜ 150000 K± → e±ν decays collected by the NA62 experiment in 2007-08 is presented. The record accuracy of 0.4% constrains the parameter space of new physics models with extended Higgs sector, a fourth generation of quarks and leptons or sterile neutrinos. An improved upper limit on the rate of the lepton number violating decay K± → π∓μ±μ±, which probes the resonant enhancement of the rate in the presence of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the ˜ 100 MeV range, is presented. The rare decays K+ → π+νν̅ are excellent processes to make tests of new physics at the highest scale complementary to LHC thanks to their theoretically cleaness. The NA62 experiment at CERN SPS aims to collect of the order of 100 events in two years of data taking, keeping the background at the level of 10%.

  12. Measuring Speeds with Microwave Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillberry, Logan

    2014-03-01

    The speed of an approximately frictionless cart is simultaneously measured in two ways. A 10.5 GHz microwave source is used in the familiar Michelson interferometry setup with one of the arms being the mobile cart and the other being a stationary microwave receiver. As the cart travels, the changing interference pattern is captured on an oscilloscope which, when combined with the source frequency, can be used to determine the cart's speed. The second speed measurement is achieved by sending a laser beam across the cart's path into a photo detector which is connected a second channel on the oscilloscope. The cart breaks the beam and travels a distance equal to its length before allowing the beam to reach the photo detector again. Using the oscilloscope's timing measurement and the known cart length, one can readily calculate the cart's speed. Comparison of the two methods conveys agreement within error, confirming the path length difference model used to calculate the speed of the cart in the microwave interferometry method.

  13. Bibliography of spatial interferometry in optical astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Roddier, Francois; Roddier, Claude

    1990-01-01

    The Bibliography of Spatial Interferometry in Optical Astronomy is a guide to the published literature in applications of spatial interferometry techniques to astronomical observations, theory and instrumentation at visible and infrared wavelengths. The key words spatial and optical define the scope of this discipline, distinguishing it from spatial interferometry at radio wavelengths, interferometry in the frequency domain applied to spectroscopy, or more general electro-optics theoretical and laboratory research. The main bibliography is a listing of all technical articles published in the international scientific literature and presented at the major international meetings and workshops attended by the spatial interferometry community. Section B summarizes publications dealing with the basic theoretical concepts and algorithms proposed and applied to optical spatial interferometry and imaging through a turbulent atmosphere. The section on experimental techniques is divided into twelve categories, representing the most clearly identified major areas of experimental research work. Section D, Observations, identifies publications dealing specifically with observations of astronomical sources, in which optical spatial interferometry techniques have been applied.

  14. Bibliography of spatial interferometry in optical astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Roddier, Francois; Roddier, Claude

    1990-02-01

    The Bibliography of Spatial Interferometry in Optical Astronomy is a guide to the published literature in applications of spatial interferometry techniques to astronomical observations, theory and instrumentation at visible and infrared wavelengths. The key words spatial and optical define the scope of this discipline, distinguishing it from spatial interferometry at radio wavelengths, interferometry in the frequency domain applied to spectroscopy, or more general electro-optics theoretical and laboratory research. The main bibliography is a listing of all technical articles published in the international scientific literature and presented at the major international meetings and workshops attended by the spatial interferometry community. Section B summarizes publications dealing with the basic theoretical concepts and algorithms proposed and applied to optical spatial interferometry and imaging through a turbulent atmosphere. The section on experimental techniques is divided into twelve categories, representing the most clearly identified major areas of experimental research work. Section D, Observations, identifies publications dealing specifically with observations of astronomical sources, in which optical spatial interferometry techniques have been applied.

  15. Matter wave interferometry as a tool for molecule metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Stefan; Gring, Michael; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Hornberger, Klaus; Tuexen, Jens; Mayor, Marcel; Arndt, Markus

    2009-03-01

    Kapitza-Dirac-Talbot-Lau interferometry (KDTLI) has recently been established as an ideal method to perform quantum matter wave experiments with large, highly polarizable molecules in an unprecedented mass range of beyond 1000 atomic mass units [1]. Since the interference visibility reveals important information on the properties of the examined particles, such as their mass and polarizability, we identified KDTLI as a valuable tool for precision metrology. We demonstrate that quantum interferometry can therefore also serve as a powerful complement to mass spectrometry [2], in particular in cases where fragmentation may occur in the detector. Our new method is applicable to a wide range of molecules and is particularly valuable for characterizing neutral molecular beams. [1] S. Gerlich, L. Hackerm"uller, K. Hornberger, A. Stibor, H. Ulbricht, M. Gring, F. Goldfarb, T. Savas, M. M"uri, M. Mayor, M. Arndt, Nat. Phys. 2007, 3, 711 - 715. [2] Stefan Gerlich, Michael Gring, Hendrik Ulbricht, Klaus Hornberger, Jens T"uxen, Marcel Mayor, and Markus Arndt, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 6195 - 6198.

  16. Neutron interferometry for precise characterization of quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarenac, Dusan; Shahi, Chandra; Mineeva, Taisiya; Wood, Christopher J.; Huber, Michael G.; Arif, Muhammad; Clark, Charles W.; Cory, David G.; Pushin, Dmitry A.

    Neutron interferometry (NI) is among the most precise techniques used to test the postulates of quantum mechanics. It has demonstrated coherent spinor rotation and superposition, gravitationally induced quantum interference, the Aharonov-Casher effect, violation of a Bell-like inequality, and generation of a single-neutron entangled state. As massive, penetrating and neutral particles neutrons now provide unique capabilities in classical imaging applications that we seek to extend to the quantum domain. We present recent results on NI measurements of quantum discord in a bipartite quantum system and neutron orbital angular momentum multiplexing, and review progress on our commissioning of a decoherence-free-subspace NI user facility at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. Supported in part by CERC, CIFAR, NSERC and CREATE.

  17. Nondestructive testing of composite materials by holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbeni, J.; de Smet, M.-A.

    Techniques for the nondestructive testing of composites by holographic interferometry are discussed, and results from tests analyzing carbon/epoxy composites for two types of defects, resulting from the impact of steel rods and the introduction of mylar inhomogeneities, are presented. Holographic techniques for the interferometric real-time observation of the superposition of the object and the holographic image, and for the recording on two photosensitively different plates of holographic images of the object in the neutral and deformed states, are discussed. Results show that a defect of 0.02 mm, situated at less than three layers below the observed surface, could be precisely characterized, and that for certain cases of 3-12 layers, defects could be detected by a fringe deviation. Better definition of the zone of impact was obtained by the holographic method than by an ultrasound method.

  18. Software tools for optical interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thureau, Nathalie D.; Ireland, Michael; Monnier, John D.; Pedretti, Ettore

    2006-06-01

    We describe a set of general purpose utilities for visualizing and manipulating optical interferometry data stored in the FITS-based OIFITS data format. This class of routines contains code like the OiPlot navigation/visualization tool which allows the user to extract visibility, closure phase and UV-coverage information from the OIFITS files and to display the information in various ways. OiPlot also has basic data model fitting capabilities which can be used for a rapid first analysis of the scientific data. More advanced image reconstruction techniques are part of a dedicated utility. In addition, these routines allow data from multiple interferometers to be combined and used together. Part of our work also aims at developing software specific to the Michigan InfraRed Combiner (MIRC). Our experience designing a flexible and robust graphical user interfaced based on sockets using python libraries has wide applicability and this paper will discuss practicalities.

  19. Synthetic aperture interferometry: error analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Amiya; Coupland, Jeremy

    2010-07-10

    Synthetic aperture interferometry (SAI) is a novel way of testing aspherics and has a potential for in-process measurement of aspherics [Appl. Opt.42, 701 (2003)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.42.000701 A method to measure steep aspherics using the SAI technique has been previously reported [Appl. Opt.47, 1705 (2008)].APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.47.001705 Here we investigate the computation of surface form using the SAI technique in different configurations and discuss the computational errors. A two-pass measurement strategy is proposed to reduce the computational errors, and a detailed investigation is carried out to determine the effect of alignment errors on the measurement process.

