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Sample records for neutrino telescope nt200

  1. Search for neutrino emission from relic dark matter in the sun with the Baikal NT200 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrorin, A. D.; Avrorin, A. V.; Aynutdinov, V. M.; Bannasch, R.; Belolaptikov, I. A.; Bogorodsky, D. Yu.; Brudanin, V. B.; Budnev, N. M.; Danilchenko, I. A.; Demidov, S. V.; Domogatsky, G. V.; Doroshenko, A. A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Dzhilkibaev, Zh.-A. M.; Fialkovsky, S. V.; Gafarov, A. R.; Gaponenko, O. N.; Golubkov, K. V.; Gress, T. I.; Honz, Z.; Kebkal, K. G.; Kebkal, O. G.; Konischev, K. V.; Konstantinov, E. N.; Korobchenko, A. V.; Koshechkin, A. P.; Koshel, F. K.; Kozhin, A. V.; Kulepov, V. F.; Kuleshov, D. A.; Ljashuk, V. I.; Milenin, M. B.; Mirgazov, R. A.; Osipova, E. R.; Panfilov, A. I.; Pan'kov, L. V.; Perevalov, A. A.; Pliskovsky, E. N.; Poleschuk, V. A.; Rozanov, M. I.; Rubtzov, V. F.; Rjabov, E. V.; Shaybonov, B. A.; Sheifler, A. A.; Shkurihin, A. V.; Smagina, A. A.; Suvorova, O. V.; Tarashansky, B. A.; Yakovlev, S. A.; Zagorodnikov, A. V.; Zhukov, V. A.; Zurbanov, V. L.

    2015-03-01

    We have analyzed a data set taken over 2.76 years live time with the Baikal neutrino telescope NT200. The goal of the analysis is to search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the center of the Sun. Apart from the conventional annihilation channels b b bar , W+W- and τ+τ- we consider also the annihilation of dark matter particles into monochromatic neutrinos. From the absence of any excess of events from the direction of the Sun over the expected background, we derive 90% upper limits on the fluxes of muons and muon neutrinos from the Sun, as well as on the elastic cross sections of dark matter scattering on protons.

  2. A search for neutrino signal from dark matter annihilation in the center of the Milky Way with Baikal NT200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrorin, A. D.; Avrorin, A. V.; Aynutdinov, V. M.; Bannasch, R.; Belolaptikov, I. A.; Bogorodsky, D. Yu.; Brudanin, V. B.; Budnev, N. M.; Danilchenko, I. A.; Demidov, S. V.; Domogatsky, G. V.; Doroshenko, A. A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Dzhilkibaev, Zh.-A. M.; Fialkovsky, S. V.; Gafarov, A. R.; Gaponenko, O. N.; Golubkov, K. V.; Gress, T. I.; Honz, Z.; Kebkal, K. G.; Kebkal, O. G.; Konischev, K. V.; Korobchenko, A. V.; Koshechkin, A. P.; Koshel, F. K.; Kozhin, A. V.; Kulepov, V. F.; Kuleshov, D. A.; Ljashuk, V. I.; Milenin, M. B.; Mirgazov, R. A.; Osipova, E. R.; Panfilov, A. I.; Pan'kov, L. V.; Pliskovsky, E. N.; Rozanov, M. I.; Rjabov, E. V.; Shaybonov, B. A.; Sheifler, A. A.; Shelepov, M. D.; Skurihin, A. V.; Smagina, A. A.; Suvorova, O. V.; Tabolenko, V. A.; Tarashansky, B. A.; Yakovlev, S. A.; Zagorodnikov, A. V.; Zhukov, V. A.; Zurbanov, V. L.

    2016-08-01

    We reanalyze the dataset collected during the years 1998-2003 by the deep underwater neutrino telescope NT200 in the lake Baikal with the low energy threshold (10 GeV) in searches for neutrino signal from dark matter annihilations near the center of the Milky Way. Two different approaches are used in the present analysis: counting events in the cones around the direction towards the Galactic Center and the maximum likelihood method. We assume that the dark matter particles annihilate dominantly over one of the annihilation channels bbbar , W+W- , τ+τ- , μ+μ- or ννbar . No significant excess of events towards the Galactic Center over expected neutrino background of atmospheric origin is found and we derive 90% CL upper limits on the annihilation cross section of dark matter.

  3. Neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Costantini, H.

    2012-09-15

    Neutrino astrophysics offers a new possibility to observe our Universe: high-energy neutrinos, produced by the most energetic phenomena in our Galaxy and in the Universe, carry complementary (if not exclusive) information about the cosmos: this young discipline extends in fact the conventional astronomy beyond the usual electromagnetic probe. The weak interaction of neutrinos with matter allows them to escape from the core of astrophysical objects and in this sense they represent a complementary messenger with respect to photons. However, their detection on Earth due to the small interaction cross section requires a large target mass. The aim of this article is to review the scientific motivations of the high-energy neutrino astrophysics, the detection principles together with the description of a running apparatus, the experiment ANTARES, the performance of this detector with some results, and the presentation of other neutrino telescope projects.

  4. High Energy Neutrino Astronomy and Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2015-04-01

    Neutrinos constitute a unique probe since they escape from their sources, travel undisturbed on cosmological distances and are produced in high-energy (HE) hadronic processes. In particular they would allow a direct detection and unambiguous identification of the acceleration sites of HE baryonic cosmic rays (CR), which remain unknown. Recent results from the ICECUBE collaboration present the first highly significant indication for the detection of high-energy extraterrestrial neutrinos, after several decades of instrumental efforts. We briefly report on this important results which open the route for the high-energy neutrino astronomy era. We then focus on the ANTARES detector, which despite its modest size with respect to ICECUBE is the largest deep-sea neutrino telescope in the world. The primary goal is to search for astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range. This comprises generic searches for any diffuse cosmic neutrino flux as well as more specific searches for astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei or Galactic sources. The search program also includes multi-messenger analyses based on time and/or space coincidences with other cosmic probes. The ANTARES observatory is sensitive to a wide-range of other phenomena, from atmospheric neutrino oscillations to dark matter annihilation or potential exotics such as nuclearites and magnetic monopoles. The most recent results are reported.

  5. Original neutrino fluxes and hidden mass in the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorova, O. V.

    2011-01-15

    The status of neutrino experiments in connection with the fundamental problem of searches for a signal from dark matter is discussed. Limits on the magnitude of the effect of dark-matter-particle annihilation in the Sun that were obtained with neutrino telescopes are presented. In particular, the first results from the NT-200 Baikal Deep Underwater Neutrino Telescope are described.

  6. Unparticle effects in neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Sprinberg, G.; Martinez, R.; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2009-03-01

    Recently H. Georgi has introduced the concept of unparticles in order to describe the low energy physics of a nontrivial scale invariant sector of an effective theory. We investigate its physical effects on the neutrino flux to be detected in a kilometer cubic neutrino telescope such as IceCube. We study the effects, on different observables, of the survival neutrino flux after through the Earth, and the regeneration originated in the neutral currents. We calculate the contribution of unparticle physics to the neutrino-nucleon interaction and, then, to the observables in order to evaluate detectable effects in IceCUbe. Our results are compared with the bounds obtained by other nonunderground experiments. Finally, the results are presented as an exclusion plot in the relevant parameters of the new physics stuff.

  7. High Energy Neutrinos with a Mediterranean Neutrino Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Cuoco, A.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pastor, Sergio; Pisanti, O.; Serpico, Pasquale Dario; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The high energy neutrino detection by a km{sup 3} Neutrino Telescope placed in the Mediterranean sea provides a unique tool to both determine the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux and the neutrino nucleon cross section in the extreme kinematical region, which could unveil the presence of new physics. Here is performed a brief analysis of possible NEMO site performances.

  8. Measuring Neutrinos with the ANTARES Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Corey

    2009-12-17

    The ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope has been taking data since construction began in 2006. The telescope, completed in May of 2008, detects the Cerenkov radiation of charged leptons produced by high energy neutrinos interacting in or around the detector. The lepton trajectory is reconstructed with high precision, revealing the direction of the incoming neutrino. The performance of the detector will be discussed and recent data showing muons, electromagnetic showers and atmospheric neutrinos will be presented. Studies have been underway to search for neutrino point sources in the ANTARES data since 2007. Results from these studies will be presented, and the sensitivity of the telescope will be discussed.

  9. ANTARES: The first undersea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Arnaud, K.; Aslanides, E.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bersani, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bogazzi, C.; de Botton, N.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Boudahef, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A. M.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P. H.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chaleil, Th.; Charvis, Ph.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Coppolani, X.; Cosquer, A.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Curtil, C.; D'Amato, C.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; Decock, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Desages-Ardellier, F.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; di Maria, F.; Dinkespiler, B.; Distefano, C.; Dominique, J.-L.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drogou, J.-F.; Drouhin, D.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Durand, R.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Engelen, J. J.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatá, S.; Galeotti, S.; Gay, P.; Gensolen, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Gojak, C.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hsu, C. C.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jourde, D.; Kadler, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karkar, S.; Karolak, M.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kestener, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lahonde-Hamdoun, C.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Larosa, G.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Levansuu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lévéque, C.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Mangano, S.; Marcel, A.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; Meli, A.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann, C.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Neff, M.; Niess, V.; Nooren, G. J. L.; Oberski, J. E. J.; Olivetto, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Palioselitis, D.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Piret, Y.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Prono, G.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; Reed, C.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Ricol, J. S.; Rigaud, V.; Roca, V.; Roensch, K.; Rolin, J.-F.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rottura, A.; Roux, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Sciliberto, D.; Shanidze, R.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sottoriva, A.; Spies, A.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Tasca, L.; Terreni, G.; Tezier, D.; Toscano, S.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; Virique, E.; de Vries, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yakovenko, Y.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-11-01

    The ANTARES Neutrino Telescope was completed in May 2008 and is the first operational Neutrino Telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. The main purpose of the detector is to perform neutrino astronomy and the apparatus also offers facilities for marine and Earth sciences. This paper describes the design, the construction and the installation of the telescope in the deep sea, offshore from Toulon in France. An illustration of the detector performance is given.

  10. ANTARES deep sea neutrino telescope results

    SciTech Connect

    Mangano, Salvatore; Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ANTARES experiment is currently the largest underwater neutrino telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. It is taking high quality data since 2007. Its main scientific goal is to search for high energy neutrinos that are expected from the acceleration of cosmic rays from astrophysical sources. This contribution reviews the status of the detector and presents several analyses carried out on atmospheric muons and neutrinos. For example it shows the results from the measurement of atmospheric muon neutrino spectrum and of atmospheric neutrino oscillation parameters as well as searches for neutrinos from steady cosmic point-like sources, for neutrinos from gamma ray bursts and for relativistic magnetic monopoles.

  11. Astrophysical tau neutrinos and their detection by large neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Bugaev, E.V.; Montaruli, T.

    2004-06-01

    We present results of the detailed Monte Carlo calculation of the rates of double-bang events in a 1-km{sup 3} underwater neutrino telescope taking into account the effects of {tau}-neutrino propagation through the Earth. As an input, the moderately optimistic theoretical predictions for diffuse neutrino spectra of AGN jets are used.

  12. Recent results of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández-Rey, Juan José

    2015-07-15

    The latest results from the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope are reported. Limits on a high energy neutrino diffuse flux have been set using for the first time both muon–track and showering events. The results for point sources obtained by ANTARES are also shown. These are the most stringent limits for the southern sky for neutrino energies below 100 TeV. Constraints on the nature of the cluster of neutrino events near the Galactic Centre observed by IceCube are also reported. In particular, ANTARES data excludes a single point–like neutrino source as the origin of this cluster. Looking for neutrinos coming from the Sun or the centre of the Galaxy, very competitive limits are set by the ANTARES data to the flux of neutrinos produced by self-annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles.

  13. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Eberl, Thomas; Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The ANTARES detector, located in the deep sea 40 km off the French coast, is the largest neutrino telescope in the northern hemisphere. It consists of an array of 885 photomultipliers detecting the Cherenkov light induced by charged leptons created in neutrino interactions in and around the detector. The main goal of ANTARES is to search for astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range. This comprises searches for a diffuse cosmic neutrino flux and for fluxes from possible galactic and extragalactic sources of neutrinos. The search program also includes multi-messenger analyses based on time and/or space coincidences with other cosmic probes. The ANTARES detector is sensitive to a wide range of other phenomena, from atmospheric neutrino oscillations to dark matter annihilation or potential exotics such as nuclearites and magnetic monopoles.

  14. Recent results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Elewyck, Véronique

    2014-04-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest operating water Cherenkov detector and the largest neutrino detector in the Northern Hemisphere. Its main scientific target is the detection of high-energy (TeV and beyond) neutrinos from cosmic accelerators, as predicted by hadronic interaction models, and the measurement of the diffuse neutrino flux. Its location allows for surveying a large part of the Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. In addition to the standalone searches for point-like and diffuse high-energy neutrino signals, ANTARES has developed a range of multi-messenger strategies to exploit the close connection between neutrinos and other cosmic messengers such as gamma-rays, charged cosmic rays and gravitational waves. This contribution provides an overview of the recently conducted analyses, including a search for neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles region, searches for optical counterparts with the TAToO program, and searches for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts, blazars, and microquasars. Further topics of investigation, covering e.g. the search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation, searches for exotic particles and the measurement of neutrino oscillations, are also reviewed.

  15. Recent Results from the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchner, Antoine

    2014-10-01

    The ANTARES detector, located 40 km off the French coast, is the largest deep-sea neutrino telescope in the world. It consists of an array of 885 photomultipliers detecting the Cherenkov light induced by charged leptons produced by neutrino interactions in and around the detector. The primary goal of ANTARES is to search for astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV-PeV range. This comprises generic searches for any diffuse cosmic neutrino flux as well as more specific searches for astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei or galactic sources. The search program also includes multi-messenger analyses based on time and/or space coincidences with other cosmic probes. The ANTARES observatory is sensitive to a wide range of other phenomena, from atmospheric neutrino oscillations to dark matter annihilation or potential exotics such as nuclearites and magnetic monopoles. The most recent results are reported.

  16. Flavor distribution of UHE cosmic neutrino oscillations at neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-Zhong

    2009-04-01

    If the ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic neutrinos produced from a distant astrophysical source can be measured at a km-size neutrino telescope such as the IceCube or KM3NeT, they will open a new window to understand the nature of flavor mixing and to probe possible new physics. Considering the conventional UHE cosmic neutrino source with the flavor ratio φe:φμ:φτ=1:2:0, I point out two sets of conditions for the flavor democracy φeT:φμT:φτT=1:1:1 to show up at neutrino telescopes: either θ13=0 and θ23=π/4 (CP invariance) or δ=±π/2 and θ23=π/4 (CP violation) in the standard parametrization of the 3×3 neutrino mixing matrix V. Allowing for slight μ-τ symmetry breaking effects characterized by Δ∈[-0.1,+0.1], I find φeT:φμT:φτT=(1-2Δ):(1+Δ):(1+Δ) as a good approximation. Another possibility to constrain Δ is to detect the ν flux of E≈6.3PeV via the Glashow resonance channel νe→W→anything. I also give some brief comments on (1) possible non-unitarity of V in the seesaw framework and its effects on the flavor distribution at neutrino telescopes and (2) a generic description and determination of the cosmic neutrino flavor composition at distant astrophysical sources.

  17. Results from the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurio, M.

    2016-04-01

    ANTARES is the largest neutrino telescope in the Northern hemisphere, running in its final configuration since 2008. After the discovery of a cosmic neutrino diffuse flux by the IceCube detector, the search for its origin has become a key mission in high-energy astrophysics. The ANTARES sensitivity is large enough to constrain the origin of the IceCube excess from regions extended up to 0.2 sr in the Southern sky. The Southern sky has been studied searching for point-like objects, for extended regions of emission (as the Galactic plane) and for signal from transient objects selected through multimessenger observations. Upper limits are presented assuming different spectral indexes for the energy spectrum of neutrino sources. In addition, ANTARES provides results on studies of the sky in combination with different multimessenger experiments, on atmospheric neutrinos, on the searches for rare particles in the cosmic radiation (such as magnetic monopoles and nuclearites), and on Earth and Sea science. Particularly relevant are the searches for Dark Matter: the limits obtained for the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section overcome that of existing direct-detection experiments. The recent results, widely discussed in dedicated presentations during the 7th edition of the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope Workshop (VLVνT-2015), are highlighted in this paper.

  18. XV International Workshop on Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The "Neutrino Telescopes" is one of the most prestigious international events in the field of Physics. It takes place every two years and dates back to 1988 when Prof. Milla Baldo Ceolin conceived it and launched the first edition. It soon became a crucial event and it is now considered a consolidated appointment where to discuss the latest discoveries and the fascinating future scenarios in topics that range from Neutrinos to Astrophysics and Cosmology. The workshop is structured in plenary sessions with invited talks followed by discussions and a poster session, aiming at involving particularly, but not limited to, young researchers with new brilliant ideas on the workshop's topics of interest.

  19. The NESTOR underwater neutrino telescope project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapidis, Petros A.; NESTOR Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The NESTOR collaboration is continuing its efforts towards deploying an underwater neutrino telescope. Further site studies (e.g. water light transmission measurements, sedimentation rates, etc.) are being carried out within the context of characterizing a site that may host the proposed KM3NeT infrastructure. In addition, following the successful deployment of a single floor of a NESTOR tower in 2003, five floors are now in the final stages of preparation. The use of these five floors in a form of a truncated tower together with four autonomous strings to be located some 300 m away from the tower is being contemplated. This arrangement, named NuBE (for Neutrino Burst Experiment), that may allow the detection neutrinos in coincidence with Gamma Ray Bursts, will be described.

  20. Acoustic transmitters for underwater neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Ardid, Miguel; Martínez-Mora, Juan A; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters. PMID:22666022

  1. Acoustic Transmitters for Underwater Neutrino Telescopes

    PubMed Central

    Ardid, Miguel; Martínez-Mora, Juan A.; Bou-Cabo, Manuel; Larosa, Giuseppina; Adrián-Martínez, Silvia; Llorens, Carlos D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper acoustic transmitters that were developed for use in underwater neutrino telescopes are presented. Firstly, an acoustic transceiver has been developed as part of the acoustic positioning system of neutrino telescopes. These infrastructures are not completely rigid and require a positioning system in order to monitor the position of the optical sensors which move due to sea currents. To guarantee a reliable and versatile system, the transceiver has the requirements of reduced cost, low power consumption, high pressure withstanding (up to 500 bars), high intensity for emission, low intrinsic noise, arbitrary signals for emission and the capacity of acquiring and processing received signals. Secondly, a compact acoustic transmitter array has been developed for the calibration of acoustic neutrino detection systems. The array is able to mimic the signature of ultra-high-energy neutrino interaction in emission directivity and signal shape. The technique of parametric acoustic sources has been used to achieve the proposed aim. The developed compact array has practical features such as easy manageability and operation. The prototype designs and the results of different tests are described. The techniques applied for these two acoustic systems are so powerful and versatile that may be of interest in other marine applications using acoustic transmitters. PMID:22666022

  2. Detection of extended galactic sources with an underwater neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Leisos, A.; Tsirigotis, A. G.; Tzamarias, S. E.; Lenis, D.

    2014-11-18

    In this study we investigate the discovery capability of a Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope to Galactic extended sources. We focus on the brightest HESS gamma rays sources which are considered also as very high energy neutrino emitters. We use the unbinned method taking into account both the spatial and the energy distribution of high energy neutrinos and we investigate parts of the Galactic plane where nearby potential neutrino emitters form neutrino source clusters. Neutrino source clusters as well as isolated neutrino sources are combined to estimate the observation period for 5 sigma discovery of neutrino signals from these objects.

  3. Confusing sterile neutrinos with deviation from tribimaximal mixing at neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Awasthi, Ram Lal; Choubey, Sandhya

    2007-12-01

    We expound on the impact of extra sterile species on the ultra high energy neutrino fluxes in neutrino telescopes. We use three types of well-known flux ratios and compare the values of these flux ratios in the presence of sterile neutrinos, with those predicted by deviation from the tribimaximal mixing scheme. We show that in the upcoming neutrino telescopes, it is easy to confuse the signature of sterile neutrinos with that of the deviation from tribimaximal mixing. We also show that if the measured flux ratios acquire a value well outside the range predicted by the standard scenario with three active neutrinos only, it might be possible to tell the presence of extra sterile neutrinos by observing ultra high energy neutrinos in future neutrino telescopes.

  4. ANTARES and Baikal: Recent results from underwater neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüssler, Fabian

    2016-07-01

    Two Northern hemisphere neutrino telescopes are currently searching for astrophysical neutrinos in the TeV/PeV range: ANTARES and Baikal. Both observatories utilize various signatures like a high energy excess over the atmospheric neutrino flux, searches for localized neutrino sources of various extensions and multi-messenger analyses based on time and/or space coincidences with other cosmic probes. We here review the status of both experiments and discuss a selection of recent results.

  5. Recent results from the ANTARES deep sea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, Paschal

    2013-02-01

    The ANTARES deep sea neutrino telescope has acquired over four years of high quality data. This data has been used to measure the oscillation parameters of atmospheric neutrinos and also to search for neutrinos of a nonterrestrial origin. Competitive upper limits on the fluxes of neutrinos from dark matter annihilation in the Sun, a variety of Galactic and extra-galactic sources, both steady and transient, are presented.

  6. A database for the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, A.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    ANTARES is a telescope for neutrino astronomy installed in the Mediterranean Sea at a depth of about 2500 m. While the event data are stored in root files, an Oracle 10 G Relational Data Base Management Server (RDBMS) is used for storing structural, control and monitoring information. The database includes complete configuration tables for the whole detector, allowing to store calibration information for each acquisition chain element. Such an information is stored in a large number of tables with relational behavior, in order to maintain the necessary correlations between the different data entries. This complex structure has been designed, so as to facilitate the development of the software for acquisition and analysis of the ANTARES data. In this paper the structure of the ANTARES database is illustrated for what concerns two major functionalities: calibration and apparatus configuration.

  7. First search for neutrinos in correlation with gamma-ray bursts with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    A search for neutrino-induced muons in correlation with a selection of 40 gamma-ray bursts that occurred in 2007 has been performed with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. During that period, the detector consisted of 5 detection lines. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is sensitive to TeV–PeV neutrinos that are predicted from gamma-ray bursts. No events were found in correlation with the prompt photon emission of the gamma-ray bursts and upper limits have been placed on the flux and fluence of neutrinos for different models.

  8. Detection of tau neutrinos by imaging air Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, D.; Bernardini, E.

    2016-09-01

    This paper investigates the potential to detect tau neutrinos in the energy range of 1-1000 PeV searching for very inclined showers with imaging Cherenkov telescopes. A neutrino induced tau lepton escaping from the Earth may decay and initiate an air shower which can be detected by a fluorescence or Cherenkov telescope. We present here a study of the detection potential of Earth-skimming neutrinos taking into account neutrino interactions in the Earth crust, local matter distributions at various detector sites, the development of tau-induced showers in air and the detection of Cherenkov photons with IACTs. We analyzed simulated shower images on the camera focal plane and implemented generic reconstruction chains based on Hillas parameters. We find that present IACTs can distinguish air showers induced by tau neutrinos from the background of hadronic showers in the PeV-EeV energy range. We present the neutrino trigger efficiency obtained for a few configurations being considered for the next-generation Cherenkov telescopes, i.e. the Cherenkov Telescope Array. Finally, for a few representative neutrino spectra expected from astrophysical sources, we compare the expected event rates at running IACTs to what is expected for the dedicated IceCube neutrino telescope.

  9. Implications of leptonic unitarity violation at neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-Zhong; Zhou, Shun

    2008-08-01

    A measurement of the ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic neutrinos at a km3-size neutrino telescope will open a new window to constrain the 3×3 neutrino mixing matrix V and probe possible new physics. We point out that it is in principle possible to examine the non-unitarity of V, which is naturally expected in a class of seesaw models with one or more TeV-scale Majorana neutrinos, by using neutrino telescopes. Considering the UHE neutrinos produced from the decays of charged pions arising from pp and (or) pγ collisions at a distant astrophysical source, we show that their flavor ratios at a terrestrial neutrino telescope may deviate from the democratic flavor distribution ϕeT:ϕμT:ϕτT=1:1:1 due to the seesaw-induced unitarity violation of V. Its effect can be as large as several percent and can serve for an illustration of how sensitive a neutrino telescope should be to this kind of new physics.

  10. Pseudo-dirac neutrinos: a challenge for neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Beacom, John F; Bell, Nicole F; Hooper, Dan; Learned, John G; Pakvasa, Sandip; Weiler, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Neutrinos may be pseudo-Dirac states, such that each generation is actually composed of two maximally mixed Majorana neutrinos separated by a tiny mass difference. The usual active neutrino oscillation phenomenology would be unaltered if the pseudo-Dirac splittings are deltam(2) less, similar 10(-12) eV(2); in addition, neutrinoless double beta decay would be highly suppressed. However, it may be possible to distinguish pseudo-Dirac from Dirac neutrinos using high-energy astrophysical neutrinos. By measuring flavor ratios as a function of L/E, mass-squared differences down to deltam(2) approximately 10(-18) eV(2) can be reached. We comment on the possibility of probing cosmological parameters with neutrinos. PMID:14753977

  11. Flavor composition of ultrahigh energy neutrinos at source and at neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Choubey, Sandhya; Rodejohann, Werner

    2009-12-01

    We parametrize the initial flux composition of high energy astrophysical neutrinos as ({phi}{sub e}{sup 0} ratio {phi}{sub {mu}}{sup 0} ratio {phi}{sub {tau}}{sup 0})=(1 ratio n ratio 0), where n characterizes the source. All usually assumed neutrino sources appear as limits of this simple parametrization. We investigate how precise neutrino telescopes can pin down the value of n. We furthermore show that there is a neutrino mixing scenario in which the ratio of muon neutrinos to the other neutrinos takes a constant value regardless of the initial flux composition. This occurs when the muon neutrino survival probability takes its minimal allowed value. The phenomenological consequences of this very predictive neutrino mixing scenario are given.

  12. Search for neutrino emission from microquasars with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galatà, S.

    2012-12-01

    Neutrino telescopes are nowadays exploring a new window of observation on the high energy universe and may shed light on the longstanding problem regarding the origin of cosmic rays. The ANTARES neutrino telescope is located underwater 40 km offshore from the Southern coast of France, on a plateau at 2475 m depth. Since 2007 it observes the high energy (>100 GeV) neutrino sky looking for cosmic neutrino sources. Among the candidate neutrino emitters are microquasars, i.e. galactic X-ray binaries exhibiting relativistic jets, which may accelerate hadrons thus producing neutrinos, under certain conditions. These sources are also variable in time and undergo X-ray or gamma ray outburst that can be related to the acceleration of relativistic particles witnessed by their radio emission. These events can provide a trigger to the neutrino search, with the advantage of drastically reducing the atmospheric neutrino background. A search for neutrino emission from microquasar during outbursts is presented based on the data collected by ANTARES between 2007 and 2010. Upper limits are shown and compared with the predictions.

  13. Probing {theta}{sub 23} in neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Choubey, Sandhya; Niro, Viviana; Rodejohann, Werner

    2008-06-01

    Among all neutrino mixing parameters, the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 23} introduces the strongest variation on the flux ratios of ultrahigh-energy neutrinos. We investigate the potential of these flux ratio measurements at neutrino telescopes to constrain {theta}{sub 23}. We consider astrophysical neutrinos originating from pion, muon-damped, and neutron sources and make a comparative study of their sensitivity reach to {theta}{sub 23}. It is found that neutron sources are most favorable for testing deviations from maximal {theta}{sub 23}. Using a {chi}{sup 2} analysis, we show, in particular, the power of combining (i) different flux ratios from the same type of source, and also (ii) combining flux ratios from different astrophysical sources. We include in our analysis 'impure' sources, i.e., deviations from the usually assumed initial (1 ratio 2 ratio 0), (0 ratio 1 ratio 0), or (1 ratio 0 ratio 0) flux compositions.

  14. Commodity readout electronics for an underwater neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anassontzis, E. G.; Athanasopoulos, T.; Belias, A.; Fotiou, A.; Maniatis, E.; Resvanis, L. K.; Stavropoulos, G.

    2009-04-01

    Typically the front end electronics required for a neutrino telescope, incorporates electronics to perform waveform capture of photomultiplier tube signals, possibly applying a local triggering algorithm and transmission of the data to the shore. We show how a commodity based system which employs Component Off The Shelf (COTS) devices, with Flash Analog to Digital Converters (FADCs) and Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), can be used for synchronous signal digitization of multiple photomultiplier tubes. The transmission link to the shore has been realized using the standard communication protocol of Gbit Ethernet through fiber. We describe the readout system and our designs to interface with existing electronics for control and operation of a neutrino telescope.

  15. Dark matter signals at neutrino telescopes in effective theories

    SciTech Connect

    Catena, Riccardo

    2015-04-29

    We constrain the effective theory of one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions using neutrino telescope observations. We derive exclusion limits on the 28 coupling constants of the theory, exploring interaction operators previously considered in dark matter direct detection only, and using new nuclear response functions recently derived through nuclear structure calculations. We determine for what interactions neutrino telescopes are superior to current direct detection experiments, and show that Hydrogen is not the most important element in the exclusion limit calculation for the majority of the spin-dependent operators.

  16. The KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, M.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2010-11-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure to be constructed in the Mediterranean Sea hosting a neutrino telescope with a volume of at least one cubic kilometre. The scientific case for a neutrino telescope of a cubic kilometre scale is overwhelming. The infrastructure it requires will be shared by a host of other sciences, making continuous and long-term measurements in the fields of oceanography, geophysics, and marine biological sciences possible. The feasibility of neutrino astronomy with a detector in the deep sea was proven by the successful deployment and operation of the ANTARES prototype detector. The potential of the detection technique, based on the reconstruction of the tracks of muons, the possible reaction products of the sought after neutrinos, has been demonstrated. With two other pilot projects, NEMO and NESTOR, different detector configurations and techniques were explored. The three projects have provided a wealth of information on the technologies required for a large deep-sea neutrino telescope. KM3NeT will reap the benefits. It is planned to make KM3NeT a CO2-neutral facility, using wind or solar energy to supply the required power for the underwater system as well as the shore station. The proposed infrastructure will be built by a European consortium (KM3NeT). The total cost is estimated at 220-250 M€.

  17. Indirect Search for Dark Matter with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Loucatos, S.

    2010-02-10

    One of the goals of the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope is the search for dark matter in the universe. In this paper the first results on the search for dark matter in the Sun with ANTARES in its 5 line configuration, as well as sensitivity studies with the full ANTARES detector are presented.

  18. The ANTARES neutrino telescope: Status and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Anthony M.

    2009-10-01

    Completed in May 2008, the ANTARES neutrino telescope is located in the Mediterranean Sea, 40 km off the coast of Toulon, at a depth of about 2500 m. Consisting of 12 detector lines housing nearly 900 optical modules, the ANTARES telescope is currently the largest neutrino detector in the northern hemisphere. Utilising the Mediterranean Sea as a detecting medium, the detection principle of ANTARES relies on the observation of Cherenkov photons emitted by charged relativistic leptons, produced through neutrino interactions with the surrounding water and seabed, using a 3 dimensional lattice of photomultiplier tubes. In this paper we review the current status of the ANTARES experiment, highlighting some of the results from its first year of full operation.

  19. The optical detection unit for Baikal-GVD neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrorin, A. D.; Avrorin, A. V.; Aynutdinov, V. M.; Bannash, R.; Belolaptikov, I. A.; Bogorodsky, D. Yu.; Brudanin, V. B.; Budnev, N. M.; Danilchenko, I. A.; Domogatsky, G. V.; Doroshenko, A. A.; Dyachok, A. N.; Dzhilkibaev, Zh.-A. M.; Fialkovsky, S. V.; Gafarov, A. R.; Gaponenko, O. N.; Golubkov, K. V.; Gress, T. I.; Honz, Z.; Kebkal, K. G.; Kebkal, O. G.; Konischev, K. V.; Konstantinov, E. N.; Korobchenko, A. V.; Koshechkin, A. P.; Koshel, F. K.; Kozhin, A. V.; Kulepov, V. F.; Kuleshov, D. A.; Ljashuk, V. I.; Milenin, M. B.; Mirgazov, R. A.; Osipova, E. R.; Panfilov, A. I.; Pan'kov, L. V.; Perevalov, A. A.; Pliskovsky, E. N.; Rozanov, M. I.; Rubtzov, V. Yu.; Rjabov, E. V.; Shaybonov, B. A.; Sheifler, A. A.; Skurihin, A. V.; Smagina, A. A.; Suvorova, O. V.; Tabolenko, V. A.; Tarashansky, B. A.; Yakovlev, S. A.; Zagorodnikov, A. V.; Zhukov, V. A.; Zurbanov, V. L.

    2016-07-01

    The first stage of the GVD-cluster composed of five strings was deployed in April 2014. Each string consists of two sections with 12 optical modules per section. A section is the basic detection unit of the Baikal neutrino telescope. We will describe the section design, review its basic elements - optical modules, FADC readout units, slow control and calibration systems, and present selected results for section in-situ tests in Lake Baikal.

  20. First Search for Point Sources of High-energy Cosmic Neutrinos with the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Aguilar, J. A.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigi, A.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Piattelli, P.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-12-01

    Results are presented of a search for cosmic sources of high-energy neutrinos with the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The data were collected during 2007 and 2008 using detector configurations containing between 5 and 12 detection lines. The integrated live time of the analyzed data is 304 days. Muon tracks are reconstructed using a likelihood-based algorithm. Studies of the detector timing indicate a median angular resolution of 0.5 ± 0.1 deg. The neutrino flux sensitivity is 7.5 × 10-8(E ν/ GeV)-2 GeV-1 s-1 cm-2 for the part of the sky that is always visible (δ < -48 deg), which is better than limits obtained by previous experiments. No cosmic neutrino sources have been observed. We dedicate this Letter to the memory of our colleague and friend Luciano Moscoso, who passed away during the preparation of this Letter.

  1. Disentangling neutrino-nucleon cross section and high energy neutrino flux with a km^3 neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Cuoco, A.; Mangano, G.; Miele, G.; Pastor, S.; Pisanti, O.; Serpico, P.D.

    2007-11-01

    The energy-zenith angular event distribution in a neutrino telescope provides a unique tool to determine at the same time the neutrino-nucleon cross section at extreme kinematical regions, and the high energy neutrino flux. By using a simple parameterization for fluxes and cross sections, we present a sensitivity analysis for the case of a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. In particular, we consider the specific case of an under-water Mediterranean telescope placed at the NEMO site, although most of our results also apply to an under-ice detector such as IceCube. We determine the sensitivity to departures from standard values of the cross sections above 1 PeV which can be probed independently from an a-priori knowledge of the normalization and energy dependence of the flux. We also stress that the capability to tag downgoing neutrino showers in the PeV range against the cosmic ray induced background of penetrating muons appears to be a crucial requirement to derive meaningful constraints on the cross section.

  2. Disentangling neutrino-nucleon cross section and high energy neutrino flux with a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Miele, G.; Mangano, G.; Pisanti, O.; Pastor, S.

    2008-02-15

    The energy-zenith angular event distribution in a neutrino telescope provides a unique tool to determine at the same time the neutrino-nucleon cross section at extreme kinematical regions, and the high-energy neutrino flux. By using a simple parametrization for fluxes and cross sections, we present a sensitivity analysis for the case of a km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. In particular, we consider the specific case of an underwater Mediterranean telescope placed at the NEMO site, although most of our results also apply to an under-ice detector such as IceCube. We determine the sensitivity to departures from standard values of the cross sections above 1 PeV which can be probed independently from an a priori knowledge of the normalization and energy dependence of the flux. We also stress that the capability to tag downgoing neutrino showers in the PeV range against the cosmic-ray induced background of penetrating muons appears to be a crucial requirement to derive meaningful constraints on the cross section.

  3. Cosmogenic neutrinos and signals of TeV gravity in air showers and neutrino telescopes.

    PubMed

    Illana, J I; Masip, M; Meloni, D

    2004-10-01

    The existence of extra dimensions allows the possibility that the fundamental scale of gravity is at the TeV. If that is the case, gravity could dominate the interactions of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays. In particular, the production of microscopic black holes by cosmogenic neutrinos has been estimated in a number of papers. We consider here gravity-mediated interactions at larger distances, where they can be calculated in the eikonal approximation. We show that for the expected flux of cosmogenic neutrinos these elastic processes give a stronger signal than black hole production in neutrino telescopes. Taking the bounds on the higher-dimensional Planck mass M(D) (D=4 + n) from current air shower experiments, for n=2(6) elastic collisions could produce up to 118 (34) events per year at IceCube. On the other hand, the absence of any signal would imply a bound of M(D) > or approximately 5 TeV. PMID:15524863

  4. Future sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to dark matter annihilations from the cosmic diffuse neutrino signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moliné, Ángeles; Ibarra, Alejandro; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Cosmological observations and cold dark matter N-body simulations indicate that our Universe is populated by numerous halos, where dark matter particles annihilate, potentially producing Standard Model particles. In this paper we calculate the contribution to the diffuse neutrino background from dark matter annihilations in halos at all redshifts and we estimate the future sensitivity to the annihilation cross section of neutrino telescopes such as IceCube or ANTARES. We consider various parametrizations to describe the internal halo properties and for the halo mass function in order to bracket the theoretical uncertainty in the limits from the modeling of the cosmological annihilation flux. We find that observations of the cosmic diffuse neutrino flux at large angular distances from the galactic center lead to constraints on the dark matter annihilation cross section which are complementary to (and for some extrapolations of the astrophysical parameters, better than) those stemming from observations of the Milky Way halo, especially for neutrino telescopes not pointing directly to the Milky Way center, as is the case of IceCube.

  5. Search for high-energy neutrinos from GRB130427A with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    ANTARES is the first deep under-sea high-energy astrophysical neutrino telescope, in operation since 2008, in the Northern Hemisphere. In the light of a multi-messenger approach, one of the most ever intense (photon fluence Fγ ≃10-3 erg/cm2) and close (redshift z = 0.34) transient γ-source, GRB130427A, is considered in the ANTARES physics program for a co-incident search for photons and high-energy neutrinos. The first time-dependent analysis on GRBs neutrino emissions has been performed for this source: Konus-Wind parameters of the γ time-dependent spectrum are used to predict the expected neutrino flux from each peak of the burst, through the numerical calculation code NeuCosmA. An extended maximum likelihood ratio search is performed in order to maximize the discovery probability of prompt neutrinos from the burst: at the end, ANTARES sensitivity to this source is evaluated to be E2Φv ∼ 1 -10 GeV/cm2 in the energy range from 2 x 105 GeV to 2 x 107 GeV.

