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Sample records for neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency

  1. Aminosugar derivatives as potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents.

    PubMed Central

    Karpas, A; Fleet, G W; Dwek, R A; Petursson, S; Namgoong, S K; Ramsden, N G; Jacob, G S; Rademacher, T W

    1988-01-01

    Recent data suggest that aminosugar derivatives which inhibit glycoprotein processing have potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. These inhibitory effects may be due to disruption of cell fusion and subsequent cell-cell transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus. Free virus particles able to bind CD4-positive cells are still produced in the presence of these compounds with only partial reduction of infectivity. We now report a method to score in parallel both the degree of antiviral activity and the effect on cell division of aminosugar derivatives. We find that (i) the compounds 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol and N-(5-carboxymethyl-1-pentyl)-1,5-imino-L-fucitol partially inhibit the cytopathic effect (giant cell formation, etc.) of HIV and yield of infectious virus; (ii) the compounds N-methyldeoxynojirimycin and N-ethyldeoxynojirimycin reduce the yield of infectious HIV by an order of four and three logarithms, respectively; and (iii) one compound, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, of the 47 compounds previously screened reduces infectious viral particles by a logarithmic order greater than five at noncytotoxic concentrations. In addition, long-term growth of infected cells in the presence of N-butyldeoxynojirimycin gradually decreases the proportion of infected cells, leading to eventual elimination of HIV from culture. This result suggests that replication is associated with cytolysis. The ability to break the cycle of replication and reinfection has important implications in the chemotherapy of AIDS. PMID:3264071

  2. Pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus immunoglobulin in persons with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, C V; Goodroad, B K; Cummins, L M; Henry, K; Balfour, H H; Rhame, F S

    1997-01-01

    Hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is an intravenous immunoglobulin prepared from HIV-infected asymptomatic donors with a CD4 cell count greater than 400 cells/microl and a high titer of antibody to HIV-1 p24 protein. Twelve persons with AIDS received four doses of HMG (two at 50 mg/kg of body weight and then two at 200 mg/kg) every 28 days. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated by measurement of anti-p24 antibody. HIVIG was well tolerated, and all participants completed the study. Three subjects who were not receiving Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis developed PCP. The mean value for HIVIG clearance was 3.02 ml/kg/day at 50 mg/kg and 3.65 ml/kg/day at 200 mg/kg (P = 0.027); the mean trough antibody titers (reciprocal units) were 1,442 and 4,428, respectively. This study indicates that high titers of anti-p24 antibody can be maintained with a monthly administration schedule of HIVIG and that short-term safety is acceptable. Comparisons to evaluate the therapeutic potential of HIVIG are justified. PMID:9210687

  3. Neutralization Properties of Simian Immunodeficiency Viruses Infecting Chimpanzees and Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Barbian, Hannah J.; Decker, Julie M.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Galimidi, Rachel P.; West, Anthony P.; Learn, Gerald H.; Parrish, Nicholas F.; Iyer, Shilpa S.; Li, Yingying; Pace, Craig S.; Song, Ruijiang; Huang, Yaoxing; Denny, Thomas N.; Mouquet, Hugo; Martin, Loic; Acharya, Priyamvada; Zhang, Baoshan; Kwong, Peter D.; Mascola, John R.; Verrips, C. Theo; Strokappe, Nika M.; Rutten, Lucy; McCoy, Laura E.; Weiss, Robin A.; Brown, Corrine S.; Jackson, Raven; Silvestri, Guido; Connors, Mark; Burton, Dennis R.; Shaw, George M.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Ho, David D.; Farzan, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (bNabs) represent powerful tools to combat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Here, we examined whether HIV-1-specific bNabs are capable of cross-neutralizing distantly related simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) infecting central (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) (SIVcpzPtt) and eastern (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) (SIVcpzPts) chimpanzees (n = 11) as well as western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (SIVgor) (n = 1). We found that bNabs directed against the CD4 binding site (n = 10), peptidoglycans at the base of variable loop 3 (V3) (n = 5), and epitopes at the interface of surface (gp120) and membrane-bound (gp41) envelope glycoproteins (n = 5) failed to neutralize SIVcpz and SIVgor strains. In addition, apex V2-directed bNabs (n = 3) as well as llama-derived (heavy chain only) antibodies (n = 6) recognizing both the CD4 binding site and gp41 epitopes were either completely inactive or neutralized only a fraction of SIVcpzPtt strains. In contrast, one antibody targeting the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 (10E8), functional CD4 and CCR5 receptor mimetics (eCD4-Ig, eCD4-Igmim2, CD4-218.3-E51, and CD4-218.3-E51-mim2), as well as mono- and bispecific anti-human CD4 (iMab and LM52) and CCR5 (PRO140, PRO140-10E8) receptor antibodies neutralized >90% of SIVcpz and SIVgor strains with low-nanomolar (0.13 to 8.4 nM) potency. Importantly, the latter antibodies blocked virus entry not only in TZM-bl cells but also in Cf2Th cells expressing chimpanzee CD4 and CCR5 and neutralized SIVcpz in chimpanzee CD4+ T cells, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) ranging from 3.6 to 40.5 nM. These findings provide new insight into the protective capacity of anti-HIV-1 bNabs and identify candidates for further development to combat SIVcpz infection. PMID:25900654

  4. Evaluation of a 2-minute anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test using the autologous erythrocyte agglutination technique with populations differing in HIV prevalence.

    PubMed Central

    Sirivichayakul, S; Phanuphak, P; Tanprasert, S; Thanomchat, S; Uneklabh, C; Phutiprawan, T; Mungklavirat, C; Panjurai, Y

    1993-01-01

    A total of 1,800 blood specimens (1,000 from healthy blood donors, 300 from patients with sexually transmitted disease, and 500 from intravenous drug users) were simultaneously tested with anti-human immunodeficiency virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and a newly developed 2-min test for anti-human immunodeficiency virus based on the principle of autologous erythrocyte agglutination (AGEN Biomedical Limited). We found that AGEN's rapid test was as sensitive and specific as the other ELISA kits. PMID:8501246

  5. Multiple Effects of an Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Nucleocapsid Inhibitor on Virus Morphology and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Berthoux, Lionel; Pchoux, Christine; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    1999-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein is a major structural component of the virion core and a key factor involved in proviral DNA synthesis and virus formation. 2,2?-Dithiobenzamides (DIBA-1) and related compounds that are inhibitors of NCp7 are thought to eject zinc ions from NCp7 zinc fingers, inhibiting the maturation of virion proteins. Here, we show that the presence of DIBA-1 at the time of virus formation causes morphological malformations of the virus and reduces proviral DNA synthesis. Thus, it seems that DIBA-1 is responsible for a core-freezing effect, as shown by electron microscopy analyses. DIBA-1 can also directly interfere with the fate of the newly made proviral DNA in a manner independent of its effects on virion core formation. These data strongly suggest that nucleocapsid protein is a prime target for new compounds aimed at inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus and other retroviruses. PMID:10559314

  6. Sophorolipids, Microbial Glycolipids with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Sperm-Immobilizing Activities

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vishal; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Seyoum, Theodoros; Eaton, Kristin M.; Zalenskaya, Irina; Hagver, Rena; Azim, Abul; Gross, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The increased incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS disease in women aged 15 to 49 years has identified the urgent need for a female-controlled, efficacious, and safe vaginal topical microbicide. To meet this challenge, sophorolipid (SL) produced by Candida bombicola and its structural analogs have been studied in this report for their spermicidal, anti-HIV, and cytotoxic activities. The sophorolipid diacetate ethyl ester derivative is the most potent spermicidal and virucidal agent of the series of SLs studied. Its virucidal activity against HIV and sperm-immobilizing activity against human semen are similar to those of nonoxynol-9. However, it also induced enough vaginal cell toxicity to raise concerns about its applicability for long-term microbicidal contraception. Its structure-activity relationship has been established for creating new analogs with less cytotoxicity and higher activity. PMID:16189085

  7. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activities and pharmacokinetics of novel 6-substituted acyclouridine derivatives.

    PubMed Central

    Baba, M; De Clercq, E; Iida, S; Tanaka, H; Nitta, I; Ubasawa, M; Takashima, H; Sekiya, K; Umezu, K; Nakashima, H

    1990-01-01

    The novel 6-substituted acyclouridine derivatives 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-phenylthiothymine (HEPT), 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-(3-methylphenylthio)thymine (HEPT-M), 6-cyclohexylthio-1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy) methyl]thymine (HEPT-H), and 1-[(2-hydroxyethoxy)methyl]-6-phenylthio-2- thiothymine (HEPT-S) have proved to be potent and selective inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in a variety of cell systems, including peripheral blood lymphocytes. They are not inhibitory to the replication of HIV-2. HEPT-S emerged as the most active congener, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 1.6 microM for HIV-1 (human T-cell lymphotropic virus type IIIB) in MT-4 cells. We also examined the pharmacokinetics of the compounds following oral administration to rats. The pharmacokinetic profile varied considerably from one compound to another. The highest concentration in plasma (7.4 micrograms/ml, or 22.8 microM) was achieved by HEPT-S within 30 min after administration of an oral dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight. HEPT-S can be considered a promising candidate for the treatment of HIV-1 infections. PMID:2088190

  8. Analysis of human APOBEC3H haplotypes and anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojun; Abudu, Aierken; Son, Sungmo; Dang, Ying; Venta, Patrick J; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2011-04-01

    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) has one cytidine deaminase domain (CDD) and inhibits the replication of retrotransposons and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a Vif-resistant manner. Human A3H has five single amino acid polymorphisms (N15?, R18L, G105R, K121D, and E178D), and four haplotypes (I to IV) have previously been identified in various human populations. Haplotype II was primarily found in African-derived populations, and it was the only one that could be stably expressed. Here, we identified three new haplotypes from six human population samples, which we have named V, VI, and VII. Haplotypes V and VII are stably expressed and inhibit HIV-1 replication. Notably, haplotype V was identified in samples from all African-, Asian-, and Caucasian-derived populations studied. Using haplotype VII, we investigated the A3H anti-HIV-1 mechanism. We found that A3H virion packaging is independent of its CDD but dependent on a (112)YYXW(115) motif. This motif binds HIV-1 nucleocapsid in an RNA-dependent manner, and a single Y112A mutation completely disrupts A3H virion incorporation. We further studied the mechanism of A3H resistance to Vif. Although the previously identified APOBEC3G Vif-responsive motif (128)DPDY(131) is not conserved in A3H, placement of this motif into A3H does not make it become less resistant to HIV-1 Vif. We conclude that stably expressed A3H haplotypes may be more broadly distributed in humans than previously realized, and A3H protein is resistant to Vif. These results have important implications for the role of A3H in retrotransposon and HIV-1 inhibition. PMID:21270145

  9. Analysis of Human APOBEC3H Haplotypes and Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojun; Abudu, Aierken; Son, SungMo; Dang, Ying; Venta, Patrick J.; Zheng, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Human APOBEC3H (A3H) has one cytidine deaminase domain (CDD) and inhibits the replication of retrotransposons and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in a Vif-resistant manner. Human A3H has five single amino acid polymorphisms (N15?, R18L, G105R, K121D, and E178D), and four haplotypes (I to IV) have previously been identified in various human populations. Haplotype II was primarily found in African-derived populations, and it was the only one that could be stably expressed. Here, we identified three new haplotypes from six human population samples, which we have named V, VI, and VII. Haplotypes V and VII are stably expressed and inhibit HIV-1 replication. Notably, haplotype V was identified in samples from all African-, Asian-, and Caucasian-derived populations studied. Using haplotype VII, we investigated the A3H anti-HIV-1 mechanism. We found that A3H virion packaging is independent of its CDD but dependent on a 112YYXW115 motif. This motif binds HIV-1 nucleocapsid in an RNA-dependent manner, and a single Y112A mutation completely disrupts A3H virion incorporation. We further studied the mechanism of A3H resistance to Vif. Although the previously identified APOBEC3G Vif-responsive motif 128DPDY131 is not conserved in A3H, placement of this motif into A3H does not make it become less resistant to HIV-1 Vif. We conclude that stably expressed A3H haplotypes may be more broadly distributed in humans than previously realized, and A3H protein is resistant to Vif. These results have important implications for the role of A3H in retrotransposon and HIV-1 inhibition. PMID:21270145

  10. Unique intracellular activation of the potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent 1592U89.

    PubMed Central

    Faletto, M B; Miller, W H; Garvey, E P; St Clair, M H; Daluge, S M; Good, S S

    1997-01-01

    The anabolism of 1592U89, (-)-(1S,4R)-4-[2-amino-6-(cyclopropylamino)-9H-purin-9-yl]-2-cyclo pentene-1-methanol, a selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), was characterized in human T-lymphoblastoid CD4+ CEM cells. 1592U89 was ultimately anabolized to the triphosphate (TP) of the guanine analog (-)-carbovir (CBV), a potent inhibitor of HIV reverse transcriptase. However, less than 2% of intracellular 1592U89 was converted to CBV, an amount insufficient to account for the CBV-TP levels observed. 1592U89 was anabolized to its 5'-monophosphate (MP) by the recently characterized enzyme adenosine phosphotransferase, but neither its diphosphate (DP) nor its TP was detected. The MP, DP, and TP of CBV were found in cells incubated with either 1592U89 or CBV, with CBV-TP being the major phosphorylated species. We confirmed that CBV is phosphorylated by 5'-nucleotidase and that mycophenolic acid increased the formation of CBV-TP from CBV 75-fold. However, mycophenolic acid did not stimulate 1592U89 anabolism to CBV-TP. The adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) did not inhibit CBV-TP formation from CBV or 1592U89, whereas the adenylate deaminase inhibitor 2'-deoxycoformycin selectively inhibited 1592U89 anabolism to CBV-TP and reversed the antiviral activity of 1592U89. 1592U89-MP was not a substrate for adenylate deaminase but was a substrate for a distinct cytosolic deaminase that was inhibited by 2'-deoxycoformycin-5'-MP. Thus, 1592U89 is phosphorylated by adenosine phosphotransferase to 1592U89-MP, which is converted by a novel cytosolic enzyme to CBV-MP. CBV-MP is then further phosphorylated to CBV-TP by cellular kinases. This unique activation pathway enables 1592U89 to overcome the pharmacokinetic and toxicological deficiencies of CBV while maintaining potent and selective anti-HIV activity. PMID:9145876

  11. Characterization of Human Class-Switched Polymeric (Immunoglobulin M [IgM] and IgA) Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibodies 2F5 and 2G12

    PubMed Central

    Wolbank, Susanne; Kunert, Renate; Stiegler, Gabriela; Katinger, Hermann

    2003-01-01

    We have previously generated human monoclonal anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (anti-HIV-1) antibodies 2F5IgG and 2G12IgG with an exceptional cross-clade neutralizing potential. 2F5IgG and 2G12IgG passively administrated to macaques were able to confer complete protection from both intravenous and mucosal challenge with pathogenic HIV-simian immunodeficiency virus chimeric strains and have shown beneficial effects in a phase-1 clinical trial. We now class-switched 2F5 and 2G12 to the immunoglobulin M (IgM) or IgA isotype, to enforce features like avidity, complement activation, or the potential to neutralize mucosal transmission. For this purpose we expressed functional polymeric 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies in CHO cells and evaluated their anti-HIV-1 activity in vitro. The class switch had a strong impact on the protective potential of 2F5 and 2G12. 2G12IgM inhibited HIV-1 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures up to 28-fold-more efficiently than the corresponding IgG and neutralized all of the primary isolates tested. The 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies of all isotypes were able to interact with active human serum to inhibit viral infection. Furthermore, we demonstrated that polymeric 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies but not the corresponding IgGs could interfere with HIV-1 entry across a mucosal epithelial layer in vitro. Although polymeric 2F5 antibodies had only limited potential in the standard neutralization assay, the results from the mucosal assay suggest that 2F5 and 2G12 antibodies may have a high potential to prevent natural HIV-1 transmission in vivo. PMID:12634368

  12. Characterization of a novel anti-human TNF-α murine monoclonal antibody with high binding affinity and neutralizing activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Moo-Young; Park, Sang-Koo; Kim, Chang-Suk; Yoo, Tae Hyoung; Kim, Bongtae; Kim, Min-Soo; Kim, Yong-Sung; Kwag, Won Jae; Lee, Byung-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop an anti-human TNF-α mAb, mice were immunized with recombinant human TNF-α. A murine mAb, TSK114, which showed the highest binding activity for human TNF-α was selected and characterized. TSK114 specifically bound to human TNF-α without cross-reactivity with the homologous murine TNF-α and human TNF-β. TSK114 was found to be of IgG1 isotype with κ light chain. The nucleotide sequences of the variable regions of TSK114 heavy and light chains were determined and analyzed for the usage of gene families for the variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments. Kinetic analysis of TSK114 binding to human TNF-α by surface plasmon resonance technique revealed a binding affinity (KD) of ~5.3 pM, which is about 1,000- and 100-fold higher than those of clinically relevant infliximab (Remicade) and adalimumab (Humira) mAbs, espectively. TSK114 neutralized human TNF-α-mediated cytotoxicity in proportion to the concentration, exhibiting about 4-fold greater efficiency than those of infliximab and adalimumab in WEHI 164 cells used as an in vitro model system. These results suggest that TSK114 has the potential to be developed into a therapeutic TNF-α-neutralizing antibody with picomolar affinity. PMID:18305396

  13. In vitro drug combination of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyl-E-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil with anti-human immunodeficiency virus or anticancer nucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Machida, H; Ashida, N; Ikeda, T; Sakata, S; Baba, M; Shigeta, S

    1992-01-01

    1-beta-D-Arabinofuranosyl-E-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil (BV-araU) and E-5-(2-bromovinyl)uracil, a metabolite of BV-araU, did not affect either the anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity or the cytotoxicity of azidothymidine in MT-4 and MOLT-4 cells. Similarly, the bromovinyl compounds did not affect the in vitro antitumor activities of arabinosylcytosine, 5-fluorouracil, and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine. The anti-varicella-zoster virus activity of BV-araU was not influenced by azidothymidine, 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine, or arabinosylcytosine, whereas relatively high concentrations of fluorinated antitumor agents enhanced the anti-varicella-zoster virus activity. PMID:1317147

  14. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus synergism by zidovudine (3'-azidothymidine) and didanosine (dideoxyinosine) contrasts with their additive inhibition of normal human marrow progenitor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Dornsife, R E; St Clair, M H; Huang, A T; Panella, T J; Koszalka, G W; Burns, C L; Averett, D R

    1991-01-01

    The anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and hemopoietic toxicity of zidovudine (AZT) and didanosine (dideoxyinosine;ddI), alone and in combination, were assessed in a variety of cell types. AZT was more potent than ddI as an inhibitor of HIV in vitro. Synergistic inhibition of HIV by the combination of these agents was observed in MT4 cells, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and macrophages. Toxicity assessment in vitro by using progenitor (erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage) colony-forming assays with normal human bone marrow showed ddI to be less toxic than AZT. Addition of inhibitory concentrations of ddI to AZT resulted in additive inhibition of progenitor CFUs. These in vitro findings suggest that combinations of ddI and AZT at appropriately modified doses may provide an enhanced degree of selectivity in anti-HIV chemotherapy. PMID:1708977

  15. Neutralizing antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Tozzini, F; Matteucci, D; Bandecchi, P; Baldinotti, F; Siebelink, K; Osterhaus, A; Bendinelli, M

    1993-01-01

    Sera from cats experimentally infected with five isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from various geographical regions and from FIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-seropositive field cats from four European countries neutralized the Petaluma strain of FIV (FIV-P), originally isolated in California, at high titers. In addition, FIV-P and a European isolate proved equally susceptible to neutralization by all sera tested. Coupled with observations by Fevereiro et al. (M. Fevereiro, C. Roneker, A. Laufs, L. Tavares, and F. de Noronha, J. Gen. Virol. 72:617-622, 1991), these findings indicate that most if not all FIV strains circulating in Europe and the United States share important neutralization-inducing epitopes. PMID:7686186

  16. Neutralization sensitivity of cell culture-passaged simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Means, R E; Greenough, T; Desrosiers, R C

    1997-01-01

    CEMx174- and C8166-45-based cell lines which contain a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter gene under the control of a tat-responsive promoter derived from either SIVmac239 or HIV-1(NL4-3) were constructed. Basal levels of SEAP activity from these cell lines were low but were greatly stimulated upon transfection of tat expression plasmids. Infection of these cell lines with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) resulted in a dramatic increase in SEAP production within 48 to 72 h that directly correlated with the amount of infecting virus. When combined with chemiluminescent measurement of SEAP activity in the cell-free supernatant, these cells formed the basis of a rapid, sensitive, and quantitative assay for SIV and HIV infectivity and neutralization. Eight of eight primary isolates of HIV-1 that were tested induced readily measurable SEAP activity in this system. While serum neutralization of cloned SIVmac239 was difficult to detect with other assays, neutralization of SIVmac239 was readily detected at low titers with this new assay system. The neutralization sensitivities of two stocks of SIVmac251 with different cell culture passage histories were tested by using sera from SIV-infected monkeys. The primary stock of SIVmac251 had been passaged only twice through primary cultures of rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells, while the laboratory-adapted stock had been extensively passaged through the MT4 immortalized T-cell line. The primary stock of SIVmac251 was much more resistant to neutralization by a battery of polyclonal sera from SIV-infected monkeys than was the laboratory-adapted virus. Thus, SIVmac appears to be similar to HIV-1 in that extensive laboratory passage through T-cell lines resulted in a virus that is much more sensitive to serum neutralization. PMID:9311879

  17. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 antibody titers in injection drug users compared to sexually infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Bongertz, Vera; Ouverney, Elaine Priscilla; Teixeira, Sylvia L M; Silva-de-Jesus, Carlos; Hacker, Mariana A; Morgado, Mariza G; Bastos, Francisco I

    2003-03-01

    Sera from infected injection drug users (IDU) have shown to have antibodies against synthetic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) envelope peptides more frequently. In this study, reactivity of 48 IDU plasma were compared to 60 plasmas obtained from sexually infected individuals (S). The overall reactivity of plasma from IDU compared to S was higher, and the reactivity titers were much higher for IDU plasma than S. IDU plasma also showed a broader antibody response. The higher reactivity titers were observed mainly for the gp41 immunodominant epitope and V3 peptides corresponding to the consensus sequences of HIV-1 subtypes/variants prevalent in Brazil (B, F, C) indicating the specificity in the higher immune response of IDU. PMID:12764435

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus neutralizing antibodies recognize several conserved domains on the envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D D; Sarngadharan, M G; Hirsch, M S; Schooley, R T; Rota, T R; Kennedy, R C; Chanh, T C; Sato, V L

    1987-01-01

    Serum neutralizing antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus were frequently detected in infected individuals, and low or absent serum neutralizing titers correlated with poor prognosis. Multiple diverse human immunodeficiency virus isolates were found to exhibit similar susceptibility to neutralization by a panel of human seropositive sera, suggesting that neutralizing antibodies are largely directed against conserved viral domains. Furthermore, utilizing antisera raised against a library of synthetic env peptides, four regions which are important in the neutralization process have been identified within both human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins (gp41 and gp120). Three of these are in conserved domains and should be considered for inclusion in a candidate vaccine. Images PMID:2437327

  19. Synergistic anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 effect of hydroxamate compounds with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine in infected resting human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Malley, S D; Grange, J M; Hamedi-Sangsari, F; Vila, J R

    1994-01-01

    The cellular models generally used in the in vitro evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus compounds are dividing cells. A model constituted by resting lymphocytes may more accurately reflect a drug's future efficacy in humans, since viral DNA synthesis is known to take place in quiescent cells, creating a reservoir of infected cells awaiting activation to complete their viral replication cycle and to produce infectious virions. We report here the activity of 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, and two hydroxamates, D-aspartic acid beta-hydroxamate and hydroxycarbamate (hydroxyurea), alone and in various combinations, in an in vitro model based on resting lymphocytes. In our model, resting peripheral blood lymphocytes were infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and treated with drugs for 7 days, at which time drugs were removed and the cells were activated by phytohemagglutinin. We show that under these conditions 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine, 2',3'-dideoxyinosine, and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, alone or in combination, neither fully inhibit viral production nor protect lymphocytes from the cytopathic effect of viral replication, at concentrations corresponding to the peak plasma levels observed in a typical treatment schedule in humans. In contrast, we report the synergistic effect of treatment by each hydroxamate with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine of infected resting lymphocytes, resulting in the total suppression of viral production, total protection against the cytopathic effect induced by viral replication, and no effect on the ability of the cells to replicate in this cell culture system. PMID:7972000

  20. Lack of enhancing effect of human anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody on HIV-1 infection of human blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Shadduck, P P; Weinberg, J B; Haney, A F; Bartlett, J A; Langlois, A J; Bolognesi, D P; Matthews, T J

    1991-01-01

    The influence of human anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody on HIV-1 infection of freshly isolated normal human peritoneal macrophages and blood monocytes was examined. Each of 14 HIV antibody-positive human serum samples was found to block the infection of four virus isolates (human T-cell lymphotropic virus type IIIBa-L [HTLV-IIIBa-L], HTLV-IIIB, D.U. 6587-7, and D.U. 7887-8) at serum dilutions ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-2). Three of these isolates (HTLV-IIIBa-L, D.U. 6587-7, and D.U. 7887-8) infected cultures of monocytes and macrophages rapidly and produced high levels of virus reverse transcriptase and p24 antigen. A fourth virus isolate (HTLV-IIIB) infected the monocytes and macrophages more slowly and produced low levels of viral protein. More dilute HIV antibody-positive sera had no significant effect on the overall level or rate of virus infection or expression. Complement did not appear to influence the course of infection by any combination of antisera or virus examined. Successful HIV-1 infection of the peritoneal macrophages and blood monocytes under the conditions tested showed strict dependence on CD4 since a recombinant CD4 polypeptide and an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody effectively blocked the process. Images PMID:1712861

  1. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus-gag CD8+ memory T cells generated in vitro from Listeria-immunized mice

    PubMed Central

    Rayevskaya, Marina; Kushnir, Natasha; Frankel, Fred R

    2003-01-01

    The goal of vaccination is the generation of immune memory, an immune state that permits rapid and intense recall responses to a pathogen. Considerable effort is being made to understand the nature of memory T cells. We report here that by extending the length of in vitro culture following a single restimulation with specific peptide, preparations of highly enriched, highly active antigen-specific CD8+ memory T cells could be obtained. These cultures were begun with splenocytes from mice primed by infection either with an attenuated strain of Listeria monocytogenes or vaccinia virus, both expressing the human immunodeficiency virus-1-gag gene. In the cultures, antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity reached a maximum at about 9 days and thereafter fell to negligible values. Concomitant with the fall of CTL activity, however, we observed enrichment for a subset of CD11ahigh antigen-specific gag-tetramerpos CD8+ T cells. The cells showed little or no 4-hr CTL activity, but had high delayed (18-hr) CTL activity, and very high cytolytic activity after restimulation. They rapidly expressed interferon-? production. Their growth and survival after sorting was completely dependent on interleukin-2 or -15. As few as 5000 of the fluorescence-activated cell sorting-purified cells protected recipients against challenge 3 months after transfer. In response to the challenge, the cells repopulated lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs and showed a sizeable increase in number. The cells therefore demonstrate high protective activity for long periods of time. These cultured cells are thus a potential source of enriched natural memory T cells for reperfusion studies and in which the mechanisms that underlie the generation, differentiation and persistence of memory can be examined. PMID:12807492

  2. Toxicity, inflammation, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity following exposure to chemical moieties of C31G.

    PubMed

    Catalone, Bradley J; Miller, Shendra R; Ferguson, Mary Lee; Malamud, Dan; Kish-Catalone, Tina; Thakkar, Nina J; Krebs, Fred C; Howett, Mary K; Wigdahl, Brian

    2005-09-01

    C31G, which has potent activity against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and an established record of safety in animal studies and human trials, is a microbicidal agent comprised of a buffered equimolar mixture of two amphoteric, surface-active agents: an alkyl amine oxide (C14AO) and an alkyl betaine (C16B). Studies of long-term in vitro exposure to C31G and its constituents have suggested that the components of C31G may contribute differentially to its toxicity and efficacy. In the present studies, in vitro assays of cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 activity demonstrated that C16B was slightly less cytotoxic compared to either C31G or C14AO, whereas the anti-HIV-1 activities of C31G and its individual constituents were similar. In the murine model of cervicovaginal microbicide toxicity, in vivo exposure to C14AO resulted in severe cervical inflammation followed by a delayed disruption of the columnar epithelium. In contrast, exposure to C16B caused severe cervical epithelial disruption and a secondary, less intense inflammatory response. These results demonstrate that (i) there are both mechanistic and temporal differences in toxicity associated with the components of C31G not necessarily predicted by in vitro assessments of cytotoxicity and (ii) contributions of each component to the anti-HIV-1 activity of C31G appear to be equal. In addition, these findings indicate that direct and indirect mechanisms of in vivo toxicity can be observed as separate but interrelated events. These results provide further insight into the activity of C31G, as well as mechanisms potentially associated with microbicide toxicity. PMID:16154721

  3. 5-Chloro-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluorouridine (935U83), a selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus agent with an improved metabolic and toxicological profile.

    PubMed Central

    Daluge, S M; Purifoy, D J; Savina, P M; St Clair, M H; Parry, N R; Dev, I K; Novak, P; Ayers, K M; Reardon, J E; Roberts, G B

    1994-01-01

    5-Chloro-2',3'-dideoxy-3'-fluorouridine (935U83) is a selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agent. When tested in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes against fresh clinical isolates of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) obtained from patients naive to AZT (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine [zidovudine]), 935U83 inhibited virus growth with an average 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.8 microM; corresponding IC50s were 0.10 microM for FLT (3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine) and 0.23, 0.49, and 0.03 microM for the approved agents AZT, ddI (2',3'-dideoxyinosine), and ddC (2',3'-dideoxycytosine), respectively. Importantly, 935U83 retained activity against HIV strains that were resistant to AZT, ddI, or ddC. Of additional interest, we were unable to generate virus which was resistant to 935U83 by passaging either HXB2 (AZT-sensitive) or RTMC (AZT-resistant) strains in the presence of high concentrations of 935U83. The anabolic profile of 935U83 was similar to that of AZT, and 935U83 triphosphate was a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Pharmacokinetic evaluation showed good oral bioavailability (86% in mice and 60% in monkeys) and less extensive metabolism to the glucuronide relative to AZT. 935U83 showed low toxicity. In an in vitro assay for toxicity to a human erythrocyte progenitor, erythroid burst-forming unit (BFU-E), the IC50 for 935U83 (> 400 microM) was more than 1,000-fold those of FLT (0.07 microM) and AZT (0.30 microM). Mild reversible reductions in erythrocytes and associated parameters were seen in mice dosed orally with 2,000 mg of 935U83 per kg per day for 1 and 6 months. In monkeys dosed orally with up to 700 mg/kg/day for 1 and 6 months, the only possible treatment-related finding was cataracts in 1 of 12 animals given the intermediate dose of 225 mg/kg/day. At the highest doses in mice and monkeys, maximal concentrations in plasma were more than 100-fold the anti-HIV IC50s against clinical isolates. This safety profile in animals compares very favorably with that of any of the anti-HIV drugs approved to date and has led us to begin evaluation of 935U83 in patients with HIV infection. PMID:7526782

  4. A monoclonal antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 which mediates cellular cytotoxicity and neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Broliden, P A; Ljunggren, K; Hinkula, J; Norrby, E; Akerblom, L; Wahren, B

    1990-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120. One MAb, P4/D10, was found to mediate highly efficient antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and virus neutralization. The reactivity was located to a major neutralizing region (amino acids 304 to 323) on gp120. Five other MAbs with a similar epitopic reactivity did not show any antibody-dependent cellulan cytotoxicity activity but had a virus-neutralizing capacity. PMID:2296090

  5. Molecular basis of in vitro affinity maturation and functional evolution of a neutralizing anti-human GM-CSF antibody.

    PubMed

    Eylenstein, Roy; Weinfurtner, Daniel; Hrtle, Stefan; Strohner, Ralf; Bttcher, Jark; Augustin, Martin; Ostendorp, Ralf; Steidl, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    X-ray structure analysis of 4 antibody Fab fragments, each in complex with human granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), was performed to investigate the changes at the protein-protein binding interface during the course of in vitro affinity maturation by phage display selection. The parental antibody MOR03929 was compared to its derivatives MOR04252 (CDR-H2 optimized), MOR04302 (CDR-L3 optimized) and MOR04357 (CDR-H2 and CDR-L3 optimized). All antibodies bind to a conformational epitope that can be divided into 3 sub-epitopes. Specifically, MOR04357 binds to a region close to the GM-CSF N-terminus (residues 11-24), a short second sub-epitope (residues 83-89) and a third at the C-terminus (residues 112-123). Modifications introduced during affinity maturation in CDR-H2 and CDR-L3 led to the establishment of additional hydrogen bonds and van der Waals contacts, respectively, providing a rationale for the observed improvement in binding affinity and neutralization potency. Once GM-CSF is complexed to the antibodies, modeling predicts a sterical clash with GM-CSF binding to GM-CSF receptor ? and ? chain. This predicted mutually exclusive binding was confirmed by a GM-CSF receptor ? chain ligand binding inhibition assay. Finally, high throughput sequencing of clones obtained after affinity maturation phage display pannings revealed highly selected consensus sequences for CDR-H2 as well for CDR-L3, which are in accordance with the sequence of the highest affinity antibody MOR04357. The resolved crystal structures highlight the criticality of these strongly selected residues for high affinity interaction with GM-CSF. PMID:26406987

  6. Regiospecific synthesis and anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of novel 5-substituted N-alkylcarbamoyl and N,N-dialkylcarbamoyl 1,2,3-triazole-TSAO analogues.

    PubMed

    Velzquez, S; Alvarez, R; Prez, C; Gago, F; De Clercq, E; Balzarini, J; Camarasa, M J

    1998-11-01

    Several 5-N-alkyl and 5-N,N-dialkylcarbamoyl substituted analogues of the anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 lead compound [1-[2',5'-bis-O-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-D-ribofuranosyl]-5- (N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-1,2,3-triazole]-3'-spiro-5"-(4"-amino-1",2"- oxathiole-2",2"-dioxide) have been prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of HIV-1 replication. A new regiospecific synthetic procedure is described. The compounds were prepared by cycloaddition of the appropriate glycosylazide to 2-oxoalkylidentriphenyl-phosphoranes, followed by treatment with primary or secondary amines, to yield, exclusively, 5-substituted 1,2,3-triazole-TSAO analogues. Several 5-substituted 1,2,3-triazole-TSAO derivatives proved to be potent inhibitors of HIV-1 replication with higher antiviral selectivity than that of the parent TSAO prototype. PMID:9865386

  7. Chimpanzees Immunized with Recombinant Soluble CD4 Develop Anti-Self CD4 Antibody Responses with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Boyson, Jonathan E.; Lord, Carol I.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1992-06-01

    In view of the efficiency with which human immunodeficiency virus replication can be blocked in vitro with anti-CD4 antibodies, the elicitation of an anti-CD4 antibody response through active immunization might represent a useful therapeutic strategy for AIDS. Here we demonstrate that immunization of chimpanzees with recombinant soluble human CD4 elicited an anti-CD4 antibody response. The elicited antibody bound self CD4 on digitonin-treated but not freshly isolated lymphocytes. Nevertheless, this antibody blocked human immunodeficiency virus replication in chimpanzee and human lymphocytes. These observations suggest that immunization with recombinant soluble CD4 from human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans may be feasible and therapeutically beneficial.

  8. ARG098, a novel anti-human Fas antibody, suppresses synovial hyperplasia and prevents cartilage destruction in a severe combined immunodeficient-HuRAg mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The anti-human Fas/APO-1/CD95 (Fas) mouse/human chimeric monoclonal IgM antibody ARG098 (ARG098) targets the human Fas molecule. The cytotoxic effects of ARG098 on cells isolated from RA patients, on normal cells in vitro, and on RA synovial tissue and cartilage in vivo using implanted rheumatoid tissues in an SCID mouse model (SCID-HuRAg) were investigated to examine the potential of ARG098 as a therapy for RA. Methods ARG098 binding to each cell was analyzed by cytometry. The effects of ARG098 on several cells were assessed by a cell viability assay in vitro. Effects on the RA synovium, lymphocytes, and cartilage were assessed in vivo using the SCID-HuRAg mouse model. Results ARG098 bound to cell surface Fas molecules, and induced apoptosis in Fas-expressing RA synoviocytes and infiltrating lymphocytes in the RA synovium in a dose-dependent manner. However, ARG098 did not affect the cell viability of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of RA patients or normal chondrocytes. ARG098 also induced apoptosis in RA synoviocytes and infiltrating lymphocytes in the RA synovium in vivo. The destruction of cartilage due to synovial invasion was inhibited by ARG098 injection in the modified SCID-HuRAg mouse model. Conclusions ARG098 treatment suppressed RA synovial hyperplasia through the induction of apoptosis and prevented cartilage destruction in vivo. These results suggest that ARG098 might become a new therapy for RA. PMID:20875116

  9. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus effects of dextran sulfate are strain dependent and synergistic or antagonistic when dextran sulfate is given in combination with dideoxynucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Busso, M E; Resnick, L

    1990-01-01

    The effects of three molecular weight ranges of dextran sulfate on five different human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates (from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), alone and in combination with dideoxynucleosides, were investigated in vitro. The higher the molecular weight range of dextran sulfate, the more potent the activity as assessed by a quantitative syncytium formation assay. Although all five HIV isolates had similar susceptibilities to the inhibitory effects of dideoxynucleosides, the two clinical isolates of HIV (HIV type 1 [HIV-1] TM and SP) exhibited a pattern of reduced susceptibility to dextran sulfate when compared with the two cloned isolates (HIV-1 WMF and HIV-2 ROD) and a prototype laboratory strain (HIV-1 IIIB). In combination with dideoxynucleosides, the high-molecular-weight range of dextran sulfate (500,000) resulted in an antagonistic response directed against the two clinical isolates of HIV (HIV-1 TM and SP) when the antiviral concentrations of dextran sulfate were in the ineffective range. Additive or synergistic effects were seen with the other three HIV isolates and all five HIV isolates when the low-molecular-weight range of dextran sulfate (8,000) was used. The results of these studies raise issues on the impact of drug-resistant strains on disease progression and the use of dextran sulfate in combination with nucleoside analogs for the clinical management of HIV disease. PMID:2291665

  10. The Phthalocyanine Prototype Derivative Alcian Blue Is the First Synthetic Agent with Selective Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Activity Due to Its gp120 Glycan-Binding Potential?

    PubMed Central

    Franois, Katrien O.; Pannecouque, Christophe; Auwerx, Joeri; Lozano, Virginia; Prez-Prez, Maria-Jsus; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Alcian Blue (AB), a phthalocyanine derivative, is able to prevent infection by a wide spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus strains in various cell types [T cells, (co)receptor-transfected cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells]. With the exception of herpes simplex virus, AB is inactive against a broad variety of other (DNA and RNA) viruses. Time-of-addition studies show that AB prevents HIV-1 infection at the virus entry stage, exactly at the same time as carbohydrate-binding agents do. AB also efficiently prevents fusion between persistently HIV-1-infected HUT-78 cells and uninfected (CD4+) lymphocytes, DC-SIGN-directed HIV-1 capture, and subsequent transmission to uninfected (CD4+) T lymphocytes. Prolonged passaging of HIV-1 at dose-escalating concentrations of AB resulted in the selection of mutant virus strains in which several N-glycans of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope were deleted and in which positively charged amino acid mutations in both gp120 and gp41 appeared. A mutant virus strain in which four N-glycans were deleted showed a 10-fold decrease in sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of AB. These data suggest that AB is likely endowed with carbohydrate-binding properties and can be considered an important lead compound in the development of novel synthetic nonpeptidic antiviral drugs targeting the glycans of the envelope of HIV. PMID:19721061

  11. Strain-specific neutralizing determinant in the transmembrane protein of simian immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, T; Burns, D P; Silva, D P; Veronese, F D; Desrosiers, R C

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody SF8/5E11, which recognizes the transmembrane protein (TMP) of simian immunodeficiency virus of macaque monkeys (SIVmac), displayed strict strain specificity. It reacted with cloned and uncloned SIVmac251 but not with cloned SIVmac142 and SIVmac239 on immunoblots. This monoclonal antibody neutralized infection by cloned, cell-free SIVmac251 and inhibited formation of syncytia by cloned SIVmac251-infected cells; these activities were specific to cloned SIVmac251 and did not occur with the other viruses. Site-specific mutagenesis was used to show that TMP amino acids 106 to 110 (Asp-Trp-Asn-Asn-Asp) determined the strain specificity of the monoclonal antibody. This strain-specific neutralizing determinant is located within a variable region of SIVmac and human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) which includes conserved, clustered sites for N-linked glycosylation. The determinant corresponds exactly to a variable, weak neutralizing epitope in HIV-1 TMP which also includes conserved, clustered sites for N-linked glycosylation. Thus, the location of at least one neutralizing epitope appears to be common to both SIVmac and HIV-1. Our results suggest a role for this determinant in the viral entry process. Genetic variation was observed in this neutralizing determinant following infection of a rhesus monkey with molecularly cloned SIVmac239; variant forms of the strain-specific, neutralizing determinant accumulated during persistent infection in vivo. Selective pressure from the host immune response in vivo may result in sequence variation in this neutralizing determinant. Images PMID:1705994

  12. Principal neutralizing domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein.

    PubMed Central

    Javaherian, K; Langlois, A J; McDanal, C; Ross, K L; Eckler, L I; Jellis, C L; Profy, A T; Rusche, J R; Bolognesi, D P; Putney, S D

    1989-01-01

    The principal neutralizing determinant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is located in the external envelope protein, gp120, and has previously been mapped to a 24-amino acid-long sequence (denoted RP135). We show here that deletion of this sequence renders the envelope unable to elicit neutralizing antibodies. In addition, using synthetic peptide fragments of RP135, we have mapped the neutralizing determinant to 8 amino acids and found that a peptide of this size elicits neutralizing antibodies. This sequence contains a central Gly-Pro-Gly that is generally conserved between different HIV-1 isolates and is flanked by amino acids that differ from isolate to isolate. Antibodies elicited by peptides from one isolate do not neutralize two different isolates, and a hybrid peptide, consisting of amino acid sequences from two isolates, elicits neutralizing antibodies to both isolates. By using a mixture of peptides of this domain or a mixture of such hybrid peptides the type-specificity of the neutralizing antibody response to this determinant can perhaps be overcome. Images PMID:2771954

  13. Mature Dendritic Cells Infected with Canarypox Virus Elicit Strong Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus CD8+ and CD4+ T-Cell Responses from Chronically Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Engelmayer, Jose; Larsson, Marie; Lee, Andrew; Lee, Marina; Cox, William I.; Steinman, Ralph M.; Bhardwaj, Nina

    2001-01-01

    Recombinant canarypox virus vectors containing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences are promising vaccine candidates, as they replicate poorly in human cells. However, when delivered intramuscularly the vaccines have induced inconsistent and in some cases transient antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses in seronegative volunteers. An attractive way to enhance these responses would be to target canarypox virus to professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs). We studied (i) the interaction between canarypox virus and DCs and (ii) the T-cell responses induced by DCs infected with canarypox virus vectors containing HIV-1 genes. Mature and not immature DCs resisted the cytopathic effects of canarypox virus and elicited strong effector CD8+ T-cell responses from chronically infected HIV+ individuals, e.g., cytolysis, and secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and β-chemokines. Furthermore, canarypox virus-infected DCs were >30-fold more efficient than monocytes and induced responses that were comparable to those induced by vaccinia virus vectors or peptides. Addition of exogenous cytokines was not necessary to elicit CD8+ effector cells, although the presence of CD4+ T cells was required for their expansion and maintenance. Most strikingly, canarypox virus-infected DCs were directly able to stimulate HIV-specific, IFN-γ-secreting CD4 helper responses from bulk as well as purified CD4+ T cells. Therefore, these results suggest that targeting canarypox virus vectors to mature DCs could potentially elicit both anti-HIV CD8+ and CD4+ helper responses in vivo. PMID:11160718

  14. Induction of humoral and cell-mediated anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) responses in HIV sero-negative volunteers by immunization with recombinant gp160.

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, J A; Vasudevachari, M B; Easter, M; Davey, R T; Falloon, J; Polis, M A; Metcalf, J A; Salzman, N; Baseler, M; Smith, G E

    1993-01-01

    Development of an effective vaccine for prevention of infection with HIV would provide an important mechanism for controlling the AIDS epidemic. In the current study, the first clinical trial of a candidate HIV-1 vaccine initiated in the United States, the safety and immunogenicity of escalating doses (10-1,280 micrograms) of recombinant gp160 (rgp160), were evaluated in 138 HIV-negative volunteers. Maximal antibody responses, as evaluated by ELISA, were seen after immunization with three doses of 1,280 micrograms rgp160. Responses to some specific epitopes of HIV gp160, including the second conserved domain and the CD4 binding site, were seen more frequently than after natural infection. Neutralizing antibodies to the homologous HIV strain, but not heterologous strains, were induced by this regimen. Blastogenic responses to rgp160 were seen in most volunteers receiving at least two doses of > or = 20 micrograms. These envelope-specific T cell responses were also seen against heterologous strains of HIV. No major adverse reactions were seen after immunization. Thus, rgp160 is a safe and immunogenic candidate HIV vaccine; further studies are needed to determine if it will provide any clinical benefit in preventing HIV infection. Images PMID:7688766

  15. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a Potent, Orally Bioavailable, and Selective Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Chemokine Receptor CCR5 with Broad-Spectrum Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos

    2005-01-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades and diverse geographic origin (geometric mean 90% inhibitory concentration of 2.0 nM). Maraviroc was active against 200 clinically derived HIV-1 envelope-recombinant pseudoviruses, 100 of which were derived from viruses resistant to existing drug classes. There was little difference in the sensitivity of the 200 viruses to maraviroc, as illustrated by the biological cutoff in this assay (= geometric mean plus two standard deviations [SD] of 1.7-fold). The mechanism of action of maraviroc was established using cell-based assays, where it blocked binding of viral envelope, gp120, to CCR5 to prevent the membrane fusion events necessary for viral entry. Maraviroc did not affect CCR5 cell surface levels or associated intracellular signaling, confirming it as a functional antagonist of CCR5. Maraviroc has no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity and is highly selective for CCR5, as confirmed against a wide range of receptors and enzymes, including the hERG ion channel (50% inhibitory concentration, >10 ?M), indicating potential for an excellent clinical safety profile. Studies in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models predicted maraviroc to have human pharmacokinetics consistent with once- or twice-daily dosing following oral administration. Clinical trials are ongoing to further investigate the potential of using maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and AIDS. PMID:16251317

  16. Maraviroc (UK-427,857), a potent, orally bioavailable, and selective small-molecule inhibitor of chemokine receptor CCR5 with broad-spectrum anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Dorr, Patrick; Westby, Mike; Dobbs, Susan; Griffin, Paul; Irvine, Becky; Macartney, Malcolm; Mori, Julie; Rickett, Graham; Smith-Burchnell, Caroline; Napier, Carolyn; Webster, Rob; Armour, Duncan; Price, David; Stammen, Blanda; Wood, Anthony; Perros, Manos

    2005-11-01

    Maraviroc (UK-427,857) is a selective CCR5 antagonist with potent anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity and favorable pharmacological properties. Maraviroc is the product of a medicinal chemistry effort initiated following identification of an imidazopyridine CCR5 ligand from a high-throughput screen of the Pfizer compound file. Maraviroc demonstrated potent antiviral activity against all CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses tested, including 43 primary isolates from various clades and diverse geographic origin (geometric mean 90% inhibitory concentration of 2.0 nM). Maraviroc was active against 200 clinically derived HIV-1 envelope-recombinant pseudoviruses, 100 of which were derived from viruses resistant to existing drug classes. There was little difference in the sensitivity of the 200 viruses to maraviroc, as illustrated by the biological cutoff in this assay (= geometric mean plus two standard deviations [SD] of 1.7-fold). The mechanism of action of maraviroc was established using cell-based assays, where it blocked binding of viral envelope, gp120, to CCR5 to prevent the membrane fusion events necessary for viral entry. Maraviroc did not affect CCR5 cell surface levels or associated intracellular signaling, confirming it as a functional antagonist of CCR5. Maraviroc has no detectable in vitro cytotoxicity and is highly selective for CCR5, as confirmed against a wide range of receptors and enzymes, including the hERG ion channel (50% inhibitory concentration, >10 microM), indicating potential for an excellent clinical safety profile. Studies in preclinical in vitro and in vivo models predicted maraviroc to have human pharmacokinetics consistent with once- or twice-daily dosing following oral administration. Clinical trials are ongoing to further investigate the potential of using maraviroc for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and AIDS. PMID:16251317

  17. Role of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope Structure in the Induction of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Benjelloun, F.; Lawrence, P.; Verrier, B.; Genin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Very soon after the discovery of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) toward human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, it became apparent that characterization of these NAbs would be an important step in finding a cure for or a vaccine to eradicate HIV-1. Since the initial description of broadly cross-clade NAbs naturally produced in HIV-1 patients, numerous studies have described new viral targets for these antibodies. More recently, studies concerning new groups of patients able to control their viremia, such as long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) or elite controllers, have described the generation of numerous envelope-targeted NAbs. Recent studies have marked a new stage in research on NAbs with the description of antibodies obtained from a worldwide screening of HIV-positive patients. These studies have permitted the discovery of NAb families with great potential for both neutralization and neutralization breadth, such as PG, PGT, CH, and highly active agonistic anti-CD4 binding site antibodies (HAADs), of which VRC01 and its variants are members. These antibodies are able to neutralize more than 80% of circulating strains without any autoreactivity and can be rapidly integrated into clinical trials in order to test their protective potential. In this review, we will focus on new insights into HIV-1 envelope structure and their implications for the generation of potent NAbs. PMID:23015715

  18. Roles and Mechanisms of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitor Ritonavir and Other Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drugs in Endothelial Dysfunction of Porcine Pulmonary Arteries and Human Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinwen; Chai, Hong; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) drugs on pulmonary endothelial function. Porcine pulmonary arteries or human pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (HPAECs) were incubated with eight HAART drugs [ritonavir, indinavir, lopinavir, zidovudine (AZT), abacavir, stavudine, didanosine (ddI), and lamivudine] individually or in combination [three HAART drugs (3-plex; indinavir, stavudine, and ddI)] at their clinical plasma concentrations for 24 hours. Endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to bradykinin was reduced significantly by the ritonavir in a concentration-dependent manner. Five other HAART drugs (indinavir, lamivudine, abacavir, AZT, and ddI) and the 3-plex significantly also impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in response to bradykinin. Five HAART drugs (ritonavir, indinavir, lamivudine, abacavir, and AZT) significantly decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and increased superoxide anion levels in both vessels and HPAECs. Furthermore, both ritonavir and AZT substantially activated ERK2 in HPAECs. Additionally, the antioxidants ginsenoside Rb1 and ginkgolide A effectively reversed HAART drug-induced vasomotor dysfunction and eNOS down-regulation. Inhibition of ERK1/2 also partially blocked ritonavir- and AZT-induced down-regulation of eNOS and vasomotor dysfunction. Thus, HAART drugs significantly impair endothelial functions of porcine pulmonary arteries and HPAECs, which may be mediated by eNOS down-regulation, oxidative stress, and ERK1/2 activation. These findings suggest that HAART drugs may contribute to the high incidence of pulmonary artery hypertension in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. PMID:19218343

  19. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus type 2 gp120.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, S; Matsumi, S; Yoshimura, K; Morikita, T; Murakami, T; Takatsuki, K

    1995-06-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were obtained by immunizing mice with synthetic peptides corresponding to the third variable (V3) or the third conserved (C3) domain of the external envelope protein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2ROD). One MAb, designated B2C, which was raised against V3 peptide NKI26, bound to the surface of HIV-2-infected cells but not to their uninfected counterparts. B2C was capable of neutralizing cell-free and cell-associated virus infection in an isolate-specific fashion. The antibody-binding epitope was mapped to a 6-amino-acid peptide in the V3 variable domain which had the core sequence His-Tyr-Gln. Two MAbs, 2H1B and 2F19C, which were raised against the C3 peptide TND27 reacted with gp120 of HIV-2ROD in a Western immunoblot assay. The C3 epitopes recognized by these two MAbs appeared inaccessible because of their poor reactivity in a surface immunofluorescence assay. Although partial inhibition of syncytium formation was observed in the presence of the anti-C3 MAbs, their neutralizing activity appeared weak. Finally, the effects of these MAbs against CD4-gp120 binding were assessed. Partial inhibition of CD4-gp120 binding was observed in the presence of high concentrations of B2C. On the other hand, no inhibition of CD4-gp120 binding was observed in the presence of anti-C3 MAbs. Since complete neutralization could be achieved at a concentration corresponding to that of partial binding inhibition by B2C, some different mechanisms may be involved in the B2C-mediated neutralization. These results, taken together, indicated that analogous to the function of the V3 region of HIV-1, the V3 region of HIV-2ROD contained at least a type-specific fusion-inhibiting neutralizing epitope. In this respect, the V3 sequence of HIV-2 may be a useful target in an animal model for HIV vaccine development. PMID:7538171

  20. An investigation of the breadth of neutralizing antibody response in cats naturally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    B?czkowski, Pawe? M; Logan, Nicola; McMonagle, Elizabeth; Litster, Annette; Willett, Brian J; Hosie, Margaret J

    2015-03-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are believed to comprise an essential component of the protective immune response induced by vaccines against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. However, relatively little is known about the role of NAbs in controlling FIV infection and subsequent disease progression. Here, we present studies where we examined the neutralization of HIV-luciferase pseudotypes bearing homologous and heterologous FIV envelope proteins (n = 278) by sequential plasma samples collected at 6 month intervals from naturally infected cats (n = 38) over a period of 18 months. We evaluated the breadth of the NAb response against non-recombinant homologous and heterologous clade A and clade B viral variants, as well as recombinants, and assessed the results, testing for evidence of an association between the potency of the NAb response and the duration of infection, CD4(+) T lymphocyte numbers, health status and survival times of the infected cats. Neutralization profiles varied significantly between FIV-infected cats and strong autologous neutralization, assessed using luciferase-based in vitro assays, did not correlate with the clinical outcome. No association was observed between strong NAb responses and either improved health status or increased survival time of infected animals, implying that other protective mechanisms were likely to be involved. Similarly, no correlation was observed between the development of autologous NAbs and the duration of infection. Furthermore, cross-neutralizing antibodies were evident in only a small proportion (13 %) of cats. PMID:25395594

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies which react with p17 core protein: characterization and epitope mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Papsidero, L D; Sheu, M; Ruscetti, F W

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 were produced. Two antibodies reacted with the 17-kilodalton core protein (p17) of the virus and with its polyprotein precursor. To various degrees, each MAb neutralized infection by the cell-free virus. With a series of sequential overlapping hexapeptides which represent the p17 gene product, the epitopes identified by the MAbs were defined. The epitopes localize to overlapping regions near the amino terminus of the protein. Soluble synthetic peptides which span the antibody-binding sites of interest were demonstrated to competitively inhibit the reactivity of p17 MAbs, thus confirming the location of virus-neutralizing sites within the core protein. Images PMID:2462060

  2. Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody Gene Transfer Protects Nonhuman Primates from Mucosal Simian-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Kevin O.; Wang, Lingshu; Joyce, M. Gordon; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Balazs, Alejandro B.; Cheng, Cheng; Ko, Sung-Youl; Kong, Wing-Pui; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Duan, Lijie; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Donaldson, Mitzi; Xu, Ling; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Todd, John-Paul; Baltimore, David; Roederer, Mario; Haase, Ashley T.; Kwong, Peter D.; Rao, Srinivas S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) can prevent lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates and may slow the spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Although protection by passive transfer of human bnAbs has been demonstrated in monkeys, durable expression is essential for its broader use in humans. Gene-based expression of bnAbs provides a potential solution to this problem, although immune responses to the viral vector or to the antibody may limit its durability and efficacy. Here, we delivered an adeno-associated viral vector encoding a simianized form of a CD4bs bnAb, VRC07, and evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy. The expressed antibody circulated in macaques for 16 weeks at levels up to 66 ?g/ml, although immune suppression with cyclosporine (CsA) was needed to sustain expression. Gene-delivered simian VRC07 protected against simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in monkeys 5.5 weeks after treatment. Gene transfer of an anti-HIV antibody can therefore protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when the host immune responses are controlled. IMPORTANCE Sustained interventions that can prevent HIV-1 infection are needed to halt the spread of the HIV-1 pandemic. The protective capacity of anti-HIV antibody gene therapy has been established in mouse models of HIV-1 infection but has not been established for primates. We show here a proof-of-concept that gene transfer of anti-HIV antibody genes can protect against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates when host immune responses are controlled. PMID:26041300

  3. Alteration of V3 loop context within the envelope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhances neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Guroff, M; Louie, A; Myagkikh, M; Michaels, F; Kieny, M P; White-Scharf, M E; Potts, B; Grogg, D; Reitz, M S

    1994-01-01

    Neutralization of a chimeric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1, containing the V3 loop of the MN isolate substituted within the HXB2 envelope, was enhanced up to 20-fold compared with the HXB2 or MN parental isolates by human HIV-positive sera. MN V3 loop-specific monoclonal antibodies were better able to recognize the chimeric virus compared with MN, staining a greater percentage of infected cells and exhibiting slight increases in relative affinity with a concomitant increase in neutralization titer. Competition analysis revealed that enhanced neutralization by human HIV-positive sera of the chimera was attributable in some cases to better reactivity with the linear V3 loop epitope but in others to conformational loop epitopes or previously cryptic or poorly recognized epitopes outside the loop region. Mice primed with a vaccinia virus-chimeric envelope recombinant and boosted with gp160 developed a spectrum of antibodies different from that of mice similarly immunized with HXB2 or MN recombinants or that of naturally infected humans. The chimeric envelope elicited antibodies with enhanced binding to the native MN V3 loop; however, the sites seen by the BALB/c mice were not neutralizing epitopes. Nevertheless, similar to the observations made with use of human sera, the chimeric virus was more readily neutralized by all of the immune mouse sera, an effect apparently mediated by non-V3 loop epitopes. These studies illustrate that not only the V3 loop sequence and conformation but also its context within the viral envelope influence neutralization. PMID:7514675

  4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Elite Neutralizers: Individuals with Broad and Potent Neutralizing Activity Identified by Using a High-Throughput Neutralization Assay together with an Analytical Selection Algorithm▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Simek, Melissa D.; Rida, Wasima; Priddy, Frances H.; Pung, Pham; Carrow, Emily; Laufer, Dagna S.; Lehrman, Jennifer K.; Boaz, Mark; Tarragona-Fiol, Tony; Miiro, George; Birungi, Josephine; Pozniak, Anton; McPhee, Dale A.; Manigart, Olivier; Karita, Etienne; Inwoley, André; Jaoko, Walter; DeHovitz, Jack; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Paris, Robert; Walker, Laura M.; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Fast, Patricia E.; Burton, Dennis R.; Koff, Wayne C.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a rapid and efficient system to identify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals with broad and potent HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibody responses is an important step toward the discovery of critical neutralization targets for rational AIDS vaccine design. In this study, samples from HIV-1-infected volunteers from diverse epidemiological regions were screened for neutralization responses using pseudovirus panels composed of clades A, B, C, and D and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Initially, 463 serum and plasma samples from Australia, Rwanda, Uganda, the United Kingdom, and Zambia were screened to explore neutralization patterns and selection ranking algorithms. Samples were identified that neutralized representative isolates from at least four clade/CRF groups with titers above prespecified thresholds and ranked based on a weighted average of their log-transformed neutralization titers. Linear regression methods selected a five-pseudovirus subset, representing clades A, B, and C and one CRF01_AE, that could identify top-ranking samples with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) neutralization titers of ≥100 to multiple isolates within at least four clade groups. This reduced panel was then used to screen 1,234 new samples from the Ivory Coast, Kenya, South Africa, Thailand, and the United States, and 1% were identified as elite neutralizers. Elite activity is defined as the ability to neutralize, on average, more than one pseudovirus at an IC50 titer of 300 within a clade group and across at least four clade groups. These elite neutralizers provide promising starting material for the isolation of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to assist in HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:19439467

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 elite neutralizers: individuals with broad and potent neutralizing activity identified by using a high-throughput neutralization assay together with an analytical selection algorithm.