  20. Kaon-Nucleon systems and their interactions in the Skyrme model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Takashi; Hosaka, Atsushi

    2016-08-01

    We study kaon-nucleon systems in the Skyrme model in a method based on the bound state approach of Callan-Klebanov but with the kaon around the physical nucleon of the rotating hedgehog. This corresponds to the variation after projection, reversing the order of semiclassical quantization of 1 /Nc expansion. The method, however, is considered to be suited to the study of weakly interacting kaon-nucleon systems including loosely K ¯N bound states such as Λ (1405 ). We have found a bound state with binding energy of order 10 MeV, consistent with the observed state. We also discuss the K ¯N interaction and find that it consists of an attraction in the middle range and a repulsion in the short range.

  1. The atmospheric charged kaon/pion ratio using seasonal variation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grashorn, E. W.; de Jong, J. K.; Goodman, M. C.; Habig, A.; Marshak, M. L.; Mufson, S.; Osprey, S.; Schreiner, P.

    2010-04-01

    Observed since the 1950s, the seasonal effect on underground muons is a well studied phenomenon. The interaction height of incident cosmic rays changes as the temperature of the atmosphere changes, which affects the production height of mesons (mostly pions and kaons). The decay of these mesons produces muons that can be detected underground. The production of muons is dominated by pion decay, and previous work did not include the effect of kaons. In this work, the methods of Barrett and MACRO are extended to include the effect of kaons. These efforts give rise to a new method to measure the atmospheric K/π ratio at energies beyond the reach of current fixed target experiments. These methods were applied to data from the MINOS far detector. A method is developed for making these measurements at other underground detectors, including OPERA, Super-K, IceCube, Baksan and the MINOS near detector.

  2. Kaon absorption in flight and the binding of K¯ in nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oset, E.; Magas, V. K.; Ramos, A.; Yamagata-Sekihara, J.; Hirenzaki, S.

    2010-08-01

    We make a theoretical study of the kaon absorption in flight on nuclei with a kaon beam of 1 GeV momentum, paying special attention to the forward and energetic emitted protons, which were used to claim a deep kaon nucleus optical potential in a recent experiment. We perform a Monte Carlo simulation of this reaction, which allows to account not only for quasi-elastic K-p scattering, but also for the other processes which contribute to the proton spectra and which are not taken into account by the ordinary Green's function method analysis. The experiment looks for fast protons, but in coincidence with at least one charged particle in a decay counters sandwiching the target. The coincidence requirement is assumed not to distort the shape of the proton spectra, but we show that this is not the case and as a consequence the conclusions drawn from the experimental analysis do not hold.

  3. Pion-kaon femtoscopy in Au+Au collisions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poniatowska, Katarzyna; STAR Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    In non-identical particle correlations, e.g. pion-kaon femtoscopy, one can obtain information about source size and asymmetry in emission processes of pions and kaons. Such asymmetry give us knowledge of which type of particles is emitted first/second and/or from which region of the source. The studies of non-identical particle femtoscopy for Beam Energy Scan energies give us the opportunity to study how the source size and asymmetry in particle emission depend on the initial conditions of the collision. It also allows one to examine these parameters in the vicinity of the theoretical critical point. In these proceedings, we present STAR results of pion-kaon femtoscopy at mid-rapidity in Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{sNN} = 7.7, 19.6 and 39 GeV.

  4. Some applications of holographic interferometry in biomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbeni, Jean P. L.

    1992-03-01

    Holographic interferometry is well adapted for the determination of 2D strain fields in osseous structures. The knowledge of those strain fields is important for the understanding of structure behavior such as arthrosis.

  5. Two-center interferometry and decoherence effects

    SciTech Connect

    Feagin, James M.

    2006-02-15

    We analyze reduced fringe visibilities and decoherence effects in two-center interference experiments involving photon scattering and trapped-ion and atom interferometry. We introduce an impulse approximation to analyze the resulting photon-atom momentum entanglement. We find that the simple decoherence due to photon scattering of double-humped center-of-mass states of a single trapped ion strongly resembles that observed in atom interferometry.

  6. Pion, Kaon, Proton and Antiproton Production in Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Blattnig, Steve R.

    2008-01-01

    Inclusive pion, kaon, proton, and antiproton production from proton-proton collisions is studied at a variety of proton energies. Various available parameterizations of Lorentz-invariant differential cross sections as a function of transverse momentum and rapidity are compared with experimental data. The Badhwar and Alper parameterizations are moderately satisfactory for charged pion production. The Badhwar parameterization provides the best fit for charged kaon production. For proton production, the Alper parameterization is best, and for antiproton production the Carey parameterization works best. However, no parameterization is able to fully account for all the data.

  7. Violation of lepton flavor and lepton flavor universality in rare kaon decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crivellin, Andreas; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Hoferichter, Martin; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-04-01

    Recent anomalies in the decays of B mesons and the Higgs boson provide hints towards lepton flavor (universality) violating physics beyond the Standard Model. We observe that four-fermion operators which can explain the B -physics anomalies have corresponding analogs in the kaon sector, and we analyze their impact on K →π ℓℓ' and K →ℓℓ' decays (ℓ=μ ,e ) . For these processes, we note the corresponding physics opportunities at the NA62 experiment. In particular, assuming minimal flavor violation, we comment on the required improvements in sensitivity necessary to test the B -physics anomalies in the kaon sector.

  8. Multiple pion and kaon production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions: measurements versus specific models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guptaroy, P.; de, Bh.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Bhattacharyya, D. P.

    The pion and kaon rapidity densities and the nature of kaon-pion ratios offer two very prominent and crucial physical observables on which modestly sufficient data for heavy nucleus collisions are available to date. In the light of two sets of models - one purely phenomenological and the other with a modest degree of a dynamical basis - we try to examine the state of agreement between calculations and experimental results obtainable from the past and the latest measurements. Impact and implications of all these would also finally be spelt out.

  9. Delta I Equals Three Halfs Kaon To Two Pion Decays Using Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics with Domain Wall Fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightman, Matthew

    We calculate matrix elements for kaon to two pion decays in the Delta I = 3/2 channel using lattice gauge theory simulations. From these we can extract the decay amplitude A2, for which the real part is related to the decay rate and can be compared to the experimental result Re(A2) = 1.484x10-8 GeV, and for which the imaginary part is related to direct charge-parity violation in the neutral kaon system. We report the results of one simulation with nearly physical particle masses and kinematics, specifically mK = 509.0(9.1) MeV, mpi = 142.8(2.5) MeV, and Epipi = 485.7(8.0) MeV. This simulation was performed on RBC/UKQCD 323 x 64, Ls = 32 lattices, using 2+1 dynamical flavors of domain wall fermions and a Dislocation Suppressing Determinant Ratio plus Iwasaki gauge action, and with an inverse lattice spacing a-1 = 1.373(24) GeV so that the spatial extent of the lattice is 4.60 fm and mpi L = 3.3. We find that Re(A2) = 1.461(87)stat(200)sys x 10 -8 GeV, in good agreement with the experimental value. We also find Im(A2) = .8.67(45)stat(1.95)sys x10-13 GeV, and Im(A2)/Re( A2) = .5.93(27)stat(1.42)sys x10 -5, however the value of Im(A2) depends on a rough hypothesis for some of the renormalization constants which have not yet been calculated, and thus we quote a large systematic error. We also report the results of a simulation involving a variety of kaon and pion masses and momenta, which was conducted in order to study the dependence of the decay amplitude on particle masses and kinematics, and to study the effect of not having exactly physical masses and kinematics in the first simulation. The use of the quenched approximation and smaller spatial volume in this second simulation allowed for multiple masses to be simulated in a reasonable amount of time, but introduced an uncontrolled approximation and forced us to use pion masses a bit larger than the physical mass. The study was conducted on 243 x 64, Ls = 16 lattices, with the quenched Doubly Blocked Wilson 2 gauge

  10. Kaon Condensation and Lambda-Nucleon Loop in the Relativistic Mean-Field Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoyuki Maruyama; Takumi Muto; Toshitaka Tatsumi; Kazuo Tsushima; Anthony W. Thomas

    2005-02-24

    The possibility of kaon condensation in high-density symmetric nuclear matter is investigated including both s- and p-wave kaon-baryon interactions within the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory. Above a certain density, we have a collective K{sub s} state carrying the same quantum numbers as the antikaon. The appearance of the K{sub s} state is caused by the time component of the axial-vector interaction between kaons and baryons. It is shown that the system becomes unstable with respect to condensation of K-Kbar{sub s} pairs. We consider how the effective baryon masses affect the kaon self-energy coming from the time component of the axial-vector interaction. Also, the role of the spatial component of the axial-vector interaction on the possible existence of the collective kaonic states is discussed in connection with Lambda-mixing effects in the ground state of high-density matter. Implications of K-Kbar{sub s} condensation for high-energy heavy-ion collisions are briefly mentioned.