  6. WIMP dark matter and supersymmetry searches with neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornengo, N.

    2011-01-01

    The particle physics interpretation of the missing-mass, or dark-matter, a problem of cosmological and astrophysical nature, is going to be placed under strong scrutiny in the next years. From the particle physics side, accelerator physics will deeply test theoretical ideas about new physics beyond the Standard Model, where a particle physics candidate to dark matter is often naturally obtained. From the astrophysical side, many probes are already providing a great deal of independent information on signals which can be produced by the galactic or extra-galactic dark matter. The current and new-generation experimental efforts are therefore going to place under deep scrutiny the theoretical explanations of the relevant signals. The ultimate hope is in fact to be able to disentangle a dark matter signal from the various sources of backgrounds. Neutrino telescopes are one of the prominent tools for looking at dark matter and search for a signal, the neutrino flux from Earth and Sun. In this neutrino dark matter searches share properties with both direct dark matter searches and cosmic-ray indirect dark matter searches, and therefore complement these different detection techniques.

  7. Study of Photomultiplier Tubes for the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Juan-De-Dios; ANTARES Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The ANTARES Collab oration [4] is deploying a high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea. The Cherenkov light emitted by the muon produced in the charged current neutrino interaction will be detected by a matrix of photomultipliers (PMTs), housed in pressure-resistant glass spheres. Since PMTs are a key element of the detector, intensive R&D studies have been carried out on several models. An analysis based on the physical parameters relevant for underwater neutrino experiments like ANTARES provided the criteria for cho osing a large hemispherical PMT. After a pre-selection stage, three models were studied in detail: Hamamatsu R7081-20, Photonis XP1804/D2 and Hamamatsu R8055. This contribution reports on a series of exhaustive tests which were performed at CPPM (Marseilles), DAPNIA (Saclay) and IFIC (Valencia) to measure properties such as gain, transit time spread, effective area, dark noise, peak to valley ratio, afterpulsing and ageing. Moreover, a large sample of the PMT model finally selected (Hamamatsu R7081-20) has been characterized. Some of these photomultipliers have already been installed in the so-called "Sector Line" [5], which will soon yield the first data.

  8. Interpretation of neutrino flux limits from neutrino telescopes on the Hillas plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Walter

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the interplay between spectral shape and detector response beyond a simple E-2 neutrino flux at neutrino telescopes, using the example of time-integrated point source searches using IceCube-40 data. We use a self-consistent model for the neutrino production, in which protons interact with synchrotron photons from coaccelerated electrons, and we fully take into account the relevant pion and kaon production modes, the flavor composition at the source, flavor mixing, and magnetic field effects on the secondaries (pions, muon, and kaons). Since some of the model parameters can be related to the Hillas parameters R (size of the acceleration region) and B (magnetic field), we relate the detector response to the Hillas plane. In order to compare the response to different spectral shapes, we use the energy flux density as a measure for the pion production efficiency times luminosity of the source. We demonstrate that IceCube has a very good reach in this quantity for active galactic nuclei and jets for all source declinations, while the spectra of sources with strong magnetic fields are found outside the optimal reach. We also demonstrate where neutrinos from kaon decays and muon tracks from τ decays can be relevant for the detector response. Finally, we point out the complementarity between IceCube and other experiments sensitive to high-energy neutrinos, using the example of 2004-2008 Earth-skimming neutrino data from Auger. We illustrate that Auger, in principle, is more sensitive to the parameter region in the Hillas plane from which the highest-energetic cosmic rays may be expected in this model.

  9. Measuring the 13 Neutrino Mixing Angle and the CP Phase with Neutrino Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, P.D.; Kachelriess, M.

    2005-06-03

    The observed excess of high-energy cosmic rays from the Galactic plane in the energy range around 10{sup 18} eV may be explained by neutron primaries generated in the photodissociation of heavy nuclei. In this scenario, lower-energy neutrons decay before reaching the Earth and produce a detectable flux in a 1 km{sup 3} neutrino telescope. The initial flavor composition of the neutrino flux, {phi}({nu}{sub e}):{phi}({nu}{sub {mu}}):{phi}({nu}{sub {tau}})=1:0:0, permits a combined {nu}{sub {mu}}/{nu}{sub {tau}} appearance and {nu}{sub e} disappearance experiment. The observable flux ratio {phi}({nu}{sub {mu}})/{phi}({nu}{sub e}+{nu}{sub {tau}}) at Earth depends on the 13 mixing angle {theta}{sub 13} and the leptonic CP phase {delta}{sub CP}, thus opening a new way to measure these two quantities.

  10. The deep-sea hub of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghinolfi, M.; Calzas, A.; Dinkespiler, B.; Cuneo, S.; Favard, S.; Hallewell, G.; Jaquet, M.; Musumeci, M.; Papaleo, R.; Raia, G.; Valdy, P.; Vernin, P.

    2006-11-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope, currently under construction at 2500 m depth off the French Mediterranean coast, will contain 12 detection lines, powered and read out through a deep-sea junction box (JB) hub. Electrical energy from the shore station is distributed through a transformer with multiple secondary windings and a plugboard with 16 deep sea-mateable electro-optic connectors. Connections are made to the JB outputs using manned or remotely operated submersible vehicles. The triply redundant power management and slow control system is based on two identical AC-powered systems, communicating with the shore through 160 Mb/s fibre G-links and a third battery-powered system using a slower link. We describe the power and slow control systems of the underwater hub.

  11. Probing BSM neutrino physics with flavor and spectral distortions: Prospects for future high-energy neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Ian M.; Murase, Kohta

    2016-04-01

    The flavor of cosmic neutrinos may help unveil their sources and could reveal the presence of new physics in the neutrino sector. We consider impacts of next-generation neutrino detectors, including the planned upgrade to neutrino detector, IceCube-Gen2, which is well positioned to make dramatic improvements in both flavor and spectral measurements. We show that various models in neutrino physics beyond the Standard Model, such as neutrino decay, pseudo-Dirac states, and neutrino self-scattering, may be found or strongly constrained at IceCube-Gen2 and Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope. We find that the additional flavor discriminants given by Glashow resonance events and so-called "double-bang" topologies improve the ability to access the flavor of the cosmic high-energy neutrinos and probe the beyond the Standard Model physics. In addition, although details depend on source properties, Glashow resonance events have the additional feature of being able to inform us of the relative strengths of neutrino and antineutrino emission, which may help us discriminate astrophysical scenarios.

  12. Searches for Point-like and Extended Neutrino Sources Close to the Galactic Center Using the ANTARES Neutrino Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Rosa, G.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsäßer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüßler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2014-05-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino sources using six years of data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope has been performed. Clusters of muon neutrinos over the expected atmospheric background have been looked for. No clear signal has been found. The most signal-like accumulation of events is located at equatorial coordinates R.A. = -46.°8 and decl. = -64.°9 and corresponds to a 2.2σ background fluctuation. In addition, upper limits on the flux normalization of an E -2 muon neutrino energy spectrum have been set for 50 pre-selected astrophysical objects. Finally, motivated by an accumulation of seven events relatively close to the Galactic Center in the recently reported neutrino sample of the IceCube telescope, a search for point sources in a broad region around this accumulation has been carried out. No indication of a neutrino signal has been found in the ANTARES data and upper limits on the flux normalization of an E -2 energy spectrum of neutrinos from point sources in that region have been set. The 90% confidence level upper limits on the muon neutrino flux normalization vary between 3.5 and 5.1 × 10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1, depending on the exact location of the source.

  13. Towards a Joint Analysis of Data from the IceCube Neutrino Telescope, the Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov; Golup, G.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Aublin, J.; Caccianiga, L.; Ghia, P. L.; Roulet, E.; Unger, M.; Sagawa, H.; Tinyakov, P.

    A joint point-source analysis to search for correlations between the arrival directions of neutrinos and ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) is being planned by the IceCube, Pierre Auger and Telescope Array Collaborations. A cross-correlation analysis will be performed using ten years of Auger data, six years of Telescope Array data and a signal-rich set of neutrino candidate events detected at IceCube. Also, a likelihood analysis will be applied to the same sample of neutrinos, stacking their arrival directions, and to UHECRs. Finally, another likelihood analysis will be performed on stacked UHECRs and the IceCube 4-year sample of clean, through-going muons that could be associated with charged-current muon neutrino interactions. An outline of the analyses, their sensitivities and discovery potentials is presented here.

  14. Searches for clustering in the time integrated skymap of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Rosa, G.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; S{ánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports a search for spatial clustering of the arrival directions of high energy muon neutrinos detected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. An improved two-point correlation method is used to study the autocorrelation of 3058 neutrino candidate events as well as cross-correlations with other classes of astrophysical objects: sources of high energy gamma rays, massive black holes and nearby galaxies. No significant deviations from the isotropic distribution of arrival directions expected from atmospheric backgrounds are observed.

  15. AMADEUS—The acoustic neutrino detection test system of the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Chon Sen, N.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Provost, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-01-01

    The AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for the Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system which is described in this article aims at the investigation of techniques for acoustic detection of neutrinos in the deep sea. It is integrated into the ANTARES neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Its acoustic sensors, installed at water depths between 2050 and 2300 m, employ piezo-electric elements for the broad-band recording of signals with frequencies ranging up to 125 kHz. The typical sensitivity of the sensors is around -145 dB re 1 V/μPa (including preamplifier). Completed in May 2008, AMADEUS consists of six “acoustic clusters”, each comprising six acoustic sensors that are arranged at distances of roughly 1 m from each other. Two vertical mechanical structures (so-called lines) of the ANTARES detector host three acoustic clusters each. Spacings between the clusters range from 14.5 to 340 m. Each cluster contains custom-designed electronics boards to amplify and digitise the acoustic signals from the sensors. An on-shore computer cluster is used to process and filter the data stream and store the selected events. The daily volume of recorded data is about 10 GB. The system is operating continuously and automatically, requiring only little human intervention. AMADEUS allows for extensive studies of both transient signals and ambient noise in the deep sea, as well as signal correlations on several length scales and localisation of acoustic point sources. Thus the system is excellently suited to assess the background conditions for the measurement of the bipolar pulses expected to originate from neutrino interactions.

  16. New Limits on Thermally Annihilating Dark Matter from Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, J.; Lopes, I.

    2016-08-01

    We used a consistent and robust solar model to obtain upper limits placed by neutrino telescopes, such as IceCube and Super-Kamiokande, on the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross-section, for a general model of dark matter with a velocity dependent (p-wave) thermally averaged cross-section. In this picture, the Boltzmann equation for the dark matter abundance is numerically solved, satisfying the dark matter density measured from the cosmic microwave background. We show that for lower cross-sections and higher masses, the dark matter annihilation rate drops sharply, resulting in upper bounds on the scattering cross-section that are one order of magnitude above those derived from a velocity independent (s-wave) annihilation cross-section. Our results show that upper limits on the scattering cross-section obtained from dark matter annihilating in the Sun are sensible to the uncertainty in current standard solar models, fluctuating by a maximum of 20% depending on the annihilation channel.

  17. A search for Secluded Dark Matter in the Sun with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaš, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-05-01

    A search for Secluded Dark Matter annihilation in the Sun using 2007–2012 data of the ANTARES neutrino telescope is presented. Three different cases are considered: a) detection of dimuons that result from the decay of the mediator, or neutrino detection from: b) mediator that decays into a dimuon and, in turn, into neutrinos, and c) mediator that decays directly into neutrinos. As no significant excess over background is observed, constraints are derived on the dark matter mass and the lifetime of the mediator.

  18. Recent results from operation of the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallewell, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is currently the largest operating water Cherenkov detector and the largest neutrino detector in the Northern hemisphere. It comprises 885 optical modules distributed on 12 detection lines anchored at a depth of 2.5 km in the Mediterranean Sea near Toulon, France; at a latitude that accesses a large part of the Galactic Plane, including the Galactic Centre. Its main scientific target is the detection of multi-TeV neutrinos predicted in charged cosmic particle acceleration mechanisms. In addition, ANTARES has developed a range of multi-messenger search strategies to look for correlations with optical counterparts and other cosmic messengers including γ-rays and charged cosmic rays. Other topics of investigation include the search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation, searches for exotic particles and the measurement of neutrino oscillations. Details of the telescope are discussed together with examples of recently-conducted searches.

  19. A search for time dependent neutrino emission from microquasars with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; De Rosa, G.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Montaruli, T.; Müller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2014-09-01

    Results are presented on a search for neutrino emission from a sample of six microquasars, based on the data collected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope between 2007 and 2010. By means of appropriate time cuts, the neutrino search has been restricted to the periods when the acceleration of relativistic jets was taking place at the microquasars under study. The time cuts have been chosen using the information from the X-ray telescopes RXTE/ASM and Swift/BAT, and, in one case, the gamma-ray telescope Fermi/LAT. No statistically significant excess has been observed, thus upper limits on the neutrino fluences have been derived and compared to the predictions by models. Constraints have been put on the ratio of proton to electron luminosity in the jets.

  20. Prospects for detecting dark matter with neutrino telescopes in intermediate mass black hole scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Bertone, Gianfranco

    2006-05-15

    Current strategies of indirect dark matter detection with neutrino telescopes are based on the search for high-energy neutrinos from the solar core or from the center of the Earth. Here, we propose a new strategy based on the detection of neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in mini-spikes around intermediate mass black holes. Neutrino fluxes, in this case, depend on the annihilation cross-section of dark matter particles, whereas solar and terrestrial fluxes are sensitive to the scattering cross-section off nucleons, a circumstance that makes the proposed search complementary to the existing ones. We discuss the prospects for detection with upcoming underwater and under-ice experiments such as ANTARES and IceCube, and show that several, up to many, sources could be detected with both experiments. A kilometer-scale telescope in the Mediterranean appears to be ideally suited for the proposed search.

  1. The Calibration Units of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baret, B.; Keller, P.; Clark, M. Lindsey

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes to be deployed in the Mediterranean Sea that will perform neutrino astronomy and oscillation studies. It consists of three-dimensional arrays of thousands of optical modules that detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles resulting from the interaction of a neutrino with the surrounding medium. The performance of the neutrino telescope relies on the precise timing and positioning calibration of the detector elements. Other environmental conditions which may affect light and sound transmission, such as water temperature and salinity, must also be continuously monitored. This contribution describes the technical design of the first Calibration Unit, to be deployed on the French site as part of KM3NeT Phase 1.

  2. Follow-up of high energy neutrinos detected by the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Aurore

    2016-04-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited to detect high energy neutrinos produced in astrophysical transient sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky with a high duty cycle. Potential neutrino sources are gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae and flaring active galactic nuclei. To enhance the sensitivity of ANTARES to such sources, a detection method based on follow-up observations from the neutrino direction has been developed. This program, denoted as TAToO, includes a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT, Zadko and MASTER) and the Swift-XRT telescope, which are triggered when an "interesting" neutrino is detected by ANTARES. A follow-up of special events, such as neutrino doublets in time/space coincidence or a single neutrino having a very high energy or in the specific direction of a local galaxy, significantly improves the perspective for the detection of transient sources. The analysis of early and long term follow-up observations to search for fast and slowly varying transient sources, respectively, has been performed and the results covering optical and X-ray data are presented in this contribution.

  3. Limits on dark matter annihilation in the sun using the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tönnis, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-08-01

    A search for muon neutrinos originating from dark matter annihilations in the Sun is performed using the data recorded by the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2012. In order to obtain the best possible sensitivities to dark matter signals, an optimisation of the event selection criteria is performed taking into account the background of atmospheric muons, atmospheric neutrinos and the energy spectra of the expected neutrino signals. No significant excess over the background is observed and 90% C.L. upper limits on the neutrino flux, the spin-dependent and spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross-sections are derived for WIMP masses ranging from 50 GeV to 5 TeV for the annihilation channels WIMP + WIMP → b b bar ,W+W- and τ+τ-.

  4. Neutrino searches with the IceCube telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Juan A.

    2013-04-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is an array of 5,160 photomultipliers (PMTs) deployed on 86 strings at 1.5-2.5 km depth within the ice at the South Pole. The main goal of the IceCube experiment is the detection of an astrophysical neutrino signal. In this contribution we present the results of the point source analysis on the data taken from April 2008 to May 2011, when three detector configurations were operated: the 40-string configuration (IC-40), the 59-string configuration (IC-59) and the 79-string configuration (IC-79). No significant excess indicative of point sources of neutrinos has been found, and we present upper limits for an E-2 muon neutrino flux for a list of candidate sources. For the first time these limits start to reach 10-12 TeV cm s in some parts of the sky.

  5. Constraints on the neutrino emission from the Galactic Ridge with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-09-01

    A highly significant excess of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Some features of the energy and declination distributions of IceCube events hint at a North/South asymmetry of the neutrino flux. This could be due to the presence of the bulk of our Galaxy in the Southern hemisphere. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, located in the Mediterranean Sea, has been taking data since 2007. It offers the best sensitivity to muon neutrinos produced by galactic cosmic ray interactions in this region of the sky. In this letter a search for an extended neutrino flux from the Galactic Ridge region is presented. Different models of neutrino production by cosmic ray propagation are tested. No excess of events is observed and upper limits for different neutrino flux spectral indices Γ are set. For Γ = 2.4 the 90% confidence level flux upper limit at 100 TeV for one neutrino flavour corresponds to Φ01 f (100 TeV) = 2.0 ṡ10-17 GeV-1cm-2s-1sr-1. Under this assumption, at most two events of the IceCube cosmic candidates can originate from the Galactic Ridge. A simple power-law extrapolation of the Fermi-LAT flux to account for IceCube High Energy Starting Events is excluded at 90% confidence level.

  6. The KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, Annarita

    2014-12-01

    KM3NeT is a deep-sea research infrastructure being constructed in the Mediterranean Sea. It will host the next generation Cherenkov neutrino telescope and nodes for a deep sea multidisciplinary observatory, providing oceanographers, marine biologists, and geophysicists with real time measurements. The neutrino telescope will complement IceCube in its field of view and exceed it substantially in sensitivity. Its main goal is the detection of high energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. The detector will have a modular structure with six building blocks, each consisting of about 100 Detection Units (DUs). Each DU will be equipped with 18 multi-PMT digital optical modules. The first phase of construction has started and shore and deep-sea infrastructures hosting the future KM3NeT detector are being prepared in offshore Toulon, France and offshore Capo Passero on Sicily, Italy. The technological solutions for the neutrino detector of KM3NeT and the expected performance of the neutrino telescope are presented and discussed.

  7. Search of dark matter annihilation in the galactic centre using the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ANTARES Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    A search for high-energy neutrinos coming from the direction of the Galactic Centre is performed using the data recorded by the ANTARES neutrino telescope from 2007 to 2012. The event selection criteria are chosen to maximise the sensitivity to possible signals produced by the self-annihilation of weakly interacting massive particles accumulated around the centre of the Milky Way with respect to the atmospheric background. After data unblinding, the number of neutrinos observed in the line of sight of the Galactic Centre is found to be compatible with background expectations. The 90% C.L. upper limits in terms of the neutrino+anti-neutrino flux, Φνμ+bar nuμ, and the velocity averaged annihilation cross-section, langleσAvrangle, are derived for the WIMP self-annihilation channels into bbar b, W+W-, τ+τ-, μ+μ-, νbar nu. The ANTARES limits for langleσAvrangle are shown to be the most stringent for a neutrino telescope over the WIMP masses 25 GeV < MWIMP < 10 TeV.

  8. The neutrino mass hierarchy measurement with a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: A feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Tsirigotis, A. G.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    With the measurement of a non zero value of the θ{sub 13} neutrino mixing parameter, interest in neutrinos as source of the baryon asymmetry of the universe has increased. Among the measurements of a rich and varied program in near future neutrino physics is the determination of the mass hierarchy. We present the status of a study of the feasibility of using a densely instrumented undersea neutrino detector to determine the mass hierarchy, utilizing the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect on atmospheric neutrino oscillations. The detector will use technology developed for KM3NeT. We present the systematic studies of the optimization of a detector in the required 5–10 GeV energy regime. These studies include new tracking and interaction identification algorithms as well as geometrical optimizations of the detector.

  9. Search for neutrinos from transient sources with the ANTARES telescope and optical follow-up observations (TAToO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornic, Damien; Brunner, Jurgen; Basa, Stéphane; Al Samarai, Imen; Bertin, Vincent; Boer, Michel; Busto, José; Escoffier, Stéphanie; Klotz, Alain; Mazure, Alain; Vallage, Bertrand; ANTARES Collaboration; TAROT Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ANTARES telescope has the opportunity to detect transient neutrino sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, flares of active galactic nuclei. In order to enhance the sensitivity to these sources, we have developed a new detection method based on the follow-up by optical telescopes of “golden” neutrino events, such as neutrino doublets coincident in time and space or single neutrinos of very high energy. The ANTARES collaboration has therefore implemented a very fast on-line reconstruction with a good angular resolution. These characteristics allow us to trigger an optical telescope network. Since February 2009, ANTARES is sending alert triggers once or twice per month to the two 25 cm robotic telescope of TAROT. This optical follow-up of such special events would not only give access to the nature of the sources, but also would improve the sensitivity to transient neutrino sources.

  10. Radio telescopes as the detectors of super-high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dagkesamansky, R. D.; Zheleznykh, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    The registration of super high energy neutrinos is a very difficult and also very important problem that requires construction of detectors with large effective target masses. Askaryan pointed out the possibility of registering cascades in dense media by the Cherenkov radio emission of an excess of negative charges in the cascades which arose in interaction between high energy particles and the atoms of medium. The telescopes for cosmic high energy neutrino detection by radioemission of cascades induced underground, but whose development continues in the atmosphere were proposed by others. The effective target masses of such detectors could be approx. 10(exp 9) tons and more. The properties of Cherenkov radio emission of cascades and the properties of ice in the Antarctic Region make it possible to propose Radio Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detection (RAMAND): antennas should be placed on the ice surface of approx. 10 sq km to search for radio signals for neutrino (muon) cascades of energy. It is evident from data given that the largest radio telescopes gives the opportunity for registration of the cascades induced by neutrinos with the energies E is greater than or = 10(exp 20) eV.

  11. Five years of searches for point sources of astrophysical neutrinos with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achterberg, A.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Ahrens, J.; Andeen, K.; Atlee, D. W.; Bahcall, J. N.; Bai, X.; Baret, B.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Becka, T.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Braun, J.; Burgess, C.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Davour, A.; Day, C. T.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Young, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Feser, T.; Filimonov, K.; Fox, B. D.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grullon, S.; Groß, A.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, D.; Hardtke, R.; Harenberg, T.; Hart, J. E.; Hauschildt, T.; Hays, D.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G. C.; Hodges, J.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hommez, B.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Hughey, B.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Hülß, J.-P.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Jones, A.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Karle, A.; Kawai, H.; Kelley, J. L.; Kestel, M.; Kitamura, N.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Kowalski, M.; Köpke, L.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Landsman, H.; Leich, H.; Leier, D.; Leuthold, M.; Liubarsky, I.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McCauley, T.; McParland, C. P.; Meli, A.; Messarius, T.; Mészáros, P.; Miyamoto, H.; Mokhtarani, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morey, A.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Ögelman, H.; Olivas, A.; Patton, S.; Peña-Garay, C.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Pretz, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Razzaque, S.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Robbins, S.; Roth, P.; Rott, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Seckel, D.; Seo, S. H.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Smith, A. J.; Solarz, M.; Song, C.; Sopher, J. E.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Steffen, P.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sumner, T. J.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; Voigt, B.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Waldmann, H.; Walter, M.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wendt, C.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zornoza, J. D.

    2007-05-01

    We report the results of a five-year survey of the northern sky to search for point sources of high energy neutrinos. The search was performed on the data collected with the AMANDA-II neutrino telescope in the years 2000 to 2004, with a live time of 1001 days. The sample of selected events consists of 4282 upward going muon tracks with high reconstruction quality and an energy larger than about 100 GeV. We found no indication of point sources of neutrinos and set 90% confidence level flux upper limits for an all-sky search and also for a catalog of 32 selected sources. For the all-sky search, our average (over declination and right ascension) experimentally observed upper limit Φ0=((E)/(1TeV))γ·(dΦ)/(dE) to a point source flux of muon and tau neutrino (detected as muons arising from taus) is Φνμ+ν¯μ0+Φντ+ν¯τ0=11.1×10-11TeV-1cm-2s-1, in the energy range between 1.6 TeV and 2.5 PeV for a flavor ratio Φνμ+ν¯μ0/Φντ+ν¯τ0=1 and assuming a spectral index γ=2. It should be noticed that this is the first time we set upper limits to the flux of muon and tau neutrinos. In previous papers we provided muon neutrino upper limits only neglecting the sensitivity to a signal from tau neutrinos, which improves the limits by 10% to 16%. The value of the average upper limit presented in this work corresponds to twice the limit on the muon neutrino flux Φνμ+ν¯μ0=5.5×10-11TeV-1cm-2s-1. A stacking analysis for preselected active galactic nuclei and a search based on the angular separation of the events were also performed. We report the most stringent flux upper limits to date, including the results of a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties.

  12. Probing the 2-3 leptonic mixing at high-energy neutrino telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2006-02-15

    We discuss the possibility to probe leptonic mixing parameters at high-energy neutrino telescopes in a model-independent way, using astrophysical neutron and pion sources. In particular we show how the octant of the 2-3 mixing angle might be determined independently of prior knowledge of the source, even when current uncertainties on the other mixing parameters are included. We also argue that nontrivial neutrino oscillation effects should be taken into account when using high-energy flavor ratios for astrophysical diagnostics.

  13. A search for neutrino emission from the Fermi bubbles with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Al Samarai, I.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, F.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Michael, T.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Müller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of the Fermi-LAT data has revealed two extended structures above and below the Galactic Centre emitting gamma rays with a hard spectrum, the so-called Fermi bubbles. Hadronic models attempting to explain the origin of the Fermi bubbles predict the emission of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays with similar fluxes. The ANTARES detector, a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea, has a good visibility to the Fermi bubble regions. Using data collected from 2008 to 2011 no statistically significant excess of events is observed and therefore upper limits on the neutrino flux in TeV range from the Fermi bubbles are derived for various assumed energy cutoffs of the source.

  14. SEARCH FOR COSMIC NEUTRINO POINT SOURCES WITH FOUR YEARS OF DATA FROM THE ANTARES TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2012-11-20

    In this paper, a time-integrated search for point sources of cosmic neutrinos is presented using the data collected from 2007 to 2010 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope. No statistically significant signal has been found and upper limits on the neutrino flux have been obtained. Assuming an E {sup -2} {sub {nu}} spectrum, these flux limits are at 1-10 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for declinations ranging from -90 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign . Limits for specific models of RX J1713.7-3946 and Vela X, which include information on the source morphology and spectrum, are also given.

  15. On the Sensitivity of Neutrino Telescopes to a Modified Dispersion Relation

    SciTech Connect

    Bustamante, M.; Gago, A. M.; Bazo, J. L.; Miranda, O. G.

    2008-07-02

    We consider a modified dispersion relation and its effect on the flavour ratios of high-energy neutrinos originated at distant astrophysical sources such as active galactic nuclei. This dispersion relation arise naturally in different new physics (NP) effects such as violation of CPT invariance, of the equivalence principle and of Lorentz invariance. It is a common notion in the literature that by using the flux of high-energy neutrinos expected from distant astrophysical sources, the sensitivity to possible NP effects may be improved beyond the current bounds. However, performing a realistic analysis that takes into account the expected number of events in future neutrino telescopes, we find that the average detected flavour ratios with and without the inclusion of new physics have essentially the same value, making difficult to obtain an improved bound for this type of new physics.

  16. Nanobeacon: A low cost time calibration instrument for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC. Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of the different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.

  17. Time calibration with atmospheric muon tracks in the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2016-05-01

    The ANTARES experiment consists of an array of photomultipliers distributed along 12 lines and located deep underwater in the Mediterranean Sea. It searches for astrophysical neutrinos collecting the Cherenkov light induced by the charged particles, mainly muons, produced in neutrino interactions around the detector. Since at energies of ∼10 TeV the muon and the incident neutrino are almost collinear, it is possible to use the ANTARES detector as a neutrino telescope and identify a source of neutrinos in the sky starting from a precise reconstruction of the muon trajectory. To get this result, the arrival times of the Cherenkov photons must be accurately measured. A to perform time calibrations with the precision required to have optimal performances of the instrument is described. The reconstructed tracks of the atmospheric muons in the ANTARES detector are used to determine the relative time offsets between photomultipliers. Currently, this method is used to obtain the time calibration constants for photomultipliers on different lines at a precision level of 0.5 ns. It has also been validated for calibrating photomultipliers on the same line, using a system of LEDs and laser light devices.

  18. Recent results with ANTARES, the first undersea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margiotta, Annarita; ANTARES Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The ANTARES detector is the largest undersea neutrino telescope. It is located at about 2500 m under the sea level in front of the Southern French coast, 40 km from Toulon. Its location in the Mediterranean Sea and the good optical properties of the sea water makes it an excellent tool to search for possible sources of neutrinos in the sky region of the Galactic Plane. Its angular resolution, ~ 0.4°, and the effective area for neutrinos coming from the Southern sky allow to put constraints on the possible interpretation of the recent IceCube cosmic neutrino signal. The ANTARES collaboration has developed a rich program of multi-messenger searches together with experiments sensitive to other cosmic messengers. ANTARES has also produced results on neutrinos coming from the annihilation of Dark Matter particles. In particular, the limits obtained for the spin-dependent WIMP-nucleon cross section overcome the existing direct-detection experiments. An overview of the most interesting and recent results obtained with ANTARES are discussed, together with the future perspectives of analyses.

  19. Constraints on the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitink, S.; Scholten, O.; Bacelar, J.; Braun, R.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Falcke, H.; Singh, K.; Stappers, B.; Strom, R. G.; Yahyaoui, R. Al

    2010-10-01

    Context. Ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos and cosmic rays initiate particle cascades underneath the Moon's surface. These cascades have a negative charge excess and radiate Cherenkov radio emission in a process known as the Askaryan effect. The optimal frequency window for observation of these pulses with radio telescopes on the Earth is around 150 MHz. Aims: By observing the Moon with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we are able to set a new limit on the UHE neutrino flux. Methods: The PuMa II backend is used to monitor the Moon in 4 frequency bands between 113 and 175 MHz with a sampling frequency of 40 MHz. The narrowband radio interference is digitally filtered out and the dispersive effect of the Earth's ionosphere is compensated for. A trigger system is implemented to search for short pulses. By inserting simulated pulses in the raw data, the detection efficiency for pulses of various strength is calculated. Results: With 47.6 hours of observation time, we are able to set a limit on the UHE neutrino flux. This new limit is an order of magnitude lower than existing limits. In the near future, the digital radio array LOFAR will be used to achieve an even lower limit.

  20. Search for muon neutrinos from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the IceCube neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R

    2010-01-19

    We present the results of searches for high-energy muon neutrinos from 41 gamma- ray bursts (GRBs) in the northern sky with the IceCube detector in its 22-string con-figuration active in 2007/2008. The searches cover both the prompt and a possible precursor emission as well as a model-independent, wide time window of -1 h to +3 haround each GRB. In contrast to previous searches with a large GRB population, we do not utilize a standard Waxman?Bahcall GRB flux for the prompt emission but calcu- late individual neutrino spectra for all 41 GRBs from the burst parameters measured by satellites. For all three time windows the best estimate for the number of signal events is zero. Therefore, we place 90percent CL upper limits on the fluence from the prompt phase of 3.7 x 10-3 erg cm-2 (72TeV - 6.5 PeV) and on the fluence from the precursor phase of 2.3 x 10-3 erg cm-2 (2.2TeV - 55TeV), where the quoted energy ranges contain 90percent of the expected signal events in the detector. The 90percent CL upper limit for the wide time window is 2.7 x 10-3 erg cm-2 (3TeV - 2.8 PeV) assuming an E-2 flux.

  1. Moon shadow observation with ANTARES and KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanguineti, Matteo; Distefano, Carla

    2016-04-01

    The ANTARES detector is the largest neutrino telescope currently in operation in the Northern Hemisphere. The search for point-like neutrino sources is one of the main goals of ANTARES, so a reliable way to evaluate the detector pointing performance is needed. The Moon shadow measurement, i.e. the deficit in the atmospheric muon flux in the direction of the Moon induced by absorption of cosmic rays, allows the estimation of the angular resolution and the pointing accuracy. The 2007-2012 ANTARES data set shows a significance of Moon shadowing around 3σ. This is the first measurement of the ANTARES angular resolution and absolute pointing for atmospheric muons using a celestial calibration source. The same approach has been used to estimate also the expected Moon shadow significance with the KM3NeT-ARCA detector, the future cubic kilometre scale detector that will be installed in Sicily.

  2. The Trigger and Data Acquisition System for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, Carmelo; Chiarusi, Tommaso

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT is a large research infrastructure in the Mediterranean Sea that includes a network of deep-sea neutrino telescopes. The telescopes consist of vertical detection units carrying optical modules, whose separation is optimised according to the different ranges of neutrino energy that shall be explored. Two building blocks, each one made of 115 detection units, will be deployed at the KM3NeT-IT site, about 80 km from Capo Passero, Italy, to search for high-energy neutrino sources (ARCA); another building block will be installed at the KM3NeT-Fr site, about 40 km from Toulon, France, to study the hierarchy of neutrino masses (ORCA). The modular design of the KM3NeT allows for a progressive implementation and data taking even with an incomplete detector. The same scalable design is used for the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems (TriDAS). In order to reduce the complexity of the hardware inside the optical modules, the "all data to shore" concept is adopted. This implies that the throughput is dominated by the optical background due to the decay of 40K dissolved in the sea water and to the bursts of bioluminescence, about 3 orders of magnitude larger than the physics signal, ranging from 20 Gbps to several hundreds Gbps, according to the number of detection units. In addition, information from the acoustic positioning system of the detection units must be transmitted. As a consequence of the detector construction, the on-shore DAQ infrastructure must be expanded to handle an increasing data-rate and implement an efficient fast data filtering for both the optical and acoustic channels. In this contribution, the Trigger and Data Acquisition System designed for the Phase 1 of KM3NeT and its future expansion are presented. The network infrastructure, the shore computing resources and the developed applications for handling, filtering and monitoring the optical and acoustic data-streams are described.

  3. Status of the central logic board (CLB) of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, D.; Real, D.

    2015-12-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers, the acoustics sensor and the rest of the instrumentation. The electronics design includes a multiboot module which allows for the re-configuration of the nodes of the telescope remotely from the shore station. All the modules and subsystems are controlled by two embedded microprocessors, implemented on a Kintetx-7 FPGA, and complex embedded software.

  4. Prospects for detecting dark matter with neutrino telescopes in light of recent results from direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Halzen, Francis; Hooper, Dan; /Fermilab

    2005-10-01

    Direct detection dark matter experiments, lead by the CDMS collaboration, have placed increasingly stronger constraints on the cross sections for elastic scattering of WIMPs on nucleons. These results impact the prospects for the indirect detection of dark matter using neutrino telescopes. With this in mind, we revisit the prospects for detecting neutrinos produced by the annihilation of WIMPs in the Sun. We find that the latest bounds do not seriously limit the models most accessible to next generation kilometer-scale neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. This is largely due to the fact that models with significant spin-dependent couplings to protons are the least constrained and, at the same time, the most promising because of the efficient capture of WIMPs in the Sun. We identify models where dark matter particles are beyond the reach of any planned direct detection experiments while within reach of neutrino telescopes. In summary, we find that, even when contemplating recent direct detection results, neutrino telescopes still have the opportunity to play an important as well as complementary role in the search for particle dark matter.

  5. Characterization benches for neutrino telescope Optical Modules at the APC laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avgitas, Theodore; Creusot, Alexandre; Kouchner, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    As has been demonstrated by the first generation of neutrino telescopes Antares and IceCube, precise knowledge of the photon detection efficiency of optical modules is of fundamental importance for the understanding of the instrument and accurate event reconstruction. Dedicated test benches have been developed to measure all related quantities for the Digital Optical Modules of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope being currently deployed in the Mediterranean sea. The first bench is a black box with robotic arms equipped with a calibrated single photon source or laser which enable a precise mapping of the detection efficiency at arbitrary incident angles as well as precise measurements of the time delays induced by the photodetection chain. These measurement can be incorporated and compared to full GEANT MonteCarlo simulations of the optical modules. The second bench is a 2 m×2 m ×2 m water tank equipped with muon hodoscopes on top and bottom. It enables to study and measure the angular dependence of the DOM's detection efficiency of the Cherenkov light produced in water by relativistic muons, thus reproducing in situ detection conditions. We describe these two benches and present their first results and status.

  6. The effects of Earth's magnetic field on 3-inch diameter photomultipliers used in KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, V.; Aiello, S.; Leonora, E.; Randazzo, N.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be the largest underwater neutrino telescope and will be located in the abyss of the Mediterranean Sea. In neutrino telescopes the key element of the detector is the optical module and for KM3NeT it consists of 31 PMTs stored inside a transparent pressure-resistant glass sphere of 17-inch that serves as mechanical protection while ensuring good light transmission. Since the PMTs installed into an underwater neutrino telescope can change their orientation because of movements of the detector structure due to sea currents, the influence of Earth's magnetic field has been investigated. Magnetic shielding by means of a mu-metal cage is used to reduce magnetic effects and to make the response of the PMT sufficiently orientation independent. In order to quantify the effect on magnetic field, we compared measurements on variation of gain, transit time spread and detection efficiency for a 3-inch PMT in shielded and unshielded condition at 3 PMT inclinations. Data shows that variations are sufficiently low especially for timing properties.

  7. Proposal of a new generation of Laser Beacon for time calibration in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main motivation of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. To this end, several time calibration subsystems have been developed. In this article, the proposal of a last generation Laser Beacon, to be used in KM3NeT and developed to measure and monitor the relative time offsets between photomultipliers, is presented.

  8. First combined search for neutrino point-sources in the southern sky with the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios-Martí, J.; Finley, C.

    2016-04-01

    A search for cosmic neutrino point-like sources using the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes over the Southern Hemisphere is presented. The ANTARES data were collected between January 2007 and December 2012, whereas the IceCube data ranges from April 2008 to May 2011. An unbinned maximum likelihood method is used to search for a localized excess of muon events in the southern sky assuming an E-2 neutrino source spectrum. A search over a pre-selected list of candidate sources has also been carried out for different source assumptions: spectral indices of 2.0 and 2.5, and energy cutoffs of 1 PeV, 300 TeV and 100 TeV. No significant excess over the background has been found, and upper limits for the candidate sources are presented compared to the individual experiments.

  9. The First Combined Search for Neutrino Point-sources in the Southern Hemisphere with the ANTARES and IceCube Neutrino Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; De Young, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O’Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E ‑2.5 and E ‑2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  10. KM3NeT Neutrino Telescope 1-ns Resolution Time To Digital Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, David; Real, Diego

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultiplier of small photocathode area. The main digitization system is composed by 31 Time to Digital Converter channels with 1-ns resolution embedded in a Field Programmable Gate Array. An architecture with low resource occupancy has been chosen allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The 4-oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks working in opposed phases has been used together with an asymmetric FIFO memory. In the present article the architecture and the first results obtained with the Time to Digital Converters are presented.