    PubMed

    Simek, Melissa D; Rida, Wasima; Priddy, Frances H; Pung, Pham; Carrow, Emily; Laufer, Dagna S; Lehrman, Jennifer K; Boaz, Mark; Tarragona-Fiol, Tony; Miiro, George; Birungi, Josephine; Pozniak, Anton; McPhee, Dale A; Manigart, Olivier; Karita, Etienne; Inwoley, Andr; Jaoko, Walter; Dehovitz, Jack; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Pitisuttithum, Punnee; Paris, Robert; Walker, Laura M; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Fast, Patricia E; Burton, Dennis R; Koff, Wayne C

    2009-07-01

    The development of a rapid and efficient system to identify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals with broad and potent HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibody responses is an important step toward the discovery of critical neutralization targets for rational AIDS vaccine design. In this study, samples from HIV-1-infected volunteers from diverse epidemiological regions were screened for neutralization responses using pseudovirus panels composed of clades A, B, C, and D and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Initially, 463 serum and plasma samples from Australia, Rwanda, Uganda, the United Kingdom, and Zambia were screened to explore neutralization patterns and selection ranking algorithms. Samples were identified that neutralized representative isolates from at least four clade/CRF groups with titers above prespecified thresholds and ranked based on a weighted average of their log-transformed neutralization titers. Linear regression methods selected a five-pseudovirus subset, representing clades A, B, and C and one CRF01_AE, that could identify top-ranking samples with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) neutralization titers of >or=100 to multiple isolates within at least four clade groups. This reduced panel was then used to screen 1,234 new samples from the Ivory Coast, Kenya, South Africa, Thailand, and the United States, and 1% were identified as elite neutralizers. Elite activity is defined as the ability to neutralize, on average, more than one pseudovirus at an IC(50) titer of 300 within a clade group and across at least four clade groups. These elite neutralizers provide promising starting material for the isolation of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to assist in HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:19439467

  6. Structure-Function Analysis of the Epitope for 4E10, a Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Brunel, Florence M.; Zwick, Michael B.; Cardoso, Rosa M. F.; Nelson, Josh D.; Wilson, Ian A.; Burton, Dennis R.; Dawson, Philip E.

    2006-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neutralizing antibody 4E10 binds to a linear, highly conserved epitope within the membrane-proximal external region of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. We have delineated the peptide epitope of the broadly neutralizing 4E10 antibody to gp41 residues 671 to 683, using peptides with different lengths encompassing the previously suggested core epitope (NWFDIT). Peptide binding to the 4E10 antibody was assessed by competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the Kd values of selected peptides were determined using surface plasmon resonance. An Ala scan of the epitope indicated that several residues, W672, F673, and T676, are essential (>1,000-fold decrease in binding upon replacement with alanine) for 4E10 recognition. In addition, five other residues, N671, D674, I675, W680, and L679, make significant contributions to 4E10 binding. In general, the Ala scan results agree well with the recently reported crystal structure of 4E10 in complex with a 13-mer peptide and with our circular dichroism analyses. Neutralization competition assays confirmed that the peptide NWFDITNWLWYIKKKK-NH2 could effectively inhibit 4E10 neutralization. Finally, to limit the conformational flexibility of the peptides, helix-promoting 2-aminoisobutyric acid residues and helix-inducing tethers were incorporated. Several peptides have significantly improved affinity (>1,000-fold) over the starting peptide and, when used as immunogens, may be more likely to elicit 4E10-like neutralizing antibodies. Hence, this study represents the first stage toward iterative development of a vaccine based on the 4E10 epitope. PMID:16439525

  7. Adenovirus-Vectored Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies Directed Against gp120 Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Acquisition in Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Jackson, Andrew; Beloor, Jagadish; Kumar, Priti; Sutton, Richard E

    2015-09-01

    Despite nearly three decades of research, a safe and effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has yet to be achieved. More recently, the discovery of highly potent anti-gp160 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) has garnered renewed interest in using antibody-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we encoded bNAbs in first-generation adenoviral (ADV) vectors, which have the distinctive features of a large coding capacity and ease of propagation. A single intramuscular injection of ADV-vectorized bNAbs in humanized mice generated high serum levels of bNAbs that provided protection against multiple repeated challenges with a high dose of HIV-1, prevented depletion of peripheral CD4(+) T cells, and reduced plasma viral loads to below detection limits. Our results suggest that ADV vectors may be a viable option for the prophylactic and perhaps therapeutic use of bNAbs in humans. PMID:25953321

  8. Neutralizing IgG at the portal of infection mediates protection against vaginal simian/human immunodeficiency virus challenge.

    PubMed

    Klein, Katja; Veazey, Ronald S; Warrier, Ranjit; Hraber, Peter; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A; Buffa, Viviana; Liao, Hua-Xin; Haynes, Barton F; Shaw, George M; Shattock, Robin J

    2013-11-01

    Neutralizing antibodies may have critical importance in immunity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, the amount of protective antibody needed at mucosal surfaces has not been fully established. Here, we evaluated systemic and mucosal pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of 2F5 IgG and 2F5 Fab fragments with respect to protection against vaginal challenge with simian-human immunodeficiency virus-BaL in macaques. Antibody assessment demonstrated that 2F5 IgG was more potent than polymeric forms (IgM and IgA) across a range of cellular and tissue models. Vaginal challenge studies demonstrated a dose-dependent protection for 2F5 IgG and no protection with 2F5 Fab despite higher vaginal Fab levels at the time of challenge. Animals receiving 50 or 25 mg/kg of body weight 2F5 IgG were completely protected, while 3/5 animals receiving 5 mg/kg were protected. In the control animals, infection was established by a minimum of 1 to 4 transmitted/founder (T/F) variants, similar to natural human infection by this mucosal route; in the two infected animals that had received 5 mg 2F5 IgG, infection was established by a single T/F variant. Serum levels of 2F5 IgG were more predictive of sterilizing protection than measured vaginal levels. Fc-mediated antiviral activity did not appear to influence infection of primary target cells in cervical explants. However, PK studies highlighted the importance of the Fc portion in tissue biodistribution. Data presented in this study may be important in modeling serum levels of neutralizing antibodies that need to be achieved by either vaccination or passive infusion to prevent mucosal acquisition of HIV-1 infection in humans. PMID:23966410

  9. A broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody that recognizes the V3 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, T; Terada, M; Yoneda, Y; Shea, K W; Chambers, R F; Stroka, D M; Nakamura, M; Kufe, D W

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the principal neutralizing determinant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is located in the V3 loop of glycoprotein gp120. Antibodies prepared against this region using gp120 or peptides as immunogens have been predominantly HIV-1-isolate-specific. In the present studies, murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared against the HIV-1MN strain. One mAb, designated NM-01, was selected for its ability to neutralize both the MN and IIIB strains. Neutralization of H9-cell infectivity as determined by reverse transcriptase assay demonstrated an ID50 of less than 1 microgram/ml for both MN and IIIB. mAb NM-01 also blocked MN and IIIB infectivity in the MT-2 assay and inhibited their reactivity in syncytium formation. The results further demonstrate that mAb NM-01 binds to the V3 loop of gp120 at amino acids 312-326. This mAb reacted equally well with loop peptides from the MN, IIIB, RF, and CDC4 isolates. In contrast, there was less affinity with a similar peptide from the NY5 strain and little if any reactivity with loop peptides from the Z2, Z6, and ELI strains. We also demonstrate that peptides corresponding to the V3 loops of MN and IIIB, but not Z6, block neutralization of IIIB virus by mAb NM-01. These findings indicate that mAb NM-01 reacts with diverse HIV-1 isolates through the Gly-Pro-Gly-Arg sequence of the V3 loop. Images PMID:1961739

  10. High concentrations of recombinant soluble CD4 are required to neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Daar, E S; Li, X L; Moudgil, T; Ho, D D

    1990-01-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the CD4 molecule as the principal cellular receptor for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). A number of truncated recombinant soluble CD4 (sCD4) molecules have been produced and shown to easily neutralize infection of laboratory strains of HIV-1 in vitro, and clinical trials using these sCD4 preparations have begun in patients with AIDS. Infectious HIV-1 titers in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of five patients receiving sCD4 at 30 mg/day were sequentially monitored. No significant decrease in viral titers was found during therapy. Furthermore, plasma samples from eight patients with AIDS were titrated for HIV-1 with and without the addition of sCD4 ex vivo. Despite the addition of sCD4 at up to 1 mg/ml, there was little change in plasma viral titers. Subsequently, 10 primary HIV-1 isolates were tested for their susceptibility to neutralization in vitro by one preparation of sCD4. Neutralization of these clinical isolates required 200-2700 times more sCD4 than was needed to inhibit laboratory strains of HIV-1. Similar results were observed using one other monomeric sCD4 preparation and two multimeric CD4-immunoglobulin hybrid molecules. We conclude that unlike laboratory strains, primary HIV-1 isolates require high concentrations of sCD4 for neutralization. This phenomenon may pose a formidable problem for sCD4-based therapeutics in the treatment of HIV-1 infection. PMID:2395859

  11. Human erythrocytes bearing electroinserted CD4 neutralize infection in vitro by primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Tosi, P F; Schwartz, D; Sharma, U; Mouneimne, Y; Hannig, J; Li, G; McKinley, G; Grieco, M; Flexner, C W; Lazarte, J; Norse, D; Nicolau, C; Volsky, D J

    1996-06-01

    Human erythrocytes bearing electroinserted full-length CD4 (RBC-CD4) can bind and fuse with a laboratory strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or with T cells infected by HIV-1. Here we show that RBC-CD4 neutralize primary HIV-1 strains in an assay of cocultivation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-1-infected persons with uninfected PBMC. RBC-CD4 inhibited viral p24 core antigen accumulation in these cocultures up to 10,000-fold compared with RBC alone. Viral p24 accumulation was inhibited equally well when measured in culture supernatants or in call extracts. The inhibition was dose-dependent and long-lived. Two types of recombinant CD4 tested in parallel were largely ineffective. The neutralization of primary HIV-1 by RBC-CD4 in vitro was demonstrated in PBMC cultures from 21 of a total of 23 patients tested at two independent sites. RBC-CD4 may offer a route to blocking HIV-1 infection in vivo. PMID:8639857

  12. Autologous antibody response against the principal neutralizing domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolated from infected humans.

    PubMed Central

    Holmbck, K; Kusk, P; Hulgaard, E F; Bugge, T H; Scheibel, E; Lindhardt, B O

    1993-01-01

    High titers of neutralizing antibodies in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection are directed primarily against the third hypervariable domain (V3) of the virion envelope glycoprotein gp120. This region has been designated the principal neutralizing domain of HIV-1. Because the frequency and significance of autologous V3 antibodies in natural infection are not fully clarified, we have cloned, sequenced, and expressed the V3 domain from virus of HIV-1-infected patients to test the autologous and heterologous V3 antibody response. The resulting recombinant Escherichia coli V3 fusion proteins reacted strongly with both autologous and heterologous patient antibodies in Western blots. Thirty-one different V3 fragments were cloned from 24 hemophiliac patients with different immunological and clinical statuses. Antibody reactivity against the autologous V3 fusion proteins was detected in all serum samples except one; moreover, all serum samples contained antibody reactivity against a vast majority of heterologous fusion proteins despite significant amino acid variability in V3. The results suggest that V3 antibodies are highly prevalent; further, we find no association between the stage of the HIV-1 infection and the presence of V3 antibodies. Images PMID:8437232

  13. Studies on antiretroviral drug concentrations in breast milk: validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of 7 anti-human immunodeficiency virus medications.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Naser L; White, Nicole; Bridges, Arlene S; Abdel-Megeed, Mohamed F; Mohamed, Tarek M; Moselhy, Said S; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2008-10-01

    Studying the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in breast milk has important implications for the health of both the mother and the infant, particularly in resource-poor countries. Breast milk is a highly complex biological matrix, yet it is necessary to develop and validate methods in this matrix, which simultaneously measure multiple analytes, as women may be taking any number of drug combinations to combat human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we report a novel extraction method coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry for the accurate, precise, and specific measurement of 7 antiretroviral drugs currently prescribed to infected mothers. Using 200 microL of human breast milk, simultaneous quantification of lamivudine (3TC), stavudine (d4T), zidovudine (ZDV), nevirapine (NVP), nelfinavir (NFV), ritonavir, and lopinavir was validated over the range of 10-10,000 ng/mL. Intraday accuracy and precision for all analytes were 99.3% and 5.0 %, respectively. Interday accuracy and precision were 99.4 % and 7.8%, respectively. Cross-assay validation with UV detection was performed using clinical breast milk samples, and the results of the 2 assays were in good agreement (P = 0.0001, r = 0.97). Breast milk to plasma concentration ratios for the different antiretroviral drugs were determined as follows: 3TC = 2.96, d4T = 1.73, ZDV = 1.17, NVP = 0.82, and NFV = 0.21. PMID:18758393

  14. Use of Seroconversion Panels To Estimate Delay in Detection of Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibodies by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay of Pooled Compared to Singleton Serum Samples

    PubMed Central

    Novack, Lena; Galai, Noya; Yaari, Arieh; Orgel, Mordechai; Shinar, Eilat; Sarov, Batia

    2006-01-01

    The transfusion of unsafe blood worldwide accounts for 5 to 15% of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which occur in sub-Saharan Africa. While developed countries now apply PCR testing of pooled samples, some developing countries still do not have universal screening policies. More efficient low-cost procedures for the screening of pooled samples have the potential to encourage mass screening efforts in resource-poor settings. The aim of this study was to estimate the delay in the detection of HIV antibodies in pooled serum samples compared to that in singleton serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and to evaluate the risk of transfusion-transmitted HIV infection during the window period. Serial blood samples obtained from five HIV seroconversion panels were mixed with HIV-seronegative blood samples to create pools of 6, 12, 16, 24, 32, and 48 samples. The delay in detection of the first anti-HIV antibody-positive sample in tests with pooled samples was calculated for each pool size and compared to that obtained by testing of singleton samples and statistically evaluated by a robust log-linear regression analysis. The risk of a false-negative (FN) result caused by dilution was estimated by use of the incidence risk/window period model. The additional risk of transmission related to ELISA screening of pooled samples for HIV did not exceed 9% of the current risk of an FN result (estimated to be 1/1,067,000). The countries with virus prevalence rates in donors of less than 15% are expected to save up to 30% in the number of tests. ELISA screening of pooled samples could be considered in settings where the testing of blood supplies for HIV is not routinely done. PMID:16891511

  15. Serum neutralization of feline immunodeficiency virus is markedly dependent on passage history of the virus and host system.

    PubMed Central

    Baldinotti, F; Matteucci, D; Mazzetti, P; Giannelli, C; Bandecchi, P; Tozzini, F; Bendinelli, M

    1994-01-01

    Sera from feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cats exhibited extremely low levels of neutralizing antibodies against virus passaged a few times in vitro (low passage), when residual infectivity was assayed in the CD3+ CD4- CD8- MBM lymphoid cell line or mitogen-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. By sharp contrast, elevated titers of highly efficient neutralizing activity against FIV were measured, by use of high-passage virus, in assays on either the fibroblastoid CrFK or MBM cell line. However, high-passage virus behaved the same as low-passage virus after one in vivo passage in a specific-pathogen-free cat and reisolation. Subneutralizing concentrations of infected cat sera enhanced the production of low-passage virus by MBM cells, an effect not seen with high-passage virus in CrFK cells. These qualitative and quantitative discrepancies could not be attributed to differences in the amount of immunoreactive viral material, to the amount of infectious virus present in the viral stocks, or to the presence of anti-cell antibodies. The observed effects were most likely due to the different passage history of the viral preparations used. The observation that neutralizing antibodies detected with high-passage virus were broadly cross-reactive in assays with CrFK cells but isolate specific in MBM cells suggests also that the cell substrate can influence the result of FIV neutralization assays. This possibility could not be tested directly because FIV adapted to grow in CrFK cells had little infectivity for lymphoid cells and vice versa. In vitro exposure to infected cat sera had little or no effect on the ability of in vivo-passaged FIV to infect cats. These data reveal no obvious relationship between titers against high-passage virus and ability to block infectivity of FIV in cats and suggest caution in the use of such assays to measure vaccine efficacy. In conclusion, by contrast with what has been previously reported for the use of CrFK cells and high-passage virus, both natural and experimental infections of cats with FIV generate poor neutralizing antibody responses with regard to in vivo protection. PMID:8207831

  16. Differential regulation of cellular tropism and sensitivity to soluble CD4 neutralization by the envelope gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Stamatatos, L; Werner, A; Cheng-Mayer, C

    1994-01-01

    Using recombinant and mutant viruses generated between two human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates that display differences in cell tropism and sensitivity to soluble CD4 neutralization, we show that these two properties of the virus are regulated by different mechanisms. Whereas there is an association between V3 loop conformation and a particular cellular tropism, soluble CD4 neutralization sensitivity appears to be determined by amino acid differences in the C2 domain of the envelope gp120 that modulate the stability of gp120-gp41 association. Our findings further illustrate the importance of functional interactions among different regions of the envelope gp120 in regulating the biological phenotypes of human immunodeficiency virus and suggest that additional probing of the V3 loop with monoclonal antibodies may identify specific structural features of this loop that determine cell tropism. Images PMID:8035496

  17. The site of an immune-selected point mutation in the transmembrane protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 does not constitute the neutralization epitope.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C; Reitz, M S; Aldrich, K; Klasse, P J; Blomberg, J; Gallo, R C; Robert-Guroff, M

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported the in vitro generation of a neutralization-resistant variant of the molecularly cloned isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HXB2D. The molecular basis for the resistance was shown to be a point mutation in the env gene, causing the substitution of threonine for alanine at position 582 of gp41. Here, we show the variant to be resistant to syncytium inhibition as well as to neutralization by the immune-selecting serum. Moreover, 30% of HIV-positive human sera able to neutralize the parental virus have significantly decreased ability to neutralize the variant. As the A-to-T substitution thus has general relevance to the interaction of HIV-1 with the host immune system, we investigated further the biologic and immunologic bases for the altered properties. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the 582 region failed to compete in infectivity, neutralization, or syncytium inhibition assays and did not elicit neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, human antibodies, affinity purified on synthetic peptide resins, bound to gp41 and peptides from the 582 region but did not possess neutralizing antibody activity. Some viral constructs in which the AVERY sequence in the 582 region was altered by site-directed mutagenesis were not infectious, indicating that the primary structure in this region is crucial for viral infectivity. Constructs predicted to possess a local secondary structure similar to that of the variant nevertheless behaved like the parental virus and remained neutralization sensitive. These results suggest that the requirements for neutralization resistance in this region are very precise. Our results with synthetic peptides show that the 582 region does not by itself constitute a neutralization epitope. Moreover, the degree of flexibility in amino acid substitution which allows maintenance of neutralization sensitivity suggests that position 582 does not form part of a noncontiguous neutralization epitope. The basis for neutralization resistance of the immune-selected variant is more likely a conformational change altering a neutralization epitope at a distant site. PMID:2352323

  18. A predominant group-specific neutralizing epitope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 maps to residues 342 to 511 of the envelope glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed Central

    Berkower, I; Murphy, D; Smith, C C; Smith, G E

    1991-01-01

    Recombinant native human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins gp160 and gp120 (residues 1 to 511) expressed in insect cells quantitatively adsorbed the group-specific neutralizing antibodies found in human sera. However, these antibodies were not adsorbed by envelope fragment 1 to 471 or 472 to 857 or by both fragments sequentially, even though together they add up to the full-length gp160 sequence. A hybrid envelope glycoprotein was constructed with residues 342 to 511 of the HIV-1 sequence and residues 1 to 399 of the simian immunodeficiency virus type 1 sequence to vary the HIV-1 sequence while preserving its conformation. This hybrid glycoprotein quantitatively adsorbed human neutralizing antibodies, while native simian immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein did not. These results identify a new neutralizing epitope that depends on conformation and maps to residues 342 to 511 of gp120. It overlaps the extended CD4-binding site but is distinct from the V3 loop described previously (K. Javaherian et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:6768-6772, 1989; J. R. Rusche et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85:3198-3202). Since it is conserved among diverse HIV-1 isolates, this new epitope may be a suitable target for future vaccine development. Images PMID:1717712

  19. Conformational epitope on gp120 important in CD4 binding and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization identified by a human monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D D; McKeating, J A; Li, X L; Moudgil, T; Daar, E S; Sun, N C; Robinson, J E

    1991-01-01

    A human monoclonal antibody designated 15e is reactive with the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of multiple isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antibody 15e also neutralizes HIV-1 with broad specificity and blocks gp120 binding to CD4. Characterization of the 15e epitope shows that it is conformation dependent and is distinct from previously recognized functional domains of gp120, suggesting that this epitope represents a novel site important for HIV-1 neutralization and CD4 binding. These findings have implications for the development of a vaccine for AIDS. Images PMID:1702163

  20. Resistance to neutralization by broadly reactive antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 glycoprotein conferred by a gp41 amino acid change.

    PubMed Central

    Thali, M; Charles, M; Furman, C; Cavacini, L; Posner, M; Robinson, J; Sodroski, J

    1994-01-01

    A neutralization-resistant variant of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that emerged during in vitro propagation of the virus in the presence of neutralizing serum from an infected individual has been described. A threonine-for-alanine substitution at position 582 in the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein of the variant virus was responsible for the neutralization-resistant phenotype (M.S. Reitz, Jr., C. Wilson, C. Naugle, R. C. Gallo, and M. Robert-Guroff, Cell 54:57-63, 1988). The mutant virus also exhibited reduced sensitivity to neutralization by 30% of HIV-1-positive sera that neutralized the parental virus, suggesting that a significant fraction of the neutralizing activity within these sera can be affected by the amino acid change in gp41 (C. Wilson, M. S. Reitz, Jr., K. Aldrich, P. J. Klasse, J. Blomberg, R. C. Gallo, and M. Robert-Guroff, J. Virol. 64:3240-3248, 1990). It is shown here that the change of alanine 582 to threonine specifically confers resistance to neutralizing by antibodies directed against both groups of discontinuous, conserved epitopes related to the CD4 binding site on the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein. Only minor differences in binding of these antibodies to wild-type and mutant envelope glycoproteins were observed. Thus, the antigenic structure of gp120 can be subtly affected by an amino acid change in gp41, with important consequences for sensitivity to neutralization. Images PMID:7507184

  1. Examination of sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals for antibodies reactive with peptides corresponding to the principal neutralizing determinant of HIV-1 gp120 and for in vitro neutralizing activity.

    PubMed Central

    Warren, R Q; Anderson, S A; Nkya, W M; Shao, J F; Hendrix, C W; Melcher, G P; Redfield, R R; Kennedy, R C

    1992-01-01

    Sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals from the United States and Tanzania were examined for antibody reactivity to four synthetic peptides which corresponded to the principal neutralizing determinant from the V3 region of HIV-1 gp120. We observed that the majority of sera from both countries contained antibodies reactive with a V3 peptide whose sequence is based on that of the HIV-1 MN isolate. We were unable to establish a relationship between the presence of V3-reactive antibodies, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neutralization of homologous HIV-1 isolates, in sera from either the United States or Tanzania. We observed that some sera which contained high antibody titers to the V3 peptides failed to neutralize HIV-1, while others with no antibody reactivity to the panel of V3 peptides exhibited in vitro neutralizing activity. These results suggest that neutralizing epitopes exist outside the V3 loop and that the presence of V3-reactive antibodies in sera does not imply in vitro neutralization of the homologous HIV-1 isolate. In addition, it appears that the V3 loop may consist of both neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes. The identification of neutralizing as well as nonneutralizing epitopes will be important for the design of potential HIV-1 vaccines. PMID:1380094

  2. Induction of high-titer neutralizing antibodies, using hybrid human immunodeficiency virus V3-Ty viruslike particles in a clinically relevant adjuvant.

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, J C; Berrie, E L; Holdsworth, L N; Moore, J P; Harris, S J; Senior, J M; Kingsman, S M; Kingsman, A J; Adams, S E

    1991-01-01

    The localization of neutralization determinants within the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been largely achieved by immunizing small animals in conjunction with Freund's adjuvant. However, for eventual use in humans, candidate HIV vaccine components must also be efficacious in a nontoxic formulation. We describe here the production of hybrid Ty viruslike particles carrying the major neutralizing domain of HIV and demonstrate the induction of high-titer virus-neutralizing antibodies and an HIV-specific T-cell proliferative response after immunization in conjunction with aluminum hydroxide. As aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate are the only adjuvants currently licensed for use in humans, these observations have implications for the development of an effective vaccine against HIV. Images PMID:1985208

  3. Emergence of viruses resistant to neutralization by V3-specific antibodies in experimental human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IIIB infection of chimpanzees.

    PubMed Central

    Nara, P L; Smit, L; Dunlop, N; Hatch, W; Merges, M; Waters, D; Kelliher, J; Gallo, R C; Fischinger, P J; Goudsmit, J

    1990-01-01

    Emergence in two chimpanzees of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IIIB variants resistant to neutralization by the preexisting antibody is described. Viruses isolated from the HIV-1 IIIB gp120-vaccinated and -challenged animal were more resistant to neutralization by the chimpanzee's own serum than viruses isolated from the naive infected animal, indicating immune pressure as the selective mechanism. However, all reisolated viruses were 16- to 256-fold more neutralization resistant than the inoculum virus to antibodies binding to the third variable domain (V3) of the HIV-1 external envelope. Early chimpanzee serum samples that neutralized the inoculum strain but not the reisolated viruses were found to bind an HIV-1 IIIB common nonapeptide (IQRGPGRAF) derived from the gp120 isolate-specific V3 domain shown to induce isolate-specific neutralization in other animals. Amplification of the V3 coding sequence by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequence analysis of the neutralization-resistant variants obtained from in vivo-infected animals indicated that early resistance to neutralization by an HIV-1 IIIB monoclonal antibody (0.5 beta) was conferred by changes outside the direct binding site for the selective neutralizing antibody. The reisolated neutralization-resistant isolates consisted of the lower-replication-competent virus subpopulations of the HIV-1 IIIB stock, as confirmed by biological and sequence analyses. In vitro passage of the HIV-1 IIIB stock through chimpanzee and human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures void of HIV-specific antibody resulted in homogenic amplification of the more-replication-competent subpopulation preexisting in the original viral stock, suggesting a role for the immune system in suppressing the more-replication-competent viruses. Images PMID:2370681

  4. Hyperimmune antisera against synthetic peptides representing the glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 can mediate neutralization and antibody-dependent cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bjrling, E; Broliden, K; Bernardi, D; Utter, G; Thorstensson, R; Chiodi, F; Norrby, E

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-five 13- to 35-amino-acid-long peptides representing regions of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2), strain SBL6669, envelope proteins were evaluated for their immunogenic activity in guinea pigs. The peptides were selected to provide homologous representation of sites in the HIV-1 envelope proteins that were previously documented to have a particular immunogenic importance. A number of the HIV-2 peptides were found to be capable of inducing strain SBL6669 neutralizing and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies. Two overlapping peptides covering amino acids 311-337 representing the central and C-terminal part of the variable third (V3) region, terminology according to Modrow et al. [Modrow, S., Hahn, B., Shaw, G. M., Gallo, R. C., Wong-Staal, F. & Wolf, H. (1987) J. Virol. 61, 570-578], showed the most pronounced capacity to induce neutralizing antibodies. One of the peptides (amino acids 318-337) also induced antibodies mediating ADCC. Two additional regions in the large glycoprotein, gp125, containing linear sites reacting with neutralizing antibodies were identified (amino acids, 119-137 and 472-509). The transmembrane protein, gp36, of HIV-2 harbored two regions of importance for induction of neutralizing antibodies (amino acids 595-614 and 714-729). ADCC activity was induced by two additional gp125-specific peptides (amino acids 291-311 and 446-461). Thus, except for the single V3-specific site there was no correlation between linear immunogenic sites stimulating neutralizing antibody and ADCC activity. These findings pave the way for development of synthetic vaccines against HIV-2 and possibly also simian immunodeficiency virus infections. The capacity of such a product to induce protective immunity can be evaluated in macaque monkeys. Images PMID:2068087

  5. CD40L-adjuvanted DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine enhances protection against neutralization-resistant mucosal SIV infection.

    PubMed

    Kwa, Suefen; Sadagopal, Shanmugalakshmi; Shen, Xiaoying; Hong, Jung Joo; Gangadhara, Sailaja; Basu, Rahul; Victor, Blandine; Iyer, Smita S; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Tomaras, Georgia D; Villinger, Francois; Moss, Bernard; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Amara, Rama Rao

    2015-04-01

    Here, we show that a CD40L-adjuvanted DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccine enhances protection against a pathogenic neutralization-resistant mucosal SIV infection, improves long-term viral control, and prevents AIDS. Analyses of serum IgG antibodies to linear peptides of SIV Env revealed a strong response to V2, with targeting of fewer epitopes in the immunodominant region of gp41 (gp41-ID) and the V1 region as a correlate for enhanced protection. Greater expansion of antiviral CD8 T cells in the gut correlated with long-term viral control. PMID:25653428

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Positive Sera Obtained Shortly after Seroconversion Neutralize Autologous HIV Type 1 Isolates on Primary Macrophages but Not on Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ruppach, Horst; Nara, Peter; Raudonat, Ina; Elanjikal, Ziju; Rbsamen-Waigmann, Helga; Dietrich, Ursula

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the role of humoral immunity in early human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. As neutralizing activities in HIV-positive sera are rarely detectable earlier than 9 to 12 months after infection using primary lymphocytes as target cells in neutralization assays, humoral immunity is generally thought not to contribute significantly to early virus control in the patients. Besides lymphocytes, cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are known to be important target cells for HIV in vivo during the establishment of the infection. Therefore, we studied the neutralization of early primary HIV isolates by autologous serum samples using primary macrophages as target cells in the neutralization assays. We analyzed neutralizing activities against the autologous HIV-1 isolates in 10 patients' sera taken shortly after seroconversion, both on primary macrophages and, for comparison, on lymphocytes. Viruses were isolated and expanded in primary mixed cultures containing macrophages and lymphocytes in order to avoid selection for one particular cell type. All viruses replicated to different degrees in macrophages and lymphocytes; nine had a nonsyncytium-inducing phenotype, and one was syncytium inducing. The detection of neutralizing antibodies in acute primary HIV infection depended on the target cells used. Confirming previous studies, we did not find neutralizing activities on lymphocytes at this early time point. In contrast, neutralizing activities were detectable in the same sera if primary macrophages were used as target cells. Differences in neutralizing activities on macrophages and lymphocytes were not due to different virus variants being present in the different cell systems, as gp120 sequences derived from both cell types were homogeneous. Neutralization activities on macrophages did not correlate with the amount of ?-chemokines in the sera. As affinity-purified immunoglobulin G preparations from an early patient serum also exhibited neutralization of the autologous virus isolate on primary macrophages, but not on lymphocytes, neutralization is very likely due to antibodies against viral epitopes necessary for infection of macrophages but not for infection of lymphocytes. Our data suggest that, along with cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity may contribute to the reduction of primary viremia in the patient. This was further supported by a certain association between neutralizing antibody titers on macrophages and viral load in the patients. PMID:10823844

  7. Replication and neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 lacking the V1 and V2 variable loops of the gp120 envelope glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Cao, J; Sullivan, N; Desjardin, E; Parolin, C; Robinson, J; Wyatt, R; Sodroski, J

    1997-01-01

    A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mutant lacking the V1 and V2 variable loops in the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein replicated in Jurkat lymphocytes with only modest delays compared with the wild-type virus. Revertants that replicated with wild-type efficiency rapidly emerged and contained only a few amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins compared with the parent virus. Both the parent and revertant viruses exhibited increased sensitivity to neutralization by antibodies directed against the V3 loop or a CD4-induced epitope on gp120 but not by soluble CD4 or an antibody against the CD4 binding site. This result demonstrates the role of the gp120 V1 and V2 loops in protecting HIV-1 from some subsets of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9371651

  8. Induction of Neutralizing Antibodies to T-Cell Line-Adapted and Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Isolates with a Prime-Boost Vaccine Regimen in Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Lubeck, Michael; Xu, Serena; Burda, Sherri; Natuk, Robert J.; Sinangil, Faruk; Steimer, Kathelyn; Gallo, Robert C.; Eichberg, Jorg W.; Matthews, Thomas; Robert-Guroff, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    Five chimpanzees were immunized by administration of one or more intranasal priming doses of one to three recombinant adenoviruses containing a gp160 insert from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) MN (HIV-1MN) followed by one or more boosts of recombinant HIV-1SF2 gp120 delivered intramuscularly with MF59 adjuvant. This regimen resulted in humoral immune responses in three of five animals. Humoral responses included immunochemically active anti-HIV-1 antibodies (Abs) directed to recombinant gp120 and neutralizing Abs reactive with T-cell-line-adapted HIV-1MN and HIV-1SF2. In addition, neutralizing activity was detected to the two homologous primary isolates and to two of three heterologous primary isolates which, like the immunizing strains, can use CXCR4 as a coreceptor for infection. The three animals with detectable neutralizing Abs and a fourth exhibiting the best cytotoxic T-lymphocyte response were protected from a low-dose intravenous challenge with a cell-free HIV-1SF2 primary isolate administered 4 weeks after the last boost. Animals were rested for 46 weeks and then rechallenged, without a boost, with an eightfold-higher challenge dose of HIV-1SF2. The three animals with persistent neutralizing Abs were again protected. These data show that a strong, long-lived protective Ab response can be induced with a prime-boost regimen in chimpanzees. The data suggest that in chimpanzees, the presence of neutralizing Abs correlates with protection for animals challenged intravenously with a high dose of a homologous strain of HIV-1, and they demonstrate for the first time the induction of neutralizing Abs to homologous and heterologous primary isolates. PMID:9444999

  9. Adaptation to persistent growth in the H9 cell line renders a primary isolate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 sensitive to neutralization by vaccine sera.

    PubMed Central

    Wrin, T; Loh, T P; Vennari, J C; Schuitemaker, H; Nunberg, J H

    1995-01-01

    Seven diverse primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were examined and found to be refractory to neutralization by antisera to recombinant gp120 (rgp120) protein from HIV-1 MN. This stands in marked contrast to the sensitivity exhibited by certain laboratory-adapted viruses. To understand the difference between primary and laboratory-adapted viruses, we adapted the primary virus ACH 168.10 to growth in the FDA/H9 cell line. ACH 168.10 was chosen because the V3 region of gp120 closely matches that of MN. After 4 weeks, infection became evident. The virus (168A) replicated in FDA/H9 cells with extensive cytopathic effect but was unchanged in sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization. Thus, growth in cell lines is not sufficient to render primary virus sensitive to neutralization. The 168A virus was, however, partially sensitive to CD4 immunoadhesin (CD4-Ig). Adaptation was continued to produce a persistently infected FDA/H9 culture that displayed minimal cytopathic effect. The virus (168C) was now sensitive to neutralization by MN rgp120 vaccine sera and by MN-specific monoclonal antibodies and showed increased sensitivity to HIVIG and CD4-Ig. 168C encoded three amino acid changes in gp120, including one within the V3 loop (I-166-->R, I-282-->N, G-318-->R). MN-specific monoclonal antibodies bound equally to the surface of cells infected with either neutralization-resistant or -sensitive virus. The coincidence of changes in neutralization sensitivity with changes in cell tropism and cytopathic effect suggests a common underlying mechanism(s) acting through the whole of the envelope protein complex. PMID:7983734

  10. Effect of the maturation of neutralizing antibodies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope evolution in HIV-infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Nie, Jianhui; Jiao, Yanmei; Li, Lan; Zhang, Tong; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Weijin; Wu, Hao; Wang, Youchun

    2016-03-01

    Delineating the course of NAb (neutralizing antibody) development in natural infection may provide clues for NAb-targeted HIV-1 vaccine design. Two subjects, A (non-neutralizer) and E (neutralizer), were chosen from 75 HIV-1 positive subjects of a MSM (men who have sex with men) cohort to investigate the key events of virus evolution in the development course of neutralizing antibodies. Pseudovirus quasispecies (at least 10 strains) were generated for each time points of the infection course. The diversity and divergence of the env quasispecies per time point for subject E were significantly higher than those for subject A (p<0.05). Compared with subject A, the gp160 derived from subject E acquired longer V1V2 region and more N-glycans during the development of neutralizing antibodies. The developing course of neutralizing antibody lagged behind the virus evolution, of which the pseudoviruses could only been neutralized by the latter time-point sera. The neutralization-driven evolution of the virus for subject E was mostly mapped to the C1-C3 region of gp160. Through site-directed mutagenesis, some key sites and region were identified to be associated with the virus escape, including: Q85P, H183P, K340E, L365S, L369I, I372V and insertions of 355N in C3 and NITDEVKIG in V1 region. PMID:26706846

  11. Highly efficient neutralization by plasma antibodies from human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infected individuals on antiretroviral drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Raiees; Makhdoomi, M A; Kumar, Rajesh; Bala, Manju; Parray, Hilal; Gupta, Arjun; Kotnala, Ankita; Thirumurthy, Velpandian; Luthra, Kalpana

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about the neutralizing antibodies induced in HIV-1 patients on antiretroviral treatment, which constitute an interesting group of individuals with improved B cell profile. Plasma samples from 34 HIV-1 seropositive antiretroviral drug treated (ART) patients were tested for neutralization against a panel of 14 subtype-A, B and C tier 1 and tier 2 viruses in TZM-bl assay. Of the 34 plasma samples, remarkably all the plasma samples were able to neutralize at least one virus while 32 (94 %) were found to neutralize ?50 % viruses tested. In terms of overall neutralization frequency, approximately 86 %, 68 % and 17 % of the virus/plasma combinations showed 50 % neutralizing activity at 1 > 60, 1 ? 200 and 1 ??2000 dilutions respectively. The improvement in neutralizing activity was shown to be associated with ART in two follow up patients. The neutralization of viruses by two representative plasma samples, AIIMS221 and AIIMS265, was exclusively mediated by immunoglobulin G fractions independent of ART drugs and IgG retained cross-reactive binding to recombinant gp120 proteins. We observed a positive trend of neutralization with duration of ART (p = 0.06), however no such correlation was found with clinical and immunological variables like CD4 count (p = 0.35), viral load (p = 0.09) and plasma total IgG (p = 0.46). Our study suggests that the plasma antibodies from ART patients display high neutralizing activity most likely due to an improved B cell function induced by ART despite low antigenic stimulation. PMID:24682667

  12. Sequential immunization with V3 peptides from primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 produces cross-neutralizing antibodies against primary isolates with a matching narrow-neutralization sequence motif.

    PubMed

    Eda, Yasuyuki; Takizawa, Mari; Murakami, Toshio; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kimachi, Kazuhiko; Yonemura, Hiroshi; Koyanagi, Satoshi; Shiosaki, Kouichi; Higuchi, Hirofumi; Makizumi, Keiichi; Nakashima, Toshihiro; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Tokiyoshi, Sachio; Matsushita, Shuzo; Yamamoto, Naoki; Honda, Mitsuo

    2006-06-01

    An antibody response capable of neutralizing not only homologous but also heterologous forms of the CXCR4-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) MNp and CCR5-tropic primary isolate HIV-1 JR-CSF was achieved through sequential immunization with a combination of synthetic peptides representing HIV-1 Env V3 sequences from field and laboratory HIV-1 clade B isolates. In contrast, repeated immunization with a single V3 peptide generated antibodies that neutralized only type-specific laboratory-adapted homologous viruses. To determine whether the cross-neutralization response could be attributed to a cross-reactive antibody in the immunized animals, we isolated a monoclonal antibody, C25, which neutralized the heterologous primary viruses of HIV-1 clade B. Furthermore, we generated a humanized monoclonal antibody, KD-247, by transferring the genes of the complementary determining region of C25 into genes of the human V region of the antibody. KD-247 bound with high affinity to the "PGR" motif within the HIV-1 Env V3 tip region, and, among the established reference antibodies, it most effectively neutralized primary HIV-1 field isolates possessing the matching neutralization sequence motif, suggesting its promise for clinical applications involving passive immunizations. These results demonstrate that sequential immunization with B-cell epitope peptides may contribute to a humoral immune-based HIV vaccine strategy. Indeed, they help lay the groundwork for the development of HIV-1 vaccine strategies that use sequential immunization with biologically relevant peptides to overcome difficulties associated with otherwise poorly immunogenic epitopes. PMID:16699036

  13. Another discontinuous epitope on glycoprotein gp120 that is important in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization is identified by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D D; Fung, M S; Cao, Y Z; Li, X L; Sun, C; Chang, T W; Sun, N C

    1991-01-01

    To define the domains in the envelope glycoprotein important for antibody neutralization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated by immunizing mice with purified glycoprotein gp120 of the IIIB isolate. One mAb, G3-4, reacted with the gp120 of homologous (IIIB) and heterologous (RF) isolates. In addition, mAb G3-4 efficiently neutralized both IIIB and RF viruses in vitro, as well as four of nine primary HIV-1 isolates. In competition immunoassays, mAb G3-4 and soluble CD4 were found to inhibit one another in binding to gp120. However, no competition was seen between mAb G3-4 and mAbs directed to the third variable region or the fourth conserved region of gp120. In particular, mAb G3-4 did not compete with our human mAb 15e, which identifies a discontinuous epitope on gp120 involved in group-specific neutralization of HIV-1 and in gp120-CD4 binding. Epitope-mapping studies on mAb G3-4 with synthetic or unglycosylated recombinant peptides were negative, suggesting that its epitope may be discontinuous. Indeed, this hypothesis was confirmed by showing the loss of mAb G3-4 serologic reactivity when gp120 was first denatured. We conclude that the site recognized by mAb G3-4 represents another discontinuous epitope on gp120 important for neutralization of HIV-1. Images PMID:1717992

  14. Impact of glycosylation on antigenicity of simian immunodeficiency virus SIV239: induction of rapid V1/V2-specific non-neutralizing antibody and delayed neutralizing antibody following infection with an attenuated deglycosylated mutant.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Chie; Nakayama, Emi E; Shioda, Tatsuo; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A; Yamamoto, Naoki; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Mori, Kazuyasu

    2008-02-01

    Infection of rhesus macaques with a deglycosylation mutant, Delta5G, derived from SIV239, a pathogenic clone of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), led to robust acute-phase viral replication followed by a chronic phase with undetectable viral load. This study examined whether humoral responses in Delta5G-infected animals played any role in the control of infection. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were elicited more efficiently in Delta5G-infected animals than in SIV239-infected animals. However, functional nAb measured by 90% neutralization was prominent in only two of the five Delta5G-infected animals, and only at 8 weeks post-infection (p.i.), when viral loads were already below 10(4) copies ml(-1). These results suggest a minimal role for nAbs in the control of the primary infection. In contrast, whilst Ab responses to epitopes localized to the variable loops V1/V2 were detected in all Delta5G-infected animals at 3 weeks p.i., this response was associated with a concomitant reduction in Ab responses to epitopes in gp41 compared with those in SIV239-infected animals. These results suggest that the altered surface glycosylation and/or conformation of viral spikes induce a humoral response against SIV that is distinct from the response induced by SIV239. More interestingly, whereas V1/V2-specific Abs were induced in all animals, these Abs were associated with vigorous Delta5G-specific virion capture ability in only two Delta5G-infected animals that exhibited a functional nAb response. Thus, whereas the deglycosylation mutant infection elicited early virion capture and subsequent nAbs, the responses differed among animals, suggesting the existence of host factors that may influence the functional humoral responses against human immunodeficiency virus/SIV. PMID:18198387

  15. Sustained Delivery of a Broadly Neutralizing Antibody in Nonhuman Primates Confers Long-Term Protection against Simian/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Kevin O.; Pegu, Amarendra; Georgiev, Ivelin S.; Zeng, Ming; Joyce, M. Gordon; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Ko, Sung-Youl; Chen, Xuejun; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Haase, Ashley T.; Todd, John-Paul; Bao, Saran; Kwong, Peter D.; Rao, Srinivas S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pathogen-specific neutralizing antibodies protect against many viral infections and can potentially prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in humans. However, neutralizing antibodies have so far only been shown to protect nonhuman primates (NHP) against lentiviral infection when given shortly before challenge. Thus, the clinical utility and feasibility of passive antibody transfer to confer long-term protection against HIV-1 are still debated. Here, we investigate the potential of a broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibody to provide long-term protection in a NHP model of HIV-1 infection. A human antibody was simianized to avoid immune rejection and used to sustain therapeutic levels for ?5 months. Two months after the final antibody administration, animals were completely protected against viral challenge. These findings demonstrate the feasibility and potential of long-term passive antibody for protection against HIV-1 in humans and provide a model to test antibody therapies for other diseases in NHP. IMPORTANCE Antibodies against HIV are potential drugs that may be able to prevent HIV infection in humans. However, the long-term protective capacity of antibodies against HIV has not been assessed. Here, we repetitively administered a macaque version of a human anti-HIV antibody to monkeys, after which the antibody persisted in the blood for >5 months. Moreover, the antibody could be sustained at protective levels for 108 days, conferring protection 52 days after the last dose in a monkey model of HIV infection. Thus, passive antibody transfer can provide durable protection against infection by viruses that cause AIDS in primates. PMID:25787288

  16. Insertion of primary syncytium-inducing (SI) and non-SI envelope V3 loops in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) LAI reduces neutralization sensitivity to autologous, but not heterologous, HIV-1 antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Hogervorst, E; de Jong, J; van Wijk, A; Bakker, M; Valk, M; Nara, P; Goudsmit, J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of V3 loops from naturally occurring viruses on the neutralization sensitivity of a molecularly cloned virus. A selection of well-defined syncytium-inducing (SI) and non-SI V3 loops of a single human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individual (H594) and the V3 regions of two SI laboratory strains were inserted in an infectious molecular clone of human immunodeficiency type 1 LAI. Neutralization was performed with a heterologous serum pool and autologous patient serum, using the virus reduction neutralization assay and peripheral blood lymphocytes as target cells. High sensitivity of the chimeric viruses containing the laboratory strain V3 regions to neutralization by H594 sequential sera as well as the heterologous serum pool was found. A statistically significant correlation between the sensitivities of these viruses was seen. In contrast, insertion of the primary isolate NSI and SI envelope V3 loops significantly reduced the neutralization by autologous serum but not by the heterologous serum pool. No correlation was found between the neutralization of the viruses with laboratory strain-derived V3 regions and the viruses with primary isolate V3 domains. We conclude that heterologous antibodies are able to neutralize infectious molecular clones with V3 loops of both SI and NSI viruses, regardless of whether they originated from laboratory strains or primary isolates. However, serum of patient H594 discriminated between the two types of viruses and showed reduced neutralization of the viruses with the autologous NSI and SI primary isolate V3 loops. These results indicated that the neutralization sensitivity of the viruses depended on the capacity of the V3 region to influence the conformation of the virus envelope. These V3-dependent conformational changes partially explain the neutralization sensitivity of laboratory strains and the relative neutralization resistance of primary isolates. PMID:7666535

  17. Production of site-selected neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies against the third variable domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Gorny, M K; Xu, J Y; Gianakakos, V; Karwowska, S; Williams, C; Sheppard, H W; Hanson, C V; Zolla-Pazner, S

    1991-01-01

    Cell lines secreting IgG1 human monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to the envelope glycoprotein, gp120, of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been produced by transformation of peripheral blood cells from HIV-infected individuals and by fusion of transformed cells to a human-mouse heteromyeloma cell line (SHM-D33). Two human mAbs were site-selected by means of a 23-mer synthetic peptide spanning a portion of the third variable domain of gp120 from the MN strain of HIV. The two heterohybridomas produce three times more IgG than do their parent lymphoblastoid cell lines. The specificities of these mAbs have been mapped to sequences near the tip of the disulfide loop of the gp120 third variable domain, Lys-Arg-Ile-His-Ile and His-Ile-Gly-Pro-Gly-Arg, respectively. The mAbs have dissociation constants of 3.7 x 10(-6) M and 8.3 x 10(-7) M, neutralize HIVMN in vitro at nanogram levels, and bear the characteristics of antibodies associated with protective immunity in vivo. Images PMID:2014246

  18. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA, but also Nonantibody Factors, Account for In Vitro Neutralization of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Type 1 Primary Isolates by Serum and Plasma of HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burrer, Renaud; Salmon-Ceron, Dominique; Richert, Sophie; Pancino, Gianfranco; Spiridon, Gabriella; Haessig, Sandrine; Roques, Virginie; Barre-Sinoussi, Francoise; Aubertin, Anne-Marie; Moog, Christiane

    2001-01-01

    The factors present in serum and plasma samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients that are responsible for the neutralization of four HIV type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates in vitro have been analyzed. Purification of immunoglobulins (Ig) by affinity chromatography showed that the activities were mostly attributable to IgG and less frequently to IgA. For two samples, we have shown that the high-level and broad-spectrum inhibitory activity was essentially caused by non-Ig factors interfering with the measurement of antibody-specific neutralizing activity. PMID:11333928

  19. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA, but also nonantibody factors, account for in vitro neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 primary isolates by serum and plasma of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Burrer, R; Salmon-Ceron, D; Richert, S; Pancino, G; Spiridon, G; Haessig, S; Roques, V; Barre-Sinoussi, F; Aubertin, A M; Moog, C

    2001-06-01

    The factors present in serum and plasma samples of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients that are responsible for the neutralization of four HIV type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates in vitro have been analyzed. Purification of immunoglobulins (Ig) by affinity chromatography showed that the activities were mostly attributable to IgG and less frequently to IgA. For two samples, we have shown that the high-level and broad-spectrum inhibitory activity was essentially caused by non-Ig factors interfering with the measurement of antibody-specific neutralizing activity. PMID:11333928

  20. The Neutralization Sensitivity of Viruses Representing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Variants of Diverse Subtypes from Early in Infection is Dependent on Producer Cell, as well as Characteristics of the Specific Antibody and Envelope Variant

    PubMed Central

    Provine, Nicholas M.; Cortez, Valerie; Chohan, Vrasha; Overbaugh, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Neutralization properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) are often defined using pseudoviruses grown in transformed cells, which are not biologically relevant HIV-1 producer cells. Little information exists on how these viruses compare to viruses produced in primary lymphocytes, particularly for globally relevant HIV-1 strains. Therefore, replication-competent chimeras encoding envelope variants from the dominant HIV-1 subtypes (A, C, and D) obtained early after infection were generated and the neutralization properties explored. Pseudoviruses generated in 293T cells were the most sensitive to antibody neutralization. Replicating viruses generated in primary lymphocytes were most resistant to neutralization by plasma antibodies and most monoclonal antibodies (b12, 4E10, 2F5, VRC01). These differences were not associated with differences in envelope content. Surprisingly, the virus source did not impact neutralization sensitivity of most viruses to PG9. These findings suggest that producer cell type has a major effect on neutralization sensitivity, but in an antibody dependent manner. PMID:22369748

  1. Potent and synergistic neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 primary isolates by hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin combined with monoclonal antibodies 2F5 and 2G12.

    PubMed Central

    Mascola, J R; Louder, M K; VanCott, T C; Sapan, C V; Lambert, J S; Muenz, L R; Bunow, B; Birx, D L; Robb, M L

    1997-01-01

    Three antibody reagents that neutralize primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates were tested for magnitude and breadth of neutralization when used alone or in double or triple combinations. Hyperimmune anti-HIV immunoglobulin (HIVIG) is derived from the plasma of HIV-1-infected donors, and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) 2F5 and 2G12 bind to distinct regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. The antibodies were initially tested against a panel of 15 clade B HIV-1 isolates, using a single concentration that is achievable in vivo (HIVIG, 2,500 microg/ml; MAbs, 25 microg/ml). Individual antibody reagents neutralized many of the viruses tested, but antibody potency varied substantially among the viruses. The virus neutralization produced by double combinations of HIVIG plus 2F5 or 2G12, the two MAbs together, or the triple combination of HIVIG, 2F5, and 2G12 was generally equal to or greater than that predicted by the effect of individual antibodies. Overall, the triple combination displayed the greatest magnitude and breadth of neutralization. Synergistic neutralization was evaluated by analyzing data from dose-response curves of each individual antibody reagent compared to the triple combination and was demonstrated against each of four viruses tested. Therefore, combinations of polyclonal and monoclonal anti-HIV antibodies can produce additive or synergistic neutralization of primary HIV-1 isolates. Passive immunotherapy for treatment or prophylaxis of HIV-1 should consider mixtures of potent neutralizing antibody reagents to expand the magnitude and breadth of virus neutralization. PMID:9311792

  2. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  3. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  4. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  5. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  6. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50...

  7. Immunizations of monkeys with synthetic peptides disclose conserved areas on gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 associated with cross-neutralizing antibodies and T-cell recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Vahlne, A; Horal, P; Eriksson, K; Jeansson, S; Rymo, L; Hedstrm, K G; Czerkinsky, C; Holmgren, J; Svennerholm, B

    1991-01-01

    Site-directed immunization was employed to identify sites on the envelope glycoprotein gp120 for antibody-mediated neutralization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antisera were raised in monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) against a series of 40 overlapping synthetic peptides covering the entire amino acid sequence of gp120 from the HTLV-IIIB strain of HIV-1. Immune sera against 12 of these peptides were reactive with gp120 by immunoblotting analysis, and antisera raised against 5 peptides, corresponding to amino acids (aa) 152-176, 193-218, 206-230, 248-269, and 307-330, were highly efficient in neutralizing HIV-1 (HTLV-IIIB) infectivity in vitro. Admixture of individual neutralizing anti-peptide monkey sera resulted in increment in neutralizing antibody titer. Antisera with reactivity to the relatively conserved regions defined by aa 152-176, 193-230, and 248-269 also neutralized to different extents the infectivity of the five Swedish clinical isolates of HIV-1 tested. Only a few HIV-1-infected people were found to make antibodies to these three conserved domains of gp120 as judged by ELISA using synthetic peptides as antigens. Three of the peptides (aa 152-176, 248-269, and 307-330) that induced neutralization antibodies also induced interleukin 2 production and lymphocyte proliferation when added to cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from monkeys immunized with the corresponding peptides, indicating that these domains accommodate T-cell recognition sites. The results have obvious implications for the rational design of subunit vaccines against HIV-1 infection. PMID:1961741

  8. Neutralization of Tier-2 Viruses and Epitope Profiling of Plasma Antibodies from Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected Donors from India

    PubMed Central

    Andrabi, Raiees; Bala, Manju; Kumar, Rajesh; Wig, Naveet; Hazarika, Anjali; Luthra, Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Broadly cross neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are generated in a group of HIV-1 infected individuals during the natural infection, but little is known about their prevalence in patients infected with viral subtypes from different geographical regions. We tested here the neutralizing efficiency of plasma antibodies from 80 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral drug naive patients against a panel of subtype-B and C tier 2 viruses. We detected cross-neutralizing antibodies in approximately 1927% of the plasma, however the subtype-C specific neutralization efficiency predominated (p?=?0.004). The neutralizing activity was shown to be exclusively mediated by the immunoglobulin G (IgG) fraction in the representative plasma samples. Epitope mapping of three, the most cross-neutralizing plasma (CNP) AIIMS206, AIIMS239 and AIIMS249 with consensus-C overlapping envelope peptides revealed ten different binding specificities with only V3 and IDR being common. The V3 and IDR were highly antigenic regions but no correlation between their reciprocal Max50 binding titers and neutralization was observed. In addition, the neutralizing activity of CNP was not substantially reduced by V3 and gp41 peptides except a modest contribution of MPER peptide. The MPER was rarely recognized by plasma antibodies though antibody depletion and competition experiments demonstrated MPER dependent neutralization in two out of three CNP. Interestingly, the binding specificity of one of the CNP (AIIMS206) overlapped with broadly neutralizing mAb 2F5 epitope. Overall, the data suggest that, despite the low immunogenicity of HIV-1 MPER, the antibodies directed to this region may serve as crucial reagents for HIV-1 vaccine design. PMID:22952740

  9. Studies of neutralizing monoclonal antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase: antagonistic and synergistic effects in reactions performed in the presence of nucleoside and nonnucleoside inhibitors, respectively.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z; Li, X; Quan, Y; Parniak, M A; Wainberg, M A

    1996-01-01

    We have assessed interactions between the reverse transcriptase (RT) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (1E8) that hinders binding of deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) substrates. Steady-state reactions with homopolymeric template-primers revealed that 1E8 antagonized inhibition of RT activity mediated by 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine triphosphate and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine triphosphate. However, an additive or synergistic inhibition of RT polymerase activity was noted when 1E8 and the nonnucleoside RT inhibitors nevirapine and delavirdine were studied. Chain elongation and dNTP incorporation studies using an HIV-1 genome-derived heteropolymeric template and either oligodeoxynucleotide or tRNA3(Lys) as the primer yielded results consistent with the above observations. 1E8 also increased pausing at certain sites during synthesis of negative-strand, strong-stop DNA, whether or not ddNTP and nonnucleoside RT inhibitors were present. PMID:8642696

  10. Immunodeficiency disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... HIV in their immune systems and improve their immunity. Patients who are going to have a planned ... be used to treat certain immunodeficiency conditions. Passive immunity (receiving antibodies produced by another person or animal) ...

  11. Emergence of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies and Viral Coevolution in Two Subjects during the Early Stages of Infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Carbonetti, Sara; Malherbe, Delphine C.; Pissani, Franco; Stuart, Andrew B.; Hessell, Ann J.; Gray, Mathew D.; Mikell, Iliyana; Kalams, Spyros A.; Haigwood, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Delineating the key early events that lead to the development of broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies during natural infection may help guide the development of immunogens and vaccine regimens to prevent HIV-1 infection. In this study, we monitored two HIV-1-positive subjects, VC20013 and VC10014, over the course of infection from before they developed broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) activity until several years after neutralizing breadth was detected in plasma. Both subjects developed bNAb activity after approximately 1 year postinfection, which ultimately mapped to the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) in VC20013 and an epitope that overlaps the CD4 receptor binding site in VC10014. In subject VC20013, we were able to identify anti-MPER activity in the earliest plasma sample that exhibited no bNAb activity, indicating that this epitope specificity was acquired very early on, but that it was initially not able to mediate neutralization. Escape mutations within the bNAb epitopes did not arise in the circulating envelopes until bNAb activity was detectable in plasma, indicating that this early response was not sufficient to drive viral escape. As bNAb activity began to emerge in both subjects, we observed a simultaneous increase in autologous antienvelope antibody binding affinity, indicating that antibody maturation was occurring as breadth was developing. Our findings illustrate one potential mechanism by which bNAbs develop during natural infection in which an epitope target is acquired very early on during the course of infection but require time and maturation to develop into broadly neutralizing activity. IMPORTANCE One major goal of HIV-1 vaccine research is the development of a vaccine that can elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Although no such vaccine exists, bNAbs develop in approximately 20% of HIV-1-infected subjects, providing a prototype of the bNAbs that must be reelicited by vaccine. Thus, there is significant interest in understanding the mechanisms by which bNAbs develop during the course of infection. We studied the timing, epitope specificity, and evolution of the bNAb responses in two HIV-1-positive patients who developed bNAb activity within the first several years after infection. In one subject, antibodies to a broadly neutralizing epitope developed very early but were nonneutralizing. After several months, neutralizing activity developed, and the virus mutated to escape their activity. Our study highlights one mechanism for the development of bNAbs where early epitope acquisition followed by sufficient time for antibody maturation drives the epitope-specific antibody response toward broadly neutralizing activity. PMID:25122781

  12. Functional role of the V1/V2 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 in infection of primary macrophages and soluble CD4 neutralization.