  11. Parameterization of spectral distributions for pion and kaon production in proton-proton collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, John P.; Norbury, John W.; Cucinotta, Frank A.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate semi-empirical parameterizations of the energy-differential cross sections for charged pion and kaon production from proton-proton collisions are presented at energies relevant to cosmic rays. The parameterizations depend on the outgoing meson momentum and also the proton energy, and are able to be reduced to very simple analytical formulas suitable for cosmic-ray transport.

  12. Possibility of studying. nu. /sub e/ and anti. nu. /sub e/ interactions at a Kaon Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1981-03-01

    The possibility of observing ..nu../sub e/- and anti ..nu../sub e/-induced reactions at a high-flux Kaon Factory is discussed. A recently suggested neutrino beam derived from K/sub L//sup 0/ decays is the enriched source of ..nu../sub e/ and anti ..nu../sub e/. Some specific measurements which are feasible are described.

  13. Simulations for Light Collection Efficiency (Jlab Hall C 12 GeV Kaon Aerogel Detector)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothgeb, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Studying the additional flavor degree of freedom in charged kaon production allows for an unexampled insight into the transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom in exclusive processes and specifically the reaction mechanism underlying strangeness production. This unique opportunity has gone greatly unexplored, however, because of the challenges posed by the experimental factors. One of these challenges is determining a method of separation for kaons from pion and proton backgrounds at high momenta. The simplest and most cost-effective solution is the implementation of a kaon aerogel Cherenkov detector. At the Catholic University of America, we are building such a detector for use in the 12GeV Hall C Super High Momentum Spectrometer at Jefferson Lab. The detector will use photo multiplier tubes to collect the Cherenkov radiation given off by the aerogel and convert that signal into analyzable data that will be used to determine the form factor of the kaon, which will yield a greater understanding of the internal structure of the proton. In this presentation I will present the results from the simulations carried out to optimize the aerogel coverage and study the effect of light guides on the efficiency of the detector. Supported in part by NSF grants PHY 1019521 and 1039446.

  14. Structural influences on intensity interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Arup; Harris, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Intensity interferometry (II) is an alternate form of creating images of distant objects. It is significantly less sensitive to atmospheric distortions and aberrations of telescope surfaces than conventional amplitude-based imaging. The deficiencies of II can be overcome as photodetectors' read-out rates are becoming faster and computers more powerful. In recognition of the possibility of very large space-based imaging systems, this paper investigates how the deformation of a large, thin optical surface would influence the accuracy of II. Based on the theoretical foundation of II, an optical ray-tracing algorithm was used to examine how the statistics of a photon stream changes from the source to the detector. Ray-tracing and finite element analyses of the structure were thereafter integrated to quantify how the correlation of the intensity field changes as the reflective structure deforms. Varying the positions of the detector from the focal plane and the surface profile of the mirror provided an understanding and quantification of how the various scenarios affect the statistics of the detected light and the correlation measurement. This research and analysis provide the means to quantify how structural perturbations of focal mirrors affect the statistics of photon stream detections inherent in II instrumentation.

  15. Precision optical interferometry in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    POINTS, an astrometric Optical interferometer with a nominal measurement accuracy of 5 microarcseconds for the angle between a pair of stars separated by about 90 deg, is presently under consideration by two divisions of NASA-OSSA. It will be a powerful new multi-disciplinary tool for astronomical research. If chosen as the TOPS-1 (Toward Other Planetary Systems) instrument by the Solar-System Exploration Division, it will perform a definitive search for extra-solar planetary systems, either finding and characterizing a large number of them or showing that they are far less numerous than now believed. If chosen as the AIM (Astrometric Interferometry Mission) by the Astrophysics Division, POINTS will open new areas of astrophysical research and change the nature of the questions being asked in some old areas. In either case. it will be the first of a new class of powerful instruments in space and will prove the technology for the larger members of that class to follow. Based on a preliminary indication of the observational needs of the two missions, we find that a single POINTS mission will meet the science objectives of both TOPS-1 and AIM. The instrument detects dispersed fringe (channel led spectrum) and therefore can tolerate large pointing errors.

  16. Neutron interferometry with cold stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineeva, Taisiya; Arif, M.; Huber, M. G.; Shahi, C. B.; Clark, C. W.; Cory, D. G.; Nsofini, J.; Sarenac, D.; Pushin, D. A.

    Neutron interferometry (NI) is amongst the most precise methods for characterizing neutron interactions by measuring the relative difference between two neutron paths, one of which contains a sample-of-interest. Because neutrons carry magnetic moment and are deeply penetrating, they are excellent probes to investigate properties of magnetic materials. The advantage of NI is its unique sensitivity which allows to directly measure magnetic and structural transitions in materials. Up to now NI has been sparingly used in material research due to its sensitivity to environmental noise. However, recent successes in implementing Quantum Error Correction principles lead to an improved NI design making it robust against mechanical vibrations. Following these advances, a new user facility at the National Institute for Standards and Technology was built to study condensed matter applications, biology and quantum physics. Incorporating cold sample stage inside NI is the first of its kind experiment which can be carried out on large range of temperatures down to 4K. Upon successful realization, it will open new frontiers to characterize magnetic domains, phase transitions and spin properties in a variety of materials such as, for example, iron-based superconductors and spintronic materials. Supported in part by CERC, CIFAR, NSERC and CREATE.

  17. Stitching interferometry of aspherical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haensel, Thomas; Nickel, Andreas; Schindler, Axel

    2001-12-01

    Sub-aperture stitching interferometry (SASI) is an appropriate method to measure either large optical plane surface topologies or aspheres with strong deviation from the flatness with standard interferometers. Using SASI the surface shape is measured with a higher lateral resolution by multiple adjacent sub-aperture measurements with a sufficient overlap of the neighboring areas. In a second step, the total surface shape is composed with the help of a computer code by stitching the sub-aperture areas together. The overlap areas allow fitting. By means of a regression analysis, tilt and vertical displacement of adjacent areas are calculated and minimized. A confidence band calculated using a MATLAB based code describes the accuracy of the composition. The variance of this estimation is inverse proportional to the peak to valley value (PV) of the measured area and decreases with a 10-3 scaling of the width of the overlapping area. A statistical experimental design method is used to minimize the number of sub-apertures to be measured. The accuracy of the stitched total surface measurement can be increased with the help of model calculations by optimizing (i) the position of the sub-aperture, which was regarded as a standard, and (ii) the sequence of the stitched adjacent areas.

  18. KERNEL PHASE IN FIZEAU INTERFEROMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Martinache, Frantz

    2010-11-20

    The detection of high contrast companions at small angular separation appears feasible in conventional direct images using the self-calibration properties of interferometric observable quantities. The friendly notion of closure phase, which is key to the recent observational successes of non-redundant aperture masking interferometry used with adaptive optics, appears to be one example of a wide family of observable quantities that are not contaminated by phase noise. In the high-Strehl regime, soon to be available thanks to the coming generation of extreme adaptive optics systems on ground-based telescopes, and already available from space, closure phase like information can be extracted from any direct image, even taken with a redundant aperture. These new phase-noise immune observable quantities, called kernel phases, are determined a priori from the knowledge of the geometry of the pupil only. Re-analysis of archive data acquired with the Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS instrument using this new kernel-phase algorithm demonstrates the power of the method as it clearly detects and locates with milliarcsecond precision a known companion to a star at angular separation less than the diffraction limit.

  19. ARISE - Advanced Radio Interferometry Between Space and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, J. S.; Linfield, R. P.; Wannier, P. G.; Preston, R. A.; Hirabayashi, H.; Zensus, J. A.; Veal, G. R.