  11. Towards a direction-sensitive optical module for neutrino telescopes based on a hybrid photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rügheimer, Tilman K.; Gebert, Ulrike; Michel, Thilo; Anton, Gisela; Séguinot, Jacques; Joram, Christian

    2009-12-01

    The optical modules of all currently operating neutrino telescopes contain one standard PMT with a large hemispherical photo-cathode. The maximum spatial resolution of this detection principle is thus limited to the photo-cathode area and no information is obtained on the direction of the incoming photons. We propose a new direction-sensitive design featuring a fisheye lens and a hybrid photon detector. The lens system maps incoming photons from one direction on a well-defined point on the photo-cathode of the hybrid photon detector. The photo-electrons are accelerated in a cross-focussed optics and detected using a pixelated anode, which allows for very high spatial resolution. As a candidate chip for the photo-electron detection we propose the Timepix detector of the Medipix family. We have successfully shown its capability to detect photo-electrons in the experiment and evaluated the time resolution by simulation and measurement.

  12. Study of the high energy Cosmic Rays large scale anisotropies with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illuminati, Giulia

    2016-02-01

    We present the analysis method used to search for an anisotropy in the high energy Cosmic Rays arrival distribution using data collected by the ANTARES telescope. ANTARES is a neutrino detector, where the collected data are dominated by a large background of cosmic ray muons. Therefore, the background data are suitable for high-statistics studies of cosmic rays in the Northern sky. The main challenge for this analysis is accounting for those effects which can mimic an apparent anisotropy in the muon arrival direction: the detector exposure asymmetries, non-uniform time coverage, diurnal and seasonal variation of the atmospheric temperature. Once all these effects have been corrected, a study of the anisotropy profiles along the right ascension can be performed.

  13. Sensitivity of an underwater Čerenkov km 3 telescope to TeV neutrinos from Galactic microquasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Ambriola, M.; Ameli, F.; Amore, I.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Beverini, N.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Brescia, M.; Cacopardo, G.; Cafagna, F.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Castorina, E.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; Cuneo, S.; D'Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Marzo, C.; De Rosa, G.; De Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Falchini, E.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Gabrielli, A.; Galeotti, S.; Gandolfi, E.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgi, F.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Leonora, E.; Lonardo, A.; Longo, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Lucarelli, F.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Megna, R.; Migneco, E.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Osipenko, M.; Osteria, G.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Reito, S.; Ricco, G.; Riccobene, G.; Ripani, M.; Rovelli, A.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Russo, S.; Sapienza, P.; Sedita, M.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spurio, M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Urso, S.; Valente, V.; Vicini, P.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper are presented the results of Monte Carlo simulations on the capability of the proposed NEMO-km 3 telescope to detect TeV muon neutrinos from Galactic microquasars. For each known microquasar we compute the number of detectable events, together with the atmospheric neutrino and muon background events. We also discuss the detector sensitivity to neutrino fluxes expected from known microquasars, optimizing the event selection also to reject the background; the number of events surviving the event selection are given. The best candidates are the steady microquasars SS433 and GX339-4 for which we estimate a sensitivity of about 5 × 10 -11 erg/cm 2 s; the predicted fluxes are expected to be well above this sensitivity. For bursting microquasars the most interesting candidates are Cygnus X-3, GRO J1655-40 and XTE J1118+480: their analyses are more complicated because of the stochastic nature of the bursts.

  14. Neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    Besson, Dave; Cowen, Doug; Selen, Mats; Wiebusch, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    Neutrinos represent a new “window” to the Universe, spanning a large range of energy. We discuss the science of neutrino astrophysics and focus on two energy regimes. At “lower” energies (≈1 MeV), studies of neutrinos born inside the sun, or produced in interactions of cosmic rays with the atmosphere, have allowed the first incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos have mass. At energies typically one thousand to one million times higher, sources further than the sun (both within the Milky Way and beyond) are expected to produce a flux of particles that can be detected only through neutrinos. PMID:10588680

  15. High resolution time to digital converter for the KM3NeT neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, D.; Real, D.

    2015-01-01

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres, each of them containing 31 photomultipliers of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers. For this purpose, 31 high-resolution time-interval measuring channels based on time to digital converter are implemented on the field-programmable gate arrays. Architectures with low resources occupancy are desirable allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The required resolution to measure both, time of flight and time-stamp must be 1 ns. A 4-Oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks and an asymmetric FIFO memory is used to achieve this resolution. The proposed firmware has been developed in Xilinx Kintex-7.

  16. Correlation between UHECRs measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array and neutrino candidate events from IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, A.; Golup, G.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Aublin, J.; Caccianiga, L.; Ghia, P. L.; Roulet, E.; Unger, M.; Sagawa, H.; Tinyakov, P.; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We present the results of three searches for correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic ray events (UHECRs) measured by Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory and high-energy neutrino candidate events from IceCube. Two cross-correlation analyses of UHECRs are done: one with 28 “cascades” from the IceCube ‘high-energy starting events’ sample and the other one with 12 high-energy “tracks”. The angular separation between the arrival directions of neutrinos and UHECRs is scanned. The same events are also used in a separate search stacking the neutrino arrival directions and using a maximum likelihood approach. We assume that UHECR magnetic deflections are inversely proportional to the energy with values 3°, 6° and 9° at 100 EeV to account for the various scenarios of the magnetic field strength and UHECR charges. A similar analysis is performed on stacked UHECR arrival directions and the IceCube 4-year sample of through-going muon-track events that was optimized for neutrino point source searches.

  17. gSeaGen: A GENIE-based code for neutrino telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Carla

    2016-04-01

    The gSeaGen code is a GENIE based application to generate neutrino-induced events in an underwater neutrino detector. The gSeaGen code is able to generate events induced by all neutrino flavours, taking into account topological differences between track-type and shower-like events. The neutrino interaction is simulated taking into account the density and the composition of the media surrounding the detector. The main features of gSeaGen will be presented together with some examples of its application within ANTARES and KM3NeT.

  18. Search for muon neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with the ANTARES neutrino telescope using 2008 to 2011 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Samarai, I. Al; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, F.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Michael, T.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Müller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Baerwald, P.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: We search for muon neutrinos in coincidence with GRBs with the ANTARES neutrino detector using data from the end of 2007 to 2011. Methods: Expected neutrino fluxes were calculated for each burst individually. The most recent numerical calculations of the spectra using the NeuCosmA code were employed, which include Monte Carlo simulations of the full underlying photohadronic interaction processes. The discovery probability for a selection of 296 GRBs in the given period was optimised using an extended maximum-likelihood strategy. Results: No significant excess over background is found in the data, and 90% confidence level upper limits are placed on the total expected flux according to the model. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgFull Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/559/A9

  19. Quality assurance and risk assessment in the KM3NeT neutrino telescope design study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sollima, C.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2011-01-01

    KM3NeT is an undersea neutrino detector currently under design. This paper summarises the quality management system (QMS) and risk assessment (RA) thought into the KM3NeT project. QMS and RA are set up as an integrated system for the improvement and optimization of components of the KM3NeT neutrino detector as well as its production and operation.

  20. Improved flux limits for neutrinos with energies above 10(22) eV from observations with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope.

    PubMed

    Scholten, O; Buitink, S; Bacelar, J; Braun, R; de Bruyn, A G; Falcke, H; Singh, K; Stappers, B; Strom, R G; al Yahyaoui, R

    2009-11-01

    Particle cascades initiated by ultrahigh energy neutrinos in the lunar regolith will emit an electromagnetic pulse with a time duration of the order of nanoseconds through a process known as the Askaryan effect. It has been shown that in an observing window around 150 MHz there is a maximum chance for detecting this radiation with radio telescopes commonly used in astronomy. In 50 h of observation time with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope array we have set a new limit on the flux of neutrinos, summed over all flavors, with energies in excess of 4x10(22) eV. PMID:20365914

  1. Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, K.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Neutrinos are electrically neutral ELEMENTARY PARTICLES which experience only the weak nuclear force and gravity. Their existence was introduced as a hypothesis by Wolfgang Pauli in 1930 to explain the apparent violation of energy conservation in radioactive beta decay. Chadwick had discovered in 1914 that the energy spectrum of electrons emitted in beta decay was not monoenergetic but continuous...

  2. The multi-messenger search programme and results of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bonis, Giulia

    2016-07-01

    The key-word of modern astronomy and astrophysics is multi-messenger: not only photons used as probes for the investigation of the Universe, but also cosmic-rays, neutrinos and gravitational waves. The multi-messenger approach is important in particular for neutrino detectors: potential astrophysical sources are predicted to emit a very faint neutrino signal and the presence of an isotropic flux of atmospheric background requires the development of effective search strategies. The multi-messenger approach can increase the discovery potential, the statistical significance of the observations and the efficiency of the detection. The advantages of the multi-messenger approach are evident, in particular, when looking at transient or flaring sources. In ANTARES, a wide programme of multi-messenger searches is active; the most relevant results will be presented in this contribution.

  3. Is the ultra-high energy cosmic-ray excess observed by the telescope array correlated with IceCube neutrinos?

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke; Fujii, Toshihiro; Linden, Tim; Olinto, Angela V.

    2014-10-20

    The Telescope Array (TA) has observed a statistically significant excess in cosmic rays with energies above 57 EeV in a region of approximately 1150 deg{sup 2} centered on coordinates R.A. = 146.7, decl. = 43.2. We note that the location of this excess correlates with 2 of the 28 extraterrestrial neutrinos recently observed by IceCube. The overlap between the two IceCube neutrinos and the TA excess is statistically significant at the 2σ level. Furthermore, the spectrum and intensity of the IceCube neutrinos is consistent with a single source which would also produce the TA excess. Finally, we discuss possible source classes with the correct characteristics to explain the cosmic-ray and neutrino fluxes with a single source.

  4. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    SciTech Connect

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.

  5. Search for spatial and temporal collective effects in the ANTARES neutrino telescope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleiro, Alexis; Gracia Ruiz, Rodrigo; Kouchner, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    We investigate potential collective effects in the spatial and temporal domains in ANTARES data sets. On the one hand, we apply a two-point correlation analysis to look for inhomogeneities in the arrival directions of the high energy muon neutrino candidates detected between 2007 and 2012. This enables us to provide constraints on models of a population of point sources too faint to be detected by a likelihood-based method. On the other hand, we perform a search for ANTARES neutrino events in temporal coincidence with IceCube High-Energy Starting Events located within 45∘ from the Galactic Center. This study, also based on a two-point correlation function, is sensitive to transient emission and does not a prior on either the burst timing structure or on the electromagnetic emission. Therefore, it provides an effective way to acquire information on the possible origin of the IceCube astrophysical signal from transient sources.

  6. Secluded Dark Matter search in the Sun with the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Models where Dark Matter (DM) is secluded from the Standard Model (SM) via a mediator have increased their presence during the last decade to explain some experimental observations. This is a special scenario where DM, which would gravitationally accumulate in sources like the Sun, the Earth or the Galactic Centre, is annihilated into a pair of non-standard Model mediators which subsequently decay into SM particles, two co-linear muons for example. As the lifetime of the mediator could be large enough, its decay may occur in the vicinity of the Earth and the resulting SM particles could be detected. In this work we will describe the analysis for Secluded Dark Matter (SDM) annihilation from the Sun with ANTARES in three different cases: a) detection of di-muons that result of the mediator decay, or neutrino detection from: b) mediator that decays into di-muon and, in turn, into neutrinos, and c) mediator that directly decays into neutrinos. The ANTARES limits for these kinds of SDM case will be presented.

  7. Characterization of optical properties of the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepes-Ramírez, H.; ANTARES Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino detector based on a three-dimensional grid of photomultipliers tubes (PMT's) arranged in several detection lines anchored to the seabed at depth of 2.5 km in the Mediterranean Sea (40 km off the Toulon coast in France), its main physics goal is the reconstruction and identification of high energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin. The PMT's register the Cherenkov light induced by relativistic charged leptons produced by the interaction of neutrinos with material in the detector surroundings. The propagation of Cherenkov light strongly depends on the optical properties of the sea water, the understanding of which is crucial in order to achieve the expected detector performance. To reach the ANTARES physics goals, good time and positioning calibration systems are required. The ANTARES optical beacon system consists of a set of pulsed light sources strategically located throughout the detector. The system is mainly used for time calibration but can also be used as a tool to study the water optical properties and their stability. In this contribution we will present the current status of our measurements of the group velocity and transmission length of light carried out between 2008 and 2011. A set of water models strategically defined will be discussed as well as some preliminary results concerning track reconstruction parameters.

  8. Search for muon-neutrino emission from GeV and TeV gamma-ray flaring blazars using five years of data of the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ANTARES Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    The ANTARES telescope is well-suited for detecting astrophysical transient neutrino sources as it can observe a full hemisphere of the sky at all times with a high duty cycle. The background due to atmospheric particles can be drastically reduced, and the point-source sensitivity improved, by selecting a narrow time window around possible neutrino production periods. Blazars, being radio-loud active galactic nuclei with their jets pointing almost directly towards the observer, are particularly attractive potential neutrino point sources, since they are among the most likely sources of the very high-energy cosmic rays. Neutrinos and gamma rays may be produced in hadronic interactions with the surrounding medium. Moreover, blazars generally show high time variability in their light curves at different wavelengths and on various time scales. This paper presents a time-dependent analysis applied to a selection of flaring gamma-ray blazars observed by the FERMI/LAT experiment and by TeV Cherenkov telescopes using five years of ANTARES data taken from 2008 to 2012. The results are compatible with fluctuations of the background. Upper limits on the neutrino fluence have been produced and compared to the measured gamma-ray spectral energy distribution.

  9. Neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yongquan

    2015-04-01

    The most basic Quantum are the particles who mutual rotation, quantum is composed of basic quantum.Quantum convergence or divergence is conditional, the faster the particle rotates, the smaller the orbiting radius will be, the greater quality is, the more density will be. The orbiting radius of less than 10-15 meters in the order of convergence, convergence of neutron, proton, and then they are in the formation of the nucleus, and the convergence of quantum can make extra nuclear electron and the formation of atomic; if rotation radius is more than 10-15 meters of magnitude, the internal quantum atoms diverge to outer space in the form of electromagnetic waves. The quality of magnetic wave particle is composed of the rotation speed of the particle which is internal of the electromagnetic, it doesn't matter about the electromagnetic wave propagation velocity of particles. Neutrinos are orbiting particles, the orbiting radius is about 10-15 meters, is a special kind of radiation. Neutrino is between the virtual particles (according to modern science, the electromagnetic wave doesn't have quality) and modern scientific (the particle who has quality) special particles

  10. Limits on dark matter proton scattering from neutrino telescopes using micrOMEGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Bélanger, G.; Silva, J. Da; Perrillat-Bottonet, T.; Pukhov, A.

    2015-12-17

    Limits on dark matter spin dependent elastic scattering cross section on protons derived from IceCube data are obtained for different dark matter annihilation channels using micrOMEGAs. The uncertainty on the derived limits, estimated by using different neutrino spectra, can reach a factor two. For all dark matter annihilation channels except for quarks, the limits on the spin dependent cross section are more stringent than those obtained in direct detection experiments. The new functions that allow to derive those limits are described.

  11. LUNASKA experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array to search for ultrahigh energy neutrinos and develop technology for the lunar Cherenkov technique

    SciTech Connect

    James, C. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Phillips, C. J.; Roberts, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Bray, J. D.; McFadden, R. A.

    2010-02-15

    We describe the design, performance, sensitivity and results of our recent experiments using the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) for lunar Cherenkov observations with a very wide (600 MHz) bandwidth and nanosecond timing, including a limit on an isotropic neutrino flux. We also make a first estimate of the effects of small-scale surface roughness on the effective experimental aperture, finding that contrary to expectations, such roughness will act to increase the detectability of near-surface events over the neutrino energy-range at which our experiment is most sensitive (though distortions to the time-domain pulse profile may make identification more difficult). The aim of our 'Lunar UHE Neutrino Astrophysics using the Square Kilometre Array' (LUNASKA) project is to develop the lunar Cherenkov technique of using terrestrial radio telescope arrays for ultrahigh energy (UHE) cosmic ray (CR) and neutrino detection, and, in particular, to prepare for using the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and its path-finders such as the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) and the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for lunar Cherenkov experiments.

  12. Yearlong moored bioluminescence and current data at KM3NeT neutrino telescope sites in the deep Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Haren, Hans; de Jong, Maarten; Kooijman, Paul

    2015-07-01

    Yearlong observations are presented using stand-alone small optical sensors and current meters in the deep Ionian Sea, E-Mediterranean. At two future neutrino telescope sites, off Sicily (I) and off Peloponessos (Gr), we deployed 2500-3000 m long mooring lines with oceanographic instrumentation. At about 150 m above the sea-floor, a glass sphere was mounted to each line holding two 3″-diameter photo-multiplier-tubes 'PMTs' in opposing directions for a first deep-sea test. Due to technical problems the background optical count rate could not be well established. Here, the focus is on the variations with time of bioluminescence bursts and their correlation with currents. Spectral analysis demonstrates that the PMT data best resemble those of horizontal currents (kinetic energy), significantly peaking at near-inertial, sub-inertial mesoscale and (Gr only) at tidal frequencies. Out-of-phase differences between signals from opposing PMTs in the same optical unit indicate impacts of bioluminescent organisms as a function of current direction, rather than a bacterial glow constant with time.

  13. A further study of μ- τ symmetry breaking at neutrino telescopes after the Daya Bay and RENO measurements of θ13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Zhi-zhong

    2012-09-01

    Current neutrino oscillation data indicate that θ13 is not strongly suppressed and θ23 might have an appreciable deviation from π / 4, implying that the 3 × 3 neutrino mixing matrix V does not have an exact μ- τ permutation symmetry. We make a further study of the effect of μ- τ symmetry breaking on the democratic flavor distribution of ultrahigh-energy (UHE) cosmic neutrinos at a neutrino telescope, and find that it is characterized by |Vμi | 2 -|Vτi | 2 which would vanish if either θ23 = π / 4 and θ13 = 0 or θ23 = π / 4 and δ = ± π / 2 held. We observe that the second-order μ- τ symmetry breaking term Δbar may be numerically comparable with or even larger than the first-order term Δ in the flux ratios ϕeT : ϕμT : ϕτT ≃ (1 - 2 Δ) : (1 + Δ +Δbar) : (1 + Δ -Δbar), if sin (θ23 - π / 4) and cos δ have the same sign. The detection of the UHE νbare flux via the Glashow-resonance channel νbare e →W- →anything is also discussed by taking account of the first- and second-order μ- τ symmetry breaking effects.

  14. Correlation between the UHECRs measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and Telescope Array and neutrino candidate events from IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, A.; Golup, G.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Aublin, J.; Caccianiga, L.; Ghia, P. L.; Roulet, E.; Unger, M.; Sagawa, H.; Tinyakov, P.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of three searches for correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic ray events measured by Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory and high-energy neutrino candidate events from IceCube. Two cross-correlation analyses of ultra-high energy cosmic rays are done: one with 39 "cascades" from the IceCube "high-energy starting events" sample and the other one with 16 high-energy "tracks". The angular separation between the arrival directions of neutrinos and UHECRs is scanned. The same events are also used in a separate search stacking the neutrino arrival directions and using a maximum likelihood approach. We assume that UHECR magnetic deflections are inversely proportional to the energy with values 3∘, 6∘ and 9∘ at 100 EeV to account for the uncertainties in the magnetic field strength and UHECR charge. A similar analysis is performed on stacked UHECR arrival directions and the IceCube 4-year sample of through-going muon-track events that was optimized for neutrino point source searches.

  15. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array: Joint Contribution to the 34th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC 2015)

    SciTech Connect

    Aartsen, M.G.; et al.

    2015-11-06

    We have conducted three searches for correlations between ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected by the Telescope Array and the Pierre Auger Observatory, and high-energy neutrino candidate events from IceCube. Two cross-correlation analyses with UHECRs are done: one with 39 cascades from the IceCube `high-energy starting events' sample and the other with 16 high-energy `track events'. The angular separation between the arrival directions of neutrinos and UHECRs is scanned over. The same events are also used in a separate search using a maximum likelihood approach, after the neutrino arrival directions are stacked. To estimate the significance we assume UHECR magnetic deflections to be inversely proportional to their energy, with values $3^\\circ$, $6^\\circ$ and $9^\\circ$ at 100 EeV to allow for the uncertainties on the magnetic field strength and UHECR charge. A similar analysis is performed on stacked UHECR arrival directions and the IceCube sample of through-going muon track events which were optimized for neutrino point-source searches.

  16. Extremely high energy cosmic neutrinos and relic neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2006-03-01

    I review the essentials of ultrahigh-energy neutrino interactions, show how neutral-current detection and flavor tagging can enhance the scientific potential of neutrino telescopes, and sketch new studies on neutrino encounters with dark matter relics and on gravitational lensing of neutrinos.

  17. SEARCH FOR HIGH-ENERGY MUON NEUTRINOS FROM THE 'NAKED-EYE' GRB 080319B WITH THE IceCube NEUTRINO TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J. L. Bazo; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berdermann, J.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.

    2009-08-20

    We report on a search with the IceCube detector for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRB 080319B, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed. The fireball model predicts that a mean of 0.1 events should be detected by IceCube for a bulk Lorentz boost of the jet of 300. In both the direct on-time window of 66 s and an extended window of about 300 s around the GRB, no excess was found above background. The 90% CL upper limit on the number of track-like events from the GRB is 2.7, corresponding to a muon neutrino fluence limit of 9.5 x 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} in the energy range between 120 TeV and 2.2 PeV, which contains 90% of the expected events.

  18. Search for high-energy muon neutrinos from the"naked-eye" GRB080319B with the IceCube neutrino telescope

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; R. Abbasi

    2009-02-01

    We report on a search with the IceCube detector for high-energy muon neutrinos from GRB080319B, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever observed. The fireball model predicts that a mean of 0.12 events should be detected by IceCube for a bulk Lorentz boost of the jet of 300. In both the direct on-time window of 66 s and an extended window of about 300 s around the GRB, there was no excess found above the background. The 90% C.L. upper limit on the number of track-like events from the GRB is 2.7, corresponding to a muon neutrino fluence limit of 9.0 x 10{sup -3} erg cm{sup -2} in the energy range between 145 TeV and 2.1 PeV, which contains 90% of the expected events.

  19. Experimental High Energy Neutrino Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Distefano, Carla

    2005-10-12

    Neutrinos are considered promising probes for high energy astrophysics. More than four decades after deep water Cerenkov technique was proposed to detect high energy neutrinos. Two detectors of this type are successfully taking data: BAIKAL and AMANDA. They have demonstrated the feasibility of the high energy neutrino detection and have set first constraints on TeV neutrino production astrophysical models. The quest for the construction of km3 size detectors have already started: in the South Pole, the IceCube neutrino telescope is under construction; the ANTARES, NEMO and NESTOR Collaborations are working towards the installation of a neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea.

  20. Upper limit on the cross section for elastic neutralino-nucleon scattering in a neutrino experiment at the Baksan Underground Scintillator Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorova, O. V. Boliev, M. M. Demidov, S. V. Mikheyev, S. P.

    2013-11-15

    The results of a neutrino experiment that involved 24.12 yr of live time of observation of muons from the lower Earth's hemisphere with the aid of the Baksan Underground Scintillator Telescope are presented. In the problem of searches for a signal from the annihilation of dark matter in the Sun, an upper limit on the cross section for the elastic scattering of a weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) on a nucleon was obtained at a 90% confidence level from an analysis of data accumulated within 21.15 yr of live time of observation. A neutralino in a nonminimal supersymmetric theory was considered for a WIMP. The best limit at the Baksan Underground Scintillator Telescope on the cross section for spin-dependent neutralino interactionwith a proton corresponds to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} pb for the neutralino mass of 210 GeV/c{sup 2}. This limit is three orders of magnitude more stringent than similar limits obtained in experiments that detected directly WIMP scattering on target nuclei.

  1. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IceCube Collaboration; Pierre Auger Collaboration; Telescope Array Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECR magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.

  2. Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aartsen, M. G.

    2016-01-20

    This study presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECRmore » magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.« less

  3. Neutrino sea scope takes shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartlidge, Edwin

    2016-03-01

    A consortium of European physicists building a vast neutrino detector on the floor of the Mediterranean Sea has unveiled the science it will carry out. The Cubic Kilometre Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT) will use strings of radiation detectors arranged in a 3D network to measure the light emitted when neutrinos very occasionally interact with the surrounding sea water.

  4. Neutrinos and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, Alejandro

    2015-07-15

    Neutrinos could be key particles to unravel the nature of the dark matter of the Universe. On the one hand, sterile neutrinos in minimal extensions of the Standard Model are excellent dark matter candidates, producing potentially observable signals in the form of a line in the X-ray sky. On the other hand, the annihilation or the decay of dark matter particles produces, in many plausible dark matter scenarios, a neutrino flux that could be detected at neutrino telescopes, thus providing non-gravitational evidence for dark matter. More conservatively, the non-observation of a significant excess in the neutrino fluxes with respect to the expected astrophysical backgrounds can be used to constrain dark matter properties, such as the self-annihilation cross section, the scattering cross section with nucleons and the lifetime.

  5. Neutrino Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2010-08-04

    Recent studies of neutrino oscillations have established the existence of finite neutrino masses and mixing between generations of neutrinos. The combined results from studies of atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, reactor antineutrinos and neutrinos produced at accelerators paint an intriguing picture that clearly requires modification of the standard model of particle physics. These results also provide clear motivation for future neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for direct neutrino mass and nuclear double-beta decay. I will discuss the program of new neutrino oscillation experiments aimed at completing our knowledge of the neutrino mixing matrix.

  6. Software for neutrino acoustic detection and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhadef, B.

    2009-06-01

    The evidence of the existing of UHE (E>10eV) cosmic rays and its possible connection to UHE neutrino suggests the building of an acoustic telescope for neutrino, exploiting thermo-acoustic effect. We present software for neutrino acoustic signal detection and localization. The main points discussed here are the sea noise model, the determination of time differences of arrival (TDOA) between hydrophones signals, the source localization algorithm, and the telescope geometry effect. The effect of TDOAs errors and telescope geometry on the localization accuracy is also discussed.

  7. Neutrino Physics

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lederman, L. M.

    1963-01-09

    The prediction and verification of the neutrino are reviewed, together with the V A theory for its interactions (particularly the difficulties with the apparent existence of two neutrinos and the high energy cross section). The Brookhaven experiment confirming the existence of two neutrinos and the cross section increase with momentum is then described, and future neutrino experiments are considered. (D.C.W.)

  8. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Deborah A.; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    The field of neutrino physics has expanded greatly in recent years with the discovery that neutrinos change flavor and therefore have mass. Although there are many neutrino physics results since the last DIS workshop, these proceedings concentrate on recent neutrino physics results that either add to or depend on the understanding of Deep Inelastic Scattering. They also describe the short and longer term future of neutrino DIS experiments.

  9. Ultrahigh-energy neutrino flux as a probe of large extra-dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Lykken, Joseph; Mena, Olga; Razzaque, Soebur; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /Penn State U.

    2007-05-01

    A suppression in the spectrum of ultrahigh-energy (UHE, {ge} 10{sup 18} eV) neutrinos will be present in extra-dimensional scenarios, due to enhanced neutrino-antineutrino annihilation processes with the supernova relic neutrinos. In this scenario, neutrinos can not be responsible for the highest energy events observed in the UHE cosmic ray spectrum. A direct implication of these extra-dimensional interactions would be the absence of UHE neutrinos in ongoing and future neutrino telescopes.

  10. Neutrino Physics with the IceCube Detector

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Kiryluk, Joanna; Kiryluk, Joanna

    2008-06-11

    IceCube is a cubic kilometer neutrino telescope under construction at the South Pole.The primary goal is to discover astrophysical sources of high energy neutrinos.We describe the detector and present results on atmospheric muon neutrinos from2006 data collected with nine detector strings.

  11. Gamma-ray limits on neutrino lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Weniger, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Monochromatic neutrinos from dark matter annihilations (χχ→ νbar nu) are always produced in association with a gamma-ray spectrum generated by electroweak bremsstrahlung. Consequently, these neutrino lines can be searched for not only with neutrino detectors but also indirectly with gamma-ray telescopes. Here, we derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section into neutrinos based on recent Fermi-LAT and HESS data. We find that, for dark matter masses above 200 GeV, gamma-ray data actually set the most stringent constraints on neutrino lines from dark matter annihilation and, therefore, an upper bound on the dark matter total annihilation cross section. In addition, we point out that gamma-ray telescopes, unlike neutrino detectors, have the potential to distinguish the flavor of the final state neutrino. Our results indicate that we have already entered into a new era where gamma-ray telescopes are more sensitive than neutrino detectors to neutrino lines from dark matter annihilation.

  12. Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This prepares the way for a Neutrino Factory (NF) in which high energy muons decay within the straight sections of a storage ring to produce a beam of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. The NF concept was proposed in 1997 at a time when the discovery that the three known types of neutrino ({nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}) can change their flavor as they propagate through space (neutrino oscillations) was providing a first glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source: a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  13. Flavor identification of astronomical high energy neutrinos and the accuracy of mixing angles

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ggyoung-Riun; Siyeon, Kim

    2008-11-23

    Typical initial neutrino fluxes from pion decays may be different depending on energy, since the muon decays can be excluded due to the electromagnetic energy loss. However, the specification of the initial flux ratio is limited by the accuracy of neutrino mixing parameters. We will discuss the expected measurement of relative flavors at future neutrino telescopes, focusing on the ambiguity in current neutrino parameters.

  14. Neutrino physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Thanks to compelling evidence that neutrinos can change flavor, we now know that they have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. In these lectures, we explain the physics of neutrino flavor change, both in vacuum and in matter. Then, we describe what the flavor-change data have taught us about neutrinos. Finally, we consider some of the questions raised by the discovery of neutrino mass, explaining why these questions are so interesting, and how they might be answered experimentally.

  15. Neutrino Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Feilitzsch, Franz; Lanfranchi, Jean-Côme; Wurm, Michael

    The neutrino was postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in the early 1930s, but could only be detected for the first time in the 1950s. Ever since scientists all around the world have worked on the detection and understanding of this particle which so scarcely interacts with matter. Depending on the origin and nature of the neutrino, various types of experiments have been developed and operated. In this entry, we will review neutrino detectors in terms of neutrino energy and associated detection technique as well as the scientific outcome of some selected examples. After a brief historical introduction, the detection of low-energy neutrinos originating from nuclear reactors or from the Earth is used to illustrate the principles and difficulties which are encountered in detecting neutrinos. In the context of solar neutrino spectroscopy, where the neutrino is used as a probe for astrophysics, three different types of neutrino detectors are presented - water Čerenkov, radiochemical, and liquid-scintillator detectors. Moving to higher neutrino energies, we discuss neutrinos produced by astrophysical sources and from accelerators. The entry concludes with an overview of a selection of future neutrino experiments and their scientific goals.

  16. Neutrino Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2010-06-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(1021) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source : a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  17. Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Several anomalies recorded in short-baseline neutrino experiments suggest the possibility that the standard 3-flavor framework may be incomplete and point towards a manifestation of new physics. Light sterile neutrinos provide a credible solution to these puzzling results. Here, we present a concise review of the status of the neutrino oscillations within the 3+1 scheme, the minimal extension of the standard 3-flavor framework endowed with one sterile neutrino species. We emphasize the potential role of LBL experiments in the searches of CP violation related to sterile neutrinos and their complementarity with the SBL experiments.

  18. Solar neutrinos and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltoni, Michele; Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2016-04-01

    Solar neutrino studies triggered and largely motivated the major developments in neutrino physics in the last 50 years. The theory of neutrino propagation in different media with matter and fields has been elaborated. It includes oscillations in vacuum and matter, resonance flavor conversion and resonance oscillations, spin and spin-flavor precession, etc. LMA MSW has been established as the true solution of the solar neutrino problem. Parameters θ_{12} and Δ m 2 21 have been measured; θ_{13} extracted from the solar data is in agreement with results from reactor experiments. Solar neutrino studies provide a sensitive way to test theory of neutrino oscillations and conversion. Characterized by long baseline, huge fluxes and low energies they are a powerful set-up to search for new physics beyond the standard 3 ν paradigm: new neutrino states, sterile neutrinos, non-standard neutrino interactions, effects of violation of fundamental symmetries, new dynamics of neutrino propagation, probes of space and time. These searches allow us to get stringent, and in some cases unique bounds on new physics. We summarize the results on physics of propagation, neutrino properties and physics beyond the standard model obtained from studies of solar neutrinos.

  19. NEMO-SMO acoustic array: A deep-sea test of a novel acoustic positioning system for a km3-scale underwater neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, S.; Ardid, M.; Bertin, V.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Keller, P.; Lahmann, R.; Larosa, G.; Llorens, C. D.; NEMO Collaboration; SMO Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    Within the activities of the NEMO project, the installation of a 8-floors tower (NEMO-Phase II) at a depth of 3500 m is foreseen in 2012. The tower will be installed about 80 km off-shore Capo Passero, in Sicily. On board the NEMO tower, an array of 18 acoustic sensors will be installed, permitting acoustic detection of biological sources, studies for acoustic neutrino detection and primarily acoustic positioning of the underwater structures. For the latter purpose, the sensors register acoustic signals emitted by five acoustic beacons anchored on the sea-floor. The data acquisition system of the acoustic sensors is fully integrated with the detector data transport system and is based on an “all data to shore” philosophy. Signals coming from hydrophones are continuously sampled underwater at 192 kHz/24 bit and transmitted to shore through an electro-optical cable for real-time analysis. A novel technology for underwater GPS time-stamping of data has been implemented and tested. The operation of the acoustic array will permit long-term test of sensors and electronics technologies that are proposed for the acoustic positioning system of KM3NeT.

  20. NaNet3: The on-shore readout and slow-control board for the KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Biagioni, A.; Frezza, O.; Lo Cicero, F.; Martinelli, M.; Paolucci, P. S.; Pontisso, L.; Simula, F.; Vicini, P.; Ameli, F.; Nicolau, C. A.; Pastorelli, E.; Simeone, F.; Tosoratto, L.; Lonardo, A.

    2016-04-01

    The KM3NeT-Italia underwater neutrino detection unit, the tower, consists of 14 floors. Each floor supports 6 Optical Modules containing front-end electronics needed to digitize the PMT signal, format and transmit the data and 2 hydrophones that reconstruct in real-time the position of Optical Modules, for a maximum tower throughput of more than 600 MB/s. All floor data are collected by the Floor Control Module (FCM) board and transmitted by optical bidirectional virtual point-to-point connections to the on-shore laboratory, each FCM needing an on-shore counterpart as communication endpoint. In this contribution we present NaNet3, an on-shore readout board based on Altera Stratix V GX FPGA able to manage multiple FCM data channels with a capability of 800 Mbps each. The design is a NaNet customization for the KM3NeT-Italia experiment, adding support in its I/O interface for a synchronous link protocol with deterministic latency at physical level and for a Time Division Multiplexing protocol at data level.

  1. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  2. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  3. Observation of high energy atmospheric neutrinos with antarctic muon and neutrino detector array

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.; Andres, E.; Bai, X.; Barouch, G.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Biron, A.; Booth, J.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boyce, M.M.; Carius, S.; Chen, A.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Costa, C.G.S.; Cowen, D.F.; Dalberg, E.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Dewulf, J.-P.; Doksus, P.; Edsjo, J.; Ekstrom, P.; Feser, T.; Frere, J.-M.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gaug, M.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Heukenkamp, H.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kim, J.; Koci, B.; Kopke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Loaiza, P.; Lowder, D.M.; Madsen, J.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Miller, T.C.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Neunhoffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, Ph.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Reed, C.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Starinsky, N.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Streicher, O.; Sudhoff, P.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Thollander, L.; Thon, T.; Tilav, S.; Vander Donckt, M.; Walck, C.; Weinheimer, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedeman, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2002-05-07

    The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) began collecting data with ten strings in 1997. Results from the first year of operation are presented. Neutrinos coming through the Earth from the Northern Hemisphere are identified by secondary muons moving upward through the array. Cosmic rays in the atmosphere generate a background of downward moving muons, which are about 10{sup 6} times more abundant than the upward moving muons. Over 130 days of exposure, we observed a total of about 300 neutrino events. In the same period, a background of 1.05 x 10{sup 9} cosmic ray muon events was recorded. The observed neutrino flux is consistent with atmospheric neutrino predictions. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that 90 percent of these events lie in the energy range 66 GeV to 3.4 TeV. The observation of atmospheric neutrinos consistent with expectations establishes AMANDA-B10 as a working neutrino telescope.

  4. Neutrino Oscillations With Two Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-06-01

    This work estimates the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with two sterile neutrinos using a 5×5 U-matrix, an extension of the previous estimate with one sterile neutrino and a 4×4 U-matrix. The sterile neutrino-active neutrino mass differences and the mixing angles of the two sterile neutrinos with the three active neutrinos are taken from recent publications, and the oscillation probability for one sterile neutrino is compared to the previous estimate.

  5. Solar Neutrinos

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Harmer, D. S.

    1964-12-01

    The prospect of studying the solar energy generation process directly by observing the solar neutrino radiation has been discussed for many years. The main difficulty with this approach is that the sun emits predominantly low energy neutrinos, and detectors for observing low fluxes of low energy neutrinos have not been developed. However, experimental techniques have been developed for observing neutrinos, and one can foresee that in the near future these techniques will be improved sufficiently in sensitivity to observe solar neutrinos. At the present several experiments are being designed and hopefully will be operating in the next year or so. We will discuss an experiment based upon a neutrino capture reaction that is the inverse of the electron-capture radioactive decay of argon-37. The method depends upon exposing a large volume of a chlorine compound, removing the radioactive argon-37 and observing the characteristic decay in a small low-level counter.

  6. Distinguishing neutrino mass hierarchies using dark matter annihilation signals at IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Ghosh, Dilip Kumar; Knockel, Bradley; Saha, Ipsita

    2015-12-01

    We explore the possibility of distinguishing neutrino mass hierarchies through the neutrino signal from dark matter annihilation at neutrino telescopes. We consider a simple extension of the standard model where the neutrino masses and mixing angles are obtained via the type-II seesaw mechanism as an explicit example. We show that future extensions of IceCube neutrino telescope may detect the neutrino signal from DM annihilation at the Galactic Center and inside the Sun, and differentiate between the normal and inverted mass hierarchies, in this model.

  7. Atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisser, Thomas K.

    2016-05-01

    In view of the observation by IceCube of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos, it is important to quantify the uncertainty in the background of atmospheric neutrinos. There are two sources of uncertainty, the imperfect knowledge of the spectrum and composition of the primary cosmic rays that produce the neutrinos and the limited understanding of hadron production, including charm, at high energy. This paper is an overview of both aspects.