    PubMed Central

    Koito, A; Harrowe, G; Levy, J A; Cheng-Mayer, C

    1994-01-01

    We have examined the influence of the V1/V2 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 on certain biologic properties of the virus. We observed that on the genomic background of the T-cell-line-tropic strain, HIV-1SF2mc, both the V1 and V2 domains of the macrophage-tropic strain, HIV-1SF162mc, in addition to the required V3 domain, are necessary to attain full macrophage tropism. Furthermore, the V2 domain modulates the sensitivity of HIV-1 to soluble CD4 neutralization. Structural studies of recombinant and mutant envelope glycoproteins suggest that the function of the V1/V2 region is to interact with the V3 domain and confer on the envelope gp120 of HIV-1SF2mc a conformation more similar to that of the macrophage-tropic strain HIV-1SF162mc. The conformation of the envelope gp120 appears to be strain specific and plays an important role in determining HIV-1 tissue tropism and sensitivity to soluble CD4 neutralization. Images PMID:8139010

  13. Scorpion-Toxin Mimics of CD4 in Complex with Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp120: Crystal Structures, Molecular Mimicry, and Neutralization Breadth

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chih-chin; Stricher, Francois; Martin, Loic; Decker, Julie M.; Majeed, Shahzad; Barthe, Phillippe; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Robinson, James; Roumestand, Christian; Sodroski, Joseph; Wyatt, Richard; Shaw, George M.; Vita, Claudio; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-07-19

    The binding surface on CD4 for the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein has been transplanted previously onto a scorpion-toxin scaffold. Here, we use X-ray crystallography to characterize atomic-level details of gp120 with this transplant, CD4M33. Despite known envelope flexibility, the conformation of gp120 induced by CD4M33 was so similar to that induced by CD4 that localized measures were required to distinguish ligand-induced differences from lattice variation. To investigate relationships between structure, function, and mimicry, an F23 analog of CD4M33 was devised. Structural and thermodynamic analyses showed F23 to be a better molecular mimic of CD4 than CD4M33. F23 also showed increased neutralization breadth, against diverse isolates of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIVcpz. Our results lend insight into the stability of the CD4 bound conformation of gp120, define measures that quantify molecular mimicry as a function of evolutionary distance, and suggest how such evaluations might be useful in developing mimetic antagonists with increased neutralization breadth.

  14. Specific N-linked and O-linked glycosylation modifications in the envelope V1 domain of simian immunodeficiency virus variants that evolve in the host alter recognition by neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chackerian, B; Rudensey, L M; Overbaugh, J

    1997-10-01

    During progression to AIDS in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Mne-infected macaques, viral variants are selected that encode sequences with serine and threonine changes in variable region 1 (V1) of the surface component of the viral envelope protein (Env-SU). Because these serine and threonine amino acid changes are characteristic of sites for O-linked and N-linked glycosylation, we examined whether they were targets for modification by carbohydrates. For this purpose, we used several biochemical methods for analyzing the Env-SU protein encoded by chimeras of SIVMneCL8 and envelope sequences cloned from an SIVMneCL8-infected Macaca nemestrina during clinical latency and just after the onset of AIDS. The addition of an N-linked glycan was demonstrated by changes in the electrophoretic mobility of Env-SU, and this was verified by specific glycanase digestions and a detailed analysis of the molecular mass of partially purified Env-SU by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Molecular mass calculations by MALDI-TOF MS also demonstrated an increased mass, from 102.3 to 103.5 kDa, associated with serine and threonine residues predicted to be O-linked glycosylation sites. Together, these data provide the first direct evidence that the carbohydrate profile of Env-SU is distinct in SIV variants that evolve during infection of the host. Moreover, our studies show that these changes in glycosylation in V1 were directly associated with changes in antigenicity. Specifically, serine and threonine changes in V1 allowed the virus to escape neutralization by macaque sera that contained antibodies that could neutralize the parental virus, SIVMneCL8. The escape from antibody recognition appeared to be influenced by either O-linked or N-linked carbohydrate additions in V1. Moreover, when glycine residues were engineered at the positions where serine and threonine changes evolve in V1 of SIVMneCL8, there was no change in antigenicity compared to SIVMneCL8. This suggests that the amino acids in V1 are not part of the linear epitope recognized by neutralizing antibody. More likely, V1-associated carbohydrates mask the major neutralizing epitope of SIV. These experiments indicate that the selection of novel glycosylation sites in the V1 region of envelope during the course of disease is driven by humoral immune responses. PMID:9311856

  15. Neutralizing antibodies directed against the V3 loop select for different escape variants in a virus with mutated reverse transcriptase (M184V) than in wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Inouye, P; Cherry, E; Hsu, M; Zolla-Pazner, S; Wainberg, M A

    1998-06-10

    The M184V substitution in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) encodes high-level resistance to the (-)-enantiomer of 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC) and low-level resistance to each of 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) and 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI). This mutation also results in decreased HIV replication fitness in primary cells, diminished RT processivity, and increased RT fidelity. To assess the effect of this substitution on genetic variation in the HIV env region, we cultured both M184V-containing and wild-type BH10 in MT-4 cells in the presence of the neutralizing monoclonal antibody 447-52D, targeted to the GPGR epitope within the V3 loop of gp120. Outgrowth of viruses resistant to neutralization was followed by sequence analysis of the V3 loop by standard methodology. Wild-type HIV first showed escape after 15-22 days in culture. Sequence analysis revealed an arginine-to-lysine change within the GPGR epitope in the V3 loop (R20K, AGA --> AAA) in six of six clones sequenced after day 36. In contrast, M184V-containing HIV first showed escape between days 25 and 32 and sequence analysis revealed an aspartate-to-tyrosine change at amino acid 5 in V3 (N5Y; AAC --> TAC) in two of six clones at day 36 and in five of five clones at day 55. Similar results were obtained in two independent antibody selection protocols. The escape mutation in the wild type is consistent with the G --> A hypermutation observed in wild-type HIV-1, recently shown to cause an initial M184I change (before M184V) in 3TC-treated patients. In contrast, the N5Y substitution seen with M184V-containing HIV-1 is an A --> T transversion in V3. PMID:9643373

  16. A Yeast Glycoprotein Shows High-Affinity Binding to the Broadly Neutralizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody 2G12 and Inhibits gp120 Interactions with 2G12 and DC-SIGN▿

    PubMed Central

    Luallen, Robert J.; Fu, Hu; Agrawal-Gamse, Caroline; Mboudjeka, Innocent; Huang, Wei; Lee, Fang-Hua; Wang, Lai-Xi; Doms, Robert W.; Geng, Yu

    2009-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) protein contains numerous N-linked carbohydrates that shield conserved peptide epitopes and promote trans infection by dendritic cells via binding to cell surface lectins. The potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 binds a cluster of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides on the gp120 subunit of Env, revealing a conserved and highly exposed epitope on the glycan shield. To find an effective antigen for eliciting 2G12-like antibodies, we searched for endogenous yeast proteins that could bind to 2G12 in a panel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation knockouts and discovered one protein that bound weakly in a Δpmr1 strain deficient in hyperglycosylation. 2G12 binding to this protein, identified as Pst1, was enhanced by adding the Δmnn1 deletion to the Δpmr1 background, ensuring the exposure of terminal α1,2-linked mannose residues on the D1 and D3 arms of high-mannose glycans. However, optimum 2G12 antigenicity was found when Pst1, a heavily N-glycosylated protein, was expressed with homogenous Man8GlcNAc2 structures in Δoch1 Δmnn1 Δmnn4 yeast. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of this form of Pst1 showed high affinity for 2G12, which translated into Pst1 efficiently inhibiting gp120 interactions with 2G12 and DC-SIGN and blocking 2G12-mediated neutralization of HIV-1 pseudoviruses. The high affinity of the yeast glycoprotein Pst1 for 2G12 highlights its potential as a novel antigen to induce 2G12-like antibodies. PMID:19264785

  17. A yeast glycoprotein shows high-affinity binding to the broadly neutralizing human immunodeficiency virus antibody 2G12 and inhibits gp120 interactions with 2G12 and DC-SIGN.

    PubMed

    Luallen, Robert J; Fu, Hu; Agrawal-Gamse, Caroline; Mboudjeka, Innocent; Huang, Wei; Lee, Fang-Hua; Wang, Lai-Xi; Doms, Robert W; Geng, Yu

    2009-05-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) protein contains numerous N-linked carbohydrates that shield conserved peptide epitopes and promote trans infection by dendritic cells via binding to cell surface lectins. The potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 binds a cluster of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides on the gp120 subunit of Env, revealing a conserved and highly exposed epitope on the glycan shield. To find an effective antigen for eliciting 2G12-like antibodies, we searched for endogenous yeast proteins that could bind to 2G12 in a panel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation knockouts and discovered one protein that bound weakly in a Delta pmr1 strain deficient in hyperglycosylation. 2G12 binding to this protein, identified as Pst1, was enhanced by adding the Delta mnn1 deletion to the Delta pmr1 background, ensuring the exposure of terminal alpha1,2-linked mannose residues on the D1 and D3 arms of high-mannose glycans. However, optimum 2G12 antigenicity was found when Pst1, a heavily N-glycosylated protein, was expressed with homogenous Man(8)GlcNAc(2) structures in Delta och1 Delta mnn1 Delta mnn4 yeast. Surface plasmon resonance analysis of this form of Pst1 showed high affinity for 2G12, which translated into Pst1 efficiently inhibiting gp120 interactions with 2G12 and DC-SIGN and blocking 2G12-mediated neutralization of HIV-1 pseudoviruses. The high affinity of the yeast glycoprotein Pst1 for 2G12 highlights its potential as a novel antigen to induce 2G12-like antibodies. PMID:19264785

  18. Structure-Based Design of a Protein Immunogen that Displays an HIV-1 gp41 Neutralizing Epitope

    SciTech Connect

    Stanfield, Robyn L.; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Pejchal, Robert; Gach, Johannes S.; Zwick, Michael B.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-06-27

    Antibody Z13e1 is a relatively broadly neutralizing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody that recognizes the membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. Based on the crystal structure of an MPER epitope peptide in complex with Z13e1 Fab, we identified an unrelated protein, interleukin (IL)-22, with a surface-exposed region that is structurally homologous in its backbone to the gp41 Z13e1 epitope. By grafting the gp41 Z13e1 epitope sequence onto the structurally homologous region in IL-22, we engineered a novel protein (Z13-IL22-2) that contains the MPER epitope sequence for use as a potential immunogen and as a reagent for the detection of Z13e1-like antibodies. The Z13-IL22-2 protein binds Fab Z13e1 with a K{sub d} of 73 nM. The crystal structure of Z13-IL22-2 in complex with Fab Z13e1 shows that the epitope region is faithfully replicated in the Fab-bound scaffold protein; however, isothermal calorimetry studies indicate that Fab binding to Z13-IL22-2 is not a lock-and-key event, leaving open the question of whether conformational changes upon binding occur in the Fab, in Z13-IL-22, or in both.

  19. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  20. Design of a novel cyclotide-based CXCR4 antagonist with anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Aboye, Teshome L.; Ha, Helen; Majumber, Subhabrata; Christ, Frauke; Debyser, Zeger; Shekhtman, Alexander; Neamati, Nouri; Camarero, Julio A.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we report for the first time the design and synthesis of a novel cyclotide able to efficiently inhibit HIV-1 viral replication by selectively targeting cytokine receptor CXCR4. This was accomplished by grafting a series of topologically modified CVX15 based peptides onto the loop 6 of cyclotide MCoTI-I. The most active compound produced in this study was a potent CXCR4 antagonist (EC50 ≈ 20 nM) and an efficient HIV-1 cell-entry blocker (EC50 ≈ 2 nM). This cyclotide also showed high stability in human serum thereby providing a promising lead compound for the design of a novel type of peptide-based anti-cancer and anti-HIV-1 therapeutics. PMID:23151033

  1. Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Activity of Thiol-Ene Carbosilane Dendrimers and Their Potential Development as a Topical Microbicide.

    PubMed

    Snchez-Rodrguez, Javier; Daz, Laura; Galn, Marta; Maly, Marek; Gmez, Rafael; Javier de la Mata, F; Jimnez, Jos L; Muoz-Fernndez, M Angeles

    2015-10-01

    The concept of a "microbicide" was born out of the lack of a vaccine against HIV and the difficulty of women in ensuring the use of preventive prophylaxis by their partners, especially in developing countries. Approaches using polyanionic carbosilane dendrimers have shown promise in the development of new microbicides. We have developed and evaluated two anionic carbosilane dendrimers with sulfonate and carboxylate terminal groups, G2-STE16 and G2-CTE16. Both dendrimers showed high biosafety in human epithelial cell lines derived from the vagina and in primary blood human cells (PBMCs). The dendrimers not only have a greater capacity to block the entry of different X4- and R5-HIV-1 isolates into epithelial cells but also prevent the HIV-1 infection of activated PBMCs. The treatment of epithelial cells with different carbosilane dendrimers did not produce changes in the activation or proliferation of PBMCs or in the expression of CD4, CCR5 or CXCR4. Computational modeling showed significantly higher affinities for the complexes G2-STE16/gp120 and G2-CTE16/gp120. Moreover, no irritation or vaginal lesions were detected in female BALB/c mice after vaginal administration of the dendrimers. Summing up, G2-STE16 and G2-CTE16 are easy to synthesize and compatible with functional groups, and the purification steps are easy and short. Our results have clearly demonstrated that these dendrimers have high potency as a topical microbicide against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26502641

  2. Roles of osteoclasts and bone-derived IGFs in the survival and growth of human breast cancer cells in human adult bone implanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Sangai, Takafumi; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Shin'ichi; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Michio; Ishii, Genichiro; Nagai, Kanji; Nagashima, Takeshi; Miyazaki, Masaru; Ochiai, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    Human breast cancer frequently metastasizes to bone, and effective therapies for patients with bone metastasis are required. However, the molecular mechanism for the bone metastasis of human breast cancer has not yet been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to evaluate the importance of active osteoclasts and bone-derived insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) for the survival and growth of breast cancer cells in bone. Human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 cells were injected into human adult bone (HAB) implanted into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. The mice were then treated with recombinant human osteoclastogenesis inhibitory factor/osteoprotegerin (rhOCIF/OPG), a decoy receptor for receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), or an anti-human IGF monoclonal antibody. Histomorphometric analyses revealed that both treatments significantly decreased the tumor area of MCF-7 cells in cross-sections of the implanted HAB to about 30% of the tumor area in control mice, but had no effect on the growth of subcutaneously injected MCF-7 cells. Consistent with the results for the tumor area in HAB, there were fewer osteoclasts in the implanted HAB in rhOCIF/OPG-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. However, treatment with the anti-human IGF monoclonal antibody had no effect on the number of osteoclasts in HAB. The results indicate that the active osteoclasts induced by RANKL and the IGFs released as a result of bone resorption by these osteoclasts play crucial roles in the survival and growth of human breast cancer cells in bone and suggest that neutralization of bone-derived IGFs will be effective in preventing the development of bone tumors in breast cancer patients. PMID:18307047

  3. Development of new versions of anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies with potentially reduced immunogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Qian Weizhu; Wang Ling; Li Bohua; Wang Hao; Hou Sheng; Hong Xueyu; Zhang Dapeng; Guo Yajun

    2008-03-07

    Despite the widespread clinical use of CD34 antibodies for the purification of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, all the current anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are murine, which have the potential to elicit human antimouse antibody (HAMA) immune response. In the present study, we developed three new mouse anti-human CD34 mAbs which, respectively, belonged to class I, class II and class III CD34 epitope antibodies. In an attempt to reduce the immunogenicity of these three murine mAbs, their chimeric antibodies, which consisted of mouse antibody variable regions fused genetically to human antibody constant regions, were constructed and characterized. The anti-CD34 chimeric antibodies were shown to possess affinity and specificity similar to that of their respective parental murine antibodies. Due to the potentially better safety profiles, these chimeric antibodies might become alternatives to mouse anti-CD34 antibodies routinely used for clinical application.

  4. Gene therapy for immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Candotti, F

    2001-09-01

    Since the early 1990s, primary immunodeficiency (ID) disorders have played a major role in the development of human gene therapy. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency was the first disease to be treated with a gene therapy approach in humans, and was also the first condition for which therapeutic gene transfer into the hematopoietic stem cell has been attempted in the clinical arena. A series of encouraging results obtained in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) patients have followed these pioneer experiments and preceded the very recent and exciting reports of successful genetic correction procedures performed in patients affected with the X-linked form of severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID). The technical progress made in the field of gene transfer in recent years is mostly responsible for these clinical advances, and will be critical for future development of gene therapy approaches for other forms of IDs. PMID:11892066

  5. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    PubMed

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  6. ELPylated anti-human TNF therapeutic single-domain antibodies for prevention of lethal septic shock.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Udo; Plagmann, Ingo; Malchow, Sven; Sack, Markus; Floss, Doreen M; Kruglov, Andrei A; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Rose-John, Stefan; Scheller, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in multiple inflammatory diseases. The detrimental activity of TNF can be blocked by various antagonists, and commercial therapeutics based upon this principle have been approved for treatment of diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. In a search for new, improved anti-inflammatory therapeutics we have designed a single-domain monoclonal antibody (V(H) H), which recognizes TNF. The antibody component (TNF-V(H) H) is based upon an anti-human TNF Camelidae heavy-chain monoclonal antibody, which was linked to an elastin-like polypeptide (ELP). We demonstrate that ELP fusion to the TNF-V(H) H enhances accumulation of the fusion protein during biomanufacturing in transgenic tobacco plants. With this study, we show for the first time that this plant-derived anti-human TNF-V(H) H antibody was biologically active in vivo. Therefore, therapeutic application of TNF-V(H) H-ELP fusion protein was tested in humanized TNF mice and was shown to be effective in preventing death caused by septic shock. The in vivo persistence of the ELPylated antibody was ∼24 fold longer than that of non-ELPylated TNF-V(H) H. PMID:20444206

  7. Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Biman; Gupta, Sudhir

    2016-04-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common primary immunodeficiency of young adolescents and adults which also affects the children. The disease remains largely under-diagnosed in India and Southeast Asian countries. Although in majority of cases it is sporadic, disease may be inherited in a autosomal recessive pattern and rarely, in autosomal dominant pattern. Patients, in addition to frequent sino-pulmonary infections, are also susceptible to various autoimmune diseases and malignancy, predominantly lymphoma and leukemia. Other characteristic lesions include lymphocytic and granulomatous interstitial lung disease, and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of gut. Diagnosis requires reduced levels of atleast two immunoglobulin isotypes: IgG with IgA and/or IgM and impaired specific antibody response to vaccines. A number of gene mutations have been described in CVID; however, these genetic alterations account for less than 20 % of cases of CVID. Flow cytometry aptly demonstrates a disturbed B cell homeostasis with reduced or absent memory B cells and increased CD21(low) B cells and transitional B cell populations. Approximately one-third of patients with CVID also display T cell functional defects. Immunoglobulin therapy remains the mainstay of treatment. Immunologists and other clinicians in India and other South East Asian countries need to be aware of CVID so that early diagnosis can be made, as currently, majority of these patients still go undiagnosed. PMID:26868026

  8. Space Flight Immunodeficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, William T.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has had sufficient concern for the well-being of astronauts traveling in space to create the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), which is investigating several areas of biomedical research including those of immunology. As part of the Immunology, Infection, and Hematology Team, the co-investigators of the Space Flight Immunodeficiency Project began their research projects on April 1, 1998 and are now just into the second year of work. Two areas of research have been targeted: 1) specific immune (especially antibody) responses and 2) non-specific inflammation and adhesion. More precise knowledge of these two areas of research will help elucidate the potential harmful effects of space travel on the immune system, possibly sufficient to create a secondary state of immunodeficiency in astronauts. The results of these experiments are likely to lead to the delineation of functional alterations in antigen presentation, specific immune memory, cytokine regulation of immune responses, cell to cell interactions, and cell to endothelium interactions.

  9. Follicular dendritic cells and human immunodeficiency virus infectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, Sonya L.; Tew, J. Grant; Tew, John G.; Szakal, Andras K.; Burton, Gregory F.

    1995-10-01

    LARGE amounts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) localize on follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in the follicles of secondary lymphoid tissues following viral infection1,2. During clinical latency, active viral infection occurs primarily at these sites3,4. As HIV on FDC is in the form of immune complexes5, some of which may be formed with neutralizing antibody, we investigated whether HIV on FDC is infectious. We report here that HIV on FDC is highly infectious. Furthermore, FDC can convert neutralized HIV into an infectious form even in the presence of a vast excess of neutralizing antibody. Thus FDC may provide a mechanism whereby HIV infection can continue in the presence of neutralizing antibody.

  10. Humoral immune response to the entire human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein made in insect cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rusche, J.R.; Lynn, D.L.; Robert-Guroff, M.; Langlois, A.J.; Lyerly, H.K.; Carson, H.; Krohn, K.; Ranki, A.; Gallo, R.C.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Putney, S.D.

    1987-10-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene was expressed in insect cells by using a Baculovirus expression vector. The protein has an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa, appears on the surface of infected insect cells, and does not appear to be cleaved to glycoproteins gp120 and gp41. Goats immunized with the 160-kDa protein have high titers of antibody that neutralizes virus infection as measured by viral gene expression or cell cytolysis. In addition, immune sera can block fusion of human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in culture. Both neutralization and fusion-blocking activities are bound to and eluted from immobilized gp120.

  11. Feline immunodeficiency virus latency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Despite highly effective anti-retroviral therapy, HIV is thought to persist in patients within long-lived cellular reservoirs in the form of a transcriptionally inactive (latent) integrated provirus. Lentiviral latency has therefore come to the forefront of the discussion on the possibility of a cure for HIV infection in humans. Animal models of lentiviral latency provide an essential tool to study mechanisms of latency and therapeutic manipulation. Of the three animal models that have been described, the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-infected cat is the most recent and least characterized. However, several aspects of this model make it attractive for latency research, and it may be complementary to other model systems. This article reviews what is known about FIV latency and chronic FIV infection and how it compares with that of other lentiviruses. It thereby offers a framework for the usefulness of this model in future research aimed at lentiviral eradication. PMID:23829177

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Uma; Sengupta, Nilanjan; Mukhopadhyay, Prasanta; Roy, Keshab Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients. PMID:22028995

  13. Recurrent Infections May Signal Immunodeficiencies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... content Conditions & Treatments Allergies Asthma Primary Immunodeficiency Disease Related Conditions Drug Guide Conditions Dictionary Just for Kids Library Videos Virtual Allergist Education & Training Careers in A/I Continuing Education Center Fellows-in- ...

  14. Consanguinity and primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Aldhekri, Hasan; Barbouche, Mohamed-Ridha; Rezaei, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders caused by defects in the immune system that predispose patients to infections, autoimmune diseases, lymphoproliferation and malignancies. Most PIDs are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern; therefore, they are more common in areas with high rates of consanguineous marriage. Reports about PIDs from these areas have demonstrated a peculiar prevalence of more severe forms of diseases compared to other regions, and patients born to consanguineous parents have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to other patients. Individuals at high risk of having a child with a PID who wish to have a healthy child have limited options, these include prenatal diagnosis and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. However, these options require a collaborative team of specialists and may not always be implemented due to geographic, religious, financial or social factors. The recent introduction of newborn-screening programs for a number of T and B lymphocyte deficiencies will facilitate early diagnosis and therapeutic interventions, which may include hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. There is a need for the implementation of strategies to increase public awareness of the health risks associated with consanguineous marriage. It should be stressed that genetic counseling should be an important component of the care of patients with PIDs as well as their families. PMID:25060276

  15. Priming of Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) CD8^+ Cytotoxic T Cells in vivo by Carrier-Free HIV Synthetic Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Mary Kate; Weinhold, Kent J.; Scearce, Richard M.; Washburn, Eileen M.; Clark, Cynthia A.; Palker, Thomas J.; Haynes, Barton F.

    1991-11-01

    The generation of antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is a critical component of the immune response to viral infections. A safe and nontoxic vaccine for AIDS would optimally use a carrier-free synthetic peptide immunogen containing only components of HIV necessary for induction of protective immune responses. We report that hybrid synthetic peptides containing either a HIV envelope gp120 T-cell determinant (T1) or the envelope gp41 fusion domain (F) N-terminal to HIV CTL determinants are capable of priming murine CD8^+, major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted anti-HIV CTLs in vivo. These data demonstrate that carrier-free, nonderivatized synthetic peptides can be used in vivo to induce anti-HIV CTL responses.

  16. Antiviral Drugs for Viruses Other Than Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Razonable, Raymund R.

    2011-01-01

    Most viral diseases, with the exception of those caused by human immunodeficiency virus, are self-limited illnesses that do not require specific antiviral therapy. The currently available antiviral drugs target 3 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, and influenza viruses. With the exception of the antisense molecule fomivirsen, all antiherpes drugs inhibit viral replication by serving as competitive substrates for viral DNA polymerase. Drugs for the treatment of influenza inhibit the ion channel M2 protein or the enzyme neuraminidase. Combination therapy with Interferon-? and ribavirin remains the backbone treatment for chronic hepatitis C; the addition of serine protease inhibitors improves the treatment outcome of patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with interferon or a combination of nucleos(t)ide analogues. Notably, almost all the nucleos(t) ide analogues for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B possess antihuman immunodeficiency virus properties, and they inhibit replication of hepatitis B virus by serving as competitive substrates for its DNA polymerase. Some antiviral drugs possess multiple potential clinical applications, such as ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C and respiratory syncytial virus and cidofovir for the treatment of cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. Drug resistance is an emerging threat to the clinical utility of antiviral drugs. The major mechanisms for drug resistance are mutations in the viral DNA polymerase gene or in genes that encode for the viral kinases required for the activation of certain drugs such as acyclovir and ganciclovir. Widespread antiviral resistance has limited the clinical utility of M2 inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of influenza infections. This article provides an overview of clinically available antiviral drugs for the primary care physician, with a special focus on pharmacology, clinical uses, and adverse effects. PMID:21964179

  17. Suppression of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in vivo by 9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl)adenine.

    PubMed Central

    Egberink, H; Borst, M; Niphuis, H; Balzarini, J; Neu, H; Schellekens, H; De Clercq, E; Horzinek, M; Koolen, M

    1990-01-01

    The acyclic purine nucleoside analogue 9-(2-phosphonomethoxyethyl)adenine [PMEA; formerly referred to as 9-(2-phosphonylmethoxyethyl)adenine] is a potent and selective inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro and of Moloney murine sarcoma virus-induced tumor formation in mice. In the latter system PMEA has stronger antiretroviral potency and selectivity than 3'-azido-3'-thymidine (AZT). We have now investigated the effect of the drug in cats infected with the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). In vitro, PMEA was found to efficiently block FIV replication in feline thymocytes (50% effective dose, 0.6 microM). When administered to cats at doses of 20, 5, or 2 mg/kg per day, PMEA caused a dose-dependent suppression of FIV replication and virus-specific antibody production. Seropositive field cats with signs of opportunistic infection (gingivitis, stomatitis, and diarrhea) showed clinical improvement during PMEA therapy (5 mg/kg per day) and recurrence of the disease after treatment was discontinued. Thus, FIV infection in cats is an excellent model to test the efficacy of selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents in vivo. Images PMID:2158102

  18. Anti-(human LFA-1) monoclonal antibodies bind P815 murine tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Palisson, M J; Altemeyer, A; Moosbrugger, I; Warter, S; Hauptmann, G; Bischoff, P

    1992-01-01

    Using anti-CD11a and anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed respectively against the alpha and the beta chains of LFA-1, we obtained an important and specific staining of P815 murine tumour cells. Both ascitic and cultured cells displayed a positive staining. Other murine tumours of haematopoietic origin, as well as lymphocytes or lymphoblasts from DBA/2 mice, were not labelled by the same monoclonal antibodies. These results were surprising since, to our knowledge, no case of cross-reaction between species has been reported with LFA-1. Moreover, competition assays showed that epitopes recognized by the two anti-CD11a antibodies were different from those identified by H35.89.9, a mAb raised against the murine LFA-1 alpha chain. Using allogeneic cytotoxic T lymphocytes, we also showed that anti-(human LFA-1) mAbs were unable to block the lysis of P815 by these effector cells. Thus, the putative functional properties of these structures, as well as their importance from an antigeneic point of view, remain to be assessed. PMID:1373342

  19. Actin cytoskeletal defects in immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Moulding, Dale A; Record, Julien; Malinova, Dessislava; Thrasher, Adrian J

    2013-01-01

    The importance of the cytoskeleton in mounting a successful immune response is evident from the wide range of defects that occur in actin-related primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Studies of these PIDs have revealed a pivotal role for the actin cytoskeleton in almost all stages of immune system function, from hematopoiesis and immune cell development, through to recruitment, migration, intercellular and intracellular signaling, and activation of both innate and adaptive immune responses. The major focus of this review is the immune defects that result from mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome gene (WAS), which have a broad impact on many different processes and give rise to clinically heterogeneous immunodeficiencies. We also discuss other related genetic defects and the possibility of identifying new genetic causes of cytoskeletal immunodeficiency. PMID:24117828

  20. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A ... weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can cause AIDS ( ...

  1. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    MedlinePLUS

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task ... final recommendation statement on Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) . This final recommendation statement applies to all ...

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

  3. Strong, specific anti-human leukemia antisera prepared with the use of purified cell membrane antigen.

    PubMed

    Negoro, S; Seon, B K

    1981-07-01

    Two rabbits immunized with 15 micrograms of a purified human thymus leukemia-associated antigen preparation and boosted once with the same amount of the antigen preparation yielded antisera that showed strong specificity for human leukemic T-cells without any prior absorptions. These antisera from the two rabbits showed a 50% killing of cells at antiserum dilutions of 5700- and 1600-fold, respectively, against JM, a leukemic T-cell line, and slightly weaker activity against MOLT-4, another leukemia T-cell line. These antisera, without any absorption, showed no or minimal reaction against two nonmalignant B-cell lines (RPMI 1788 and RPMI 8057), a leukemic non-T, non-B-cell line (NALM-16), a leukemic pre-B-cell line (NALM-1), normal peripheral blood lymphocytes, and T-cells isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Antiserum 7557, which showed the higher antibody activity, was further studied by an absorption test using various human cell lines. The antiserum showed strong activity against all three leukemic T-cell lines tested, i.e., CCRF-CEM, RPMI 8402, and CCRF-HSB-2, whereas it showed no significant activity against other cell lines which included two leukemic non-T, non-B-cell lines (KM-3 and NALM-6), NALM-1 and RPMI 1788. These are the first anti-human leukemia antisera, except for monoclonal hybridoma antibodies, that showed good specificity for leukemia cells without prior absorption. The present procedure of immunizing animals with a small amount of human thymus leukemia-associated antigen preparation isolated from cell membrane will also be useful for obtaining strong, specific antisera of other cell membrane antigens. PMID:6972802

  4. Characterization of a surrogate murine antibody to model anti-human CD3 therapies.

    PubMed

    Dpis, Fabien; Hatterer, Eric; Ballet, Romain; Daubeuf, Bruno; Cons, Laura; Glatt, Sophie; Reith, Walter; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Dean, Yann

    2013-01-01

    Fc-modified anti-human CD3? monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. These next generation mAbs have completed clinical trials in patients with type-1 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease demonstrating a narrow therapeutic window. Lowered doses are ineffective, yet higher pharmacologically-active doses cause an undesirable level of adverse events. Thus, there is a critical need for a return to bench research to explore ways of improving clinical outcomes. Indeed, we recently reported that a short course of treatment affords synergy, providing long-term disease amelioration when combining anti-mouse CD3 and anti-mouse tumor necrosis factor mAbs in experimental arthritis. Such strategies may widen the window between risk and benefit; however, to more accurately assess experimentally the biology and pharmacology, reagents that mimic the current development candidates were required. Consequently, we engineered an Fc-modified anti-mouse CD3? mAb, 2C11-Novi. Here, we report the functional characterization of 2C11-Novi demonstrating that it does not bind Fc?R in vitro and elicits little cytokine release in vivo, while maintaining classical pharmacodynamic effects (CD3-TCR downregulation and T cell killing). Furthermore, we observed that oral administration of 2C11-Novi ameliorated progression of remitting-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalitis in mice, significantly reducing the primary acute and subsequent relapse phase of the disease. With innovative approaches validated in two experimental models of human disease, 2C11-Novi represents a meaningful tool to conduct further mechanistic studies aiming at exploiting the immunoregulatory properties of Fc-modified anti-CD3 therapies via combination therapy using parenteral or oral routes of administration. PMID:23751612

  5. Characterization of a surrogate murine antibody to model anti-human CD3 therapies

    PubMed Central

    Dpis, Fabien; Hatterer, Eric; Ballet, Romain; Daubeuf, Bruno; Cons, Laura; Glatt, Sophie; Reith, Walter; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Dean, Yann

    2013-01-01

    Fc-modified anti-human CD3? monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. These next generation mAbs have completed clinical trials in patients with type-1 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease demonstrating a narrow therapeutic window. Lowered doses are ineffective, yet higher pharmacologically-active doses cause an undesirable level of adverse events. Thus, there is a critical need for a return to bench research to explore ways of improving clinical outcomes. Indeed, we recently reported that a short course of treatment affords synergy, providing long-term disease amelioration when combining anti-mouse CD3 and anti-mouse tumor necrosis factor mAbs in experimental arthritis. Such strategies may widen the window between risk and benefit; however, to more accurately assess experimentally the biology and pharmacology, reagents that mimic the current development candidates were required. Consequently, we engineered an Fc-modified anti-mouse CD3? mAb, 2C11-Novi. Here, we report the functional characterization of 2C11-Novi demonstrating that it does not bind Fc?R in vitro and elicits little cytokine release in vivo, while maintaining classical pharmacodynamic effects (CD3-TCR downregulation and T cell killing). Furthermore, we observed that oral administration of 2C11-Novi ameliorated progression of remitting-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalitis in mice, significantly reducing the primary acute and subsequent relapse phase of the disease. With innovative approaches validated in two experimental models of human disease, 2C11-Novi represents a meaningful tool to conduct further mechanistic studies aiming at exploiting the immunoregulatory properties of Fc-modified anti-CD3 therapies via combination therapy using parenteral or oral routes of administration. PMID:23751612

  6. Activities of Masked 2?,3?-Dideoxynucleoside Monophosphate Derivatives against Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Resting Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Aquaro, Stefano; Wedgwood, Orson; Yarnold, Christopher; Cahard, Dominique; Pathinara, Ranjith; McGuigan, Christopher; Calio', Raffaele; de Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2000-01-01

    The anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity of aryloxyphosphoramidate protides of a number of anti-HIV nucleoside analogues was assessed in resting primary monocyte-macrophages (M/M). While 2?,3?-dideoxythymidine (d4T), 2?,3?-dideoxyadenosine (ddA), and 2?,3?-dideoxy-2?,3?-didehydroadenosine (d4A) protides showed an anti-HIV activity that was 25- to 625-fold greater than the parent nucleotides d4T, ddA, and d4A, respectively, other aryloxyphosphoramidate protides showed similar or even lower anti-HIV activities than their parent compounds. This variable anti-HIV effect is most likely related to the different dynamics of intracellular nucleoside monophosphate release from the protides. Our results indicate the potential advantage of therapeutic use of this approach for some nucleotide analogues to affect HIV replication in M/M, one of the major reservoirs of HIV in vivo. PMID:10602742

  7. Diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin for targeting human CCR4(+) cells invivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Wei, Min; Zhang, Huiping; Chen, Hongyuan; Germana, Sharon; Huang, Christene A; Madsen, Joren C; Sachs, David H; Wang, Zhirui

    2015-08-01

    CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) has attracted much attention as a promising therapeutic drug target for CCR4(+) tumor cells and Tregs. CCR4 is expressed on some tumor cells such as T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), adult peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) and cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). CCR4 is also expressed on majority of Tregs, mainly effector Tregs. In this study we have successfully developed three versions of diphtheria-toxin based anti-human CCR4 immunotoxins (monovalent, bivalent and single-chain fold-back diabody). Binding analysis by flow cytometry showed that all three versions of the anti-human CCR4 immunotoxins bound to the human CCR4(+) tumor cell line as well as CCR4(+) human PBMC. The bivalent isoform bound stronger than its monovalent counterpart and the single-chain foldback diabody isoform was the strongest among the three versions. Invitro efficacy analysis demonstrated that the bivalent isoform was 20 fold more potent in inhibiting cellular proliferation and protein synthesis in human CCR4(+) tumor cells compared to the monovalent anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin. The single-chain fold-back diabody isoform was 10 fold more potent than its bivalent counterpart and 200 fold more potent than its monovalent counterpart. The invivo efficacy was assessed using a human CCR4(+) tumor-bearing mouse model. The immunotoxin significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing NOD/SCID IL-2 receptor ?(-/-) (NSG) mice injected with human CCR4(+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with the control group. This novel anti-human CCR4 immunotoxin is a promising drug candidate for targeting human CCR4(+) tumor cells and Tregs invivo. PMID:25958791

  8. Primary immunodeficiencies underlying fungal infections

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Cypowyj, Sophie; Picard, Capucine; Bustamante, Jacinta; Lortholary, Olivier; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review We review the primary immunodeficiencies underlying an increasing variety of superficial and invasive fungal infections. We also stress that the occurrence of such fungal infections should lead physicians to search for the corresponding single-gene inborn errors of immunity. Finally, we suggest that other fungal infections may also result from hitherto unknown inborn errors of immunity, at least in some patients with no known risk factors. Recent findings An increasing number of primary immunodeficiencies are being shown to underlie fungal infectious diseases in children and young adults. Inborn errors of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase complex (chronic granulomatous disease), severe congenital neutropenia and leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I confer a predisposition to invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis. More rarely, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie endemic mycoses. Inborn errors of IL-17 immunity have recently been shown to underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, whereas inborn errors of CARD9 immunity underlie deep dermatophytosis and invasive candidiasis. Summary Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, invasive candidiasis, invasive aspergillosis, deep dermatophytosis, pneumocystosis, and endemic mycoses can all be caused by primary immunodeficiencies. Each type of infection is highly suggestive of a specific type of primary immunodeficiency. In the absence of overt risk factors, single-gene inborn errors of immunity should be sought in children and young adults with these and other fungal diseases. PMID:24240293

  9. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Infants Affected by Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Capretti, Maria Grazia; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Faldella, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare inherited disorders that may lead to frequent and often severe acute respiratory infections. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most frequent pathogens during early infancy and the infection is more severe in immunocompromised infants than in healthy infants, as a result of impaired T- and B-cell immune response unable to efficaciously neutralize viral replication, with subsequent increased viral shedding and potentially lethal lower respiratory tract infection. Several authors have reported a severe clinical course after RSV infections in infants and children with primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. Environmental prophylaxis is essential in order to reduce the infection during the epidemic season in hospitalized immunocompromised infants. Prophylaxis with palivizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against the RSV F protein, is currently recommended in high-risk infants born prematurely, with chronic lung disease or congenital heart disease. Currently however the prophylaxis is not routinely recommended in infants with primary immunodeficiency, although some authors propose the extension of prophylaxis to this high risk population. PMID:25089282

  10. Cross-reactivity of anti-human cytokine monoclonal antibodies used as a tool to identify novel immunological biomarkers in domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Dorneles, E M S; Araújo, M S S; Teixeira-Carvalho, A; Martins-Filho, O A; Lage, A P

    2015-01-01

    Eleven commercially available PE-labeled anti-human (IL-1-α, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13) and anti-mouse (IL-10, TNF-α) cytokine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were tested for cross-reactivity with cattle, goat, and sheep cytokines. Cross-reactivity was assessed by comparative analysis with the standard reactivity of the target species. Our data demonstrated that anti-human IL-1-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17A and IL-10 mAbs cross-react with all ruminant species tested. Anti-human IL-5 mAb showed a strong cross-reactivity with cattle and goat IL-5, while anti-human TNF-α mAb showed a selective cross-reactivity with goat TNF-α. No cross-reactivity with the ruminant cytokines was observed for anti-human IL-12 and IL-13 mAbs or for the two anti-mouse cytokine mAbs tested. The present study demonstrated the cross-reactivity of various anti-human cytokine mAbs with cattle, sheep, and goat cytokines, increasing the range of immunological biomarkers for studies in veterinary medicine. PMID:25730032

  11. Gene therapy for primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A; Hacein-Bey Abina, S; Touzot, F; Cavazzana, M

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapy has effectively entered Medicine via the field of primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Because hematopoietic stem cells are accessible and because it was understood that genetic correction of lymphocyte progenitor cells carrying a genetic defect impairing differentiation, could result in the production of long-lived T lymphocytes, it was reasoned that ex vivo gene transfer in hematopoietic cells could lead to disease phenotype correction. Retroviral vectors were designed to ex vivo transduce such cells. This has indeed been shown to lead to sustained correction of the T cell immunodeficiency associated with two forms of severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) for now more than ten years. Occurrence in some patients of genotoxicity related to retroviral vectors integration close to and transactivation of oncogenes has led to the development of retroviral vectors devoid of its enhancer element. Results of recent trials performed for several forms of PID indeed suggest that their use is both safe and efficacious. It is thus anticipated that their application to the treatment of many more life threatening PID will be developed over the coming years. PMID:25708106

  12. Evolution of a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Edmonson, Paul; Murphey-Corb, Michael; Martin, Louis N.; Delahunty, Claire; Heeney, Jonathan; Kornfeld, Hardy; Donahue, Peter R.; Learn, Gerald H.; Hood, Leroy; Mullins, James I.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of disease induction by simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) in macaques was initially hampered by a lack of molecularly defined pathogenic strains. The first molecularly cloned SIV strains inoculated into macaques, SIVmacBK28 and SIVmacBK44 (hereafter designated BK28 and BK44, respectively), were cases in point, since they failed to induce disease within 1 year postinoculation in any inoculated animal. Here we report the natural history of infection with BK28 and BK44 in inoculated rhesus macaques and efforts to increase the pathogenicity of BK28 through genetic manipulation and in vivo passage. BK44 infection resulted in no disease in four animals infected for more than 7 years, whereas BK28 induced disease in less than half of animals monitored for up to 7 years. Elongation of the BK28 transmembrane protein (TM) coding sequence truncated by prior passage in human cells marginally increased pathogenicity, with two of four animals dying in the third year and one dying in the seventh year of infection. Modification of the BK28 long terminal repeat to include four consensus nuclear factor SP1 and two consensus NF-?B binding sites enhanced early virus replication without augmenting pathogenicity. In contrast, in vivo passage of BK28 from the first animal to die from immunodeficiency disease (1.5 years after infection) resulted in a consistently pathogenic strain and a 50% survival time of about 1.3 years, thus corresponding to one of the most pathogenic SIV strains identified to date. To determine whether the diverse viral quasispecies that evolved during in vivo passage was required for pathogenicity or whether a more virulent virus variant had evolved, we generated a molecular clone composed of the 3? half of the viral genome derived from the in vivo-passaged virus (H824) fused with the 5? half of the BK28 genome. Kinetics of disease induction with this cloned virus (BK28/H824) were similar to those with the in vivo-passaged virus, with four of five animals surviving less than 1.7 years. Thus, evolution of variants with enhanced pathogenicity can account for the increased pathogenicity of this SIV strain. The genetic changes responsible for this virulent transformation included at most 59 point mutations and 3 length-change mutations. The critical mutations were likely to have been multiple and dispersed, including elongation of the TM and Nef coding sequences; changes in RNA splice donor and acceptor sites, TATA box sites, and Sp1 sites; multiple changes in the V2 region of SU, including a consensus neutralization epitope; and five new N-linked glycosylation sites in SU. PMID:9420239

  13. Cross-reactivity of anti-human, anti-porcine and anti-bovine cytokine antibodies with cetacean tissues.

    PubMed

    Jaber, J R; Prez, J; Zafra, R; Herrez, P; Rodrguez, F; Arbelo, M; de los Monteros, A Espinosa; Fernndez, A

    2010-07-01

    The cross-reactivity of monoclonal antibodies specific for human, porcine and bovine cytokines was evaluated for three cetacean species: Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis), striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). Formalin-fixed and snap-frozen tissue sections of lung, spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph node were evaluated. T and B lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages were detected by use of anti-human CD3, IgG and lysozyme polyclonal antibodies (pAbs), respectively. These reagents were successfully applied to both fixed and frozen tissues. Anti-human interleukin (IL)-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and CD25, anti-porcine IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, and anti-bovine IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-gamma antibodies produced immunolabelling in cetacean snap-frozen lymph node sections similar to that obtained with tissue from the species of origin, but they did not react with formalin-fixed tissue sections. Anti-porcine IL-12 pAb did not react with snap-frozen cetacean tissue samples. Macrophages and lymphocytes were the most common cells immunolabelled with the anti-cytokine antibodies. This panel of anti-cytokine antibodies may be used to evaluate cytokine expression in snap-frozen tissue samples from the cetacean species tested. PMID:20163803

  14. Immunotherapy for primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    PubMed

    Wood, Philip

    2012-05-01

    The 2 most commonly encountered primary immunodeficiency syndromes in adult practice are antibody deficiency disorders and hereditary angioedema.Immunologic therapy for these disorders has significantly improved patient management. Therapy with immunoglobulin leads to improvement in overall quality of life. With increasing survival rates and decreasing levels of life-threatening infections in patients with primary antibody deficiencies, disease complications are more commonly encountered. Treatment of these complications with monoclonal antibody therapy seems promising and is likely to increase in the future. More recently,several additional agents have become available, including novel drugs targeted at different elements of the disease process. PMID:22703850

  15. Skin manifestations of immunodeficiencies in children.

    PubMed

    Torchia, D; Connelly, E A

    2010-04-01

    Immunodeficiency is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious diseases is compromised or entirely absent. Most cases of immunodeficiency are acquired (secondary) but some people are born with defects in the immune system, or primary immunodeficiency. More than 140 distinct genes have been identified, which abnormalities account for more than 200 different forms of primary immunodeficiencies. The skin may be one of the organs involved in immunodeficiencies and in a number of primary immunodeficiency syndromes the skin is one of the main clues to the diagnosis and dermatologists may be the first to appreciate an immune defect in their patients. From "A" of well-known ataxia-telangiectasia to "Z" of recently identified zeta-chain (TCR) associated protein kinase 70kDa (ZAP-70) deficiency, this review attempts to provide a complete and up-to-date summary of all known primary immunodeficiencies featuring skin manifestations and presenting in the pediatric population. Given the vastness of the topic etiopathogenesis, extracutaneous manifestations, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis were not discussed unless briefly. We hope that this effort will help specialists to facilitate the recognition of primary immunodeficiencies and therefore early diagnosis and management. PMID:20467400

  16. Severe Viral Infections and Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with severe viral infections are often not thoroughly evaluated for immunodeficiencies. In this review, we summarize primary immunodeficiencies that predispose individuals to severe viral infections. Some immunodeficiencies enhance susceptibility to disease with a specific virus or family of viruses, whereas others predispose to diseases with multiple viruses in addition to disease with other microbes. Although the role of cytotoxic T cells in controlling viral infections is well known, a number of immunodeficiencies that predispose to severe viral diseases have recently been ascribed to defects in the Toll-like receptorinterferon signaling pathway. These immunodeficiencies are rare, but it is important to identify them both for prognostic information and for genetic counseling. Undoubtedly, additional mutations in proteins in the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system will be identified in the future, which will reveal the importance of these proteins in controlling infections caused by viruses and other pathogens. PMID:21960712

  17. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    The lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS by interacting with a large number of different cells in the body and escaping the host immune response against it. HIV is transmitted primarily through blood and genital fluids and to newborn infants from infected mothers. The steps occurring in infection involve an interaction of HIV not only with the CD4 molecule on cells but also with other cellular receptors recently identified. Virus-cell fusion and HIV entry subsequently take place. Following virus infection, a variety of intracellular mechanisms determine the relative expression of viral regulatory and accessory genes leading to productive or latent infection. With CD4+ lymphocytes, HIV replication can cause syncytium formation and cell death; with other cells, such as macrophages, persistent infection can occur, creating reservoirs for the virus in many cells and tissues. HIV strains are highly heterogeneous, and certain biologic and serologic properties determined by specific genetic sequences can be linked to pathogenic pathways and resistance to the immune response. The host reaction against HIV, through neutralizing antibodies and particularly through strong cellular immune responses, can keep the virus suppressed for many years. Long-term survival appears to involve infection with a relatively low-virulence strain that remains sensitive to the immune response, particularly to control by CD8+ cell antiviral activity. Several therapeutic approaches have been attempted, and others are under investigation. Vaccine development has provided some encouraging results, but the observations indicate the major challenge of preventing infection by HIV. Ongoing research is necessary to find a solution to this devastating worldwide epidemic. Images PMID:8464405

  18. Neutral SU(2) and neutral currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claudson, M.; Georgi, H.; Yildiz, A.

    1980-11-01

    We examine the neutral current structure of a class of topless gauge theories in which b decay and CP violation are mediated by neutral gauge bosons, N. We find a good fit to all data(better than the fit to the standard model) for sin2θ = 0.205 and MN2/M W2 ~ 10.

  19. TH17 Cells in Autoimmunity and Immunodeficiency: Protective or Pathogenic?

    PubMed Central

    Marwaha, Ashish K.; Leung, Nicole J.; McMurchy, Alicia N.; Levings, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2005 a newly discovered T helper cell subset that secreted interleukin (IL)-17 became the center of attention in immunology. Initial studies painted Th17 cells as the culprit for destruction in many different autoimmune and auto-inflammatory diseases. Subsequently, the discovery of patients with primary immunodeficiencies in the IL-17 pathway taught us that Th17 cells have a critical role in defense against certain fungal and bacterial infections. Moreover, the paradoxical exacerbation of Crohn’s disease in the clinical trials of a Secukinumab (AIN457), a fully human neutralizing antibody to IL-17A, has cast into doubt a universal pro-inflammatory and harmful role for Th17 cells. Evidence now suggests that depending on the environment Th17 cells can alter their differentiation program, ultimately giving rise to either protective or pro-inflammatory cells. In this review we will summarize the evidence from patients with immunodeficiencies, autoimmune, or auto-inflammatory diseases that teaches us how the pro-inflammatory versus protective function of Th17 cells varies within the context of different human diseases. PMID:22675324

  20. Crohn's disease as an immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Hayee, Bu'Hussain; Rahman, Farooq Z; Sewell, Gavin; Smith, Andrew M; Segal, Anthony W

    2010-07-01

    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD) has widely been regarded as the consequence of a dysregulated T-cell-mediated response to intestinal microbes, and the majority of the worldwide research effort has focused on characterizing and treating the chronic inflammatory phase of the disease. However, recent molecular biological and clinical investigations indicate that CD is actually a primary immunodeficiency. At first counter-intuitive, the apparent paradox of a pathogenic innate immune defect can be linked mechanistically to the granulomatous chronic inflammation characteristic of the disease. Genome-wide association studies have corroborated the involvement of innate immune dysfunction in the pathogenesis of CD, but less than 20% of the heritable risk is accounted for. By contrast, in vitro and in vivo stimulation of the immune system has highlighted novel areas of interest that may lead to the development of targeted therapeutic and diagnostic tools. PMID:20594132

  1. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Domachowske, J B

    1996-01-01

    In the past decade, an increase in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has had a substantial impact on childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vertical transmission of HIV from mother to infant accounts for the vast majority of these cases. Identification of HIV-infected pregnant women needs to be impoved so that appropriate therapy can be initiated for both mothers and infants. While recent data demonstrate a dramatic decrease in HIV transmission from a subset of women treated with zidovudine during pregnancy, further efforts at reducing transmission are desperately needed. This review focuses on vertically transmitted HIV infection in children, its epidemiology, diagnostic criteria, natural history, and clinical manifestations including infectious and noninfectious complications. An overview of the complex medical management of these children ensues, including the use of antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infection prophylaxis is reviewed, along with the important role of other supportive therapies. PMID:8894346

  2. Warts and All: HPV in Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Leiding, Jennifer W.; Holland, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with human papilloma virus (HPV) is almost universal and eventually asymptomatic, but pathologic infection with HPV is severe, recurrent, and recalcitrant to therapy. It is also an underappreciated manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. Mutations in EVER1, EVER2, GATA2, CXCR4, and DOCK8 are typically associated with extensive HPV infections, whereas several other primary immune defects have severe HPV much less frequently. We review immunodeficiencies with severe HPV infections and the mechanisms underlying them. PMID:23036745

  3. Neutral beam monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Fink, Joel H. (Livermore, CA)

    1981-08-18

    Method and apparatus for monitoring characteristics of a high energy neutral beam. A neutral beam is generated by passing accelerated ions through a walled cell containing a low energy neutral gas, such that charge exchange neutralizes the high energy ion beam. The neutral beam is monitored by detecting the current flowing through the cell wall produced by low energy ions which drift to the wall after the charge exchange. By segmenting the wall into radial and longitudinal segments various beam conditions are further identified.

  4. Establishment of monoclonal anti-human CD26 antibodies suitable for immunostaining of formalin-fixed tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A T cell costimulatory molecule with dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) activity in its extracellular region, CD26 is a multifunctional molecule associated with various proteins such as adenosine deaminase, caveolin-1, CXCR4, collagen, and fibronectin, while playing an important role in the regulation of inflammatory responses and tumor biology. We have focused on CD26 as a novel therapeutic target for various tumors and immune disorders, and have developed a humanized anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody (mAb), YS110, which is currently being evaluated in a phase I clinical trial for patients with CD26-expressing tumors, including malignant mesothelioma. Since detection of tumor CD26 expression is required for determining potential eligibility for YS110 therapy, the development of anti-human CD26 mAb that can clearly and reliably detect the denatured CD26 molecule in the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues is critical. Methods To develop novel anti-CD26 mAbs capable of binding to the denatured CD26, we immunized mice with CD26 protein denatured in urea buffer. After the fusion of splenocytes and myeloma cells, the mAbs were screened for specific reactivity with human CD26 by flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry. The binding competitiveness of novel anti-CD26 mAbs with the humanized anti-CD26 mAb YS110 was also examined. Results We have succeeded in developing novel anti-human CD26 mAbs suitable for immunohistochemical staining of CD26 in formalin-fixed tissue sections with reliable clarity and intensity. Importantly, some of these mAbs exhibit no cross-reactivity with the humanized anti-CD26 mAb. Conclusions These novel mAbs are potentially useful as companion diagnostic agents to analyze CD26 expression in the clinical setting while advancing future CD26-related research. Virtual slides The virtual slides for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5987140221097729 PMID:24502396

  5. IgG Donor-Specific Anti-Human HLA Antibody Subclasses and Kidney Allograft Antibody-Mediated Injury.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Carmen; Viglietti, Denis; Bentlejewski, Carol; Duong van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Vernerey, Dewi; Aubert, Olivier; Verine, Jrme; Jouven, Xavier; Legendre, Christophe; Glotz, Denis; Loupy, Alexandre; Zeevi, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies may have different pathogenicities according to IgG subclass. We investigated the association between IgG subclasses of circulating anti-human HLA antibodies and antibody-mediated kidney allograft injury. Among 635 consecutive kidney transplantations performed between 2008 and 2010, we enrolled 125 patients with donor-specific anti-human HLA antibodies (DSA) detected in the first year post-transplant. We assessed DSA characteristics, including specificity, HLA class specificity, mean fluorescence intensity (MFI), C1q-binding, and IgG subclass, and graft injury phenotype at the time of sera evaluation. Overall, 51 (40.8%) patients had acute antibody-mediated rejection (aABMR), 36 (28.8%) patients had subclinical ABMR (sABMR), and 38 (30.4%) patients were ABMR-free. The MFI of the immunodominant DSA (iDSA, the DSA with the highest MFI level) was 6724464, and 41.6% of patients had iDSA showing C1q positivity. The distribution of iDSA IgG1-4 subclasses among the population was 75.2%, 44.0%, 28.0%, and 26.4%, respectively. An unsupervised principal component analysis integrating iDSA IgG subclasses revealed aABMR was mainly driven by IgG3 iDSA, whereas sABMR was driven by IgG4 iDSA. IgG3 iDSA was associated with a shorter time to rejection (P<0.001), increased microcirculation injury (P=0.002), and C4d capillary deposition (P<0.001). IgG4 iDSA was associated with later allograft injury with increased allograft glomerulopathy and interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy lesions (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Integrating iDSA HLA class specificity, MFI level, C1q-binding status, and IgG subclasses in a Cox survival model revealed IgG3 iDSA and C1q-binding iDSA were strongly and independently associated with allograft failure. These results suggest IgG iDSA subclasses identify distinct phenotypes of kidney allograft antibody-mediated injury. PMID:26293822

  6. [Lymphocytes B and primary immunodeficiencies].

    PubMed

    Lpez-Herrera, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Primary antibody deficiencies represent the most frequent genetic diseases of the immune system and the first to be recognized along immunology history. The antibodies were recognized as part of the humoral immune system long ago, and after immunoglobulin discovery, the first antibody immunodeficiency were recognized and named as "agammaglobulinemia", followed by the common variable immunoendeficiency and the hyper-IgM syndrome. The following discoveries in immunology history made possible the understanding of these pathologies, for example: the discoveries of B cells, pre-B cells, the signaling pathway directed by the antigen receptor and many other cellular and molecular mechanisms. Primary antibody deficiencies have been studied for a long time and the discoveries of new syndromes have been helpful in the understanding of immunological mechanisms that take place in our organism. Then, this manuscript pretends to review the relevant findings in the history of immunology, focused on the B cells and the connection with the description of representative clinical entities of primary antibody deficiencies. The aim of this manuscript is to show to the reader that the generation of scientific knowledge has a direct application in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that are affected in these diseases. PMID:26943830

  7. Primary immunodeficiency disorders in Kuwait: first report from Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry (2004--2006).