    1995-01-01

    A mission is described called ARISE, Advanced Radio Interferometry between Space and Earth. ARISE will will provide affordable very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) using second- generation VLBI and one or more inflatable space radio telescopes.

  20. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Using SENTINEL-1 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, M.; Monserrat, O.; Devanthéry, N.; Cuevas-González, M.; Barra, A.; Crippa, B.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is focused on deformation monitoring using a Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique and the interferometric SAR data acquired by the Sentinel-1 satellite of the European Space Agency. The first part of the paper describes the procedure used to process and analyze Sentinel-1 interferometric SAR data. Two main approaches are described. The first one is a simplified Persistent Scatterer Interferometry approach that exploits two key properties of the Sentinel-1 data: the high coherence of the 12-day interferograms and the reduced orbital tube. The second approach is a full Persistent Scatterer Interferometry approach, where a more sophisticate data treatment is employed. The second part of the paper illustrates the results obtained with the two processing approaches. Two case studies are described. The first one concerns landslide detection and monitoring. In this case, the simplified Persistent Scatterer Interferometry approach was used. The second one regards the deformation monitoring of an urban area. In this case, a full Persistent Scatterer Interferometry approach was used.

  1. Optical intensity interferometry through atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, P. K.; Chan, A. H.; Kurtsiefer, C.

    2016-04-01

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrow-band spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photodiodes, the Solar g(2)(τ) signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of g(2)(τ) = 1.693 ± 0.003 from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement schemes with both large baselines and long integration times.

  2. Parasitic interference in nulling interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, A.; Defrère, D.; Danchi, W. C.; Lopez, B.; Absil, O.

    2013-05-01

    Nulling interferometry aims to detect faint objects close to bright stars. Its principle is to produce a destructive interference along the line of sight so that the stellar flux is rejected, while the flux of the off-axis source can be transmitted. In practice, various instrumental perturbations can degrade the nulling performance. Any imperfection in phase, amplitude or polarization produces a spurious flux that leaks to the interferometer output and corrupts the transmitted off-axis flux. One of these instrumental perturbations is the crosstalk phenomenon, which occurs because of multiple parasitic reflections inside transmitting optics, and/or diffraction effects related to beam propagation along finite size optics. It can include a crosstalk of a beam with itself, and a mutual crosstalk between different beams. This can create a parasitic interference pattern, which degrades the intrinsic transmission map - or intensity response - of the interferometer. In this context, we describe how this instrumental effect impairs the performance of a Bracewell interferometer. A simple formalism is developed to derive the corresponding modified intensity response of the interferometer, as a function of the two parameters of interest: the crosstalk level (or contamination rate) and the phase shift between the primary and secondary - parasitic - beams. We then apply our mathematical approach to a few scientific cases, both analytically and using the GENIESIM simulation software, adapted to handle coherent crosstalk. Our results show that a coherent crosstalk level of about 1 per cent implies a 20 per cent drop of the signal-to-noise ratio at most. Careful attention should thus be paid to reduce the crosstalk level inside an interferometric instrument and ensure an instrumental stability that provides the necessary sensitivity through calibration procedures.

  3. Soft x-ray interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument`s components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200{angstrom} wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency.

  4. Rescattering effects on intensity interferometry and initial conditions in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang

    The properties of the quark-gluon plasma are being thoroughly studied by utilizing relativistic heavy ion collisions. After its invention in astronomy in the 1950s, intensity interferometry was found to be a robust method to probe the spatial and temporal information of the nuclear collisions also. Although rescattering effects are negligible in elementary particle collisions, it may be very important for heavy ion collisions at RHIC and in the future LHC. Rescattering after production will modify the measured correlation function and make it harder to extract the dynamical information from data. To better understand the data which are dimmed by this final state process, we derive a general formula for intensity interferometry which can calculate rescattering effects easily. The formula can be used both non-relativistically and relativistically. Numerically, we found that rescattering effects on kaon interferometry for RHIC experiments can modify the measured ratio of the outward radius to the sideward radius, which is a sensitive probe to the equation of state, by as large as 15%. It is a nontrivial contribution which should be included to understand the data more accurately. The second part of this thesis is on the initial conditions in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Although relativistic hydrodynamics is successful in explaining many aspects of the data, it is only valid after some finite time after nuclear contact. The results depend on the choice of initial conditions which, so far, have been very uncertain. I describe a formula based on the McLerran-Venugopalan model to compute the initial energy density. The soft gluon fields produced immediately after the overlap of the nuclei can be expanded as a power series of the proper time t. Solving Yang-Mills equations with color current conservation can give us the analytical formulas for the fields. The local color charges on the transverse plane are stochastic variables and have to be taken care of by random

  5. Shear-strain contours from moire interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, D.; Czarnek, R.; Joh, D.

    1985-01-01

    The development of whole-field contour maps of shear strains gamma (xy), derived from displacement fields obtained by moire interferometry with 2400 lines/mm, is described. The use of mechanical differentiation to obtain cross-derivatives of displacements and the use of graphical additive moire to sum the cross-derivatives are explained. Quantitative analysis in the small-strain domain is possible because of the high sensitivity of moire interferometry. The applicability of this technique is shown by the testing of a short epoxy beam under three-point bending.

  6. Advances in Small-Telescope Speckle Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, David J.

    2016-06-01

    The current revolution in CMOS camera technology has enabled a new generation of small telescope systems targeted at the measurement of close binary systems using the techniques of speckle interferometry and bispectrum analysis. These inexpensive, ultra-sensitive, high resolution cameras are now outperforming CCD technology, and come at a truly affordable price. In addition, dedicated, user-friendly speckle interferometry reduction software has been developed for the amateur, making it easy to perform the otherwise complicated data processing tasks. This talk will address these recent advances in hardware and software, and describe some of the results of the informal amateur-professional collaboration that has formed around them.

  7. Dispersed interferometry for infrared exoplanet velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, Jerry; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Erskine, David; Marckwordt, Mario; Feuerstein, W. Michael; Mercer, Tony; Czeszumska, Agnieszka; Schwer, Jaclyn; Halverson, Sam; Lloyd, James P.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Wright, Jason T.; Herter, Terry

    2008-07-01

    The TEDI (TripleSpec - Exoplanet Discovery Instrument) is the first instrument dedicated to the near infrared radial velocity search for planetary companions to low-mass stars. The TEDI uses Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI), a combination of interferometry and multichannel dispersive spectroscopy. We have joined a white-light interferometer with the Cornell TripleSpec (0.9 - 2.4 μm) spectrograph at the Palomar Observatory 200" telescope and begun an experimental program to establish both the experimental and analytical techniques required for precision IR velocimetry and the Doppler-search for planets orbiting low mass stars and brown dwarfs.

  8. Holographic interferometry: A user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Griggs, D.

    1993-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures and components necessary to produce a holographic interferogram of a flow field in the Sandia National Laboratories hypersonic wind tunnel. In contrast to classical interferometry, holographic interferometry records the amplitude and phase distribution of a lightwave passing through the flow field at some instant of time. This information can then be reconstructed outside the wind tunnel for visual analysis and digital processing, yielding precise characterizations of aerodynamic phenomena. The reconstruction and subsequent hologram image storage process is discussed, with particular attention paid to the digital image processor and the data reduction technique.

  9. Spectral modulation interferometry for quantitative phase imaging

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Ruibo; Chen, Shichao; Li, Chengshuai; Zhu, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    We propose a spectral-domain interferometric technique, termed spectral modulation interferometry (SMI), and present its application to high-sensitivity, high-speed, and speckle-free quantitative phase imaging. In SMI, one-dimensional complex field of an object is interferometrically modulated onto a broadband spectrum. Full-field phase and intensity images are obtained by scanning along the orthogonal direction. SMI integrates the high sensitivity of spectral-domain interferometry with the high speed of spectral modulation to quantify fast phase dynamics, and its dispersive and confocal nature eliminates laser speckles. The principle and implementation of SMI are discussed. Its performance is evaluated using static and dynamic objects. PMID:25780737

  10. Altimetry Using GPS-Reflection/Occultation Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardellach, Estel; DeLaTorre, Manuel; Hajj, George A.; Ao, Chi

    2008-01-01

    A Global Positioning System (GPS)- reflection/occultation interferometry was examined as a means of altimetry of water and ice surfaces in polar regions. In GPS-reflection/occultation interferometry, a GPS receiver aboard a satellite in a low orbit around the Earth is used to determine the temporally varying carrier- phase delay between (1) one component of a signal from a GPS transmitter propagating directly through the atmosphere just as the GPS transmitter falls below the horizon and (2) another component of the same signal, propagating along a slightly different path, reflected at glancing incidence upon the water or ice surface.