  8. Angular distribution of muons produced by cosmic ray neutrinos in rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boliev, M. M.; Buckevich, A. V.; Chudakov, A. E.; Leonov-Vendrovsky, A. V.; Mikheyev, S. P.; Zakidyshev, V. N.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of the upgoing muons flux, produced by cosmic ray neutrinos is aiming at: (1) search for neutrino oscillation; (2); search for extraterrestrial neutrinos from local sources; and (3); search for any hypothetical neutral penetrating radiation different from neutrinos. Experimental data of the Baksan underground telescope on intensity of upward muons for three years of living time, was analyzed having in mind mainly neutrino oscillation.

  9. Atmospheric neutrinos and discovery of neutrino oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Kajita, Takaaki

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation was discovered through studies of neutrinos produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the atmosphere. These neutrinos are called atmospheric neutrinos. They are produced as decay products in hadronic showers resulting from collisions of cosmic rays with nuclei in the atmosphere. Electron-neutrinos and muon-neutrinos are produced mainly by the decay chain of charged pions to muons to electrons. Atmospheric neutrino experiments observed zenith-angle and energy dependent deficit of muon-neutrino events. Neutrino oscillations between muon-neutrinos and tau-neutrinos explain these data well. Neutrino oscillations imply that neutrinos have small but non-zero masses. The small neutrino masses have profound implications to our understanding of elementary particle physics and the Universe. This article discusses the experimental discovery of neutrino oscillations. PMID:20431258

  10. PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 129 on Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergström, Lars; Botner, Olga; Carlson, Per; Hulth, Per Olof; Ohlsson, Tommy

    2005-01-01

    telescopes are built deep in the Antarctic ice, in the Baikal Lake, and in the Mediterranean Sea. Among prominent unanswered questions, highlighted as one of the most important, was whether neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles. By studying neutrino double beta decay, researchers hope to answer this question, but it will put very large demands on detectors. The programme also included ample time for lively and valuable discussions, which cannot normally be held at ordinary conferences. The symposium concluded with a round-table discussion, where participants discussed the future of neutrino physics.Without a doubt, neutrino physics today is moving toward a very exciting and interesting period. An important contribution to the success of the symposium was the wonderful setting that the Haga Slott manor house hotel and conference center offered to the participants.

  11. Nonstandard neutrino-neutrino refractive effects in dense neutrino gases

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Serpico, Pasquale D.; /CERN /Fermilab

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the effects of nonstandard four-fermion neutrino-neutrino interactions on the flavor evolution of dense neutrino gases. We find that in the regions where the neutrino-neutrino refractive index leads to collective flavor oscillations, the presence of new neutrino interactions can produce flavor equilibration in both normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. In realistic supernova environments, these effects are significant if the nonstandard neutrino-neutrino interaction strength is comparable to the one expected in the standard case, dominating the ordinary matter potential. However, very small nonstandard neutrino-neutrino couplings are enough to trigger the usual collective neutrino flavor transformations in the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, even if the mixing angle vanishes exactly.

  12. Neutrino astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N.

    1980-01-01

    Current knowledge and proposed experiments in the field of neutrino astronomy are reviewed, with particular emphasis on expected sources and existing and proposed detectors for intermediate-energy (10 to 50 MeV) and ultrahigh energy (greater than 10 GeV) neutrinos. Following a brief discussion of the counting rate obtained in the solar neutrino experiment of Davis (1978) and possible statistical sources for the discrepancy between the expected and observed rates, consideration is given to the physics of neutrino ejection in stellar gravitational collapse and sources of high-energy proton collisions giving rise to ultrahigh energy neutrinos. The capabilities of operating Cerenkov detectors at the Homestake Gold Mine, the Mt. Blanc Tunnel and in the Soviet Caucasus are considered in relation to the detection of gravitational collapse in the center of the galaxy, and it is pointed out that neutrino detectors offer a more reliable means of detecting collapses in the Galaxy than do gravitational wave detectors. The possibility of using Cerenkov detectors for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection is also indicated, and applications of large neutrino detectors such as the proposed DUMAND array to measure the lifetime of the proton are discussed.

  13. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  14. ICECUBE Neutrinos and Lorentz Invariance Violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Guetta, D.; Piran, Tsvi

    2015-06-01

    The IceCube neutrino telescope has found so far no evidence of gamma-ray burst (GRB) neutrinos. We here notice that these results assume the same travel times from source to telescope for neutrinos and photons, an assumption that is challenged by some much-studied pictures of spacetime quantization. We briefly review previous results suggesting that limits on quantum-spacetime effects obtained for photons might not be applicable to neutrinos, and we then observe that the outcome of GRB-neutrino searches could depend strongly on whether one allows for neutrinos to be affected by the minute effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) predicted by some relevant quantum-spacetime models. We discuss some relevant issues using as an illustrative example three neutrinos that were detected by IceCube in good spatial coincidence with GRBs, but hours before the corresponding gamma rays. In general, this could happen if the earlier arrival reflects quantum-spacetime-induced LIV, but, as we stress, some consistency criteria must be enforced in order to properly test such a hypothesis. Our analysis sets the stage for future GRB-neutrino searches that could systematically test the possibility of quantum-spacetime-induced LIV.

  15. Neutrinos Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Stuart

    2003-04-01

    The excitement about neutrinos is all about mass. Recent experiments have established that neutrino have mass and that the familiar weak interaction states ν_e, ν_μ, and ν_τ are not the states the quantum states with definite mass. These new discoveries require a major reassessment of the role of neutrinos in the universe and the first reformulation of the Standard Model of particle physics since the discovery of the third generation of quarks and leptons. Neutrino experiments are poised to answer many of the new questions raised by the recent discoveries. I will review the current status of the field and discuss what experiment is teaching us about neutrino mass and mixing.

  16. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  17. Neutrino factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-01

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ13. The accelerator facility will deliver 1021 muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δCP that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δCP coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  18. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  19. Nonstandard interaction effects on astrophysical neutrino fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Meloni, Davide

    2009-09-15

    We investigate new physics effects in the production and detection of high-energy neutrinos at neutrino telescopes. Analyzing the flavor ratios {phi}{sub {mu}}/{phi}{sub {tau}} and {phi}{sub {mu}}/({phi}{sub {tau}}+{phi}{sub e}), we find that the standard model predictions for them can be sensibly altered by new physics effects in the case of pion sources. However, the experimental precision required to see the effects would be very difficult to obtain.

  20. Sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, J.; Machado, P. A. N.; Maltoni, M.; Schwetz, T.

    2016-06-01

    We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.

  1. Neutrino-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouzakov, Konstantin A.; Studenikin, Alexander I.

    2016-05-01

    Neutrino-atom scattering provides a sensitive tool for probing nonstandard interactions of massive neutrinos in laboratory measurements. The ionization channel of this collision process plays an important role in experiments searching for neutrino magnetic moments. We discuss some theoretical aspects of atomic ionization by massive neutrinos. We also outline possible manifestations of neutrino electromagnetic properties in coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  2. Astrophysical implications of high energy neutrino limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Julia K.; Groß, Andreas; Münich, Kirsten; Dreyer, Jens; Rhode, Wolfgang; Biermann, Peter L.

    2007-09-01

    Second generation high energy neutrino telescopes are being built to reach sensitivities of neutrino emission from galactic and extragalactic sources. Current neutrino detectors are already able to set limits which are in the range of some emission models. In particular, the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detection Array (AMANDA) has recently presented the so-far most restrictive limit on diffuse neutrino emission [A. Achterberg et al., Phys. Rev. D, submitted for publication, astro-ph/0705.1315.]. Stacking limits which apply to AGN point source classes rather than to single point sources [A. Achterberg, et al., IceCube Collaboration and P.L. Biermann, Astrophys. Phys. 26 (2006) 282] are given as well. In this paper, the two different types of limits will be used to draw conclusions about different emission models. An interpretation of stacking limits as diffuse limits to the emission from considered point source class is presented. The limits can for instance be used to constrain the predicted correlation of EGRET-detected diffuse emission and neutrino emission. Also, the correlation between X-ray and neutrino emission is constrained. Further results for source classes like TeV blazars and FR-II galaxies are presented. Starting from the source catalogs so-far examined for the stacking method, we discuss further potential catalogs and examine the possibilities of the second generation telescopes ICECUBE and KM3NET by comparing catalogs with respect to northern and southern hemisphere total flux.

  3. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  4. GRB neutrino search with MAGIC

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Julia K.; Rhode, Wolfgang; Gaug, Markus

    2008-05-22

    The Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescope was designed for the detection of photon sources > or approx. 50 GeV. The measurement of highly-inclined air showers renders possible the search for high-energy neutrinos, too. Only neutrinos can traverse the Earth without interaction, and therefore, events close to the horizon can be identified as neutrino-induced rather than photon-induced or hadronic events. In this paper, Swift-XRT-detected GRBs with given spectral information are used in order to calculate the potential neutrino energy spectrum from prompt and afterglow emission for each individual GRB. The event rate in MAGIC is estimated assuming that the GRB happens within the field of view of MAGIC. A sample of 568 long GRBs as detected by BATSE is used to compare the detection rates with 163 Swift-detected bursts. BATSE has properties similar to the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board of GLAST. Therefore the estimated rates give an estimate for the possibilities of neutrino detection with MAGIC from GLAST-triggered bursts.

  5. High-energy neutrino astrophysics: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, U. F.; Spiering, Ch.

    2012-07-01

    Neutrinos are unique cosmic messengers. Present attempts are directed to extend the window of cosmic neutrino observation from low energies (Sun, supernovae) to much higher energies. The aim is to study the most violent processes in the Universe which accelerate charged particles to highest energies, far beyond the reach of laboratory experiments on Earth. These processes must be accompanied by the emission of neutrinos. Neutrinos are electrically neutral and interact only weakly with ordinary matter; they thus propagate through the Universe without absorption or deflection, pointing back to their origin. Their feeble interaction, however, makes them extremely difficult to detect. The years 2008-2010 have witnessed remarkable steps in developing high energy neutrino telescopes. In 2010, the cubic-kilometre neutrino telescope IceCube at the South Pole has been completed. In the Mediterranean Sea the first-generation neutrino telescope ANTARES takes data since 2008, and efforts are directed towards KM3NeT, a telescope on the scale of several cubic kilometres. The next years will be key years for opening the neutrino window to the high energy Universe. With an instrumented volume of a cubic kilometre, IceCube is entering a region with realistic discovery potential. Discoveries or non-discoveries of IceCube will have a strong impact on the future of the field and possibly mark a "moment of truth". In this review, we discuss the scientific case for neutrino telescopes, describe the detection principle and its implementation in first- and second-generation installations and finally collect the existing physics results and the expectations for future detectors. We conclude with an outlook to alternative detection methods, in particular for neutrinos of extremely high energies.

  6. Implication of the Non-detection of GZK Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yacobi, Lee; Guetta, Dafne; Behar, Ehud

    2016-06-01

    The IceCube telescope has detected diffuse neutrino emission up to a deposited energy of 2.6 PeV. Neutrinos with higher energies are expected from the Greisen Ztsepin Kuzmin (GZK) effect, namely the interaction of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and the extragalactic background light (EBL), but have not yet been detected. Models for GZK neutrinos vary greatly due to different assumptions on the UHECR elemental composition, as well as on the cosmological evolution of their sources and of the EBL. We show that the high ratio of EeV to PeV neutrinos in essentially all GZK models excludes the currently detected PeV neutrinos from being due to the GZK effect, because many additional higher-energy neutrinos should have been detected but were not. The non-detection of GZK neutrinos, despite more than essentially 1800 observing days, already rules out at 95% confidence all of the models that predict rates of 0.6 neutrinos yr‑1 or more. The non-detection is further used here to quantify the confidence at which classes of GZK models can be ruled out, and to compute the additional IceCube observing time required in order to rule them out with 95% confidence, if no detection is made. Finally, the number of GZK neutrinos expected from various classes of models in the future neutrino telescopes ARA and KM3NeT is estimated.

  7. PINGU sensitivity to neutrino mass hierarchy

    SciTech Connect

    Groß, Andreas; Collaboration: IceCube-PINGU Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    Determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (NMH) is among the most fundamental questions in particle physics. Recent measurements of 1) a large mixing angle between the first and the third neutrino mass eigenstates and 2) the first observation of atmospheric neutrino oscillations at tens of GeV with neutrino telescopes, open the intriguing new possibility to exploit matter effects in neutrino oscillation to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. A further extension of IceCube/DeepCore called PINGU (Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade) has been recently envisioned with the ultimate goal to measure neutrino mass hierarchy. PINGU would consist of additional IceCube-like strings of detectors deployed in the deepest and cleanest ice in the center of IceCube. More densely deployed instrumentation would provide a threshold substantially below 10 GeV and enhance the sensitivity to the mass hierarchy signal in atmospheric neutrinos. Here we discuss an estimate of the PINGU sensitivity to the mass hierarchy determined using an approximation with an Asimov dataset and an oscillation parameter fit.

  8. Neutrino oscillations with IceCube DeepCore and PINGU

    SciTech Connect

    DeYoung, T.; Collaboration: IceCube-PINGU Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube neutrino telescope was augmented with the DeepCore infill array, completed in the 2010/11 austral summer, to enhance its response to neutrinos below 100 GeV. At these energies, neutrino oscillation effects are visible in the flux of atmospheric neutrinos traversing path lengths comparable to the Earth's diameter. Initial measurements of muon neutrino disappearance parameters using data from DeepCore are presented, as well as an estimate of potential future precision. In addition, plans for a Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU), which could permit determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy within the coming decade, are discussed.

  9. Neutrino Oscillations and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wark, David

    2001-04-01

    When the existence of the neutrino was almost apologetically first proposed by Wolfgang Pauli it was intended to explain the mysterious apparent absence of energy and momentum in beta decay. 70 years later the neutrino has indeed solved that mystery, but it has generated still more of its own. Are neutrinos massive? Is it possible to create a neutrino with its spin in the same direction as its momentum? What fraction of the mass of the Universe is made up of neutrinos? Are the flavour labels which we put on neutrinos, like electron and muon, really fixed or can they change? Why does no experiment see the predicted flux of neutrinos from the Sun? Why do there appear to be roughly equal numbers of muon and electron neutrinos created in our atmosphere, rather than the 2:1 ratio we would expect? Many of these questions were coupled when Bruno Pontecorvo first suggested that the shortfall in solar neutrino measurements were caused by neutrino oscillations - neutrinos spontaneously changing flavour as they travel from the Sun. 30 years later we still await definitive proof of that conjecture, and providing that proof is the reason for the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The talk will discuss the current state of neutrino oscillations studies, and show how the unique capabilities of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory can provide definitive proof of whether neutrino oscillations are the long-sought answer to the solar neutrino problem.

  10. Neutrino masses, neutrino oscillations, and cosmological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical concepts and motivations for considering neutrinos having finite masses are discussed and the experimental situation on searches for neutrino masses and oscillations is summarized. The solar neutrino problem, reactor, deep mine and accelerator data, tri decay experiments and double beta-decay data are considered and cosmological implications and astrophysical data relating to neutrino masses are reviewed. The neutrino oscillation solution to the solar neutrino problem, the missing mass problem in galaxy halos and galaxy cluster galaxy formation and clustering, and radiative neutrino decay and the cosmic ultraviolet background radiation are examined.

  11. Neutrino Astrophysics and the Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desiati, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Observatory is the largest neutrino telescope currently collecting data. With its km ^{3} volume it is designed to detect high energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. With the discovery of astrophysical neutrinos, in 2013, IceCube has opened the era of neutrino astronomy. The origin of the cosmic rays, however, is still a puzzle that will be solved only in a multi-messenger and multi-wavelength approach involving several experiments and observatories. In this presentation the recent results from the IceCube Observatory will be shown, along with the multi-messenger combined analyses and real time alert plans currently in operation.

  12. Search for neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts with ANTARES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Julia; Collaboration: ANTARES Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    ANTARES is the largest high-energy neutrino telescope in the Northern Hemisphere. A search for neutrinos in coincidence with gamma-ray bursts using ANTARES data from late 2007 to 2011 is presented here. An extended maximum likelihood ratio search was employed to optimise the discovery potential for a neutrino signal as predicted by a second-generation numerical model. No significant excess was found, so 90% confidence upper limits on the fluences as expected from analytically approximated neutrino-emission models as well as on up-to-date numerical predictions were placed.

  13. Neutrino refraction by the cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, J. S.; Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2016-03-01

    We have determined the dispersion relation of a neutrino test particle propagating in the cosmic neutrino background. Describing the relic neutrinos and antineutrinos from the hot big bang as a dense medium, a matter potential or refractive index is obtained. The vacuum neutrino mixing angles are unchanged, but the energy of each mass state is modified. Using a matrix in the space of neutrino species, the induced potential is decomposed into a part which produces signatures in beta-decay experiments and another part which modifies neutrino oscillations. The low temperature of the relic neutrinos makes a direct detection extremely challenging. From a different point of view, the identified refractive effects of the cosmic neutrino background constitute an ultralow background for future experimental studies of nonvanishing Lorentz violation in the neutrino sector.

  14. Neutrino magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL ); Senjanovic, G. . Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1990-01-01

    We review attempts to achieve a large neutrino magnetic moment ({mu}{sub {nu}} {le} 10{sup {minus}11}{mu}{sub B}), while keeping neutrino light or massless. The application to the solar neutrino puzzle is discussed. 24 refs.

  15. High Energy Neutrino Signals from the Epoch of Reionization

    SciTech Connect

    Iocco, F.; Murase, K.; Nagataki, S.; Serpico, P.D.

    2007-07-06

    In this paper we perform a new estimate of the high energy neutrinos expected from GRBs associated with the first generation of stars in light of new models and constraints on the epoch of reionization and a more detailed evaluation of the neutrino emission yields. We also compare the diffuse high energy neutrino background from Population III stars with the one from ''ordinary stars'' (Population II), as estimated consistently within the same cosmological and astrophysical assumptions. In disagreement with previous literature, we find that high energy neutrinos from Population III stars will not be observable with current or near future neutrino telescopes, falling below both IceCube sensitivity and atmospheric neutrino background under the most extreme assumptions for the GRB rate. This rules them out as a viable diagnostic tool for these still elusive metal-free stars.

  16. NEUTRINO FACTORIES - PHYSICS POTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    The recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric and solar neutrino observations opens a new era in neutrino physics and has sparked a considerable interest in the physics possibilities with a Neutrino Factory based on the muon storage ring. We present physics opportunities at a Neutrino Factory, and prospects of Neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the precisely known flavor composition of the beam, one could envision an extensive program to measure the neutrino oscillation mixing matrix, including possible CP violating effects. These and Neutrino Interaction Rates for examples of a Neutrino Factory at BNL (and FNAL) with detectors at Gran Sasso, SLAC and Sudan are also presented.

  17. Neutrinos: Theory and Phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen

    2013-10-22

    The theory and phenomenology of neutrinos will be addressed, especially that relating to the observation of neutrino flavor transformations. The current status and implications for future experiments will be discussed with special emphasis on the experiments that will determine the neutrino mass ordering, the dominant flavor content of the neutrino mass eigenstate with the smallest electron neutrino content and the size of CP violation in the neutrino sector. Beyond the neutrino Standard Model, the evidence for and a possible definitive experiment to confirm or refute the existence of light sterile neutrinos will be briefly discussed.

  18. Calculating Neutrino Oscillations with Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linehan, Bryan

    2014-09-01

    In particle physics, it is currently known that three types of neutrinos exist that interact via the weak force. Referred to as ``flavors,'' they are distinguishable and named for the lepton they produce through charged current interactions: electron, muon, and tau. In a process called neutrino oscillation, one flavor of neutrino can change into another flavor as it propagates through space. At the moment, mild discrepancies between expected and measured neutrino oscillations suggest that more types of neutrinos that do not interact via the weak force exist: sterile neutrinos. The goal of this project was to calculate non-sterile flavor oscillation probabilities when 1, 2 or 3 sterile neutrinos were assumed to exist. An application has been written in Mathematica that calculates these probabilities with the neutrino masses, linear relationships between mass and flavor states, values of CP symmetry violating constants, and constant densities of media in which the neutrinos propagate set as parameters. The application was published online for researchers to use as a tool when considering the existence of sterile neutrinos. In the immediate future, the insights this application gives into neutrino oscillations will be studied and reported. In particle physics, it is currently known that three types of neutrinos exist that interact via the weak force. Referred to as ``flavors,'' they are distinguishable and named for the lepton they produce through charged current interactions: electron, muon, and tau. In a process called neutrino oscillation, one flavor of neutrino can change into another flavor as it propagates through space. At the moment, mild discrepancies between expected and measured neutrino oscillations suggest that more types of neutrinos that do not interact via the weak force exist: sterile neutrinos. The goal of this project was to calculate non-sterile flavor oscillation probabilities when 1, 2 or 3 sterile neutrinos were assumed to exist. An application

  19. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  20. SNAP telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Lampton, Michael L.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis,R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar,A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland,S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.G.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder, E.V.; Loken,S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi,H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto,E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will require a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction limited images spanning a one degree field in the visible and near infrared wavelength regime. This requirement, equivalent to nearly one billion pixel resolution, places stringent demands on its optical system in terms of field flatness, image quality, and freedom from chromatic aberration. We discuss the advantages of annular-field three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescopes for applications such as SNAP, and describe the features of the specific optical configuration that we have baselined for the SNAP mission. We discuss the mechanical design and choice of materials for the telescope. Then we present detailed ray traces and diffraction calculations for our baseline optical design. We briefly discuss stray light and tolerance issues, and present a preliminary wavefront error budget for the SNAP Telescope. We conclude by describing some of tasks to be carried out during the upcoming SNAP research and development phase.

  1. Teaching Telescopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, John S.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses experience of teaching optical experiments with emphasis upon the student's design and construction of refracting and reflecting telescopes. Concludes that the student's interest and acquired knowledge are greatly enhanced through the use of realistic experiments. (CC)

  2. The Energy Spectrum of Atmospheric Neutrinos between 2 and 200 TeV with the AMANDA-II Detector

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Abbasi, R.

    2010-05-11

    The muon and anti-muon neutrino energy spectrum is determined from 2000-2003 AMANDA telescope data using regularised unfolding. This is the first measurement of atmospheric neutrinos in the energy range 2-200 TeV. The result is compared to different atmospheric neutrino models and it is compatible with the atmospheric neutrinos from pion and kaon decays. No significant contribution from charm hadron decays or extraterrestrial neutrinos is detected. The capabilities to improve the measurement of the neutrino spectrum with the successor experiment IceCube are discussed.

  3. First detection of high-energy astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Gary C.

    2015-07-15

    The IceCube detector at the South Pole is the world’s largest neutrino telescope, instrumenting a cubic kilometre of deep clear ice. Completed in late 2010, the detector has recorded the arrival directions and energies of tens of thousands of neutrinos – mostly those produced when cosmic rays collide with the Earth’s atmosphere. Here, we report on the first observation of high-energy neutrinos from beyond the Earth’s atmosphere, identified using a novel method to strongly suppress atmospheric neutrinos coming downward into the detector from the southern sky, leaving a sample of neutrinos highly likely to be of astrophysical origin.

  4. Energy reconstruction of high energy muon and neutrino events in KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulou, Evangelia; Markou, Christos; Tzamariudaki, Ekaterini; Pikounis, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    KM3NeT will be a European deep-sea infrastructure of neutrino telescopes covering a volume of several cubic kilometers in the Mediterranean Sea aiming to search for high energy neutrinos from galactic and extragalactic sources. This analysis focuses on muons coming from neutrino charged-current interactions. In large water Cherenkov detectors the reconstructed muon is used to approximate the neutrino direction and energy, thus providing information on the astrophysical neutrino source. Muon energy estimation is also critical for the differentiation of neutrinos originating from astrophysical sources from neutrinos generated in the atmosphere which constitute the detector background. We describe a method to determine the muon and neutrino energy employing a Neural Network. An energy resolution of approximately 0.27 has been achieved for muons at the TeV range.

  5. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  6. The cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dar, Arnon

    1991-01-01

    The cosmic neutrino background is expected to consist of relic neutrinos from the big bang, of neutrinos produced during nuclear burning in stars, of neutrinos released by gravitational stellar collapse, and of neutrinos produced by cosmic ray interactions with matter and radiation in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. Formation of baryonic dark matter in the early universe, matter-antimatter annihilation in a baryonic symmetric universe, and dark matter annihilation could have also contributed significantly to the cosmic neutrino background. The purpose of this paper is to review the properties of these cosmic neutrino backgrounds, the indirect evidence for their existence, and the prospects for their detection.

  7. Low-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludhova, Livia

    2016-05-01

    There exist several kinds of sources emitting neutrinos in the MeV energy range. These low-energy neutrinos from different sources can be often detected by the same multipurpose detectors. The status-of-art of the field of solar neutrinos, geoneutrinos, and the search for sterile neutrino with artificial neutrino sources is provided here; other neutrino sources, as for example reactor or high-energy neutrinos, are described elsewhere. For each of these three fields, the present-day motivation and open questions, as well as the latest experimental results and future perspectives are discussed.

  8. Tachyonic neutrinos and the neutrino masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, Robert

    2013-01-01

    With a recent claim of superluminal neutrinos shown to be in error, 2012 may not be a propitious time to consider the evidence that one or more neutrinos may indeed be tachyons. Nevertheless, there are a growing number of observations that continue to suggest this possibility - albeit with an mν2<0 having a much smaller magnitude than was implied by the original OPERA claim. One recently published non-standard analysis of SN 1987A neutrinos supports a tachyonic mass eigenstate, and here we show how it leads to 3 + 3 mirror neutrino model having an unconventional mass hierarchy. The model incorporates one superluminal active-sterile neutrino pair, and it is testable in numerous ways, including making a surprising prediction about an unpublished aspect of the SN 1987A neutrinos. Additional supporting evidence involving earlier analyses of cosmic rays is summarized to add credence to the tachyonic neutrino hypothesis.

  9. Determining neutrino absorption spectra at ultra-high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Scholten, O; Van Vliet, A R E-mail: A.R.van.Vliet@student.rug.nl

    2008-06-15

    A very efficient method for measuring the flux of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos is through the detection of radio waves which are emitted by the particle shower in the lunar regolith. The highest acceptance is reached for radio waves in the frequency band of 100-200 MHz which can be measured with modern radio telescopes. In this work we investigate the sensitivity of this detection method to structures in the UHE neutrino spectrum caused by their absorption on the low energy relic anti-neutrino background through the Z boson resonance. The position of the absorption peak is sensitive to the neutrino mass and the redshift of the source. A new generation of low frequency digital radio telescopes will provide excellent detection capabilities for measuring these radio pulses, thus making our consideration here very timely.

  10. Relic Neutrino Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, b

    2004-01-28

    Resonant annihilation of extremely high-energy cosmic neutrinos on big-bang relic anti-neutrinos (and vice versa) into Z-bosons leads to sizable absorption dips in the neutrino flux to be observed at Earth. The high-energy edges of these dips are fixed, via the resonance energies, by the neutrino masses alone. Their depths are determined by the cosmic neutrino background density, by the cosmological parameters determining the expansion rate of the universe, and by the large redshift history of the cosmic neutrino sources. We investigate the possibility of determining the existence of the cosmic neutrino background within the next decade from a measurement of these absorption dips in the neutrino flux. As a by-product, we study the prospects to infer the absolute neutrino mass scale. We find that, with the presently planned neutrino detectors (ANITA, Auger, EUSO, OWL, RICE, and SalSA) operating in the relevant energy regime above 10{sup 21} eV, relic neutrino absorption spectroscopy becomes a realistic possibility. It requires, however, the existence of extremely powerful neutrino sources, which should be opaque to nucleons and high-energy photons to evade present constraints. Furthermore, the neutrino mass spectrum must be quasi-degenerate to optimize the dip, which implies m{sub {nu}} 0.1 eV for the lightest neutrino. With a second generation of neutrino detectors, these demanding requirements can be relaxed considerably.

  11. Invited review article: IceCube: an instrument for neutrino astronomy.

    PubMed

    Halzen, Francis; Klein, Spencer R

    2010-08-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms 1 km(3) of deep and ultratransparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5160 optical sensors is embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems, and light-emitting diodes for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams. The outline of this review is as follows: neutrino astronomy and kilometer-scale detectors, high-energy neutrino telescopes: methodologies of neutrino detection, IceCube hardware, high-energy neutrino telescopes: beyond astronomy, and future projects. PMID:20815596

  12. Neutrino Oscillations with Three Active and Three Sterile Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisslinger, Leonard S.

    2016-07-01

    This is an extension of estimates of the probability of μ to e neutrino oscillation with one sterile neutrino to three sterile neutrinos, using a 6x6 matrix. Since the mixing angle for only one sterile neutrino has been experimentally determined, we estimate the μ to e neutrino oscillation probability with different mixing angles for two of the sterile neutrinos.

  13. Neutrino fluxes from the Galactic plane and the ANTARES limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, Luigi Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The existence of cosmic neutrinos has been reported by the IceCube Collaboration. Though this measurement is consistent with an isotropic neutrino flux, a sub-dominant galactic component coming from extended regions such as the Galactic Plane cannot be excluded. The ANTARES detector, located in the Mediterranean Sea, is currently the largest and longest operated under-water neutrino telescope; its effective area and good exposure to the Southern Sky allow to constrain an enhanced muon neutrino emission from extended sources such as the Galactic Plane. ANTARES data from 2007 to 2013 have been analysed and upper limits on the neutrino production from the central region of our galaxy have been set.

  14. SalSA: A Teraton UHE Neutrino Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Reil, Kevin; /SLAC

    2006-04-19

    The observed spectrum of ultra-high energy cosmic rays virtually guarantees the presence of ultra-high energy neutrinos due to their interaction with the cosmic microwave background. Unlike cosmic rays, each of these neutrinos will point back directly to its source and will arrive at the Earth unattenuated, from sources perhaps as distant as z = 20. The neutrino telescopes currently under construction, should discover a handful of these events, probably too few for detailed study. This paper describes how an array of VHF and UHF antennas embedded in a large salt dome, SalSA (Salt dome Shower Array) promises to yield a teraton detector (> 500 km{sup 3 sr}) for contained neutrino events with energies above 10{sup 17} eV. Our simulations show that such a detector may observe several hundreds of these neutrinos over its lifetime with excellent angular resolution providing source locations.

  15. Towards acoustic UHE neutrino detection in the Mediterranean sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riccobene, G.

    2012-11-01

    Acoustic detection is proposed as a promising detection technique for Extreme High energy neutrinos. This technique is based on the detection of the acoustic signature of neutrino-induced showers in water: a bipolar signal, having a bandwidth of few 10 kHz, with cylindrical wave front. During the last decade, the possibility of access to deep-sea infrastructures developed for Cherenkov telescopes, allowed start-up of intense R&D activities on acoustic detection. In the framework of the activities of ANTARES, NEMO and KM3NeT, several small size experiments were run in order to measure acoustic noise in deep sea and test “neutrino-like” acoustic event detection. These activities have set milestones both for future HE neutrino detectors, for innovative deep-sea technology and for Earth-Sea science. A review on acoustic neutrino detection and projects running in the Mediterranean Sea is presented.

  16. Present theoretical uncertainties on charm hadroproduction in QCD and prompt neutrino fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzelli, M. V.; Moch, S.; Sigl, G.

    2016-04-01

    Prompt neutrino fluxes are basic backgrounds in the search of high-energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin, performed by means of full-size neutrino telescopes located at Earth, under ice or under water. Predictions for these fluxes are provided on the basis of up-to-date theoretical results for charm hadroproduction in perturbative QCD, together with a comprehensive discussion of the various sources of theoretical uncertainty affecting their computation, and a quantitative estimate of each uncertainty contribution.

  17. High-energy neutrinos from photomeson processes in blazars.

    PubMed

    Atoyan, A; Dermer, C D

    2001-11-26

    An important radiation field for photomeson neutrino production in blazars is shown to be the radiation field external to the jet. Assuming that protons are accelerated with the same power as electrons and injected with a -2 number spectrum, we predict that km(2) neutrino telescopes will > or similar to 1 neutrinos per year from flat spectrum radio quasars such as 3C 279. The escaping high-energy neutron and photon beams transport inner jet energy far from the black-hole engine, and could power synchrotron x-ray jets and FR II hot spots and lobes. PMID:11736392

  18. Experimental Limit on the Cosmic Diffuse Ultrahigh Energy Neutrino Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Hebert, C. L.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.; Saltzberg, D.; Williams, D.

    2004-07-01

    We report results from 120h of live time with the Goldstone lunar ultrahigh energy neutrino experiment (GLUE). The experiment searches for ≤10 ns microwave pulses from the lunar regolith, appearing in coincidence at two large radio telescopes separated by 22km and linked by optical fiber. Such pulses would arise from subsurface electromagnetic cascades induced by interactions of ≥100 EeV (1 EeV=1018 eV neutrinos in the lunar regolith. No candidates are yet seen, and the implied limits constrain several current models for ultrahigh energy neutrino fluxes.

  19. Experimental limit on the cosmic diffuse ultrahigh energy neutrino flux.

    PubMed

    Gorham, P W; Hebert, C L; Liewer, K M; Naudet, C J; Saltzberg, D; Williams, D

    2004-07-23

    We report results from 120 h of live time with the Goldstone lunar ultrahigh energy neutrino experiment (GLUE). The experiment searches for < or = 10 ns microwave pulses from the lunar regolith, appearing in coincidence at two large radio telescopes separated by 22 km and linked by optical fiber. Such pulses would arise from subsurface electromagnetic cascades induced by interactions of > or = 100 EeV (1 EeV = 10(18) eV neutrinos in the lunar regolith. No candidates are yet seen, and the implied limits constrain several current models for ultrahigh energy neutrino fluxes. PMID:15323748

  20. Planck constraints on neutrino isocurvature density perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    The recent cosmic microwave background data from the Planck satellite experiment, when combined with Hubble Space Telescope determinations of the Hubble constant, are compatible with a larger, nonstandard number of relativistic degrees of freedom at recombination, parametrized by the neutrino effective number Neff . In the curvaton scenario, a larger value for Neff could arise from a nonzero neutrino chemical potential connected to residual neutrino isocurvature density (NID) perturbations after the decay of the curvaton field, the component of which is parametrized by the amplitude αNID . Here we present new constraints on Neff and αNID from an analysis of recent cosmological data. We find that the Planck+WMAP polarization data set does not show any indication of a NID component (severely constraining its amplitude), and that current indications for a nonstandard Neff are further relaxed.

  1. Infrared telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, G. R.; Hendricks, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the Infrared Telescope for Spacelab 2 is discussed. The design, development, and testing required to interface a stationary superfluid helium dewar with a scanning cryostate capable of operating in the zero-g environment in the space shuttle bay is described.

  2. Neutrino Physics at Fermilab

    ScienceCinema

    Saoulidou, Niki

    2010-01-08

    Neutrino oscillations provide the first evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. I will briefly overview the neutrino "hi-story", describing key discoveries over the past decades that shaped our understanding of neutrinos and their behavior. Fermilab was, is and hopefully will be at the forefront of the accelerator neutrino experiments.  NuMI, the most powerful accelerator neutrino beam in the world has ushered us into the era of precise measurements. Its further upgrades may give a chance to tackle the remaining mysteries of the neutrino mass hierarchy and possible CP violation.

  3. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  4. Selecting Your First Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington, Sherwood

    1982-01-01

    Designed for first-time telescope purchasers, provides information on how a telescope works; major telescope types (refractors, reflectors, compound telescopes); tripod, pier, altazimuth, and equatorial mounts; selecting a telescope; visiting an astronomy club; applications/limitations of telescope use; and tips on buying a telescope. Includes a…

  5. Supernova neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Scholberg, K.

    2015-07-15

    In this presentation I summarize the main detection channels for neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae, and describe current status of and future prospects for supernova-neutrino-sensitive detectors worldwide.

  6. Solar Neutrino Problem

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, R. Jr.; Evans, J. C.; Cleveland, B. T.

    1978-04-28

    A summary of the results of the Brookhaven solar neutrino experiment is given and discussed in relation to solar model calculations. A review is given of the merits of various new solar neutrino detectors that were proposed.

  7. Geo-neutrino Observation

    SciTech Connect

    Dye, S. T.; Alderman, M.; Batygov, M.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Mahoney, J. M.; Pakvasa, S.; Rosen, M.; Smith, S.; Varner, G.; McDonough, W. F.

    2009-12-17

    Observations of geo-neutrinos measure radiogenic heat production within the earth, providing information on the thermal history and dynamic processes of the mantle. Two detectors currently observe geo-neutrinos from underground locations. Other detection projects in various stages of development include a deep ocean observatory. This paper presents the current status of geo-neutrino observation and describes the scientific capabilities of the deep ocean observatory, with emphasis on geology and neutrino physics.

  8. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris

    2012-06-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures. Neutrinos and photons are by far the most abundant elementary particles in the universe. Thus, if we would like to comprehend the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Of course, studying the neutrinos is challenging, since the only known forces through which these electrically-neutral leptons interact are the weak force and gravity. Consequently, interactions of neutrinos in a detector are very rare events, so that very large detectors and intense neutrino sources are needed to make experiments feasible. Nevertheless, we have confirmed that the weak interactions of neutrinos are correctly described by the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics. Moreover, in the last 14 years, we have discovered that neutrinos have nonzero masses, and that leptons mix. These discoveries have been based on the observation that neutrinos can change from one 'flavor' to another - the phenomenon known as neutrino oscillation. We shall explain the physics of neutrino oscillation, deriving the probability of oscillation in a new way. We shall also provide a very brief guide to references that can be used to study some major neutrino-physics topics other than neutrino oscillation.

  9. Leptogenesis with many neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Eisele, Marc-Thomas

    2008-02-15

    We consider leptogenesis in scenarios with many neutrino singlets. We find that the lower bound for the reheating temperature can be significantly relaxed with respect to the hierarchical three neutrino case. We further argue that the upper bound for the neutrino mass scale from leptogenesis gets significantly lifted in these scenarios. As a specific realization, we then discuss an extradimensional model, where the large number of neutrinos is provided by Kaluza-Klein excitations.

  10. Constraints on neutrino masses from weak lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Takada, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tomo

    2009-01-15

    Weak lensing (WL) distortions of distant galaxy images are sensitive to neutrino masses by probing the suppression effect on clustering strengths of total matter in large-scale structure. We use the latest measurements of WL correlations, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey data, to explore constraints on neutrino masses. We find that, while the WL data alone cannot place a stringent limit on neutrino masses due to parameter degeneracies, the constraint can be significantly improved when combined with other cosmological probes, such as the WMAP 5-year data (WMAP5) and the distance measurements of type-Ia supernovae (SNe) and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). The upper bounds on the sum of neutrino masses are , 0.76, and 0.54 eV (95% CL) for WL+WMAP5, WMAP5+SNe+BAO, and WL+WMAP5+SNe+BAO, respectively, assuming a flat {lambda}CDM model with finite-mass neutrinos. In deriving these constraints, our analysis includes the non-Gaussian covariances of the WL correlation functions to properly take into account significant correlations between different angles.