    PubMed

    Al-Herz, Waleed

    2008-03-01

    Primary immunodeficiency disorders are heterogeneous group of illnesses that predispose patients to serious complications. Registries for these disorders have provided important epidemiological data and shown both racial and geographical variations. The clinical features of 76 patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders registered in Kuwait National Primary Immunodeficiency Registry from 2004 to 2006 were recorded. Ninety-eight percent of the patients presented in childhood. The prevalence of these disorders in children was 11.98 in 100,000 children with an incidence of 10.06 in 100,000 children. The distribution of these patients according to each primary immunodeficiency category is: combined T and B cell immunodeficiencies (21%), predominantly antibody immunodeficiency (30%), other well defined immunodeficiencies (30%), diseases of immune dysregulation (7%), congenital defects of phagocyte number, function or both (8%), and complement deficiencies (4%). The consanguinity rate within the registered patients was 77%. The patients had a wide range of clinical features affecting different body systems. Primary immunodeficiency disorders are prevalent in Kuwait and have a significant impact into the health system. PMID:18008151

  8. Pharmacokinetics of zidovudine phosphorylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Stretcher, B N; Pesce, A J; Frame, P T; Stein, D S

    1994-01-01

    As part of an effort towards optimization of dosing of zidovudine (ZDV), formation and elimination of total phosphorylated ZDV (ZDVPt) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were examined in 21 asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients during their first 24 weeks of therapy (AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 161). Intracellular concentrations of ZDVPt were measured with a previously described and validated radioimmunoassay technique. Although ZDV phosphorylation occurred readily upon initiation of therapy, it declined with time; the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) at week 4 (mean +/- standard deviation, 3.41 +/- 0.93 pmol.h/10(6) cells) was significantly greater than that at week 24 (2.19 +/- 1.10 pmol.h/10(6) cells). Plasma ZDV AUC did not change with time and did not correlate with ZDVPt AUC. In dose-response experiments (20 to 100 mg orally), phosphorylation did not proportionally increase with increasing plasma ZDV concentrations. Similarly, compared with a single dose, two doses of ZDV over an 8-h period resulted in little ZDVPt increase in cells relative to increase in plasma ZDV concentrations. The half-life of intracellular ZDVPt was twice that of plasma ZDV (4 versus 2 h), suggesting that an every-8-h dosing regimen is justifiable. These findings suggest that metabolism of ZDV to its active intracellular forms may be saturable in some patients, is poorly correlated with plasma concentrations, and diminishes over time. These findings have implications for future development and management of anti-human immunodeficiency virus nucleoside therapy. PMID:7979286

  9. Additive Effect of Neutralizing Antibody and Antiviral Drug Treatment in Preventing Virus Escape and Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Peter; Senn, Beatrice M.; Klenerman, Paul; Kalinke, Ulrich; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2000-01-01

    Poorly cytopathic or noncytopathic viruses can escape immune surveillance and establish a chronic infection. Here we exploited the strategy of combining antiviral drug treatment with the induction of a neutralizing antibody response to avoid the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus variants. Despite the fact that H25 immunoglobulin transgenic mice infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus mounted an early neutralizing antibody response, the virus escaped from neutralization and persisted. After ribavirin treatment of H25 transgenic mice, the appearance of neutralization-resistant virus was prevented and virus was cleared. Thus, the combination of virus-neutralizing antibodies and chemotherapy efficiently controlled the infection, whereas each defense line alone did not. Similar additive effects may be unexpectedly efficient and beneficial in humans after infections with persistent viruses such as hepatitis C virus and hepatitis B virus and possibly human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:10846070

  10. Search for neutral leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1984-12-01

    At present we know of three kinds of neutral leptons: the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. This paper reviews the search for additional neutral leptons. The method and significance of a search depends upon the model used for the neutral lepton being sought. Some models for the properties and decay modes of proposed neutral leptons are described. Past and present searches are reviewed. The limits obtained by some completed searches are given, and the methods of searches in progress are described. Future searches are discussed. 41 references.

  11. ALEX neutral beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Pourrezaei, K.

    1982-01-01

    A neutral beam probe capable of measuring plasma space potential in a fully 3-dimensional magnetic field geometry has been developed. This neutral beam was successfully used to measure an arc target plasma contained within the ALEX baseball magnetic coil. A computer simulation of the experiment was performed to refine the experimental design and to develop a numerical model for scaling the ALEX neutral beam probe to other cases of fully 3-dimensional magnetic field. Based on this scaling a 30 to 50 keV neutral cesium beam probe capable of measuring space potential in the thermal barrier region of TMX Upgrade was designed.

  12. Alopecia Areata and Vitiligo as Primary Presentations in a Young Male with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Li; Baohua, Yang; Lan, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    A 26-year-old Chinese male consulted with the team regarding his alopecia areata and vitiligo for which previous treatment was ineffective. The patient, a homosexual man, denied having a history of drug abuse and of blood transfusion. No member of his family had vitiligo or alopecia. Laboratory studies revealed that the serum for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody was positive. The patient's CD4 lymphocyte count and CD4/CD8 ratio were both strikingly low (20 cells/mL and 0.04), but no other complaints or opportunistic infections were reported. One month after antiretroviral therapy, the patient's alopecia areata dramatically improved, but no evident improvement in his vitiligo was found. This case is a very rare case of alopecia areata and vitiligo associated with HIV infection that might be attributed to the generation and maintenance of self-reactive CD8+ T-cells due to chronic immune activation with progressive immune exhaustion in HIV infection. PMID:24700956

  13. Gene therapy of primary T cell immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Alain; Hacein-Bey-Abina, Salima; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina

    2013-08-10

    Gene therapy of severe combined immunodeficiencies has been proven to be effective to provide sustained correction of the T cell immunodeficiencies. This has been achieved for 2 forms of SCID, i.e SCID-X1 (?c deficiency) and adenosine deaminase deficiency. Occurrence of gene toxicity generated by integration of first generation retroviral vectors, as observed in the SCID-X1 trials has led to replace these vectors by self inactivated (SIN) retro(or lenti) viruses that may provide equivalent efficacy with a better safety profile. Results of ongoing clinical studies in SCID as well as in other primary immunodeficiencies, such as the Wiskott Aldrich syndrome, will be thus very informative. PMID:23583799

  14. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (often shortened to X- ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed May 2009 What is X-linked SCID? X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: ZAP70-related severe combined immunodeficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... severe combined immunodeficiency? ZAP70 -related severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is an inherited disorder that damages the immune system. ZAP70 -related SCID is one of several forms of severe combined ...

  16. Adult-onset immunodeficiency in Thailand and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Sarah K.; Burbelo, Peter D.; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Shaw, Pamela A.; Kirk, Jennifer L.; Jutivorakool, Kamonwan; Zaman, Rifat; Ding, Li; Hsu, Amy P.; Patel, Smita Y.; Olivier, Kenneth N.; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Mootsikapun, Piroon; Anunnatsiri, Siriluck; Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Sathapatayavongs, Boonmee; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Shieh, Chi-Chang; Brown, Margaret R.; Thongnoppakhun, Wanna; Claypool, Reginald; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Thepthai, Charin; Waywa, Duangdao; Dacombe, Camilla; Reizes, Yona; Zelazny, Adrian M.; Saleeb, Paul; Rosen, Lindsey B.; Mo, Allen; Iadarola, Michael; Holland, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Autoantibodies against interferon-? are associated with severe disseminated opportunistic infection, but their importance and prevalence are unknown. Methods We enrolled 203 persons from sites in Thailand and Taiwan in five groups: 52 patients with disseminated, rapidly or slowly growing, nontuberculous mycobacterial infection (group 1); 45 patients with another opportunistic infection, with or without nontuberculous mycobacterial infection (group 2); 9 patients with disseminated tuberculosis (group 3); 49 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (group 4); and 48 healthy controls (group 5). Clinical histories were recorded, and blood specimens were obtained. Results Patients in groups 1 and 2 had CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts that were similar to those in patients in groups 4 and 5, and they were not infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Washed cells obtained from patients in groups 1 and 2 had intact cytokine production and a response to cytokine stimulation. In contrast, plasma obtained from these patients inhibited the activity of interferon-? in normal cells. High-titer antiinterferon-? autoantibodies were detected in 81% of patients in group 1, 96% of patients in group 2, 11% of patients in group 3, 2% of patients in group 4, and 2% of controls (group 5). Forty other anti-cytokine autoantibodies were assayed. One patient with cryptococcal meningitis had autoantibodies only against granulocytemacrophage colony-stimulating factor. No other anti-cytokine autoantibodies or genetic defects correlated with infections. There was no familial clustering. Conclusions Neutralizing antiinterferon-? autoantibodies were detected in 88% of Asian adults with multiple opportunistic infections and were associated with an adult-onset immunodeficiency akin to that of advanced HIV infection. PMID:22913682

  17. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection and prospects for control.

    PubMed Central

    Ho, D. D.; Kaplan, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    In just six years after the initial description of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, much has been learned about the etiologic agent, the human immunodeficiency virus. The pathogenic mechanisms utilized by this virus to infect selectively and persistently T4+ lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, leading to immunodeficiency and neurologic dysfunction, are slowly becoming clear. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection is essential for the rational design of therapeutic and preventive strategies to combat this deadly virus. PMID:3324508

  18. Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Diagnosis, Management, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Jordan K; Gelfand, Erwin W

    2015-11-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) refers to a grouping of antibody deficiencies that lack a more specific genetic or phenotypic classification. It is the immunodeficiency classification with the greatest number of constituents, likely because of the numerous ways in which antibody production can be impaired and the frequency in which antibody production becomes impaired in human beings. CVID comprises a heterogeneous group of rare diseases. Consequently, CVID presents a significant challenge for researchers and clinicians. Despite these difficulties, both our understanding of and ability to manage this grouping of complex immune diseases has advanced significantly over the past 60years. PMID:26454311

  19. Microbiome in human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between the microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes, including bacteria, virus, and fungi, and their association with diseases. HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. In this review, the authors focus on microbiome in HIV infection at various mucosal compartments. Understanding the relationship between microbiome and HIV may offer insights into development of better strategies for HIV prevention and treatment. PMID:25439273

  20. [Acute polyradiculoneuritis and acquired immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Scaff, M; Rabello, G D; Marchiori, P E

    1989-03-01

    A 50-year-old man with positive test for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by enzyme-linked-immunoassy and Western-blot, without clinical manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), developed acute polyradiculoneuritis and was treated by plasmapheresis with improvement. We believe that chemical homologies of antigenic determinants between HIV and P2 protein of peripheral nervous system and myelin basic protein may induce crossed-reaction, thus developing acute polyradiculoneuritis and central nervous system involvement, respectively. The nervous system involvement hy HIV also occur in the HI-viremy, seric conversion alone, and AIDS with or without oportunistic infections. PMID:2764748

  1. Cetuximab in combination with anti-human IgG antibodies efficiently down-regulates the EGF receptor by macropinocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, Christian; Madshus, Inger Helene; Department of Pathology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Post box 4950 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo ; Stang, Espen

    2012-12-10

    The monoclonal antibody C225 (Cetuximab) blocks binding of ligand to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In addition, it is known that incubation with C225 induces endocytosis of the EGFR. This endocytosis has previously been shown to be increased when C225 is combined with an additional monoclonal anti-EGFR antibody. However, the effects of antibody combinations on EGFR activation, endocytosis, trafficking and degradation have been unclear. By binding a secondary antibody to the C225-EGFR complex, we here demonstrate that a combination of antibodies can efficiently internalize and degrade the EGFR. Although the combination of antibodies activated the EGFR kinase and induced ubiquitination of the EGFR, the kinase activity was not required for internalization of the EGFR. In contrast to EGF-induced EGFR down-regulation, the antibody combination efficiently degraded the EGFR without initiating downstream proliferative signaling. The antibody-induced internalization of EGFR was found not to depend on clathrin and/or dynamin, but depended on actin polymerization, suggesting induction of macropinocytosis. Macropinocytosis may cause internalization of large membrane areas, and this could explain the highly efficient internalization of the EGFR induced by combination of antibodies. -- Highlight: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cetuximab induced endocytosis of EGFR increases upon combination with anti-human IgG. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody combination causes internalization of EGFR by macropinocytosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody-induced internalization of EGFR is independent of EGFR kinase activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibody combination may have a zipper effect and cross-link EGFRs on neighboring cells.

  2. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists’ arsenal

    PubMed Central

    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsironi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting. PMID:26056460

  3. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists' arsenal.

    PubMed

    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsironi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting. PMID:26056460

  4. Women at Risk for Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadagno, David; And Others

    This article reports results from a survey among women at risk for contracting Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) as well as transmitting it in a vertical (to offspring) and horizontal (sexual partner or intravenous [IV] drug usage) mode. Little is known about the extent of HIV knowledge, sexual behaviors, and IV drug usage for women at risk for…

  5. Laboratory clues to immunodeficiency; missed chances for early diagnosis?

    PubMed

    Bright, P D; Rooney, N; Virgo, P F; Lock, R J; Johnston, S L; Unsworth, D J

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency is seen in an estimated one in 1200 people, and secondary immunodeficiency is increasingly common, particularly with the use of immunosuppresion, cancer therapies and the newer biological therapies such as rituximab. Delays in the diagnosis of immunodeficiency predictably lead to preventable organ damage. Examples of abnormal pathology tests that suggest immunodeficiency from all laboratory specialities are given, where vigilant interpretation of abnormal results may prompt earlier diagnosis. If immunodeficiency is suspected, suggested directed testing could include measuring immunoglobulins, a lymphocyte count and T-cell and B-cell subsets. PMID:25352642

  6. Equivalent Neutral Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Tang, Wenqing

    1996-01-01

    The definition of equivalent neutral wind and the rationale for using it as the geophysical product of a spaceborne scatterometer are reviewed. The differences between equivalent neutral wind and actual wind, which are caused by atmospheric density stratification, are demonstrated with measurements at selected locations. A method of computing this parameter from ship and buoy measurements is described and some common fallacies in accounting for the effects of atmospheric stratification on wind shear are discussed. The computer code for the model to derive equivalent neutral wind is provided.

  7. Generation of anti-human DEC205/CD205 monoclonal antibodies that recognize epitopes conserved in different mammals

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chae Gyu; Rodriguez, Anthony; Ueta, Hisashi; Lee, Haekyung; Pack, Maggi; Matsuno, Kenjiro; Steinman, Ralph M.

    2012-01-01

    DEC205/CD205 is a C-type multilectin receptor, expressed highly in dendritic cells (DCs). Previous efforts to generate anti-human DEC205 (anti-hDEC205) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from mice immunized with subdomain proteins of hDEC205 resulted in a few mAbs. Recently, we expressed and utilized a full-length extracellular domain protein of hDEC205 to successfully generate 5 strong anti-hDEC205 mAbs from mice. In this study, DEC205 knockout (KO) mice were immunized with this full-length extracellular domain protein of hDEC205. One of the 3 immunized DEC205 KO mice was chosen for the highest anti-hDEC205 titer by flow cytometric analysis of serum samples on CHO cells stably expressing hDEC205 (CHO/hDEC205 cells) and used for hybridoma fusion. From a single fusion, more than 400 anti-hDEC205 hybridomas were identified by flow cytometric screen with CHO/hDEC205 cells, and a total of 115 hybridomas secreting strong anti-hDEC205 mAb were saved and named HD1 through HD115. To characterize in detail, 10 HD mAbs were chosen for superior anti-hDEC205 reactivity and further subjected to cloning and purification. Interestingly, out of those 10 chosen anti-hDEC205 HD mAbs, 5 mAbs were also strongly reactive to mouse DEC205 while 8 mAbs were found to stain DEC205+ DCs on monkey spleen sections. In addition, we also identified that HD83, one of the 10 chosen HD mAbs, stains DEC205+ DCs in rat spleen and lymph node. Therefore, by immunizing DEC205 KO mice with a full-length extracellular domain protein of hDEC205, we generated a large number of strong anti-hDEC205 mAbs many of which are cross-species reactive and able to visualize DEC205+ DCs in lymphoid tissues of other mammals. PMID:22273672

  8. Is dispersal neutral?

    PubMed

    Lowe, Winsor H; McPeek, Mark A

    2014-08-01

    Dispersal is difficult to quantify and often treated as purely stochastic and extrinsically controlled. Consequently, there remains uncertainty about how individual traits mediate dispersal and its ecological effects. Addressing this uncertainty is crucial for distinguishing neutral versus non-neutral drivers of community assembly. Neutral theory assumes that dispersal is stochastic and equivalent among species. This assumption can be rejected on principle, but common research approaches tacitly support the 'neutral dispersal' assumption. Theory and empirical evidence that dispersal traits are under selection should be broadly integrated in community-level research, stimulating greater scrutiny of this assumption. A tighter empirical connection between the ecological and evolutionary forces that shape dispersal will enable richer understanding of this fundamental process and its role in community assembly. PMID:24962790

  9. Practical diagnostic testing for human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, J B; Balfour, H H

    1988-01-01

    Since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in 1983, there has been a proliferation of diagnostic tests. These assays can be used to detect the presence of HIV antibody, HIV antigen, HIV ribonucleic and deoxyribonucleic acids, and HIV reverse transcriptase. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blot, radioimmunoprecipitation assays, indirect immunofluorescence assays, reverse transcriptase assays, and several molecular hybridization techniques are currently available. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent, Western blot, and indirect immunofluorescence assays for HIV antibody are very sensitive, specific, and adaptable to most laboratories. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for HIV antigen is also readily adaptable to most laboratories and will be commercially available soon. While the other assays are more tedious, they are valuable confirmatory tests and are suitable for reference laboratories. The biohazards of performing HIV testing can be minimized with proper biosafety measures. Images PMID:3060241

  10. Familial hepatopulmonary syndrome in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Holmes, S N; Condliffe, A; Griffiths, W; Baxendale, H; Kumararatne, D S

    2015-04-01

    Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies which lead to a range of complications, including infectious, neoplastic and inflammatory disorders. This report describes monozygotic twin brothers with CVID who developed cryptogenic liver disease and subsequently hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). This is the second report of the association of HPS and CVID. Its occurrence in two identical twins implicates a genetic basis. PMID:25708586

  11. Quantifying the infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Layne, S P; Spouge, J L; Dembo, M

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a mathematical model that quantifies lymphocyte infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and lymphocyte protection by blocking agents such as soluble CD4. We use this model to suggest standardized parameters for quantifying viral infectivity and to suggest techniques for calculating these parameters from well-mixed infectivity assays. We discuss the implications of the model for our understanding of the infectious process and virulence of HIV in vivo. PMID:2734313

  12. Depletion of alveolar macrophages decreases the dissemination of a glucosylceramide-deficient mutant of Cryptococcus neoformans in immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Kechichian, Talar B; Shea, John; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2007-10-01

    In previous studies we showed that a Cryptococcus neoformans mutant lacking glucosylceramide (Deltagcs1) is avirulent and unable to reach the brain when it is administered intranasally into an immunocompetent mouse and is contained in a lung granuloma. To determine whether granuloma formation is key for containment of C. neoformans Deltagcs1, we studied the role of C. neoformans glucosylceramide in a T- and NK-cell-immunodeficient mouse model (Tgepsilon26) in which alveolar macrophages (AMs) are not activated and granuloma formation is not expected. The results show that Tgepsilon26 mice infected with Deltagcs1 do not produce a lung granuloma and that the Deltagcs1 mutant proliferates in the lungs and does disseminate to the brain, although its virulence phenotype is dramatically reduced. Since Deltagcs1 can grow only in acidic niches, such as the phagolysosome of AMs, and not in neutral or alkaline environments, such as the extracellular spaces, we hypothesize that in immunodeficient mice Deltagcs1 proliferates inside AMs. Indeed, we found that depletion of AMs significantly improved Tgepsilon26 mouse survival and decreased the dissemination of Deltagcs1 cells to the central nervous system. Thus, these results suggest that the growth of Deltagcs1 in immunodeficient mice is maintained within AMs. This study highlights the hypothesis that AMs may exacerbate C. neoformans infection in conditions in which there is severe host immunodeficiency. PMID:17664261

  13. Skin manifestations in primary immunodeficient children.

    PubMed

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Nanda, Arti

    2011-01-01

    Skin manifestations are prevalent in primary immunodeficiency disorders (PID). In a large proportion of patients, they manifest as presenting signs and serve as important factors for the early diagnosis of PID. Only a few studies describing the spectrum of skin disorders in PID are available. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of skin manifestations in children with PID. Participants were 128 pediatric patients with PID (aged <16 years) registered prospectively over 6 years. Skin manifestations were observed in 61 patients (48%), and those manifestations were the presenting features in 50 (39% of total PID and 82% of those with skin lesions). Skin infections were the most prevalent manifestations, seen in 39 patients (30%), followed by eczemas in 24 (19%). Skin infections were significantly more prevalent in those with congenital defects in phagocyte number, function, or both, as well as in those with well-defined immunodeficiencies. Although widely present in all participants with PID, eczema was a consistent feature (100%) in patients with hyper IgE syndrome and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS). Erythroderma of infancy with diffuse alopecia was seen exclusively in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disorders, telangiectasia in patients with ataxia telangiectasia, and partial albinism with silvery gray hair in those with Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Autoimmune skin manifestations were observed in 6% of reported cases of PID. This study highlights the importance of awareness of skin manifestations of PID to assist in the early diagnosis and management of these disorders. PMID:21453308

  14. Mycobacterial disease, immunosuppression, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, F M

    1989-01-01

    The mycobacteria are an important group of acid-fast pathogens ranging from obligate intracellular parasites such as Mycobacterium leprae to environmental species such as M. gordonae and M. fortuitum. The latter may behave as opportunistic human pathogens if the host defenses have been depleted in some manner. The number and severity of such infections have increased markedly with the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. These nontuberculous mycobacteria tend to be less virulent for humans than M. tuberculosis, usually giving rise to self-limiting infections involving the cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of young children. However, the more virulent serovars of M. avium complex can colonize the bronchial and intestinal mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, becoming virtual members of the commensal gut microflora and thus giving rise to low levels of skin hypersensitivity to tuberculins prepared from M. avium and M. intracellulare. Systemic disease develops when the normal T-cell-mediated defenses become depleted as a result of old age, cancer chemotherapy, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus. As many as 50% of human immunodeficiency virus antibody-positive individuals develop mycobacterial infections at some time during their disease. Most isolates of M. avium complex from AIDS patients fall into serotypes 4 and 8. The presence of these drug-resistant mycobacteria in the lungs of the AIDS patient makes their effective clinical treatment virtually impossible. More effective chemotherapeutic, prophylactic, and immunotherapeutic reagents are urgently needed to treat this rapidly increasing patient population. PMID:2680057

  15. Attentiveness of pediatricians to primary immunodeficiency disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary immunodeficiency (PID) is a cluster of serious disorders that requires special alertness on the part of the medical staff for prompt diagnosis and management of the patient. This study explored PID knowledge and experience among pediatricians of wide educational backgrounds, practicing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Method A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the competency of pediatricians in their knowledge of PID disorders. This study questionnaire included questions on PID signs and symptoms, syndromes associated with immunodeficiency, screening tests, interpreting laboratory tests and case management. The participants were 263 pediatricians of diverse education working in the 27 governmental hospitals in all regions of UAE. Results The overall performance of the pediatricians did not differ based on their age, gender, origin of certification, rank, or years of experience. Of the 50 questions, 20% of pediatricians answered correctly <60% of the questions, 76% answered correctly 60 to 79% of the questions, and 4% answered correctly ?80% of the questions. Seventeen of the 19 PID signs and symptoms were identified by 55 to 97%. Four of 5 syndromes associated with immunodeficiency were identified by 50 to 90%. Appropriate screening tests were chosen by 64 to 96%. Attention to the laboratory reference range values as function of patient age was notably limited. Conclusions There was a noteworthy deficiency in PID work-up. Therefore, implementing effective educational strategies is needed to improve the competency of pediatricians to diagnose and manage PID disorders. PMID:22846098

  16. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus in South America

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Bruno M.; Hagiwara, Mitika K.; Cruz, Juliano C. M.; Hosie, Margaret J.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America. PMID:22590677

  17. Gene therapy of severe combined immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Cavazzana-Calvo, M; Hacein-Bey, S; Yates, F; de Villartay, J P; Le Deist, F; Fischer, A

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in gene transfer in human hematopoietic cells, combined with a better understanding of the genetic aspects of several immunodeficiencies, has offered new opportunities in the domain of gene therapy. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) appear to represent a good model for the application of gene therapy, combining an expected selective advantage for transduced cells, an absence of immunological response to the vector and/or the therapeutic transgene, together with accessibility to hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Ex vivo retroviral transduction of a therapeutic transgene in HSC prior to transplantation appears to be a particularly effective and long-lasting means of restoring the expression of a mutated gene in the lymphoid lineage. Furthermore, encouraging therapeutic benefits as a result of a gene therapy protocol for the treatment of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID-X1) invites many questions as to the reasons for this therapeutic benefit. This review outlines the results that have been achieved in gene therapy for SCID-X1, ADA-SCID as well as other types of SCID, and discusses the possible relationship between the physiopathology of each disease and the success of relevant trials. PMID:11437325

  18. Neuropathogenesis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome dementia.

    PubMed

    Lipton, S A

    1997-06-01

    During the past year progress has been made in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the dementia associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. As many as one-third of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients eventually develop this condition, and at present it remains only poorly or transiently treated by existing antiretroviral therapies which do not penetrate well into the central nervous system. The past year has witnessed further characterization of microglial/macrophage neurotoxins, increasing evidence for neuronal death by apoptosis, and a more quantitative search for viral products, surrogate markers, or magnetic resonance spectroscopic parameters of brain or cerebrospinal fluid, or both. An increased understanding that the mediation of neuronal injury is not by direct infection of neurons, but rather via a complex network of cytokines, excitotoxins, and free radical mechanisms triggered by human immunodeficiency virus-infected or immune-stimulated brain macrophages and astrocytes has led to the development of therapies that are administered adjunctively with antiretroviral drugs. Some of these potential new treatments have now entered clinical trials. PMID:9229134

  19. Problems of Prophylaxis of Secondary Immunodeficiency States.

    PubMed

    Pershin, Boris B.; Kuzmin, Sergey N.; Medvedev, Vladimir Ya.; Tolstov, Dmitry V.

    1999-12-01

    An attempt is made in this paper to draw up some results of long-term studies conducted by the "Immunoprophylaxis" Center of RANS on such studies. The results of mass and individual studies among 250 thousand blue- and white-collar workers in Russian industrial enterprises are processed in the data bank of the Center, including an analysis of the immunological reactions of 30 thousand individuals studied. An analysis of the results shows that secondary immunodeficiency is encountered in 30% of the people occupied in industrial positions, in 40% of professional athletes and in more than 60% of the children studied. It should be emphasized that in enterprises where there is substantial excessive environmental harm, the frequency of development of immunodeficiency also exceeded the 60% mark. There are many reasons for the development of immunological deficiency and they depend on a large number of factors. Among them, in the first place, is the anthropogenic effect on the environment, which results in contamination of working zones, the earth, water and, as a consequence, food products, the use of which inevitably results in immunodepression. A special place in this problem is occupied by stress, which accompanies almost any professional activity. There is no doubt concerning the opinion that normal functioning of the immune system provides a sufficiently effective "interdiction" against the development of many diseases. Immune deficiency "opens the door" to illness. In other words, immunodeficiency is a detonator for the growth of a pathology. PMID:12687143

  20. Second conserved domain of gp120 is important for HIV infectivity and antibody neutralization.

    PubMed

    Ho, D D; Kaplan, J C; Rackauskas, I E; Gurney, M E

    1988-02-26

    Rabbit antisera were raised against three overlapping synthetic peptides with sequence homology to the second conserved domain of the external envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All of the antisera immunoprecipitated the envelope glycoprotein. In particular, an antiserum directed against amino acids 254 to 274 of env was efficient in neutralizing three different isolates of HIV in vitro, without affecting the binding of the virus to CD4-positive cells. Therefore, this conserved region of gp120 appears to be critical in a postbinding event during virus penetration and may represent a target for antibody neutralization of HIV. These findings may be applicable in the design of a vaccine for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:2830667

  1. Neutral beam development plan

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, H S

    1980-08-01

    The national plan is presented for developing advanced injection systems for use on upgrades of existing experiments, and use on future facilities such as ETF, to be built in the late 1980's or early 90's where power production from magnetic fusion will move closer to a reality. Not only must higher power and longer pulse length systems be developed , but they must operate reliably; they must be a tool for the experimenter, not the experiment itself. Neutral beam systems handle large amounts of energy and as such, they often are as complicated as the plasma physics experiment itself. This presents a significant challenge to the neutral beam developer.

  2. Lithium jet neutralizer to improve negative hydrogen neutral beam systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisham, L. R.

    2007-10-01

    Hydrogen isotope neutral beam systems for heating and current drive in magnetic fusion energy devices have always used gas cells of the beam isotope to convert a portion of the energetic ions into neutral atoms. In the design of negative-ion based neutral beams for the ITER tokamak [R. Aymar V. A. Chuyanov, M. Huguet et al., Nuclear Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)], or for future fusion reactors, the large gas load from a traditional neutralizer cell causes many problems, including increased heat loads on the accelerator and ion source, reduced beam efficiency due to premature neutralization in the accelerator and reionization after the neutralizer, and the need to stop the beam for regeneration of the cryopanels, reducing the attractiveness of beams for reactors. We explore several approaches to decrease the neutralizer gas throughput, and conclude that a supersonic lithium vapor jet neutralizer is the most appropriate, and also affords a higher neutralization efficiency than does a hydrogen isotope gas cell.

  3. [Skin symptoms associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    PubMed

    Tamsi, Bla; Marschalk, Mrta; Krpti, Sarolta

    2015-01-01

    The recently observed accelerated increase of human immunodeficiency virus infection in Hungary poses a major public concern for the healthcare system. Given the effective only but not the curative therapy, prevention should be emphasized. Current statistics estimate that about 50% of the infected persons are not aware of their human immunodeficiency virus-positivity. Thus, early diagnosis of the infection by serological screening and timely recognition of the disease-associated symptoms are crucial. The authors' intention is to facilitate early infection detection with this review on human immunodeficiency virus-associated skin symptoms, and highlight the significance of human immunodeficiency virus care in the everyday medical practice. PMID:25544049

  4. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic

  5. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  6. Development of a complete human anti-human transferrin receptor C antibody as a novel marker of oral dysplasia and oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Kentaro; Nakahata, Shingo; Shimosaki, Shunsuke; Tamura, Tomohiro; Kondo, Yuudai; Baba, Takashi; Taki, Tomohiko; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Kurosawa, Gene; Sudo, Yukio; Okada, Seiji; Sakoda, Sumio; Morishita, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Up to 20% of oral dysplasia cases have been suggested to undergo malignant transformation to OSCC; however, there are no methods to predict OSCC development. In this study, to identify the genes associated with oral dysplasia progression, we performed genomic copy number analyses of genomic DNA samples isolated from primary oral dysplasia and OSCC via the microdissection method and found elevated expression of transferrin receptor C (TfR1/TFRC) with genomic amplification in oral dysplasia and OSCC. The expression rate of TFRC in OSCC was significantly higher than that in dysplasia, suggesting that OSCC disease progression might be related to TFRC expression. Additionally, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo impacts of a newly established anti-human TFRC monoclonal antibody, which was isolated from a human cDNA library using the phage-display method, on cell proliferation and survival. The anti-TFRC antibody blocked the interaction between transferrin and TFRC and consequently inhibited iron uptake, leading to the iron deprivation-mediated suppression of cell growth and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, we demonstrated that the anti-TFRC antibody efficiently inhibited tumor growth in a murine xenograft OSCC model. Therefore, we suggest our developed complete human anti-human TFRC antibody as a useful, novel treatment for oral dysplasia and OSCC. PMID:24890018

  7. Genetics Home Reference: T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy On this page: Description Genetic ... August 2014 What is T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy? T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, ...

  8. Neutralizing antibodies to an immunodominant envelope sequence do not prevent gp120 binding to CD4.

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, M A; Langlois, A J; McDanal, C B; McDougal, J S; Bolognesi, D P; Matthews, T J

    1988-01-01

    Animals immunized with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp160 glycoprotein or certain recombinant envelope components develop potent virus-neutralizing activity. This activity is principally due to antibodies directed toward a hypervariable region of gp120 between cysteine residues 302 and 337 and is virus isolate specific. These antisera, as well as two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed against the same hypervariable sequence, do not appreciably block gp120 from binding CD4. In contrast, serum samples from infected humans possess high titers of antibodies that block gp120-CD4 binding; these titers approximately correlate with the serum neutralization titers. Our results suggest that there are at least two targets on the envelope glycoprotein for virus neutralization. The target responsible for the broader neutralizing activity of human serum may be a conserved region of gp120 involved in CD4 binding. The antibodies directed at the hypervariable region of the envelope inhibit a different step in virus infection which is subsequent to receptor binding. The extent to which these two different epitopes of gp120 may be involved in protection against human immunodeficiency virus infection is discussed. PMID:2845130

  9. Neutralizing antibodies to an immunodominant envelope sequence do not prevent gp120 binding to CD4.

    PubMed

    Skinner, M A; Langlois, A J; McDanal, C B; McDougal, J S; Bolognesi, D P; Matthews, T J

    1988-11-01

    Animals immunized with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp160 glycoprotein or certain recombinant envelope components develop potent virus-neutralizing activity. This activity is principally due to antibodies directed toward a hypervariable region of gp120 between cysteine residues 302 and 337 and is virus isolate specific. These antisera, as well as two neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed against the same hypervariable sequence, do not appreciably block gp120 from binding CD4. In contrast, serum samples from infected humans possess high titers of antibodies that block gp120-CD4 binding; these titers approximately correlate with the serum neutralization titers. Our results suggest that there are at least two targets on the envelope glycoprotein for virus neutralization. The target responsible for the broader neutralizing activity of human serum may be a conserved region of gp120 involved in CD4 binding. The antibodies directed at the hypervariable region of the envelope inhibit a different step in virus infection which is subsequent to receptor binding. The extent to which these two different epitopes of gp120 may be involved in protection against human immunodeficiency virus infection is discussed. PMID:2845130

  10. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... (78 FR 21613), FDA published a document that announced the disease ] areas for meetings in fiscal... Federal Register document for public comment that was published on September 24, 2012 (77 FR 58849), and a... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug Development and HIV Cure Research. Patient-Focused...

  11. Lipid Management in Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Merle

    2016-03-01

    The development and use of antiretroviral medications to treat patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has dramatically changed the course of this disease from one that was fatal to a chronic and more manageable condition. Recommendations and guidelines for the general population are presented in this review with suggestions as to how they may be applied to this patient population. Issues for which there is little or no information available are noted to highlight the many gaps in our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of dyslipidemia for patients living with HIV. PMID:26893003

  12. Pulmonary Manifestations of Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nonas, Stephanie

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary disease, ranging from infectious pneumonia, lung abscess, and empyema to structural lung diseases to malignancy, significantly increase morbidity and mortality in primary immune deficiency. Treatment with supplemental immunoglobulin (intravenous or subcutaneous) and antimicrobials is beneficial in reducing infections but are largely ineffective in preventing noninfectious complications, including interstitial lung disease, malignancy, and autoimmune disease. A low threshold for suspecting pulmonary complications is necessary for the early diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in primary immunodeficiency disorders, before irreversible damage is done, to improve patient outcomes. PMID:26454317

  13. Between detection and neutralization.

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Mark Kamerer; Green, Mary Wilson; Adams, Douglas Glenn; Pritchard, Daniel Allison

    2005-08-01

    Security system analytical performance analysis is generally based on the probability of system effectiveness. The probability of effectiveness is a function of the probabilities of interruption and neutralization. Interruption occurs if the response forces are notified in sufficient time to engage the adversary. Neutralization occurs if the adversary attack is defeated after the security forces have actively engaged the adversary. Both depend upon communications of data. This paper explores details of embedded communications functions that are often assumed to be inconsequential. It is the intent of the authors to bring focus to an issue in security system modeling that, if not well understood, has the potential to be a deciding factor in the overall system failure or effectiveness.

  14. Carbon neutral hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Frank S; Keith, David W

    2008-11-13

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector may be the most difficult aspect of climate change mitigation. We suggest that carbon neutral hydrocarbons (CNHCs) offer an alternative pathway for deep emission cuts that complement the use of decarbonized energy carriers. Such fuels are synthesized from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon neutral hydrogen. The result is a liquid fuel compatible with the existing transportation infrastructure and therefore capable of a gradual deployment with minimum supply disruption. Capturing the atmospheric CO2 can be accomplished using biomass or industrial methods referred to as air capture. The viability of biomass fuels is strongly dependent on the environmental impacts of biomass production. Strong constraints on land use may favour the use of air capture. We conclude that CNHCs may be a viable alternative to hydrogen or conventional biofuels and warrant a comparable level of research effort and support. PMID:18757281

  15. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A neutral beam intensity controller is provided for a neutral beam generator in which a neutral beam is established by accelerating ions from an ion source into a gas neutralizer. An amplitude modulated, rotating magnetic field is applied to the accelerated ion beam in the gas neutralizer to defocus the resultant neutral beam in a controlled manner to achieve intensity control of the neutral beam along the beam axis at constant beam energy. The rotating magnetic field alters the orbits of ions in the gas neutralizer before they are neutralized, thereby controlling the fraction of neutral particles transmitted out of the neutralizer along the central beam axis to a fusion device or the like. The altered path or defocused neutral particles are sprayed onto an actively cooled beam dump disposed perpendicular to the neutral beam axis and having a central open for passage of the focused beam at the central axis of the beamline. Virtually zero therough 100% intensity control is achieved by varying the magnetic field strength without altering the ion source beam intensity or its species yield.

  16. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  17. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Fred L.; Blank, Merle L.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated ether-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood pressure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  18. Antihypertensive neutral lipid

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, F.L.; Blank, M.L.

    1984-10-26

    The invention relates to the discovery of a class of neutral acetylated either-linked glycerolipids having the capacity to lower blood presure in warm-blooded animals. This physiological effect is structure sensitive requiring a long chain alkyl group at the sn-1 position and a short carbon chain acyl group (acetyl or propionyl) at the sn-2 position, and a hydroxyl group at the sn-3 position.

  19. Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Patients With Primary Immunodeficiencies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-10-14

    Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immunodeficiency; Graft Versus Host Disease; X-Linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; Familial Erythrophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Hyper IgM Syndrome; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome; Virus-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome

  20. Neutral particle beam intensity controller

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.

    1984-05-29

    The neutral beam intensity controller is based on selected magnetic defocusing of the ion beam prior to neutralization. The defocused portion of the beam is dumped onto a beam dump disposed perpendicular to the beam axis. Selective defocusing is accomplished by means of a magnetic field generator disposed about the neutralizer so that the field is transverse to the beam axis. The magnetic field intensity is varied to provide the selected partial beam defocusing of the ions prior to neutralization. The desired focused neutral beam portion passes along the beam path through a defining aperture in the beam dump, thereby controlling the desired fraction of neutral particles transmitted to a utilization device without altering the kinetic energy level of the desired neutral particle fraction. By proper selection of the magnetic field intensity, virtually zero through 100% intensity control of the neutral beam is achieved.

  1. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free Exercise and…

  2. Neutrality between Government and Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1996-01-01

    The overall guiding principle of neutrality between government and religion masks a tension that exists between free exercise of religion and establishment of religion. Reviews the development and current status of "Lemon" as a test for neutrality; proposes a new test for neutrality, evenhandedness, that is common to both the Free Exercise and

  3. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing

  4. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  5. Cross-reaction of anti-human CD monoclonal antibodies on guinea pig cells: a summary of the guinea pig section of the HLDA8 animal homologues data.

    PubMed

    Lasco, Todd M; Gonzalez-Juarrero, Mercedes; Saalmller, Armin; Lunney, Joan K

    2007-09-15

    A panel of 377 commercially available monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for a total of 144 CD antigens was submitted to the animal homologue section of the Eighth International Workshop on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens (HLDA8, Adelaide, Australia) for cross-reactivity studies in a range of vertebrate species. Each of the mAbs in this study was screened for positive reactivity with guinea pig splenocytes by flow cytometry. In the first phase of this study 36 of the total 367 mAbs (9.81%) cross-reacted with splenocyte surface molecules. The majority (26 of 36) of these cross-reactive mAbs were analysed further to confirm appropriate cell subset expression by two-color immunofluorescence. Our results indicate that 15 anti-human CD9, CD10, CD14, CD20 (two clones), CD22, CD25, CD29 (two clones), CD32, CD47 (two clones), CD49d, CD49e, and CD86 mAbs exhibit clear cross-reactivity with guinea pig splenocytes. These mAb can potentially be added to the limited repertoire of reagents available for studies in this model system. This data clearly indicates that mouse anti-human CD mAb guinea pig cross-reactions have been defined and that an aim of this HLDA8 section has been fulfilled, i.e., to identify mAbs which recognize conserved, species-independent CD epitopes. These results will contribute to the availability of mAbs and tools in veterinary medicine and immunology. PMID:17658620

  6. Neutral beam injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Duesing, G.; Altmann, H.; Falter, H.; Goede, A.; Haange, R.; Hemsworth, R.S.; Kupschus, P.; Stork, D.; Thompson, E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the neutral injection (NI) system for the Joint European Torus and its status in 1985 are reported. First the system parameters are discussed and the layout is described, followed by a summary of the physics design calculations, the development, production, and testing of the components and the subsystem assembly. The system commissioning is presented, including a description of the function and the realization of the NI test bed. A summary of performance predictions for 80-keV beam heating experiments, and of the experimental evidence on balanced versus coinjection, is presented. The operational experience with the first injector and the plasma physics results obtained so far are summarized.

  7. Pulsed field sample neutralization

    DOEpatents

    Appelhans, Anthony D.; Dahl, David A.; Delmore, James E.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for alternating voltage and for varying the rate of extraction during the extraction of secondary particles, resulting in periods when either positive ions, or negative ions and electrons are extracted at varying rates. Using voltage with alternating charge during successive periods to extract particles from materials which accumulate charge opposite that being extracted causes accumulation of surface charge of opposite sign. Charge accumulation can then be adjusted to a ratio which maintains a balance of positive and negative charge emission, thus maintaining the charge neutrality of the sample.

  8. Feline immunodeficiency virus: an interesting model for AIDS studies and an important cat pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Bendinelli, M; Pistello, M; Lombardi, S; Poli, A; Garzelli, C; Matteucci, D; Ceccherini-Nelli, L; Malvaldi, G; Tozzini, F

    1995-01-01

    The lentivirus feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a widespread pathogen of the domestic cat that is mainly transmitted through bites, although other means of transmission are also possible. Its prevalence ranges from 1 to 10% in different cat populations throughout the world, thus representing a large reservoir of naturally infected animals. FIV resembles the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many respects. Similarities include the structural features of the virion, the general organization and great variability of the genome, the life cycle in the infected host, and most importantly, the pathogenic potential. Infection is associated with laboratory signs of immunosuppression as well as with a large variety of superinfections, tumors, and neurological manifestations. Our understanding of FIV is steadily improving and is providing important clues to the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency-inducing lentiviruses. The cellular receptor for FIV is different from the feline equivalent of the human CD4 molecule used by HIV; nevertheless, the major hallmark of infection is a progressive loss of CD4+ T lymphocytes as in HIV infection. The mechanisms by which FIV escapes the host's immune responses are being actively investigated. FIV causes lysis of infected T cells and also appears to predispose these cells to apoptosis. Infection of macrophages and other cell types has also been documented. For reasons yet to be understood, antibody-mediated neutralization of fresh FIV isolates is very inefficient both in vitro and in vivo. Vaccination studies have provided some encouraging results, but the difficulties encountered appear to match those met in HIV vaccine development. FIV susceptibility to antiviral agents is similar to that of HIV, thus providing a valuable system for in vivo preclinical evaluation of therapies. It is concluded that in many respects FIV is an ideal model for AIDS studies. PMID:7704896

  9. Mutations in IRF8 and Human Dendritic Cell Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, Sophie; Salem, Sandra; Bustamante, Jacinta; Bigley, Venetia; Boisson-Dupuis, Stphanie; Azevedo, Joana; Fortin, Anny; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Ceron-Gutierrez, Lourdes; Bacon, Chris; Menon, Geetha; Trouillet, Cline; McDonald, David; Carey, Peter; Ginhoux, Florent; Alsina, Laia; Zumwalt, Timothy J; Kong, Xiaofei; Kumararatne, Dinakantha; Butler, Karina; Hubeau, Marjorie; Feinberg, Jacqueline; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Cant, Andrew; Abel, Laurent; Chaussabel, Damien; Doffinger, Rainer; Talesnik, Eduardo; Grumach, Anete; Duarte, Alberto; Abarca, Katia; Moraes-Vasconcelos, Dewton; Burk, David; Berghuis, Albert; Geissmann, Frdric; Collin, Matthew; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Gros, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic analysis of human primary immunodeficiencies has defined the contribution of specific cell populations and molecular pathways in host defense against infections. Disseminated infection caused by BCG vaccines is an early manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies, such as severe combined immunodeficiency. In many affected individuals, the etiology of disseminated BCG disease is unexplained. Methods We investigated an infant presenting with features of severe immunodeficiency, including early-onset disseminated BCG disease, requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We also studied two otherwise healthy adults with a history of disseminated but curable BCG disease in childhood. We characterized the monocyte and dendritic cells compartments in these three persons and sequenced candidate genes, mutation of which could plausibly confer susceptibility to BCG disease. Results We detected two distinct disease-causing mutations affecting the transcriptional regulator IRF8. Both K108A and T80A mutations impair IRF8 transcriptional activity by disrupting IRF8 interaction with DNA. Mutation K108E was associated with an autosomal recessive severe immunodeficiency with a complete lack of circulating monocytes and dendritic cells. Mutation T80A was associated with an autosomal dominant milder immunodeficiency and a selective depletion of CD11c+ CD1c+ circulating dendritic cells. Conclusions These findings define a new class of human primary immunodeficiency, affecting the differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. They also demonstrate that human IRF8 is critically required for the development of monocytes and dendritic cells and for anti-mycobacterial immunity. PMID:21524210

  10. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression. PMID:26962942

  11. Evaluation of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and Combined Immunodeficiency Pediatric Patients on the Basis of Cellular Radiosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Lobachevsky, Pavel; Woodbine, Lisa; Hsiao, Kuang-Chih; Choo, Sharon; Fraser, Chris; Gray, Paul; Smith, Jai; Best, Nickala; Munforte, Laura; Korneeva, Elena; Martin, Roger F.; Jeggo, Penny A.; Martin, Olga A.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric patients with severe or nonsevere combined immunodeficiency have increased susceptibility to severe, life-threatening infections and, without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may fail to thrive. A subset of these patients have the radiosensitive (RS) phenotype, which may necessitate conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this conditioning includes radiomimetic drugs, which may significantly affect treatment response. To provide statistical criteria for classifying cellular response to ionizing radiation as the measure of functional RS screening, we analyzed the repair capacity and survival of ex vivo irradiated primary skin fibroblasts from five dysmorphic and/or developmentally delayed pediatric patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and combined immunodeficiency. We developed a mathematical framework for the analysis of γ histone 2A isoform X foci kinetics to quantitate DNA-repair capacity, thus establishing crucial criteria for identifying RS. The results, presented in a diagram showing each patient as a point in a 2D RS map, were in agreement with findings from the assessment of cellular RS by clonogenic survival and from the genetic analysis of factors involved in the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway. We provide recommendations for incorporating into clinical practice the functional assays and genetic analysis used for establishing RS status before conditioning. This knowledge would enable the selection of the most appropriate treatment regimen, reducing the risk for severe therapy-related adverse effects. PMID:26151233

  12. Evaluation of Severe Combined Immunodeficiency and Combined Immunodeficiency Pediatric Patients on the Basis of Cellular Radiosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Lobachevsky, Pavel; Woodbine, Lisa; Hsiao, Kuang-Chih; Choo, Sharon; Fraser, Chris; Gray, Paul; Smith, Jai; Best, Nickala; Munforte, Laura; Korneeva, Elena; Martin, Roger F; Jeggo, Penny A; Martin, Olga A

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric patients with severe or nonsevere combined immunodeficiency have increased susceptibility to severe, life-threatening infections and, without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, may fail to thrive. A subset of these patients have the radiosensitive (RS) phenotype, which may necessitate conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and this conditioning includes radiomimetic drugs, which may significantly affect treatment response. To provide statistical criteria for classifying cellular response to ionizing radiation as the measure of functional RS screening, we analyzed the repair capacity and survival of exvivo irradiated primary skin fibroblasts from five dysmorphic and/or developmentally delayed pediatric patients with severe combined immunodeficiency and combined immunodeficiency. We developed a mathematical framework for the analysis of ?histone 2A isoform X foci kinetics to quantitate DNA-repair capacity, thus establishing crucial criteria for identifying RS. The results, presented in a diagram showing each patient as a point in a 2D RS map, were in agreement with findings from the assessment of cellular RS by clonogenic survival and from the genetic analysis of factors involved in the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway. We provide recommendations for incorporating into clinical practice the functional assays and genetic analysis used for establishing RS status before conditioning. This knowledge would enable the selection of the most appropriate treatment regimen, reducing the risk for severe therapy-related adverse effects. PMID:26151233

  13. Live, attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines elicit potent resistance against a challenge with a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 chimeric virus.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, R; Siemon, C; Czajak, S C; Desrosiers, R C; Martin, M A

    1997-01-01

    Three rhesus macaques, previously immunized with SIVdelta3 or SIVdelta2, each an attenuated derivative of SIVmac239, and two naive monkeys were challenged with 30,000 50% tissue culture infective doses of SHIV, an SIV/human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) chimeric virus bearing the dual-tropic envelope of HIV-1DH12. By several criteria, including virus isolation, serological assays, and PCR (both DNA and reverse transcriptase), SHIV levels were reduced to barely detectable levels in the circulating blood of vaccinated animals. The resistant SIV-vaccinated macaques had no preexisting neutralizing antibodies directed against SHIV, nor did they produce neutralizing antibodies at any time over a 14-month observation period following SHIV challenge. Interestingly, SIV sequences, derived from the vaccine, could be amplified from numerous tissue samples collected at the conclusion of the experiment, 60 weeks postchallenge, but SHIV-specific sequences (viz., HIV-1 env) could not. These results demonstrate that live attenuated SIV vaccines provide strong long-term protection even against challenge strains with highly divergent envelope sequences. PMID:9343164

  14. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men. PMID:2996396

  15. GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE in COMMON VARIABLE IMMUNODEFICIENCY#

    PubMed Central

    Ardeniz, mr; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Granulomatous disease occurs in 8-22% of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). We examined the clinical and immunologic information of all 37 of 455 (8.1%) CVID subjects with this complication. The median age at diagnosis of CVID was 26 (2 - 59). 14 had granulomas 1 - 18 years before diagnosis of CVID. In 6 detection of granulomas coincided with this diagnosis; for 17, granulomas were documented later. 54% had lung granulomas, 43% in lymph nodes and 32% in liver. 54% of the group had had autoimmune diseases, mostly immune thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia. 24% had had a splenectomy. Nineteen (51.3%) required steroid treatment for granulomas; other immune suppressants were used in some. Over 25 years 28.5% died (median age 37.5), but not significantly more when compared to our CVID patients without granulomas (19.8%). Those with lung granulomas had similar mortality to those with granulomas in other tissues. PMID:19716342

  16. Genetic regulation of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Steffy, K; Wong-Staal, F

    1991-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a complex life cycle in which both cellular and virus-encoded factors participate to determine the level of virus production. Two of the viral genes, tat and rev, are essential for virus replication and encode novel trans-activators that interact specifically with their cognate RNA target elements. Elucidation of their mechanisms of action is likely to expand our knowledge of gene regulation at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in the eukaryotic cell. Several viral genes (vif, vpu, and vpr) facilitate virus infection and/or release and may play a role in target cell tropism and infection in vivo. The functions of yet other viral genes (nef, vpt) remain unclear. Recent data also suggest that the tat gene product may have a role in HIV pathogenesis that goes beyond trans-activating virus expression. It can potentially impact on uninfected cells as a diffusible molecule and alter the growth of different cell types. PMID:1886517

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus induced oral candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, S. Aravind; Sathasivasubramanian, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide health problem, which affects in both developing and developed countries. The oral lesions caused due to this disease can drastically change the life of the patient, in terms of quality. We can also know the progression of the disease and also the important immune status of the patient. Lots of information on HIV is known in the developed countries and very less reports are available in the developing countries. The morbidity of HIV disease is due to its association with opportunistic fungal infection and the most common among them is oral candidiasis. Here, we present a case report on an apparently healthy male patient of 39 years, who had oral candidiasis and was one of the indicators for HIV infection. PMID:26538978

  18. INTRINSIC CELLULAR DEFENSES AGAINST HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Viral infections are often detrimental to host survival and reproduction. Consequently, hosts have evolved a variety of mechanisms to defend themselves against viruses. A component of this arsenal is a set of proteins, termed restriction factors, which exhibit direct antiviral activity. Among these are several classes of proteins (APOBEC3, TRIM5, Tetherin and SAMHD1) that inhibit the replication of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses. Here, we outline the features, mechanisms, and evolution of these defense mechanisms. We also speculate on how restriction factors arose, how they might interact with the conventional innate and adaptive immune systems and how an understanding of these intrinsic cellular defenses might be usefully exploited. PMID:22999946

  19. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and the liver

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Megan; Iser, David; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-01-01

    Liver disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals encompasses the spectrum from abnormal liver function tests, liver decompensation, with and without evidence of cirrhosis on biopsy, to non-alcoholic liver disease and its more severe form, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular cancer. HIV can infect multiple cells in the liver, leading to enhanced intrahepatic apoptosis, activation and fibrosis. HIV can also alter gastro-intestinal tract permeability, leading to increased levels of circulating lipopolysaccharide that may have an impact on liver function. This review focuses on recent changes in the epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentation of liver disease in HIV-infected patients, in the absence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus, with a specific focus on issues relevant to low and middle income countries. PMID:22489261

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis in SCID mice.

    PubMed Central

    Persidsky, Y.; Limoges, J.; McComb, R.; Bock, P.; Baldwin, T.; Tyor, W.; Patil, A.; Nottet, H. S.; Epstein, L.; Gelbard, H.; Flanagan, E.; Reinhard, J.; Pirruccello, S. J.; Gendelman, H. E.

    1996-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is neuroinvasive and commonly causes cognitive and motor deficits during the later stages of viral infection. (referred to as HIV dementia). The mechanism(s) for disease revolves around secretory products produced from immune-activated brain macrophages/microglia. Recently, we developed an animal model system for HIV dementia that contains xenografts of HIV-1-infected cells inoculated into brains of mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This animal system was used to quantitatively evaluate HIV-induced neuropathology. Xenografts of HIV-1-infected human monocytes (placed into the putamen and cortex of SCID mice) remained viable for 5 weeks. HIV-1 p24 antigen expression in mouse brain was persistent. Progressive inflammatory responses (including astrogliosis and cytokine production), which began at 3 days, peaked at day 12. The range of astrocyte proliferative reactions exceeded the inoculation site by > 1000 microns. Brains with virus-infected monocytes showed a > or = 1.6-fold increase in glial fibrillary acidic protein (staining distribution and intensity) as compared with similarly inoculated brains with uninfected control monocytes. These findings paralleled the accumulation and activation of murine microglia (increased branching of cell processes, formation of microglial nodules, interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6 expression). An inflammatory reaction of human monocytes (as defined by HLA-DR, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression) and neuronal injury (apoptosis) also developed after virus-infected monocyte xenograft placement into mouse brain tissue. These data, taken together, demonstrate that this SCID mouse model of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis can reproduce key aspects of disease (virus-infected macrophages, astrocytosis, microglial activation, and neuronal damage). This model may serve as an important means for therapeutic development directed toward improving mental function in HIV-infected subjects with cognitive and motor dysfunction. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:8780406

  2. Vaccine Protection against a Heterologous, Non-Syncytium-Inducing, Primary Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Guroff, Marjorie; Kaur, Harvinder; Patterson, L. Jean; Leno, Michel; Conley, Anthony J.; McKenna, Philip M.; Markham, Phillip D.; Richardson, Ersell; Aldrich, Kristine; Arora, Kamalpreet; Murty, Lalita; Carter, Lucretia; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Sinangil, Faruk

    1998-01-01

    Vaccine-induced protection of chimpanzees against laboratory-adapted and syncytium-inducing, multiply passaged primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates, but not against non-syncytium-inducing, minimally passaged ones, has been demonstrated. Following challenge with such an isolate, HIV-15016, we obtained complete protection in one of three chimpanzees previously protected against low- and high-dose HIV-1SF2 exposures after immunization with an adenovirus-HIV-1MN gp160 priming–HIV-1SF2 gp120 boosting regimen. At challenge, the protected chimpanzee exhibited broad humoral immunity, including neutralizing antibody activity. These results demonstrate the potential of this combination vaccine strategy and suggest that vaccine protection against an HIV isolate relevant to infection of people is feasible. PMID:9811775

  3. Epstein-Barr virus in patients with immunodeficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Okano, M

    2001-09-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), one of eight known human herpesviruses, causes a wide spectrum of diseases under certain conditions. In particular, in the setting of immunodeficiency, which includes primary or secondary/acquired immunodeficiencies, they have been increasingly reported. The major clinical phenotype is the EBV genome-positive lymphoproliferative disorder, which ranges from benign lymphoproliferation to malignant lymphoma with cytogenetic alterations. Severe or fatal infectious mononucleosis may develop in some patients with immunodeficiencies such as X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:11669496

  4. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  5. Bioluminescent imaging of vaccinia virus infection in immunocompetent and immunodeficient rats as a model for human smallpox.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Fan, Changfa; Zhou, Shuya; Guo, Yanan; Zuo, Qin; Ma, Jian; Liu, Susu; Wu, Xi; Peng, Zexu; Fan, Tao; Guo, Chaoshe; Shen, Yuelei; Huang, Weijin; Li, Baowen; He, Zhengming; Wang, Youchun

    2015-01-01

    Due to the increasing concern of using smallpox virus as biological weapons for terrorist attack, there is renewed interest in studying the pathogenesis of human smallpox and development of new therapies. Animal models are highly demanded for efficacy and safety examination of new vaccines and therapeutic drugs. Here, we demonstrated that both wild type and immunodeficient rats infected with an engineered vaccinia virus carrying Firefly luciferase reporter gene (rTV-Fluc) could recapitulate infectious and clinical features of human smallpox. Vaccinia viral infection in wild type Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats displayed a diffusible pattern in various organs, including liver, head and limbs. The intensity of bioluminescence generated from rTV-Fluc correlated well with viral loads in tissues. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies had a protective effect against virus reinfection. The recombination activating gene 2 (Rag2) knockout rats generated by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) technology were further used to examine the infectivity of the rTV-Fluc in immunodeficient populations. Here we demonstrated that Rag2-/- rats were more susceptible to rTV-Fluc than SD rats with a slower virus clearance rate. Therefore, the rTV-Fluc/SD rats and rTV-Fluc/Rag2-/- rats are suitable visualization models, which recapitulate wild type or immunodeficient populations respectively, for testing human smallpox vaccine and antiviral drugs. PMID:26235050

  6. Infection of Monkeys by Simian-human Immunodeficiency Viruses with Transmitted/ founder Clade C HIV-1 Envelopes

    PubMed Central

    Asmal, Mohammed; Luedemann, Corinne; Lavine, Christy L.; Mach, Linh V.; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Brinkley, Christie; Denny, Thomas N.; Lewis, Mark G.; Anderson, Hanne; Pal, Ranajit; Sok, Devin; Le, Khoa; Pauthner, Matthias; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Shaw, George M.; Seaman, Michael S.; Letvin, Norman L.; Burton, Dennis R.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Haynes, Barton F.; Santra, Sampa

    2014-01-01

    Simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that mirror natural transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses in man are needed for evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates in nonhuman primates. Currently available SHIVs contain HIV-1 env genes from chronically-infected individuals and do not reflect the characteristics of biologically relevant HIV-1 strains that mediate human transmission. We chose to develop clade C SHIVs, as clade C is the major infecting subtype of HIV-1 in the world. We constructed ten clade C SHIVs expressing Env proteins from T/F viruses. Three of these ten clade C SHIVs (SHIV KB9 C3, SHIV KB9 C4 and SHIV KB9 C5) replicated in naïve rhesus monkeys. These three SHIVs are mucosally transmissible and are neutralized by sCD4 and several HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, like natural T/F viruses, they exhibit low Env reactivity and a Tier 2 neutralization sensitivity. Of note, none of the clade C T/F SHIVs elicited detectable autologous neutralizing antibodies in the infected monkeys, even though antibodies that neutralized a heterologous Tier 1 HIV-1 were generated. Challenge with these three new clade C SHIVs will provide biologically relevant tests for vaccine protection in rhesus macaques. PMID:25462344

  7. Infection of monkeys by simian-human immunodeficiency viruses with transmitted/founder clade C HIV-1 envelopes.

    PubMed

    Asmal, Mohammed; Luedemann, Corinne; Lavine, Christy L; Mach, Linh V; Balachandran, Harikrishnan; Brinkley, Christie; Denny, Thomas N; Lewis, Mark G; Anderson, Hanne; Pal, Ranajit; Sok, Devin; Le, Khoa; Pauthner, Matthias; Hahn, Beatrice H; Shaw, George M; Seaman, Michael S; Letvin, Norman L; Burton, Dennis R; Sodroski, Joseph G; Haynes, Barton F; Santra, Sampa

    2015-01-15

    Simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) that mirror natural transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses in man are needed for evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates in nonhuman primates. Currently available SHIVs contain HIV-1 env genes from chronically-infected individuals and do not reflect the characteristics of biologically relevant HIV-1 strains that mediate human transmission. We chose to develop clade C SHIVs, as clade C is the major infecting subtype of HIV-1 in the world. We constructed 10 clade C SHIVs expressing Env proteins from T/F viruses. Three of these ten clade C SHIVs (SHIV KB9 C3, SHIV KB9 C4 and SHIV KB9 C5) replicated in naïve rhesus monkeys. These three SHIVs are mucosally transmissible and are neutralized by sCD4 and several HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies. However, like natural T/F viruses, they exhibit low Env reactivity and a Tier 2 neutralization sensitivity. Of note, none of the clade C T/F SHIVs elicited detectable autologous neutralizing antibodies in the infected monkeys, even though antibodies that neutralized a heterologous Tier 1 HIV-1 were generated. Challenge with these three new clade C SHIVs will provide biologically relevant tests for vaccine protection in rhesus macaques. PMID:25462344

  8. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolston, Steven L.