  11. The Doubling of 846 nm Light to Produce 423 nm Light for use in Atom Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archibald, James; Birrell, Jeremey; Tang, Rebecca; Erickson, Chris; Goggins, Landon; Durfee, Dallin

    2009-10-01

    We present progress on a 423 nm fluorescence probe/cooling laser for use in our neutral calcium atom interferometer. The finished system will include an 846 nm diode laser that is coupled to a tapered amplifier. This light will be sent to a buildup cavity where we will achieve second-harmonic generation (SHG) using either a BBO non-linear crystal or a periodically-poled KTP crystal. We will discuss the theoretical considerations relating to the doubling of light in a crystal and the construction of our buildup cavity. We will also discuss its proposed application for use in atom interferometry.

  12. Pion and Kaon Masses and Pion Form Factors from Dynamical Chiral-Symmetry Breaking with Light Constituent Quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Scadron, Michael D.; Kleefeld, Frieder; Rupp, George

    2007-02-27

    Light constituent quark masses and the corresponding dynamical quark masses are determined by data, the quark-level linear {sigma} model, and infrared QCD. This allows to define effective nonstrange and strange current quark masses, which reproduce the experimental pion and kaon masses very accurately, by simple additivity. In contrast, the usual nonstrange and strange current quarks employed by the Particle Data Group and Chiral Perturbation Theory do not allow a straightforward quantitative explanation of the pion and kaon masses.

  13. Study of Branching Ratio And Polarization Fraction in Neutral B Meson Decays to Negative Rho Meson Positive Kaon Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Baosen; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2006-03-07

    We present the preliminary results on the search for B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}. The data sample comprises 122.7 million B{bar B} pairs in the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation through the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance collected during 1999-2003 with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy collider at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). We obtain an upper limit of the branching ratio at 90% confidence level as {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup -}K*{sup +}) < 17.2 x 10{sup -6}. The fitted result on the polarization fraction shows no evidence that the decay is longitudinally dominated as predicted by various theoretical models.

  14. a Search for the Lepton Flavor Violating Decay Long-Lived Neutral Kaon Going to MUON(+,-) Positron-Electron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, John F.

    A search has been conducted for the decay K {L}{0} to mu^ +/- e^mp at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. This decay, which violates the conservation of electron and muon type lepton numbers, is forbidden in the Standard Model of electroweak interactions which conserves separate lepton number. Two-body decays of the K{L }{0} meson were detected in a double -arm, double-magnet spectrometer and written to magnetic tape. Electrons were identified by a lead glass array and a threshold gas Cherenkov detector. Muons were identified, after passing through a 91 cm iron filter, by a bank of scintillators and a range stack instrumented with drift tubes. The experimental data was recorded over two consecutive AGS running periods beginning January 1989 and January 1990. The two data samples were analyzed separately; no decays consistent with the hypothesis of K {L}{0} to mu^+/- e^mp were observed in the apparatus in either sample. The simultaneous observation of the rare, CP-violating, decay K{L} {0} to pi^+pi^ - provided an absolute normalization to the null result. The upper limits on the branching ratio for K {L}{0} to mu^ +/- e^mp were thereby determined at 90% confidence level to be B(K{L }{0} to mu^+/- e ^mp) < 9.3times 10^{-11} (1989) and < 6.7times10^{ -11} (1990). When these results were combined with an earlier (1988) measurement of the same process, the overall limit B(K{L}{0 } to mu^+/- e^mp) < 3.3times10^{-11} at 90% CL was obtained.

  15. Radio interferometry: Techniques for Geodesy. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Progress in the development and application of radio interferometry as a tool for geophysical research is reported and discussed. Among the topics reviewed are: Surveys of is the Seventies, Movements, Terrestrial and Celestial, Degrees Kelvin and Degrees of Phase, the Mark 3 VLBI System, Waves of the Future and other Emissions, and Adherence and Coherence in Networks, and Plans.

  16. Phase-Shifted Laser Feedback Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovryn, Benjie

    1999-01-01

    Phase-shifted, laser feedback interferometry is a new diagnostic tool developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center under the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program directed by NASA Headquarters Microgravity Research Division. It combines the principles of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and laser-feedback interferometry (LFI) to produce an instrument that can quantify both optical path length changes and sample reflectivity variations. In a homogenous medium, the optical path length between two points is the product of the index of refraction and the geometric distance between the two points. LFI differs from other forms of interferometry by using the laser as both the source and the phase detector. In LFI, coherent feedback of the incident light either reflected directly from a surface or reflected after transmission through a region of interest will modulate the output intensity of the laser. The combination of PSI and LFI has produced a robust instrument, based on a low-power helium-neon (HeNe) gas laser, with a high dynamic range that can be used to measure either static or oscillatory changes of the optical path length. Small changes in optical path length are limited by the fraction of a fringe that can be measured; we can measure nonoscillatory changes with a root mean square (rms) error of the wavelength/1000 without averaging.

  17. Detection of deoxynivalenol using biolayer interferometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biolayer interferometry allows for the real time monitoring of the interactions between molecules without the need for reagents with enzymatic, fluorescent, or radioactive labels. The technology is based upon the changes in interference pattern of light reflected from the surface of an optical fiber...

  18. Multiple Beam Interferometry in Elementary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolansky, S.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses a relatively simple technique for demonstrating multiple beam interferometry. The technique can be applied to measuring (1) radii of curvature of lenses, (2) surface finish of glass, and (3) differential phase change on reflection. Microtopographies, modulated fringe systems and opaque objects may also be observed by this technique.…

  19. Space Interferometry System Testbed-3: architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez-Salazar, Oscar S.; Renaud, Goullioud; Azizi, Ali

    2004-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission's System testbed-3 has recently integrated its Precision Support Structure and spacecraft backpack on a pseudo free-free 0.5 Hz passive isolation system. The Precision Support Structure holds a 3-baseline stellar interferometer instrument.

  20. Limitations To Optical/IR Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colavita, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    The primary limitation to ground-based optical/IR interferometry is the turbulent atmosphere, which limits sensitivity by restricting the coherence volume, limits imaging accuracy by corrupting the fringe phase, and limits astrometric acuracy by corrupting the angel of arrival.

  1. Apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Stanton, Philip L.; Sweatt, William C.; Crump, Jr., O. B.; Bonzon, Lloyd L.

    1993-09-14

    An apparatus and method for laser velocity interferometry employing a fixed interferometer cavity and delay element. The invention permits rapid construction of interferometers that may be operated by those non-skilled in the art, that have high image quality with no drift or loss of contrast, and that have long-term stability even without shock isolation of the cavity.

  2. Neutral beam monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H.

    1981-08-18

    Method and apparatus for monitoring characteristics of a high energy neutral beam. A neutral beam is generated by passing accelerated ions through a walled cell containing a low energy neutral gas, such that charge exchange neutralizes the high energy ion beam. The neutral beam is monitored by detecting the current flowing through the cell wall produced by low energy ions which drift to the wall after the charge exchange. By segmenting the wall into radial and longitudinal segments various beam conditions are further identified.

  3. Sivers asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Hwang, Dae Sung; Kotzinian, Aram

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the Sivers distribution functions induced by the final-state interaction due to one-gluon exchange in diquark models of a nucleon structure, treating the cases of scalar and axial-vector diquarks with both dipole and Gaussian form factors. We use these distribution functions to calculate the Sivers single-spin asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering. We compare our calculations with the results of HERMES and COMPASS, finding good agreement for {pi}{sup +} production at HERMES, and qualitative agreement for {pi}{sup 0} and K{sup +} production. Our predictions for pion and kaon production at COMPASS could be probed with increased statistics. The successful comparison of our calculations with the HERMES data constitutes prima facie evidence that the quarks in the nucleon have some orbital angular momentum in the infinite-momentum frame.