  11. Neutrino Detectors Review

    SciTech Connect

    D'Ambrosio, Nicola

    2005-10-12

    The neutrino physics is one of the most important research field and there are several experiments made and under construction focused on it. This paper will present a review on some detectors used for Solar Neutrinos detection, Atmospheric Neutrinos detection and in Long Baseline Experiments.

  12. Neutrino Physics with Opera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolin, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    Neutrino physics with the OPERA experiment will be discussed in this paper. First the OPERA physic goal will be presented. A description of the neutrino beam and of the detector will follow. The analysis of the beam induced neutrino interactions will then be presented.

  13. Neutrino observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, Q.R.; Allen, R.C.; Andersen, T.C.; Anglin, J.D.; Barton,J.C.; Beier, E.W.; Bercovitch, M.; Bigu, J.; Biller, S.D.; Black, R.A.; Blevis, I.; Boardman, R.J.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.; Boulay, M.G.; Bowler,M.G.; Bowles, T.J.; Brice, S.J.; Browne, M.C.; Bullard, T.V.; Buhler, G.; Cameron, J.; Chan, Y.D.; Chen, H.H.; Chen, M.; Chen, X.; Cleveland, B.T.; Clifford, E.T.H.; Cowan, J.H.M.; Cowen, D.F.; Cox, G.A.; Dai, X.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; Davidson, W.F.; Doe, P.J.; Doucas, G.; Dragowsky,M.R.; Duba, C.A.; Duncan, F.A.; Dunford, M.; Dunmore, J.A.; Earle, E.D.; Elliott, S.R.; Evans, H.C.; Ewan, G.T.; Farine, J.; Fergani, H.; Ferraris, A.P.; Ford, R.J.; Formaggio, J.A.; Fowler, M.M.; Frame, K.; Frank, E.D.; Frati, W.; Gagnon, N.; Germani, J.V.; Gil, S.; Graham, K.; Grant, D.R.; Hahn, R.L.; Hallin, A.L.; Hallman, E.D.; Hamer, A.S.; Hamian, A.A.; Handler, W.B.; Haq, R.U.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harvey, P.J.; Hazama, R.; Heeger, K.M.; Heintzelman, W.J.; Heise, J.; Helmer, R.L.; Hepburn, J.D.; Heron, H.; Hewett, J.; Hime, A.; Hykawy, J.G.; Isaac,M.C.P.; Jagam, P.; Jelley, N.A.; Jillings, C.; Jonkmans, G.; Kazkaz, K.; Keener, P.T.; Klein, J.R.; Knox, A.B.; Komar, R.J.; Kouzes, R.; Kutter,T.; Kyba, C.C.M.; Law, J.; Lawson, I.T.; Lay, M.; Lee, H.W.; Lesko, K.T.; Leslie, J.R.; Levine, I.; Locke, W.; Luoma, S.; Lyon, J.; Majerus, S.; Mak, H.B.; Maneira, J.; Manor, J.; Marino, A.D.; McCauley, N.; McDonald,D.S.; McDonald, A.B.; McFarlane, K.; McGregor, G.; Meijer, R.; Mifflin,C.; Miller, G.G.; Milton, G.; Moffat, B.A.; Moorhead, M.; Nally, C.W.; Neubauer, M.S.; Newcomer, F.M.; Ng, H.S.; Noble, A.J.; Norman, E.B.; Novikov, V.M.; O'Neill, M.; Okada, C.E.; Ollerhead, R.W.; Omori, M.; Orrell, J.L.; Oser, S.M.; Poon, A.W.P.; Radcliffe, T.J.; Roberge, A.; Robertson, B.C.; Robertson, R.G.H.; Rosendahl, S.S.E.; Rowley, J.K.; Rusu, V.L.; Saettler, E.; Schaffer, K.K.; Schwendener,M.H.; Schulke, A.; Seifert, H.; Shatkay, M.; Simpson, J.J.; Sims, C.J.; et al.

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  14. Neutrino Observations from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Q. R. Ahmad, R. C. Allen, T. C. Andersen, J. D. Anglin, G. Bühler, J. C. Barton, E. W. Beier, M. Bercovitch, J. Bigu, S. Biller, R. A. Black, I. Blevis, R. J. Boardman, J. Boger, E. Bonvin, M. G. Boulay, M. G. Bowler, T. J. Bowles, S. J. Brice, M. C. Browne, T. V. Bullard, T. H. Burritt, K. Cameron, J. Cameron, Y. D. Chan, M. Chen, H. H. Chen, X. Chen, M. C. Chon, B. T. Cleveland, E. T. H. Clifford, J. H. M. Cowan, D. F. Cowen, G. A. Cox, Y. Dai, X. Dai, F. Dalnoki-Veress, W. F. Davidson, P. J. Doe, G. Doucas, M. R. Dragowsky, C. A. Duba, F. A. Duncan, J. Dunmore, E. D. Earle, S. R. Elliott, H. C. Evans, G. T. Ewan, J. Farine, H. Fergani, A. P. Ferraris, R. J. Ford, M. M. Fowler, K. Frame, E. D. Frank, W. Frati, J. V. Germani, S. Gil, A. Goldschmidt, D. R. Grant, R. L. Hahn, A. L. Hallin, E. D. Hallman, A. Hamer, A. A. Hamian, R. U. Haq, C. K. Hargrove, P. J. Harvey, R. Hazama, R. Heaton, K. M. Heeger, W. J. Heintzelman, J. Heise, R. L. Helmer, J. D. Hepburn, H. Heron, J. Hewett, A. Hime, M. Howe, J. G. Hykawy, M. C. P. Isaac, P. Jagam, N. A. Jelley, C. Jillings, G. Jonkmans, J. Karn, P. T. Keener, K. Kirch, J. R. Klein, A. B. Knox, R. J. Komar, R. Kouzes, T. Kutter, C. C. M. Kyba, J. Law, I. T. Lawson, M. Lay, H. W. Lee, K. T. Lesko, J. R. Leslie, I. Levine, W. Locke, M. M. Lowry, S. Luoma, J. Lyon, S. Majerus, H. B. Mak, A. D. Marino, N. McCauley, A. B. McDonald, D. S. McDonald, K. McFarlane, G. McGregor, W. McLatchie, R. Meijer Drees, H. Mes, C. Mifflin, G. G. Miller, G. Milton, B. A. Moffat, M. Moorhead, C. W. Nally, M. S. Neubauer, F. M. Newcomer, H. S. Ng, A. J. Noble, E. B. Norman, V. M. Novikov, M. O'Neill, C. E. Okada, R. W. Ollerhead, M. Omori, J. L. Orrell, S. M. Oser, A. W. P. Poon, T. J. Radcliffe, A. Roberge, B. C. Robertson, R. G. H. Robertson, J. K. Rowley, V. L. Rusu, E. Saettler, K. K. Schaffer, A. Schuelke, M. H. Schwendener, H. Seifert, M. Shatkay, J. J. Simpson, D. Sinclair, P. Skensved, A. R. Smith, M. W. E. Smith, N. Starinsky, T. D. Steiger, R. G. Stokstad, R. S. Storey, B. Sur, R. Tafirout, N. Tagg, N. W. Tanner, R. K. Taplin, M. Thorman, P. Thornewell, P. T. Trent, Y. I. Tserkovnyak, R. Van Berg, R. G. Van de Water, C. J. Virtue, C. E. Waltham, J.-X. Wang, D. L. Wark, N. West, J. B. Wilhelmy, J. F. Wilkerson, J. Wilson, P. Wittich, J. M. Wouters, and M. Yeh

    2001-09-24

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a water imaging Cherenkov detector. Its usage of 1000 metric tons of D{sub 2}O as target allows the SNO detector to make a solar-model independent test of the neutrino oscillation hypothesis by simultaneously measuring the solar {nu}{sub e} flux and the total flux of all active neutrino species. Solar neutrinos from the decay of {sup 8}B have been detected at SNO by the charged-current (CC) interaction on the deuteron and by the elastic scattering (ES) of electrons. While the CC reaction is sensitive exclusively to {nu}{sub e}, the ES reaction also has a small sensitivity to {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}}. In this paper, recent solar neutrino results from the SNO experiment are presented. It is demonstrated that the solar flux from {sup 8}B decay as measured from the ES reaction rate under the no-oscillation assumption is consistent with the high precision ES measurement by the Super-Kamiokande experiment. The {nu}{sub e} flux deduced from the CC reaction rate in SNO differs from the Super-Kamiokande ES results by 3.3{sigma}. This is evidence for an active neutrino component, in additional to {nu}{sub e}, in the solar neutrino flux. These results also allow the first experimental determination of the total active {sup 8}B neutrino flux from the Sun, and is found to be in good agreement with solar model predictions.

  15. Ultra high energy photons and neutrinos with JEM-EUSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    Ultra high energy photons and neutrinos are carriers of very important astrophysical information. They may be produced at the sites of cosmic ray acceleration or during the propagation of the cosmic rays in the intergalactic medium. In contrast to charged cosmic rays, photon and neutrino arrival directions point to the production site because they are not deflected by the magnetic fields of the Galaxy or the intergalactic medium. In this work we study the characteristics of the longitudinal development of showers initiated by photons and neutrinos at the highest energies. These studies are relevant for development of techniques for neutrino and photon identification by the JEM-EUSO telescope. In particular, we study the possibility of observing the multi-peak structure of very deep horizontal neutrino showers with JEM-EUSO. We also discuss the possibility to determine the flavor content of the incident neutrino flux by taking advantage of the different characteristics of the longitudinal profiles generated by different type of neutrinos. This is of grate importance for the study of the fundamental properties of neutrinos at the highest energies. Regarding photons, we discuss the detectability of the cosmogenic component by JEM-EUSO and also estimate the expected upper limits on the photon fraction which can be obtained from the future JEM-EUSO data for the case in which there are no photons in the samples.

  16. Observation of high energy neutrinos with IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karle, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    High energy cosmic rays have been observed up to extremely high energies of more than 1020 eV. The mechanism of their acceleration and their sources are, however, still largely unknown. Numerous scenarios suggest that neutrinos are produced in collisions of cosmic rays with matter or radiation fields in the source region. Because neutrinos are neither absorbed nor deflected, they will point directly back to their sources making them a unique tool for high energy particle astronomy. The IceCube neutrino detector at the South Pole, in full operation since 2011, uses more than a billion tons of natural ice as a target for neutrino detection. More than 50,000 atmospheric neutrinos at the TeV energy scale are being detected per year. The first several years of data have provided compelling evidence for a flux of neutrinos of astrophysical origin. The data include the detection of tens of neutrinos per year with energies above 1014 eV - the highest energy leptons ever observed. The data are consistent with expectations from an extragalactic neutrino flux, however a galactic contribution cannot be excluded with current data. I will review the recent findings obtained with IceCube and compare data with expectations. New strategies such as multimessenger approaches where data from IceCube are correlated with observations of gamma rays and other telescope data will be discussed.

  17. The Era of Kilometer-Scale Neutrino Detectors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Halzen, Francis; Katz, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, transforms a cubic kilometer of deep and ultra-transparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. KM3NeT, an instrument that aims to exploit several cubic kilometers of the deep Mediterranean sea as its detector medium, is in its final design stages. The scientific missions of these instruments include searching for sources of cosmic rays and for dark matter, observing Galactic supernova explosions, and studying the neutrinos themselves. Identifying the accelerators that produce Galacticmore » and extragalactic cosmic rays has been a priority mission of several generations of high-energy gamma-ray and neutrino telescopes; success has been elusive so far. Detecting the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes associated with cosmic rays reaches a new watershed with the completion of IceCube, the first neutrino detector with sensitivity to the anticipated fluxes. In this paper, we will first revisit the rationale for constructing kilometer-scale neutrino detectors. We will subsequently recall the methods for determining the arrival direction, energy and flavor of neutrinos, and will subsequently describe the architecture of the IceCube and KM3NeT detectors.« less

  18. UHE neutrino and cosmic ray emission from GRBs: Revising the models and clarifying the cosmic ray-neutrino connection

    SciTech Connect

    Bustamante, Mauricio Winter, Walter; Baerwald, Philipp

    2014-11-18

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have long been held as one of the most promising sources of ultra-high energy (UHE) neutrinos. The internal shock model of GRB emission posits the joint production of UHE cosmic rays (UHECRs, above 10{sup 8} GeV), photons, and neutrinos, through photohadronic interactions between source photons and magnetically-confined energetic protons, that occur when relativistically-expanding matter shells loaded with baryons collide with one another. While neutrino observations by IceCube have now ruled out the simplest version of the internal shock model, we show that a revised calculation of the emission, together with the consideration of the full photohadronic cross section and other particle physics effects, results in a prediction of the prompt GRB neutrino flux that still lies one order of magnitude below the current upper bounds, as recently exemplified by the results from ANTARES. In addition, we show that by allowing protons to directly escape their magnetic confinement without interacting at the source, we are able to partially decouple the cosmic ray and prompt neutrino emission, which grants the freedom to fit the UHECR observations while respecting the neutrino upper bounds. Finally, we briefly present advances towards pinning down the precise relation between UHECRs and UHE neutrinos, including the baryonic loading required to fit UHECR observations, and we will assess the role that very large volume neutrino telescopes play in this.

  19. Mass determination of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1988-01-01

    A time-energy correlation method has been developed to determine the signature of a nonzero neutrino mass in a small sample of neutrinos detected from a distant source. The method is applied to the Kamiokande II (Hirata et al., 1987) and IMB (Bionta et al., 1987) observations of neutrino bursts from SN 1987A. Using the Kamiokande II data, the neutrino rest mass is estimated at 2.8 + 2.0, - 1.4 eV and the initial neutrino pulse is found to be less than 0.3 sec full width, followed by an emission tail lasting at least 10 sec.

  20. Direct Neutrino Mass Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDevender, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Neutrino flavor oscillation experiments have demonstrated that the three Standard Model neutrino flavor eigenstates are mixed with three mass eigenstates whose mass eigenvalues are nondegenerate. The oscillation experiments measure the differences between the squares of the mass eigenvalues but tell us nothing about their absolute values. The unknown absolute neutrino mass scale has important implications in particle physics and cosmology. Beta decay endpoint measurements are presented as a model-independent method to measure the absolute neutrino mass. The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) is explored in detail.

  1. Nucleosynthesis and Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2011-05-06

    Neutrinos play the critical roles in nucleosynthesis of light-to-heavy mass nuclei in core-collapse supernovae. We study the nucleosynthesis induced by neutrino interactions and find suitable average neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta. These isotopes are predominantly synthesized by the supernova {nu}-process. We also study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances and propose a method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, i.e. {theta}{sub 13} and mass hierarchy.

  2. Neutrinos from AGN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The great penetrating power of neutrinos makes them ideal probe of astrophysical sites and conditions inaccessible to other forms of radiation. These are the centers of stars (collapsing or not) and the centers of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). It has been suggested that AGN presented a very promising source of high energy neutrinos, possibly detectable by underwater neutrino detectors. This paper reviews the evolution of ideas concerning the emission of neutrinos from AGN in view of the more recent developments in gamma-ray astronomy and their implications for the neutrino emission from these class of objects.

  3. Guaranteed and prospective Galactic TeV neutrino sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kistler, Matthew D.; Beacom, John F.

    2006-09-15

    Recent observations, particularly from the HESS Collaboration, have revealed rich Galactic populations of TeV gamma-ray sources, including a collection unseen in other wavelengths. Many of these gamma-ray spectra are well measured up to {approx}10 TeV, where low statistics make observations by air Cerenkov telescopes difficult. To understand these mysterious sources, especially at much higher energies--where a cutoff should eventually appear--new techniques are needed. We point out the following: (1) For a number of sources, it is very likely that pions, and hence TeV neutrinos, are produced; (2) As a general point, neutrinos should be a better probe of the highest energies than gamma rays, due to increasing detector efficiency; and (3) For several specific sources, the detection prospects for km{sup 3} neutrino telescopes are very good, {approx}1-10 events/year, with low atmospheric neutrino background rates above reasonable energy thresholds. Such signal rates, as small as they may seem, will allow neutrino telescopes to powerfully discriminate between models for the Galactic TeV sources, with important consequences for our understanding of cosmic-ray production.

  4. Multi-wavelength follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Aurore

    2015-10-01

    Transient sources are often associated with the most violent phenomena in the Universe, where the acceleration of hadrons may occur. Such sources include gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGN) or core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe), and are promising candidates for the production of high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. The ANTARES telescope, located in the Mediterranean sea, aims at detecting these high energy neutrinos, which could reveal the presence of a cosmic ray accelerator. However, to enhance the sensitivity to transient sources, a method based on multi-wavelength follow-up of neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection. The telescopes start an observation program of the corresponding region of the sky in order to detect a possible electromagnetic counterpart to the neutrino event. The work presented in this thesis covers the development and implementation of an optical image analysis pipeline, as well as the analysis of optical and X-ray data to search for fast transient sources, such as GRB afterglows, and slowly varying transient sources, such as CCSNe.

  5. A New Neutrino Oscillation

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Starting in the late 1960s, neutrino detectors began to see signs that neutrinos, now known to come in the flavors electron ({nu}{sub e}), muon ({nu}{sub {mu}}), and tau ({nu}{sub {tau}}), could transform from one flavor to another. The findings implied that neutrinos must have mass, since massless particles travel at the speed of light and their clocks, so to speak, don't tick, thus they cannot change. What has since been discovered is that neutrinos oscillate at two distinct scales, 500 km/GeV and 15,000 km/GeV, which are defined by the baseline (L) of the experiment (the distance the neutrino travels) divided by the neutrino energy (E). Neutrinos of one flavor can oscillate into neutrinos of another flavor at both L/E scales, but the amplitude of these oscillations is different for the two scales and depends on the initial and final flavor of the neutrinos. The neutrino states that propogate unchanged in time, the mass eigenstates {nu}1, {nu}2, {nu}3, are quantum mechanical mixtures of the electron, muon, and tau neutrino flavors, and the fraction of each flavor in a given mass eigenstate is controlled by three mixing angles and a complex phase. Two of these mixing angles are known with reasonable precision. An upper bound exists for the third angle, called {theta}{sub 13}, which controls the size of the muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation at an L/E of 500 km/GeV. The phase is completely unknown. The existence of this phase has important implications for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter we observe in the universe today. Experiments around the world have steadily assembled this picture of neutrino oscillation, but evidence of muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillation at 500 km/GeV has remained elusive. Now, a paper from the T2K (Tokai to Kamioka) experiment in Japan, reports the first possible observation of muon neutrinos oscillating into electron neutrinos at 500 km/GeV. They see 6 candidate signal events, above an expected background

  6. Search for a Correlation between ANTARES Neutrinos and Pierre Auger Observatory UHECRs Arrival Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Samarai, I. Al; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Beemster, L. J.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Ferri, M.; Ferry, S.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Hartman, J.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; Hsu, C. C.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Meli, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, N.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payet, K.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Ruiz-Rivas, J.; Rujoiu, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wijnker, G.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2013-09-01

    A multimessenger analysis optimized for a correlation of arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos is presented and applied to 2190 neutrino candidate events detected in 2007-2008 by the ANTARES telescope and 69 UHECRs observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory between 2004 January 1 and 2009 December 31. No significant correlation is observed. Assuming an equal neutrino flux (E -2 energy spectrum) from all UHECR directions, a 90% CL upper limit on the neutrino flux of 5.0 × 10-8 GeV cm-2 s-1 per source is derived.

  7. Constraining the neutrino emission of gravitationally lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars with ANTARES data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; De Rosa, G.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Müller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaš, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Falco, E. E.

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes to exploit gravitational lensing effects to improve the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to the intrinsic neutrino emission of distant blazar populations. This strategy is illustrated with a search for cosmic neutrinos in the direction of four distant and gravitationally lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars. The magnification factor is estimated for each system assuming a singular isothermal profile for the lens. Based on data collected from 2007 to 2012 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope, the strongest constraint is obtained from the lensed quasar B0218+357, providing a limit on the total neutrino luminosity of this source of 1.08× 1046 erg s-1. This limit is about one order of magnitude lower than those previously obtained in the ANTARES standard point source searches with non-lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars.

  8. Constraining the neutrino emission of gravitationally lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars with ANTARES data

    SciTech Connect

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Basa, S.; Biagi, S.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; and others

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes to exploit gravitational lensing effects to improve the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to the intrinsic neutrino emission of distant blazar populations. This strategy is illustrated with a search for cosmic neutrinos in the direction of four distant and gravitationally lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars. The magnification factor is estimated for each system assuming a singular isothermal profile for the lens. Based on data collected from 2007 to 2012 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope, the strongest constraint is obtained from the lensed quasar B0218+357, providing a limit on the total neutrino luminosity of this source of 1.08× 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}. This limit is about one order of magnitude lower than those previously obtained in the ANTARES standard point source searches with non-lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars.

  9. Neutrino physics with JUNO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Fengpeng; An, Guangpeng; An, Qi; Antonelli, Vito; Baussan, Eric; Beacom, John; Bezrukov, Leonid; Blyth, Simon; Brugnera, Riccardo; Buizza Avanzini, Margherita; Busto, Jose; Cabrera, Anatael; Cai, Hao; Cai, Xiao; Cammi, Antonio; Cao, Guofu; Cao, Jun; Chang, Yun; Chen, Shaomin; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Yixue; Chiesa, Davide; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Clerbaux, Barbara; Conrad, Janet; D'Angelo, Davide; De Kerret, Hervé; Deng, Zhi; Deng, Ziyan; Ding, Yayun; Djurcic, Zelimir; Dornic, Damien; Dracos, Marcos; Drapier, Olivier; Dusini, Stefano; Dye, Stephen; Enqvist, Timo; Fan, Donghua; Fang, Jian; Favart, Laurent; Ford, Richard; Göger-Neff, Marianne; Gan, Haonan; Garfagnini, Alberto; Giammarchi, Marco; Gonchar, Maxim; Gong, Guanghua; Gong, Hui; Gonin, Michel; Grassi, Marco; Grewing, Christian; Guan, Mengyun; Guarino, Vic; Guo, Gang; Guo, Wanlei; Guo, Xin-Heng; Hagner, Caren; Han, Ran; He, Miao; Heng, Yuekun; Hsiung, Yee; Hu, Jun; Hu, Shouyang; Hu, Tao; Huang, Hanxiong; Huang, Xingtao; Huo, Lei; Ioannisian, Ara; Jeitler, Manfred; Ji, Xiangdong; Jiang, Xiaoshan; Jollet, Cécile; Kang, Li; Karagounis, Michael; Kazarian, Narine; Krumshteyn, Zinovy; Kruth, Andre; Kuusiniemi, Pasi; Lachenmaier, Tobias; Leitner, Rupert; Li, Chao; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Weidong; Li, Weiguo; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Yi; Li, Yufeng; Li, Zhi-Bing; Liang, Hao; Lin, Guey-Lin; Lin, Tao; Lin, Yen-Hsun; Ling, Jiajie; Lippi, Ivano; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Hongbang; Liu, Hu; Liu, Jianglai; Liu, Jianli; Liu, Jinchang; Liu, Qian; Liu, Shubin; Liu, Shulin; Lombardi, Paolo; Long, Yongbing; Lu, Haoqi; Lu, Jiashu; Lu, Jingbin; Lu, Junguang; Lubsandorzhiev, Bayarto; Ludhova, Livia; Luo, Shu; Lyashuk, Vladimir; Möllenberg, Randolph; Ma, Xubo; Mantovani, Fabio; Mao, Yajun; Mari, Stefano M.; McDonough, William F.; Meng, Guang; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Meroni, Emanuela; Mezzetto, Mauro; Miramonti, Lino; Mueller, Thomas; Naumov, Dmitry; Oberauer, Lothar; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Olshevskiy, Alexander; Ortica, Fausto; Paoloni, Alessandro; Peng, Haiping; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Previtali, Ezio; Qi, Ming; Qian, Sen; Qian, Xin; Qian, Yongzhong; Qin, Zhonghua; Raffelt, Georg; Ranucci, Gioacchino; Ricci, Barbara; Robens, Markus; Romani, Aldo; Ruan, Xiangdong; Ruan, Xichao; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Shaevitz, Mike; Sinev, Valery; Sirignano, Chiara; Sisti, Monica; Smirnov, Oleg; Soiron, Michael; Stahl, Achim; Stanco, Luca; Steinmann, Jochen; Sun, Xilei; Sun, Yongjie; Taichenachev, Dmitriy; Tang, Jian; Tkachev, Igor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw; van Waasen, Stefan; Volpe, Cristina; Vorobel, Vit; Votano, Lucia; Wang, Chung-Hsiang; Wang, Guoli; Wang, Hao; Wang, Meng; Wang, Ruiguang; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yi; Wang, Yifang; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Zhimin; Wei, Wei; Wen, Liangjian; Wiebusch, Christopher; Wonsak, Björn; Wu, Qun; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Wurm, Michael; Xi, Yufei; Xia, Dongmei; Xie, Yuguang; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Xu, Jilei; Yan, Baojun; Yang, Changgen; Yang, Chaowen; Yang, Guang; Yang, Lei; Yang, Yifan; Yao, Yu; Yegin, Ugur; Yermia, Frédéric; You, Zhengyun; Yu, Boxiang; Yu, Chunxu; Yu, Zeyuan; Zavatarelli, Sandra; Zhan, Liang; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Jiawen; Zhang, Jingbo; Zhang, Qingmin; Zhang, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Zhenyu; Zhao, Zhenghua; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhong, Weili; Zhou, Guorong; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Rong; Zhou, Shun; Zhou, Wenxiong; Zhou, Xiang; Zhou, Yeling; Zhou, Yufeng; Zou, Jiaheng

    2016-03-01

    The Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory (JUNO), a 20 kton multi-purpose underground liquid scintillator detector, was proposed with the determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy (MH) as a primary physics goal. The excellent energy resolution and the large fiducial volume anticipated for the JUNO detector offer exciting opportunities for addressing many important topics in neutrino and astro-particle physics. In this document, we present the physics motivations and the anticipated performance of the JUNO detector for various proposed measurements. Following an introduction summarizing the current status and open issues in neutrino physics, we discuss how the detection of antineutrinos generated by a cluster of nuclear power plants allows the determination of the neutrino MH at a 3-4σ significance with six years of running of JUNO. The measurement of antineutrino spectrum with excellent energy resolution will also lead to the precise determination of the neutrino oscillation parameters {{sin}}2{θ }12, {{Δ }}{m}212, and | {{Δ }}{m}{ee}2| to an accuracy of better than 1%, which will play a crucial role in the future unitarity test of the MNSP matrix. The JUNO detector is capable of observing not only antineutrinos from the power plants, but also neutrinos/antineutrinos from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources, including supernova burst neutrinos, diffuse supernova neutrino background, geoneutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos, and solar neutrinos. As a result of JUNO's large size, excellent energy resolution, and vertex reconstruction capability, interesting new data on these topics can be collected. For example, a neutrino burst from a typical core-collapse supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would lead to ˜5000 inverse-beta-decay events and ˜2000 all-flavor neutrino-proton ES events in JUNO, which are of crucial importance for understanding the mechanism of supernova explosion and for exploring novel phenomena such as collective neutrino oscillations

  10. Robotic Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, C. W.

    2001-05-01

    Since the discovery of gamma-ray bursts, a number of groups have attempted to detect correlated optical transients from these elusive objects. Following the flight of the BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory in 1991, a prompt burst coordinate alert service, BACODINE (now GCN) became available to ground-based telescopes. Several instruments were built to take advantage of this facility, culminating in the discovery of a bright optical flash associated with GRB990123. To date, that single observation remains unique - no other prompt flashes have been seen for a dozen or so other bursts observed with comparably short response times. Thus, GRB prompt optical luminosities may be considerably dimmer than observed for the GRB990123 event or even absent altogether. A new generation of instruments is prepared to explore these possibilties using burst coordinates provided by HETE-2, Swift, Ballerina, Agile and other satellite missions. These telescopes have response times as short as a few seconds and reach limiting magnitudes, m_v 20, guaranteeing a sensitivity sufficient to detect the afterglow many hours later. Results from these experiments should provide important new data about the dynamics and locale of GRBs.

  11. Collective neutrino oscillations in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-06-24

    In a dense neutrino medium neutrinos can experience collective flavor transformation through the neutrino-neutrino forward scattering. In this talk we present some basic features of collective neutrino flavor transformation in the context in core-collapse supernovae. We also give some qualitative arguments for why and when this interesting phenomenon may occur and how it may affect supernova nucleosynthesis.

  12. High Energy Neutrinos from the Cold: Status and Prospects of the IceCube Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Portello-Roucelle, Cecile; Collaboration, IceCube

    2008-02-29

    The primary motivation for building neutrino telescopes is to open the road for neutrino astronomy, and to offer another observational window for the study of cosmic ray origins. Other physics topics, such as the search for WIMPs, can also be developed with neutrino telescope. As of March 2008, the IceCube detector, with half of its strings deployed, is the world largest neutrino telescope taking data to date and it will reach its completion in 2011. Data taken with the growing detector are being analyzed. The results of some of these works are summarized here. AMANDA has been successfully integrated into IceCube data acquisition system and continues to accumulate data. Results obtained using only AMANDA data taken between the years 2000 and 2006 are also presented. The future of IceCube and the extensions in both low and high energy regions will finally be discussed in the last section.

  13. Extragalactic plus Galactic Model for IceCube Neutrino Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Andrea; Vissani, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    The hypothesis that high-energy cosmic neutrinos are power law distributed is critically analyzed. We propose a model with two components that better explains the observations. The extragalactic component of the high-energy neutrino flux has a canonical {E}ν -2 spectrum while the galactic component has a {E}ν -2.7 spectrum; both of them are significant. This model has several implications, which can be tested by IceCube and ANTARES over the next several years. Moreover, the existence of a diffuse component, close to the Galactic plane and that yields (20–30)% of IceCube’s events, is interesting for the future km3 neutrino telescopes located in the Northern Hemisphere and for gamma-ray telescopes aiming to measure events up to a few 100 TeV from the southern sky.

  14. Neutrino signal from extended Galactic sources in IceCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchernin, C.; Aguilar, J. A.; Neronov, A.; Montaruli, T.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The Galactic plane is the brightest source of γ rays in the sky. It should also be one of the brightest very-high-energy neutrino sources, if a neutrino flux comparable to the γ-ray flux is produced by the cosmic ray interactions in the interstellar medium. Aims: We explore the detectability of the neutrino flux from the entire Galactic plane or from a part of it with the IceCube neutrino detector. Methods: We calculated the normalization and the spectral index of the neutrino power-law spectrum from different regions of the Galactic plane, based on the observed spectral characteristics of the pion decay γ-ray diffuse emission observed by the Fermi/LAT telescope in the energy band above 100 GeV. We compared the neutrino flux calculated in this way with the sensitivity of IceCube for the detection of extended sources. Results: Assuming a binned extended source analysis method, we find that the only possible evidence of neutrino emission for sources located in the northern hemisphere after 20 years of exposure is from the Cygnus region. For other parts of the Galactic plane even a 20 year exposure with IceCube is not sufficient for the detection. Taking into account marginal significance of the detectable source in the Cygnus region, we find a precise position and size of the source region that optimizes the signal-to-noise ratio for neutrinos. We also calculated the low-energy threshold above which the neutrino signal can be detected with the highest signal-to-noise ratio. This calculation of precise source position, size, and energy range, based on the γ-ray data, can be used to remove the so-called trial factor in the analysis of the real neutrino data of IceCube. We notice that the diffuse neutrino emission from the inner Galactic plane in the southern hemisphere is much brighter. A neutrino detector with characteristics equivalent to IceCube, but placed at the northern hemisphere (such as KM3NeT), would detect several isolated neutrino sources in

  15. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, David Jason

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  16. Direct neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thümmler, T.

    2011-07-01

    The determination of the neutrino rest mass plays an important role at the intersections of cosmology, particle physics and astroparticle physics. This topic is currently being addressed by two complementary approaches in laboratory experiments. Neutrinoless double beta decay experiments probe whether neutrinos are Majorana particles and determine an effective neutrino mass value. Single beta decay experiments such as KATRIN and MARE investigate the spectral shape of β-decay electrons close to their kinematic endpoint in order to determine the neutrino rest mass with a model-independent method. Owing to neutrino flavour mixing, the neutrino mass parameter appears as an average of all neutrino mass eigenstates contributing to the electron neutrino. The KArlsruhe TRItium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) is currently the experiment in the most advanced status of commissioning. Applying an ultra-luminous molecular windowless gaseous tritium source and an integrating high-resolution spectrometer of MAC-E filter type, it allows β-spectroscopy close to the T 2 end-point with unprecedented precision and will reach a sensitivity of 200 meV/ c 2 (90% C.L.) on the neutrino rest mass.

  17. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, E. W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in Jan. 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical Cl-37 and Ga-71 experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  18. High energy neutrino detection with KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliozzi, Pasquale; KM3NeT Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The KM3NeT Collaboration has started the construction of a next generation high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea: the largest and most sensitive neutrino research infrastructure. The full KM3NeT detector will be a several cubic kilometres distributed, networked infrastructure. In Italy, off the coast of Capo Passero, and in France, off the coast of Toulon. Thanks to its location in the Northern hemisphere and to its large instrumented volume, KM3NeT will be the optimal instrument to search for neutrinos from the Southern sky and in particular from the Galactic plane, thus making it complementary to IceCube. In this work the technologically innovative component of the detector, the status of construction and the first results from prototypes of the KM3NeT detector will be described as well as its capability to discover neutrino sources are reported.

  19. Solar neutrino detection

    SciTech Connect

    Miramonti, Lino

    2009-04-30

    More than 40 years ago, neutrinos where conceived as a way to test the validity of the solar models which tell us that stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. The first measurement of the neutrino flux, in 1968 in the Homestake mine in South Dakota, detected only one third of the expected value, originating what has been known as the Solar Neutrino Problem. Different experiments were built in order to understand the origin of this discrepancy. Now we know that neutrinos undergo oscillation phenomenon changing their nature traveling from the core of the Sun to our detectors. In the work the 40 year long saga of the neutrino detection is presented; from the first proposals to test the solar models to last real time measurements of the low energy part of the neutrino spectrum.

  20. Paradoxes of neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmedov, E. Kh.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    2009-08-15

    Despite the theory of neutrino oscillations being rather old, some of its basic issues are still being debated in the literature. We discuss a number of such issues, including the relevance of the 'same energy' and 'same momentum' assumptions, the role of quantum-mechanical uncertainty relations in neutrino oscillations, the dependence of the coherence and localization conditions that ensure the observability of neutrino oscillations on neutrino energy and momentum uncertainties, the question of (in)dependence of the oscillation probabilities on the neutrino production and detection processes, and the applicability limits of the stationary-source approximation. We also develop a novel approach to calculation of the oscillation probability in the wave-packet approach, based on the summation/integration conventions different from the standard one, which allows a new insight into the 'same energy' vs. 'same momentum' problem. We also discuss a number of apparently paradoxical features of the theory of neutrino oscillations.

  1. Charged Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachelrieß, M.

    2013-04-01

    High-energy neutrino astronomy has grown up, with IceCube as one of its main experiments having sufficient sensitivity to test "vanilla" models of astrophysical neutrinos. I review predictions of neutrino fluxes as well as the status of cosmic ray physics. I comment also briefly on an improvement of the Fermi-LAT limit for cosmogenic neutrinos and on the two neutrino events presented by IceCube first at "Neutrino 2012".

  2. Neutrino Mass Anarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence; Murayama, Hitoshi; Weiner, Neal

    2000-03-01

    What is the form of the neutrino mass matrix which governs the oscillations of the atmospheric and solar neutrinos? Features of the data have led to a dominant viewpoint where the mass matrix has an ordered, regulated pattern, perhaps dictated by a flavor symmetry. We challenge this viewpoint and demonstrate that the data are well accounted for by a neutrino mass matrix which appears to have random entries.

  3. Neutrino mass anarchy

    PubMed

    Hall; Murayama; Weiner

    2000-03-20

    What is the form of the neutrino mass matrix which governs the oscillations of the atmospheric and solar neutrinos? Features of the data have led to a dominant viewpoint where the mass matrix has an ordered, regulated pattern, perhaps dictated by a flavor symmetry. We challenge this viewpoint and demonstrate that the data are well accounted for by a neutrino mass matrix which appears to have random entries. PMID:11017272

  4. Neutrinos in Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2008-01-24

    I give an overview of the effects of neutrinos on cosmology, focussing in particular on the role played by neutrinos in the evolution of cosmological perturbations. I discuss how recent observations of the cosmic microwave background and the large-scale structure of galaxies can probe neutrino masses with greater precision than current laboratory experiments. I describe several new techniques that will be used to probe cosmology in the future.

  5. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-12

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  6. Neutrinos: Nature's Ghosts?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-06-18

    Dr. Don Lincoln introduces one of the most fascinating inhabitants of the subatomic realm: the neutrino. Neutrinos are ghosts of the microworld, almost not interacting at all. In this video, he describes some of their properties and how they were discovered. Studies of neutrinos are expected to be performed at many laboratories across the world and to form one of the cornerstones of the Fermilab research program for the next decade or more.

  7. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  8. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  9. Novel Ideas for Neutrino Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, Ken

    2007-04-23

    Recent developments in neutrino physics, primarily the demonstration of neutrino oscillations in both atmospheric neutrinos and solar neutrinos, provide the first conclusive evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The simplest phenomenology of neutrino oscillations, for three generations of neutrino, requires six parameters - two squared mass differences, 3 mixing angles and a complex phase that could, if not 0 or {pi}, contribute to the otherwise unexplained baryon asymmetry observed in the universe. Exploring the neutrino sector will require very intense beams of neutrinos, and will need novel solutions.

  10. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors.

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Wen, L J; Zhang, C

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos. PMID:25913819

  11. Neutrino oscillation studies with reactors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Vogel, P.; Wen, L.J.; Zhang, C.

    2015-04-27

    Nuclear reactors are one of the most intense, pure, controllable, cost-effective and well-understood sources of neutrinos. Reactors have played a major role in the study of neutrino oscillations, a phenomenon that indicates that neutrinos have mass and that neutrino flavours are quantum mechanical mixtures. Over the past several decades, reactors were used in the discovery of neutrinos, were crucial in solving the solar neutrino puzzle, and allowed the determination of the smallest mixing angle θ13. In the near future, reactors will help to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to solve the puzzling issue of sterile neutrinos.

  12. Accelerator neutrino program at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    The accelerator neutrino programme in the USA consists primarily of the Fermilab neutrino programme. Currently, Fermilab operates two neutrino beamlines, the Booster neutrino beamline and the NuMI neutrino beamline and is the planning stages for a third neutrino beam to send neutrinos to DUSEL. The experiments in the Booster neutrino beamline are miniBooNE, SciBooNE and in the future microBooNE, whereas in the NuMI beamline we have MINOS, ArgoNut, MINERVA and coming soon NOvA. The major experiment in the beamline to DUSEL will be LBNE.