    2008-07-01

    Plasmas are normally thought of as high temperature ionized gases or fluids, such as those in the sun's corona or those found in controlled nuclear fusion experiments. Many interesting plasma phenomena can occur, however, in plasmas at low temperature. With the help of laser trapping and cooling, atoms can be photoionized to form neutral plasmas at extremely low temperatures. These plasmas may exist in the so-called strong coupling regime, where the energy of the Coulomb interactions between particles is larger than their thermal energy. In addition to providing a test bed for studying the strongly coupled plasmas such as those found in Jovian planets and white dwarfs, ultracold plasmas play a critical role in understanding the formation of antihydrogen.

  9. Structural Basis for Broad and Potent Neutralization of HIV-1 by Antibody VRC01

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Tongqing; Georgiev, Ivelin; Wu, Xueling; Yang, Zhi-Yong; Dai, Kaifan; Finzi, Andrés; Kwon, Young Do; Scheid, Johannes F.; Shi, Wei; Xu, Ling; Yang, Yongping; Zhu, Jiang; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Sodroski, Joseph; Shapiro, Lawrence; Nabel, Gary J.; Mascola, John R.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2010-08-26

    During HIV-1 infection, antibodies are generated against the region of the viral gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds CD4, the primary receptor for HIV-1. Among these antibodies, VRC01 achieves broad neutralization of diverse viral strains. We determined the crystal structure of VRC01 in complex with a human immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 gp120 core. VRC01 partially mimics CD4 interaction with gp120. A shift from the CD4-defined orientation, however, focuses VRC01 onto the vulnerable site of initial CD4 attachment, allowing it to overcome the glycan and conformational masking that diminishes the neutralization potency of most CD4-binding-site antibodies. To achieve this recognition, VRC01 contacts gp120 mainly through immunoglobulin V-gene regions substantially altered from their genomic precursors. Partial receptor mimicry and extensive affinity maturation thus facilitate neutralization of HIV-1 by natural human antibodies.

  10. Transient ion neutralization by electrons.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    The nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems describing the lateral neutralization of ion beams for the cases that (1) an auxiliary electric field accelerates the electrons into the ion space, and (2) the electrons are injected into the ion space at a prescribed current density are treated. Analytical solutions are derived which give the position and speed of the neutralization front as a function of time, and the temporal development of the electron density, velocity, and electric fields during the neutralization process.

  11. A proposed neutral line signature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doxas, I.; Speiser, T. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Horton, W.

    1992-01-01

    An identifying signature is proposed for the existence and location of the neutral line in the magnetotail. The signature, abrupt density, and temperature changes in the Earthtail direction, was first discovered in test particle simulations. Such temperature variations have been observed in ISEE data (Huang et. al. 1992), but their connection to the possible existence of a neutral line in the tail has not yet been established. The proposed signature develops earlier than the ion velocity space ridge of Martin and Speiser (1988), but can only be seen by spacecraft in the vicinity of the neutral line, while the latter can locate a neutral line remotely.

  12. Chemistry of carotenoid neutral radicals.

    PubMed

    Ligia Focsan, A; Magyar, Adam; Kispert, Lowell D

    2015-04-15

    Proton loss from the carotenoid radical cations (Car(+)) to form neutral radicals (#Car) was investigated by numerous electrochemical, EPR, ENDOR and DFT studies described herein. The radical cation and neutral radicals were formed in solution electrochemically and stabilized on solid silica-alumina and MCM-41 matrices. Carotenoid neutral radicals were recently identified in Arabidopsis thaliana plant and photosystem II samples. Deprotonation at the terminal ends of a zeaxanthin radical cation could provide a secondary photoprotection pathway which involves quenching excited state chlorophyll by the long-lived zeaxanthin neutral radicals formed. PMID:25687648

  13. Immunodeficiency and autoimmunity: lessons from systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Grammatikos, Alexandros P.; Tsokos, George C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that systemic autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are not separate entities, but rather interconnected processes. Immunodeficiency results from distinct defects of the immune response and primarily presents as infections, but also frequently with autoimmune features. Systemic autoimmunity is the combined effect of multiple genetic variations, infectious and immunoregulatory factors that result in dominant autoimmune manifestations in addition to frequent and opportunistic infections. The overlap in disease manifestations and symptoms suggests that immunodeficiency should be considered in the presence of autoimmunity, and vice versa. In this review, we present the shared or similar aspects of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity using systemic lupus erythematosus as a paradigm and discuss the implications for clinical care. PMID:22177735

  14. Physical properties of cytomegalorvirus immune complexes prepared with IgG neutralizing antibody, anti-IgG, and complement.

    PubMed

    Rundell, B B; Betts, R F

    1980-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) strain AD 169 was reacted with IgG antibody (ab) from a CMV-infected renal transplant patient. A portion of he virus was neutralized, but infectious CMV-ab complexes that could be neutralized by adding rabbit anti-human IgG (A-IgG) or complement (C) were also generated. The immune complexes were examined, and the following observations were made: 1) CMV ab sufficient to cause 94% neutralization did not induce measurable changes in virion size or density. 2) The CMV-ab complexes increased slightly in size after reaction with A-IgG. 3) C increased the size and density of CMV-ab complexes to a greater degree than A-IgG. Virus aggregation did not occur with ab alone or with ab + A-IgG. However, clumping may have occurred in the presence of ab + C. 4) C also damaged virus envelopes, rendering viral DNA sensitive to DNase. 5) CMV-ab complexes absorbed to host cells as efficiently as native CMV. A-IgG or C partially inhibited complex attachment to the cells and increased the rate of release of cell-attached CMV. These findings suggest that virus neutralization may occur in a multistage process by more than one mechanism depending on the immune reagents employed. The physical changes in virus particles caused by A-IgG or C may be contributing factors in the neutralization process. PMID:6243148

  15. A fusion intermediate gp41 immunogen elicits neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Lai, Rachel P J; Hock, Miriam; Radzimanowski, Jens; Tonks, Paul; Hulsik, David Lutje; Effantin, Gregory; Seilly, David J; Dreja, Hanna; Kliche, Alexander; Wagner, Ralf; Barnett, Susan W; Tumba, Nancy; Morris, Lynn; LaBranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Seaman, Michael S; Heeney, Jonathan L; Weissenhorn, Winfried

    2014-10-24

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein subunit gp41 is targeted by potent broadly neutralizing antibodies 2F5, 4E10, and 10E8. These antibodies recognize linear epitopes and have been suggested to target the fusion intermediate conformation of gp41 that bridges viral and cellular membranes. Anti-MPER antibodies exert different degrees of membrane interaction, which is considered to be the limiting factor for the generation of such antibodies by immunization. Here we characterize a fusion intermediate conformation of gp41 (gp41(int)-Cys) and show that it folds into an elongated ? 12-nm-long extended structure based on small angle x-ray scattering data. Gp41(int)-Cys was covalently linked to liposomes via its C-terminal cysteine and used as immunogen. The gp41(int)-Cys proteoliposomes were administered alone or in prime-boost regimen with trimeric envelope gp140(CA018) in guinea pigs and elicited high anti-gp41 IgG titers. The sera interacted with a peptide spanning the MPER region, demonstrated competition with broadly neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, and exerted modest lipid binding, indicating the presence of MPER-specific antibodies. Although the neutralization potency generated solely by gp140(CA018) was higher than that induced by gp41(int)-Cys, the majority of animals immunized with gp41(int)-Cys proteoliposomes induced modest breadth and potency in neutralizing tier 1 pseudoviruses and replication-competent simian/human immunodeficiency viruses in the TZM-bl assay as well as responses against tier 2 HIV-1 in the A3R5 neutralization assay. Our data thus demonstrate that liposomal gp41 MPER formulation can induce neutralization activity, and the strategy serves to improve breadth and potency of such antibodies by improved vaccination protocols. PMID:25160627

  16. A Fusion Intermediate gp41 Immunogen Elicits Neutralizing Antibodies to HIV-1*

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Rachel P. J.; Hock, Miriam; Radzimanowski, Jens; Tonks, Paul; Hulsik, David Lutje; Effantin, Gregory; Seilly, David J.; Dreja, Hanna; Kliche, Alexander; Wagner, Ralf; Barnett, Susan W.; Tumba, Nancy; Morris, Lynn; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.; Seaman, Michael S.; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Weissenhorn, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein subunit gp41 is targeted by potent broadly neutralizing antibodies 2F5, 4E10, and 10E8. These antibodies recognize linear epitopes and have been suggested to target the fusion intermediate conformation of gp41 that bridges viral and cellular membranes. Anti-MPER antibodies exert different degrees of membrane interaction, which is considered to be the limiting factor for the generation of such antibodies by immunization. Here we characterize a fusion intermediate conformation of gp41 (gp41int-Cys) and show that it folds into an elongated ∼12-nm-long extended structure based on small angle x-ray scattering data. Gp41int-Cys was covalently linked to liposomes via its C-terminal cysteine and used as immunogen. The gp41int-Cys proteoliposomes were administered alone or in prime-boost regimen with trimeric envelope gp140CA018 in guinea pigs and elicited high anti-gp41 IgG titers. The sera interacted with a peptide spanning the MPER region, demonstrated competition with broadly neutralizing antibodies 2F5 and 4E10, and exerted modest lipid binding, indicating the presence of MPER-specific antibodies. Although the neutralization potency generated solely by gp140CA018 was higher than that induced by gp41int-Cys, the majority of animals immunized with gp41int-Cys proteoliposomes induced modest breadth and potency in neutralizing tier 1 pseudoviruses and replication-competent simian/human immunodeficiency viruses in the TZM-bl assay as well as responses against tier 2 HIV-1 in the A3R5 neutralization assay. Our data thus demonstrate that liposomal gp41 MPER formulation can induce neutralization activity, and the strategy serves to improve breadth and potency of such antibodies by improved vaccination protocols. PMID:25160627

  17. Experimental sialodacryoadenitis virus infection in severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Percy, D H; Williams, K L; Croy, B A

    1991-01-01

    Mice with a severe combined immunodeficiency in B and T lymphocytes and natural killer cells (SCID-beige) were inoculated intranasally with sialodacryoadenitis (SDA) virus, a coronavirus of rats. Animals were killed at designated intervals and tissues were examined for evidence of viral infection by light microscopy and immunofluorescence microscopy. Based on these criteria, there was no evidence that these immunodeficient mice were susceptible to infection with SDA virus. PMID:1653101

  18. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in their physics and their technology, or in any case they are considered to be adequately covered by these other authors.

  19. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is established by powering the conversion step by renewable energy and recapturing the CO2 emitted after combustion, ultimately from the surrounding air to cover emissions from distributed source. Carbon Capture and Utilisation (CCU) coupled to P2G thus creates a CO2-neutral energy system based on synthetic hydrocarbon fuel. It would enable a circular economy where the carbon cycle is closed by recovering the CO2 emitted after reuse of synthetic hydrocarbon fuel. The critical step, technically as well as economically, is the conversion of feedstock CO2/H2O into syngas rather than the capture of CO2 from ambient air.

  20. Is science metaphysically neutral?

    PubMed

    Fry, Iris

    2012-09-01

    This paper challenges the claim that science is metaphysically neutral upheld by contenders of the separation of peacefully co-existent science and religion and by evolutionary theists. True, naturalistic metaphysical claims can neither be refuted nor proved and are thus distinct from empirical hypotheses. However, metaphysical assumptions not only regulate the theoretical and empirical study of nature, but are increasingly supported by the growing empirical body of science. This historically evolving interaction has contributed to the development of a naturalistic worldview that renounces the necessity of a transcendent god and of purposeful design. The thesis presented here differs not only from the claims of the "separatists" and of evolutionary theists. In pointing to the metaphysical aspects of science, I also criticize the failure of some evolutionary naturalists to distinguish between empirical and metaphysical contentions. Most important, based on the examination of science suggested here, creationists' false accusation that science is only a naturalistic dogma is refuted. Finally, the difficulties involved in the position endorsed here for the public support of evolution are acknowledged, taking into account the high religious profile of the American society and the social and political context in the US and in other countries. PMID:22771725

  1. Neutralization tests on the SERT 2 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Domitz, S.

    1979-01-01

    Neutralization test data obtained on the SERT 2 spacecraft are presented. Tests included ion beam neutralization of a thruster by a close (normal design) neutralizer as well as by a distant (1 meter) neutralizer. Parameters affecting neutralization, such as neutralizer bias voltage, neutralizer anode voltage, local spacecraft plasma density, and solar array voltage configuration were varied and changes in plasma potentials were measured. A plasma model is presented as an approximation of observed results.

  2. [Neonatal screening of severe combined immunodeficiencies].

    PubMed

    Thomas, C; Mirallié, S; Pierres, C; Dert, C; Clément, M-C; Mahlaoui, N; Durand-Zaleski, I; Fischer, A; Audrain, M

    2015-06-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) are a group of inherited diseases of the immune system characterized by profound abnormalities of T-cell development. Infants with SCID require prompt clinical intervention to prevent life-threatening infection and studies show significantly improved survival in babies diagnosed at birth based on previous family history. SCID follows the criteria for population-based newborn screening because it is asymptomatic at birth and fatal within the 1st year of life if there is no intervention, the confirmation of the disease is easy, there is a curative treatment, and it is known that early hematopoietic stem cell transplantation significantly improves survival, the quality of immune reconstitution, and quality of life. Quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) in DNA extracted from Guthrie samples is a sensitive and specific screening test for SCID. We conducted a nationwide prospective study of neonatal screening of SCID in a population of 200,000 French newborns over a period of 2 years. The objective was to study the clinical utility and the cost-effectiveness ratio, and to demonstrate that universal SCID screening could result in a substantial benefit to detect individuals, making screening relatively cost-effective in spite of the low incidence of the disease. PMID:25896629

  3. Human immunodeficiency virus infection in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Arikan, Yasemin; Burdge, David R

    1998-01-01

    The incidence and prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in women of child-bearing age continue to increase both internationally and in Canada. The care of HIV-infected pregnant women is complex, and multiple issues must be addressed, including the current and future health of the woman, minimization of the risk of maternal-infant HIV transmission, and maintenance of the well-being of the fetus and neonate. Vertical transmission of HIV can occur in utero, intrapartum and postpartum, but current evidence suggests that the majority of transmission occurs toward end of term, or during labour and delivery. Several maternal and obstetrical factors influence transmission rates, which can be reduced by optimal medical and obstetrical care. Zidovudine therapy has been demonstrated to reduce maternal-infant transmission significantly, but several issues, including the short and long term safety of antiretrovirals and the optimal use of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy, remain to be defined. It is essential that health care workers providing care to these women fully understand the natural history of HIV disease in pregnancy, the factors that affect vertical transmission and the management issues during pregnancy. Close collaboration among a multidisciplinary team of knowledgeable health professionals and, most importantly, the woman herself can improve both maternal and infant outcomes. PMID:22346550

  4. Bacterial Respiratory Infections Complicating Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald

    2016-04-01

    Opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections of the lower respiratory tract, most commonly those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus), Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii, remain the major causes of mortality in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Bacterial respiratory pathogens most prevalent in those infected with HIV, other than M. tuberculosis, represent the primary focus of the current review with particular emphasis on the pneumococcus, the leading cause of mortality due to HIV infection in the developed world. Additional themes include (1) risk factors; (2) the predisposing effects of HIV-mediated suppression on pulmonary host defenses, possibly intensified by smoking; (3) clinical and laboratory diagnosis, encompassing assessment of disease severity and outcome; and (4) antibiotic therapy. The final section addresses current recommendations with respect to pneumococcal immunization in the context of HIV infection, including an overview of the rationale underpinning the current "prime-boost" immunization strategy based on sequential administration of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine 23. PMID:26974299

  5. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:3825111

  6. Infections and immunodeficiency in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ram, G; Chinen, J

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic disease and presents with cognitive impairment, cardiac and gastrointestinal abnormalities, in addition to other miscellaneous clinical conditions. DS individuals may have a high frequency of infections, usually of the upper respiratory tract, characterized by increased severity and prolonged course of disease, which are partially attributed to defects of the immune system. The abnormalities of the immune system associated with DS include: mild to moderate T and B cell lymphopenia, with marked decrease of naive lymphocytes, impaired mitogen-induced T cell proliferation, reduced specific antibody responses to immunizations and defects of neutrophil chemotaxis. Limited evidence of genetic abnormalities secondary to trisomy of chromosome 21 and affecting the immune system is available, such as the potential consequences of gene over-expression, most significantly SOD1 and RCAN1. Secondary immunodeficiency due to metabolic or nutritional factors in DS, particularly zinc deficiency, has been postulated. Non-immunological factors, including abnormal anatomical structures (e.g. small ear canal, tracheomalacia) and gastro-oesophageal reflux, may play a role in the increased frequency of respiratory tract infections. The molecular mechanisms leading to the immune defects observed in DS individuals and the contribution of these immunological abnormalities to the increased risk of infections require further investigation. Addressing immunological and non-immunological factors involved in the pathogenesis of infectious diseases may reduce the susceptibility to infections in DS subjects. PMID:21352207

  7. Antiviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    De Clercq, E

    1995-01-01

    Depending on the stage of their intervention with the viral replicative cycle, human immunodeficiency virus inhibitors could be divided into the following groups: (i) adsorption inhibitors (i.e., CD4 constructs, polysulfates, polysulfonates, polycarboxylates, and polyoxometalates), (ii) fusion inhibitors (i.e., plant lectins, succinylated or aconitylated albumins, and betulinic acid derivatives), (iii) uncoating inhibitors (i.e., bicyclams), (iv) reverse transcription inhibitors acting either competitively with the substrate binding site (i.e., dideoxynucleoside analogs and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates) or allosterically with a nonsubstrate binding site (i.e., non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors), (v) integration inhibitors, (vi) DNA replication inhibitors, (vii) transcription inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and Tat antagonists), (viii) translation inhibitors (i.e., antisense oligodeoxynucleotides and ribozymes), (ix) maturation inhibitors (i.e., protease inhibitors, myristoylation inhibitors, and glycosylation inhibitors), and finally, (x) budding (assembly/release) inhibitors. Current knowledge, including the therapeutic potential, of these various inhibitors is discussed. In view of their potential clinical the utility, the problem of virus-drug resistance and possible strategies to circumvent this problem are also addressed. PMID:7542558

  8. Common Variable Immunodeficiency: Etiological and Treatment Issues

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Sean; Selmi, Carlo; Naguwa, Stanley M.; Teuber, Suzanne S.; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2009-01-01

    One of the great advances in clinical medicine was the recognition of the pleomorphism of the immune response and the multiple afferent and efferent limbs of antigen processing and responsiveness. A significant contribution to this understanding was derived from studies of human immunodeficiency states, including both inherited and acquired syndromes. Amongst these syndromes, one of the most common, and least understood, is common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a syndrome that leads to a reduction in serum immunoglobulins and complications including recurrent infections. Management includes immunoglobulin replacement therapy; however, patients with CVID are at risk for complications of exogenous immunoglobulin administration as well as CVID-associated diseases such as autoimmune processes and malignancies. To assess the current state of knowledge in the field, we performed a literature review of a total of 753 publications covering the period of 1968 until 2008. From this list, 189 publications were selected for discussion. In this review, we demonstrate that while the molecular basis of CVID in many cases remains incompletely understood, significant strides have been made and it is now clear that there is involvement of several pathways of immune activation, with contributions from both T and B cells. Furthermore, despite the current gaps in our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of the syndrome, there have been dramatic advances in management that have led to improved survival and significantly reduced morbidity in affected patients. PMID:19571563

  9. Common variable immunodeficiency: etiological and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Deane, Sean; Selmi, Carlo; Naguwa, Stanley M; Teuber, Suzanne S; Gershwin, M Eric

    2009-01-01

    One of the great advances in clinical medicine was the recognition of the pleomorphism of the immune response and the multiple afferent and efferent limbs of antigen processing and responsiveness. A significant contribution to this understanding was derived from studies of human immunodeficiency states, including both inherited and acquired syndromes. Amongst these syndromes, one of the most common, and least understood, is common variable immune deficiency (CVID). CVID is a syndrome that leads to a reduction in serum immunoglobulins and complications including recurrent infections. Management includes immunoglobulin replacement therapy; however, patients with CVID are at risk for complications of exogenous immunoglobulin administration as well as CVID-associated diseases such as autoimmune processes and malignancies. To assess the current state of knowledge in the field, we performed a literature review of a total of 753 publications covering the period of 1968 until 2008. From this list, 189 publications were selected for discussion. In this review, we demonstrate that while the molecular basis of CVID in many cases remains incompletely understood, significant strides have been made and it is now clear that there is involvement of several pathways of immune activation, with contributions from both T and B cells. Furthermore, despite the current gaps in our knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of the syndrome, there have been dramatic advances in management that have led to improved survival and significantly reduced morbidity in affected patients. PMID:19571563

  10. In vivo biotinylated recombinant antibodies: high efficiency of labelling and application to the cloning of active anti-human IgG1 Fab fragments.

    PubMed

    Sibler, A P; Kempf, E; Glacet, A; Orfanoudakis, G; Bourel, D; Weiss, E

    1999-04-22

    In vivo biotinylation of antibody fragments with a gene fusion approach is a realistic alternative to conventional in vitro chemical labelling. We have previously reported the construction of a vector system suitable for the bacterial expression of the binding fragment of antibody (Fab) genetically linked to the C-terminal domain of Escherichia Coli biotin carboxy carrier protein (BCCP*). A minor fraction of the expressed hybrids was biotinylated in vivo and therefore able to interact with streptavidin. We now show that the large majority of bacterially-expressed Fab-BCCP* fusions are labelled with biotin when plasmid-encoded biotin holoenzyme synthetase (BirA) is co-expressed. The yield of biotinylated Fab is maximal when overexpression of BirA is driven by a second compatible plasmid. We took advantage of this property to develop a novel filter assay for the rapid identification of recombinant Fab reacting with immunoglobulin. Starting with total RNA of two newly established murine hybridoma cell lines producing anti-human IgG1 antibodies, we selected in a single experiment the bacterial clones that expressed in vivo biotinylated anti-IgG1 Fab. Sequence analysis of the isolated Fabs showed that they did not derive from a single B clone. In addition, we found that these recombinant Fabs labelled with biotin in vivo are useful for the specific detection of human IgG1 by a solid-phase immunoassay. PMID:10357213

  11. Non-Neutral Vegetation Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Marani, Marco; Zillio, Tommaso; Belluco, Enrica; Silvestri, Sonia; Maritan, Amos

    2006-01-01

    The neutral theory of biodiversity constitutes a reference null hypothesis for the interpretation of ecosystem dynamics and produces relatively simple analytical descriptions of basic system properties, which can be easily compared to observations. On the contrary, investigations in non-neutral dynamics have in the past been limited by the complexity arising from heterogeneous demographic behaviours and by the relative paucity of detailed observations of the spatial distribution of species diversity (beta-diversity): These circumstances prevented the development and testing of explicit non-neutral mathematical descriptions linking competitive strategies and observable ecosystem properties. Here we introduce an exact non-neutral model of vegetation dynamics, based on cloning and seed dispersal, which yields closed-form characterizations of beta-diversity. The predictions of the non-neutral model are validated using new high-resolution remote-sensing observations of salt-marsh vegetation in the Venice Lagoon (Italy). Model expressions of beta-diversity show a remarkable agreement with observed distributions within the wide observational range of scales explored (5⋅10−1 m÷103 m). We also consider a neutral version of the model and find its predictions to be in agreement with the more limited characterization of beta-diversity typical of the neutral theory (based on the likelihood that two sites be conspecific or heterospecific, irrespective of the species). However, such an agreement proves to be misleading as the recruitment rates by propagules and by seed dispersal assumed by the neutral model do not reflect known species characteristics and correspond to averages of those obtained under the more general non-neutral hypothesis. We conclude that non-neutral beta-diversity characterizations are required to describe ecosystem dynamics in the presence of species-dependent properties and to successfully relate the observed patterns to the underlying processes. PMID:17183710

  12. Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R.; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of interventions designed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, paying particular attention to voluntary counselling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We also review the experience with antiretroviral therapy to date in terms of response rates and survival rates, adherence, drug resistance, behavioural change and epidemiological impact. Although various studies have identified strategies with proven effectiveness in reducing the risks of HIV infection and AIDS mortality, considerable uncertainties remain. Successful integration of treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS will require a balanced approach and rigorous monitoring of the impact of programmes in terms of both individual and population outcomes. PMID:15744406

  13. Failure of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immune globulin to protect chimpanzees against experimental challenge with HIV.

    PubMed Central

    Prince, A M; Horowitz, B; Baker, L; Shulman, R W; Ralph, H; Valinsky, J; Cundell, A; Brotman, B; Boehle, W; Rey, F

    1988-01-01

    To assess the possible efficacy of passive immunization against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) an immune globulin was prepared from plasma of HIV-seropositive donors selected to be among those having the top 12.5% of virus-neutralizing antibody titers. The immune globulin was treated with pepsin to render it intravenously tolerable. The preparation, which we termed HIVIG, neutralized 100 tissue culture 50% infective doses (TCID50) of HIV at an average dilution of 1:1000 in neutralization tests in vitro. During preparation HIVIG was subjected to virus inactivation and removal procedures that in theory resulted in a reduction in HIV infectivity by a factor of 10(25). At a dose of 9-10 ml/kg of body weight both the virus-inactivated source plasma and the final immunoglobulin preparation were noninfective and without adverse effect in two chimpanzees. Two chimpanzees inoculated intravenously with HIVIG at 1 ml/kg and two inoculated with 10 ml/kg were challenged intravenously 1 day later with 400 TCID50 of the same strain of HIV (HTLV-IIIb) used in neutralization assays in vitro. All animals became infected. Incubation periods to virus isolation (by cocultivation with human mononuclear cells) in HIVIG recipients did not differ significantly from the incubation period seen in a control animal that received a normal anti-HIV-free immunoglobulin. These findings may have implications for understanding the failure of experimental vaccines to protect against HIV challenge in chimpanzee experiments. Images PMID:3413127

  14. The Neonatal Fc Receptor (FcRn) Enhances Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Transcytosis across Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sandeep; Gach, Johannes S.; Becerra, Juan C.; Phan, Tran B.; Pudney, Jeffrey; Moldoveanu, Zina; Joseph, Sarah B.; Landucci, Gary; Supnet, Medalyn Jude; Ping, Li-Hua; Corti, Davide; Moldt, Brian; Hel, Zdenek; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Ruprecht, Ruth M.; Burton, Dennis R.; Mestecky, Jiri; Anderson, Deborah J.; Forthal, Donald N.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) crosses mucosal surfaces to establish infection are unknown. Acidic genital secretions of HIV-1-infected women contain HIV-1 likely coated by antibody. We found that the combination of acidic pH and Env-specific IgG, including that from cervicovaginal and seminal fluids of HIV-1-infected individuals, augmented transcytosis across epithelial cells as much as 20-fold compared with Env-specific IgG at neutral pH or non-specific IgG at either pH. Enhanced transcytosis was observed with clinical HIV-1 isolates, including transmitted/founder strains, and was eliminated in Fc neonatal receptor (FcRn)-knockdown epithelial cells. Non-neutralizing antibodies allowed similar or less transcytosis than neutralizing antibodies. However, the ratio of total:infectious virus was higher for neutralizing antibodies, indicating that they allowed transcytosis while blocking infectivity of transcytosed virus. Immunocytochemistry revealed abundant FcRn expression in columnar epithelia lining the human endocervix and penile urethra. Acidity and Env-specific IgG enhance transcytosis of virus across epithelial cells via FcRn and could facilitate translocation of virus to susceptible target cells following sexual exposure. PMID:24278022

  15. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 challenge of chimpanzees immunized with recombinant envelope glycoprotein gp120.

    PubMed

    Berman, P W; Groopman, J E; Gregory, T; Clapham, P R; Weiss, R A; Ferriani, R; Riddle, L; Shimasaki, C; Lucas, C; Lasky, L A

    1988-07-01

    The major envelope glycoprotein, gp120, of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was purified from a Chinese hamster ovary cell line transfected with a truncated form of the HIV-1 env gene. The recombinant glycoprotein (rgp120) was formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant and was used to immunize chimpanzees. The recombinant preparation was effective in eliciting cellular and humoral immunity as well as immunologic memory. Anti-rgp 120 antibodies reacted with authentic viral gp120 in immunological blot assays and were able to neutralize HIV-1 infectivity in vitro. Sera from the rgp120-immunized animals were able to neutralize HIV-1 pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus prepared from the IIIB isolate, from which the gene encoding rgp120 was derived, as well as two heterologous isolates, ARV-2 and RF. The immune response elicited against the rgp120 was not effective in preventing viral infection after intravenous challenge with HIV-1. The implications of these results on HIV-1 vaccine development are discussed. PMID:2455898

  16. Role of a Putative gp41 Dimerization Domain in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Membrane Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J.; Deng, Y; Li, Q; Dey, A; Moore, J; Lu, M

    2010-01-01

    The entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into a target cell entails a series of conformational changes in the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein that mediates the fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. A trimer-of-hairpins structure formed by the association of two heptad repeat (HR) regions of the gp41 ectodomain has been implicated in a late step of the fusion pathway. Earlier native and intermediate states of the protein are postulated to mediate the antiviral activity of the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide and of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NAbs), but the details of these structures remain unknown. Here, we report the identification and crystal structure of a dimerization domain in the C-terminal ectodomain of gp41 (residues 630 to 683, or C54). Two C54 monomers associate to form an asymmetric, antiparallel coiled coil with two distinct C-terminal {alpha}-helical overhangs. This dimer structure is conferred largely by interactions within a central core that corresponds to the sequence of enfuvirtide. The mutagenic alteration of the dimer interface severely impairs the infectivity of Env-pseudotyped viruses. Moreover, the C54 structure binds tightly to both the 2F5 and 4E10 NAbs and likely represents a potential intermediate conformation of gp41. These results should enhance our understanding of the molecular basis of the gp41 fusogenic structural transitions and thereby guide rational, structure-based efforts to design new fusion inhibitors and vaccine candidates intended to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  17. Environmental neutralization of polonium-218

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, S.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1985-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that two mechanisms of neutralization of the singly charged polonium ion exist. Charged Polonium-218 can be neutralized by reacting with oxygen to form a polonium oxide ion with a higher ionization potential than that of the polonium metal and then accepting an electron transferred from a lower ionization potential gas. In this present work, this mechanism has been verified by determining that the polonium oxide has an ionization potential in the range 10.35-10.53 eV. It was also previously reported that /sup 218/Po can be neutralized, in the absence of oxygen, by the scavenging of electrons by a trace gas such as water or nitrogen dioxide and their diffusion to the polonium ion. To verify this second neutralization mechanism, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in nitrogen in the range of 50 ppb-1 ppm were examined for their ability to neutralize the polonium ion. Complete neutralization of /sup 218/Po was observed at nitrogen dioxide concentrations greater than 700 ppb. For concentrations below 700 ppb, the degree of neutralization was found to increase smoothly with the nitrogen dioxide concentration.

  18. Medical management of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic has pervasive effects on culture, economics, policy, and human development. All organs can be affected by complications of HIV/AIDS, including the eye. When sufficient resources are available and widespread antiretroviral resistance does not exist, the four available classes of antiretroviral agents - nucleoside/ nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and fusion inhibitors - can be combined to provide highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). For many (not all) patients, HAART converts an inexorably fatal disease into a chronic disease with a fairly good prognosis. Use of HAART often induces partial immune recovery, which has predominantly beneficial effects on ocular complications of AIDS. However, HAART-induced immune recovery sometimes results in immune recovery inflammatory syndromes, such as immune recovery uveitis. Use of HAART is the single most useful intervention for most patients with ocular complications of AIDS. However, specific ocular therapy is also critical to avoid blindness in the early months before immune recovery can occur, or if HAART is unavailable. Increasing availability of HAART worldwide shows great promise to alleviate one of the world′s greatest plagues. However, predictable secular trends in the AIDS epidemic make it likely that the number of cases of ocular complications of AIDS will increase substantially before they decrease. Ophthalmologists worldwide should be familiar with the diagnosis and management of cytomegalovirus retinitis - the most common ocular complication of AIDS - and should establish partnerships with physicians who are able to provide HAART. Research is needed to determine the optimal approach for managing cytomegalovirus retinitis in resource- constrained settings. PMID:18711266

  19. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylactic strategies have been extensively developed. However, only a few well-designed studies involving strict criteria have been performed, mostly in patients with hematological malignancies or AIDS. In these situations, the best dose and duration of administration of the antifungal drug often remain to be determined. In high-risk neutropenic or bone marrow transplant patients, fluconazole is effective for the prevention of superficial and/or systemic candidal infections but is not always able to prolong overall survival and potentially selects less susceptible or resistant Candida spp. Primary prophylaxis against aspergillosis remains investigative. At present, no standard general recommendation for primary antifungal prophylaxis can be proposed for AIDS patients or transplant recipients. However, for persistently immunocompromised patients who previously experienced a noncandidal systemic fungal infection, prolonged suppressive antifungal therapy is often indicated to prevent a relapse. Better strategies for controlling immune deficiencies should also help to avoid some potentially life-threatening deep mycoses. When prescribing antifungal prophylaxis, physicians should be aware of the potential emergence of resistant strains, drug-drug interactions, and the cost. Well-designed, randomized, multicenter clinical trials in high-risk immunocompromised hosts are urgently needed to better define how to prevent severe invasive mycoses. PMID:9227863

  20. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Results Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the patients with posterior versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. The most common ocular manifestation was retinal microvasculopathy (15.0%), followed by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (14.2%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (9.4%), cytomegalovirus retinitis (3.1%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (2.4%), and blepharitis (1.6%). Retinal microvasculopathy and cytomegalovirus retinitis were common in patients with CD4+ counts <200 cells/µL, while keratoconjunctivitis sicca and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patients with CD4+ counts of 200 to 499 cells/µL. There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between ocular manifestation and CD4+ count or age. Conclusions The introduction of HAART has changed the landscape of ocular presentations in patients with AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. We found that CD4+ count and age >35 years were independent risk factors for developing ocular manifestations. PMID:26240508

  1. Phenotypic complementation of genetic immunodeficiency by chronic herpesvirus infection.

    PubMed

    MacDuff, Donna A; Reese, Tiffany A; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Weiss, Leslie A; Song, Christina; Zhang, Xin; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Carrero, Javier A; Boisson, Bertrand; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Israel, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Colonna, Marco; Edelson, Brian T; Sibley, L David; Stallings, Christina L; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Virgin, Herbert W

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the presentation of hereditary immunodeficiencies may be explained by genetic or environmental factors. Patients with mutations in HOIL1 (RBCK1) present with amylopectinosis-associated myopathy with or without hyper-inflammation and immunodeficiency. We report that barrier-raised HOIL-1-deficient mice exhibit amylopectin-like deposits in the myocardium but show minimal signs of hyper-inflammation. However, they show immunodeficiency upon acute infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii or Citrobacter rodentium. Increased susceptibility to Listeria was due to HOIL-1 function in hematopoietic cells and macrophages in production of protective cytokines. In contrast, HOIL-1-deficient mice showed enhanced control of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis or murine ?-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), and these infections conferred a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Surprisingly, chronic infection with MHV68 complemented the immunodeficiency of HOIL-1, IL-6, Caspase-1 and Caspase-1;Caspase-11-deficient mice following Listeria infection. Thus chronic herpesvirus infection generates signs of auto-inflammation and complements genetic immunodeficiency in mutant mice, highlighting the importance of accounting for the virome in genotype-phenotype studies. PMID:25599590

  2. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Laura E.; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J.; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J.; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A.; Seaman, Michael S.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R.

    2015-01-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design. PMID:26267277

  3. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Laura E; Falkowska, Emilia; Doores, Katie J; Le, Khoa; Sok, Devin; van Gils, Marit J; Euler, Zelda; Burger, Judith A; Seaman, Michael S; Sanders, Rogier W; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Poignard, Pascal; Wrin, Terri; Burton, Dennis R

    2015-08-01

    The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs) PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4) assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs) Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design. PMID:26267277

  4. Epidemiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and human immunodeficiency virus infection in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gayle, H D; D'Angelo, L J

    1991-04-01

    The epidemiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in adolescents is important for purposes of prevention and car, since sexual and drug behavior is formed during this period. For 1990 the Centers for Disease Control reports .4% of AIDS cases are among adolescents 13-19 years old; this figure has steadily risen since 1982. 53% of the reported AIDS cases were from New York, Florida, California, Texas, Puerto Rico, and New Jersey, and has remained stable since 1984. 72% were from metropolitan areas of 1 million population, with a small decreasing trend between 1986-88. 75% of reported cases occurred between 17-19 years, and usually among males (80%) and ethnic minorities (36% African Americans and 18% Hispanics). The sex ratio dropped from 4:1 to 3:1 in 1988. Modes of transmission; indicator diseases and mortality; HIV seroprevalence data; risk of HIV transmission in adolescents; knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior; research needs; and prevention are discussed. From the studies available, it is reported that adolescents are aware that sexual intercourse and sharing IV drug needles are the main modes of HIV transmission. HIV transmission is more likely to be associated with homosexual contact. Misconceptions are that one could tell if a person were infected with HIV. Knowledge does not always translate to appropriate behavior. Perceived risk does decrease risky behavior, i.e., through abstinence or condom use. More information was desired. Research needs were identified as lagging behind present knowledge of children and adults, and necessary in clinical, epidemiologic, behavioral, and prevention aspects. The natural history of infection is limited to studies of hemophilia, where infected adolescents may have a lower rate of progression to AIDS or a longer incubation period or higher tolerance to severe immunodeficiency. Questions arise concerning the unique factors, such as hormonal changes, that influence the clinical course of the infection. Health care models need to be assessed. Identification of subpopulations that are at the highest risk is needed, i.e., the influence of the crack cocaine epidemic on HIV transmission. Prevention is seen in terms of new creative approaches, comprehensive school and nonschool health education, and behavioral techniques to avoid risky behavior throughout the health community. PMID:2062630

  5. Targeted radiotherapy potentiates the cytotoxicity of a novel anti-human DR5 monoclonal antibody and the adenovirus encoding soluble TRAIL in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Waleed; Zhou, Tong; Naoum, George E; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2015-12-01

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces a death signal following binding to death receptors (DR4, DR5). We have developed a novel anti-human DR-5 monoclonal antibody (TRA-8) and adenoviral encoding TRAIL (Ad/TRAIL). Herein, we are testing the combined effect of radiotherapy and TRA-8 or Ad TRAIL in prostate cancer cells. Human prostate cancer cell lines LnCap, PC-3 and DU145 were used in this study. Cells were treated either with TRA-8 alone or Ad/TRAIL, radiation alone, or a combination of each at different doses and intervals. Cell survival using the MTS assay and colony forming assay were used to determine radiosensitization. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect bax and bcl-2. Real-time PCR was performed on mRNA of treated prostate cancer cell lines. Finally, a murine model of subcutaneous prostate cancer was used to evaluate the in vivo effect. Cell survival assays detected by MTS assay showed that prostate cell lines treated with a combination of radiation and TRA-8 showed significantly lower survival than cells treated with either radiation or TRA-8 alone. Colony forming assay and cell proliferation assays showed increased killing after combination treatment with TRA-8 or Ad/TRAIL and radiation, than either single agent alone. Mechanistic studies showed that the killing effect was due to induction of apoptosis mostly by increased expression of bax in TRA-8 or Ad/TRAIL treated cells. Additionally, RT-PCR showed an increased copy number of bax in most cells treated with TRA-8 and radiation. It is concluded that radiation and TRA-8 or Ad/TRAIL produced a synergistic effect in refractory prostrate cancer. PMID:26385392

  6. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) nuclear import via Vpr-Importin {alpha} interactions as a novel HIV-1 therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Tatsunori; Yamamoto, Norio; Nonaka, Mizuho; Hashimoto, Yoshie; Matsuda, Go; Takeshima, Shin-nosuke; Matsuyama, Megumi; Igarashi, Tatsuhiko; Miura, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie; Kato, Shingo; Aida, Yoko

    2009-03-20

    The development of multidrug-resistant viruses compromises the efficacy of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) therapy and limits treatment options. Therefore, new targets that can be used to develop novel antiviral agents need to be identified. One such target is the interaction between Vpr, one of the accessory gene products of HIV-1 and Importin {alpha}, which is crucial, not only for the nuclear import of Vpr, but also for HIV-1 replication in macrophages. We have identified a potential parent compound, hematoxylin, which suppresses Vpr-Importin {alpha} interaction, thereby inhibiting HIV-1 replication in a Vpr-dependent manner. Analysis by real-time PCR demonstrated that hematoxylin specifically inhibited nuclear import step of pre-integration complex. Thus, hematoxylin is a new anti-HIV-1 inhibitor that targets the nuclear import of HIV-1 via the Vpr-Importin {alpha} interaction, suggesting that a specific inhibitor of the interaction between viral protein and the cellular factor may provide a new strategy for HIV-1 therapy.

  7. Expression of human coagulation factor VIII in adipocytes transduced with the simian immunodeficiency virus agmTYO1-based vector for hemophilia A gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Mimuro, J; Kikuchi, J; Tabata, T; Ueda, Y; Naito, M; Madoiwa, S; Takano, K; Hasegawa, M; Ozawa, K; Sakata, Y

    2004-02-01

    We demonstrate that transduction of adipocytes with a simian immunodeficiency virus agm TYO1 (SIVagm)-based lentiviral vector carrying the human coagulation factor VIII gene (SIVhFVIII) resulted in expression of the human FVIII transgene in vitro and in db/db mice in vivo. Cultured human adipocytes were transduced with the SIVagm vector carrying the GFP gene in a dose-dependent manner and transduction of adipocytes with SIVhFVIII resulted in efficient expression of human coagulation factor VIII (hFVIII; 320 +/- 39.8 ng/10(6) adipocytes/24 h) in vitro. Based upon successful transduction of adipocytes by SIV vectors carrying the lacZ gene in vivo in mice, the adipose tissue of db/db mice was transduced with SIVhFVIII. There was a transient appearance of human FVIII in mouse plasma (maximum 1.8 ng/ml) on day 11 after the injection. Transcripts of human FVIII transgene and human FVIII antigen also were detected in the adipose tissue by RT-PCR and immunofluorescence, respectively, on day 14. Emergence of anti-human FVIII antibodies 14 days after the injection of SIVhFVIII may explain the disappearance of human FVIII from the circulation. These results suggest that transduction of the adipocytes with vectors carrying the human FVIII gene may be potentially applicable for gene therapy of hemophilia A. PMID:14737084

  8. Primary immunodeficiency update: Part I. Syndromes associated with eczematous dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Pichard, Dominique C; Freeman, Alexandra F; Cowen, Edward W

    2015-09-01

    In the past decade, the availability of powerful molecular techniques has accelerated the pace of discovery of several new primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) and revealed the biologic basis of other established PIDs. These genetic advances, in turn, have facilitated more precise phenotyping of associated skin and systemic manifestations and provide a unique opportunity to better understand the complex human immunologic response. These continuing medical education articles will provide an update of recent advances inPIDsthat may be encountered by dermatologists through their association with eczematous dermatitis, infectious, and non-infectious cutaneous manifestations. Part I will discuss new primary immunodeficiencies that have an eczematous dermatitis. Part II will focus on primary immunodeficiencies that greatly increase susceptibility to fungal infection and the noninfectious presentations of PIDs. PMID:26282794

  9. Recent advances in treatment of severe primary immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Gennery, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies are rare, inborn errors that result in impaired, disordered or uncontrolled immune responses. Whilst symptomatic and prophylactic treatment is available, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is an option for many diseases, leading to cure of the immunodeficiency and establishing normal physical and psychological health. Newborn screening for some diseases, whilst improving outcomes, is focusing research on safer and less toxic treatment strategies, which result in durable and sustainable immune function without adverse effects. New conditioning regimens have reduced the risk of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and new methods of manipulating stem cell sources should guarantee a donor for almost all patients. Whilst incremental enhancements in transplantation technique have gradually improved survival outcomes over time, some of these new applications are likely to radically alter our approach to treating primary immunodeficiencies. PMID:26918153

  10. Recurrent Fevers for the Pediatric Immunologist: It's Not All Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Autoinflammatory diseases are disorders of the innate immune system, characterized by systemic inflammation independent of infection and autoreactive antibodies or antigen-specific T cells. Similar to immunodeficiencies, these immune dysregulatory diseases have unique presentations, genetics, and available therapies. Given the presentation of fevers, rashes, and mucosal symptoms in many of the disorders, the allergist/immunologist is the appropriate medical home for these patients: to appropriately rule out immunodeficiencies, evaluate for allergic disease, and diagnose and treat recurrent fever disorders. However, many practicing physicians are unfamiliar with the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of autoinflammatory disorders. This review will focus on understanding the signs and symptoms of classic autoinflammatory disorders, introduce newly described monogenic and polygenic disorders, and address the approach to the patient with recurrent fevers to distinguish autoinflammation from immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. PMID:26707379

  11. Neurosyphilis in a Man with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghani, Khosro; Kallini, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe a 33-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus who developed erythematous macules on the palms and soles with subsequent headaches, papilledema, and iritis. They review the salient characteristics of neurosyphilis with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. The incidence of syphilis has increased since the year 2000 in African Americans, Hispanics, and men who have sex with men. Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of this diseasea fastidious, slowly growing, microaerophilic spirochete. Sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission. The rapid plasma reagin, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory assay, and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption assay are commonly used to diagnose syphilis. The mainstay treatment is penicillin. Special considerations exist in the natural history and management of syphilis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:25161759

  12. Neurosyphilis in a man with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Sadeghani, Khosro; Kallini, Joseph R; Khachemoune, Amor

    2014-08-01

    The authors describe a 33-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus who developed erythematous macules on the palms and soles with subsequent headaches, papilledema, and iritis. They review the salient characteristics of neurosyphilis with a focus on human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals. The incidence of syphilis has increased since the year 2000 in African Americans, Hispanics, and men who have sex with men. Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of this disease-a fastidious, slowly growing, microaerophilic spirochete. Sexual contact is the most common mode of transmission. The rapid plasma reagin, Venereal Disease Research Laboratory assay, and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption assay are commonly used to diagnose syphilis. The mainstay treatment is penicillin. Special considerations exist in the natural history and management of syphilis in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:25161759

  13. Genetics Home Reference: T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy On this ... Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2014 What is T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia, and nail dystrophy? T-cell ...

  14. Specificity of antibodies produced against native or desialylated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant gp160.

    PubMed Central

    Benjouad, A; Gluckman, J C; Montagnier, L; Bahraoui, E

    1993-01-01

    In a previous report we have shown that, in contrast to antibodies produced against native or fully deglycosylated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 in rabbits, antibodies raised against desialylated HIV-1 gp160 also recognize gp140 from HIV-2 at high titers. Here, we characterize the fine specificity of these cross-reactive antibodies. Inhibition assays with a panel of synthetic peptides as competitors showed that cross-reactivity to gp140 was due to antibodies that were specific for the region encompassing HIV-1 gp41 immunodominant epitope, mimicked by peptide P39 (residues 583 to 609), the latter being able to totally inhibit the formation of complexes between radiolabeled HIV-2 gp140 and antibodies elicited by desialylated HIV-1 gp160. In addition, anti-desialylated gp160 antibodies retained on a P39 affinity column still bound HIV-2 gp140. Fine mapping has enabled us to localize the cross-reactive epitope within the N-terminal extremity of the gp41 immunodominant region. Interestingly, this cross-reactive antibody population did not recognize glycosylated or totally deglycosylated simian immunodeficiency virus gp140 despite an amino acid homology with HIV-1 within this region that is comparable to that of HIV-2. This cross-reactivity between HIV-1 and HIV-2 did not correlate with cross-neutralization. These results illustrate the influence of carbohydrate moieties on the specificity of the antibodies produced and clearly indicate that such procedures may be an efficient way to raise specific immune responses that are not type specific. Moreover, this cross-reactivity might explain the double-positive reactivity observed, in some human sera, against both HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope antigens. PMID:7679751

  15. Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Rhesus Monkeys?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yue; Asmal, Mohammed; Lane, Sophie; Permar, Sallie R.; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Mascola, John R.; Letvin, Norman L.

    2011-01-01

    With the recent demonstration in the RV144 Thai trial that a vaccine regimen that does not elicit neutralizing antibodies or cytotoxic T lymphocytes may confer protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, attention has turned to nonneutralizing antibodies as a possible mechanism of vaccine protection. In the current study, we evaluated the kinetics of the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) response during acute and chronic SIVmac251 infection of rhesus monkeys. We first adapted a flow cytometry-based ADCC assay, evaluating the use of different target cells as well as different strategies for quantitation of activated natural killer (NK) cells. We found that the use of SIVmac251 Env gp130-coated target cells facilitates analyses of ADCC activity with a higher degree of sensitivity than the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected target cells; however, the kinetics of the measured responses were the same using these different target cells. By comparing NK cell expression of CD107a with NK cell expression of other cytokines or chemokine molecules, we found that measuring CD107a expression is sufficient for evaluating the anti-SIV function of NK cells. We also showed that ADCC responses can be detected as early as 3 weeks after SIVmac251 infection and that the magnitude of this antibody response is inversely associated with plasma viral RNA levels in animals with moderate to high levels of viral replication. However, we also demonstrated an association between NK cell-mediated ADCC responses and the amount of SIVmac251 gp140 binding antibody that developed after viral infection. This final observation raises the possibility that the antibodies that mediate ADCC are a subset of the antibodies detected in a binding assay and arise within weeks of infection. PMID:21593181

  16. Absence of cytotoxic antibody to human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells in humans and its induction in animals after infection or immunization with purified envelope glycoprotein gp120

    SciTech Connect

    Nara, P.L.; Robey, W.G.; Gonda, M.A.; Carter, S.G.; Fischinger, P.J.

    1987-06-01

    The presence of antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytotoxicity (ACC) was assessed in humans and chimpanzees, which are capable of infection with human immunodeficiency virus isolate HTLV-IIIb, and examined in the goat after immunization with the major viral glycoprotein (gp120) of HTLV-IIIb. In infected humans no antibody mediating ACC was observed regardless of the status of disease. Even healthy individuals with high-titer, broadly reactive, neutralizing antibodies has no ACC. In contrast, chimpanzees infected with HTLV-IIIb, from whom virus could be isolated, not only had neutralizing antibody but also antibodies broadly reactive in ACC, even against distantly related human immunodeficiency virus isolates, as well as against their own reisolated virus. In the goat, the gp120 of HTLV-IIIb induced a highly type-specific response as measured by both ACC and flow cytofluorometry of live infected H9 cells. Normal human cells were not subject to ACC by animal anti-HTLV-III gp120-specific sera. Induction of ACC and neutralizing antibody were closely correlated in the animal experimental models but not in humans. The presence of ACC in gp120-inoculated goats and HTLV-III-infected chimpanzees represent a qualitative difference that may be important in the quest for the elicitation of a protective immunity in humans.

  17. [The correction of secondary radiation-induced immunodeficiencies].

    PubMed

    Iakovlev, G M; Smirnov, V S; Khavinson, V Kh; Morozov, V G

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the ionizing radiation upon the human organism is accompanied by the formation of the secondary radiative immunodeficiencies, which can be treated with the help of immunomodulating preparations of microbiotic, animal and plant origin, as well as compounds obtained by chemical synthesis. The comparative analysis of the various immunomodulators has shown that the peptide preparations of thymos and bone marrow, referred to the cytomedinum class (thymalinum, thymogenum, haemalinum) were most perspective for the correction of the secondary radiative immunodeficiencies. The scheme of thymalinum application in the treatment of radioactive affections of immune system is enclosed. PMID:2014661

  18. Intestinal Amyloidosis in Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Meira, T.; Sousa, R.; Cordeiro, A.; Ilgenfritz, R.; Borralho, P.

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of reactive amyloidosis that developed secondary to common variable immunodeficiency and rheumatoid arthritis. A 66-year-old woman, with prior history of common variable immunodeficiency and rheumatoid arthritis, was referred to our clinic for chronic diarrhea investigation. The patient was submitted to colonoscopy with ileoscopy, which did not show relevant endoscopic alterations. However, undertaken biopsies revealed amyloid deposition. Since amyloidosis with GI involvement is a rare cause of chronic diarrhea, this pathology should be considered in etiologic investigation, especially when associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26351592

  19. Intestinal Amyloidosis in Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Meira, T; Sousa, R; Cordeiro, A; Ilgenfritz, R; Borralho, P

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of reactive amyloidosis that developed secondary to common variable immunodeficiency and rheumatoid arthritis. A 66-year-old woman, with prior history of common variable immunodeficiency and rheumatoid arthritis, was referred to our clinic for chronic diarrhea investigation. The patient was submitted to colonoscopy with ileoscopy, which did not show relevant endoscopic alterations. However, undertaken biopsies revealed amyloid deposition. Since amyloidosis with GI involvement is a rare cause of chronic diarrhea, this pathology should be considered in etiologic investigation, especially when associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26351592

  20. Hodgkin's disease in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Christopoulos, C; Papadaki, T; Vlavianos, P; Kokkini, G

    1995-01-01

    A 61 year old man with long standing common variable immunodeficiency presented with pyrexia, anaemia and leucopenia. A diagnoses of Hodgkin's disease of the bone marrow was made. The typical histopathological and immunophenotypic appearances were clearly distinct from those of T cell lymphoma with Reed-Sternberg-like cells which, in contrast to Hodgkin's disease, is a known complication of common variable immunodeficiency. Complete clinical and histological remission was achieved with combination chemotherapy. The latter was complicated by severe myelosuppression, unusually severe erosive mucositis and viral retinitis. Images PMID:7490326

  1. Replication of respiratory syncytial virus in lungs of immunodeficient mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wyde, P.R.; Sun, C.S.; Knight, V.

    1983-08-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus was frequently isolated during a 10-day test period from the lungs of 4- to 6-week-old immunodeficient nude (nu/nu) mice and from gamma-irradiated C3H mice inoculated intranasally with this virus, but not from similar aged and comparably inoculated normal littermates of these mice. Virus isolation rates and levels of virus in lungs in both groups of immunodeficient mice were similar. No extrapulmonary dissemination of virus was observed in any test group of mice.

  2. Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Secondary to Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Anthony A.; Rosenthal, David G.; Bender Ignacio, Rachel; Chu, Helen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) in immunocompromised hosts is a fulminant syndrome of immune activation with high rates of mortality that may be triggered by infections or immunodeficiency. Rapid diagnosis and treatment of the underlying disorder is necessary to prevent progression to multiorgan failure and death. We report a case of HLH in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus, disseminated histoplasmosis, Mycobacterium avium complex, and Escherichia coli bacteremia. We discuss management of acutely ill patients with HLH and treatment of the underlying infection versus initiation of HLH-specific chemotherapy. PMID:26566535

  3. Neutral ISM surrounding starburst regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebouteiller, V.; Kunth, D.; Lequeux, J.; Aloisi, A.; Dsert, J.-D.; Lecavelier Des Etangs, A.; Hbrard, G.; Vidal-Madjar, A.

    2005-05-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) offers the possibility to study the extragalactic interstellar medium (ISM) in sightlines toward UV-bright H II regions where stars are forming. From the absorption lines of species such as H I, O I, N I, Ar I, or Fe II we are able to derive the chemical composition of the diffuse neutral gas and compare it to the H II region composition. A major aim is to know whether H II regions truly reflect the ISM abundances of a galaxy or whether these regions are self-polluted with metals ejected by massive stars during the present starburst episode. Five Blue Compact Dwarfs galaxies (BCDs) have been investigated so far. The situation remains, however, still unclear. For instance, the oxygen abundance is either the same within the neutral and ionized ISM (in I Zw 18, I Zw 36 and SBS 0335-052) or 10 lower in the neutral ISM (in Markarian 59). It seems, however, that nitrogen (using N I as a tracer in the neutral gas) and argon (using Ar I) are systematically lower in the neutral phase. Conscious of the uncertainties due to the complexity of the sightlines and the ionization structure, we have obtained high-quality spectra of individual H II regions in spiral galaxies. There, the situation is much easier to understand, allowing us to model H II regions with photoionization models. This study on NGC 604 provides a test on the method used for the BCDs. In NGC 604, we find a global underabundance in the neutral gas of N, O, Ar, and Fe as compared to the ionized gas, suggesting the presence of primordial gas in the line of sight. Furthermore, it appears that N I and Ar I are good tracers, respectively of nitrogen and argon, in the diffuse neutral gas surrounding NGC 604.

  4. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  5. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  6. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  7. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  8. 21 CFR 610.46 - Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) âlookbackâ... Disease Agents § 610.46 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) “lookback” requirements. (a) If you are an... calendar days after a donor tests reactive for evidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...

  9. Antibodies neutralizing feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats immunized with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E.