  4. Mesonic and nonmesonic absorption of kaon in nuclear matter and {Lambda}(1405) doorway process

    SciTech Connect

    Sekihara, T.; Yamagata-Sekihara, J.; Jido, D.; Kanada-En'yo, Y.

    2010-12-28

    The mesonic and nonmesonic absorptions of kaon into nuclear systems are investigated from a viewpoint of {Lambda}(1405) doorway process. Using a one-meson exchange model in the calculation of the nonmesonic {Lambda}(1405)N{yields}YN transition and using the chiral unitary approach for the description of the {Lambda}(1405), we obtain the nonmesonic transition ratio {Gamma}{sub {Lambda}N}/{Gamma}{sub {Sigma}}{sup 0}{sub N{approx_equal}}1.2 which is almost independent of the nucleon density, and find the total nonmesonic decay width of the {Lambda}(1405) in uniform nuclear matter to be 22 MeV at the normal density. We also calculate the absorption for stopped K{sup -} in nuclear matter, and find that the ''formation rate'' of {Lambda}(1405) is important for the density dependence and the absolute value of the absorption potential of kaon in nuclear matter.

  5. Dense stellar matter with strange quark matter driven by kaon condensation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyungmin; Lee, Hyun Kyu; Rho, Mannque

    2011-09-15

    The core of neutron-star matter is supposed to be at a much higher density than the normal nuclear-matter density, for which various possibilities have been suggested, such as, for example, meson or hyperon condensation and/or deconfined quark or color-superconducting matter. In this work, we explore the implication on hadron physics of a dense compact object that has three ''phases'': nuclear matter at the outer layer, kaon condensed nuclear matter in the middle, and strange quark matter at the core. Using a drastically simplified but not unreasonable model, we develop the scenario where the different phases are smoothly connected with the kaon condensed matter playing a role of a ''doorway'' to a quark core, the equation of state of which with parameters restricted within the range allowed by nature could be made compatible with the mass vs radius constraint given by the 1.97-solar-mass object PSR J1614-2230 recently observed.

  6. Kaon semileptonic decay (Kl3) form factors from the instanton vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Seung-Il; Kim, Hyun-Chul

    2007-05-01

    We investigate the kaon semileptonic decay (Kl3) form factors within the framework of the nonlocal chiral quark model (χQM) from the instanton vacuum, taking into account the effects of flavor SU(3) symmetry breaking. We also consider the problem of gauge invariance arising from the momentum-dependent quark mass in the present work. All theoretical calculations are carried out without any adjustable parameter, the average instanton size (ρ˜1/3fm) and the interinstanton distance (R˜1fm) having been fixed. We also show that the present results satisfy the Callan-Treiman low-energy theorem as well as the Ademollo-Gatto theorem. Using the Kl3 form factors, we evaluate relevant physical quantities. It turns out that the effects of flavor SU(3) symmetry breaking are essential in reproducing the kaon semileptonic form factors. The present results are in good agreement with experiments, and are compatible with other model calculations.

  7. Effects of the symmetry energy on the kaon condensates in the quark-meson coupling model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Prafulla K.; Menezes, Débora P.; Providência, Constança

    2014-04-01

    In this work we investigate protoneutron star properties within a modified version of the quark-meson coupling (QMC) model that incorporates an ω-ρ interaction plus kaon condensed matter at finite temperature. Fixed entropy and trapped neutrinos are taken into account. Our results are compared with the ones obtained with the GM1 parametrization of the nonlinear Walecka model for similar values of the symmetry energy slope. Contrary to GM1, within the QMC model the formation of low mass black holes during cooling are not probable. It is shown that the evolution of the protoneutron star may include the melting of the kaon condensate driven by the neutrino diffusion, followed by the formation of a second condensate after cooling. The signature of this complex process could be a neutrino signal followed by a gamma ray burst. We have seen that both models can, in general, describe very massive stars.

  8. Two measurements of B 0overlineB0 mixing using kaon tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, H.; Hamacher, T.; Hofmann, R. P.; Kirchhoff, T.; Mankel, R.; Nau, A.; Nowak, S.; Reßing, D.; Schröder, H.; Schulz, H. D.; Walter, M.; Wurth, R.; Hast, C.; Kapitza, H.; Kolanoski, H.; Kosche, A.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Töpfer, D.; Wegener, D.; Eckstein, P.; Frankl, C.; Graf, J.; Schmidtler, M.; Schramm, M.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Waldi, R.; Reim, K.; Wegener, H.; Eckmann, R.; Kuipers, H.; Mai, O.; Mundt, R.; Oest, T.; Reiner, R.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Stiewe, J.; Werner, S.; Ehret, K.; Hofmann, W.; Hüpper, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Spengler, J.; Krieger, P.; Macfarlane, D. B.; Prentice, J. D.; Saull, P. R. B.; Tzamariudaki, K.; van de Water, R. G.; Yoon, T.-S.; Schneider, M.; Weseler, S.; Kernel, G.; Križan, P.; Križnič, E.; Podobnik, T.; Živko, T.; Balagura, V.; Belyaev, I.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Eiges, V.; Gershtein, L.; Gershtein, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Igonkina, O.; Korolko, I.; Kostina, G.; Litvintsev, D.; Pakhlov, P.; Semenov, S.; Snizhko, A.; Tichomirov, I.; Zaitsev, Yu.; Argus Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e+e- storage ring DORIS II at DESY, we have made two measurements of the mixing parameter χd using kaons as flavour tags. Using D ∗+ K ± correlations we found χd = 0.20 ± 0.13 ± 0.12 and from the study of (D ∗+ℓ -) K ± correlations we obtained χd = 0.19 ± 0.07 ± 0.09. The branching ratio for overlineB → D ∗+ X has been updated: Br( overlineB → D ∗+ X) = (19.6 ± 1.9) %. We have also determined the average multiplicity of charged kaons in B0 decays to be 0.78 ± 0.08.

  9. Calculating kaon fragmentation functions from the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio jet model

    SciTech Connect

    Matevosyan, Hrayr H.; Thomas, Anthony W.; Bentz, Wolfgang

    2011-04-01

    The Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL)-jet model provides a sound framework for calculating the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory, where the momentum and isospin sum rules are satisfied without the introduction of ad hoc parameters. Earlier studies of the pion fragmentation functions using the NJL model within this framework showed qualitative agreement with the empirical parametrizations. Here we extend the NJL-jet model by including the strange quark. The corrections to the pion fragmentation functions and corresponding kaon fragmentation functions are calculated using the elementary quark to quark-meson fragmentation functions from NJL. The results for the kaon fragmentation functions exhibit a qualitative agreement with the empirical parametrizations, while the unfavored strange quark fragmentation to pions is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the unfavored light quark. The results of these studies are expected to provide important guidance for the analysis of a large variety of semi-inclusive data.

  10. Measurement of pion, kaon and proton production in proton-proton collisions at TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Rinella, G. Aglieri; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Molina, R. Alfaro; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Prado, C. Alves Garcia; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.; Pedrosa, F. Baltasar Dos Santos; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Martinez, H. Bello; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Diaz, L. Calero; Caliva, A.; Villar, E. Calvo; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Sanchez, C. Ceballos; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; Valle, Z. Conesa del; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Maldonado, I. Cortés; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Albino, R. Cruz; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; Caro, A. De; Cataldo, G. de; Cuveland, J. de; Falco, A. De; Gruttola, D. De; Marco, N. De; Pasquale, S. De; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; Bari, D. Di; Mauro, A. Di; Nezza, P. Di; Corchero, M. A. Diaz; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Gimenez, D. Domenicis; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Téllez, A. Fernández; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Dziadus, E. Gladysz; Glässel, P.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Zamora, P. González; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.