  13. Nonlinear growing neutrino cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaita, Youness; Baldi, Marco; Führer, Florian; Puchwein, Ewald; Wetterich, Christof

    2016-03-01

    The energy scale of dark energy, ˜2 ×10-3 eV , is a long way off compared to all known fundamental scales—except for the neutrino masses. If dark energy is dynamical and couples to neutrinos, this is no longer a coincidence. The time at which dark energy starts to behave as an effective cosmological constant can be linked to the time at which the cosmic neutrinos become nonrelativistic. This naturally places the onset of the Universe's accelerated expansion in recent cosmic history, addressing the why-now problem of dark energy. We show that these mechanisms indeed work in the growing neutrino quintessence model—even if the fully nonlinear structure formation and backreaction are taken into account, which were previously suspected of spoiling the cosmological evolution. The attractive force between neutrinos arising from their coupling to dark energy grows as large as 106 times the gravitational strength. This induces very rapid dynamics of neutrino fluctuations which are nonlinear at redshift z ≈2 . Nevertheless, a nonlinear stabilization phenomenon ensures only mildly nonlinear oscillating neutrino overdensities with a large-scale gravitational potential substantially smaller than that of cold dark matter perturbations. Depending on model parameters, the signals of large-scale neutrino lumps may render the cosmic neutrino background observable.

  14. Muons and neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanev, T.

    1986-01-01

    The first generation of large and precise detectors, some initially dedicated to search for nucleon decay has accumulated significant statistics on neutrinos and high-energy muons. A second generation of even better and bigger detectors are already in operation or in advanced construction stage. The present set of experimental data on muon groups and neutrinos is qualitatively better than several years ago and the expectations for the following years are high. Composition studies with underground muon groups, neutrino detection, and expected extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes are discussed.

  15. Bolometric detection of neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, B.; Krauss, L. M.; Wilczek, F.

    1985-01-01

    Elastic neutrino scattering off electrons in crystalline silicon at 1-10 mK results in measurable temperature changes in macroscopic amounts of material, even for low-energy (less than 0.41-MeV) pp neutrinos from the sun. New detectors for bolometric measurement of low-energy neutrino interactions, including coherent nuclear elastic scattering, are proposed. A new and more sensitive search for oscillations of reactor antineutrinos is practical (about 100 kg of Si), and would lay the groundwork for a more ambitious measurement of the spectrum of pp, Be-7, and B-8 solar neutrinos, and of supernovae anywhere in the Galaxy (about 10 tons of Si).

  16. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, H.; Garvey, G.; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab

    2011-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  17. Neutrinos in supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Cooperstein, J.

    1986-10-01

    The role of neutrinos in Type II supernovae is discussed. An overall view of the neutrino luminosity as expected theoretically is presented. The different weak interactions involved are assessed from the standpoint of how they exchange energy, momentum, and lepton number. Particular attention is paid to entropy generation and the path to thermal and chemical equilibration, and to the phenomenon of trapping. Various methods used to calculate the neutrino flows are considered. These include trapping and leakage schemes, distribution-averaged transfer, and multi-energy group methods. The information obtained from the neutrinos caught from Supernova 1987a is briefly evaluated. 55 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Global Astrophysical Telescope System - telescope No. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, Krzysztof; Baranowski, Roman; Fagas, Monika; Borczyk, Wojciech; Dimitrov, Wojciech; Polińska, Magdalena

    2014-02-01

    We present the new, second spectroscopic telescope of Poznań Astronomical Observatory. The telescope allows automatic simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations and is scheduled to begin operation from Arizona in autumn 2013. Together with the telescope located in Borowiec, Poland, it will constitute a perfect instrument for nearly continuous spectroscopic observations of variable stars. With both instruments operational, the Global Astrophysical Telescope System will be established.

  19. Neutrinos from collapsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieyro, F. L.; Romero, G. E.; Peres, O. L. G.

    2013-10-01

    Context. Long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are associated with the gravitational collapse of very massive stars. The central engine of a GRB can collimate relativistic jets that propagate inside the stellar envelope. The shock waves produced when the jet disrupts the stellar surface are capable of accelerating particles up to very high energies. Aims: If the jet has hadronic content, neutrinos will be produced via charged pion decays. The main goal of this work is to estimate the neutrino emission produced in the region close to the surface of the star, taking pion and muon cooling into account, along with subtle effects arising from neutrino production in a highly magnetized medium. Methods: We estimate the maximum energies of the different kinds of particles and solve the coupled transport equations for each species. Once the particle distributions are known, we calculate the intensity of neutrinos. We study the different effects on the neutrinos that can change the relative weight of different flavors. In particular, we consider the effects of neutrino oscillations, and of neutrino spin precession caused by strong magnetic fields. Results: The expected neutrino signals from the shocks in the uncorking regions of Population III events is very weak, but the neutrino signal produced by Wolf-Rayet GRBs with z < 0.5 is not far from the level of the atmospheric background. Conclusions: The IceCube experiment does not have the sensitivity to detect neutrinos from the implosion of the earliest stars, but a number of high-energy neutrinos may be detected from nearby long GRBs. The cumulative signal should be detectable over several years (~10 yr) of integration with the full 86-string configuration.

  20. Neutrinos, Dark Matter and Nuclear Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, W H; Bernstein, A; Craig, W W; Johnson, M

    2007-05-29

    Solutions to problems in nuclear non-proliferation and counter-terrorism may be found at the forefront of modern physics. Neutrino oscillation experiments, dark matter searches, and high energy astrophysics, are based on technology advances that have may also have application to nuclear detection. The detection problems share many characteristics, including energy scales, time structures, particle-type, and, of course, the combination of high backgrounds and low signal levels. This convergence of basic and applied physics is realized in non-proliferation and homeland security projects at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Examples described here include reactor anti-neutrino monitoring, dual-phase noble liquid TPC development, gamma-ray telescopes, and nuclear resonance fluorescence.

  1. Muon and neutrino fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, P. G.; Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of a new calculation of the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes and the energy spectrum of muon-neutrinos produced in individual extensive air showers (EAS) initiated by proton and gamma-ray primaries is reported. Also explained is the possibility of detecting atmospheric nu sub mu's due to gamma-rays from these sources.

  2. Cosmological neutrino mass detection: The Best probe of neutrino lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi-)massless particles as in majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way-out to explain a discrepancy {approx}< 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and Lab data.

  3. Cosmological Neutrino Mass Detection: The Best Probe of Neutrino Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Serpico, Pasquale D.

    2007-04-27

    Future cosmological data may be sensitive to the effects of a finite sum of neutrino masses even as small as {approx}0.06 eV, the lower limit guaranteed by neutrino oscillation experiments. We show that a cosmological detection of neutrino mass at that level would improve by many orders of magnitude the existing limits on neutrino lifetime, and as a consequence, on neutrino secret interactions with (quasi)massless particles as in Majoron models. On the other hand, neutrino decay may provide a way out to explain a discrepancy < or approx. 0.1 eV between cosmic neutrino bounds and lab data.

  4. Democratic Neutrino Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuridov, Dmitry

    2014-03-01

    I will introduce a democratic neutrino theory, which sets the absolute scale of the neutrino masses at about 0.03 eV, and has only one free parameter in contrast to 7 (9) free parameters in the conventional model of Dirac (Majorana) neutrino masses and mixing. Taking into account the incoherence and matter effects, this democratic theory agrees with the atmospheric and solar neutrino data. Moreover the results of the reactor neutrino experiments with the baselines around 100 m can be better explained. I will also discuss the predictions of this theory for low energy beta decays, magnetic moments, and neutrinoless double beta decays. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FG02-12ER41825.

  5. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerive, A.; Klein, J. R.; McDonald, A. B.; Noble, A. J.; Poon, A. W. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from 8B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  6. Summary: Neutrinos and nonaccelerator physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper contains brief synopsis of the following major topics discussed in the neutrino and nonaccelerator parallel sessions: dark matter; neutrino oscillations at accelerators and reactors; gamma-ray astronomy; double beta decay; solar neutrinos; and the possible existence of a 17-KeV neutrino. (LSP)

  7. Solar neutrinos: Probing the sun or neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkerson, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The decade of the 1990's should prove to be a landmark period for the study of solar neutrino physics. Current observations show 2-3 times fewer neutrinos coming from the sun than are theoretically expected. As we enter the decade, new experiments are poised to attempt and discover whether this deficit is a problem with our understanding of how the sun works, is a hint of new neutrino properties beyond those predicted by the standard model of particle physics, or perhaps a combination of both. This paper will review the current status of the field and point out how future measurements should help solve this interesting puzzle. 11 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Sensitivity of the KM3NeT detector to a neutrino flux from the Fermi bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Coniglione, R.; Piattelli, P.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope data has provided evidence for a high-intensity emission of high-energy gamma rays with a E{sup −2} spectrum from two large bubbles above and below the Galactic Center. Hadronic mechanisms were proposed for this gamma-ray emission making the Fermi bubbles promising source candidates of high-energy neutrino emission. In this work preliminary simulation results regarding the detectability of high-energy neutrinos from the Fermi bubbles with the future multi-km{sup 3} neutrino telescope KM3NeT are presented.

  9. Selection of neutrino burst candidates by pulse spatial distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryasny, V. G.

    1996-02-01

    The method of analysis and possibilities of identification of neutrino bursts from collapsing stars using a spatial distribution of pulses in the multimodular installations, like the Large Volume Detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory, Liquid Scintillation Detector (Mont Blanc) and Baksan Scintillation Telescope, are discussed. The method could be applicable for any position sensitive detector. By the spatial distribution analysis the burst imitation probability can be decreased by at least 2 orders of magnitude, without significant loss of sensitivity, for currently predicted number of the neutrino interactions.

  10. Recent Results in Solar Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Solar neutrinos are an invaluable tool for studying neutrino oscillations in matter as well as probing the nuclear reactions that fuel the Sun. In this talk I will give an overview of solar neutrinos and discuss the latest results in the field. I will highlight the recent precision measurement of the ^7Be solar neutrino interaction rate with the Borexino solar neutrino detector and present the status of the analysis of pep and CNO neutrinos. I will also briefly describe future experiments and their potential to detect low energy solar neutrinos.

  11. Astroparticle physics with solar neutrinos

    PubMed Central

    NAKAHATA, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Solar neutrino experiments observed fluxes smaller than the expectations from the standard solar model. This discrepancy is known as the “solar neutrino problem”. Flux measurements by Super-Kamiokande and SNO have demonstrated that the solar neutrino problem is due to neutrino oscillations. Combining the results of all solar neutrino experiments, parameters for solar neutrino oscillations are obtained. Correcting for the effect of neutrino oscillations, the observed neutrino fluxes are consistent with the prediction from the standard solar model. In this article, results of solar neutrino experiments are reviewed with detailed descriptions of what Kamiokande and Super-Kamiokande have contributed to the history of astroparticle physics with solar neutrino measurements. PMID:21558758

  12. Coherent large telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. E.

    Present ground-based telescopes are compared with those of the future. The inherent limitations of ground-based telescopes are reviewed, and existing telescopes and their evolution are briefly surveyed in order to see the trends that led to the present period of innovative telescope design. The major telescope types and the critical design factors that must be considered in designing large telescopes for the future are reviewed, emphasizing economicality. As an example, the Ten Meter Telescope project at the University of California is discussed in detail, including the telescope buildings, domes, and apertures, the telescope moving weights, the image quality, and the equipment. Finally, a brief review of current work in progress on large telescopes is given.

  13. Optical and X-ray early follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Samarai, I. Al; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaš, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Le Van Suu, A.; Akerlof, C.; Zheng, W.; Evans, P.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Coward, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    High-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrino source has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifying a neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This method does not require any assumptions on the relation between neutrino and photon spectra other than time-correlation. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT and ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection, and is therefore well-suited to search for fast transient sources. To identify an optical or X-ray counterpart to a neutrino signal, the images provided by the follow-up observations are analysed with dedicated pipelines. A total of 42 alerts with optical and 7 alerts with X-ray images taken with a maximum delay of 24 hours after the neutrino trigger have been analysed. No optical or X-ray counterparts associated to the neutrino triggers have been found, and upper limits on transient source magnitudes have been derived. The probability to reject the gamma-ray burst origin hypothesis has been computed for each alert.

  14. Coherent scattering of cosmic neutrinos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opher, R.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that cosmic neutrino scattering can be non-negligible when coherence effects previously neglected are taken into account. The coherent neutrino scattering cross section is derived and the neutrino index of refraction evaluated. As an example of coherent neutrino scattering, a detector using critical reflection is described which in principle can detect the low energy cosmic neutrino background allowed by the measured cosmological red shift.

  15. Artificial neutrino source based on the {sup 37}Ar isotope

    SciTech Connect

    Barsanov, V. I.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Kotelnikov, N. A.; Markov, S. Yu.; Selin, V. V.; Shakirov, Z. N.; Abdurashitov, D. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Mirmov, I. N. Shikhin, A. A.; Yants, V. E.; Khomyakov, Yu. S.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2007-02-15

    In April 2004, a neutrino source was produced by irradiating a 330-kg piece of pressed calcium oxide at the fast-neutron reactor BN-600 (Zarechny, Russia) for six months. The {sup 37}Ar isotope was obtained via the (n, {alpha}) reaction on {sup 40}Ca, and {sup 37}Ar was extracted from an aqueous solution of nitric acid in which the solid target was dissolved. After that, {sup 37}Ar was purified and sealed into a capsule. This source was used to measure the neutrino-capture rate in metalic gallium for neutrinos from {sup 37}Ar decay, which have an energy close to that of the main line of solar {sup 7}Be neutrinos (863 keV). The target of the SAGE Gallium-Germanium Neutrino Telescope was irradiated by using this source at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences). The source activity was measured by several methods during its production, in the course of irradiation, and after its completion. The weighted mean of the activity for six measurements was 409 {+-} 2 kCi at the beginning of irradiation of the gallium target (04:00 Moscow time, 30.04.2004). The scatter in the activity values obtained by different methods does not exceed 5%.

  16. Constraining GRB as Source for UHE Cosmic Rays through Neutrino Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.

    2013-07-01

    The origin of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) has been widely regarded as one of the major questions in the frontiers of particle astrophysics. Gamma ray bursts (GRB), the most violent explosions in the universe second only to the Big Bang, have been a popular candidate site for UHECR productions. The recent IceCube report on the non-observation of GRB induced neutrinos therefore attracts wide attention. This dilemma requires a resolution: either the assumption of GRB as UHECR accelerator is to be abandoned or the expected GRB induced neutrino yield was wrong. It has been pointed out that IceCube has overestimated the neutrino flux at GRB site by a factor of ~5. In this paper we point out that, in addition to the issue of neutrino production at source, the neutrino oscillation and the possible neutrino decay during their flight from GRB to Earth should further reduce the detectability of IceCube, which is most sensitive to the muon-neutrino flavor as far as point-source identification is concerned. Specifically, neutrino oscillation will reduce the muon-neutrino flavor ratio from 2/3 per neutrino at GRB source to 1/3 on Earth, while neutrino decay, if exists and under the assumption of normal hierarchy of mass eigenstates, would result in a further reduction of muon-neutrino ratio to 1/8. With these in mind, we note that there have been efforts in recent years in pursuing other type of neutrino telescopes based on Askaryan effect, which can in principle observe and distinguish all three flavors with comparable sensitivities. Such new approach may therefore be complementary to IceCube in shedding more lights on this cosmic accelerator question.

  17. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-01

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2β) searches, single β-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy. Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium β-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope (137Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R&D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2β decay and single β-decay.

  18. Absolute neutrino mass measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Joachim

    2011-10-06

    The neutrino mass plays an important role in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. In recent years the detection of neutrino flavour oscillations proved that neutrinos carry mass. However, oscillation experiments are only sensitive to the mass-squared difference of the mass eigenvalues. In contrast to cosmological observations and neutrino-less double beta decay (0v2{beta}) searches, single {beta}-decay experiments provide a direct, model-independent way to determine the absolute neutrino mass by measuring the energy spectrum of decay electrons at the endpoint region with high accuracy.Currently the best kinematic upper limits on the neutrino mass of 2.2eV have been set by two experiments in Mainz and Troitsk, using tritium as beta emitter. The next generation tritium {beta}-experiment KATRIN is currently under construction in Karlsruhe/Germany by an international collaboration. KATRIN intends to improve the sensitivity by one order of magnitude to 0.2eV. The investigation of a second isotope ({sup 137}Rh) is being pursued by the international MARE collaboration using micro-calorimeters to measure the beta spectrum. The technology needed to reach 0.2eV sensitivity is still in the R and D phase. This paper reviews the present status of neutrino-mass measurements with cosmological data, 0v2{beta} decay and single {beta}-decay.

  19. Measuring Neutrinos with Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Lloyd

    2016-03-01

    Along with a thermal distribution of photons, we expect a thermal distribution of neutrinos to have been produced in the big bang. Although direct detection of the cosmic neutrino background (CNB) is extremely difficult, if not impossible, there is much we are learning indirectly about the CNB from its gravitational influences. I will review constraints from cosmic microwave background observations on the energy density in the CNB, present a recent detection of supersonic evolution of density perturbations in the CNB, and discuss constraints on neutrino masses from cosmological observables. I will also look toward what we can expect from future cosmological surveys, such as CMB-S4.

  20. Neutrino Physics in Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dineva, Tamara Simeonova

    1997-11-01

    The models of exploding stars-supernovae-do not explode. This dissertation investigates the transfer of energy from the interior to the outer layers in such stars to try to understand what is missing in these models that would solve the supernova problem. Hydrodynamic instabilities and aspects in the microphysics of the neutrino transport in postcollapsed stellar matter are considered. In Chapter II we derive criteria for the presence of doubly diffusive instabilities believed to be essential for producing a supernova explosion. Contrary to the widely accepted view, we find that the core, if unstable, is unstable to semiconvection, rather than to neutron fingers. A critical value for the lepton fraction, Yl, is found for a given density and entropy, below which the stellar core is completely stable to instabilities. A considerable fraction of the stellar core is found to lie below the critical Yl. As the core evolves this fraction quickly encompasses the entire core. Thus doubly diffusive instabilities of any kind are unlikely to play a role in the supernova explosion mechanism. A strong magnetic field may modify the neutrino-nucleon absorption rates which are critical for shock reheating. In Chapter III we derive the cross section of neutrino absorption on neutrons in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We calculate values for the neutrino inverse mean free path and numerically compare them to the values in the non magnetic case. We find that they exhibit an oscillatory behavior, with huge peaks present due to discontinuities in the density of state. We conclude that the presence of a strong magnetic field does not yield a dramatic reduction in the inverse mean free paths which would be necessary to substantially increase the neutrino luminosity and revive the shock. Neutrino-neutrino scattering in the vicinity of the neutrino sphere may modify the neutrino luminosities and therefore affect shock reheating. In the last Chapter we calculate the neutrino-neutrino

  1. Neutrinos from neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfand, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    A calculation of the flux of ultra-high energy neutrinos from galactic neutron stars is presented. The calculation is used to determine the number of point sources detectable at the sensitivity threshold of a proposed deep underwater muon and neutrino detector array. The detector array would have a point source detection threshold of about 100 eV/sq cm-sec. Analysis of neutrino luminosities and the number of detectable sources suggests that the deep underwater detector may make a few discoveries. In particular, a suspected neutron star in the Cyg X-3 source seems a promising target for the deep underwater array.

  2. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-07-11

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  3. Solar neutrinos: Theoretical status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haxton, W. C.

    I review the standard solar model, the disparities between its predictions and the solar neutrino flux measurements of the Homestake and Kamioka 2 collaborations, and possible particle physics resolutions of this puzzle. The effects of matter, including density fluctuations and turbulence, on solar neutrino oscillations are explained by building analogies with more familiar atomic physics phenomena. These and other mechanisms are considered as possible explanations for time variations in the solar neutrino flux. Finally, I consider possible outcomes and implications of the SAGE/GALLEX gallium experiments.

  4. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-08-07

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  5. Neutrinos: Nature's Identity Thieves?

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Don Lincoln

    2013-07-22

    The oscillation of neutrinos from one variety to another has long been suspected, but was confirmed only about 15 years ago. In order for these oscillations to occur, neutrinos must have a mass, no matter how slight. Since neutrinos have long been thought to be massless, in a very real way, this phenomena is a clear signal of physics beyond the known. In this video, Fermilab's Dr Don Lincoln explains how we know it occurs and hints at the rich experimental program at several international laboratories designed to understand this complex mystery.

  6. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, on Behalf of the Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays can be produced by processes that also produce neutrinos, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi (Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of potential targets for neutrino observations. Gamma-ray bursts. Active Galactic Nuclei, and supernova remnants are all sites where hadronic, neutrino-producing interactions are plausible. Pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and binary sources are all phenomena that reveal leptonic particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. While important to gamma-ray astrophysics, such sources are of less interest to neutrino studies. This talk will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT)on the Fermi spacecraft.

  7. Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope: Highlights of the GeV Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomspon, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays can be produced by processes that also produce neutrinos. the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of potenl ial targds for neutrino observations. Gamma-ray bursts. active galactic nuclei, and supernova remnants are all sites where hadronic, neutrino-producing interactions are plausible. Pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, and binary sources are all phenomena that reveal leptonic particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. \\Vhile important to gamma-ray astrophysics. such sources are of less interest to neutrino studies. This talk will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  8. GRBNeT - A prototype for an autonomous underwater neutrino detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikounis, K.; Markou, C.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Androulakis, G.; Bagatelas, C.; Balasi, K.; Belias, A.; Damianos, P.; Drakopoulou, E.; Kappos, E.; Manolopoulos, K.; Rapidis, P.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Voulgaris, G.

    2016-04-01

    GRBNeT is a project aiming at the detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos, for example neutrinos originating from Gamma Ray Bursts. The goal is to design, construct and deploy a prototype unit of an autonomous (data/energy-wise) neutrino detector. Being autonomous is crucial since for the detection of ultra-high energy neutrinos a very large volume of water is required. Large scale facilities such as IceCube and KM3NeT are designed to be more sensitive to galactic and diffuse flux neutrinos rather than extragalactic ultra-high energy neutrinos. However, their sensitivity to such neutrinos could be increased by placing around and at larger distances detectors such as the one of the GRBNeT project. This extension would increase the instrumented volume of neutrino telescopes to several cubic kilometres. In addition to that, as no cable connection to the shore is required, GRBNeT detection units cost significantly less than regular detection units and can become a cost effective extension of large scale facilities. For the GRBNeT prototype unit ultra low power electronics have been developed. The response to high energy neutrinos from GRBs and to the atmospheric muon background has been simulated.

  9. Berry phase in neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    He Xiaogang; McKellar, Bruce H.J.; Zhang Yue

    2005-09-01

    We study the Berry phase in neutrino oscillations for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos. In order to have a Berry phase, the neutrino oscillations must occur in a varying medium, the neutrino-background interactions must depend on at least two independent densities, and also there must be CP violation. If the neutrino interactions with matter are mediated only by the standard model W and Z boson exchanges, these conditions imply that there must be at least three generations of neutrinos. The CP violating Majorana phases do not play a role in generating a Berry phase. We show that a natural way to satisfy the conditions for the generation of a Berry phase is to have sterile neutrinos with active-sterile neutrino mixing, in which case at least two active and one sterile neutrinos are required. If there are additional new CP violating flavor changing interactions, it is also possible to have a nonzero Berry phase with just two generations.

  10. Gamma-ray and Neutrino Fluxes from Heavy Dark Matter in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammaldi, V.; Cembranos, J. A. R.; de la Cruz-Dombriz, A.; Lineros, R. A.; Maroto, A. L.

    We present a study of the Galactic Center region as a possible source of both secondary gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes from annihilating dark matter. We have studied the gamma-ray flux observed by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) from the J1745-290 Galactic Center source. The data are well fitted as annihilating dark matter in combination with an astrophysical background. The analysis was performed by means of simulated gamma spectra produced by Monte Carlo event generators packages. We analyze the differences in the spectra obtained by the various Monte Carlo codes developed so far in particle physics. We show that, within some uncertainty, the HESS data can be fitted as a signal from a heavy dark matter density distribution peaked at the Galactic Center, with a power-law for the background with a spectral index which is compatible with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT) data from the same region. If this kind of dark matter distribution generates the gamma-ray flux observed by HESS, we also expect to observe a neutrino flux. We show prospective results for the observation of secondary neutrinos with the Astronomy with a Neutrino Telescope and Abyss environmental RESearch project (ANTARES), Ice Cube Neutrino Observatory (Ice Cube) and the Cubic Kilometer Neutrino Telescope (KM3NeT). Prospects solely depend on the device resolution angle when its effective area and the minimum energy threshold are fixed.

  11. Sterile neutrino anarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner

    2013-02-01

    Lepton mixing, which requires physics beyond the Standard Model, is surprisingly compatible with a minimal, symmetryless and unbiased approach, called anarchy. This contrasts with highly involved flavor symmetry models. On the other hand, hints for light sterile neutrinos have emerged from a variety of independent experiments and observations. If confirmed, their existence would represent a groundbreaking discovery, calling for a theoretical interpretation. We discuss anarchy in the two-neutrino eV-scale seesaw framework. The distributions of mixing angles and masses according to anarchy are in agreement with global fits for the active and sterile neutrino parameters. Our minimal and economical scenario predicts the absence of neutrinoless double beta decay and one vanishing neutrino mass, and can therefore be tested in future experiments.

  12. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  13. Light sterile neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariazzo, S.; Giunti, C.; Laveder, M.; Li, Y. F.; Zavanin, E. M.

    2015-03-01

    The theory and phenomenology of light sterile neutrinos at the eV mass scale is reviewed. The reactor, gallium and Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector anomalies are briefly described and interpreted as indications of the existence of short-baseline oscillations which require the existence of light sterile neutrinos. The global fits of short-baseline oscillation data in 3 + 1 and 3 + 2 schemes are discussed, together with the implications for β-decay and neutrinoless double-β decay. The cosmological effects of light sterile neutrinos are briefly reviewed and the implications of existing cosmological data are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of future perspectives. This review is dedicated to the memory of Hai-Wei Long, our dear friend and collaborator, who passed away on 29 May 2015. He was an exceptionally kind person and an enthusiastic physicist. We deeply miss him.

  14. Detecting the Neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, Robert G.

    In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli suggested that a new particle might be required to make sense of the radioactive-disintegration mode known as beta decay. This conjecture initially seemed impossible to verify since the new particle, which became known as the neutrino, was uncharged, had zero or small mass, and interacted only insignificantly with other matter. In 1951 Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory undertook the difficult task of detecting the free neutrino by observing its inverse beta-decay interaction with matter. They succeeded in 1956. The neutrino was accepted rapidly as a fundamental particle despite discrepancies in reported details of the experiments and despite the absence of independent verification of the result. This paper describes the experiments, examines the nature of the discrepancies, and discusses the circumstances of the acceptance of the neutrino's detection by the physics community.

  15. Neutrino self-interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenkamp, Jasper

    2016-03-01

    We propose a theory that equips the active neutrinos with interactions among themselves that are at least 3 orders of magnitude stronger than the weak interaction. We introduce an Abelian gauge group U (1 )X with vacuum expectation value vx≲O (100 MeV ) . An asymmetric mass matrix implements the active neutrinos as massless mass eigenstates carrying "effective" charges. To stabilize vx, supersymmetry breaking is mediated via loops to the additional sector with the only exception of xHiggs terms. No Standard Model interaction eigenstate carries U (1 )X charge. Thus, the dark photon's kinetic mixing is two-loop suppressed. With only simple and generic values of dimensionless parameters, our theory might explain the high-energy neutrino spectrum observed by IceCube including the PeV neutrinos. We comment on the imposing opportunity to incorporate a self-interacting dark matter candidate.

  16. ICFA neutrino panel report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, K.

    2015-07-01

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: "To promote international cooperation in the development of the accelerator-based neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments." In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel's findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel's initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  17. ICFA neutrino panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2015-07-15

    In the summer of 2013 the International Committee on Future Accelerators (ICFA) established a Neutrino Panel with the mandate: <<neutrino-oscillation program and to promote international collaboration in the development of a neutrino factory as a future intense source of neutrinos for particle physics experiments. >>>In its first year the Panel organised a series of regional Town Meetings to collect input from the community and to receive reports from the regional planning exercises. The Panel distilled its findings and presented them in a report to ICFA [1]. In this contribution the formation and composition of the Panel are presented together with a summary of the Panel’s findings from the three Regional Town Meetings. The Panel’s initial conclusions are then articulated and the steps that the Panel seeks to take are outlined.

  18. Neutrinos in Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Sacha

    2008-02-21

    Neutrinos can contribute to various episodes of the evolution of the Universe. For instance, in the seesaw model, they may generate the baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis. This conference proceedings briefly reviews lepton flavour effects in thermal leptogenesis.

  19. FERMI LIMIT ON THE NEUTRINO FLUX FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhuo

    2013-06-20

    If gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) produce high-energy cosmic rays, neutrinos are expected to be generated in GRBs via photo-pion productions. However, we stress that the same process also generates electromagnetic (EM) emission induced by the secondary electrons and photons, and that the EM emission is expected to be correlated with neutrino flux. Using Fermi/Large Area Telescope results on gamma-ray flux from GRBs, the GRB neutrino emission is limited to be <20 GeV m{sup -2} per GRB event on average, which is independent of the unknown GRB proton luminosity. This neutrino limit suggests that IceCube, operating at full scale, requires stacking of more than 130 GRBs in order to detect one GRB muon neutrino.

  20. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial 7Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and 7Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13 with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio 11B/7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  1. GUT, neutrinos, and baryogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2002-11-01

    It is an exciting time for flavor physics. In this talk, I discuss recent topics in baryogenesis and leptogenesis in light of new data, and implications in B and neutrino physics. I also discuss current situation of grand unified theories concerning coupling unification, proton decay, and indirect consequences in lepton flavor violation and B physics. I explain attempts to understand the origin of flavor based on flavor symmetry, in particular "anarchy" in neutrinos.

  2. Cosmological and supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Balantekin, A. B.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Kusakabe, M.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Pehlivan, Y.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-06-24

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  3. Neutrinos from GRBs cannonballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, J. R.; Ferry, S.

    We present a new estimation of the production of prompt neutrinos in the Cannonball Model of Gamma Ray Bursts proposed by Dar and De Rújula. Interactions between nucleons in the cannonballs and nucleons in the supernova shell are calculated in the rest frame of the shocked matter produced by these interactions. We explore the neutrino yield as a function of the parameters of the model.

  4. Boxing with Neutrino Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Dj; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a model-independent ``box'' parameterization of neutrino oscillations. Oscillation probabilities are linear in these new parameters, so measurements can straighforwardly determine the box parameters which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements. We will present these new parameters and examine the effects of unitarity which reduce the number of independent parameters to the minimum set. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n >= 3 flavors.

  5. Neutrino Interactions with Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, T.; Buss, O.; Mosel, U.; Alvarez-Ruso, L.

    2007-12-21

    We investigate neutrino-nucleus collisions at intermediate energies incorporating quasielastic scattering and the excitation of 13 resonances as elementary processes, taking into account medium effects such as Fermi motion, Pauli blocking, mean-field potentials and in-medium spectral functions. A coupled-channel treatment of final state interactions is achieved with the GiBUU transport model. Results for inclusive reactions, neutrino- and electron-induced, as well as for pion production and nucleon knockout are presented.

  6. The 10 Meter South Pole Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlstrom, J. E.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Busetti, S.; Chang, C. L.; Chauvin, E.; Cho, H.-M.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Halverson, N. W.; Heimsath, S.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hrubes, J. D.; Joy, M.; Keisler, R.; Lanting, T. M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mohr, J. J.; Montroy, T. E.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Ruhl, J. E.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schwan, D.; Shirokoff, E.; Spieler, H. G.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Williamson, R.

    2011-05-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966 pixel, multicolor, millimeter-wave, bolometer camera. It is located at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole station in Antarctica. The design of the SPT emphasizes careful control of spillover and scattering, to minimize noise and false signals due to ground pickup. The key initial project is a large-area survey at wavelengths of 3, 2, and 1.3 mm, to detect clusters of galaxies via the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect and to measure the small-scale angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The data will be used to characterize the primordial matter power spectrum and to place constraints on the equation of state of dark energy. A second-generation camera will measure the polarization of the CMB, potentially leading to constraints on the neutrino mass and the energy scale of inflation.

  7. Sensitivity on earth core and mantle densities using atmospheric neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Borriello, E.; Marotta, A.; Miele, G.; Pisanti, O.; Strolin, P.; Mangano, G.; Migliozzi, P.; Moura, C.A.; Pastor, S. E-mail: mangano@na.infn.it E-mail: miele@na.infn.it E-mail: moura@na.infn.it E-mail: pisanti@na.infn.it

    2009-06-01

    Neutrino radiography may provide an alternative tool to study the very deep structures of the Earth. Though these measurements are unable to resolve the fine density layer features, nevertheless the information which can be obtained are independent and complementary to the more conventional seismic studies. The aim of this paper is to assess how well the core and mantle averaged densities can be reconstructed through atmospheric neutrino radiography. We find that about a 2% sensitivity for the mantle and 5% for the core could be achieved for a ten year data taking at an underwater km{sup 3} Neutrino Telescope. This result does not take into account systematics related to the details of the experimental apparatus.

  8. Constraining White Dwarf Structure and Neutrino Physics in 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsbury, R.; Heyl, J.; Richer, H. B.; Kalirai, J. S.; Tremblay, P. E.

    2016-04-01

    We present a robust statistical analysis of the white dwarf cooling sequence in 47 Tucanae. We combine Hubble Space Telescope UV and optical data in the core of the cluster, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Evolution (MESA) white dwarf cooling models, white dwarf atmosphere models, artificial star tests, and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling method to fit white dwarf cooling models to our data directly. We use a technique known as the unbinned maximum likelihood to fit these models to our data without binning. We use these data to constrain neutrino production and the thickness of the hydrogen layer in these white dwarfs. The data prefer thicker hydrogen layers ({q}{{H}}=3.2× {10}-5) and we can strongly rule out thin layers ({q}{{H}}={10}-6). The neutrino rates currently in the models are consistent with the data. This analysis does not provide a constraint on the number of neutrino species.

  9. Neutrino Analysis of the September 2010 Crab Nebula Flare and Time-integrated Constraints on Neutrino Emission From the Crab Using IceCube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatikos, M.; Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguliar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J. L. Bazo; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K. -H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, SW.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results for a search of high-energy muon neutrinos with the IceCube detector in coincidence with the Crab nebula flare reported on September 2010 by various experiments. Due to the unusual flaring state of the otherwise steady source we performed a prompt analysis of the 79-string configuration data to search for neutrinos that might be emitted along with the observed gamma-rays. We performed two different and complementary data selections of neutrino events in the time window of 10 days around the flare. One event selection is optimized for discovery of E(sub nu)(sup -2) neutrino spectrum typical of 1st order Fermi acceleration. A similar event selection has also been applied to the 40-string data to derive the time-integrated limits to the neutrino emission from the Crab [35]. The other event selection was optimized for discovery of neutrino spectra with softer spectral index and TeV energy cut-offs as observed for various galactic sources in gamma-rays. The 90% CL best upper limits on the Crab flux during the 10 day flare are 4.73 x 10(exp -11) per square centimeter per second TeV (sup -1) for an E(sub nu) (sup -2) neutrino spectrum and 2.50 x 10(exp -10) per square centimeter per second TeV(sup -1) for a softer neutrino spectra of E(sub nu)(sup -2.7), as indicated by Fermi measurements during the flare. IceCube has also set a time-integrated limit on the neutrino emission of the Crab using 375.5 days of livetime of the 40-string configuration data. This limit is compared to existing models of neutrino production from the Crab and its impact on astrophysical parameters is discussed. The most optimistic predictions of some models are already rejected by the IceCube neutrino telescope with more than 90% CL.

  10. Nonthermal cosmic neutrino background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Ratz, Michael; Trautner, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We point out that, for Dirac neutrinos, in addition to the standard thermal cosmic neutrino background (C ν B ), there could also exist a nonthermal neutrino background with comparable number density. As the right-handed components are essentially decoupled from the thermal bath of standard model particles, relic neutrinos with a nonthermal distribution may exist until today. The relic density of the nonthermal (nt) background can be constrained by the usual observational bounds on the effective number of massless degrees of freedom Neff and can be as large as nν nt≲0.5 nγ. In particular, Neff can be larger than 3.046 in the absence of any exotic states. Nonthermal relic neutrinos constitute an irreducible contribution to the detection of the C ν B and, hence, may be discovered by future experiments such as PTOLEMY. We also present a scenario of chaotic inflation in which a nonthermal background can naturally be generated by inflationary preheating. The nonthermal relic neutrinos, thus, may constitute a novel window into the very early Universe.

  11. Electromagnetic properties of massive neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrynina, A. A. Mikheev, N. V.; Narynskaya, E. N.

    2013-10-15

    The vertex function for a virtual massive neutrino is calculated in the limit of soft real photons. A method based on employing the neutrino self-energy operator in a weak external electromagnetic field in the approximation linear in the field is developed in order to render this calculation of the vertex function convenient. It is shown that the electric charge and the electric dipole moment of the real neutrino are zero; only the magnetic moment is nonzero for massive neutrinos. A fourth-generation heavy neutrino of mass not less than half of the Z-boson mass is considered as a massive neutrino.

  12. Neutrino experiments: Hierarchy, CP, CPT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Manmohan; Randhawa, Monika; Singh, Mandip

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of our recent investigations regarding the prospects of ongoing neutrino experiments as well as future experiments in determining few of the most important unknowns in the field of neutrino physics, specifically the neutrino mass ordering and leptonic CP-violation phase. The effect of matter oscillations on the neutrino oscillation probabilities has been exploited in resolving the degeneracy between the neutrino mass ordering and the CP violation phase in the leptonic sector. Further, we estimate the extent of extrinsic CP and CPT violation in the experiments with superbeams as well as neutrino factories.

  13. Neutrino Detectors: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    This paper covers possible detector options suitable at future neutrino facilities, such as Neutrino Factories, Super Beams and Beta Beams. The Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND), which is the baseline detector at a Neutrino Factory, will be described and a new analysis which improves the efficiency of this detector at low energies will be shown. Other detectors covered include the Totally Active Scintillating Detectors (TASD), particularly relevant for a low energy Neutrino Factory, emulsion detectors for tau detection, liquid argon detectors and megaton scale water Cherenkov detectors. Finally the requirements of near detectors for long-baseline neutrino experiments will be demonstrated.

  14. How precisely can neutrino emission from supernova remnants be constrained by gamma ray observations?

    SciTech Connect

    Villante, F. L.; Vissani, F.