    PubMed

    Langhammer, Stefan; Hbner, Janine; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2006-02-01

    The feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) vaccines that are currently in wide use are generally poor inducers of virus-neutralizing antibodies, although such antibodies appear after recovering from challenge. However, the presence of neutralizing antibodies in cats recovering from natural FeLV infection clearly correlates with resistance to subsequent infection and passive transfer of antibodies can protect other animals. After demonstrating the induction of neutralizing antibodies in rats and goats immunized with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E of FeLV, cats were immunized with the same antigen. High titres of neutralizing antibodies specific for FeLV were induced and epitope mapping revealed a pattern of recognition similar to that seen following immunization of rats and goats. These epitopes are highly related to epitopes recognized after immunization with porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) p15E and to epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The ability of p15E to induce neutralizing antibodies in cats suggests that it should be included in the next generation of vaccines. In contrast, sera from FeLV-infected animals usually fail to recognize the neutralization-relevant epitopes in p15E. Since homologous epitope sequences are present in feline endogenous retroviruses, it appears that tolerance against these sequences is not induced. PMID:16423059

  10. Antibodies neutralizing feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats immunized with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E

    PubMed Central

    Langhammer, Stefan; Hbner, Janine; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) vaccines that are currently in wide use are generally poor inducers of virus-neutralizing antibodies, although such antibodies appear after recovering from challenge. However, the presence of neutralizing antibodies in cats recovering from natural FeLV infection clearly correlates with resistance to subsequent infection and passive transfer of antibodies can protect other animals. After demonstrating the induction of neutralizing antibodies in rats and goats immunized with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E of FeLV, cats were immunized with the same antigen. High titres of neutralizing antibodies specific for FeLV were induced and epitope mapping revealed a pattern of recognition similar to that seen following immunization of rats and goats. These epitopes are highly related to epitopes recognized after immunization with porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) p15E and to epitopes recognized by neutralizing antibodies in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The ability of p15E to induce neutralizing antibodies in cats suggests that it should be included in the next generation of vaccines. In contrast, sera from FeLV-infected animals usually fail to recognize the neutralization-relevant epitopes in p15E. Since homologous epitope sequences are present in feline endogenous retroviruses, it appears that tolerance against these sequences is not induced. PMID:16423059

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus env proteins possess a functionally conserved assembly domain.

    PubMed Central

    Doms, R W; Earl, P L; Chakrabarti, S; Moss, B

    1990-01-01

    The envelope (env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) form dimers shortly after synthesis. Analysis of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env protein expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus revealed that it, too, forms stable homodimers. When the HIV-1 and SIV env proteins or the HIV-1 and HIV-2 env proteins were coexpressed in the same cells, heterodimers were formed. Thus, the env proteins of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV possess a functionally conserved domain involved in subunit-subunit recognition and assembly that likely involves the ectodomain of gp41. Images PMID:2352332

  12. Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation experiment is scheduled to be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission. The objective of this experiment is to measure very faint emissions at nighttime arising from fluxes of energetic neutral atoms in the thermosphere. These energetic atoms have energies ranging up to about 50 keV, and arise from ions of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen trapped in the inner magnetosphere. Some of these ions become neutralized in charge exchange reactions with neutral hydrogen in the hydrogen geocorona that extends through the region. The ions are trapped on magnetic field lines which cross the equatorial plane at 2 to 6 earth radii distance, and they mirror at a range of heights on these field lines, extending down to the thermosphere at 500 km altitude. The ATLAS 1 measurements will not be of the neutral atoms themselves but of the optical emission produced by those on trajectories that intersect the thermosphere. The ENAP measurements are to be made using the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) which is being flown on the ATLAS mission primarily for daytime spectral observations, and the ENAP measurements will all be nighttime measurements because of the faintness of the emissions and the relatively low level of magnetic activity expected.

  13. Gas cell neutralizers (Fundamental principles)

    SciTech Connect

    Fuehrer, B.

    1985-06-01

    Neutralizing an ion-beam of the size and energy levels involved in the neutral-particle-beam program represents a considerable extension of the state-of-the-art of neutralizer technology. Many different mediums (e.g., solid, liquid, gas, plasma, photons) can be used to strip the hydrogen ion of its extra electron. A large, multidisciplinary R and D effort will no doubt be required to sort out all of the ''pros and cons'' of these various techniques. The purpose of this particular presentation is to discuss some basic configurations and fundamental principles of the gas type of neutralizer cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the ''Gasdynamic Free-Jet'' neutralizer since this configuration has the potential of being much shorter than other type of gas cells (in the beam direction) and it could operate in nearly a continuous mode (CW) if necessary. These were important considerations in the ATSU design which is discussed in some detail in the second presentation entitled ''ATSU Point Design''.

  14. Simulations of neutralized final focus

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Genoni, T.C.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.

    2005-01-18

    In order to drive an inertial fusion target or study high energy density physics with heavy ion beams, the beam radius must be focused to < 3 mm and the pulse length must be compressed to < 10 ns. The conventional scheme for temporal pulse compression makes use of an increasing ion velocity to compress the beam as it drifts and beam space charge to stagnate the compression before final focus. Beam compression in a neutralizing plasma does not require stagnation of the compression, enabling a more robust method. The final pulse shape at the target can be programmed by an applied velocity tilt. In this paper, neutralized drift compression is investigated. The sensitivity of the compression and focusing to beam momentum spread, plasma, and magnetic field conditions is studied with realistic driver examples. Using the 3D particle-in-cell code, we examine issues associated with self-field generation, stability, and vacuum-neutralized transport transition and focusing.

  15. A Re-Examiniation of Phonological Neutralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research studies that raise serious questions about phonological neutralization, that is, the merger of a contrast in certain contexts. Some findings cast doubt on the very existence of neutralization and the correctness of the theoretical principles that make assumptions based on neutralization. Reanalyzes neutralization in light of these…

  16. A Re-Examiniation of Phonological Neutralization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnsen, D.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews research studies that raise serious questions about phonological neutralization, that is, the merger of a contrast in certain contexts. Some findings cast doubt on the very existence of neutralization and the correctness of the theoretical principles that make assumptions based on neutralization. Reanalyzes neutralization in light of these

  17. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated to human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Gutirrez, Jos Luis; Santos-Martnez, Luis Efren; Rodrguez-Silverio, Juan; Baranda-Tovar, Francisco Martn; Rivera-Rosales, Rosa Mara; Flores-Murrieta, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    From the advent of the highly effective antiretroviral treatment, the life expectancy of patients with human immunodeficiency virus has increased significantly. At present, the causes of death are non-infectious complications. Between them, the pulmonary arterial hypertension has a special importance. It is important early detection to establish the therapeutic, with the objective of preventing a fatal outcome to future. PMID:25577549

  18. Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum and immunodeficiency problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondratyev, K. Ya.; Fedchenko, P. P.

    2004-05-01

    The importance of the presence of Fraunhofer lines in the solar spectrum for development of immunodeficiency has been demonstrated. In vitro and in vivo tests of illumination within Mg lines have proved the possibility to reduce the level of HIV/AIDS development.

  19. The Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Epidemic, Washington, DC.

    This document presents findings of the Presidential Commission on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic. The executive summary lists 20 major findings and recommendations which together comprise a comprehensive national strategy for managing the HIV epidemic. The commission recommends: (1) replacement of the obsolete term "AIDS"

  20. Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Nakamoto, Beau K.; Sullivan, Katherine; Sletten, David M.; Fujii, Satomi; Umekawa, Sari; Kocher, Morgan; Kallianpur, Kalpana J.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.; Low, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequencies of symptoms associated with autonomic dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on stable combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients infected with HIV reported higher frequencies of dysautonomia symptoms compared with HIV-negative patients, particularly in the autonomic domains related to urinary, sleep, gastroparesis, secretomotor, pupillomotor, and male sexual dysfunction. PMID:26269797

  1. Symptoms of Autonomic Dysfunction in Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Dominic; Nakamoto, Beau K; Sullivan, Katherine; Sletten, David M; Fujii, Satomi; Umekawa, Sari; Kocher, Morgan; Kallianpur, Kalpana J; Shikuma, Cecilia M; Low, Phillip

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the frequencies of symptoms associated with autonomic dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients on stable combined antiretroviral therapy. Patients infected with HIV reported higher frequencies of dysautonomia symptoms compared with HIV-negative patients, particularly in the autonomic domains related to urinary, sleep, gastroparesis, secretomotor, pupillomotor, and male sexual dysfunction. PMID:26269797

  2. Uveomeningoencephalitis in a human immunodeficiency virus type 2-seropositive patient.

    PubMed

    Hormigo, A; Bravo-Marques, J M; Souza-Ramalho, P; Pimentel, J; Teixeira, C; Martins, R

    1988-03-01

    A 35-year-old woman developed longstanding uveitis and later a uveomeningoencephalitis of unknown origin and died of toxoplasmal brain abscesses. The presence of immunological impairment, human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seropositivity, and multinucleated cells in the brain led us to suspect neurotropic properties for HIV-2 similar to those of HIV-1. PMID:3163906

  3. Differences in the antibody response to human immunodeficiency virus-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp160) in infected laboratory workers and vaccinees.

    PubMed Central

    Pincus, S H; Messer, K G; Schwartz, D H; Lewis, G K; Graham, B S; Blattner, W A; Fisher, G

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the immune response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been hampered by the antigenic diversity of the HIV envelope protein. In an effort to predict the efficacy of vaccination we have compared the systemic anti-envelope antibody response in seronegative volunteers immunized with recombinant gp160 (either in vaccinia or as soluble protein produced in baculovirus) derived from the HTLV-IIIB strain of HIV-1 and in two laboratory workers accidentally infected with the same strain. 11 of 14 vaccinees responded to immunization by producing anti-gp160 of similar titer and the same isotype as that seen in the laboratory workers. Four vaccinees also had antibody to the principal neutralizing domain (V3 loop) that was comparable in titer with that seen in the laboratory workers, but the fine specificity of anti-V3 antibody was qualitatively different in the two groups. Antibody that can block the interaction between CD4 and gp120 was present at comparable levels in three vaccines and the lab workers. Neutralizing antibody titers were markedly lower in the vaccinees than in the laboratory workers. In seven of the vaccinees, an immunodominant epitope was at amino acid 720-740. Analyses of monoclonal antibodies to this region indicate that they do not neutralize, bind to infected cells, nor function as immunotoxins. Although the anti-gp160 antibody response was of similar magnitude in both infected and vaccinated individuals, there were important qualitative differences. PMID:7683694

  4. Robust neutralizing antibodies elicited by HIV-1 JRFL envelope glycoprotein trimers in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Bimal K; Feng, Yu; Sharma, Shailendra Kumar; McKee, Krisha; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B; Labranche, Celia C; Montefiori, David C; Mascola, John R; Wyatt, Richard T

    2013-12-01

    Host cell-mediated proteolytic cleavage of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 precursor glycoprotein into gp120 and gp41 subunits is required to generate fusion-competent envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes. The gp120-directed broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNabs) isolated from HIV-infected individuals efficiently recognize fully cleaved JRFL Env spikes; however, nonneutralizing gp120-directed monoclonal antibodies isolated from infected or vaccinated subjects recognize only uncleaved JRFL spikes. Therefore, as an immunogen, cleaved spikes that selectively present desired neutralizing epitopes to B cells may elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Accordingly, we inoculated nonhuman primates (NHPs) with plasmid DNA encoding transmembrane-anchored, cleaved JRFL Env or by electroporation (EP). Priming with DNA expressing soluble, uncleaved gp140 trimers was included as a comparative experimental group of NHPs. DNA inoculation was followed by boosts with soluble JRFL gp140 trimers, and control NHPs were inoculated with soluble JRFL protein trimers without DNA priming. In the TZM-bl assay, elicitation of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 tier 1 isolates was robust following the protein boost. Neutralization of tier 2 isolates was detected, but only in animals primed with plasmid DNA and boosted with trimeric protein. Using the more sensitive A3R5 assay, consistent neutralization of both clade B and C tier 2 isolates was detected from all regimens assessed in the current study, exceeding levels achieved by our previous vaccine regimens in primates. Together, these data suggest a potential advantage of B cell priming followed by a rest interval and protein boosting to present JRFL Env spikes to the immune system to better generate HIV-1 cross-clade neutralizing antibodies. PMID:24067980

  5. Robust Neutralizing Antibodies Elicited by HIV-1 JRFL Envelope Glycoprotein Trimers in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yu; Sharma, Shailendra Kumar; McKee, Krisha; Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David C.; Mascola, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Host cell-mediated proteolytic cleavage of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 precursor glycoprotein into gp120 and gp41 subunits is required to generate fusion-competent envelope glycoprotein (Env) spikes. The gp120-directed broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNabs) isolated from HIV-infected individuals efficiently recognize fully cleaved JRFL Env spikes; however, nonneutralizing gp120-directed monoclonal antibodies isolated from infected or vaccinated subjects recognize only uncleaved JRFL spikes. Therefore, as an immunogen, cleaved spikes that selectively present desired neutralizing epitopes to B cells may elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies. Accordingly, we inoculated nonhuman primates (NHPs) with plasmid DNA encoding transmembrane-anchored, cleaved JRFL Env or by electroporation (EP). Priming with DNA expressing soluble, uncleaved gp140 trimers was included as a comparative experimental group of NHPs. DNA inoculation was followed by boosts with soluble JRFL gp140 trimers, and control NHPs were inoculated with soluble JRFL protein trimers without DNA priming. In the TZM-bl assay, elicitation of neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 tier 1 isolates was robust following the protein boost. Neutralization of tier 2 isolates was detected, but only in animals primed with plasmid DNA and boosted with trimeric protein. Using the more sensitive A3R5 assay, consistent neutralization of both clade B and C tier 2 isolates was detected from all regimens assessed in the current study, exceeding levels achieved by our previous vaccine regimens in primates. Together, these data suggest a potential advantage of B cell priming followed by a rest interval and protein boosting to present JRFL Env spikes to the immune system to better generate HIV-1 cross-clade neutralizing antibodies. PMID:24067980

  6. Frequent transmission of immunodeficiency viruses among bobcats and pumas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.P.; Troyer, J.L.; TerWee, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boyce, W.M.; Riley, S.P.D.; Roelke, M.E.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2007-01-01

    With the exception of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in humans after cross-species transmissions of simian immunodeficiency viruses from nonhuman primates, immunodeficiency viruses of the family Lentiviridae represent species-specific viruses that rarely cross species barriers to infect new hosts. Among the Felidae, numerous immunodeficiency-like lentiviruses have been documented, but only a few cross-species transmissions have been recorded, and these have not been perpetuated in the recipient species. Lentivirus seroprevalence was determined for 79 bobcats (Lynx rufus) and 31 pumas (Puma concolor) from well-defined populations in Southern California. Partial genomic sequences were subsequently obtained from 18 and 12 seropositive bobcats and pumas, respectively. Genotypes were analyzed for phylogenic relatedness and genotypic composition among the study set and archived feline lentivirus sequences. This investigation of feline immunodeficiency virus infection in bobcats and pumas of Southern California provides evidence that cross-species infection has occurred frequently among these animals. The data suggest that transmission has occurred in multiple locations and are most consistent with the spread of the virus from bobcats to pumas. Although the ultimate causes remain unknown, these transmission events may occur as a result of puma predation on bobcats, a situation similar to that which fostered transmission of HIV to humans, and likely represent the emergence of a lentivirus with relaxed barriers to cross-species transmission. This unusual observation provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the ecological, behavioral, and molecular conditions that favor repeated transmissions and persistence of lentivirus between species. Copyright ?? 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Resistance of previously infected chimpanzees to successive challenges with a heterologous intraclade B strain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, R; Siemon, C; Cho, M W; Arthur, L O; Nigida, S M; Matthews, T; Sawyer, L A; Schultz, A; Murthy, K K; Israel, Z; Javadian, A; Frost, P; Kennedy, R C; Lane, H C; Martin, M A

    1996-01-01

    To test whether the protective effects of attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccines in macaques were applicable to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-chimpanzee system, two groups of animals, previously infected with HIV-1(IIIB) or HIV-1(SF2) were each challenged with a heterologous clade B virus, HIV-1(DH12). Following challenge, the parameters measured included virus isolation (from plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and lymph node tissue); quantitative DNA PCR using primers capable of distinguishing HIV-1(IIIB), HIV-1(SF2), and HIV-1(DH12) from one another; and serologic assays to monitor changes in binding and neutralizing antibodies. In contrast to an HIV-1-naive chimpanzee that rapidly became infected following the inoculation of HIV-1(DH12), the two chimpanzees previously infected with HIV-1(IIIB) resisted repeated and escalating inoculations of HIV-1(DH12), as monitored by virus isolation and PCR. The two animals previously infected with HIV-1(SF2) became infected with HIV-1(DH12) but in contrast to the case with the HIV-1-naive chimpanzee, no cell-free viral RNA was detected in the plasma by the branched DNA procedure and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell-associated viral DNA were reduced 35- to 50-fold. PMID:8676459

  8. Neutralization kinetics for polonium-218

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, K.D.; Hopke, P.K.

    1988-06-01

    In a well-defined experimental system the neutralization of polonium-218 ions was investigated as a function of the physical and chemical properties of the controlled composition atmosphere. The diffusion coefficient of polonium-218 under various concentrations of trace gas NO/sub 2/ in nitrogen was measured. The mobilities of Po/sup +/ and PoO/sub 2//sup +/ are determined by combining experimental results with a computer model of the system. Three neutralization mechanisms were individually studied. The small-ion recombination rate has been found to be proportional to the square root of radon concentration. The electron-scavenging mechanism is responsible for the neutralization of Po/sup +/ in NO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O in nitrogen. When PoO/sub 2//sup +/ is formed, the electron-transfer mechanism dominates the neutralization process. The electron is transferred to PoO/sub 2//sup +/ from molecules with lower ionization potentials. The ionization molecules with lower ionization potentials. The ionization potential of PoO/sub 2//sup +/ is also determined to be 10.44 +/- 0.05 eV.

  9. MSFC Skylab neutral buoyancy simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The use of a neutral buoyancy simulator for developing extravehicular activity systems and for training astronauts in weightless activities is discussed. The construction of the facility and the operations are described. The types of tests and the training activities conducted in the simulator are reported. Photographs of the components of the simulator and actual training exercises are included.

  10. Perinatally infected adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (perinatally human immunodeficiency virus)

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Maria Leticia S; Cardoso, Claudete A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of highly potent antiretroviral treatment during the last decades has transformed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a chronic disease. Children that were diagnosed during the first months or years of life and received treatment, are living longer and better and are presently reaching adolescence and adulthood. Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIV) and young adults may present specific clinical, behavior and social characteristics and demands. We have performed a literature review about different aspects that have to be considered in the care and follow-up of PHIV. The search included papers in the MEDLINE database via PubMed, located using the keywords “perinatally HIV-infected” AND “adolescents”. Only articles published in English or Portuguese from 2003 to 2014 were selected. The types of articles included original research, systematic reviews, and quantitative or qualitative studies; case reports and case series were excluded. Results are presented in the following topics: “Puberal development and sexual maturation”, “Growth in weight and height”, “Bone metabolism during adolescence”, “Metabolic complications”, “Brain development, cognition and mental health”, “Reproductive health”, “Viral drug resistance” and “Transition to adult outpatient care”. We hope that this review will support the work of pediatricians, clinicians and infectious diseases specialists that are receiving these subjects to continue treatment. PMID:26279988

  11. Improbability of Effective Vaccination Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Because of Its Intracellular Transmission and Rectal Portal of Entry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin, Albert B.

    1992-09-01

    The worldwide effort to produce a vaccine against AIDS continues to disregard the fact that even human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific neutralizing antibodies and cell-mediated immunity are ineffective against virus within cells without viral antigens on the cell membrane-and that much of HIV infection is transmitted in this manner. According to a recent report, a simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine that protected monkeys against an intravenous challenge with cell-free virus was, as predicted, ineffective against an intravenous challenge with the same amount of virus in infected cells. Moreover, antibody and HIV have been found to coexist in cell-free plasma from asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Excluding direct introduction of HIV into the bloodstream, the most common and efficient form of transmission of HIV infection is by receptive anal intercourse, and semen contains large numbers of infected cells per milliliter. Recent reports showing that colorectal cells can be persistently infected by HIV and that HIV RNA and cDNA are present in the cells of the colon of dead AIDS patients indicate that either cell-free or intracellular HIV has the capacity to multiply at the portal of entry in the colorectal area without interference from neutralizing antibodies. The available data provide no basis for testing any HIV vaccine in human beings either before or after infection. The main challenge is to find a way to kill cells with chromosomally integrated HIV cDNA without harming normal cells, perhaps by identifying repressor proteins that might be produced by the cells with integrated HIV cDNA and thus could become specific targets for cell-killing drugs.

  12. Induction of humoral and cellular immunity to simian immunodeficiency virus: what are the requirements for protection?

    PubMed

    Vaslin, B; Le Grand, R; Vogt, G; Benveniste, O; Gras, G; Roques, P; Stoeckel, P; Salk, P L; Salk, J; Dormont, D

    1994-09-01

    In an effort to produce a strong humoral and cellular immune response that might protect against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection, groups of five rhesus macaques each were immunized intramuscularly at 0, 2 and 6 months with 100 micrograms of an inactivated preparation of SIV/Delta B670 in either an oil-in-water emulsion with Ribi Detox, containing mycobacterial cell wall skeleton and monophosphoryl lipid A (CWS/MPL) (group A) or a water-in-oil emulsion with incomplete Freund's adjuvant, containing CWS/MPL for the first two injections (group B). Animals were challenged with 10-100 monkey ID50 of monkey-cell-grown SIVmac251 3 months after the last injection, along with a group of four unvaccinated controls. Group B animals demonstrated the strongest immune responses following immunization, including neutralizing antibody titres against the challenge virus ranging from 160 to 320 and SIV-specific ELISA titres ranging from 10(5)-10(6) on the day of challenge, as well as strong in vitro lymphoproliferative and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production responses to the immunogen. Neutralizing antibody was not detectable in group A animals, ELISA titres were lower (10(2)-10(4)), no in vitro lymphoproliferative responses were observed, and in vitro IL-2 production was less pronounced. No protection against challenge was observed in either group. Moreover, group B animals exhibited a more pronounced clinical response following challenge than either group A animals or controls, consisting of hyperthermia and a greater degree of lymphadenopathy on day 7, followed by hypothermia and generally higher levels of serum viraemia on day 14.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7998424

  13. Influence of carbohydrate moieties on the immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 recombinant gp160.

    PubMed Central

    Benjouad, A; Gluckman, J C; Rochat, H; Montagnier, L; Bahraoui, E

    1992-01-01

    The role of carbohydrates in the immunogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) glycoproteins (gp160 and gp120) remains poorly understood. We have analyzed the specificity and neutralizing capacity of antibodies raised against native gp160 or against gp160 deglycosylated by either endo F-N glycanase, neuraminidase, or alpha-mannosidase. Rabbits immunized with these immunogens produced antibodies that recognized recombinant gp160 (rgp160) from HIV-1 in a radioimmunoassay and in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies elicited by the different forms of deglycosylated gp160 were analyzed for their reactivity against a panel of synthetic peptides. Compared with anti-native gp160 antisera, serum reactivity to most peptides remained unchanged, or it could increase (peptide P41) or decrease. Only antibodies raised against mannosidase-treated gp160 failed to react with a synthetic peptide (peptide P29) within the V3 loop of gp120. Rabbits immunized with desialylated rgp160 generated antibodies which recognized not only rgp160 from HIV-1 but also rgp140 from HIV-2 at high titers. Although all antisera produced against glycosylated or deglycosylated rgp160 could prevent HIV-1 binding to CD4-positive cells in vitro, only antibodies raised against native or desialylated gp160 neutralized HIV-1 infectivity and inhibited syncytium formation between HIV-1-infected cells and noninfected CD4-positive cells, whereas antibodies raised against alpha-mannosidase-treated gp160 inhibited neither virus replication nor syncytium formation. These findings indicate that the carbohydrate moieties of gp160 can modulate the specificity and the protective efficiency of the antibody response to the molecule. Images PMID:1347797

  14. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies against HIV-1 As a Novel Aspect of the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakov, D. N.; Bakulina, A. Y.; Karpenko, L. I.; Ilyichev, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) has the ability to evade the adaptive immune response due to high mutation rates. Soon after the discovery of HIV-1, it was originally proposed that neutralizing of antibodies to the virus occurs rarely or cannot be elicited at all. In the 1990s, there appeared reports that sera of select HIV-1-infected individuals contained antibodies capable of neutralizing different virus subtypes. Such antibodies were named broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Since 2009, the development of new cell technologies has intensified research efforts directed at identifying new bNAbs with a neutralization potency of over 90% of primary HIV-1 isolates. These antibodies have unique characteristics which include high levels of somatic mutations and unusually long variable loops that penetrate through the glycan shield of HIV-1 Env to contact the protein surface. In this review, we will attempt to summarize the latest data on bNAbs against HIV-1 in terms of their interactions with the sites of vulnerability on HIV-1 glycoproteins. PMID:26798488

  15. Detection of plasma viremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals at all clinical stages.

    PubMed Central

    Pan, L Z; Werner, A; Levy, J A

    1993-01-01

    Free virus (virus not present within cells) was detected in the plasma of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals studied. Plasma samples from asymptomatic individuals and individuals with HIV disease were tested. The levels of virus varied, but high virus titers correlated directly with HIV-related symptoms and low CD4+ lymphocyte counts. Effective detection of infectious virus depended on the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for p24 core antigen and culture conditions in which plasma was added to mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes within 3 h of venipuncture. When there were delays in the time to culturing of plasma, neutralizing antibodies and perhaps other factors present in the plasma were found to reduce the efficiency of virus recovery. Plasma stored at -70 degrees C for several months maintained a stable level of free virus. These results suggest that measurement of HIV present in plasma under optimal conditions could be an efficient way of monitoring the clinical state of an individual and the effects of antiviral therapy. PMID:8094395

  16. Influence of random genetic drift on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 env evolution during chronic infection.

    PubMed Central

    Shriner, Daniel; Shankarappa, Raj; Jensen, Mark A; Nickle, David C; Mittler, John E; Margolick, Joseph B; Mullins, James I

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has high replication and mutation rates that generate large census populations and high levels of genetic variation. We examined the roles of natural selection, population growth, random genetic drift, and recombination in shaping the variation in 1509 C2-V5 env sequences derived from nine men with chronic HIV-1 infection. These sequences were obtained from clinical visits that reflect the first 6-13.7 years of infection. Pairwise comparisons of nonsynonymous and synonymous distances, Tajima's D test, Fu and Li's D* test, and a test of recurrent mutation revealed evidence for episodes of nonneutral evolution in a total of 22 out of 145 blood samples, representing six of the nine individuals. Using three coalescent-based maximum-likelihood estimators, we found viral effective population sizes in all nine individuals to be approximately 10(3). We also show that a previous estimate of the effective population size of approximately 10(5) based on rare haplotype frequencies decreases to approximately 10(3) upon correcting a biased sampling procedure. We conclude that the genetic variation in these data sets can be explained by a predominance of random genetic drift of neutral mutations with brief episodes of natural selection that were frequently masked by recombination. PMID:15082537

  17. Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) subunit vaccine

    SciTech Connect

    Arthur, L.O.; Pyle, S.W.; Nara, P.L.; Bess, J.W. Jr.; Gonda, M.A.; Kelliher, J.C.; Gilden, R.V.; Robey, W.G.; Bolognesi, D.P.; Gallo, R.C.

    1987-12-01

    The major envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been purified and was utilized as a prototype vaccine in chimpanzees. The 120,000-dalton glycoprotein (gp120) was purified from membranes of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-IIIB-infected cells and the final preparation contained low levels to no detectable HTLV-IIIB core antigen (p24) and low levels of endotoxin. Chimpanzees inoculated with gp120 responded by developing antibodies that precipitated radiolabeled gp120 and neutralized in vitro infection of HTLV-IIIB. Antibodies to HTLV-IIIB p24 were not detected in the gp120-immunized chimpanzees. Peripheral blood leukocytes from the vaccinated animals were examined for T4/sup +/ and T8/sup +/ cells, and no decrease in the T4/T8 ratio was found, indicating that immunization with a ligand (gp120) that binds to T4 has not detectable adverse effect on the population of T4/sup +/ cells. The only current animal model that can be reproducibly infected with HIV is the chimpanzee. Immunization of chimpanzees with HIV proteins will provide an experimental system for testing the effectiveness of prototype vaccines for preventing HIV infection in vivo.

  18. B- and T-lymphocyte responses to an immunodominant epitope of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Schrier, R D; Gnann, J W; Langlois, A J; Shriver, K; Nelson, J A; Oldstone, M B

    1988-01-01

    Using synthetic peptides, we characterized the B-lymphocyte (antibody) and T-lymphocyte (proliferation) responses to an immunodominant epitope of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) located near the amino-terminal end of the transmembrane glycoprotein (env amino acids 598 to 609). Both immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies against this epitope appeared early after primary infection with HIV-1. In an animal model, the IgG response to a synthetic peptide derived from this sequence was T-helper-cell dependent, whereas the IgM response was T-cell independent. In addition, antibody generated by immunization with this peptide had HIV-1-neutralizing activity. Greater than 99% (201 of 203) of patients infected with HIV-1 generated antibody to this peptide in vivo; however, only 24% (7 of 29) had T cells that proliferated in response to this peptide in vitro. These observations suggest that different HIV-1 gp41 epitopes elicit B-cell and T-cell immune responses. PMID:3260630

  19. Chemokine-adjuvanted electroporated DNA vaccine induces substantial protection from simian immunodeficiency virus vaginal challenge.

    PubMed

    Kutzler, M A; Wise, M C; Hutnick, N A; Moldoveanu, Z; Hunter, M; Reuter, M A; Yuan, S; Yan, J; Ginsberg, A A; Sylvester, A; Pahar, B; Carnathan, D G; Kathuria, N; Khan, A S; Montefiori, D; Sardesai, N Y; Betts, M R; Mestecky, J; Marx, P A; Weiner, D B

    2016-01-01

    There have been encouraging results for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. However, many questions remain regarding the quality of immune responses and the role of mucosal antibodies. We addressed some of these issues by using a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) DNA vaccine adjuvanted with plasmid-expressed mucosal chemokines combined with an intravaginal SIV challenge in rhesus macaque (RhM) model. We previously reported on the ability of CCR9 and CCR10 ligand (L) adjuvants to enhance mucosal and systemic IgA and IgG responses in small animals. In this study, RhMs were intramuscularly immunized five times with either DNA or DNA plus chemokine adjuvant delivered by electroporation followed by challenge with SIVsmE660. Sixty-eight percent of all vaccinated animals (P<0.01) remained either uninfected or had aborted infection compared with only 14% in the vaccine nave group. The highest protection was observed in the CCR10L chemokines group, where six of nine animals had aborted infection and two remained uninfected, leading to 89% protection (P<0.001). The induction of mucosal SIV-specific antibodies and neutralization titers correlated with trends in protection. These results indicate the need to further investigate the contribution of chemokine adjuvants to modulate immune responses and the role of mucosal antibodies in SIV/HIV protection. PMID:25943275

  20. Electron tomography analysis of envelope glycoprotein trimers on HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus virions

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ping; Chertova, Elena; Bess, Julian; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Arthur, Larry O.; Liu, Jun; Taylor, Kenneth A.; Roux, Kenneth H.

    2003-01-01

    We used electron tomography to directly visualize trilobed presumptive envelope (env) glycoprotein structures on the surface of negatively stained HIV type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) virions. Wild–type HIV-1 and SIV virions had an average of 8–10 trimers per virion, consistent with predictions based on biochemical evidence. Mutant SIVs, biochemically demonstrated to contain high levels of the viral env proteins, averaged 70–79 trimers per virion in tomograms. These correlations strongly indicate that the visualized trimers represent env spikes. The env trimers were without obvious geometric distribution pattern or preferred rotational orientation. Combined with biochemical analysis of gag/env ratios in virions, these trimer counts allow calculation of the number of gag molecules per virion, yielding an average value of ≈1,400. Virion and env dimensions were also determined. Image-averaging analysis of SIV env trimers revealed a distinct chirality and strong concordance with recent molecular models. The results directly demonstrate the presence of env trimers on the surface of AIDS virus virions, albeit at numbers much lower than generally appreciated, and have important implications for understanding virion formation, virus interactions with host cells, and virus neutralization. PMID:14668432

  1. A Next-Generation Cleaved, Soluble HIV-1 Env Trimer, BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140, Expresses Multiple Epitopes for Broadly Neutralizing but Not Non-Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Rogier W.; Derking, Ronald; Cupo, Albert; Julien, Jean-Philippe; Yasmeen, Anila; de Val, Natalia; Kim, Helen J.; Blattner, Claudia; de la Pea, Alba Torrents; Korzun, Jacob; Golabek, Michael; de los Reyes, Kevin; Ketas, Thomas J.; van Gils, Marit J.; King, C. Richter; Wilson, Ian A.; Ward, Andrew B.; Klasse, P. J.; Moore, John P.

    2013-01-01

    A desirable but as yet unachieved property of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidate is the ability to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). One approach to the problem is to create trimeric mimics of the native envelope glycoprotein (Env) spike that expose as many bNAb epitopes as possible, while occluding those for non-neutralizing antibodies (non-NAbs). Here, we describe the design and properties of soluble, cleaved SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers based on the subtype A transmitted/founder strain, BG505. These trimers are highly stable, more so even than the corresponding gp120 monomer, as judged by differential scanning calorimetry. They are also homogenous and closely resemble native virus spikes when visualized by negative stain electron microscopy (EM). We used several techniques, including ELISA and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to determine the relationship between the ability of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to bind the soluble trimers and neutralize the corresponding virus. In general, the concordance was excellent, in that virtually all bNAbs against multiple neutralizing epitopes on HIV-1 Env were highly reactive with the BG505 SOSIP.664 gp140 trimers, including quaternary epitopes (CH01, PG9, PG16 and PGT145). Conversely, non-NAbs to the CD4-binding site, CD4-induced epitopes or gp41ECTO did not react with the trimers, even when their epitopes were present on simpler forms of Env (e.g. gp120 monomers or dissociated gp41 subunits). Three non-neutralizing MAbs to V3 epitopes did, however, react strongly with the trimers but only by ELISA, and not at all by SPR and to only a limited extent by EM. These new soluble trimers are useful for structural studies and are being assessed for their performance as immunogens. PMID:24068931

  2. Systemic Delivery of Neutralizing Antibody Targeting CCL2 for Glioma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xinmei; Fujita, Mitsugu; Snyder, Linda A.; Okada, Hideho

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and facilitate tumor growth. Precursors for these immune cell populations migrate to the tumor site in response to tumor secretion of chemokines, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), which was originally purified and identified from human gliomas. In syngeneic mouse GL261 glioma and human U87 glioma xenograft models, we evaluated the efficacy of systemic CCL2 blockade by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) targeting mouse and/or human CCL2. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of anti-mouse CCL2 mAb as monotherapy (2 mg/kg/dose, twice a week) significantly, albeit modestly, prolonged the survival of C57BL/6 mice bearing intracranial GL261 glioma (p=0.0033), which was concomitant with a decrease in TAMs and MDSCs in the tumor microenvironment. Similarly, survival was modestly prolonged in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice bearing intracranial human U87 glioma xenografts treated with both anti-human CCL2 mAb and anti-mouse CCL2 antibodies (2 mg/kg/dose for each, twice a week) compared to mice treated with control IgG (p=0.0159). Furthermore, i.p. administration of anti-mouse CCL2 antibody in combination with temozolomide (TMZ) significantly prolonged the survival of C57BL/6 mice bearing GL261 glioma with 8 of 10 treated mice surviving longer than 70 days, while only 3 of 10 mice treated with TMZ and isotype IgG survived longer than 70 days (p=0.0359). These observations provide support for development of mAb-based CCL2 blockade strategies in combination with the current standard TMZ-based chemotherapy for treatment of malignant gliomas. PMID:21116835

  3. The beam driven plasma neutralizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrey, E.; Holmes, A.

    2013-02-01

    The improvement of the efficiency of neutral beam systems to be compatible with the economic requirements of fusion power plants is a key theme in the European research programme. A novel plasma neutralizer, in which the negative ion beam itself is the source of the plasma, is described. Its success depends on the confinement of the free electrons generated by stripping from the beam and their generation of additional plasma. The device requires no additional power in contrast to the photoneutralizer, presently the main device of research interest. Although the efficiency of the plasma device is not as high as the photoneutralizer it is essentially of a low technological risk, inherently reliable and will not require a significant R&D programme to demonstrate.

  4. Neutral depletion versus repletion due to ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Fruchtman, A.; Makrinich, G.; Raimbault, J.-L.; Liard, L.; Rax, J.-M.; Chabert, P.

    2008-05-15

    Recent theoretical analyses which predicted unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless plasmas are reviewed. We focus on the depletion of collisionless neutrals induced by strong ionization of a collisionless plasma and contrast this depletion with the effect of strong ionization on thermalized neutrals. The collisionless plasma is analyzed employing a kinetic description. The collisionless neutrals and the plasma are coupled through volume ionization and wall recombination only. The profiles of density and pressure both of the plasma and of the neutral-gas and the profile of the ionization rate are calculated. It is shown that for collisionless neutrals the ionization results in neutral depletion, while when neutrals are thermalized the ionization induces a maximal neutral-density at the discharge center, which we call neutral repletion. The difference between the two cases stems from the relation between the neutral density and pressure. The pressure of the collisionless neutral-gas turns out to be maximal where its density is minimal, in contrast to the case of a thermalized neutral gas.

  5. Thirty years of the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Younai, Fariba S

    2013-01-01

    After more than 30 years of battling a global epidemic, the prospect of eliminating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the most challenging infectious disease of the modern era is within our reach. Major scientific discoveries about the virus responsible for this immunodeficiency disease state, including its pathogenesis, transmission patterns and clinical course, have led to the development of potent antiretroviral drugs that offer great hopes in HIV treatment and prevention. Although these agents and many others still in development and testing are capable of effectively suppressing viral replication and survival, the medical management of HIV infection at the individual and the population levels remains challenging. Timely initiation of antiretroviral drugs, adherence to the appropriate therapeutic regimens, effective use of these agents in the pre and post-exposure prophylaxis contexts, treatment of comorbid conditions and addressing social and psychological factors involved in the care of individuals continue to be important considerations. PMID:24136672

  6. Autoimmune and Lymphoproliferative Complications of Common Variable Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Maglione, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is frequently complicated by the development of autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases. With widespread use of immunoglobulin replacement therapy, autoimmune and lymphoproliferative complications have replaced infection as the major cause of morbidity and mortality in CVID patients. Certain CVID complications, such as bronchiectasis, are likely to be the result of immunodeficiency and are associated with infection susceptibility. However, other complications may result from immune dysregulation rather than immunocompromise. CVID patients develop autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and granulomas in association with distinct immunological abnormalities. Mutations in transmembrane activator and CAML interactor, reduction of isotype-switched memory B cells, expansion of CD21 low B cells, heightened interferon signature expression, and retained B cell function are all associated with both autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation in CVID. Further research aimed to better understand that the pathological mechanisms of these shared forms of immune dysregulation may inspire therapies beneficial for multiple CVID complications. PMID:26857017

  7. Immunodeficiency due to defects in store-operated calcium entry

    PubMed Central

    Feske, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in genes encoding the Calcium-Release Activated Calcium (CRAC) channel abolish calcium influx in cells of the immune system and cause severe congenital immunodeficiency. Patients with autosomal recessive mutations in the CRAC channel gene ORAI1, its activator Stromal Interaction Molecule 1 (STIM1) and mice with targeted deletion of Orai1, Stim1 and Stim2 genes reveal important roles for CRAC channels in adaptive and innate immune responses to infection and in autoimmunity. Since CRAC channels have important functions outside the immune system, ORAI1 and STIM1 deficiency are associated with a unique clinical phenotype. This review will give an overview of CRAC channel function in the immune system, examine the consequences of CRAC channel deficiency for immunity in human patients and mice and discuss genetic defects in immunoreceptor-associated signaling molecules that compromise calcium influx and cause immunodeficiency. PMID:22129055

  8. [Experience with Cefobid in severe infections complicating immunodeficiency diseases].

    PubMed

    Istvn, L; Bodnr, M; Marton, E; Lakatos, F; Vgh, G

    1989-11-01

    As a 3rd generation cephalosporin Cefobid monotherapy was applied during 1985-1986 with 16 hematological patients in immunodeficient, immunosuppressive states where the available aimed and combined antibiotic therapy failed to be effective for the treatment of bacterial infections of grave course and septic character. 4 g/day was the average I.V. dose of Cefobid, higher doses were applied only in especially grave septic states. The hematological patients tolerated well the Cefobid in monotherapy. Recovery form the septic state and excellent clinical effect was found with 9 patients, good effect with 4 and satisfactory effect with 1 patient. In 1 case the therapy had to be stopped owing to drug hypersensitivity. Cefobid is regarded as an antibiotic drug that is effective if used in monotherapy for treating grave, septic infections of hematological patients in immunodeficient--immunosuppressive--myelodepressive states having received earlier antineoplasmic polychemotherapy. PMID:2694059

  9. Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodchild, John; Agrawal, Sudhir; Civeira, Maria P.; Sarin, Prem S.; Sun, Daisy; Zamecnik, Paul C.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty different target sites within human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA were selected for studies of inhibition of HIV replication by antisense oligonucleotides. Target sites were selected based on their potential capacity to block recognition functions during viral replication. Antisense oligomers complementary to sites within or near the sequence repeated at the ends of retrovirus RNA (R region) and to certain splice sites were most effective. The effect of antisense oligomer length on inhibiting virus replication was also investigated, and preliminary toxicity studies in mice show that these compounds are toxic only at high levels. The results indicate potential usefulness for these oligomers in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex either alone or in combination with other drugs.

  10. Transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus promoter by human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, R T; Wood, C; Balachandran, N

    1989-01-01

    Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are often infected with a number of other heterologous viruses in addition to the initial human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and these agents could act as potential reactivating agents of latent HIV. A new antigenically distinct herpesvirus, designated human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), has recently been isolated from patients with AIDS and has been shown to infect a number of different human cells, specifically human T cells, B cells, and glial cells. Since these are some of the same cells that harbor the AIDS virus, it is quite important to determine any interaction between this new herpesvirus and HIV. In this report, we demonstrate that HHV-6 can trans-activate the HIV promoter in human T-cell lines as measured by the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase. This indicates that stimulation of HIV gene expression by HHV-6 could play a role in HIV pathogenesis. Images PMID:2911127

  11. Viral DNA carried by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions.

    PubMed Central

    Lori, F; di Marzo Veronese, F; de Vico, A L; Lusso, P; Reitz, M S; Gallo, R C

    1992-01-01

    A fundamental step in the replication of retroviruses is the reverse transcription of the viral RNA genome into a double-stranded DNA provirus. Retroviruses are believed to carry genomic information only as RNA, and synthesis of DNA is thought to start only after virus entry into the infected cell. We report here that infectious mature human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions contain viral DNA of heterogeneous size. This heterogeneity seems to result from random stops of reverse transcription during minus- and plus-strand synthesis. The DNA carried by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 virions presumably originates from reverse transcription which takes place prior to or during formation of the mature virus particle. Images PMID:1378514

  12. [A case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with ileocecal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tetsuyoshi; Saruta, Masayuki; Sawada, Ryoichi; Ide, Daisuke; Arihiro, Seiji; Matsuoka, Mika; Katoh, Tomohiro; Tajiri, Hisao

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and ileocecal ulcer. A 31-year-old man was admitted with chief complaints of decreased body weight and abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed a round punched-out ulcer on the ileocecal valve. Initially, we suspected entero-Behet's disease and simple ulcer as the cause of the ileocecal ulcer. However, after histologic examination of tissue biopsies obtained during colonoscopy, we diagnosed the patient as having cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis. Based on the patient's white blood cell depletion and CMV enteritis, we performed a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test. The test was positive, and the diagnosis of AIDS was established. The number of patients with AIDS has been increasing in Japan; thus, we should consider the possibility of CMV enteritis and AIDS in young adult patients affected by ileocecal ulcer with no notable history. PMID:26440687

  13. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  14. Progress and prospects: gene therapy for inherited immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Qasim, W; Gaspar, H B; Thrasher, A J

    2009-11-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is now widely used to treat primary immunodeficiencies (PID). For patients with specific disorders (severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-X1, adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA)-SCID, X-chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome (WAS)) who lack a suitable human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched donor, gene therapy has offered an important alternative treatment option. The success of gene therapy can be attributed, in part, to the selective advantage offered to gene-corrected cells, the avoidance of graft-versus-host disease and to the use of pre-conditioning in patients with chemotherapy to facilitate engraftment of corrected cells. Adverse events have been encountered and this has led to detailed characterization of retroviral vector integration profiles. A new generation of self-inactivating retroviral and lentiviral vectors have been designed to address these safety concerns, and are at an advanced stage of preparation for the next phase of clinical testing. PMID:19776764

  15. Cognitive deficits associated with human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, R; Wrobel, A J; Meinecke, C; Liang, W M; Kay, J

    1990-01-01

    The encephalopathy associated with direct nervous system infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been recognized as one of the major debilitating aspects of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and of pre-AIDS conditions. A comprehensive neuropsychological examination of symptomatic HIV-infected subjects without opportunistic cerebral disease demonstrated a distinctive pattern of cognitive deficits marked by prominent attentional impairment. Evidence of organizational and reasoning impairments also was observed, but language, visual-spatial, and memory consolidation abilities were relatively preserved. The findings suggest a profile of impairment similar to other cognitive syndromes involving dysfunction of predominantly anterior brain structures and projections and suggest a rationale for psychostimulant drug treatment. PMID:2136083

  16. Pneumococcal vaccine failure: can it be a primary immunodeficiency?

    PubMed

    Moinho, Rita; Brett, Ana; Ferreira, Gisela; Lemos, Snia

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine failure is a rare condition and the need to investigate a primary immunodeficiency is controversial. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy, with complete antipneumococcal vaccination, who had necrotising pneumonia with pleural effusion and severe pancytopaenia with need for transfusion. A vaccine-serotype Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated in the blood culture. On follow-up, detailed medical history, laboratory and genetic investigation led to the diagnosis of X linked dyskeratosis congenita. Dyskeratosis congenita is an inherited disorder that causes shortening or dysfunction of telomeres, affecting mainly rapidly dividing cells (particularly in the skin and haematopoietic system). It leads to bone marrow failure, combined immunodeficiency and predisposition to cancer. The confirmation of this diagnosis allows genetic counselling and medical monitoring of these patients, in order to detect early complications such as bone marrow aplasia or malignancies. PMID:24925540

  17. Optimization of Neutral Atom Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80deg. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume.

  18. Plasma sources for spacecraft neutralization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Katz, I.; Mandell, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The principles of the operation of plasma sources for the neutralization of the surface of a spacecraft traveling in the presence of hot plasma are discussed with special attention given to the hollow-cathode-based plasma contactors. Techiques are developed that allow the calculation of the potentials and particle densities in the near environment of a hollow cathode plasma contactor in both the test tank and the LEO environment. The techniques and codes were validated by comparison of calculated and measured results.

  19. Investigating antibody neutralization of lyssaviruses using lentiviral pseudotypes: a cross-species comparison

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Edward; Temperton, Nigel J.; Marston, Denise A.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Weiss, Robin A.

    2008-01-01

    Cross-neutralization between rabies virus (RABV) and two European bat lyssaviruses (EBLV-1 and -2) was analysed using lentiviral pseudotypes as antigen vectors. Glycoprotein (G-protein) cDNA from RABV challenge virus standard-11 (CVS-11) and EBLV-1 and -2 were cloned and co-expressed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or murine leukemia virus (MLV) gagpol and packageable green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase reporter genes in human cells. The harvested lentiviral (HIV) vector infected over 40?% of baby hamster kidney (BHK) target cells, providing high-titre pseudotype stocks. Tests on blinded antibody-positive (n=15) and -negative (n=45) sera, predetermined by the fluorescent antibody virus neutralization (FAVN) test approved by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Office International des Epizooties (OIE), revealed that the CVS-11 pseudotype assay had 100?% concordance with FAVN and strongly correlated with neutralization titres (r2=0.89). Cross-neutralization tests using sera from RABV-vaccinated humans and animals on pseudotypes with CVS-11, EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 envelopes showed that the relative neutralization titres correlated broadly with the degree of G-protein diversity. Pseudotypes have three major advantages over live-virus neutralization tests: (i) they can be handled in low-biohazard-level laboratories; (ii) the use of reporter genes such as GFP or ?-galactosidase will allow the assay to be undertaken at low cost in laboratories worldwide; (iii) each assay requires <10??l serum. This robust microassay will improve our understanding of the protective humoral immunity that current rabies vaccines confer against emerging lyssaviruses, and will be applicable to surveillance studies, thus helping to control the spread of rabies. PMID:18753230

  20. Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals.

    PubMed Central

    Sutjipto, S; Pedersen, N C; Miller, C J; Gardner, M B; Hanson, C V; Gettie, A; Jennings, M; Higgins, J; Marx, P A

    1990-01-01

    Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge. Images PMID:2157886

  1. Inactivated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine failed to protect rhesus macaques from intravenous or genital mucosal infection but delayed disease in intravenously exposed animals

    SciTech Connect

    Sutjipto, S.; Pedersen, N.C.; Miller, C.J.; Gardner, M.B.; Hanson, C.V.; Gettie, A.; Jennings, M.; Higgins, J.; Marx, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Eight rhesus macaques were immunized four times over a period of 8 months with a psoralen-UV-light-inactivated whole simian immunodeficiency virus vaccine adjuvanted with threonyl muramyl dipeptide. Eight unvaccinated control animals received adjuvant alone. Only the vaccinated animals made antibodies before challenge exposure to the viral core and envelope as determined by Western blotting (immunoblotting) and virus-neutralizing antibodies. Ten days after the final immunization, one-half of the vaccinated and nonvaccinated monkeys were challenged exposed intravenously (i.v.) and one-half were challenge exposed via the genital mucosa with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus. All of the nonvaccinated control monkeys became persistently infected. In spite of preexisting neutralizing antibodies and an anamnestic antibody response, all of the immunized monkeys also became persistently infected. However, there was evidence that the clinical course in immunized i.v. infected animals was delayed. All four mock-vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed animals died with disease from 3 to 9 months postchallenge. In contrast, only one of four vaccinated i.v. challenge-exposed monkeys had died by 11 months postchallenge.

  2. Finding a cure for human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Blankson, Joel N; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    Remarkable advances have been made in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, but in the entire history of the epidemic, only 1 patient has been cured. Herein we review the fundamental mechanisms that render HIV-1 infection difficult to cure and then discuss recent clinical and experimental situations in which some form of cure has been achieved. Finally, we consider approaches that are currently being taken to develop a general cure for HIV-1 infection. PMID:25277513

  3. The Value of Family History in Diagnosing Primary Immunodeficiency Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alhammadi, Ahmad; Al-Yafei, Fawzia

    2014-01-01

    Eliciting proper family medical history is critical in decreasing morbidity and mortality in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). Communities with a common practice of consanguinity have a high rate of PIDs. We are presenting 2 cases where digging deeply into the family medical history resulted in the diagnosis of Omenn syndrome, a possibly fatal entity if not managed in a reasonable period. PMID:25161792

  4. Endocrinopathies in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Loomba-Albrecht, Lindsey A; Bregman, Thea; Chantry, Caroline J

    2014-09-01

    Endocrine changes (including adrenal insufficiency, disorders of growth and puberty, thyroid dysfunction, metabolic abnormalities and osteopenia) accompany human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pediatric patients. The cause of these changes is multifactorial and includes direct viral effects of HIV, and effects of antiretroviral therapy. These effects may be of particular importance in childhood given the critical developmental processes that occur during this time period and the likelihood of prolonged exposure to the virus and medications. PMID:25169569

  5. Tissue tropism of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Wyand, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a T-lymphotropic lentivirus that is genetically, immunologically, and morphologically related to the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2). In rhesus monkeys, SIV induces a progressively fatal immunodeficiency syndrome strikingly similar to human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The tissue and cellular tropism of SIV was determined by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization using a 3.48 kilobase SIV envelope gene probe labeled with biotin, {sup 35}S, or {sup 3}H. Probes labeled with {sup 35}S nonspecifically bound to tissue eosinophils and produced poor signal resolution compared to tritium labeled probes. Biotin labeled probes did not detect SIV under similar hybridization conditions. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues produced strong hybridization signal with superior morphology compared to frozen tissues. Gastrointestinal, respiratory, and lymphoid tissues most frequently contained SIV RNA. The distribution of SIV did not correlate with sex, or viral inoculum, but was most extensive in animals with SIV induced granulomatous encephalitis. SIV was most frequently observed in lymphocytes and macrophages. In the brain focal granulomas were composed almost entirely of EBM11+, lysozyme+, macrophages which contained large amounts of SIV RNA and p27 core protein detected by the monoclonal antibody R1C7. Cells away from granulomas in the brain parenchyma and around blood vessels contained virus and were compatible with oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Lymph nodes in follicular hyperplasia contained small numbers of SIV positive cells compatible with lymphocytes in the paracortex and mantle zones as well as in cells of the germinal center. Lymph nodes in various stages of follicular depletion with expanded paracortices contained large numbers of cells with SIV RNA in lymphocytes and macrophages.

  6. [Lopinavir/ritonavir in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women].

    PubMed

    Téllez, María Jesús

    2014-11-01

    There are clear sex-related biological differences between men and women. Diseases that affect the two sexes differently are studied separately. However, some diseases affect both men and women, but their incidence or outcome are clearly different. In human immunodeficiency virus infection, the potential differences in the effects of antiretroviral therapy are poorly characterized and few studies have been designed to elucidate these differences. Moreover, women are usually poorly represented in clinical trials of antiretroviral drugs. PMID:25542872

  7. HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein immunogens to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sliepen, Kwinten; Sanders, Rogier W

    2016-03-01

    The long pursuit for a vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) has recently been boosted by a number of exciting developments. An HIV-1 subunit vaccine ideally should elicit potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs), but raising bNAbs by vaccination has proved extremely difficult because of the characteristics of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein complex (Env). However, the isolation of bNAbs from HIV-1-infected patients demonstrates that the human humoral immune system is capable of making such antibodies. Therefore, a focus of HIV-1 vaccinology is the elicitation of bNAbs by engineered immunogens and by using vaccination strategies aimed at mimicking the bNAb maturation pathways in HIV-infected patients. Important clues can also be taken from the successful subunit vaccines against hepatitis B virus and human papillomavirus. Here, we review the different types of HIV-1 immunogens and vaccination strategies that are being explored in the search for an HIV-1 vaccine that induces bNAbs. PMID:26654478

  8. Ralstonia pickettii-Induced Ataxia in Immunodeficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Berard, Marion; Medaille, Christine; Simon, Meredith; Serre, Stphanie; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen; Dangles-Marie, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    We report here the characterization of an asymmetric ataxia syndrome (head tilt and circling, with death in the most severe cases) demonstrated by profoundly immunodeficient mice housed at the Institut Curie SPF facility. The immune system of the affected mice had been genetically modified so that they were deficient in both B and T cells. Extensive bacteriologic, parasitic, serologic, and histopathologic analysis of the affected animals and their healthy controls led us to identify Ralstonia pickettii as the causative agent of the ataxic syndrome. The outbreak was managed through a test-and-cull process. Even though they also carried Ralstonia pickettii, immunocompetent mice that were kept in the same facility, did not show any of the signs that were expressed by their immunodeficient counterparts. This case highlights the difficulty of maintaining immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice in the same microbiologic unit and the importance of enlarging the spectrum of health monitoring to opportunistic agents when investigating clinical cases in populations of immunocompromised rodents. PMID:19389312

  9. What is the status of gene therapy for primary immunodeficiency?

    PubMed

    Blaese, R Michael

    2007-01-01

    The efforts to find satisfactory treatments for seriously ill patients with primary immunodeficiency have resulted in the development of important new therapeutic procedures with benefits reaching far beyond the relatively small number of patients affected with these rare disorders. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, immunoglobulin and enzyme replacement treatments and more recently gene therapy have all been introduced into clinical medicine as treatments for one or more of the primary immunodeficiency diseases. Beginning in 1990, gene-corrected T cells were first used to treat ADA deficiency SCID. With this demonstration that the gene-transfer procedure could be safely used to introduce functional transgenes into patient cells, clinical trials for a broad range of inherited disorders and cancer were started in the mid 90s. Of all these early clinical experiments, those addressing primary immunodeficiency have also been the most successful. Both ADA and X-SCID have now been cured using gene insertion into autologous bone marrow stem cells. In addition some patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) have shown an unexpectedly high level of functionally corrected granulocytes in their blood following infusion of autologous gene-corrected bone marrow. There remain however a great many significant challenges to be overcome before gene therapy becomes the treatment of choice for these and other disorders. The use of genes as medicines is the most complex therapeutic system ever attempted and it may rake several more decades of work before its real potential as a treatment for both inherited and sporadic disorders if finally realized. PMID:17917032

  10. A nonsense mutation in IKBKB causes combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mousallem, Talal; Yang, Jialong; Urban, Thomas J.; Wang, Hongxia; Adeli, Mehdi; Parrott, Roberta E.; Roberts, Joseph L.; Goldstein, David B.; Zhong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Identification of the molecular etiologies of primary immunodeficiencies has led to important insights into the development and function of the immune system. We report here the cause of combined immunodeficiency in 4 patients from 2 different consanguineous Qatari families with similar clinical and immunologic phenotypes. The patients presented at an early age with fungal, viral, and bacterial infections and hypogammaglobulinemia. Although their B- and T-cell numbers were normal, they had low regulatory T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Moreover, patients T cells were mostly CD45RA+-naive cells and were defective in activation after T-cell receptor stimulation. All patients contained the same homozygous nonsense mutation in IKBKB (R286X), revealed by whole-exome sequencing with undetectable IKK? and severely decreased NEMO proteins. Mutant IKK?(R286X) was unable to complex with IKK?/NEMO. Immortalized patient B cells displayed impaired I?B? phosphorylation and NF?B nuclear translocation. These data indicate that mutated IKBKB is the likely cause of immunodeficiency in these 4 patients. PMID:25139357

  11. Neutral-current x-distributions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Friedman, J. I.; Kendall, H. W.; Bogert, D.; Burnstein, R.; Fisk, R.; Fuess, S.; Bofill, J.; Busza, W.; Eldridge, T.; Abolins, M.; Brock, R.; et al.

    1984-06-01

    The role of the semi leptonic neutral current interaction as a probe of nucleon structure is examined. Previous measurements of neutral current x-distributions are reviewed, and new results from the Fermilab - MIT - MSU collaboration are presented.

  12. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  13. Combined immunodeficiency develops with age in Immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome 2 (ICF2).

    PubMed

    von Bernuth, Horst; Ravindran, Ethiraj; Du, Hang; Frhler, Sebastian; Strehl, Karoline; Krmer, Nadine; Issa-Jahns, Lina; Amulic, Borko; Ninnemann, Olaf; Xiao, Mei-Sheng; Eirich, Katharina; Klsch, Uwe; Hauptmann, Kathrin; John, Rainer; Schindler, Detlev; Wahn, Volker; Chen, Wei; Kaindl, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    The autosomal recessive immunodeficiency-centromeric instability-facial anomalies syndrome (ICF) is characterized by immunodeficiency, developmental delay, and facial anomalies. ICF2, caused by biallelic ZBTB24 gene mutations, is acknowledged primarily as an isolated B-cell defect. Here, we extend the phenotype spectrum by describing, in particular, for the first time the development of a combined immune defect throughout the disease course as well as putative autoimmune phenomena such as granulomatous hepatitis and nephritis. We also demonstrate impaired cell-proliferation and increased cell death of immune and non-immune cells as well as data suggesting a chromosome separation defect in addition to the known chromosome condensation defect. PMID:25330735

  14. Priming Effects for Affective vs. Neutral Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Wyatt, Gwinne; Frohlich, Jonathan; Vardy, Susan B.; Dimitri, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Affective and Neutral Tasks (faces with negative or neutral content, with different lighting and orientation) requiring reaction time judgments of poser identity were administered to 32 participants. Speed and accuracy were better for the Affective than Neutral Task, consistent with literature suggesting facilitation of performance by affective

  15. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  16. Ion-beam Plasma Neutralization Interaction Images

    SciTech Connect

    Igor D. Kaganovich; Edward Startsev; S. Klasky; Ronald C. Davidson

    2002-04-09

    Neutralization of the ion beam charge and current is an important scientific issue for many practical applications. The process of ion beam charge and current neutralization is complex because the excitation of nonlinear plasma waves may occur. Computer simulation images of plasma neutralization of the ion beam pulse are presented.