    2015-05-01

    The measurement of primary , , and production at mid-rapidity ( 0.5) in proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV performed with a large ion collider experiment at the large hadron collider (LHC) is reported. Particle identification is performed using the specific ionisation energy-loss and time-of-flight information, the ring-imaging Cherenkov technique and the kink-topology identification of weak decays of charged kaons. Transverse momentum spectra are measured from 0.1 up to 3 GeV/ for pions, from 0.2 up to 6 GeV/ for kaons and from 0.3 up to 6 GeV/ for protons. The measured spectra and particle ratios are compared with quantum chromodynamics-inspired models, tuned to reproduce also the earlier measurements performed at the LHC. Furthermore, the integrated particle yields and ratios as well as the average transverse momenta are compared with results at lower collision energies.

  11. Pion-kaon femtoscopy in Au+Au collisions at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poniatowska, Katarzyna

    2015-05-01

    Femtoscopy analysis allows us to extract information about the properties of particle emission source created after collision. From HBT of two correlated pions one can calculate source sizes; in addition, from the non-identical particle correlations, e.g. pion-kaon femtoscopy, one can obtain information not only about source sizes but the asymmetry in the emission processes of particles of different types as well. Such asymmetry gives knowledge of which kind of particles are emitted first/second and/or from which region of the source. The studies of non-identical particle femtoscopy for different collision energies gives us the opportunity to study how the source size and asymmetry in particle emission depend on the initial conditions of the collision. In these proceedings, we will present STAR results of pion-kaon femtoscopy at mid-rapidity in Au + Au collisions from the Beam Energy Scan program.

  12. Sivers asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Hwang, Dae Sung; Kotzinian, Aram

    2009-10-01

    We calculate the Sivers distribution functions induced by the final-state interaction due to one-gluon exchange in diquark models of a nucleon structure, treating the cases of scalar and axial-vector diquarks with both dipole and Gaussian form factors. We use these distribution functions to calculate the Sivers single-spin asymmetries for inclusive pion and kaon production in deep-inelastic scattering. We compare our calculations with the results of HERMES and COMPASS, finding good agreement for π+ production at HERMES, and qualitative agreement for π0 and K+ production. Our predictions for pion and kaon production at COMPASS could be probed with increased statistics. The successful comparison of our calculations with the HERMES data constitutes prima facie evidence that the quarks in the nucleon have some orbital angular momentum in the infinite-momentum frame.

  13. Ring imaging Cherenkov counter of HERMES for pion, kaon, proton and anti-proton identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Toshi-Aki

    2014-12-01

    RICH of HERMES was built for identification of pion, kaon, proton and anti-proton in the momentum range of 2-15 GeV/c. It was a dual-radiator RICH. The radiators were aerogel and C4F10 gas. Produced hadrons in electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering were identified by the RICH and spin structure of the nucleon was studied by correlation between the directions of the target spin, scattered electron and produced hadrons.

  14. Bose—Einstein correlations of charged kaons in p + p collisions with the STAR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatkulov, Grigory

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of charged kaon Bose-Einstein Correlations (BEC) measured in proton- proton collisions at √s =200 and 510 GeV with the STAR detector at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The one-dimensional correlation functions are studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity. The femtoscopic radii, R, and the correlation strength, λ, are extracted. The dependence of the source radii and the correlation strengths on the particle multiplicity are investigated.

  15. Capturing the rare decay kaon+ to pion+ neutrino antineutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jesse R.

    This thesis describes a search for the rare decay K+-->p+noverlinenoverline , a Flavor Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) process forbidden to first order in the Standard Model by the GIM mechanism. The decay is allowed at second order, however, and expected to have a branching ratio of approximately 10-10. Thanks to the presence of an internal top quark in the diagrams for this process, a measurement of the branching ratio for K+-->p+noverlinenoverline provides a measurement of the Cabibbo- Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element Vtd. Data collected by Experiment 787 at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the 1995 run were analyzed, and one candidate event surfaced with an expected background of 0.08 +/- 0.03 events. This first observation of K+-->p+noverlinenoverline yields a branching ratio of BR( K+-->p+noverlinenoverline ) = ( (2.54+5.82- 2.10 )×10-10 . A simultaneous search for the decay K+-->p+X0 , where X0 is any massless, weakly interacting particle, yielded no candidate events, and a 90% confidence level upper limit on the branching ratio is set at 1.81×10-10.

  16. On neutral plasma oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can possess positive or negative free energy.

  17. Rare Kaon Decays, KEK experiment E391 and E14 at the Japan Physics and Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC)

    SciTech Connect

    Wah, Yau Wai

    2012-12-06

    The goal of the J-PARC neutral kaon experiment (E14/KOTO) is to discover and measure the rate of the kaon rare decay to pi-zero and two neutrinos. This flavor changing neutral current decay proceeds through second-order weak interactions. Other, as yet undiscovered particles, which can mediate the decay could provide an enhancement (or depletion) to the branching ratio which in the Standard Model is accurately predicted within a few percent to be 2.8x10-11. The experiment is designed to observe more than 100 events at the Standard Model branching. It is a follow-up of the KEK E391a experiment and has stage-2 approval by J-PARC PAC in 2007. E14/KOTO has collaborators from Japan (Kyoto, Osaka, Yamagata, Saga), US (Arizona State, Chicago, Michigan Ann Arbor), Taiwan (National Taiwan), Korea, and Russia (Dubna). The experiment exploits the 300kW 30-50 GeV proton delivery of the J-PARC accelerator with a hermetic high acceptance detector with a fine grained Cesium Iodide (CsI) crystal calorimeter, and state of the art electronic front end and data acquisition system. With the recovery of the tsunami disaster on March 11th 2011, E14 is scheduled to start collecting data in December 2012. During the detector construction phase, Chicago focuses on the front end electronics readout of the entire detector system, particularly the CsI calorimeter. The CsI crystals together with its photomultipliers were previously used at the Fermilab KTeV experiment (E832/E799), and were loaned to E14 via this Chicago DOE support. The new readout electronics includes an innovative 10-pole pulse-shaping technique coupled with high speed digitization (14-bit 125MHz and 12-bit 500MHz). This new instrument enables us to measure both energy and timing, particularly with timing resolution better than 100 psec. Besides the cost saving by elimination of the standard time to digital converters, it is now possible to measure the momenta of the final state photons for additional background suppression

  18. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  19. Nanoscale optical interferometry with incoherent light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongfang; Feng, Jing; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-02-01

    Optical interferometry has empowered an impressive variety of biosensing and medical imaging techniques. A widely held assumption is that devices based on optical interferometry require coherent light to generate a precise optical signature in response to an analyte. Here we disprove that assumption. By directly embedding light emitters into subwavelength cavities of plasmonic interferometers, we demonstrate coherent generation of surface plasmons even when light with extremely low degrees of spatial and temporal coherence is employed. This surprising finding enables novel sensor designs with cheaper and smaller light sources, and consequently increases accessibility to a variety of analytes, such as biomarkers in physiological fluids, or even airborne nanoparticles. Furthermore, these nanosensors can now be arranged along open detection surfaces, and in dense arrays, accelerating the rate of parallel target screening used in drug discovery, among other high volume and high sensitivity applications.

  20. Nanoscale optical interferometry with incoherent light.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongfang; Feng, Jing; Pacifici, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Optical interferometry has empowered an impressive variety of biosensing and medical imaging techniques. A widely held assumption is that devices based on optical interferometry require coherent light to generate a precise optical signature in response to an analyte. Here we disprove that assumption. By directly embedding light emitters into subwavelength cavities of plasmonic interferometers, we demonstrate coherent generation of surface plasmons even when light with extremely low degrees of spatial and temporal coherence is employed. This surprising finding enables novel sensor designs with cheaper and smaller light sources, and consequently increases accessibility to a variety of analytes, such as biomarkers in physiological fluids, or even airborne nanoparticles. Furthermore, these nanosensors can now be arranged along open detection surfaces, and in dense arrays, accelerating the rate of parallel target screening used in drug discovery, among other high volume and high sensitivity applications. PMID:26880171

  1. Near-Earth Object Astrometric Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Martin R.

    2005-01-01

    Using astrometric interferometry on near-Earth objects (NEOs) poses many interesting and difficult challenges. Poor reflectance properties and potentially no significant active emissions lead to NEOs having intrinsically low visual magnitudes. Using worst case estimates for signal reflection properties leads to NEOs having visual magnitudes of 27 and higher. Today the most sensitive interferometers in operation have limiting magnitudes of 20 or less. The main reason for this limit is due to the atmosphere, where turbulence affects the light coming from the target, limiting the sensitivity of the interferometer. In this analysis, the interferometer designs assume no atmosphere, meaning they would be placed at a location somewhere in space. Interferometer configurations and operational uncertainties are looked at in order to parameterize the requirements necessary to achieve measurements of low visual magnitude NEOs. This analysis provides a preliminary estimate of what will be required in order to take high resolution measurements of these objects using interferometry techniques.