    2008-11-15

    We propose a conceptually and computationally simple method to evaluate the neutrinos emitted by supernova remnants using the observed {gamma} ray spectrum. The proposed method does not require any preliminary parametrization of the gamma ray flux; the gamma ray data can be used as an input. In this way, we are able to propagate easily the observational errors and to understand how well the neutrino flux and the signal in neutrino telescopes can be constrained by {gamma} ray data. We discuss the various possible sources of theoretical and systematical uncertainties (e.g., hadronic modeling, neutrino oscillation parameters, etc.), obtaining an estimate of the accuracy of our calculation. Furthermore, we apply our approach to the supernova remnant RX J1713.7-3946, showing that neutrino emission is very well constrained by the H.E.S.S. {gamma} ray data: indeed, the accuracy of our prediction is limited by theoretical uncertainties. The observation of neutrinos from RX J1713.7-3946 seems possible with an exposure of the order of few km{sup 2}xyear, provided that the detection threshold in future neutrino telescopes will be not higher than about 1 TeV.

  15. Muon and neutrino energy reconstruction for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakopoulou, Evangelia

    2016-07-01

    KM3NeT/ARCA is a European deep-sea research infrastructure that will host a neutrino telescope with a volume of several cubic kilometers at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. The telescope will search for galactic and extragalactic neutrinos from astrophysical sources like gamma ray bursts, super-novae or colliding stars. The analyses performed in large water Cherenkov detectors rely upon the reconstruction of the muon direction and energy, and consequently, those of the neutrino. The estimation of the muon energy is also critical for the differentiation of muons from neutrinos originating from astrophysical sources from muons and neutrinos that have been generated in the atmosphere and constitute the detector background. The energy is derived from the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by the muons that are created during the charged current interactions of neutrinos in or in the vicinity of the detector. We describe a method to determine the muon and neutrino energy employing a Neural Network. An energy resolution of about 0.29 has been achieved for muons at the TeV range.

  16. Current status of new SAGE project with 51Cr neutrino source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrin, V.; Cleveland, B.; Danshin, S.; Elliott, S.; Gorbachev, V.; Ibragimova, T.; Kalikhov, A.; Knodel, T.; Kozlova, Yu.; Malyshkin, Yu.; Matveev, V.; Mirmov, I.; Nico, J.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Shikhin, A.; Sinclair, D.; Veretenkin, E.; Wilkerson, J.

    2015-03-01

    A very short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment with an intense 51Cr neutrino source is currently under construction at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research RAS (BNO). The experiment, which is based on the existing SAGE experiment, will use an upgraded Gallium-Germanium Neutrino Telescope (GGNT) and an artificial 51Cr neutrino source with activity ˜3 MCi to search for transitions of active neutrinos to sterile states with Δ m 2 ˜1 eV2. The neutrino source will be placed in the center of a liquid Ga metal target that is divided into two concentric zones, internal and external. The average path length of neutrinos in each zone will be the same and the neutrino capture rate will be measured separately in each zone. The oscillation signature, which comes from the ratio of events in the near and far gallium volumes, will be largely free of systematic errors, such as may occur from cross section and source strength uncertainties, and will provide a clean signal of electron neutrino disappearance into a sterile state at baselines of about 0.6 and 2.0 m. The sensitivity to the disappearance of electron neutrinos is expected to be a few percent. Construction of this set of new facilities, including a two-zone tank for irradiation of 50 tons of Ga metal with the intense 51Cr source, as well as additional modules of the GGNT counting and extraction systems, is close to completion. To check the new facilities they will first be used for SAGE solar neutrino measurements.

  17. Properties of resonantly produced sterile neutrino dark matter subhaloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horiuchi, Shunsaku; Bozek, Brandon; Abazajian, Kevork N.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Onorbe, Jose

    2016-03-01

    The anomalous 3.55 keV X-ray line recently detected towards a number of massive dark matter objects may be interpreted as the radiative decays of 7.1 keV mass sterile neutrino dark matter. Depending on its parameters, the sterile neutrino can range from cold to warm dark matter with small-scale suppression that differs in form from commonly adopted thermal warm dark matter. Here, we numerically investigate the subhalo properties for 7.1 keV sterile neutrino dark matter produced via the resonant Shi-Fuller mechanism. Using accurate matter power spectra, we run cosmological zoom-in simulations of a Milky Way-sized halo and explore the abundance of massive subhaloes, their radial distributions, and their internal structure. We also simulate the halo with thermal 2.0 keV warm dark matter for comparison and discuss quantitative differences. We find that the resonantly produced sterile neutrino model for the 3.55 keV line provides a good description of structures in the Local Group, including the number of satellite dwarf galaxies and their radial distribution, and largely mitigates the too-big-to-fail problem. Future searches for satellite galaxies by deep surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, and Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope, will be a strong direct test of warm dark matter scenarios.

  18. Fiber laser hydrophone as possible detector of UHE neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccioni, E.; Bagnoli, P. E.; Beverini, N.; Bouhadef, B.; Castorina, E.; Falchini, E.; Falciai, R.; Flaminio, V.; Morganti, M.; Stefani, F.; Trono, C.

    2007-03-01

    The possibility to use a single mode erbium-doped fiber laser as hydrophone for deep sea acoustic detection is considered. The high sensitivity of these sensors, their immunity from electromagnetic fields and their faculty to work at high environmental pressure, make them particularly suitable for a wide range of deep sea acoustic applications, and in particular as acoustic detectors in under-water telescopes for high-energy neutrinos.

  19. Neutrino Decay as an Explanation of Atmospheric Neutrino Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Barger, V.; Barger, V.; Learned, J.G.; Pakvasa, S.; Weiler, T.J.

    1999-03-01

    We show that the observed zenith angle dependence of the atmospheric neutrinos can be accounted for by neutrino decay. Furthermore, it is possible to account for all neutrino anomalies with just three flavors. A decay model for Majorana neutrinos appears consistent with big-bang nucleosynthesis and supernova constraints. The decay model is testable in the near future. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. No-neutrino double beta decay: more than one neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    Interference effects between light and heavy Majorana neutrinos in the amplitude for no-neutrino double beta decay are discussed. The effects include an upper bound on the heavy neutrino mass, and an A dependence for the effective mass extracted from double beta decay. Thus the search for the no-neutrino decay mode should be pursued in several nuclei, and particularly in Ca/sup 48/, where the effective mass may be quite large.

  1. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    The necessity for different types of telescopes for astronomical investigations is discussed. Major findings in modern astronomy by ground-based and spaceborne telescopes are presented. Observations of the Crab Nebula, solar flares, interstellar gas, and the Black Hole are described. The theory of the oscillating universe is explored. Operating and planned telescopes are described.

  2. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  3. Coma-compensation telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacFarlane, Malcolm J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A telescope for eliminating on axis coma due to tilt of the secondary mirror in infrared astronomy. The secondary mirror of a reflecting telescope is formed to cause field coma to always be equal and opposite at the optical axis of the telescope to tilt coma regardless of the angle through the secondary mirror is tilted with respect to the optical axis.

  4. The space telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Papers concerning the development of the Space Telescope which were presented at the Twenty-first Annual Meeting of the American Astronautical Society in August, 1975 are included. Mission planning, telescope performance, optical detectors, mirror construction, pointing and control systems, data management, and maintenance of the telescope are discussed.

  5. Atmospheric neutrinos in ice and measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Giordano, Gerardo; Mocioiu, Irina; Mena, Olga

    2010-11-01

    The main goal of the IceCube Deep Core array is to search for neutrinos of astrophysical origins. Atmospheric neutrinos are commonly considered as a background for these searches. We show that the very high statistics atmospheric neutrino data can be used to obtain precise measurements of the main oscillation parameters.

  6. ATST telescope mount: telescope of machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Stolz, Günter; Bonomi, Giovanni; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, and will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface. The telescope has a 4m aperture primary mirror, however due to the off axis nature of the optical layout, the telescope mount has proportions similar to an 8 meter class telescope. The technology normally used in this class of telescope is well understood in the telescope community and has been successfully implemented in numerous projects. The world of large machine tools has developed in a separate realm with similar levels of performance requirement but different boundary conditions. In addition the competitive nature of private industry has encouraged development and usage of more cost effective solutions both in initial capital cost and thru-life operating cost. Telescope mounts move relatively slowly with requirements for high stability under external environmental influences such as wind buffeting. Large machine tools operate under high speed requirements coupled with high application of force through the machine but with little or no external environmental influences. The benefits of these parallel development paths and the ATST system requirements are being combined in the ATST Telescope Mount Assembly (TMA). The process of balancing the system requirements with new technologies is based on the experience of the ATST project team, Ingersoll Machine Tools who are the main contractor for the TMA and MT Mechatronics who are their design subcontractors. This paper highlights a number of these proven technologies from the commercially driven machine tool world that are being introduced to the TMA design. Also the challenges of integrating and ensuring that the differences in application requirements are accounted for in the design are discussed.

  7. Hadronization processes in neutrino interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Teppei; Mandalia, Shivesh

    2015-10-01

    Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments utilize details of hadronic final states to improve the precision of neutrino interaction measurements. The hadronic system was often neglected or poorly modelled in the past, but they have significant effects on high precision neutrino oscillation and cross-section measurements. Among the physics of hadronic systems in neutrino interactions, the hadronization model controls multiplicities and kinematics of final state hadrons from the primary interaction vertex. For relatively high invariant mass events, many neutrino experiments rely on the PYTHIA program. Here, we show a possible improvement of this process in neutrino event generators, by utilizing expertise from the HERMES experiment. Finally, we estimate the impact on the systematics of hadronization models for neutrino mass hierarchy analysis using atmospheric neutrinos such as the PINGU experiment.

  8. Hadronization processes in neutrino interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei; Mandalia, Shivesh

    2015-10-15

    Next generation neutrino oscillation experiments utilize details of hadronic final states to improve the precision of neutrino interaction measurements. The hadronic system was often neglected or poorly modelled in the past, but they have significant effects on high precision neutrino oscillation and cross-section measurements. Among the physics of hadronic systems in neutrino interactions, the hadronization model controls multiplicities and kinematics of final state hadrons from the primary interaction vertex. For relatively high invariant mass events, many neutrino experiments rely on the PYTHIA program. Here, we show a possible improvement of this process in neutrino event generators, by utilizing expertise from the HERMES experiment. Finally, we estimate the impact on the systematics of hadronization models for neutrino mass hierarchy analysis using atmospheric neutrinos such as the PINGU experiment.

  9. Results from Neutrino Oscillations Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis

    2010-09-10

    The interpretation of the results of early solar and atmospheric neutrino experiments in terms of neutrino oscillations has been verified by several recent experiments using both, natural and man-made sources. The observations provide compelling evidence in favor of the existence of neutrino masses and mixings. These proceedings give a general description of the results from neutrino oscillation experiments, the current status of the field, and some possible future developments.

  10. Neutrino physics at muon colliders

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.J.

    1998-03-01

    An overview is given of the neutrino physics potential of future muon storage rings that use muon collider technology to produce, accelerate and store large currents of muons. After a general characterization of the neutrino beam and its interactions, some crude quantitative estimates are given for the physics performance of a muon ring neutrino experiment (MURINE) consisting of a high rate, high performance neutrino detector at a 250 GeV muon collider storage ring.

  11. Relic neutrinos, thermal axions, and cosmology in early 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusarma, Elena; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Mena, Olga

    2014-08-01

    We present up-to-date cosmological bounds on the sum of active neutrino masses as well as on extended cosmological scenarios with additional thermal relics, as thermal axions or sterile neutrino species. Our analyses consider all the current available cosmological data in the beginning of year 2014, including the very recent and most precise baryon acoustic oscillation measurements from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. In the minimal three-active-neutrino scenario, we find ∑mν<0.22 eV at 95% C.L. from the combination of cosmic microwave background (CMB), baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the Hubble constant. A nonzero value for the sum of the three active neutrino masses of ˜0.3 eV is significantly favored at more than three standard deviations when adding the constraints on σ8 and Ωm from the Planck cluster catalog on galaxy number counts. This preference for nonzero thermal relic masses disappears almost completely in both the thermal axion and massive sterile neutrino schemes. Extra light species contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom, parametrized via Neff. We found that when the recent detection of B mode polarization from the BICEP2 experiment is considered, an analysis of the combined CMB data in the framework of LCDM +r models gives Neff=3.90±0.42, suggesting the presence of an extra relativistic relic at more than 95% C.L. from CMB-only data.

  12. Tomographic Constraints on High-Energy Neutrinos of Hadronuclear Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Tamborra, Irene; Zandanel, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the TeV-PeV neutrino flux detected by the IceCube telescope has mainly an extragalactic origin. If such neutrinos are primarily produced by a single class of astrophysical sources via hadronuclear (p p ) interactions, a similar flux of gamma-ray photons is expected. For the first time, we employ tomographic constraints to pinpoint the origin of the IceCube neutrino events by analyzing recent measurements of the cross correlation between the distribution of GeV gamma rays, detected by the Fermi satellite, and several galaxy catalogs in different redshift ranges. We find that the corresponding bounds on the neutrino luminosity density are up to 1 order of magnitude tighter than those obtained by using only the spectrum of the gamma-ray background, especially for sources with mild redshift evolution. In particular, our method excludes any hadronuclear source with a spectrum softer than E-2.1 as a main component of the neutrino background, if its evolution is slower than (1 +z )3. Starburst galaxies, if able to accelerate and confine cosmic rays efficiently, satisfy both spectral and tomographic constraints.

  13. Neutrino oscillations refitted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forero, D. V.; Tórtola, M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2014-11-01

    Here, we update our previous global fit of neutrino oscillations by including the recent results that have appeared since the Neutrino 2012 conference. These include the measurements of reactor antineutrino disappearance reported by Daya Bay and RENO, together with latest T2K and MINOS data including both disappearance and appearance channels. We also include the revised results from the third solar phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-III, as well as new solar results from the fourth phase of Super-Kamiokande, SK-IV. We find that the preferred global determination of the atmospheric angle θ23 is consistent with maximal mixing. We also determine the impact of the new data upon all the other neutrino oscillation parameters with an emphasis on the increasing sensitivity to the C P phase, thanks to the interplay between accelerator and reactor data. In the Appendix, we present the updated results obtained after the inclusion of new reactor data presented at the Neutrino 2014 conference. We discuss their impact on the global neutrino analysis.

  14. Neutrino mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, S. F.

    2004-02-01

    This is a review article about neutrino mass models, particularly see-saw models involving three active neutrinos that are capable of describing both the atmospheric neutrino oscillation data and the large mixing angle (LMA) MSW solar solution, which is now uniquely specified by recent data. We briefly review the current experimental status, show how to parametrize and construct the neutrino mixing matrix, and present the leading order neutrino Majorana mass matrices. We then introduce the see-saw mechanism and discuss a natural application of it to current data using the sequential dominance mechanism, which we compare with an early proposal for obtaining LMAs. We show how both the Standard Model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model may be extended to incorporate the see-saw mechanism and show how the latter case leads to the expectation of lepton flavour violation. The see-saw mechanism motivates models with additional symmetries such as unification and family symmetry models, and we tabulate some possible models before focusing on two particular examples based on SO(10) grand unification and either U(1) or SU(3) family symmetry as specific examples. This review contains extensive appendices that include techniques for analytically diagonalizing different types of mass matrices involving two LMAs and one small mixing angle, to leading order in the small mixing angle.

  15. Gravitational Lensing of Supernova Neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Olga; Mocioiu, Irina; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2006-10-01

    The black hole at the center of the galaxy is a powerful lens for supernova neutrinos. In the very special circumstance of a supernova near the extended line of sight from Earth to the galactic center, lensing could dramatically enhance the neutrino flux at Earth and stretch the neutrino pulse.

  16. Neutrino fluctuat nec mercitur: are fossil neutrinos detectable

    SciTech Connect

    De Rujula, A

    1980-04-01

    A brief report is presented on the question whether light (few eV to approx. 100 eV) neutrinos left over from the big bang are detectable. The answer is perhaps. If the weak current of leptons, like those of quarks, are not diagonal in mass eigenstates, a neutrino will decay into a lighter neutrino and a monochromatic photon. The corresponding photon line may be detectable provided: neutrinos are heavy enough to participate in galaxy clustering and neutrino lifetimes are, as in some weak interaction models, short enough.

  17. Searches for Time-dependent Neutrino Sources with IceCube Data from 2008 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Baker, M.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brown, A. M.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Christy, B.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Clevermann, F.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eisch, J.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Frantzen, K.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Gretskov, P.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallen, P.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hellwig, D.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kaminsky, B.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Koob, A.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larsen, D. T.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O’Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Rees, I.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schulte, L.; Schulz, O.; Seckel, D.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Shanidze, R.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Santen, J.; Vanheule, S.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallraff, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wichary, C.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Ziemann, J.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    In this paper searches for flaring astrophysical neutrino sources and sources with periodic emission with the IceCube neutrino telescope are presented. In contrast to time-integrated searches, where steady emission is assumed, the analyses presented here look for a time-dependent signal of neutrinos using the information from the neutrino arrival times to enhance the discovery potential. A search was performed for correlations between neutrino arrival times and directions, as well as neutrino emission following time-dependent light curves, sporadic emission, or periodicities of candidate sources. These include active galactic nuclei, soft γ-ray repeaters, supernova remnants hosting pulsars, microquasars, and X-ray binaries. The work presented here updates and extends previously published results to a longer period that covers 4 years of data from 2008 April 5 to 2012 May 16, including the first year of operation of the completed 86 string detector. The analyses did not find any significant time-dependent point sources of neutrinos, and the results were used to set upper limits on the neutrino flux from source candidates.

  18. Theory for Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang

    2016-07-01

    Since the discovery of neutrino oscillations, for which Takaaki Kajita and Arthur B. McDonald were awarded the 2015 Nobel prize in physics, tremendous progresses have been made in measuring the mixing angles which determine the oscillation pattern. A lot of theoretical efforts have been made to understand how neutrinos mix with each other. Present data show that in the standard parameterization of the mixing matrix, θ23 is close to π/4 and the CP violating phase is close to ‑ π/2. In this talk I report results obtained in arXiv:1505.01932 (Phys. Lett. B750(2015)620) and arXive:1404.01560 (Chin. J. Phys.53(2015)100101) and discuss some implications for theoretical model buildings for such mixing pattern. Specific examples for neutrino mixing based on A4 family symmetry are given.

  19. Direct Neutrino Mass Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    With a mass at least six orders of magnitudes smaller than the mass of an electron – but non-zero – neutrinos are a clear misfit in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. On the one hand, its tiny mass makes the neutrino one of the most interesting particles, one that might hold the key to physics beyond the Standard Model. On the other hand this minute mass leads to great challenges in its experimental determination. Three approaches are currently pursued: An indirect neutrino mass determination via cosmological observables, the search for neutrinoless double β-decay, and a direct measurement based on the kinematics of single β-decay. In this paper the latter will be discussed in detail and the status and scientific reach of the current and near-future experiments will be presented.

  20. Cosmology and neutrino physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigman, Gary

    1982-05-01

    Constraints on cosmology and on neutrino physics are provided by the abundances of the light elements produced during the early evolution of the universe. The predictions of primordial nucleosynthesis depend on the nucleon to photon ratio ɛ and on the number of types of two component neutrinos Nν. A comparison between the big bang predictions and the observed abundances of D, 3He, 4He and 7Li shows that ɛ is constrained to a narrow range around 4×10-10 and Nν<~4. An important consequence of the derived value of ɛ is that the universal density of nucleon is small, raising the possibility that our Universe may be dominated by massive relic neutrinos. The constraint on Nn suggests that (almost) all lepton species are now known.

  1. Phenomenology of atmospheric neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedynitch, Anatoli

    2016-04-01

    The detection of astrophysical neutrinos, certainly a break-through result, introduced new experimental challenges and fundamental questions about acceleration mechanisms of cosmic rays. On one hand IceCube succeeded in finding an unambiguous proof for the existence of a diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux, on the other hand the precise determination of its spectral index and normalization requires a better knowledge about the atmospheric background at hundreds of TeV and PeV energies. Atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range originate mostly from decays of heavy-flavor mesons, which production in the phase space relevant for prompt leptons is uncertain. Current accelerator-based experiments are limited by detector acceptance and not so much by the collision energy. This paper recaps phenomenological aspects of atmospheric leptons and calculation methods, linking recent progress in flux predictions with particle physics at colliders, in particular the Large Hadron Collider.

  2. Probing Late Neutrino Mass Properties With SupernovaNeutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Joseph; Goldberg, Haim; Perez, Gilad; Sarcevic, Ina

    2007-08-08

    Models of late-time neutrino mass generation contain new interactions of the cosmic background neutrinos with supernova relic neutrinos (SRNs). Exchange of an on-shell light scalar may lead to significant modification of the differential SRN flux observed at earth. We consider an Abelian U(1) model for generating neutrino masses at low scales, and show that there are cases for which the changes induced in the flux allow one to distinguish the Majorana or Dirac nature of neutrinos, as well as the type of neutrino mass hierarchy (normal or inverted or quasi-degenerate). In some region of parameter space the determination of the absolute values of the neutrino masses is also conceivable. Measurements of the presence of these effects may be possible at the next-generation water Cerenkov detectors enriched with Gadolinium, or a 100 kton liquid argon detector.

  3. The neutrino signal at HALO: learning about the primary supernova neutrino fluxes and neutrino properties

    SciTech Connect

    Väänänen, Daavid; Volpe, Cristina E-mail: volpe@ipno.in2p3.fr

    2011-10-01

    Core-collapse supernova neutrinos undergo a variety of phenomena when they travel from the high neutrino density region and large matter densities to the Earth. We perform analytical calculations of the supernova neutrino fluxes including collective effects due to the neutrino-neutrino interactions, the Mikheev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect due to the neutrino interactions with the background matter and decoherence of the wave packets as they propagate in space. We predict the numbers of one- and two-neutron charged and neutral-current electron-neutrino scattering on lead events. We show that, due to the energy thresholds, the ratios of one- to two-neutron events are sensitive to the pinching parameters of neutrino fluxes at the neutrinosphere, almost independently of the presently unknown neutrino properties. Besides, such events have an interesting sensitivity to the spectral split features that depend upon the presence/absence of energy equipartition among neutrino flavors. Our calculations show that a lead-based observatory like the Helium And Lead Observatory (HALO) has the potential to pin down important characteristics of the neutrino fluxes at the neutrinosphere, and provide us with information on the neutrino transport in the supernova core.

  4. Relic neutrinos: Physically consistent treatment of effective number of neutrinos and neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birrell, Jeremiah; Rafelski, Johann

    2014-03-01

    It is well known that the effective number of cosmic neutrinos, Nν, is larger than the standard model number of neutrino flavors Nνf = 3 due a small flow of entropy into neutrinos from e +/- annihilation. Observational bounds from both BBN and the CMB suggest a value of Nν that is larger than the current theoretical prediction of Nν = 3 . 046 . We show in a model independent way how Nν relates to the neutrino kinetic freeze-out temperature, Tk, which we treat as parameter. We derive the relations that must hold between Nν, the photon to neutrino temperature ratio, the neutrino fugacity, and Tk. Our results imply that measurement of neutrino reheating, as characterized by Nν, amounts to the determination of Tk. We follow the free streaming neutrinos down to a temperature on the order of the neutrino mass and determine how the cosmic neutrino properties i.e. energy density, pressure, particle density, depend in a physically consistent way on both neutrino mass and Nν. We continue down to the present day temperature and characterize the neutrino distribution in this regime as well. See arXiv:1212.6943, PRD in press. This work has been supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, No. DE-FG02-04ER41318 and by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  5. Are neutrinos their own antiparticles?

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris; /Fermilab

    2009-03-01

    We explain the relationship between Majorana neutrinos, which are their own antiparticles, and Majorana neutrino masses. We point out that Majorana masses would make the neutrinos very distinctive particles, and explain why many theorists strongly suspect that neutrinos do have Majorana masses. The promising approach to confirming this suspicion is to seek neutrinoless double beta decay. We introduce a toy model that illustrates why this decay requires nonzero neutrino masses, even when there are both right-handed and left-handed weak currents.

  6. Review of Reactor Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo-Bong

    New generation of reactor neutrino experiments, Daya Bay and RENO, have made definitive measurements of the smallest neutrino mixing angle θ13 in 2012, based on the disappearance of electron antineutrinos. More precise measurements of the mixing angle and reactor neutrino spectra have been made and presented. A rather large value of θ13 has opened a new window to find the CP violation phase and to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Future reactor experiments, JUNO and RENO-50, are proposed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy and to make highly precise measurements of θ12, Δm212, and Δm312.

  7. Panel Discussion v: Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obraztsov, Vladimir; Konaka, Akira; Ikeda, Motoyasu; Jediny, Filip; Shirokov, Evgeny; Kalekin, Oleg; Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    Questions to discuss: * Can sidereal time analysis of the long time neutrino observations give information about the galaxy distribution in the Local Universe? * How well do we need to know the PMNS matrix elements? * Is the existence of MSW effect proved experimentally? * Are there new species of neutrino (e.g. the sterile one)? * What are other most important problems in neutrino physics (CP-violation)? * Can sidereal time analysis of the long time neutrino observations give information about the galaxy distribution in the Local Universe? * Perspectives of existing and future neutrino experiments (LNBF, LAGUNA, ICARUS, SHIP ...)

  8. Atmospheric neutrinos: Status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Sandhya

    2016-07-01

    We present an overview of the current status of neutrino oscillation studies at atmospheric neutrino experiments. While the current data gives some tantalising hints regarding the neutrino mass hierarchy, octant of θ23 and δCP, the hints are not statistically significant. We summarise the sensitivity to these sub-dominant three-generation effects from the next-generation proposed atmospheric neutrino experiments. We next present the prospects of new physics searches such as non-standard interactions, sterile neutrinos and CPT violation studies at these experiments.

  9. NOνA Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jediny, Filip

    2015-06-01

    The NOνA experiment is a long-baseline accelerator-based neutrino oscillation experiment. It uses the upgraded NuMI beam from Fermilab and measures electron-neutrino appearance and muon-neutrino disappearance at its far detector in Ash River, Minnesota. Goals of the experiment include measurements of θ13, mass hierarchy and the CP violating phase. NOνA has begun to take neutrino data and first neutrino candidates are observed in its detectors. This document provides an overview of the scientific reach of the experiment, the status of detector operation and physics analysis, as well as the first data.

  10. Double-Chooz Neutrino Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomares, Carmen; Double Chooz Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    The Double Chooz experiment will use the electron anti-neutrinos produced by the Chooz nuclear power station to search for a non-vanishing value of the θ13 neutrino mixing angle. Double Chooz will be the first of a new generation of neutrino experiments using identical detectors at different distances from the neutrino source to reduce the systematic errors due to the uncertainties on the neutrino flux and to the detector acceptance. The far detector will be operative by the beginning of 2011. Installation of the near detector will occur in 2012.

  11. Solar Neutrinos. II. Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1964-01-01

    A method is described for observing solar neutrinos from the reaction Cl{sup 37}(nu,e{sup -})Ar{sup 37} in C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}. Two 5 00-gal tanks of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} were placed in a limestone mine (1800 m.w.e.) and the resulting Ar{sup 37} activity induced by cosmic mesons( mu ) was measured to determine the necessary conditions for solar neutrino observations. (R.E.U.)

  12. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  13. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devan, Alena V.

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Amt. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Delta m2s 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  14. Experimental data on solar neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludhova, Livia

    2016-04-01

    Neutrino physics continues to be a very active research field, full of opened fundamental questions reaching even beyond the Standard Model of elementary particles and towards a possible new physics. Solar neutrinos have played a fundamental historical role in the discovery of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations and thus non-zero neutrino mass. Even today, the study of solar neutrinos provides an important insight both into the neutrino as well as into the stellar and solar physics. In this section we give an overview of the most important solar-neutrino measurements from the historical ones up to the most recent ones. We cover the results from the experiments using radio-chemic (Homestake, SAGE, GNO, GALLEX), water Cherenkov (Kamiokande, Super-Kamiokande, SNO), and the liquid-scintillator (Borexino, KamLAND) detection techniques.

  15. Ultrahigh-energy neutrino scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Masaaki; Schildknecht, Dieter

    2013-09-01

    We predict the neutrino-nucleon cross section at ultrahigh energies relevant in connection with the search for high-energy cosmic neutrinos. Our investigation, employing the color-dipole picture, among other things, allows us to quantitatively determine which fraction of the ultrahigh-energy neutrino-nucleon cross section stems from the saturation vs the color-transparency region. We disagree with various results in the literature that predict a strong suppression of the neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies above E≅109GeV. Suppression in the sense of a diminished increase of the neutrino-nucleon cross section with energy only starts to occur at neutrino energies beyond E≅1014GeV.

  16. Geometric Mean Neutrino Mass Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Gang; Zee, A.

    Present experimental data from neutrino oscillations have provided much information about the neutrino mixing angles. Since neutrino oscillations only determine the mass squared differences Δ m2ij = m2i - m2j, the absolute values for neutrino masses mi, can not be determined using data just from oscillations. In this work we study implications on neutrino masses from a geometric mean mass relation m2 = √ {m1m_3} which enables one to determined the absolute masses of the neutrinos. We find that the central values of the three neutrino masses and their 2σ errors to be m1 = (1.58 ± 0.18)meV, m2 = (9.04 ± 0.42)meV, and m3 = (51.8 ± 3.5)meV. Implications for cosmological observation, beta decay and neutrinoless double beta decays are discussed.

  17. Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Profumo, Stefano; Beacom, John F; Rainwater, David E-mail: beacom@mps.ohio-state.edu E-mail: rain@pas.rochester.edu

    2008-04-15

    As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

  18. Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Beacom, John F.; Profumo, Stefano; Rainwater, David

    2008-04-01

    As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton-nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates.

  19. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI&T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  20. JWST pathfinder telescope integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Kennard, Scott H.; Broccolo, Ronald T.; Ellis, James M.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Hahn, Walter G.; Amon, John N.; Mt. Pleasant, Stephen M.; Texter, Scott; Atkinson, Charles B.; McKay, Andrew; Levi, Joshua; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.5m, segmented, IR telescope that will explore the first light of the universe after the big bang. In 2014, a major risk reduction effort related to the Alignment, Integration, and Test (AI and T) of the segmented telescope was completed. The Pathfinder telescope includes two Primary Mirror Segment Assemblies (PMSA's) and the Secondary Mirror Assembly (SMA) onto a flight-like composite telescope backplane. This pathfinder allowed the JWST team to assess the alignment process and to better understand the various error sources that need to be accommodated in the flight build. The successful completion of the Pathfinder Telescope provides a final integration roadmap for the flight operations that will start in August 2015.

  1. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-01-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  2. Automated telescope scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  3. An Experimentalist's Overview of Solar Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oser, Scott M.

    2012-02-01

    Four decades of solar neutrino research have demonstrated that solar models do a remarkable job of predicting the neutrino fluxes from the Sun, to the extent that solar neutrinos can now serve as a calibrated neutrino source for experiments to understand neutrino oscillations and mixing. In this review article I will highlight the most significant experimental results, with emphasis on the latest model-independent measurements from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. The solar neutrino fluxes are seen to be generally well-determined experimentally, with no indications of time variability, while future experiments will elucidate the lower energy part of the neutrino spectrum, especially pep and CNO neutrinos.

  4. Search for point sources of high energy neutrinos with Amanda

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, J.

    2002-08-01

    Report of search for likely point sources for neutrinos observed by the Amanda detector. Places intensity limits on observable point sources. This paper describes the search for astronomical sources of high-energy neutrinos using the AMANDA-B10 detector, an array of 302 photomultiplier tubes, used for the detection of Cherenkov light from upward traveling neutrino-induced muons, buried deep in ice at the South Pole. The absolute pointing accuracy and angular resolution were studied by using coincident events between the AMANDA detector and two independent telescopes on the surface, the GASP air Cherenkov telescope and the SPASE extensive air shower array. Using data collected from April to October of 1997 (130.1 days of livetime), a general survey of the northern hemisphere revealed no statistically significant excess of events from any direction. The sensitivity for a flux of muon neutrinos is based on the effective detection area for through-going muons. Averaged over the Northern sky, the effective detection area exceeds 10,000 m{sup 2} for E{sub {mu}} {approx} 10 TeV. Neutrinos generated in the atmosphere by cosmic ray interactions were used to verify the predicted performance of the detector. For a source with a differential energy spectrum proportional to E{sub {nu}}{sup -2} and declination larger than +40{sup o}, we obtain E{sup 2} (dN{sub {nu}}/dE) {le} 10{sup -6} GeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for an energy threshold of 10 GeV.

  5. Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be an 8 m class deployable, radiatively cooled telescope, optimized for the 1-5 μm band, with zodiacal background limited sensitivity from 0.6 to 10 μm or longer, operating for 10 yr near the Earth-Sun second LAGRANGIAN POINT (L2). It will be a general-purpose observatory, operated by the SPACE TELESCOPE SCIENCE INSTITUTE (STScI) for competitively s...

  6. South Pole Telescope optics.

    PubMed

    Padin, S; Staniszewski, Z; Keisler, R; Joy, M; Stark, A A; Ade, P A R; Aird, K A; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Dobbs, M A; Halverson, N W; Heimsath, S; Hills, R E; Holzapfel, W L; Lawrie, C; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Leong, J; Lu, W; Lueker, M; McMahon, J J; Meyer, S S; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Vieira, J D

    2008-08-20

    The South Pole Telescope is a 10 m diameter, wide-field, offset Gregorian telescope with a 966-pixel, millimeter-wave, bolometer array receiver. The telescope has an unusual optical system with a cold stop around the secondary. The design emphasizes low scattering and low background loading. All the optical components except the primary are cold, and the entire beam from prime focus to the detectors is surrounded by cold absorber. PMID:18716649

  7. The Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minier, V.; Olmi, L.; Durand, G.; Daddi, E.; Israel, F.; Kramer, C.; Lagage, P.-O.; de Petris, M.; Sabbatini, L.; Spinoglio, L.; Schneider, N.; Tothill, N.; Tremblin, P.; Valenziano, L.; Veyssière, C.

    This report aims to provide a summary of the status of our Antarctic Submillimetre Telescope (AST) project up to date. It is a very new project for Antarctic astronomy. Necessary prerequisites for a future deployment of a large size telescope infrastructure have been tested in years 2007 and 2008. The knowledge of the transmission, frost formation and temperature gradient were fundamental parameters before starting a feasibility study. The telescope specifications and requirements are currently discussed with the industrial partnership.

  8. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The results of a LISA telescope sensitivity analysis will be presented, The emphasis will be on the outgoing beam of the Dall-Kirkham' telescope and its far field phase patterns. The computed sensitivity analysis will include motions of the secondary with respect to the primary, changes in shape of the primary and secondary, effect of aberrations of the input laser beam and the effect the telescope thin film coatings on polarization. An end-to-end optical model will also be discussed.

  9. Global analyses of neutrino oscillation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, M. C.; Maltoni, Michele; Schwetz, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We summarize the determination of some neutrino properties from the global analysis of solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator neutrino data in the framework of three-neutrino mixing as well as in some extended scenarios such as the mixing with eV-scale sterile neutrinos invoked for the interpretation of the short baseline anomalies, and the presence of non-standard neutrino interactions.

  10. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  11. Neutrino Factory Downstream Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-23

    We describe the Neutrino Factory accelerator systems downstream from the target and capture area. These include the bunching and phase rotation, cooling, acceleration, and decay ring systems. We also briefly discuss the R&D program under way to develop these systems, and indicate areas where help from CERN would be invaluable.

  12. Long Baseline Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezzetto, Mauro

    2016-05-01

    Following the discovery of neutrino oscillations by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration, recently awarded with the Nobel Prize, two generations of long baseline experiments had been setup to further study neutrino oscillations. The first generation experiments, K2K in Japan, Minos in the States and Opera in Europe, focused in confirming the Super-Kamiokande result, improving the precision with which oscillation parameters had been measured and demonstrating the ντ appearance process. Second generation experiments, T2K in Japan and very recently NOνA in the States, went further, being optimized to look for genuine three neutrino phenomena like non-zero values of θ13 and first glimpses to leptonic CP violation (LCPV) and neutrino mass ordering (NMO). The discovery of leptonic CP violation will require third generation setups, at the moment two strong proposals are ongoing, Dune in the States and Hyper-Kamiokande in Japan. This review will focus a little more in these future initiatives.

  13. Supernovae and neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Beacom

    2002-09-19

    A long-standing problem in supernova physics is how to measure the total energy and temperature of {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}, {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}}, and {bar {nu}}{sub {tau}}. While of the highest importance, this is very difficult because these flavors only have neutral-current detector interactions. We propose that neutrino-proton elastic scattering, {nu} + p {yields} {nu} + p, can be used for the detection of supernova neutrinos in scintillator detectors. It should be emphasized immediately that the dominant signal is on free protons. Though the proton recoil kinetic energy spectrum is soft, with T{sub p} {approx_equal} 2E{sub {nu}}{sup 2}/M{sub p}, and the scintillation light output from slow, heavily ionizing protons is quenched, the yield above a realistic threshold is nearly as large as that from {bar {nu}}{sub e} + p {yields} e{sup +} + n. In addition, the measured proton spectrum is related to the incident neutrino spectrum. The ability to detect this signal would give detectors like KamLAND and Borexino a crucial and unique role in the quest to detect supernova neutrinos.

  14. OGRAN setup in the BNO INR RAS in neutrino-gravitational correlation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezrukov, L. B.; Krysanov, V. A.; Motylev, A. M.; Oreshkin, S. I.; Popov, S. M.; Rudenko, V. N.; Semenov, V. V.; Silin, V. A.; Yudin, I. S.

    This article describes the uncooled opto-acoustical gravitational antenna constructed for a multi-channel mode operation in the deep underground laboratory of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in parallel with Baksan underground scintillation telescope involved in the collapse searching program.

  15. The Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Shannon, R. R.; Carleton, N. P.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Angel, J. R. P.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), located on top of Mount Hopkins (2600 m) in Arizona, consists of six main telescope systems, each of which is a classical Cassegrain with a 1.8 m diameter parabolic primary with focal ratio f/2.7, and a hyperbolic secondary producing a final f/31.6 for each of the individual telescopes. The most significant departures of the MMT from conventional optical telescope technology are (1) the use of light-weight 'egg-crate' mirrors, which reduced the telescope weight, (2) the use of an alt-azimuth mount, which simplifies the gravitational effects on the structure, (3) the use of a ball-bearing support rather than hydrostatic bearings, resulting in cost savings and less maintenance, (4) the use of spur gear drives rather than worm gears, and (5) the use of multiple coaligned light collectors rather than a single monolithic mirror. Early multiple objective telescopes are discussed, and the early history of the MMT project is given. The design and performance of the telescope are explained, and MMT instrumentation (spectrograph, optical design, detector, infrared photometer, SAO CCD camera) is given. Astronomical research with the telescope is discussed, along with plans for future multiple objective telescopes.