  17. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and use any

  18. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: An Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chapel, Helen; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Fischer, Alain; Franco, Jose Luis; Geha, Raif S.; Hammarstrm, Lennart; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Notarangelo, Luigi Daniele; Ochs, Hans Dieter; Puck, Jennifer M.; Roifman, Chaim M.; Seger, Reinhard; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2011-01-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiency diseases, compiled by the ad hoc Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. As compared to the previous edition, more than 15 novel disease entities have been added in the updated version. For each disorders, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This updated classification is meant to help in the diagnostic approach to patients with these diseases. PMID:22566844

  19. Multicusp Trap as Model of Plasma Neutralizer for ITER Neutral Beam Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, V.A.; Dubrovin, M.M.; Kosarev, P.M.; Skovoroda, A.A.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Terent'ev, A.A.; Yanchenkov, S.V.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Zubarev, V.F.

    2005-01-15

    Increasing the negative ions beam neutralization efficiency in NBI system is rather attractive. It is known, that neutralization efficiency of negative ion beam on plasma is higher than on gas. The model of plasma neutralizer for ITER NBI system - PNX-U facility is described here. Obtained experimental results give that chosen conception is promising and plasma neutralizer allows essential improvement of NBI system.

  20. Gas Flow Measurements of a Novel Geometry for Neutral Beam Neutralizers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirkle, David Ross

    The gas flow characteristics of a novel geometry (pumped neutralizer) for decreasing the flow of gas from neutral beam neutralizers were measured and compared with a conventional (passive) neutralizer. A passive neutralizer is typically a duct attached to the ion source. For the pumped neutralizer the top and bottom surfaces of the duct are replaced by a Venetian blind geometry which opens into ballast vacuum pumping volumes. With guidance from a Monte Carlo program which models gas flow at low pressure, a one-half scale model with pumped neutralizer geometry was built and compared to a passive neutralizer with comparable dimensions. With the vanes on the pumped neutralizer opened to 55 degrees, the line density of the pumped neutralizer was 1.6 times less than the passive neutralizer. The amount of gas flowing from the exit of the pumped neutralizer was from 2 to 5 times less than the amount flowing from the pumped neutralizer. Hence, the pumped neutralizer geometry appears to be a promising method of limiting the flow of gas from neutral beam gas cell neutralizers.

  1. Protein Microarrays: A New Tool for the Study of Autoantibodies in Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Jacob M.; Utz, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is highly coincident with immunodeficiency. In a small but growing number of primary immunodeficiencies, autoantibodies are diagnostic of a given disease and implicated in disease pathogenesis. In order to improve our understanding of the role of autoantibodies in immunodeficiencies and to discover novel autoantibodies, new proteomic tools are needed. Protein microarrays have the ability to screen for reactivity to hundreds to many thousands of unique autoantigens simultaneously on a single chip using minimal serum input. Here, we review different types of protein microarrays and how they can be useful in framing the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. PMID:25904912

  2. Protein microarrays: a new tool for the study of autoantibodies in immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Jacob M; Utz, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmunity is highly coincident with immunodeficiency. In a small but growing number of primary immunodeficiencies, autoantibodies are diagnostic of a given disease and implicated in disease pathogenesis. In order to improve our understanding of the role of autoantibodies in immunodeficiencies and to discover novel autoantibodies, new proteomic tools are needed. Protein microarrays have the ability to screen for reactivity to hundreds to many thousands of unique autoantigens simultaneously on a single chip using minimal serum input. Here, we review different types of protein microarrays and how they can be useful in framing the study of primary and secondary immunodeficiencies. PMID:25904912

  3. Nonlinear neutral inclusions: assemblages of coated ellipsoids

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Silvia Jiménez; Vernescu, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    The problem of determining nonlinear neutral inclusions in (electrical or thermal) conductivity is considered. Neutral inclusions, inserted in a matrix containing a uniform applied electric field, do not disturb the field outside the inclusions. The well-known Hashin-coated sphere construction is an example of a neutral inclusion. In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing neutral inclusions from nonlinear materials. In particular, we discuss assemblages of coated ellipsoids. The proposed construction is neutral for a given applied field. PMID:26064633

  4. Kinetic Simulations of Ion Beam Neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Joseph

    2010-05-21

    Ion beam emission/neutralization is one of the most fundamental problems in spacecraft plasma interactions and electric propulsion. Although ion beam neutralization is readily achieved in experiments, the understanding of the underlying physical process remains at a rather primitive level. No theoretical or simulation models have convincingly explained the detailed neutralization mechanism, and no conclusions have been reached. This paper presents a fully kinetic simulation of ion beam neutralization and plasma beam propagation and discusses the physics of electron-ion coupling and the resulting propagation of a neutralized mesothermal plasma.

  5. Neutral gas dynamics in fireballs

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2011-06-01

    Fireballs are local discharge phenomena on positively biased electrodes in partially ionized plasmas. Electrons, energized at a double layer, heat neutral gas which expands. The gas pressure exceeds the plasma pressure, hence becomes important to the stability and transport in fireballs. The flow of gas moves the electrode and sensors similar to a mica pendulum. Flow speed and directions are measured. A fireball gun has been developed to partially collimate the flow of hot gas and heat objects in its path. New applications of fireballs are suggested.

  6. Rapid selection for an N-linked oligosaccharide by monoclonal antibodies directed against the V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Schnning, K; Jansson, B; Olofsson, S; Hansen, J E

    1996-04-01

    The V3 loop of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) surface protein, gp 120, constitutes a principal neutralizing determinant. HIV strains lacking a naturally conserved N-linked oligosaccharide (at position 306) within the V3 loop are highly sensitive to neutralization. We subjected molecular clones of HIV(LAI) lacking this 306N-glycan to in vitro immune selection with MAbs directed against the V3 loop. In all, ten clones were characterized, and all proved resistant to V3-directed neutralization. Sequencing of the V3 loop revealed that six of the clones had become resistant at least partly by reacquisition of the 306N-glycan. Only two of the clones possessed mutations within the binding site of the antibody itself, while the two remaining clones did not display changes within the V3 loop itself. Thus, HIV strains lacking the 306N-glycan primarily develop resistance to V3-directed neutralization through acquisition of the specific oligosaccharide. This demonstrates that protein glycosylation can be a primary modifier of virus antigenicity of possible importance for the interaction of HIV with the host immune response. PMID:8627264

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation.

    PubMed Central

    Duesberg, P H

    1989-01-01

    AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about 40% of American cases, it has been hypothesized that this virus causes AIDS by killing T cells. Consequently, the virus was termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and antibody to HIV became part of the definition of AIDS. The hypothesis that HIV causes AIDS is examined in terms of Koch's postulates and epidemiological, biochemical, genetic, and evolutionary conditions of viral pathology. HIV does not fulfill Koch's postulates: (i) free virus is not detectable in most cases of AIDS; (ii) virus can only be isolated by reactivating virus in vitro from a few latently infected lymphocytes among millions of uninfected ones; (iii) pure HIV does not cause AIDS upon experimental infection of chimpanzees or accidental infection of healthy humans. Further, HIV violates classical conditions of viral pathology. (i) Epidemiological surveys indicate that the annual incidence of AIDS among antibody-positive persons varies from nearly 0 to over 10%, depending critically on nonviral risk factors. (ii) HIV is expressed in less than or equal to 1 of every 10(4) T cells it supposedly kills in AIDS, whereas about 5% of all T cells are regenerated during the 2 days it takes the virus to infect a cell. (iii) If HIV were the cause of AIDS, it would be the first virus to cause a disease only after the onset of antiviral immunity, as detected by a positive "AIDS test." (iv) AIDS follows the onset of antiviral immunity only after long and unpredictable asymptomatic intervals averaging 8 years, although HIV replicates within 1 to 2 days and induces immunity within 1 to 2 months. (v) HIV supposedly causes AIDS by killing T cells, although retroviruses can only replicate in viable cells. In fact, infected T cells grown in culture continue to divide. (vi) HIV is isogenic with all other retroviruses and does not express a late, AIDS-specific gene. (vii) If HIV were to cause AIDS, it would have a paradoxical, country-specific pathology, causing over 90% Pneumocystis pneumonia and Kaposi sarcoma in the U.S. but over 90% slim disease, fever, and diarrhea in Africa.(viii) It is highly improbable that within the last few years two viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) that are only 40% sequence-related would have evolved that could both cause the newly defined syndrome AIDS. Also, viruses are improbable that kill their only natural host with efficiencies of 50-100%, as is claimed for HIVs. It is concluded that HIV is not sufficient for AIDS and that it may not even be necessary for AIDS because its activity is just as low in symptomatic carriers as in asymptomatic carriers. The correlation between antibody to HIV and AIDS does not prove causation, because otherwise indistinguishable diseases are now set apart only on the basis of this antibody. I propose that AIDS is not a contagious syndrome caused by one conventional virus or microbe. No such virus or microbe would require almost a decade to cause primary disease, nor could it cause the diverse collection of AIDS diseases. Neither would its host range be as selective as that of AIDS, nor could it survive if it were as inefficiently transmitted as AIDS. Since AIDS is defined by new combinations of conventional diseases, it may be caused by new combinations of conventional pathogens, including acute viral or microbial infections and chronic drug use and malnutrition. The long and unpredictable intervals between infection with HIV and AIDS would then reflect the thresholds for these pathogenic factors to cause AIDS diseases, instead of an unlikely mechanism of HIV pathogenesis. PMID:2644642

  8. The Source of Saturn's Extended Neutral Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleshman, Bobby L.; Delamere, P. A.; Bagenal, F.

    2010-10-01

    The Enceladus plumes are largely responsible for the water and its by-products found throughout Saturn's Enceladus plasma--neutral torus. In this work, we build on our understanding of the local interaction by quantifying the degree to which neutrals produced as a by-product of charge exchange contribute to the Saturn's neutral cloud extending from 3 to 10 R_S (see also Johnson et al., 2006). We follow individual ion and neutral trajectories, while accounting for velocity-dependent cross sections. Our aim is to compare the neutral clouds resulting from five processes: (1) charge exchange at Enceladus, (2) charge exchange throughout the torus, (3) direct injection from the plumes, (4) photodissociation, and (5) electron-impact dissociation. The goal of the study, when compared with neutral cloud observations, is to shed light on which of these mechanisms dominates the neutral cloud morphology at Saturn.

  9. Instabilities in Neutral and Non-Neutral Plasmas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Un-Hak

    The objective of the research reported herein was to develop theories and conduct numerical investigations of some specific plasma instabilities. This thesis consists of two distinct parts--parametric instabilities in non -neutral plasma (the first part) and drift instabilities in neutral plasmas (the second part). Chapter I presents a discussion of the historical background in experiments and theoretical development of non-neutral plasmas related to the free electron laser (a new, powerful and coherent source of electromagnetic radiation). In Chapter II, an analysis of the parametric excitation of fast and slow space-charge waves in a cylindrical metallic waveguide filled with relativistic beam electrons is presented. The pump wave in the laboratory reference frame consists of a static, spatially periodic axial electric field. Formulas are derived for the temporal growth rate and frequency of the backscattered fast space-charge wave in both the laboratory and beam frames. The effects of a uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary magnitude on the amplitude gain and frequency enhancement are studied. In Chapter III, parametric decay of a longitudinal electrostatic pump wave into two space-charge waves in a cylindrical metallic waveguide partially filled with relativistic beam electrons is analyzed. The dependence of the amplitude gain factor and frequency enhancement on the ratio of beam radius to waveguide radius is studied numerically. In Chapter IV, theoretical determination of the dispersion curve and electrostatic potential for drift waves in a quadrupole plasma is carried out. Linear theory is employed to derive and solve numerically an equation for the eigenvalue (frequency omega) and the eigenfunction (electrostatic potential) as a function of the distance along a magnetic field line for each given value of the axial wave number k_{ rm z}. Chapter V presents the general theory of Landau resonances which will permit calculation of the growth or damping rate of electrostatic waves in the magnetic quadrupole. In Chapter VI, electrostatic drift waves with frequency small compared to the ion cyclotron frequency in a plasma confined by a magnetic quadrupole are considered. An equation is derived for the growth or damping rate due to wave-particle (Landau) resonances with the effects of temperature gradients and finite Larmor radius included. The ion Landau damping rate and the net growth rate of the fundamental drift mode in the UMIST quadrupole are then calculated.

  10. Neutralizing paintings with a projector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Ian E.

    2003-01-01

    A painting needs illumination to be visible. If the illumination is provided by an LCD data projector, different regions of the painting can be illuminated separately. Modern projectors have large color gamuts and can provide a wide range of illumination effects. One possible effect is to project a captured digital image of the painting onto the painting; the resulting superposition of like colors intensifies the contrast and saturation of the image. The opposite effect is to project the complement of the image onto the painting to "neutralize" it. When carefully done, with correct registration, the painting fades into a nearly uniform gray. Although a simple idea, in practice it is not trivial to accurately find the complementary color for each part of the painting, even when it is captured by a calibrated digital camera. This research examines the problems of accurately capturing the image, combining the projector gamut with typical paint reflectances, and determining the available range of complementary projector colors and the final lightness of the neutral image. The work was initially inspired by a student's fine art project, wherein computer animation was superimposed on a painting, bringing it to life.

  11. Transfer of rheumatoid arthritis into severe combined immunodeficient mice. The pathogenetic implications of T cell populations oligoclonally expanding in the rheumatoid joints.

    PubMed Central

    Mima, T; Saeki, Y; Ohshima, S; Nishimoto, N; Matsushita, M; Shimizu, M; Kobayashi, Y; Nomura, T; Kishimoto, T

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenicity of T cells infiltrating in the rheumatoid joints, mononuclear cells (MNC), predominantly T cells, isolated from either synovial fluid or synovial tissues of the patients with RA were transferred into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice by intraarticular injections. According to our observations in this experimental system, patients with RA could be classified into at least two groups. In one group of patients, the infiltrating MNC induced synovial hyperplasia in the recipient SCID mice (the positive group). Whereas, in the other group no synovial hyperplasia was observed (the negative group). The induction of synovial hyperplasia observed in the positive group was prevented by an anti-human CD3 antibody (OKT3), indicating T cell mediation. Analysis of T cell receptor (TCR) V beta usage by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the infiltrating MNC transferred into SCID mice revealed a marked skew towards the preferential use of certain V beta genes, which was not seen in the peripheral blood MNC, in only the positive group. The patterns of TCR/V beta skew were not uniform among the patients. The analysis of the PCR-amplified genes of such skewed TCR/ V beta by single strand conformational polymorphism showed distinct bands, indicating that the T cell populations expanding in rheumatoid joints of the positive group were oligoclonal. Furthermore, the enrichment of the T cell populations expressing such skewed TCR/V beta by in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood MNC of the patients with the relevant superantigen enabled the induction of synovial hyperplasia in the SCID mice. These results suggest that the pathogenic T cells could be activated locally in rheumatoid joints by certain antigens in some, but not in all patients with RA. Images PMID:7560066

  12. Safety assessment, in vitro and in vivo, and pharmacokinetics of emivirine, a potent and selective nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Szczech, G M; Furman, P; Painter, G R; Barry, D W; Borroto-Esoda, K; Grizzle, T B; Blum, M R; Sommadossi, J; Endoh, R; Niwa, T; Yamamoto, M; Moxham, C

    2000-01-01

    Emivirine (EMV), formerly known as MKC-442, is 6-benzyl-1-(ethoxymethyl)-5-isopropyl-uracil, a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor that displays potent and selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activity in vivo. EMV showed little or no toxicity towards human mitochondria or human bone marrow progenitor cells. Pharmacokinetics were linear for both rats and monkeys, and oral absorption was 68% in rats. Whole-body autoradiography showed widespread distribution in tissue 30 min after rats were given an oral dose of [(14)C]EMV at 10 mg/kg of body weight. In rats given an oral dose of 250 mg/kg, there were equal levels of EMV in the plasma and the brain. In vitro experiments using liver microsomes demonstrated that the metabolism of EMV by human microsomes is approximately a third of that encountered with rat and monkey microsomes. In 1-month, 3-month, and chronic toxicology experiments (6 months with rats and 1 year with cynomolgus monkeys), toxicity was limited to readily reversible effects on the kidney consisting of vacuolation of kidney tubular epithelial cells and mild increases in blood urea nitrogen. Liver weights increased at the higher doses in rats and monkeys and were attributed to the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes. EMV tested negative for genotoxic activity, and except for decreased feed consumption at the high dose (160 mg/kg/day), with resultant decreases in maternal and fetal body weights, EMV produced no adverse effects in a complete range of reproductive toxicology experiments performed on rats and rabbits. These results support the clinical development of EMV as a treatment for HIV-1 infection in adult and pediatric patient populations. PMID:10602732

  13. Detailed Atomic Structure of Neutral and Near-Neutral Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Paul; Hibbert, Alan

    2011-05-11

    This paper highlights the issues which need to be addressed in undertaking accurate calculations of multi-electron atoms and ions, particularly at or near the neutral end of an isoelectronic sequence. We illustrate the processes through two calculations--of transitions in Cl I and Sn II--and discuss the convergence of our results as well as updating previous work. In particular, in the case of Cl I, we propose new identifications of the levels involved in certain transitions which are important in determining the abundance of chlorine in the inter-stellar medium (ISM), while in singly ionised tin, our calculations suggest a re-evaluation of the the abundance of tin in the ISM. We also confirm recent identification of Sn II lines seen in tokamak plasmas.

  14. Induction of Protective Immunity to Anthrax Lethal Toxin with a Nonhuman Primate Adenovirus-Based Vaccine in the Presence of Preexisting Anti-Human Adenovirus Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Masahiko; Boyer, Julie L.; Hackett, Neil R.; Wilson, James M.; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2005-01-01

    Prevention or therapy for bioterrorism-associated anthrax infections requires rapidly acting effective vaccines. We recently demonstrated (Y. Tan, N. R. Hackett, J. L. Boyer, and R. G. Crystal, Hum. Gene Ther. 14:1673-1682, 2003) that a single administration of a recombinant serotype 5 adenovirus (Ad) vector expressing anthrax protective antigen (PA) provides rapid protection against anthrax lethal toxin challenge. However, approximately 35 to 50% of humans have preexisting neutralizing antibodies against Ad5. This study assesses the hypothesis that a recombinant adenovirus vaccine based on the nonhuman primate-derived serotype AdC7, against which humans do not have immunity, expressing PA (AdC7PA) will protect against anthrax lethal toxin even in the presence of preexisting anti-Ad5 immunity. Naive and Ad5-immunized BALB/c mice received (intramuscularly) 108 to 1011 particle units (PU) of AdC7PA, Ad5PA (a human serotype Ad5-based vector expressing a secreted form of PA), or AdNull (an Ad5 vector with no transgene). Robust anti-PA immunoglobulin G and neutralizing antibodies were detected by 2 to 4 weeks following administration of AdC7PA to naive or Ad5 preimmunized mice, whereas low anti-PA titers were detected in Ad5-preimmunized mice following administration of Ad5PA. To assess protection in vivo, naive or mice previously immunized against Ad5 were immunized with AdC7PA or Ad5PA and then challenged with a lethal intravenous dose of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Whereas Ad5PA protected naive mice against challenge with B. anthracis lethal toxin, Ad5PA was ineffective in mice that were previously immunized against Ad5. In contrast, AdC7PA functioned effectively not only to protect naive mice but also to protect Ad5-preimmunized mice, with 100% survival after lethal toxin challenge. These data suggest the nonhuman-based vector AdC7PA is an effective vaccine for the development of protective immunity against B. anthracis and importantly functions as a sero-switch base for an adenovirus vaccine to function in the context of preexisting anti-Ad immunity. PMID:16177368

  15. Structural and genetic basis for development of broadly neutralizing influenza antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lingwood, Daniel; McTamney, Patrick M; Yassine, Hadi M; Whittle, James R R; Guo, Xiaoti; Boyington, Jeffrey C; Wei, Chih-Jen; Nabel, Gary J

    2012-09-27

    Influenza viruses take a yearly toll on human life despite efforts to contain them with seasonal vaccines. These viruses evade human immunity through the evolution of variants that resist neutralization. The identification of antibodies that recognize invariant structures on the influenza haemagglutinin (HA) protein have invigorated efforts to develop universal influenza vaccines. Specifically, antibodies to the highly conserved stem region of HA neutralize diverse viral subtypes. These antibodies largely derive from a specific antibody gene, heavy-chain variable region IGHV1-69, after limited affinity maturation from their germline ancestors, but how HA stimulates naive B cells to mature and induce protective immunity is unknown. To address this question, we analysed the structural and genetic basis for their engagement and maturation into broadly neutralizing antibodies. Here we show that the germline-encoded precursors of these antibodies act as functional B-cell antigen receptors (BCRs) that initiate subsequent affinity maturation. Neither the germline precursor of a prototypic antibody, CR6261 (ref. 3), nor those of two other natural human IGHV1-69 antibodies, bound HA as soluble immunoglobulin-G (IgG). However, all three IGHV1-69 precursors engaged HA when the antibody was expressed as cell surface IgM. HA triggered BCR-associated tyrosine kinase signalling by germline transmembrane IgM. Recognition and virus neutralization was dependent solely on the heavy chain, and affinity maturation of CR6261 required only seven amino acids in the complementarity-determining region (CDR) H1 and framework region 3 (FR3) to restore full activity. These findings provide insight into the initial events that lead to the generation of broadly neutralizing antibodies to influenza, informing the rational design of vaccines to elicit such antibodies and providing a model relevant to other infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. The data further suggest that selected immunoglobulin genes recognize specific protein structural 'patterns' that provide a substrate for further affinity maturation. PMID:22932267

  16. Roles of glycans in interactions between gp120 and HIV broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yifei; Jo, Sunhwan; Im, Wonpil

    2016-03-01

    Many novel broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been identified during the past decade, providing promising templates for the development of an effective HIV-1 vaccine. Structural studies reveal that the epitopes of some of these antibodies involve one or more crucial glycans, without which the binding is completely abolished. In this study, we have investigated the critical roles of glycans in interactions between HIV-1 gp120 and two broadly neutralizing antibodies PG9 (targeting V1/V2) and PGT128 (targeting V3) that are able to neutralize more than 70% of HIV-1 isolates. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of a number of systems including antibody-gp120 complex with and without glycans, antibody, gp120 with and without glycans, and glycan-only systems. The simulation results show that the complex structures are stabilized by the glycans, and the multivalent interactions between the antibody and gp120 promote cooperativities to further enhance the binding. In the free gp120, the glycans increase the flexibility of the V1/V2 and V3 loops, which likely increases the entropy cost of the antibody recognition. However, the antibodies are able to bind the flexible interface by recognizing the preexisting glycan conformation, and penetrating the glycan shield with flexible complementarity determining region loops that sample the bound conformations occasionally. PMID:26537503

  17. Impairment of Cd4+ T Cell Responses during Chronic Virus Infection Prevents Neutralizing Antibody Responses against Virus Escape Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Ciurea, Adrian; Hunziker, Lukas; Klenerman, Paul; Hengartner, Hans; Zinkernagel, Rolf M.

    2001-01-01

    We have shown previously that neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) are important contributors to the long-term immune control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, particularly if cytotoxic T cell responses are low or absent. Nevertheless, virus escape from the nAb response due to mutations within the surface glycoprotein gene may subsequently allow the virus to persist. Here we show that most of the antibody-escape viral mutants retain their immunogenicity. We present evidence that the failure of the infected host to mount effective humoral responses against emerging neutralization-escape mutants correlates with the rapid loss of CD4+ T cell responsiveness during the establishment of viral persistence. Similar mechanisms may contribute to the persistence of some human pathogens such as hepatitis B and C viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:11157050

  18. AB 72. Follicular bronchiolitis associated with underlying common variable immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Spyropoulos, George; Papakosta, Despoina; Sionidou, Maria; Boura, Panagiota; Matzarakis, Ioannis; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Background Follicular bronchiolitis is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder of the lungs. We report the case of a patient diagnosed with follicular bronchiolitis that after investigation was attributed to common variable immunodeficiency disorder. Patients and methods A 35-year-old female patient was admitted to our Department suffering from fever up to 38.0 C for the last 3 months. At her admission the patient was febrile with a mild nonproductive cough. Her blood screen showed leucopenia and anemia. The CXR was within normal limits, but the lung HRCT demonstrated regions with ground glass opacities interchangeable with nodular regions at the lower lobes bilaterally, the medium lobe and lingula in addition to bronchiectasis. Bronchoscopy was not revealing. Bronchoalveolar lavage was of medium cellularity with a high percentage of lymphocytes up to 43%, of neutrophils 10% and of eosinophils 1%. Pulmonary function tests showed a restrictive pattern. On the grounds of an increased suspicion of lymph tissue malignancy, the patient underwent bone marrow biopsy and peripheral blood immunophenotype. The biopsy was negative for malignancy and an important decrease of B lymphocytes was found by the bone marrow aspiration. The immunological check of the patient revealed a significant low value of IgG immunoglobulin and a considerable decrease of the value of IgG and IgA. Two years before her admission to our Department, the patient was investigated for recurrent incidents of fever and radiological imaging of interstitial lung disease. Results Lung biopsy by the method of Video Assisted Thoracoscopy diagnosed follicular bronchiolitis. She was treated with corticosteroids for approximately 8 months without any response. The final diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency was set and intravenous immunoglobulin replacement therapy was initiated to the patient. Conclusions Pulmonary manifestations of common variable immunodeficiency disorder, apart from lung infections, include interstitial lung diseases among which follicular bronchiolitis.

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection-Related Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thuy Van; Torres, Mercedes

    2015-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral medications are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In the pre-antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, HIV-infected patients had increased morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections; in the post-ART era, these patients are at increased risk of chronic diseases such as acute coronary syndrome, coronary artery disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy. They may present with vague symptoms such as weakness, dyspnea, or fatigue as the initial presentation of their cardiovascular disease. An overview of the clinical presentation, workup, management, and treatment of different cardiovascular disease is provided in this article. PMID:26226869

  20. Cytomegalovirus colitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    DeRodriguez, C V; Fuhrer, J; Lake-Bakaar, G

    1994-01-01

    The spectrum of presentation of complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is changing, in line with their improved survival. Infection of the colon with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is now more commonly encountered in clinical practice. We have reviewed the medical records of eleven patients with clinical and pathological evidence of CMV colitis. The clinical presentation, endoscopic and histological findings, and simultaneous infection of other organs with CMV are discussed. Diarrhoea in association with abdominal pain is the most frequent symptom complex in these patients and should raise the clinical index of suspicion for CMV colitis. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8182673

  1. Multifactorial Nature of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease: Implications for Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauci, Anthony S.

    1993-11-01

    The immunopathogenic mechanisms underlying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease are extremely complex; the disease process is multifactorial with multiple overlapping phases. Viral burden is substantial and viral replication occurs throughout the entire course of HIV infection. Inappropriate immune activation and elevated secretion of certain cytokines compound the pathogenic process. Profound immunosuppression ultimately occurs together with a disruption of the microenvironment of the immune system, which is probably unable to regenerate spontaneously. Thus, therapeutic strategies in HIV disease must not be unidimensional, but rather must be linked to the complex pathogenic components of the disease and must address where feasible each of the recognized pathoclenic processes for the possibility of therapeutic intervention.

  2. Inactivation of simian immunodeficiency virus by hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Jurkiewicz, E; Villas-Boas, M; Silva, J L; Weber, G; Hunsmann, G; Clegg, R M

    1995-01-01

    The inactivation of the simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVagm by pressures of 150 and 250 MPa was determined. The extent of inactivation depended on the time that the virus was subjected to compression as well as the level of the pressure and at 150 Mpa reached 5 log10 dilution units after approximately 10 hr. The inactivations, which were uniformly carried out at room temperature, were independent of the concentration of the virus. Possible applications of pressure inactivation for molecular biological and clinical use are discussed. PMID:7624347

  3. Passive antibody protection of cats against feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Hohdatsu, T; Pu, R; Torres, B A; Trujillo, S; Gardner, M B; Yamamoto, J K

    1993-01-01

    All six cats passively immunized with sera from either feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)-vaccinated cats or cats infected with FIV (Petaluma strain) were protected from homologous FIV infection at a challenge dose that infected all six control cats. Passive immunization with sera from cats vaccinated with uninfected allogeneic T cells used to grow the vaccine virus did not protect either of two cats against the same FIV challenge. These results suggest that antiviral humoral immunity, perhaps in synergy with anticellular antibodies, may be responsible for previously reported vaccine protection. PMID:8383246

  4. Screening for and treatments of congenital immunodeficiency diseases.

    PubMed

    Verbsky, James; Routes, John

    2014-12-01

    Although newborn screening (NBS) for inborn errors of metabolism has been successfully utilized in the US for decades, only recently has this screening program expanded to include disorders of immunity. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) became the first disorder of immunity to be screened on a population wide basis in 2008. While NBS for SCID has been successful, the implementation of population-based screening programs is not without controversy, and there remain barriers to the nationwide implementation of this test. In addition, as the program has progressed we have learned of new challenges in the management of newborns that fail this screen. PMID:25459787

  5. [Severe atopic dermatitis caused by rare immunodeficiency in childhood].

    PubMed

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Marquart, Hanne V; Laub, Bodil; Gniadecki, Robert; Nysom, Karsten; Ifversen, Marianne

    2015-12-14

    Two children are presented with autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome caused by a mutation in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 gene (DOCK8). The manifestations are typically severe atopic dermatitis, food allergies, elevated serum IgE concentration, viral skin infections and risk of malignancies. DOCK8 deficiency was first reported in 2009, following the death of the oldest sibling. The youngest sibling was cured after allogenic stem cell transplantation. This case report illustrates the need of awareness of primary immunodeficiency in children with atypical manifestation of atopic dermatitis in combination with recurrent infections. PMID:26692033

  6. Anxiety in patients with cancer and human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Kerrihard, T; Breitbart, W; Dent, R; Strout, D

    1999-04-01

    Physicians who treat patients with cancer or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections frequently encounter the psychological and physical manifestations of anxiety in these populations. This chapter provides a review of the prevalence of anxiety disorders in cancer and HIV patients. The problems in assessment and diagnosis of anxiety in these patients are discussed, and a literature review of the types of anxiety disorders commonly identified in the context of cancer and HIV/AIDS is presented. Finally, the treatment of anxiety in cancer and HIV patients utilizing both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic modalities is reviewed. PMID:10378955

  7. Morphology and Immunohistochemical Phenotype of the Thymus in Secondary Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Struchko, G Yu; Merkulova, L M; Moskvichev, E V; Kostrova, O Yu; Mikhailova, M N; Drandrova, E G

    2015-10-01

    The thymus of outbred male rats 5 months after splenectomy (experimental secondary immunodeficiency) was studied by common histological and immunohistochemical methods using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies to CD3, CD30, CD68, synaptophysin, to S100, p53, bcl-2, and Ki-67 proteins. Removal of the spleen led to acute involution of the thymic parenchyma, which was replaced by the adipose tissue and was associated with restructuring of the thymopoietic and nonthymopoietic components of the gland, changes in cellular composition and antigenic phenotype of the lobular cortical and medullary matter, and by reduction of cell proliferation. PMID:26519276

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus can productively infect cultured human glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng-Mayer, C; Rutka, J T; Rosenblum, M L; McHugh, T; Stites, D P; Levy, J A

    1987-01-01

    Six isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) showed differences in their ability to productively infect glioma-derived cell lines and early-passage human brain cell cultures. Susceptibility to HIV infection correlated well with the expression of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein. The CD4 molecule was expressed on some, but not all, of the brain-derived cells; however, no correlation was observed between CD4 protein expression and susceptibility to virus infection. The results show that HIV can productively infect human brain cells, particularly those of glial origin, and suggest that these cell types in the brain can harbor the virus. Images PMID:3472222

  9. Towards detecting the human immunodeficiency virus using microcantilever sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alodhayb, Abdullah; Brown, Nicole; Saydur Rahman, S. M.; Harrigan, Richard; Beaulieu, L. Y.

    2013-04-01

    Detecting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is difficult because the virus is prone to mutations and is in low concentrations in the body. Inside the HIV virion are two well characterized single stranded (ss) RNA molecules (viral genome) that feature both variable regions and regions that are conserved under virus mutation. In this work, microcantilever sensors have been employed as potential HIV detectors by targeting a conserved sequence of the viral genome by attempting to detect target ssDNA and ssRNA molecules that are significantly longer than the ssDNA molecules functionalized on the cantilever.

  10. Anti-human cytomegalovirus activity of cytokines produced by CD4+ T-cell clones specifically activated by IE1 peptides in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Davignon, J L; Castani, P; Yorke, J A; Gautier, N; Clment, D; Davrinche, C

    1996-01-01

    The control of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections by the immune system is poorly understood. We have previously shown that CD4+ T cells specific for the human CMV major regulatory protein IE1 are frequent in latently infected healthy blood donors. In order to learn about the possible role of these cells, we have developed IE1-specific CD4+ T-cell clones and, in this study, analyzed their epitope specificity and function in vitro. We measured their cytokine production when stimulated with specific IE1 peptides or whole recombinant IE1 protein. Their cytokine profiles, as deduced from gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-6 production, were of the Th0- and Th1-like phenotypes. Supernatants from IE1-specific clones producing IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were shown to inhibit CMV replication in U373 MG cells. This effect was due, as found by using cytokine-specific neutralizing antibodies, mostly to IFN-gamma, which was secreted at higher levels than TNF-alpha. To better assess the anti-CMV activity of cytokines, recombinant IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha were used and shown to have a synergistic effect on the inhibition of CMV replication and protein expression. Thus, IE1-specific CD4+ T cells display in vitro anti-CMV activity through cytokine secretion and may play a role in the control of in vivo latent infections. PMID:8642638

  11. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia (often ... 2014 What is XMEN? X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia (typically ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and neoplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus ... Glossary definitions Reviewed June 2014 What is XMEN? X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus ...

  13. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  14. Merkel cell carcinoma in a patient with GATA2 deficiency: a novel association with primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Crall, C; Morley, K W; Rabinowits, G; Schmidt, B; Broyles, A Dioun; Huang, J T

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman with GATA2 deficiency and neurofibromatosis 1 was diagnosed with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This polyomavirus-associated cutaneous malignancy has previously been associated with immunosuppression and acquired immunodeficiencies such as HIV/AIDS. However, MCC has not been previously reported in the setting of underlying primary or inherited immunodeficiency. PMID:26252413

  15. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  16. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  19. 76 FR 58517 - Public Health Service Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV... Guideline for Reducing Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), and... Draft Guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for reducing unexpected transmission of HIV,...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3950 - In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug... Serological Reagents § 866.3950 In vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance genotype assay. (a) Identification. The in vitro HIV drug resistance genotype assay is a device that consists of nucleic acid...

  1. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  2. Global Structure of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody IgG1 b12 is Asymmetric

    SciTech Connect

    Ashish, F.; Solanki, A; Boone, C; Krueger, J

    2010-01-01

    Human antibody IgG1 b12 is one of the four antibodies known to neutralize a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus-1. The crystal structure of this antibody displayed an asymmetric disposition of the Fab arms relative to its Fc portion. Comparison of structures solved for other IgG1 antibodies led to a notion that crystal packing forces entrapped a 'snap-shot' of different conformations accessible to this antibody. To elucidate global structure of this unique antibody, we acquired small-angle X-ray scattering data from its dilute solution. Data analysis indicated that b12 adopts a bilobal globular structure in solution with a radius of gyration and a maximum linear dimension of {approx}54 and {approx}180 {angstrom}, respectively. Extreme similarity between its solution and crystal structure concludes that non-flexible, asymmetric shape is an inherent property of this rare antibody.

  3. Intratypic Recombination among Lineages of Type 1 Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Emerging during Chronic Infection of an Immunodeficient Patient

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen-Fu; Chen, Hour-Young; Jorba, Jaume; Sun, Hui-Chih; Yang, Su-Ju; Lee, Hsiang-Chi; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Chen, Pei-Jer; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Yorihiro; Utama, Andi; Pallansch, Mark; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Kew, Olen; Yang, Jyh-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    We determined the complete genomic sequences of nine type 1 immunodeficient vaccine-derived poliovirus (iVDPV) isolates obtained over a 337-day period from a poliomyelitis patient from Taiwan with common variable immunodeficiency. The iVDPV isolates differed from the Sabin type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) strain at 1.84% to 3.15% of total open reading frame positions and had diverged into at least five distinct lineages. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the chronic infection was initiated by the fifth and last OPV dose, given 567 days before onset of paralysis, and that divergence of major lineages began very early in the chronic infection. Key determinants of attenuation in Sabin 1 had reverted in the iVDPV isolates, and representative isolates of each lineage showed increased neurovirulence for PVR-Tg21 transgenic mice. None of the isolates had retained the temperature-sensitive phenotype of Sabin 1. All isolates were antigenic variants of Sabin 1, having multiple amino acid substitutions within or near neutralizing antigenic sites 1, 2, and 3a. Antigenic divergence of the iVDPV variants from Sabin 1 followed two major independent evolutionary pathways. The emergence of distinct coreplicating lineages suggests that iVDPVs can replicate for many months at separate sites in the gastrointestinal tract. Some isolates had mosaic genome structures indicative of recombination across and within lineages. iVDPV excretion apparently ceased after 30 to 35 months of chronic infection. The appearance of a chronic VDPV excretor in a tropical, developing country has important implications for the strategy to stop OPV immunization after eradication of wild polioviruses. PMID:16188964

  4. Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update on the classification from the international union of immunological societies expert committee for primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chatila, Talal; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Franco, Jose Luis; Gaspar, H Bobby; Holland, Steven M; Klein, Christoph; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D; Oksenhendler, Erik; Picard, Capucine; Puck, Jennifer M; Sullivan, Kate; Tang, Mimi L K

    2014-01-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) compiled by the Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. In comparison to the previous version, more than 30 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. In addition, we have added a table of acquired defects that are phenocopies of PIDs. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This classification is the most up-to-date catalog of all known PIDs and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases. PMID:24795713

  5. Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: An Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Aziz; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chatila, Talal; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Franco, Jose Luis; Gaspar, H. Bobby; Holland, Steven M.; Klein, Christoph; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D.; Oksenhendler, Erik; Picard, Capucine; Puck, Jennifer M.; Sullivan, Kate; Tang, Mimi L. K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) compiled by the Expert Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies. In comparison to the previous version, more than 30 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. In addition, we have added a table of acquired defects that are phenocopies of PIDs. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. This classification is the most up-to-date catalog of all known PIDs and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases. PMID:24795713

  6. ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    DOEpatents

    Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

    1963-01-22

    This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

  7. Structural Basis for Differential Neutralization of Ebolaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Shridhar; Dias, Joao M.; Fusco, Marnie L.; Hashiguchi, Takao; Wong, Anthony C.; Liu, Tong; Keuhne, Ana I.; Li, Sheng; Woods, Virgil L.; Chandran, Kartik; Dye, John M.; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2012-01-01

    There are five antigenically distinct ebolaviruses that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans or non-human primates (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, Reston virus, Ta Forest virus, and Bundibugyo virus). The small handful of antibodies known to neutralize the ebolaviruses bind to the surface glycoprotein termed GP1,2. Curiously, some antibodies against them are known to neutralize in vitro but not protect in vivo, whereas other antibodies are known to protect animal models in vivo, but not neutralize in vitro. A detailed understanding of what constitutes a neutralizing and/or protective antibody response is critical for development of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we show that paradoxically, a lower affinity antibody with restricted access to its epitope confers better neutralization than a higher affinity antibody against a similar epitope, suggesting that either subtle differences in epitope, or different characteristics of the GP1,2 molecules themselves, confer differential neutralization susceptibility. Here, we also report the crystal structure of trimeric, prefusion GP1,2 from the original 1976 Boniface variant of Sudan virus complexed with 16F6, the first antibody known to neutralize Sudan virus, and compare the structure to that of Sudan virus, variant Gulu. We discuss new structural details of the GP1-GP2 clamp, thermal motion of various regions in GP1,2 across the two viruses visualized, details of differential interaction of the crystallized neutralizing antibodies, and their relevance for virus neutralization. PMID:22590681

  8. Neutral Vlasov kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Tronci, Cesare; Camporeale, Enrico

    2015-02-15

    The low-frequency limit of Maxwell equations is considered in the Maxwell-Vlasov system. This limit produces a neutral Vlasov system that captures essential features of plasma dynamics, while neglecting radiation effects. Euler-Poincaré reduction theory is used to show that the neutral Vlasov kinetic theory possesses a variational formulation in both Lagrangian and Eulerian coordinates. By construction, the new model recovers all collisionless neutral models employed in plasma simulations. Then, comparisons between the neutral Vlasov system and hybrid kinetic-fluid models are presented in the linear regime.

  9. When less is more: primary immunodeficiency with an autoinflammatory kick

    PubMed Central

    Giannelou, Angeliki; Zhou, Qing; Kastner, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Next-generation sequencing is revolutionizing the molecular taxonomy of human disease. Recent studies of patients with unexplained autoinflammatory disorders reveal germline genetic mutations that target important regulators of innate immunity. Recent findings Whole-exome analyses of previously undiagnosed patients have catalyzed the recognition of two new disease genes. First, a phenotypic spectrum, including livedo racemosa, fever with early-onset stroke, polyarteritis nodosa, and Sneddon syndrome, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 (CECR1), encoding adenosine deaminase 2. Adenosine deaminase 2 is a secreted protein expressed primarily in myeloid cells, and a regulator of macrophage differentiation and endothelial development. Disease-associated mutations impair anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage differentiation. Second, patients presenting with cold-induced urticaria, granulomatous rash, autoantibodies, and common variable immunodeficiency, or with blistering skin lesions, bronchiolitis, enterocolitis, ocular inflammation, and mild immunodeficiency harbor distinct mutations in phospholipase C?2, encoding a signaling molecule expressed in natural killer cells, mast cells, and B lymphocytes. These mutations inhibit the function of a phospholipase C?2 autoinhibitory domain, causing increased or constitutive signaling. Summary These findings underscore the power of next-generation sequencing, demonstrating how the primary deficiency of key molecular regulators or even regulatory motifs may lead to autoinflammation, and suggesting a possible role for cat eye syndrome chromosome region, candidate 1 and phospholipase C?2 in common diseases. PMID:25337682

  10. The genetic basis of severe combined immunodeficiency and its variants

    PubMed Central

    Tasher, Diana; Dalal, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes are characterized by a block in T lymphocyte differentiation that is variably associated with abnormal development of other lymphocyte lineages (B and/or natural killer [NK] cells), leading to death early in life unless treated urgently by hematopoietic stem cell transplant. SCID comprises genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous conditions, of which the genetic basis for approximately 85% of the underlying immunologic defects have been recently elucidated. A major obstacle in deciphering the pathogenesis of SCID syndromes is that different mutations in a single gene may give rise to distinct clinical conditions and that a similar clinical phenotype can result from mutations in different genes. Mutation analysis is now an important component of the complete evaluation of a patient with SCID since it has a dramatic impact on many aspects of this potentially life-threatening disease such as genetic counseling, prenatal diagnosis, modalities of treatment, and, eventually, prognosis. Dr Robert Good, one of the founders of modern immunology, described the SCID syndrome as experiments of nature. By understanding the cellular and genetic basis of these immunodeficiency diseases and, eventually, normal immunity, we optimize the bedside to research laboratory and back again approach to medicine. PMID:23776382

  11. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; El Azbaoui, Safaa; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; El Hafidi, Naima; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-? immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. PMID:25703555

  12. Clinical applications of gene therapy for primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Cicalese, Maria Pia; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have represented a paradigmatic model for successes and pitfalls of hematopoietic stem cells gene therapy. First clinical trials performed with gamma retroviral vectors (?-RV) for adenosine deaminase severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), X-linked SCID (SCID-X1), and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) showed that gene therapy is a valid therapeutic option in patients lacking an HLA-identical donor. No insertional mutagenesis events have been observed in more than 40 ADA-SCID patients treated so far in the context of different clinical trials worldwide, suggesting a favorable risk-benefit ratio for this disease. On the other hand, the occurrence of insertional oncogenesis in SCID-X1, WAS, and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) RV clinical trials prompted the development of safer vector construct based on self-inactivating (SIN) retroviral or lentiviral vectors (LVs). Here we present the recent results of LV-mediated gene therapy for WAS showing stable multilineage engraftment leading to hematological and immunological improvement, and discuss the differences with respect to the WAS RV trial. We also describe recent clinical results of SCID-X1 gene therapy with SIN ?-RV and the perspectives of targeted genome editing techniques, following early preclinical studies showing promising results in terms of specificity of gene correction. Finally, we provide an overview of the gene therapy approaches for other PIDs and discuss its prospects in relation to the evolving arena of allogeneic transplant. PMID:25860576

  13. Cytomegalovirus pneumonia as the first manifestation of severe combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Jo?czyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Ossowska, Lidia; Br?borowicz, Anna; Bartkowska-?niatkowska, Alicja; Wachowiak, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by the absence of functional T lymphocytes and impairment of adaptive immunity. While heterogeneity of the genetic background in SCID leads to the variability of immune phenotypes, most of affected newborns appear healthy but within the first few months they develop life-threatening opportunistic respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections. The objective of the study was to define the presenting features and etiology of infections in children with SCID. We retrospectively reviewed five children in whom the diagnosis of SCID had been established in our pediatric immunology clinic over the last 10-year period. A viral respiratory tract infection was the first manifestation of SCID in all the children studied. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia was recognized in as many as 4 cases and coronavirus pulmonary infection was diagnosed in one case, whereas Pneumocystis jiroveci was identified as a co-pathogen in one CMV-infected patient. Severe combined immunodeficiency is a pediatric emergency condition and given the significant impact of pulmonary CMV infection in SCID children, establishing an accurate etiological diagnosis is of essential importance in instituting the specific treatment and improving the outcome. PMID:26155153

  14. Gene therapy for primary immunodeficiency diseases: recent progress and misgivings.

    PubMed

    Ariga, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    The progress of clinical gene therapy trials during the last two decades has been remarkable, and its application has also expanded into various fields of human diseases. Among them, hereditary diseases such as the primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) were considered suitable candidates for gene therapy because the therapeutic strategy was very simple, therefore, effective gene therapy may be obtained without significant difficulty compared to other more complex diseases such as cancer. Indeed, the first clinical gene therapy trial was safely performed and was in part, effective for adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency patients, a type of severe combined immunodeficiency diseases (SCID). However, because of certain unforeseen obstacles, it took approximately 10 years until the first curative effects were obtained for gene therapy in patients with X-linked SCID (X-SCID). Here, I review and discuss the background and historical events leading up to PID gene therapy, the safety issues, which unexpectedly arose after the successful report, and finally I will attempt to predict the future trends in this form of gene therapy. PMID:16472146

  15. Adrenal adenomatoid tumor in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Phitayakorn, Roy; MacLennan, Gregory; Sadow, Peter; Wilhelm, Scott

    2011-01-01

    We present the clinical course of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus and an adrenal adenomatoid tumor (AAT). We describe the clinical course and laboratory, radiographic, and microscopic findings of a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and an adenomatoid tumor of the right adrenal gland. A review of the literature was also done via electronic searches through PubMed for articles from 1965 to 2008 that contained the following search terms, adenomatoid tumor limited to the English language only. A 22 year-old African-American male with HIV was incidentally found to have a hypermetabolic right adrenal mass. The patient underwent laparoscopic adrenalectomy and the mass had morphological and immunohistochemical features that were consistent with an AAT. A review of the medical literature reveals that almost all cases of AAT were in male patients (96%) with a mean age of 4111 years (range=2264) with no significant difference in laterality (right side=46%, left side=50%, unknown=4%). AAT have an average size of 4.23.5 cm (range=0.514.3 cm). Pre-operative imaging studies do not appear to be able to reliably distinguish AAT from other types of adrenocortical tumors. For reasons that require further research, AAT typically occur in male patients and may be associated with immunosuppression. AAT can be safely removed laparoscopically with no evidence of long-term recurrence even with tumor extension beyond the adrenal capsule. PMID:21769320

  16. Lentiviral vectors for the treatment of primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Farinelli, Giada; Capo, Valentina; Scaramuzza, Samantha; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    In the last years important progress has been made in the treatment of several primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs) with gene therapy. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy indeed represents a valid alternative to conventional transplantation when a compatible donor is not available and recent success confirmed the great potential of this approach. First clinical trials performed with gamma retroviral vectors were promising and guaranteed clinical benefits to the patients. On the other hand, the outcome of severe adverse events as the development of hematological abnormalities highlighted the necessity to develop a safer platform to deliver the therapeutic gene. Self-inactivating (SIN) lentiviral vectors (LVVs) were studied to overcome this hurdle through their preferable integration pattern into the host genome. In this review, we describe the recent advancements achieved both in vitro and at preclinical level with LVVs for the treatment of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), ADA deficiency (ADA-SCID), Artemis deficiency, RAG1/2 deficiency, X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (?chain deficiency, SCIDX1), X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome. PMID:24619149

  17. NMR structure of the myristylated feline immunodeficiency virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lola A; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O; Summers, Michael F

    2015-05-01

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gag's N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly. PMID:25941825

  18. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Marc; Masur, Henry; Kovacs, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The presentation of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in previously healthy men having sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco and New York City in 1981 heralded the beginning of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Despite a decreasing incidence of PCP among patients with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) since the advent of combination antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s, PCP remains one of the most common AIDS-defining opportunistic infections in the United States and Western Europe. Newer molecular diagnostic tests in conjunction with standard immunofluorescent or colorimetric tests have allowed for more rapid and accurate diagnosis. Although several effective oral and intravenous therapies exist to treat PCP, mortality rates in HIV-infected individuals remain unacceptably high, especially in those with advanced AIDS. The identification of specific mutations in Pneumocystis genes targeted by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has raised concerns about the development of resistance to the drug of choice and may ultimately lead to greater utilization of alternative therapies to treat PCP in the future. PMID:26974301

  19. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; Azbaoui, Safaa El; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; Hafidi, Naima El; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. PMID:25703555

  20. NMR Structure of the Myristylated Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Matrix Protein

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lola A.; Cox, Cassiah; Baptiste, Janae; Summers, Holly; Button, Ryan; Bahlow, Kennedy; Spurrier, Vaughn; Kyser, Jenna; Luttge, Benjamin G.; Kuo, Lillian; Freed, Eric O.; Summers, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane targeting by the Gag proteins of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV types-1 and -2) is mediated by Gags N-terminally myristylated matrix (MA) domain and is dependent on cellular phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. To determine if other lentiviruses employ a similar membrane targeting mechanism, we initiated studies of the feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a widespread feline pathogen with potential utility for development of human therapeutics. Bacterial co-translational myristylation was facilitated by mutation of two amino acids near the amino-terminus of the protein (Q5A/G6S; myrMAQ5A/G6S). These substitutions did not affect virus assembly or release from transfected cells. NMR studies revealed that the myristyl group is buried within a hydrophobic pocket in a manner that is structurally similar to that observed for the myristylated HIV-1 protein. Comparisons with a recent crystal structure of the unmyristylated FIV protein [myr(-)MA] indicate that only small changes in helix orientation are required to accommodate the sequestered myr group. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 from the plasma membrane of FIV-infected CRFK cells inhibited production of FIV particles, indicating that, like HIV, FIV hijacks the PI(4,5)P2 cellular signaling system to direct intracellular Gag trafficking during virus assembly. PMID:25941825

  1. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Maeve M.; Greenspan, John; Challacombe, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of oral lesions as indicators of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and as predictors of progression of HIV disease to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Oral manifestations are among the earliest and most important indicators of infection with HIV. Seven cardinal lesions, oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi sarcoma, linear gingival erythema, necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which are strongly associated with HIV infection, have been identified and internationally calibrated, and are seen in both developed and developing countries. They may provide a strong indication of HIV infection and be present in the majority of HIV-infected people. Antiretroviral therapy may affect the prevalence of HIV-related lesions. The presence of oral lesions can have a significant impact on health-related quality of life. Oral health is strongly associated with physical and mental health and there are significant increases in oral health needs in people with HIV infection, especially in children, and in adults particularly in relation to periodontal diseases. International collaboration is needed to ensure that oral aspects of HIV disease are taken into account in medical programmes and to integrate oral health care with the general care of the patient. It is important that all health care workers receive education and training on the relevance of oral health needs and the use of oral lesions as surrogate markers in HIV infection. PMID:16211162

  2. Radionuclide brain imaging in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Costa, D C; Gacinovic, S; Miller, R F

    1995-09-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) may produce a variety of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms and signs. CNS involvement in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) includes AIDS dementia complex or HIV-1 associated cognitive/motor complex (widely known as HIV encephalopathy), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML), opportunistic infections such as Toxoplasma gondii, TB, Cryptococcus and infiltration by non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma. High resolution structural imaging investigations, either X-ray Computed Tomography (CT scan) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have contributed to the understanding and definition of cerebral damage caused by HIV encephalopathy. Atrophy and mainly high signal scattered white matter abnormalities are commonly seen with MRI. PML produces focal white matter high signal abnormalities due to multiple foci of demyelination. However, using structural imaging techniques there are no reliable parameters to distinguish focal lesions due to opportunistic infection (Toxoplasma gondii abscess) from neoplasm (lymphoma infiltration). In this manuscript we review the use of radionuclide brain imaging techniques in the investigation of HIV infected patients. Brain perfusion single photon emission tomography (SPET), neuroreceptor and positron emission tomography (PET) studies are reviewed. Greater emphasis is put on the potential of some radiopharmaceuticals, considered to be brain tumor markers, to distinguish intracerebral lymphoma infiltration from Toxoplasma infection. SPET with 201Tl using quantification (tumour to nontumour radioactivity ratios) appears a very promising technique to identify intracerebral lymphoma. PMID:7552947

  3. Oral Manifestations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pakfetrat, Atessa; Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Dalirsani, Zohreh; Sanatkhani, Majid; Zabihi Marani, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral lesions are among the earliest clinical manifestations of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection and are important in early diagnosis and for monitoring the progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral lesions and their relationship with a number of factors in HIV/AIDS patients attending an HIV center. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 HIV-positive patients were examined to investigate the prevalence of oral lesions according to the criteria established by the European Community Clearing House on Oral Problems Related to HIV Infection. An independent T-test was used for correlation of oral lesions with CD4+ count and a ?2 test was used for analysis of the relationship of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), sexual contact, route of transmission, history of drug abuse, and history of incarceration. Results: Most of the cases were male patients (82.7%). The mean age across all participants was 36.28.1 years. Rampant carries, severe periodontitis and oral candidiasis were the most notable oral lesions. Oral lesions were more prevalent in patients between 2635 years of age. There was a significant difference between patients with and without pseudomembranous candidiasis and angular cheilitis according to mean level of CD4+. Conclusion: The most common oral presentations were severe periodontitis, pseudomembranous candidiasis and xerostomia. PMID:25745611

  4. Adaptation of Subtype A Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Envelope to Pig-Tailed Macaque Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Humes, Daryl; Overbaugh, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The relevance of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection of macaques to HIV-1 infection in humans depends on how closely SHIVs mimic HIV-1 transmission, pathogenesis, and diversity. Circulating HIV-1 strains are predominantly subtypes C and A and overwhelmingly require CCR5 for entry, yet most SHIVs incorporate CXCR4-using subtype B envelopes (Envs). While pathogenic subtype C-based SHIVs have been constructed, the subtype A-based SHIVs (SHIV-As) constructed to date have been unable to replicate in macaque cells. To understand the barriers to SHIV-A replication in macaque cells, HIVAQ23/SIVvif was constructed by engineering a CCR5-tropic subtype A provirus to express SIV vif, which counters the macaque APOBEC3G restriction. HIVAQ23/SIVvif replicated poorly in pig-tailed macaque (Ptm) lymphocytes, but viruses were adapted to Ptm lymphocytes. Two independent mutations in gp120, G312V (V3 loop) and A204E (C2 region), were identified that increased peak virus levels by >100-fold. Introduction of G312V and A204E to multiple subtype A Envs and substitution of G312 and A204 with other residues increased entry into Ptm cells by 10- to 100-fold. G312V and A204E Env variants continued to require CCR5 for entry but were up to 50- and 200-fold more sensitive to neutralization by IgG1b12 and soluble CD4 and had a 5- to 50-fold increase in their ability to utilize Ptm CD4 compared to their wild-type counterparts. These findings identify the inefficient use of Ptm CD4 as an unappreciated restriction to subtype A HIV-1 replication in Ptm cells and reveal amino acid changes to gp120 that can overcome this barrier. PMID:21325401

  5. A Simple Mouse Model for the Study of Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang Chang; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Chang; Park, Ki Hoon; Lee, Hee Jung; Cho, Young Keol; Kim, Sang Il; Kim, Sung Soon; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2016-02-01

    Humanized mouse models derived from immune-deficient mice have been the primary tool for studies of human infectious viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, the current protocol for constructing humanized mice requires elaborate procedures and complicated techniques, limiting the supply of such mice for viral studies. Here, we report a convenient method for constructing a simple HIV-1 mouse model. Without prior irradiation, NOD/SCID/IL2Rγ-null (NSG) mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1 × 10(7) adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hu-PBMCs). Four weeks after PBMC inoculation, human CD45(+) cells, and CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells were detected in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver, whereas human CD19(+) cells were observed in lymph nodes and spleen. To examine the usefulness of hu-PBMC-inoculated NSG (hu-PBMC-NSG) mice as an HIV-1 infection model, we intravenously injected these mice with dual-tropic HIV-1DH12 and X4-tropic HIV-1NL4-3 strains. HIV-1-infected hu-PBMC-NSG mice showed significantly lower human CD4(+) T cell counts and high HIV viral loads in the peripheral blood compared with noninfected hu-PBMC-NSG mice. Following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and neutralizing antibody treatment, HIV-1 replication was significantly suppressed in HIV-1-infected hu-PBMC-NSG mice without detectable viremia or CD4(+) T cell depletion. Moreover, the numbers of human T cells were maintained in hu-PBMC-NSG mice for at least 10 weeks. Taken together, our results suggest that hu-PBMC-NSG mice may serve as a relevant HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis model that could facilitate in vivo studies of HIV-1 infection and candidate HIV-1 protective drugs. PMID:26564392

  6. Passive Sexual Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Variants and Adaptation in New Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Frater, A. J.; Edwards, C. T. T.; McCarthy, N.; Fox, J.; Brown, H.; Milicic, A.; Mackie, N.; Pillay, T.; Drijfhout, J. W.; Dustan, S.; Clarke, J. R.; Holmes, E. C.; Zhang, H. T.; Pfafferott, K.; Goulder, P. J.; McClure, M. O.; Weber, J.; Phillips, R. E.; Fidler, S.