  2. Kinetic titration series with biolayer interferometry.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Daniel; Willbold, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Biolayer interferometry is a method to analyze protein interactions in real-time. In this study, we illustrate the usefulness to quantitatively analyze high affinity protein ligand interactions employing a kinetic titration series for characterizing the interactions between two pairs of interaction patterns, in particular immunoglobulin G and protein G B1 as well as scFv IC16 and amyloid beta (1-42). Kinetic titration series are commonly used in surface plasmon resonance and involve sequential injections of analyte over a desired concentration range on a single ligand coated sensor chip without waiting for complete dissociation between the injections. We show that applying this method to biolayer interferometry is straightforward and i) circumvents problems in data evaluation caused by unavoidable sensor differences, ii) saves resources and iii) increases throughput if screening a multitude of different analyte/ligand combinations. PMID:25229647

  3. Permafrost Active Layer Seismic Interferometry Experiment (PALSIE).

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert; Knox, Hunter Anne; James, Stephanie; Lee, Rebekah; Cole, Chris

    2016-01-01

    We present findings from a novel field experiment conducted at Poker Flat Research Range in Fairbanks, Alaska that was designed to monitor changes in active layer thickness in real time. Results are derived primarily from seismic data streaming from seven Nanometric Trillium Posthole seismometers directly buried in the upper section of the permafrost. The data were evaluated using two analysis methods: Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and ambient noise seismic interferometry. Results from the HVSR conclusively illustrated the method's effectiveness at determining the active layer's thickness with a single station. Investigations with the multi-station method (ambient noise seismic interferometry) are continuing at the University of Florida and have not yet conclusively determined active layer thickness changes. Further work continues with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine if the ground based measurements can constrain satellite imagery, which provide measurements on a much larger spatial scale.

  4. Atom interferometry in an optical cavity.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Paul; Jaffe, Matt; Brown, Justin M; Maisenbacher, Lothar; Estey, Brian; Müller, Holger

    2015-03-13

    We propose and demonstrate a new scheme for atom interferometry, using light pulses inside an optical cavity as matter wave beam splitters. The cavity provides power enhancement, spatial filtering, and a precise beam geometry, enabling new techniques such as low power beam splitters (<100  μW), large momentum transfer beam splitters with modest power, or new self-aligned interferometer geometries utilizing the transverse modes of the optical cavity. As a first demonstration, we obtain Ramsey-Raman fringes with >75% contrast and measure the acceleration due to gravity, g, to 60  μg/sqrt[Hz] resolution in a Mach-Zehnder geometry. We use >10(7) cesium atoms in the compact mode volume (600  μm 1/e(2) waist) of the cavity and show trapping of atoms in higher transverse modes. This work paves the way toward compact, high sensitivity, multiaxis interferometry. PMID:25815912

  5. Externally Dispersed Interferometry for Planetary Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D J; Edelstein, J; Harbeck, D; Lloyd, J

    2005-07-06

    We describe a plan to study the radial velocity of low mass stars and brown dwarfs using a combination of interferometry and multichannel dispersive spectroscopy, Externally Dispersed Interferometry (EDI). The EDI technology allows implementation of precision velocimetry and spectroscopy on existing moderate-resolution echelle or linear grating spectrograph over their full and simultaneous bandwidth. We intend to add EDI to the new Cornell TripleSpec infrared simultaneous JHK-band spectrograph at the Palomar Observatory 200'' telescope for a science-demonstration program that will allow a unique Doppler-search for planets orbiting low mass faint M, L and T type stars. The throughput advantage of EDI with a moderate resolution spectrograph is critical to achieving the requisite sensitivity for the low luminosity late L and T dwarfs.

  6. Source-receiver wave field interferometry.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Andrew; Halliday, David

    2010-04-01

    Correlation or convolution of recordings of diffuse fields at a pair of locations have been shown to result in estimates of the Green's function between the two locations. Variously referred to as wave field or seismic interferometry in different fields of research, Green's functions can thus be constructed between either pairs of receivers or pairs of energy sources. Proofs of these results rely on representation theorems. We show how to derive three acoustic and elastic representation theorems that unify existing correlational and convolutional approaches. We thus derive three forms of interferometry that provide Green's functions on source-to-receiver paths, using only energy that has propagated from surrounding sources or to surrounding receivers. The three forms correspond to three possible canonical geometries. We thus allow interferometric theory and methods to be applied to commonly used source-receiver configurations. PMID:20481847

  7. Coherence and interferometry through optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froehly, C.

    Attention is given to the way in which the insertion of optical fibers on the arms of a stellar interferometer modifies the conditions of interference and the intensity patterns in the observation plane. This modification is compared with the usual situation, where the light propagates in the free space between the foci of the telescopes and the detection plane. This problem is considered for both single-mode and multimode fibers and for monochromatic and polychromatic radiation, that is, in 'partially coherent' light. A Fourier analysis is made of the spatiotemporal distortions of the scalar optical field propagating along the fibers; this makes it possible to calculate the complex correlations of the field introduced by the guide. The analysis is begun by considering interferometry through single-mode fibers. Orders of magnitude are given for practical fiber length limitations for white light interferometry, with an allowance made for the usual losses and performances of the fibers and spectroscopic devices commercially available today.

  8. Hidden observables in neutron quantum interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Helmut; Baron, Matthias; Filipp, Stefan; Hasegawa, Yuji; Lemmel, Hartmut; Loidl, Rudolf

    2006-11-01

    Neutron interferometry using monolithic perfect single crystals has become an important tool for fundamental, nuclear, and solid-state physics research. New features of quantum mechanics become measurable by means of neutron interferometry. Such features are quantum phases, which provide a more direct access to properties of wave functions and permit wave function reconstruction, and wave function engineering. Most recently, new experiments concerning off-diagonal and non-cyclic geometrical phases, confinement induced phases, and contextuality related experiments have been performed. These experiments show an intrinsic entanglement of different degrees of freedom of a single particle. Proper post-selection experiments yield to more quantum complete experiments and may help to make quantum mechanics less mystic. Unavoidable quantum losses may play an important role to explain the transition from the quantum to the classical world. All these investigations concern the heart of quantum mechanics and demonstrate the non-local feature of this theory.

  9. Use of interferometry in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Richman, J E; Kozol, N; Crawford, R D

    1989-05-01

    Any procedure that can help to predict the outcome of treatment for a vision disorder is a desired clinical goal. Interferometry has shown such an ability for predicting the post-treatment visual acuities in amblyopia and other vision disorders. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of using interferometry with preschool children, aged 3-5 years. We determined that they can be reliably tested in 5-10 minutes using a non-verbal, forced choice technique. Due to developmental differences, the 3-year-olds needed slightly more time to test and were more variable in their responses than the 4-years-olds. Overall, the prognostic value of interferometer visual acuity measures should be considered for use in preschool children with visual acuity disorders, e.g., amblyopia. PMID:2732416

  10. Station keeping strategy for multiple spacecraft interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decou, Anthony B.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of multiple spacecraft stationkeeping for submillimeter and optical interferometry is examined. A condition for interferometry is that two or more spacecraft must control their relative positions with better than 1 mn accuracy indefinitely in both radial and transverse directions although separated by as much as 1 Km in LEO and 100 Km in GEO. They must also maneuver through a useful area of the U-V plane of an arbitrary astronomical source. The problem is first outlined and a solution which utilizes gravity gradient forces to do most of the work and ion thrusters for additional maneuvering is proposed. All the perturbing forces are shown to be small compared to the ion thruster requirements. An inertial position and attitude control strategy is suggested which utilizes existing or soon to be available sensors and actuators. Finally, the fuel and power system mass requirements are estimated and found to be within reason for a 10 year mission.