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity is a major obstacle for the design of a successful vaccine. Certain viral polymorphisms encode human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-associated immune escape, potentially overcoming limited vaccine protection. Although transmission of immune escape variants has been reported, the overall extent to which this phenomenon occurs in populations and the degree to which it contributes to HIV-1 viral evolution are unknown. Selection on the HIV-1 env gene at transmission favors neutralization-sensitive variants, but it is not known to what degree selection acts on the internal HIV-1 proteins to restrict or enhance the transmission of immune escape variants. Studies have suggested that HLA class I may determine susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, but a definitive role for HLA at transmission remains unproven. Comparing populations of acute seroconverters and chronically infected patients, we found no evidence of selection acting to restrict transmission of HIV-1 variants. We found that statistical associations previously reported in chronic infection between viral polymorphisms and HLA class I alleles are not present in acute infection, suggesting that the majority of viral polymorphisms in these patients are the result of transmission rather than de novo adaptation. Using four episodes of HIV-1 transmission in which the donors and recipients were both sampled very close to the time of infection we found that, despite a transmission bottleneck, genetic variants of HIV-1 infection are transmitted in a frequency-dependent manner. As HIV-1 infections are seeded by unique donor-adapted viral variants, each episode is a highly individual antigenic challenge. Host-specific, idiosyncratic HIV-1 antigenic diversity will seriously tax the efficacy of immunization based on consensus sequences. PMID:16809328

  7. Antigenic properties of the human immunodeficiency virus transmembrane glycoprotein during cell-cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Finnegan, Catherine M; Berg, Werner; Lewis, George K; DeVico, Anthony L

    2002-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) entry is triggered by interactions between a pair of heptad repeats in the gp41 ectodomain, which convert a prehairpin gp41 trimer into a fusogenic three-hairpin bundle. Here we examined the disposition and antigenic nature of these structures during the HIV-mediated fusion of HeLa cells expressing either HIV(HXB2) envelope (Env cells) or CXCR4 and CD4 (target cells). Cell-cell fusion, indicated by cytoplasmic dye transfer, was allowed to progress for various lengths of time and then arrested. Fusion intermediates were then examined for reactivity with various monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against immunogenic cluster I and cluster II epitopes in the gp41 ectodomain. All of these MAbs produced similar staining patterns indicative of reactivity with prehairpin gp41 intermediates or related structures. MAb staining was seen on Env cells only upon exposure to soluble CD4, CD4-positive, coreceptor-negative cells, or stromal cell-derived factor-treated target cells. In the fusion system, the MAbs reacted with the interfaces of attached Env and target cells within 10 min of coculture. MAb reactivity colocalized with the formation of gp120-CD4-coreceptor tricomplexes after longer periods of coculture, although reactivity was absent on cells exhibiting cytoplasmic dye transfer. Notably, the MAbs were unable to inhibit fusion even when allowed to react with soluble-CD4-triggered or temperature-arrested antigens prior to initiation of the fusion process. In comparison, a broadly neutralizing antibody, 2F5, which recognizes gp41 antigens in the HIV envelope spike, was immunoreactive with free Env cells and Env-target cell clusters but not with fused cells. Notably, exposure of the 2F5 epitope required temperature-dependent elements of the HIV envelope structure, as MAb binding occurred only above 19 degrees C. Overall, these results demonstrate that immunogenic epitopes, both neutralizing and nonneutralizing, are accessible on gp41 antigens prior to membrane fusion. The 2F5 epitope appears to depend on temperature-dependent elements on prefusion antigens, whereas cluster I and cluster II epitopes are displayed by transient gp41 structures. Such findings have important implications for HIV vaccine approaches based on gp41 intermediates. PMID:12414953

  8. Neutralization efficiency estimation in a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vozniy, O. V.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the optimal conditions of neutral beam generation to maintain a high degree of neutralization and focusing during beam energy variation for a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma with a three-grid ion beam acceleration system. The neutral beam energy distribution was estimated by measuring the energy profiles of ions that "survived" the neutralization after reflection. The energy measurements of the primary and reflected ions showed narrow distribution functions, each with only one peak. At higher beam energies, both the ratio of the ion energy loss to the primary energy and the degree of energy divergence decreased, confirming the precise alignment of the neutral beam. The neutralization efficiency of the neutral beam source with a three-grid acceleration system was found to be affected mainly by the beam angle divergence rather than by the particle translation energy.

  9. Neutralization efficiency estimation in a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Vozniy, O. V.; Yeom, G. Y.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the optimal conditions of neutral beam generation to maintain a high degree of neutralization and focusing during beam energy variation for a neutral beam source based on inductively coupled plasma with a three-grid ion beam acceleration system. The neutral beam energy distribution was estimated by measuring the energy profiles of ions that 'survived' the neutralization after reflection. The energy measurements of the primary and reflected ions showed narrow distribution functions, each with only one peak. At higher beam energies, both the ratio of the ion energy loss to the primary energy and the degree of energy divergence decreased, confirming the precise alignment of the neutral beam. The neutralization efficiency of the neutral beam source with a three-grid acceleration system was found to be affected mainly by the beam angle divergence rather than by the particle translation energy.

  10. Charged-particle optics for neutral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabow, Gary

    Electromagnetic manipulation of charged and of neutral particles generally requires very different field geometries due to the orthogonality between charge monopoles and neutral dipoles. This has led to a natural separation between the fields of charged- and neutral-particle optics. We show however that the additional rotational degree of freedom of neutral dipoles can lead to an equivalence between the forces on charge monopoles and neutral dipoles under the action of axially/cylindrically symmetric fields. In this way, we show how to extend and exploit the large set of already developed cylindrically symmetric charged particle optics for use on neutral dipolar particles. The result is a large new class of focusing optics for all neutral particles of non-zero magnetic dipole moments, including neutrons, neutral atoms, and neutral molecules. Apart from the increased variety of focusing optics, such systems possess many advantages over previously existing magnetic neutral particles lenses, including lens strength, accessible aperture area, accuracy, robustness, and much improved ease of fabrication and use. We construct a neutral Rubidium atomic beam with which we experimentally demonstrate three such new focusing lenses, including annular permanent magnetic rings, a "magnetostatic aperture" lens, and a magnetizable lenslet array. As an extension of this result we propose a dynamically variable superconducting lens system for neutrons that is able to focus neutrons with a wide range of energies (from ultra-cold through to thermal). The proposed neutron system compares favorably with existing neutron optics, being in particular substantially more powerful than similar existing refraction-based neutron lenses.

  11. Modelling the Neutral Sodium Tails of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Neutral sodium is typically easy to detect in active comets around perihelion, due to the very high efficiency of the sodium D transition, and at some comets a distinct neutral sodium tail is observed. The first distinct neutral sodium tail images were apparent in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) data taken using CoCam [Cremonese et al, 1997], but since this initial detection similar features have been observed at a number of near-Sun comets using the SOHO/LASCO coronagraph. An understanding of the distribution and evolution of neutral cometary sodium may best be developed using a combination of spectra and images in different filters at multiple times throughout a comet's orbit. At present the source of neutral sodium in comets is unknown, primarily because the evolution of neutral cometary sodium is difficult to intuitively predict due to the Swings and Greenstein effects. Several authors [review presented in Cremonese et al, 1999] have suggested various combinations of sources of neutral sodium in the nuclear region, near-nuclear region, dust tail and ion tail. In order to understand the wide variety of cometary observations of neutral sodium available we have developed the first fully three dimensional, heliocentric distance dependent, versatile Monte Carlo neutral sodium tail model (initially based on a model developed by [Brown et al, 1998]). Our model is known as COMPASS (Cometary Orbital Motion at Perihelion: an Adaptable Sodium Simulation), and incorporates the unintuitive variation in radiation pressure influences on sodium atoms with different heliocentric velocities. We present the initial results of a comparison between COMPASS and observational data. We have found good agreement between the overall morphology of the neutral sodium tail imaged at comet Hale-Bopp and COMPASS, and have begun to extend the study to other comets of interest. We also present a comparison between simulated COMPASS spectra and observations. The versatility of COMPASS allows it to be easily adapted to any other neutral cometary sodium tail observations available.

  12. Rapid Tests and the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Jnior, Walter Lins; Ramos de Arajo, Paulo Srgio; Dias de Andrade, Luiz; Aguiar Dos Santos, Ana Maria; Lopes da Silva, Maria Almerice; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Medeiros, Zulma

    2015-11-01

    After the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV/AIDS coinfections has increased worldwide. Herein, we assessed the usefulness of an rK39-based immunochromatographic test (rK39 ICT) (DiaMed-IT LEISH(); DiaMed AG, Cressier-sur-Morat, Switzerland) and a latex agglutination test (KAtex; Kalon Biological, Guildford, United Kingdom) for urinary antigen detection to diagnose VL in 15 HIV/AIDS patients from northeastern Brazil. VL diagnosis was based on clinical findings, cytology, serology, parasite DNA, and/or urinary antigen detection. VL was confirmed in seven out of 15 HIV/AIDS patients. Only three patients were positive in bone marrow cytology, three patients were conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, while six were real-time PCR positive. All patients were direct agglutination test (DAT) (Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) positive; of these, four were positive by rK39 ICT and five by KAtex. Large-scale studies are needed to validate the use of the KAtex in the national public health laboratory network in Brazil, aiming at improving the diagnosis of VL in HIV/AIDS patients in this country. PMID:26416105

  13. South Asian Consensus Guidelines for the rational management of diabetes in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Raza, Syed Abbas; Bantwal, Ganpathy; Baruah, Manash P.; Latt, Tint Swe; Shrestha, Dina; John, Mathew; Katulanda, Prasad; Somasundaram, Noel; Sahay, Rakesh; Pathan, Faruque

    2011-01-01

    As newer methods of management are made available, and accessible, survival rates with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are increasing. This means that chronic, metabolic complications of HIV are becoming more frequent in clinical practice, as acute morbidity is controlled. Management of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is gradually expanding to include these chronic and metabolic complications of the disease, and the adverse effects associated with its treatments, including diabetes. Unfortunately, no guidelines are available to help the medical practitioners choose appropriate therapy for patients with these conditions. The aim of the South Asian Consensus Guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations to assist healthcare providers in the rational management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with HIV. The development of these guidelines used systematic reviews of available evidence to form its key recommendations. These guidelines and associated review of literature represent a compilation of available knowledge regarding rational management of diabetes in HIV. Patients of diabetes with concomitant HIV infection are managed optimally with insulin therapy and judicious use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with suitable alternatives is also recommended. These guidelines should prove helpful to physicians, not only in South Asia, but also across the globe, while managing patients with coexistent HIV and diabetes. PMID:22028994

  14. Glycosylation of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Influences Immune-Tissue Targeting during Primary Infection, Leading to Immunodeficiency or Viral Control

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Chie; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Hagen, Shoko I.; Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Villinger, Francois; Ansari, Aftab A.; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nagai, Yoshiyuki; Picker, Louis J.

    2012-01-01

    Glycans of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) play pivotal roles in modulating virus-target cell interactions. We have previously reported that, whereas SIVmac239 is pathogenic, its deglycosylated essentially nonpathogenic mutant (?5G) serves as a live-attenuated vaccine, although both replicate similarly during primary infection. These findings prompted us to determine whether such a polarized clinical outcome was due to differences in the immune tissues targeted by these viruses, where functionally and phenotypically different memory CD4+ T cells reside. The results showed that ?5G replicates in secondary lymphoid tissue (SLT) at 1- to 2-log-lower levels than SIVmac239, whereas SIVmac239-infected but not ?5G-infected animals deplete CXCR3+ CCR5+ transitional memory (TrM) CD4+ T cells. An early robust ?5G replication was localized to small intestinal tissue, especially the lamina propria (effector site) rather than isolated lymphoid follicles (inductive site) and was associated with the induction and depletion of CCR6+ CXCR3? CCR5+ effector memory CD4+ T cells. These results suggest that differential glycosylation of Env dictates the type of tissue-resident CD4+ T cells that are targeted, which leads to pathogenic infection of TrM-Th1 cells in SLT and nonpathogenic infection of Th17 cells in the small intestine, respectively. PMID:22718828

  15. Polysaccharide antibody responses are impaired post bone marrow transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency, but not other primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Slatter, M A; Bhattacharya, A; Flood, T J; Spickett, G P; Cant, A J; Abinun, M; Gennery, A R

    2003-07-01

    Established treatment of severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) and other primary immunodeficiencies (PID) is bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Normal lymphocyte numbers and protein antigen responses are present within 2 years of BMT, polysaccharide antibody responses appear last. Streptococcus pneumoniae infection causes significant morbidity and mortality post-BMT. Previous studies have shown good protein antigen responses post-BMT for SCID and PID, but had not examined the polysaccharide responses. We retrospectively analysed pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS) responses in our patient series. In total, 22 SCID and 12 non-SCID PID were evaluated, all >2 years post BMT: 17 SCID, 12 PID received chemotherapy conditioning; 17 SCID, three PID had T-cell depleted (TCD) BMT, others had nonconditioned whole marrow BMT. All had normal Haemophilus influenza B and tetanus antibody responses. Of 22 SCID, 13 vs 11/12 PID responded to PPS vaccine (P=0.05). There was no association with donor age, GvHD, B-cell chimerism, or IgG2 level. Fewer TCD marrow recipients responded to PPS (P=0.04). Analysis of the SCID group showed no association of PPS response with type of marrow received. This is the first study to specifically examine PPS antibody responses following SCID and PID BMT. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine antibody responses should be examined in these children. PMID:12838289

  16. Neutral Models of Microbiome Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qinglong; Sukumaran, Jeet; Wu, Steven; Rodrigo, Allen

    2015-01-01

    There has been an explosion of research on host-associated microbial communities (i.e.,microbiomes). Much of this research has focused on surveys of microbial diversities across a variety of host species, including humans, with a view to understanding how these microbiomes are distributed across space and time, and how they correlate with host health, disease, phenotype, physiology and ecology. Fewer studies have focused on how these microbiomes may have evolved. In this paper, we develop an agent-based framework to study the dynamics of microbiome evolution. Our framework incorporates neutral models of how hosts acquire their microbiomes, and how the environmental microbial community that is available to the hosts is assembled. Most importantly, our framework also incorporates a Wright-Fisher genealogical model of hosts, so that the dynamics of microbiome evolution is studied on an evolutionary timescale. Our results indicate that the extent of parental contribution to microbial availability from one generation to the next significantly impacts the diversity of microbiomes: the greater the parental contribution, the less diverse the microbiomes. In contrast, even when there is only a very small contribution from a constant environmental pool, microbial communities can remain highly diverse. Finally, we show that our models may be used to construct hypotheses about the types of processes that operate to assemble microbiomes over evolutionary time. PMID:26200800

  17. The status of neutral currents

    SciTech Connect

    Zwirner, F.

    1987-11-01

    The situation of particle physics today is quite puzzling. On the one hand, the Standard Model (SM) of strong and electroweak interactions is consistent with all confirmed experimental data but theoretically rather unsatisfactory. On the other hand, none of the many theoretical speculations which try to go beyond the SM has (yet) received the slightest experimental support. The solution to this dilemma can only come from new data: either from the detection of a new particle threshold at high energy colliders, or from the appearance of some small discrepancy in high-precision experiments. A crucial sector for testing the SM and its extensions is that of neutral currents (NC), where an impressive amount of data has been collected in recent years. While waiting for the next generation of experiments, it is certainly useful to take stock of our knowledge, determining the NC parameters as precisely as we can and putting limits on possible deviations from the SM. The present talk contains the results of a recent analysis along these lines: the first part illustrates how a set of 'model-independent' parameters can be extracted from the available NC data, the second part particularizes the analysis to the SM and to some superstring-inspired models with an additional Z' in their low-energy spectrum. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Neutral Models of Microbiome Evolution.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qinglong; Sukumaran, Jeet; Wu, Steven; Rodrigo, Allen

    2015-07-01

    There has been an explosion of research on host-associated microbial communities (i.e.,microbiomes). Much of this research has focused on surveys of microbial diversities across a variety of host species, including humans, with a view to understanding how these microbiomes are distributed across space and time, and how they correlate with host health, disease, phenotype, physiology and ecology. Fewer studies have focused on how these microbiomes may have evolved. In this paper, we develop an agent-based framework to study the dynamics of microbiome evolution. Our framework incorporates neutral models of how hosts acquire their microbiomes, and how the environmental microbial community that is available to the hosts is assembled. Most importantly, our framework also incorporates a Wright-Fisher genealogical model of hosts, so that the dynamics of microbiome evolution is studied on an evolutionary timescale. Our results indicate that the extent of parental contribution to microbial availability from one generation to the next significantly impacts the diversity of microbiomes: the greater the parental contribution, the less diverse the microbiomes. In contrast, even when there is only a very small contribution from a constant environmental pool, microbial communities can remain highly diverse. Finally, we show that our models may be used to construct hypotheses about the types of processes that operate to assemble microbiomes over evolutionary time. PMID:26200800

  19. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  20. Targets for high power neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1980-01-01

    Stopping high-power, long-pulse beams is fast becoming an engineering challenge, particularly in neutral beam injectors for heating magnetically confined plasmas. A brief review of neutral beam target technology is presented along with heat transfer calculations for some selected target designs.

  1. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  2. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  3. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  4. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  5. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who...

  6. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s‑1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm‑3and 6× {{10}18} cm‑3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm‑2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  7. A pathway to HIV-1 neutralization breadth

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S Abigail; Derdeyn, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Neutralization breadth is thought to be an important feature of an effective vaccine against HIV-1. A study in one individual has now identified the specific viral variant that engaged the necessary antibody precursor, as well as the viral immunotypes that drove neutralization breadth, improving understanding of how to mimic this process with a vaccine. PMID:26540383

  8. A New Age of Constructivism: "Mode Neutral"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Peter; Smith, Brian; Sherratt, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This article presents work in progress exploring social constructivism within Mode Neutral, and how various conditions impact upon the student experience. Mode Neutral's three dimensions--curriculum design, the role of the tutor and communication for learning--are affected by the conditions that can vary in any given context. The authors realise

  9. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words man, men, or their...

  10. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words man, men, or their...

  11. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words man, men, or their...

  12. Ion-Neutral Coupling in Solar Prominences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Holly

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between ions and neutrals in a partially ionized plasma are important throughout heliophysics, including near the solar surface in prominences. Understanding how ion-neutral coupling affects formation, support, structure, and dynamics of prominences will advance our physical understanding of magnetized systems involving a transition from a weakly ionized dense gas to a fully ionized tenuous plasma. We address the fundamental physics of prominence support, which is normally described in terms of a magnetic force on the prominence plasma that balances the solar gravitational force, and the implications for observations. Because the prominence plasma is only partially ionized, it is necessary to consider the support of the both the ionized and neutral components. Support of the neutrals is accomplished through a frictional interaction between the neutral and ionized components of the plasma, and its efficacy depends strongly on the degree of ionization of the plasma. More specifically, the frictional force is proportional to the relative flow of neutral and ion species, and for a sufficiently weakly ionized plasma, this flow must be relatively large to produce a frictional force that balances gravity. A large relative flow, of course, implies significant draining of neutral particles from the prominence. We evaluate the importance of this draining effect for a hydrogen-helium plasma, and consider the observational evidence for cross-field diffusion of neutral prominence material.

  13. Controversial Issues: A Case for Neutrality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cain, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Arguments against teachers asserting their own views about controversial issues say that neutrality enables students to develop autonomous reflection. Others claim that a nonneutral stance is morally preferable. There are some teaching situations in which a neutral stance may not be an option. (SK)

  14. Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Stewart, L D

    1980-01-01

    Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

  15. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their...

  16. Types of Neutralization and Types of Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Neutralization theory was tested with questionnaires administered to a random sample of public high school students (N-298) and institutionalized male delinquents (N-53). Neutralization acceptance technique patterns were similar across subsamples; however, correlations between each technique and each type of delinquency were statistically…

  17. Types of Neutralization and Types of Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Neutralization theory was tested with questionnaires administered to a random sample of public high school students (N-298) and institutionalized male delinquents (N-53). Neutralization acceptance technique patterns were similar across subsamples; however, correlations between each technique and each type of delinquency were statistically

  18. A simplified approach for recording neutral zone.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Swatantra; Gangadhar, Praveen; Ahmad, Nafis; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2010-06-01

    Neutral zone technique is long being used for the management of severely resorbed mandibular ridges. Various materials are used in recording neutral zone, which have their own advantages and disadvantages. This article discusses the use of Polyether impression material which is simpler and more practical. PMID:21629452

  19. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without

  20. Expression and characterization of genetically engineered human immunodeficiency virus-like particles containing modified envelope glycoproteins: implications for development of a cross-protective AIDS vaccine.

    PubMed Central

    Rovinski, B; Haynes, J R; Cao, S X; James, O; Sia, C; Zolla-Pazner, S; Matthews, T J; Klein, M H

    1992-01-01

    Noninfectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viruslike particles containing chimeric envelope glycoproteins were expressed in mammalian cells by using inducible promoters. We engineered four expression vectors in which a synthetic oligomer encoding gp120 residues 306 to 328 (amino acids YNKRKRIHIGP GRAFYTTKNIIG) from the V3 loop of the MN viral isolate was inserted at various positions within the endogenous HIV-1LAI env gene. Expression studies revealed that insertion of the heterologous V3(MN) loop segment at two different locations within the conserved region 2 (C2) of gp120, either 173 or 242 residues away from the N terminus of the mature subunit, resulted in the secretion of fully assembled HIV-like particles containing chimeric LAI/MN envelope glycoproteins. Both V3 loop epitopes were recognized by loop-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, insertion of the V3(MN) loop segment into other regions of gp120 led to the production of envelope-deficient viruslike particles. Immunization with HIV-like particles containing chimeric envelope proteins induced specific antibody responses against both the autologous and heterologous V3 loop epitopes, including cross-neutralizing antibodies against the HIV-1LAI and HIV-1MN isolates. This study, therefore, demonstrates the feasibility of genetically engineering optimized HIV-like particles capable of eliciting cross-neutralizing antibodies. Images PMID:1602531

  1. UCLA1, a Synthetic Derivative of a gp120 RNA Aptamer, Inhibits Entry of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C

    PubMed Central

    Mufhandu, Hazel T.; Gray, Elin S.; Madiga, Maphuti C.; Tumba, Nancy; Alexandre, Kabamba B.; Khoza, Thandeka; Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Moore, Penny L.; Morris, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into cells is mediated by the virion surface envelope (Env) glycoproteins, making it a desirable target for antiretroviral entry inhibitors. We previously isolated a family of gp120 binding RNA aptamers and showed that they neutralized the infectivity of HIV-1. In this study, we assessed the activity of a shortened synthetic derivative of the B40 aptamer, called UCLA1, against a large panel of HIV-1 subtype C viruses. UCLA1 tightly bound to a consensus HIV-1 subtype C gp120 and neutralized isolates of the same subtype with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) in the nanomolar range. The aptamer had little toxicity in tests with cell lines and primary cells. Furthermore, it exhibited high therapeutic indices, suggesting that it may be effective at very low doses. Mapping of UCLA1 binding sites on gp120 revealed eight amino acid residues that modulated neutralization resistance. This included residues within the coreceptor binding site, at the base of the V3 loop, and in the bridging sheet within the conserved V1/V2 stem-loop of gp120. The aptamer was also shown to have synergistic effects with T20, a gp41 fusion inhibitor, and IgG1b12 (b12), an anti-CD4 binding site monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that UCLA1 may be suitable for development as a potent HIV-1 entry inhibitor. PMID:22379083

  2. Neutral depletion and the helicon density limit

    SciTech Connect

    Magee, R. M.; Galante, M. E.; Carr, J. Jr.; Lusk, G.; McCarren, D. W.; Scime, E. E.

    2013-12-15

    It is straightforward to create fully ionized plasmas with modest rf power in a helicon. It is difficult, however, to create plasmas with density >10{sup 20} m{sup −3}, because neutral depletion leads to a lack of fuel. In order to address this density limit, we present fast (1 MHz), time-resolved measurements of the neutral density at and downstream from the rf antenna in krypton helicon plasmas. At the start of the discharge, the neutral density underneath the antenna is reduced to 1% of its initial value in 15 μs. The ionization rate inferred from these data implies that the electron temperature near the antenna is much higher than the electron temperature measured downstream. Neutral density measurements made downstream from the antenna show much slower depletion, requiring 14 ms to decrease by a factor of 1/e. Furthermore, the downstream depletion appears to be due to neutral pumping rather than ionization.

  3. Lymph Node Co-Infection of Mycobacterium Avium Complex and Cytomegalovirus in an Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patient

    PubMed Central

    Hedjazi, Arya; Hosseini, Marzieh; Hoseinzadeh, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients are known to have an increased tendency for developing opportunistic infections. However, there are no reports of simultaneous lymph node involvement of cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium complex in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. We report a 31-year-old man who presented with acute abdominal pain and tenderness and weight loss. He died a few hours after admission. Autopsy studies showed coinfection of cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium avium complex and human immunodeficiency virus. Our case emphasizes the need to be careful in evaluating opportunistic infections in severely immunodepressed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. This case report is the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in this patient. PMID:24470953

  4. In vitro infection and type-restricted antibody-mediated neutralization of authentic human papillomavirus type 16.

    PubMed

    White, W I; Wilson, S D; Bonnez, W; Rose, R C; Koenig, S; Suzich, J A

    1998-02-01

    Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is strongly associated with the development of cervical cancer. Studies of model systems with animal papillomaviruses have demonstrated the importance of neutralizing antibodies in preventing papillomavirus-associated disease. The assessment of neutralizing antibody responses against HPV-16, previously hampered by the lack of a viral source, was enabled by the recent propagation of an HPV-16 stock in xenografted severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. HPV-16 infection of an immortalized human keratinocyte cell line was demonstrated by detection of an HPV-16-specific spliced mRNA amplified by reverse transcriptase PCR. Infection was blocked by preincubation of the virus with antiserum generated against HPV-16 virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the major capsid protein, L1. To examine potential cross-neutralizing activity among the different genital HPV types, rabbit antisera to L1 VLPs corresponding to HPV-6, -11, -18, -31, -33, -35, -39, and -45 were assayed for the ability to block the HPV-16 infection of cultured cells. Antiserum raised against HPV-33 L1 VLPs was the only heterologous antiserum which inhibited HPV-16 infection. Thus, a neutralization assay for HPV-16 may help to characterize the components required to compose a broadly efficacious genital HPV vaccine. PMID:9444988

  5. Toward effective HIV vaccination: induction of binary epitope reactive antibodies with broad HIV neutralizing activity.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Planque, Stephanie; Mitsuda, Yukie; Nitti, Giovanni; Taguchi, Hiroaki; Jin, Lei; Symersky, Jindrich; Boivin, Stephane; Sienczyk, Marcin; Salas, Maria; Hanson, Carl V; Paul, Sudhir

    2009-10-30

    We describe murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised by immunization with an electrophilic gp120 analog (E-gp120) expressing the rare ability to neutralize genetically heterologous human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains. Unlike gp120, E-gp120 formed covalent oligomers. The reactivity of gp120 and E-gp120 with mAbs to reference neutralizing epitopes was markedly different, indicating their divergent structures. Epitope mapping with synthetic peptides and electrophilic peptide analogs indicated binary recognition of two distinct gp120 regions by anti-E-gp120 mAbs, the 421-433 and 288-306 peptide regions. Univalent Fab and single chain Fv fragments expressed the ability to recognize both peptides. X-ray crystallography of an anti-E-gp120 Fab fragment revealed two neighboring cavities, the typical antigen-binding cavity formed by the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and another cavity dominated by antibody heavy chain variable (V(H)) domain framework (FR) residues. Substitution of the FR cavity V(H) Lys-19 residue by an Ala residue resulted in attenuated binding of the 421-433 region peptide probe. The CDRs and V(H) FR replacement/silent mutation ratios exceeded the ratio for a random mutation process, suggesting adaptive development of both putative binding sites. All mAbs studied were derived from V(H)1 family genes, suggesting biased recruitment of the V gene germ line repertoire by E-gp120. The conserved 421-433 region of gp120 is essential for HIV binding to host CD4 receptors. This region is recognized weakly by the FR of antibodies produced without exposure to HIV, but it usually fails to induce adaptive synthesis of neutralizing antibodies. We present models accounting for improved CD4-binding site recognition and broad HIV neutralizing activity of the mAbs, long sought goals in HIV vaccine development. PMID:19726674

  6. Toward Effective HIV Vaccination INDUCTION OF BINARY EPITOPE REACTIVE ANTIBODIES WITH BROAD HIV NEUTRALIZING ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Planque, Stephanie; Mitsuda, Yukie; Nitti, Giovanni; Taguchi, Hiroaki; Jin, Lei; Symersky, Jindrich; Boivin, Stephane; Sienczyk, Marcin; Salas, Maria; Hanson, Carl V.; Paul, Sudhir

    2009-11-23

    We describe murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised by immunization with an electrophilic gp120 analog (E-gp120) expressing the rare ability to neutralize genetically heterologous human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) strains. Unlike gp120, E-gp120 formed covalent oligomers. The reactivity of gp120 and E-gp120 with mAbs to reference neutralizing epitopes was markedly different, indicating their divergent structures. Epitope mapping with synthetic peptides and electrophilic peptide analogs indicated binary recognition of two distinct gp120 regions by anti-E-gp120 mAbs, the 421-433 and 288-306 peptide regions. Univalent Fab and single chain Fv fragments expressed the ability to recognize both peptides. X-ray crystallography of an anti-E-gp120 Fab fragment revealed two neighboring cavities, the typical antigen-binding cavity formed by the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) and another cavity dominated by antibody heavy chain variable (VH) domain framework (FR) residues. Substitution of the FR cavity VH Lys-19 residue by an Ala residue resulted in attenuated binding of the 421-433 region peptide probe. The CDRs and VH FR replacement/silent mutation ratios exceeded the ratio for a random mutation process, suggesting adaptive development of both putative binding sites. All mAbs studied were derived from VH1 family genes, suggesting biased recruitment of the V gene germ line repertoire by E-gp120. The conserved 421-433 region of gp120 is essential for HIV binding to host CD4 receptors. This region is recognized weakly by the FR of antibodies produced without exposure to HIV, but it usually fails to induce adaptive synthesis of neutralizing antibodies. We present models accounting for improved CD4-binding site recognition and broad HIV neutralizing activity of the mAbs, long sought goals in HIV vaccine development.

  7. N-terminal residues of an HIV-1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region antigen influence broadly neutralizing 2F5-like antibodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Dezhi; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Li; Xu, Tianshu; Chen, Junheng; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Qi

    2015-12-01

    The Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER) is targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies (e.g. 2F5, 4E10, Z13e and m66.6), which makes this region a promising target for vaccine design. One strategy to elicit neutralizing antibodies against the MPER epitope is to design peptide immunogens mimicking neutralization structures. To probe 2F5-like neutralizing antibodies, two yeast-displayed antibody libraries from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a HIV-1 patient were screened against the 2F5 epitope peptide SP62. Two 2F5-like antibodies were identified that specifically recognized SP62. However, these antibodies only weakly neutralized HIV-1 primary isolates. The epitopes recognized by these two 2F5-like antibodies include not only the 2F5 epitope (amino acids (aa) 662-667 in the MPER) but also several other residues (aa 652-655) locating at the N-terminus in SP62. Experimental results suggest that residues of SP62 adjacent to the 2F5 epitope influence the response of broadly neutralizing 2F5-like antibodies in vaccination. Our findings may aid the design of vaccine immunogens and development of therapeutics against HIV-1 infection. PMID:26715302

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in patients with primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Shradha; Mayer, Lloyd

    2013-09-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders such as chronic or acute diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, and inflammatory bowel diseases can indicate immune deficiency. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest lymphoid organ in the body, so it is not surprising that intestinal diseases are common among immunodeficient patients. Gastroenterologists therefore must be able to diagnose and treat patients with primary immunodeficiency. Immune-related gastrointestinal diseases can be classified as those that develop primarily via autoimmunity, infection, an inflammatory response, or malignancy. Immunodeficient and immunocompetent patients with gastrointestinal diseases present with similar symptoms. However, intestinal biopsy specimens from immunodeficient patients often have distinct histologic features, and these patients often fail to respond to conventional therapies. Therefore, early recognition of symptoms and referral to an immunologist for a basic immune evaluation is required to select appropriate treatments. Therapies for primary immunodeficiency comprise immunoglobulin replacement, antibiotics, and, in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation. Treatment of immunodeficient patients with concomitant gastrointestinal disease can be challenging, and therapy with immunomodulators often is required for severe disease. This review aims to guide gastroenterologists in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency. PMID:23501398

  9. Diagnosis and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Patients With Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    AGARWAL, SHRADHA; MAYER, LLOYD

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders such as chronic or acute diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain, and inflammatory bowel diseases can indicate immune deficiency. The gastrointestinal tract is the largest lymphoid organ in the body, so it is not surprising that intestinal diseases are common among immunodeficient patients. Gastroenterologists therefore must be able to diagnose and treat patients with primary immunodeficiency. Immune-related gastrointestinal diseases can be classified as those that develop primarily via autoimmunity, infection, an inflammatory response, or malignancy. Immunodeficient and immunocompetent patients with gastrointestinal diseases present with similar symptoms. However, intestinal biopsy specimens from immunodeficient patients often have distinct histologic features, and these patients often fail to respond to conventional therapies. Therefore, early recognition of symptoms and referral to an immunologist for a basic immune evaluation is required to select appropriate treatments. Therapies for primary immunodeficiency comprise immunoglobulin replacement, antibiotics, and, in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation. Treatment of immunodeficient patients with concomitant gastrointestinal disease can be challenging, and therapy with immunomodulators often is required for severe disease. This review aims to guide gastroenterologists in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with primary immunodeficiency. PMID:23501398

  10. Modification of AxSYM Human Immunodeficiency Virus Assay to Identify Recent Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections in Korean Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Sook; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Choi, Byeong-Sun; Kim, Sung Soon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence using HIV avidity assays in Korea, we established a serological testing method to differentiate recent HIV infections from long-standing ones. Methods We adopted two incidence assays, the BED HIV-1 incidence test (Calypte Biomedical) and an HIV avidity assay (using Abbott AxSYM HIV Antigen/Antibody Combo), and performed them on Korean HIV samples obtained from 81 HIV seroconverters (n=193), 135 HIV-positive samples, and three HIV commercial incidence panels (PRB965, PRB933, and PRB601 from SeaCare). To determine the most optimal concentration of the chaotropic agent (Guanidine) and the cutoff value for the avidity assay, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the assay at different concentration levels. Results We determined that the concentration of Guanidine to be used in the avidity assay was 1.5M. The cutoff value of the avidity index (AI) was 0.8, and the sensitivity and specificity were 90.2% and 83.8%, respectively, under this condition. The gray zone for the avidity assay was 0.750.85 AI. The mean of coefficient of variation was low, at 5.43%. Conclusion An optimized avidity assay for the diagnosis of recent HIV infections using Korean samples was established. This assay will be applied to investigate the level of recent infection and will provide basic data to the HIV prevention policy in Korea. PMID:26430615

  11. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to the putative CD4-binding domain of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, N C; Ho, D D; Sun, C R; Liou, R S; Gordon, W; Fung, M S; Li, X L; Ting, R C; Lee, T H; Chang, N T

    1989-01-01

    A panel of seven monoclonal antibodies against the relatively conserved CD4-binding domain on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 was generated by immunizing mice with purified gp120. These monoclonal antibodies reacted specifically with gp120 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blots (immunoblots). By using synthetic peptides as antigens in the immunosorbent assay, the epitopes of these seven monoclonal antibodies were mapped to amino acid residues 423 to 437 of gp120. Further studies with radioimmunoprecipitation assays showed that they cross-reacted with both gp120 and gp160 of diverse HIV-1 isolates (HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, HTLV-IIIAL, and HTLV-IIIWMJ). They also bound specifically to H9 cells infected with HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, HTLV-IIIAL, HTLV-IIIZ84, and HTLV-IIIZ34 in indirect immunofluorescence studies. In addition, they blocked effectively the binding of HIV-1 to CD4+ C8166 cells. Despite the similarity of these properties, the monoclonal antibodies differed in neutralizing activity against HTLV-IIIB, HTLV-IIIRF, and HTLV-IIIAL, as demonstrated in both syncytium-forming assays and infectivity assays. Our findings suggest that these group-specific monoclonal antibodies to the putative CD4-binding domain on gp120 are potential candidates for development of therapeutic agents against acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome. PMID:2474670

  12. Viral genetic determinants of T-cell killing and immunodeficiency disease induction by the feline leukemia virus FeLV-FAIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Donahue, P R; Quackenbush, S L; Gallo, M V; deNoronha, C M; Overbaugh, J; Hoover, E A; Mullins, J I

    1991-01-01

    Within the fatal immunodeficiency disease-inducing strain of feline leukemia virus, FeLV-FAIDS, are viruses which range in pathogenicity from minimally (clone 61E is the prototype) to acutely pathogenic, most of the latter of which are also replication defective (clone 61C is the prototype). Mixtures of 61E and 61C virus and chimeras generated between them, but not 61E alone, killed feline T cells. T-cell killing depended on changes within a 7-amino-acid region near the C terminus of the gp70 env gene or was achieved independently by changes within a 109-amino-acid region encompassing the N terminus of gp70. The carboxy-terminal change was also sufficient for induction of fatal immunodeficiency disease in cats. Other changes within the 61C gp70 gene enhanced T-cell killing, as did changes in the long terminal repeat, the latter of which also enhanced virus replication. T-cell killing correlated with high levels of intracellular unintegrated and proviral DNA, all of which were blocked by treatment of infected cells with sera from 61C-immune cats or with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody. These findings indicate that T-cell killing is a consequence of superinfection and that the mutations in env critical to pathogenicity of the immunosuppressive variant result in a failure to establish superinfection interference in infected cells. Images PMID:1649341

  13. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival. PMID:26747443

  14. Mucocutaneous manifestations in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Mittal, Saurabh; Jain, Arpita; Chander, Ram

    2010-01-01

    Skin is one of the most frequently involved organs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and mucocutaneous manifestations may be one of the earliest markers of AIDS. The prevalence of cutaneous abnormalities in HIV approaches nearly 90%. Mucocutaneous manifestations may also act as a prognostic marker of HIV infection. Children are increasingly being affected by HIV infection and it is important to realize the presence of the infection early in the disease process as their immune status is not mature enough to handle the stress of various infections. Skin manifestations can serve as early markers and prognostic indicators of HIV infection. This review highlights the epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, and the mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection in children. PMID:20826983

  15. Glanzmann Thrombasthenia Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patient

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Rakesh Kumar; Natarajan, Kannan; Patil, Rajendra; Prathi, Venkata Sarath; Beeraka, Swapna Sridevi; Kolaparthi, Venkata Suneel Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is an autosomal recessive inherited platelet function defect characterized by normal platelet count, prolonged bleeding time and abnormal clot retraction. This disease typically presents in infancy or early childhood and has proven to have very good prognosis. In this case study, a 22-year-old GT patient who also developed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection after sometime is reported. The patient showed oral manifestations of gingival hyperplasia and petechial lesions. Unfortunately the detection of both thrombasthenia and HIV were done at considerably late stages which contributed to a poor prognosis. The patient died of cardiopulmonary arrest secondary to HIV, thrombasthenia and thrombocytopenia. The importance of early detection, supportive care and communication between the general and oral physician in management of the GT is also discussed. PMID:24829739

  16. Primary Immunodeficiencies and Inflammatory Disease: A Growing Genetic Intersection.

    PubMed

    Fodil, Nassima; Langlais, David; Gros, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in genome analysis have provided important insights into the genetic architecture of infectious and inflammatory diseases. The combined analysis of loci detected by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 22 inflammatory diseases has revealed a shared genetic core and associated biochemical pathways that play a central role in pathological inflammation. Parallel whole-exome sequencing studies have identified 265 genes mutated in primary immunodeficiencies (PID). Here, we examine the overlap between these two data sets, and find that it consists of genes essential for protection against infections and in which persistent activation causes pathological inflammation. Based on this intersection, we propose that, although strong or inactivating mutations (rare variants) in these genes may cause severe disease (PIDs), their more subtle modulation potentially by common regulatory/coding variants may contribute to chronic inflammation. PMID:26791050

  17. Primary immunodeficiency in the neonate: Early diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Walkovich, Kelly; Connelly, James A

    2016-02-01

    Many primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) manifest in the neonatal period but can be challenging to diagnose and manage optimally. In part, the difficulty stems from the natural immaturity of the neonatal immune system that may mask immune deficits and/or complicate interpretation of clinical findings and laboratory assays. The great diversity of PIDs - from innate immune system defects to those that impact the humoral and/or cellular components of the adaptive immune system - and the rapid rate at which new PIDs are being discovered makes it challenging for practioners to stay current. Moreover, recent appreciation for immune deficiencies that lead to autoinflammation and autoimmunity have broadened the spectrum of neonatal PID, adding additional complexity to an already intricate field. This article serves to highlight the deficiencies in the neonatal immune system, while providing a review of the more common PIDs that present in the neonate and guidelines for diagnosis and supportive care. PMID:26776073

  18. Eosinophilia in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Chou, Andrew; Serpa, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Eosinophilia is not uncommonly encountered in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), particularly at initiation of care or among those with advanced disease. The clinical manifestation most commonly associated with eosinophilia in this patient population is skin rash. Management of these patients is challenging due to a paucity of data evaluating diagnostic testing and therapeutic strategies. Patients born in or with significant travel to parasite-endemic countries are more likely to have tissue-invasive helminthes, such as Strongyloides or Schistosoma. Patients without such risk factors are unlikely to have parasitic infections and frequently will have self-resolution of eosinophilia. When a detailed history, physical exam, and diagnostic work-up are unrevealing, we sometimes consider empirical therapy with ivermectin. Praziquantel may also be considered for those at risk for schistosomiasis. PMID:26126686

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus and female prostitutes, Sydney 1985.

    PubMed

    Philpot, C R; Harcourt, C; Edwards, J; Grealis, A

    1988-06-01

    One hundred and thirty two female prostitutes and 55 non-prostitutes who were tested for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were surveyed by questionnaire at this centre. The two groups were well matched for age and were very similar in other except for numbers of their sexual partners. Questions were asked about drug taking, sexual practices, general health, and episodes of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). None of the women in the survey was found to be seropositive, but both groups were found to be seriously at risk of HIV infection through using intravenous (IV) drugs, having unprotected sexual intercourse with men who used IV drugs, having unprotected sexual intercourse with bisexual men, or exposure to several STDs. PMID:3410467

  20. Paracoccidioidomycosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Report of seven cases.

    PubMed

    Marques, S A; Conterno, L O; Sgarbi, L P; Villagra, A M; Sabongi, V P; Bagatin, E; Gonalves, V L

    1995-01-01

    We report the clinical findings and evolution of seven patients (five men and two women), the majority of them intravenous drug users, with paracoccidioidomycosis associated to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In four of the patients the paracoccidioidomycosis was restricted to the lung and in the three others was generalized with cutaneous involvement. Only two of them had lived recently in rural area, an indication of the possible reactivation of latent focal infection in the other five patients. The recognition of the role of cell-mediated immunity in host defense against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis leds to the prediction of a growing occurrence of the paracoccidioidomycosis-AIDS association in areas that are endemic for these diseases. PMID:8525274

  1. Renal transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive children.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Mignon I; Kala, Udai K

    2015-04-01

    Renal transplantation is being performed in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients and increasingly in paediatric patients as well. A multidisciplinary team involving an infectious disease professional is required to assist with HIV viral-load monitoring and in choosing the most appropriate highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Drug interactions complicate immunosuppressant therapy and require careful management. The acute rejection rates appear to be similar in adults to those in noninfective transplant recipients. Induction with basiliximab and calcineurin-based immunosuppression appears to be safe and effective in these recipients. Prophylaxis is advised for a variety of infections and may need life-long administration, especially in children. Organ shortage remains a significant problem, and kidneys from deceased HIV-positive donors have been used successfully in a small study population. Overall, with careful planning and close follow-up, successful renal transplantation for paediatric HIV-infected recipients is possible. PMID:24691821

  2. Utility of Next Generation Sequencing in Clinical Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Raje, Nikita; Soden, Sarah; Swanson, Douglas; Ciaccio, Christina E.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that present with very similar symptoms, complicating definitive diagnosis. More than 240 genes have hitherto been associated with PIDs, of which more than 30 have been identified in the last 3 years. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomes or exomes of informative families has played a central role in the discovery of novel PID genes. Furthermore, NGS has the potential to transform clinical molecular testing for established PIDs, allowing all PID differential diagnoses to be tested at once, leading to increased diagnostic yield, while decreasing both the time and cost of obtaining a molecular diagnosis. Given that treatment of PID varies by disease gene, early achievement of a molecular diagnosis is likely to enhance treatment decisions and improve patient outcomes. PMID:25149170

  3. Il2rg gene-targeted severe combined immunodeficiency pigs.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunichi; Iwamoto, Masaki; Saito, Yoriko; Fuchimoto, Daiichiro; Sembon, Shoichiro; Suzuki, Misae; Mikawa, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Michiko; Aoki, Yuki; Najima, Yuho; Takagi, Shinsuke; Suzuki, Nahoko; Suzuki, Emi; Kubo, Masanori; Mimuro, Jun; Kashiwakura, Yuji; Madoiwa, Seiji; Sakata, Yoichi; Perry, Anthony C F; Ishikawa, Fumihiko; Onishi, Akira

    2012-06-14

    A porcine model of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) promises to facilitate human cancer studies, the humanization of tissue for xenotransplantation, and the evaluation of stem cells for clinical therapy, but SCID pigs have not been described. We report here the generation and preliminary evaluation of a porcine SCID model. Fibroblasts containing a targeted disruption of the X-linked interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain gene, Il2rg, were used as donors to generate cloned pigs by serial nuclear transfer. Germline transmission of the Il2rg deletion produced healthy Il2rg(+/-) females, while Il2rg(-/Y) males were athymic and exhibited markedly impaired immunoglobulin and T and NK cell production, robustly recapitulating human SCID. Following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, donor cells stably integrated in Il2rg(-/Y) heterozygotes and reconstituted the Il2rg(-/Y) lymphoid lineage. The SCID pigs described here represent a step toward the comprehensive evaluation of preclinical cellular regenerative strategies. PMID:22704516

  4. Coreceptor specificity of temporal variants of simian immunodeficiency virus Mne.

    PubMed

    Kimata, J T; Gosink, J J; KewalRamani, V N; Rudensey, L M; Littman, D R; Overbaugh, J

    1999-02-01

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Mne envelope undergoes genetic changes that alter tropism, syncytium-inducing capacity, and antigenic properties of the emerging variant virus population during the course of an infection. Here we investigated whether the mutations in envelope of SIVMne also influence coreceptor usage. The data demonstrate that the infecting macrophage-tropic SIVMne clone as well as the envelope variants that are selected during the course of disease progression all recognize both CCR5 and Bob (GPR15) but not Bonzo (STRL33), CXCR4, or CCR3. Although it remains to be determined if there are other coreceptors specific for dualtropic or T-cell-tropic variants of SIVMne that emerge during late stages of infection, these data suggest that such SIV variants that evolve in pathogenic infections do not lose the ability to recognize CCR5 or Bob/GPR15. PMID:9882375

  5. Coreceptor Specificity of Temporal Variants of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Mne

    PubMed Central

    Kimata, Jason T.; Gosink, John J.; KewalRamani, Vineet N.; Rudensey, Lyle M.; Littman, Dan R.; Overbaugh, Julie

    1999-01-01

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Mne envelope undergoes genetic changes that alter tropism, syncytium-inducing capacity, and antigenic properties of the emerging variant virus population during the course of an infection. Here we investigated whether the mutations in envelope of SIVMne also influence coreceptor usage. The data demonstrate that the infecting macrophage-tropic SIVMne clone as well as the envelope variants that are selected during the course of disease progression all recognize both CCR5 and Bob (GPR15) but not Bonzo (STRL33), CXCR4, or CCR3. Although it remains to be determined if there are other coreceptors specific for dualtropic or T-cell-tropic variants of SIVMne that emerge during late stages of infection, these data suggest that such SIV variants that evolve in pathogenic infections do not lose the ability to recognize CCR5 or Bob/GPR15. PMID:9882375

  6. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in wild Pallas' cats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Meredith A; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E; Swanson, William F; Roelke, Melody E; O'Brien, Stephen J

    2010-03-15

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas' cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIV(Oma) in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas' cats sampled from 2000 to 2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIV(Oma) isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas' cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas' cats suggests that FIV(Oma) causes immune depletion in its' native host. PMID:19926144

  7. Systemic Spironucleosis In Two Immunodeficient Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, C; Kramer, J; Mejia, A; MacKey, J; Mansfield, KG; Miller, AD

    2011-01-01

    Spironucleus spp. are parasites of fish and terrestrial vertebrates including mice and turkeys that rarely cause extraintestinal disease. Two rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were experimentally inoculated with simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 (SIVmac251). Both progressed to simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) within one year of inoculation and, in addition to common opportunistic infections including rhesus cytomegalovirus, rhesus lymphocryptovirus, and rhesus adenovirus, developed systemic protozoal infections. In the first case, the protozoa were associated with colitis, multifocal abdominal abscessation, and lymphadenitis. In the second case they one of a number of organisms associated with extensive pyogranulomatous pneumonia and colitis. Ultrastructural, molecular, and phylogenetic analysis revealed the causative organism to be a species of Spironucleus closely related to Spironucleus meleagridis of turkeys. This is the first report of extraintestinal infection with Spironucleus sp. in higher mammals and further expands the list of opportunistic infections found in immunocompromised rhesus macaques. PMID:20351359

  8. FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS CATS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; OBrien1, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its native host. PMID:19926144

  9. The 2015 IUIS Phenotypic Classification for Primary Immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Bousfiha, Aziz; Jeddane, Lela; Al-Herz, Waleed; Ailal, Fatima; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Chatila, Talal; Conley, Mary Ellen; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Etzioni, Amos; Franco, Jose Luis; Gaspar, H Bobby; Holland, Steven M; Klein, Christoph; Nonoyama, Shigeaki; Ochs, Hans D; Oksenhendler, Eric; Picard, Capucine; Puck, Jennifer M; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Tang, Mimi L K

    2015-11-01

    There are now nearly 300 single-gene inborn errors of immunity underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, auto-immunity, and auto-inflammation. For each of these five categories, a growing variety of phenotypes are ascribed to Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PID), making PIDs a rapidly expanding field of medicine. The International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) PID expert committee (EC) has published every other year a classification of these disorders into tables, defined by shared pathogenesis and/or clinical consequences. In 2013, the IUIS committee also proposed a more user-friendly, phenotypic classification, based on the selection of key phenotypes at the bedside. We herein propose the revised figures, based on the accompanying 2015IUIS PID EC classification. PMID:26445875

  10. [Advance in Reseach on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type I Vector

    PubMed

    Hou, Jun; Wang, Jianmin; Min, Bihe

    2000-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-I (HIV-I), one kind of lentiviruses, was characterized by a complex genome that encodes two regulatory proteins and four accessory proteins in addition to the common gag, pol and env gene products. So far, a few of different types of replication-defective vectors were constructed, the highest viral titer from one of which was above 10(7) TU/ml. Several studies on packaging cell line found that eliminating the four accessory genes would have few effect on transduction ability of vector and split-genome package system could reduce the possibility of producing replication-competent virus. There are two kinds of characters on HIV-I vectors. Firstly, it was highly efficient in transducing CD34(+) human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells; secondly, repeated injections of the HIV-I vector into animal did not elicit the rejection response. HIV-I vector had an extensive host range. PMID:12578724

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus antibody test and seroprevalence in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Naber, D; Pajonk, F G; Perro, C; Lhmer, B

    1994-05-01

    Psychiatric inpatients are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Investigations in the United States revealed seroprevalence rates of 5.5-8.9%. Therefore, inclusion of HIV antibody testing in routine laboratory screening is sometimes suggested. To investigate this issue for inpatients in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Munich, the incidence, reason for HIV testing and results were analyzed. Of 12,603 patients, hospitalized from 1985 to 1993, 4.9% (623 patients, 265 in risk groups) underwent the HIV test after informed consent. Thirty patients (4.8% of those tested) were found to be positive, but only in 5 cases (all of risk groups) was infection newly detected. Data indicate that, in psychiatry, HIV testing is reasonable only in patients in risk groups or if clinical variables suggest HIV infection. PMID:8067276

  12. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Model for Designing HIV/AIDS Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Janet K.; Sanou, Missa P.; Abbott, Jeffrey R.; Coleman, James K.

    2013-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) discovered in 1986 is a lentivirus that causes AIDS in domestic cats. FIV is classified into five subtypes (AE), and all subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants have been identified throughout the world. A commercial FIV vaccine, consisting of inactivated subtype-A and D viruses (Fel-O-Vax FIV, Fort Dodge Animal Health), was released in the United States in 2002. The United States Department of Agriculture approved the commercial release of Fel-O-Vax FIV based on two efficacy trials using 105 laboratory cats and a major safety trial performed on 689 pet cats. The prototype and commercial FIV vaccines had broad prophylactic efficacy against global FIV subtypes and circulating intersubtype recombinants. The mechanisms of cross-subtype efficacy are attributed to FIV-specific T-cell immunity. Findings from these studies are being used to define the prophylactic epitopes needed for an HIV-1 vaccine for humans. PMID:20210778

  13. Primary pulmonary hypertension associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Golpe, R.; Fernandez-Infante, B.; Fernandez-Rozas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Several cardiorespiratory diseases can complicate human immunodeficiency virus infection. Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare clinical disorder which carries a bad prognosis. More than 90 cases of HIV-associated primary pulmonary hypertension have been reported to date. Although its pathogenesis remains unknown, some evidence suggests a possible role for the virus itself in its development. Genetic susceptibility may also be implicated. The clinical and histopathologic features of this entity do not differ from those of classic primary pulmonary hypertension. The diagnosis requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and a careful evaluation to rule out causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension. In addition to supportive measures, anticoagulation and vasodilators have been used to treat this disorder, although sufficient data regarding long-term results with these therapies are lacking. PMID:9799910

  14. Coronary Artery Disease in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Seropositive Population.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Michael G; Arora, Rohit R

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficient combined antiretroviral therapies has lengthened the mean life span of the population affected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transforming this terminal infection to a chronic yet manageable disease. Nonetheless, patients with HIV-treatment naive or not-exhibit larger risks for coronary artery disease than the noninfected population. Moreover, coronary atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis may be the most prevalent condition in the HIV-infected population that is being accentuated by the effects of viral agents and the antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors. Nonetheless, generalized metabolic dysfunctions and premature senescence are often attributed to the viremia caused by the HIV infection directly and primarily. Therefore, a multifactorial approach is to be considered when attempting to explain the strong correlation between HIV and coronary artery disease, including co-opportunistic viremias and vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency. PMID:23797758

  15. [Gene and cell therapy for primary immunodeficiency diseases].

    PubMed

    Otsu, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) represents a group of inherited diseases where mutations in certain gene lead to certain levels of defects in patient immune systems. Among them, several types of PID, including severe combined immunodeficiecny (SCID), warrented development of new types of curative treatment other than allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, eventually culiminating in successful stem cell gene therapy tials such as the cases for adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficiency SCID patients. In this article, I will summarize the current status of stem cell gene therapy for PID, and discuss the problems such clinical trials have in the present forms of treatment, e.g., possible risks of leukemogenesis due to insertional mutagenesis by the use of therapeutic viral vectors. I also try to discuss the future of this type of experimental medicine aiming for the permanent cure of PID, including the one utilizing innovative technologies such as induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:21212583

  16. Utility of next generation sequencing in clinical primary immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Raje, Nikita; Soden, Sarah; Swanson, Douglas; Ciaccio, Christina E; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Dinwiddie, Darrell L

    2014-10-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that present with very similar symptoms, complicating definitive diagnosis. More than 240 genes have hitherto been associated with PIDs, of which more than 30 have been identified in the last 3 years. Next generation sequencing (NGS) of genomes or exomes of informative families has played a central role in the discovery of novel PID genes. Furthermore, NGS has the potential to transform clinical molecular testing for established PIDs, allowing all PID differential diagnoses to be tested at once, leading to increased diagnostic yield, while decreasing both the time and cost of obtaining a molecular diagnosis. Given that treatment of PID varies by disease gene, early achievement of a molecular diagnosis is likely to enhance treatment decisions and improve patient outcomes. PMID:25149170

  17. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in the mouse. Pathology, reconstitution, neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Custer, R. P.; Bosma, G. C.; Bosma, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    Histologic findings in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) were remarkably uniform, consisting of lymphopenia, a rudimentary thymic medulla without cortex, relatively empty splenic follicles and lymph nodes, and undeveloped bronchial and gastrointestinal lymphocytic foci. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter studies revealed a few T cells (apparently nonfunctional) in thymus and spleen; interestingly, these cells seemed highly disposed to neoplasia, because thymic T-cell lymphomas were observed in 41 of 269 mice. No pre-B or B cells could be identified. Cells of the myeloid lineage appeared normal. Reconstitution of lymphoid tissues was achieved after intravenous injection of histocompatible bone marrow cells. Images Figure 1 p467-a Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:2412448

  18. Fungal, Viral, and Parasitic Pneumonias Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Skalski, Joseph H; Limper, Andrew H

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory illness is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The spectrum of pulmonary disease that can affect patients with HIV is wide and includes opportunistic infection with many fungal, viral, and parasitic organisms. This article reviews the clinical presentation; approach to diagnosis; and management of fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias that can develop in patients with HIV including respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma, and Strongyloides. Because clinical symptoms and radiographic patterns are often insensitive at distinguishing these pulmonary infections, this review particularly focuses on specific host risk factors and diagnostic testing to consider when approaching HIV patients with respiratory illness. PMID:26974302

  19. In vitro assembly of the feline immunodeficiency virus Gag polyprotein.

    PubMed

    Affranchino, José L; González, Silvia A

    2010-06-01

    The retroviral Gag protein is the only viral product that is necessary for the assembly of virions in mammalian cells. We have established an in vitro assembly system to study the assembly properties of purified feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) Gag protein expressed in bacteria. Under fully defined conditions, the FIV Gag protein assembles into spherical particles of 33 nm in diameter which are morphologically similar to authentic immature particles, albeit smaller than virions. The in vitro assembly of FIV Gag into particles was found to be resistant to the addition of Triton X-100 and required the presence of RNA. Notably, we found that an amino acid substitution in the nucleocapsid domain of Gag that impairs RNA binding and blocks virion production in vivo, also abrogates Gag assembly in vitro. The development of an in vitro assembly system for FIV Gag protein will facilitate the study of the mechanisms by which this protein assembles into immature particles. PMID:20347892

  20. Ultracold Neutral Plasma Density Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Killian, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Ultracold neutral plasmas, which are created by photoionizing laser cooled atoms near the ionization threshold, have been extensively studied in order to probe strong Coulomb coupling effects, low-energy atomic processes, equilibration, and collective phenomena [1]. The experimental study of collective modes, however, has previously been limited to phenomena involving electrons. By spatially modulating the intensity pattern of the photoionizing laser, we are now able to create controlled density perturbations on the plasma, which enables study of ion collective behavior. Periodic modulation excites ion acoustic waves [2]. We have also created two distinct plasmas that stream into each other. In the hydrodynamic regime, the central gap between the two plasmas splits into two density ``holes'' that propagate away from the plasma center at the ion acoustic velocity. At lower densities and higher particle velocities, plasmas are less collisional, and we observe kinetic effects such as plasma streams penetrating each other, with a penetration depth that reflects the ion stopping power. This general technique for sculpting the density opens many new possibilities, such as investigation of non-linear phenomena, instabilities, and shock waves in the ultracold regime, and determination of the effects of strong coupling on dispersion relations. The low temperature, small size, plasma expansion, and strongly coupled nature of ultracold plasmas make these studies fundamentally interesting. They may also shed light on similar phenomena in high energy density, laser-produced plasmas that can be near the strongly coupled regime. [4pt] [1] T. C. Killian, T. Pattard, Thomas Pohl, and J. M. Rost, Phys. Rep., 449, 77 (2007).[0pt] [2] J. Castro, P. McQuillen, and T. C. Killian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 065004 (2010).