  16. The first VERITAS telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holder, J.; Atkins, R. W.; Badran, H. M.; Blaylock, G.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Byrum, K. L.; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Celik, O.; Chow, Y. C. K.; Cogan, P.; Cui, W.; Daniel, M. K.; de la Calle Perez, I.; Dowdall, C.; Dowkontt, P.; Duke, C.; Falcone, A. D.; Fegan, S. J.; Finley, J. P.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L. F.; Gibbs, K.; Gillanders, G.; Glidewell, O. J.; Grube, J.; Gutierrez, K. J.; Gyuk, G.; Hall, J.; Hanna, D.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, S. B.; Humensky, T. B.; Imran, A.; Jung, I.; Kaaret, P.; Kenny, G. E.; Kieda, D.; Kildea, J.; Knapp, J.; Krawczynski, H.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; LeBohec, S.; Linton, E.; Little, E. K.; Maier, G.; Manseri, H.; Milovanovic, A.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Ogden, P. A.; Ong, R. A.; Petry, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pizlo, F.; Pohl, M.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Roache, E. T.; Rose, H. J.; Schroedter, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Sleege, G.; Steele, D.; Swordy, S. P.; Syson, A.; Toner, J. A.; Valcarcel, L.; Vassiliev, V. V.; Wakely, S. P.; Weekes, T. C.; White, R. J.; Williams, D. A.; Wagner, R.

    2006-07-01

    The first atmospheric Cherenkov telescope of VERITAS (the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System) has been in operation since February 2005. We present here a technical description of the instrument and a summary of its performance. The calibration methods are described, along with the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the telescope and comparisons between real and simulated data. The analysis of TeV γ-ray observations of the Crab Nebula, including the reconstructed energy spectrum, is shown to give results consistent with earlier measurements. The telescope is operating as expected and has met or exceeded all design specifications.

  17. ATST telescope pier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, Paul; Manuel, Eric; Dreyer, Oliver; Kärcher, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world with a 4m aperture primary mirror. The off axis nature of the telescope optical layout, has the proportions of an 8 metre class telescope. Accordingly the instrumentation for solar observations a 16m diameter co-rotating laboratory (Coude Rotator) is also located within the telescope pier. The pier has a lower cylindrical profile with an upper conical section to support both the telescope mount with a 9m bearing diameter and contain the 16m diameter Coudé rotator. The performance of this pier cannot be considered in isolation but must account for ancillary equipment, access and initial installation. The Coude rotator structure and bearing system are of similar size to the telescope base structure and therefore this is the proverbial 'ship in a bottle' problem. This paper documents the competing requirements on the pier design and the balancing of these as the design progresses. Also summarized is the evolution of the design from a conceptual traditional reinforced concrete pier to a composite concrete and steel framed design. The stiffness requirements of the steel frame was a unique challenge for both the theoretical performance and overall design strategy considering constructability. The development of design acceptance criteria for the pier is discussed along with interfacing of the AandE firm responsible for the pier design and the telescope designer responsible for the telescope performance.

  18. Telescope performance verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swart, Gerhard P.; Buckley, David A. H.

    2004-09-01

    While Systems Engineering appears to be widely applied on the very large telescopes, it is lacking in the development of many of the medium and small telescopes currently in progress. The latter projects rely heavily on the experience of the project team, verbal requirements and conjecture based on the successes and failures of other telescopes. Furthermore, it is considered an unaffordable luxury to "close-the-loop" by carefully analysing and documenting the requirements and then verifying the telescope's compliance with them. In this paper the authors contend that a Systems Engineering approach is a keystone in the development of any telescope and that verification of the telescope's performance is not only an important management tool but also forms the basis upon which successful telescope operation can be built. The development of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has followed such an approach and is now in the verification phase of its development. Parts of the SALT verification process will be discussed in some detail to illustrate the suitability of this approach, including oversight by the telescope shareholders, recording of requirements and results, design verification and performance testing. Initial test results will be presented where appropriate.

  19. Baryons, neutrinos, feedback and weak gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo; Heymans, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    The effect of baryonic feedback on the dark matter mass distribution is generally considered to be a nuisance to weak gravitational lensing. Measurements of cosmological parameters are affected as feedback alters the cosmic shear signal on angular scales smaller than a few arcminutes. Recent progress on the numerical modelling of baryon physics has shown that this effect could be so large that, rather than being a nuisance, the effect can be constrained with current weak lensing surveys, hence providing an alternative astrophysical insight on one of the most challenging questions of galaxy formation. In order to perform our analysis, we construct an analytic fitting formula that describes the effect of the baryons on the mass power spectrum. This fitting formula is based on three scenarios of the OverWhelmingly Large hydrodynamical simulations. It is specifically calibrated for z < 1.5, where it models the simulations to an accuracy that is better than 2 per cent for scales k < 10 h Mpc-1 and better than 5 per cent for 10 < k < 100 h Mpc-1. Equipped with this precise tool, this paper presents the first constraint on baryonic feedback models using gravitational lensing data, from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). In this analysis, we show that the effect of neutrino mass on the mass power spectrum is degenerate with the baryonic feedback at small angular scales and cannot be ignored. Assuming a cosmology precision fixed by WMAP9, we find that a universe with massless neutrinos is rejected by the CFHTLenS lensing data with 85-98 per cent confidence, depending on the baryon feedback model. Some combinations of feedback and non-zero neutrino masses are also disfavoured by the data, although it is not yet possible to isolate a unique neutrino mass and feedback model. Our study shows that ongoing weak gravitational lensing surveys (KiDS, HSC and DES) will offer a unique opportunity to probe the physics of baryons at galactic scales, in

  20. Measurement of the atmospheric ν μ energy spectrum from 100 GeV to 200 TeV with the ANTARES telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Albert, A.; Al Samarai, I.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouhou, B.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cârloganu, C.; Carr, J.; Cecchini, S.; Charif, Z.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, F.; Core, L.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Curtil, C.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti, Q.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehn, K.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Folger, F.; Fritsch, U.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giacomelli, G.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, E.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Michael, T.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Motz, H.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Richter, R.; Rivière, C.; Robert, A.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Shanidze, R.; Sieger, C.; Simeone, F.; Spies, A.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vernin, P.; Visser, E.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Yatkin, K.; Yepes, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2013-10-01

    Atmospheric neutrinos are produced during cascades initiated by the interaction of primary cosmic rays with air nuclei. In this paper, a measurement of the atmospheric energy spectrum in the energy range 0.1-200 TeV is presented, using data collected by the ANTARES underwater neutrino telescope from 2008 to 2011. Overall, the measured flux is ˜25 % higher than predicted by the conventional neutrino flux, and compatible with the measurements reported in ice. The flux is compatible with a single power-law dependence with spectral index γ meas=3.58±0.12. With the present statistics the contribution of prompt neutrinos cannot be established.

  1. Topics in neutrino astroparticle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Woopyo

    1993-01-01

    In the first part of the dissertation, two neutrino properties such as neutrino mass measurement and neutrino dipole moment, in the terrestrial experiments, are examined with particular attention to exotic phenomena that may be observed for theories beyond the Standard Model. In the second part, we study a method for measuring the neutrino mass from a galactic supernova neutrino burst using an innovated detector concept. The neutral current based SNBO (Supernova Neutrino Burst Observatory) detector concept is discussed. We show that it is possible to measure a cosmologically significant neutrino mass, i.e., 5-50 eV directly from the flight time difference between the massive and massless neutrino using the SNBO detector concept. In the third part, very heavy unstable particles from the Big Bang decaying into neutrinos at cosmological epochs is discussed. In particular, we focus on a detection of such relic neutrinos from the decays in the neutrino window on earth, in the energy ranges 10-100 MeV, where the neutrino background is expected to be lowest. In the fourth part, neutrino emission from the explosion of Primordial Black Holes in the context of the Hawking radiation is presented. We suggest a new explosion mechanism inspired by new data from gamma ray bursts that might occur when the Primordial Black Hole reaches a certain surface temperature. We propose some observational tests that use a satellite detector and the proposed SNBO detector. In the last chapter, we examine a possible connection between the baryogenesis in the early universe and the lepton number violation processes.

  2. LUTE telescope structural design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruthven, Gregory

    1993-01-01

    The major objective of the Lunar Ultraviolet Transit Experiment (LUTE) Telescope Structural Design Study was to investigate the feasibility of designing an ultralightweight 1-m aperture system within optical performance requirements and mass budget constraints. This study uses the results from our previous studies on LUTE as a basis for further developing the LUTE structural architecture. After summarizing our results in Section 2, Section 3 begins with the overall logic we used to determine which telescope 'structural form' should be adopted for further analysis and weight estimates. Specific telescope component analysis showing calculated fundamental frequencies and how they compare with our derived requirements are included. 'First-order' component stress analyses to ensure telescope optical and structural component (i.e. mirrors & main bulkhead) weights are realistic are presented. Layouts of both the primary and tertiary mirrors showing dimensions that are consistent with both our weight and frequency calculations also form part of Section 3. Section 4 presents our calculated values for the predicted thermally induced primary-to-secondary mirror despace motion due to the large temperature range over which LUTE must operate. Two different telescope design approaches (one which utilizes fused quartz metering rods and one which assumes the entire telescope is fabricated from beryllium) are considered in this analysis. We bound the secondary mirror focus mechanism range (in despace) based on these two telescope configurations. In Section 5 we show our overall design of the UVTA (Ultraviolet Telescope Assembly) via an 'exploded view' of the sub-system. The 'exploded view' is annotated to help aid in the understanding of each sub-assembly. We also include a two view layout of the UVTA from which telescope and telescope component dimensions can be measured. We conclude our study with a set of recommendations not only with respect to the LUTE structural architecture

  3. Precision Solar Neutrino Measurements with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Oblath, Noah

    2007-10-26

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is the first experiment to measure the total flux of active, high-energy neutrinos from the sun. Results from SNO have solved the long-standing 'Solar Neutrino Problem' by demonstrating that neutrinos change flavor. SNO measured the total neutrino flux with the neutral-current interaction of solar neutrinos with 1000 tonnes of D{sub 2}O. In the first two phases of the experiment we detected the neutron from that interaction by capture on deuterium and capture on chlorine, respectively. In the third phase an array of {sup 3}He proportional counters was deployed in the detector. This allows a measurement of the neutral-current neutrons that is independent of the Cherenkov light detected by the PMT array. We are currently developing a unique, detailed simulation of the current pulses from the proportional-counter array that will be used to help distinguish signal and background pulses.

  4. Measurement of the activity of an artificial neutrino source based on {sup 37}Ar

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurashitov, D. N.; Veretenkin, E. P.; Gavrin, V. N.; Gorbachev, V. V.; Ibragimova, T. V.; Kalikhov, A. V.; Mirmov, I. N. Shikhin, A. A.; Yants, V. E.; Barsanov, V. I.; Dzhanelidze, A. A.; Zlokazov, S. B.; Markov, S. Yu.; Shakirov, Z. N.; Cleveland, B. T.

    2007-02-15

    The activity of an artificial neutrino source based on {sup 37}Ar was measured by a specially developed method of directly counting {sup 37}Ar decays in a proportional counter. This source was used to irradiate the target of the SAGE radiochemical gallium-germanium neutrino telescope at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow), whereupon the measurements were performed at the Institute of Reactor Materials (Zarechny, Sverdlovsk oblast, Russia). The method used to prepare gaseous samples for measurements in proportional counters and the counting procedure are described. The measured activity of the {sup 37}Ar neutrino source is 405.1 {+-} 3.7 kCi (corrected for decays that occurred within the period between the instant of activity measurement and the commencement of the irradiation of Ga target at 04:00 Moscow time, 30.04.2004)

  5. Search for neutrino point sources with ANTARES 2007-2012 data

    SciTech Connect

    Zornoza, J. D.

    2014-11-18

    Neutrinos are unique probes to study the high energy Universe, since they are neutral, only interact weakly and are stable. Furthermore, they can provide key information about several fundamental questions in Physics like the origin of cosmic rays and the nature of dark matter. The ANTARES neutrino telescope, installed in the Mediterranean Sea, has been taking data since 2007. In this paper we review the results concerning the search for point sources of cosmic neutrinos, using data of 2007–2012. Two main strategies have been followed: to look towards the direction of sources candidate to emmit neutrinos and to make an all-sky scan. Although no significant cluster has been found above the background, flux limits have been set at the level of E{sup 2}φν{sup 90CL}∼1–2×10{sup −8} GeV cm{sup −}2s{sup −1}.

  6. Comparative study of the neutrino-nucleon cross section at ultrahigh energies

    SciTech Connect

    Goncalves, V. P.; Hepp, P.

    2011-01-01

    The high-energy neutrino cross section is a crucial ingredient in the calculation of the event rate in high-energy neutrino telescopes. Currently, there are several approaches that predict different behaviors for its magnitude for ultrahigh energies. In this paper, we present a comparison between the predictions based on linear Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi dynamics, nonlinear QCD, and the imposition of a Froissart-like behavior at high energies. In particular, we update the predictions based on the color glass condensate, presenting for the first time the results for {sigma}{sub {nu}N} using the solution of the running coupling Balitsky-Kovchegov equation. Our results demonstrate that the current theoretical uncertainty for the neutrino-nucleon cross section reaches a factor of three for neutrino energies around 10{sup 11} GeV and increases to a factor of five for 10{sup 13} GeV.

  7. Flavor oscillations with sterile neutrinos and in dense neutrino environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollander, David

    Many experiments have provided evidence for neutrino flavor oscillations, and consequently that neutrinos are in fact massive which is not predicted by the Standard Model. Many experiments have been built to constrain the parameters which determine flavor oscillations, and for only three flavors of neutrinos the mixing parameters are well known, aside from the CP violating phase for two mass hierarchies. Most experimental data can be well explained by mixing between three flavors of neutrinos, however oscillation anomalies from several experiments, most notably from LSND (Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector) have suggested that there may be additional flavors of neutrinos beyond those in the Standard Model. One of the focuses of this dissertation is the possibility of adding new flavors of right-handed neutrinos to the Standard Model to account for oscillation anomalies, and exploring the consequences of sterile neutrinos for other experiments. Sensitivities to a particular model of sterile neutrinos at the future Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment will be determined, in which CP effects introduced by the sterile neutrinos play an important role. It will be demonstrated how, by combining data from the Long-Baseline Neutrino Experiment along with data from Daya Bay and T2K, it is possible to provide evidence for or rule out this model of sterile neutrinos. A chi-squared analysis is used to determine the significance of measuring the effects of sterile neutrinos in IceCube; it will be shown that it may be possible to extract evidence for sterile neutrinos from high energy atmospheric neutrinos in IceCube. Furthermore it will be demonstrated how measuring neutrino flavor ratios from astrophysical sources in IceCube can help to distinguish between the three flavor scenario and a beyond the Standard Model (BSM) scenario involving sterile neutrinos. Measuring astrophysical as well as atmospheric neutrinos can evince the existence of sterile neutrinos. Despite the fact

  8. Neutrino magnetic moment effects in neutrino nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Athar, M.S.

    1995-10-01

    Some low energy neutrino nucleus reactions induced by neutrinos (antineutrinos) having a magnetic moment of the order of 10{sup {minus}9}{minus}10{sup {minus}10} Bohr magneton are studied. It is found that in the case of {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, and {sup 16}O, the detection of very low energy scalar and isoscalar elastic and inelastic reactions induced by the isoscalar vector currents can provide a better limit on the neutrino magnetic moment.

  9. A first search for coincident gravitational waves and high energy neutrinos using LIGO, Virgo and ANTARES data from 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Astraatmadja, T.; Bogazzi, C.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Baret, B.; Bouhou, B.; Biagi, S.; and others

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of the first search for gravitational wave bursts associated with high energy neutrinos. Together, these messengers could reveal new, hidden sources that are not observed by conventional photon astronomy, particularly at high energy. Our search uses neutrinos detected by the underwater neutrino telescope ANTARES in its 5 line configuration during the period January - September 2007, which coincided with the fifth and first science runs of LIGO and Virgo, respectively. The LIGO-Virgo data were analysed for candidate gravitational-wave signals coincident in time and direction with the neutrino events. No significant coincident events were observed. We place limits on the density of joint high energy neutrino - gravitational wave emission events in the local universe, and compare them with densities of merger and core-collapse events.

  10. A First Search for Coincident Gravitational Waves and High Energy Neutrinos Using LIGO, Virgo and ANTARES Data from 2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Samarai, Al; Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bogazzi, C; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouhou, B.; Bowhuis, M. C.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Kanner, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of the first search for gravitational wave bursts associated with high energy neutrinos. Together, these messengers could reveal new, hidden sources that are not observed by conventional photon astronomy, particularly at high energy. Our search uses neutrinos detected by the underwater neutrino telescope ANTARES in its 5 line configuration during the period January - September 2007, which coincided with the fifth and first science runs of LIGO and Virgo, respectively. The LIGO-Virgo data were analysed for candidate gravitational-wave signals coincident in time and direction with the neutrino events. No significant coincident events were observed. We place limits on the density of joint high energy neutrino - gravitational wave emission events in the local universe, and compare them with densities of merger and core-collapse events.

  11. Limits on neutrino emission from gamma-ray bursts with the 40 string IceCube detector.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, R; Abdou, Y; Abu-Zayyad, T; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Andeen, K; Auffenberg, J; Bai, X; Baker, M; Barwick, S W; Bay, R; Bazo Alba, J L; Beattie, K; Beatty, J J; Bechet, S; Becker, J K; Becker, K-H; Benabderrahmane, M L; BenZvi, S; Berdermann, J; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bertrand, D; Besson, D Z; Bindig, D; Bissok, M; Blaufuss, E; Blumenthal, J; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brown, A M; Buitink, S; Carson, M; Chirkin, D; Christy, B; Clem, J; Clevermann, F; Cohen, S; Colnard, C; Cowen, D F; D'Agostino, M V; Danninger, M; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; De Clercq, C; Demirörs, L; Depaepe, O; Descamps, F; Desiati, P; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dierckxsens, M; Dreyer, J; Dumm, J P; Ehrlich, R; Eisch, J; Ellsworth, R W; Engdegård, O; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fadiran, O; Fazely, A R; Fedynitch, A; Feusels, T; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Fischer-Wasels, T; Foerster, M M; Fox, B D; Franckowiak, A; Franke, R; Gaisser, T K; Gallagher, J; Geisler, M; Gerhardt, L; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Goodman, J A; Grant, D; Griesel, T; Gross, A; Grullon, S; Gurtner, M; Ha, C; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Han, K; Hanson, K; Heinen, D; Helbing, K; Herquet, P; Hickford, S; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Hubert, D; Huelsnitz, W; Hülss, J-P; Hulth, P O; Hultqvist, K; Hussain, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobsen, J; Japaridze, G S; Johansson, H; Joseph, J M; Kampert, K-H; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Kelley, J L; Kemming, N; Kenny, P; Kiryluk, J; Kislat, F; Klein, S R; Köhne, J-H; Kohnen, G; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Kowarik, T; Krasberg, M; Krings, T; Kroll, G; Kuehn, K; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lafebre, S; Laihem, K; Landsman, H; Larson, M J; Lauer, R; Lehmann, R; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Majumdar, P; Marotta, A; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Matis, H S; Meagher, K; Merck, M; Mészáros, P; Meures, T; Middell, E; Milke, N; Miller, J; Montaruli, T; Morse, R; Movit, S M; Nahnhauer, R; Nam, J W; Naumann, U; Niessen, P; Nygren, D R; Odrowski, S; Olivas, A; Olivo, M; O'Murchadha, A; Ono, M; Panknin, S; Paul, L; Pérez de los Heros, C; Petrovic, J; Piegsa, A; Pieloth, D; Porrata, R; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Prikockis, M; Przybylski, G T; Rawlins, K; Redl, P; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Ribordy, M; Rizzo, A; Rodrigues, J P; Roth, P; Rothmaier, F; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Rutledge, D; Ruzybayev, B; Ryckbosch, D; Sander, H-G; Santander, M; Sarkar, S; Schatto, K; Schmidt, T; Schoenwald, A; Schukraft, A; Schultes, A; Schulz, O; Schunck, M; Seckel, D; Semburg, B; Seo, S H; Sestayo, Y; Seunarine, S; Silvestri, A; Slipak, A; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stephens, G; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stoyanov, S; Strahler, E A; Straszheim, T; Sullivan, G W; Swillens, Q; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tamburro, A; Tarasova, O; Tepe, A; Ter-Antonyan, S; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Turčan, D; van Eijndhoven, N; Vandenbroucke, J; Van Overloop, A; van Santen, J; Vehring, M; Voge, M; Voigt, B; Walck, C; Waldenmaier, T; Wallraff, M; Walter, M; Weaver, C; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whitehorn, N; Wiebe, K; Wiebusch, C H; Williams, D R; Wischnewski, R; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Woschnagg, K; Xu, C; Xu, X W; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zarzhitsky, P

    2011-04-01

    IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if gamma-ray bursts are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above 10(18)  eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from pγ interactions in the prompt phase of the gamma-ray burst fireball and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence. PMID:21561178

  12. Measurement of the atmospheric muon neutrino energy spectrum with IceCube in the 79- and 86-String configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhe, T.; Scheriau, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2016-04-01

    IceCube is a neutrino telescope with an instrumented volume of one cubic kilometer. A total of 5160 Digital Optical Modules (DOMs) is deployed on 86 strings forming a three dimensional detector array. Although primarily designed for the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources, the detector can be used for spectral measurements of atmospheric neutrinos. These spectral measurements are hindered by a dominant background of atmospheric muons. State-of-the-art techniques from Machine Learning and Data Mining are required to select a high-purity sample of atmospheric neutrino candidates. The energy spectrum of muon neutrinos is obtained from energy-dependent input variables by utilizing regularized unfolding. The results obtained using IceCube in the 79- and 86-string configuration are presented in this paper.

  13. On the Detection of the Free Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Reines, F.; Cowan, C. L., Jr.

    1953-08-06

    The experiment previously proposed [to Detect the Free Neutrino] has been initiated, with a Hanford pile as a neutrino source. It appears probable that neutrino detection has been accomplished, and confirmatory work is in progress. (K.S.)

  14. Brief introduction of the neutrino event generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hayato, Yoshinari

    2015-05-15

    The neutrino interaction simulation programs (event generators) play an important role in the neutrino experiments. This article briefly explains what is the neutrino event generator and how it works.

  15. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided. PMID:26117519

  16. High resolution telescope

    DOEpatents

    Massie, Norbert A.; Oster, Yale

    1992-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1 m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12 m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activites. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes.

  17. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. High resolution telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Massie, N.A.; Oster, Y.

    1990-12-31

    A large effective-aperture, low-cost optical telescope with diffraction-limited resolution enables ground-based observation of near-earth space objects. The telescope has a non-redundant, thinned-aperture array in a center-mount, single-structure space frame. It employs speckle interferometric imaging to achieve diffraction-limited resolution. The signal-to-noise ratio problem is mitigated by moving the wavelength of operation to the near-IR, and the image is sensed by a Silicon CCD. The steerable, single-structure array presents a constant pupil. The center-mount, radar-like mount enables low-earth orbit space objects to be tracked as well as increases stiffness of the space frame. In the preferred embodiment, the array has elemental telescopes with subaperture of 2.1m in a circle-of-nine configuration. The telescope array has an effective aperture of 12m which provides a diffraction-limited resolution of 0.02 arc seconds. Pathlength matching of the telescope array is maintained by an electro-optical system employing laser metrology. Speckle imaging relaxes pathlength matching tolerance by one order of magnitude as compared to phased arrays. Many features of the telescope contribute to substantial reduction in costs. These include eliminating the conventional protective dome and reducing on-site construction activities. The cost of the telescope scales with the first power of the aperture rather than its third power as in conventional telescopes. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Inherent small telescope projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    As we stand on the verge of substantial access to the new generation of giant telescopes (Gemini, VLT and others) it is timely to consider the range of science that can be undertaken with the substantial number of smaller telescopes that are spread around the globe. While providing survey science input to the giant telescopes, or simultaneous monitoring capability for space missions, is a clearly important role (see previous contributions), it should not be forgotten that there are still many outstanding scientific programmes that can be undertaken on smaller telescopes in their own right. There is a danger of these opportunities being overlooked in the stampede to abandon the smaller telescope 'baggage' in the hope of acquiring access to more giant telescope time. I will try to demonstrate that the most effective and efficient use of all our telescope time requires access to a broad range of complementary facilities. I will therefore describe here some of the projects currently being undertaken with smaller telescopes as well as some of those planned for future facilities such as ROBONET.

  20. Telescope With Reflecting Baffle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.

    1985-01-01

    Telescope baffle made from combination of reflecting surfaces. In contrast with previous ellipsoidal reflecting baffles, new baffle reflects skew rays more effectively and easier to construct. For infrared telescopes, reflecting baffles better than absorbing baffles because heat load reduced, and not necessary to contend with insufficiency of infrared absorption exhibited by black coatings.

  1. Goddard Robotic Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Donato, Davide; Gehrels, Neil; Okajima, Takashi; Ukwatta, Tilan N.

    2009-05-25

    We are constructing the 14'' fully automated optical robotic telescope, Goddard Robotic Telescope (GRT), at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. The aims of our robotic telescope are 1) to follow-up the Swift/Fermi Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and 2) to perform the coordinated optical observations of the Fermi/Large Area Telescope (LAT) Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Our telescope system consists of the 14'' Celestron Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Astro-Physics 1200GTO mount, the Apogee U47 CCD camera, the JMI's electronic focuser, and the Finger Lake Instrumentation's color filter wheel with U, B, V, R and I filters. With the focal reducer, 20'x20' field of view has been achieved. The observatory dome is the Astro Haven's 7 ft clam-shell dome. We started the scientific observations on mid-November 2008. While not observing our primary targets (GRBs and AGNs), we are planning to open our telescope time to the public for having a wider use of our telescope in both a different research field and an educational purpose.

  2. Electron-neutrino survival probability from solar-neutrino data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezinsky, V.; Lissia, M.

    2001-11-01

    With SNO data [SNO Collaboration, nucl-ex/0106015] on electron-neutrino flux from the sun, it is possible to derive the νe survival probability Pee(E) from existing experimental data of Super-Kamiokande, gallium experiments and Homestake. The combined data of SNO and Super-Kamiokande provide boron νe flux and the total flux of all active boron neutrinos, giving thus Pee(E) for boron neutrinos. The Homestake detector, after subtraction of the signal from boron neutrinos, gives the flux of Be/+CNO neutrinos, and Pee for the corresponding energy interval, if the produced flux is taken from the Standard Solar Model (SSM). Gallium detectors, GALLEX, SAGE and GNO, detect additionally /pp-neutrinos. The /pp flux can be calculated subtracting from the gallium signal the rate due to boron, beryllium and CNO neutrinos. The ratio of the measured /pp-neutrino flux to that predicted by the SSM gives the survival probability for /pp-neutrinos. Comparison with theoretical survival probabilities shows that the best (among known models) fit is given by LMA and LOW solutions.

  3. Neutrino oscillations and the seesaw origin of neutrino mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, O. G.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2016-07-01

    The historical discovery of neutrino oscillations using solar and atmospheric neutrinos, and subsequent accelerator and reactor studies, has brought neutrino physics to the precision era. We note that CP effects in oscillation phenomena could be difficult to extract in the presence of unitarity violation. As a result upcoming dedicated leptonic CP violation studies should take into account the non-unitarity of the lepton mixing matrix. Restricting non-unitarity will shed light on the seesaw scale, and thereby guide us towards the new physics responsible for neutrino mass generation.

  4. Limits on the neutrino mass from cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Melchiorri, Alessandro; De Bernardis, Francesco; Menegoni, Eloisa

    2010-07-12

    We use measurements of luminosity-dependent galaxy bias at several different redshifts, SDSS at z = 0.05, DEEP2 at z = 1 and LBGs at z = 3.8, combined with WMAP five-year cosmic microwave background anisotropy data and SDSS Red Luminous Galaxy survey three-dimensional clustering power spectrum to put constraints on cosmological parameters. Fitting this combined dataset, we show that the luminosity-dependent bias data that probe the relation between halo bias and halo mass and its redshift evolution are very sensitive to sum of the neutrino masses: in particular we obtain the upper limit of {Sigma}m{sub {nu}<}0.28 eV at the 95% confidence level for a {Lambda}CDM+m{sub {nu}}model, with a {sigma}8 equal to {sigma}8 = 0.759{+-}0.025 (1{sigma}). When we allow the dark energy equation of state parameter w to vary we find w -1.30{+-}0.19 for a general wCDM+m{sub {nu}}model with the 95% confidence level upper limit on the neutrino masses at {Sigma}m{sub {nu}<}0.59 eV. The constraint on the dark energy equation of state further improves to w = -1.125{+-}0.092 when using also ACBAR and supernovae Union data, in addition to above, with a prior on the Hubble constant from the Hubble Space Telescope. Finally, we have investigated the ability of future cosmic shear measurements, like those achievable with the proposed Euclid mission, to constrain differences in the mass of individual neutrino species.

  5. Hubble Space Telescope overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, Ronald S.

    1991-01-01

    A general overview of the performance and current status of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented. Most key spacecraft subsystems are operating well, equaling or exceeding specifications. Spacecraft thermal properties, power, and communications, are superb. The only spacecraft subsystem to have failed, a gyro, is briefly discussed. All science instruments are functioning extremely well and are returning valuable scientific data. The two significant problems effecting the Hubble Space Telescope science return, the pointing jitter produced by thermally induced bending of the solar array wings and the optical telescope assembly spherical aberration, are discussed and plans to repair both problems are mentioned. The possible restoration of full optical performance of the axial scientific instruments through the use of the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement, currently under study for the 1993 servicing mission, is discussed. In addition, an overview of the scientific performance of the Hubble Space Telescope is presented.

  6. Telescope Adaptive Optics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Phillion, D.

    2005-07-28

    The Telescope AO Code has general adaptive optics capabilities plus specialized models for three telescopes with either adaptive optics or active optics systems. It has the capability to generate either single-layer or distributed Kolmogorov turbulence phase screens using the FFT. Missing low order spatial frequencies are added using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The phase structure curve is extremely dose to the theoreUcal. Secondly, it has the capability to simulate an adaptive optics control systems. The default parameters are those of the Keck II adaptive optics system. Thirdly, it has a general wave optics capability to model the science camera halo due to scintillation from atmospheric turbulence and the telescope optics. Although this capability was implemented for the Gemini telescopes, the only default parameter specific to the Gemini telescopes is the primary mirror diameter. Finally, it has a model for the LSST active optics alignment strategy. This last model is highly specific to the LSST

  7. The solar optical telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Objectives of the Solar Optical Telescope are to study the physics of the Sun on the scale at which many of the important physical processes occur and to attain a resolution of 73km on the Sun or 0.1 arc seconds of angular resolution. Topics discussed in this overview of the Solar Optical Telescope include: why is the Solar Optical Telescope needed; current picture of the Sun's atmosphere and convection zone; scientific problems for the Solar Optical Telescope; a description of the telescope; the facility - science management, contamination control, and accessibility to the instruments; the scientific instruments - a coordinated instrument package for unlocking the Sun's secrets; parameters of the coordinated instrument package; science operations from the Space Shuttle; and the dynamic solar atmosphere.

  8. Gauge Trimming of Neutrino Masses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mu-Chun; de Gouvea, Andre; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We show that under a new U(1) gauge symmetry, which is non-anomalous in the presence of one ''right-handed neutrino'' per generation and consistent with the standard model Yukawa couplings, the most general fermion charges are determined in terms of four rational parameters. This generalization of the B-L symmetry with generation-dependent lepton charges leads to neutrino masses induced by operators of high dimensionality. Neutrino masses are thus naturally small without invoking physics at energies above the TeV scale, whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions. This ''Leptocratic'' Model predicts the existence of light quasi-sterile neutrinos with consequences for cosmology, and implies that collider experiments may reveal the origin of neutrino masses.

  9. Unparticle physics and neutrino phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco, J.; Bolanos, A.; Miranda, O. G.; Moura, C. A.; Rashba, T. I.

    2009-04-01

    We have constrained unparticle interactions with neutrinos and electrons using available data on neutrino-electron elastic scattering and the four CERN LEP experiments data on mono photon production. We have found that, for neutrino-electron elastic scattering, the MUNU experiment gives better constraints than previous reported limits in the region d>1.5. The results are compared with the current astrophysical limits, pointing out the cases where these limits may or may not apply. We also discuss the sensitivity of future experiments to unparticle physics. In particular, we show that the measurement of coherent reactor neutrino scattering off nuclei could provide a good sensitivity to the couplings of unparticle interaction with neutrinos and quarks. We also discuss the case of future neutrino-electron experiments as well as the International Linear Collider.

  10. Murchison Widefield Array Limits on Radio Emission from ANTARES Neutrino Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, S.; Kaplan, D. L.; Tingay, S. J.; Murphy, T.; Bell, M. E.; Rowlinson, A.; for the MWA Collaboration; Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Glotin, H.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Roensch, K.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; for the ANTARES Collaboration; Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Le Van Suu, A.; for the TAROT Collaboration; Akerlof, C.; Zheng, W.; for the ROTSE Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present a search, using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), for electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to two candidate high-energy neutrino events detected by the ANTARES neutrino telescope in 2013 November and 2014 March. These events were selected by ANTARES because they are consistent, within 0.°4, with the locations of galaxies within 20 Mpc of Earth. Using MWA archival data at frequencies between 118 and 182 MHz, taken ∼20 days prior to, at the same time as, and up to a year after the neutrino triggers, we look for transient or strongly variable radio sources that are consistent with the neutrino positions. No such counterparts are detected, and we set a 5σ upper limit for low-frequency radio emission of ∼1037 erg s‑1 for progenitors at 20 Mpc. If the neutrino sources are instead not in nearby galaxies, but originate in binary neutron star coalescences, our limits place the progenitors at z ≳ 0.2. While it is possible, due to the high background from atmospheric neutrinos, that neither event is astrophysical, the MWA observations are nevertheless among the first to follow up neutrino candidates in the radio, and illustrate the promise of wide-field instruments like MWA for detecting EM counterparts to such events.

  11. Probing neutrino masses with CMB lensing extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesgourgues, Julien; Perotto, Laurence; Pastor, Sergio; Piat, Michel

    2006-02-01

    We evaluate the ability of future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments to measure the power spectrum of large scale structure using quadratic estimators of the weak lensing deflection field. We calculate the sensitivity of upcoming CMB experiments such as BICEP, QUaD, BRAIN, ClOVER and Planck to the nonzero total neutrino mass Mν indicated by current neutrino oscillation data. We find that these experiments greatly benefit from lensing extraction techniques, improving their one-sigma sensitivity to Mν by a factor of order four. The combination of data from Planck and the SAMPAN mini-satellite project would lead to σ(Mν)˜0.1 eV, while a value as small as σ(Mν)˜0.035 eV is within the reach of a space mission based on bolometers with a passively cooled 3 4 m aperture telescope, representative of the most ambitious projects currently under investigation. We show that our results are robust not only considering possible difficulties in subtracting astrophysical foregrounds from the primary CMB signal but also when the minimal cosmological model (Λ Mixed Dark Matter) is generalized in order to include a possible scalar tilt running, a constant equation-of-state parameter for the dark energy and/or extra relativistic degrees of freedom.

  12. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.; Salinari, Piero

    1998-08-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Project is a collaboration between institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, and Ohio. With the addition of the partners from Ohio State and Germany in February 1997, the Large Binocular Telescope Corporation has the funding required to build the full telescope populated with both 8.4 meter optical trans. The first of two 8.4 meter borosilicate honeycomb primary mirrors for LBT was cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in 1997. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes adaptive infrared secondaries of a Gregorian design. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage the two folded Gregorian focal planes to three central locations. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance were important drivers for the design of the telescope in order to provide the best possible images for interferometric observations. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure was completed in 1997 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). A series of contracts for the fabrication and machining of the telescope structure had been placed at the end of 1997. The final enclosure design was completed at M3 Engineering & Technology (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia. During 1997, the telescope pier and the concrete ring wall for the rotating enclosure were completed along with the steel structure of the fixed portion of the enclosure. The erection of the steel structure for the rotating portion of the enclosure will begin in the Spring of 1998.

  13. Neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    Neutrinos play a crucial role in many aspects of astrophysics and cosmology. Since they control the electron fraction, or equivalently neutron-to-proton ratio, neutrino properties impact yields of r-process nucleosynthesis. Similarly the weak decoupling temperature in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis epoch is exponentially dependent on the neutron-to-proton ratio. In these conference proceedings, I briefly summarize some of the recent work exploring the role of neutrinos in astrophysics and cosmology.

  14. An Overview of Neutrino Mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, G.

    2013-08-01

    We present a concise review of the recent important experimental developments on neutrino mixing (hints for sterile neutrinos, large θ13, possible non maximal θ23, approaching sensitivity on δ) and their implications on models of neutrino mixing. The new data disfavour many models but the surviving ones still span a wide range going from Anarchy (no structure, no symmetry in the lepton sector) to a maximum of symmetry, as for the models based on discrete non-abelian flavour groups.

  15. Future of Neutrino Interaction Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terri, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Neutrino-nucleus cross sections are one of the dominant sources of systematic errors in long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. To achieve the goals of precision measurements of the mixing angles and difference of the mass eigenstates squared, and discover the mass hierarchy and CP-violating phase, the underlying neutrino interactions must be better understood. This poster will mention some recent improvements in models in the interaction generators as well as some possible future improvements for proposed experiments.

  16. Neutrino Oscillograms of the Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, Alexei Yu.

    2008-04-16

    Oscillograms are 'neutrino portraits' of the Earth. They encode unique information about the Earth interior and provide a comprehensive description of neutrino oscillation phenomena. I will explain the physical effects involved and the structure of the oscillograms. Dependence of the oscillograms on neutrino parameters, in particular, on the currently unknown q1-3, mixing and CP-violation phase will be considered. A program of measurements of the oscillograms will be outlined.

  17. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  18. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  19. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O(1021) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  20. Astrophysical and cosmological constraints to neutrino properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.; Schramm, David N.; Turner, Michael S.

    1989-01-01

    The astrophysical and cosmological constraints on neutrino properties (masses, lifetimes, numbers of flavors, etc.) are reviewed. The freeze out of neutrinos in the early Universe are discussed and then the cosmological limits on masses for stable neutrinos are derived. The freeze out argument coupled with observational limits is then used to constrain decaying neutrinos as well. The limits to neutrino properties which follow from SN1987A are then reviewed. The constraint from the big bang nucleosynthesis on the number of neutrino flavors is also considered. Astrophysical constraints on neutrino-mixing as well as future observations of relevance to neutrino physics are briefly discussed.

  1. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shibagaki, S.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-01

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes 7Li, 11B, 92Nb, 138La and 180Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ13, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements 11B and 7Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  2. Neutrino clouds and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, T.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Stephenson, G.J. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    We have examined the consequences of assuming the existence of a light scalar boson, weakly coupled to neutrinos, and not coupled to any other light fermions. For a range of parameters, we find that this hypothesis leads to the development of neutrino clusters which form in the early Universe and which provide gravitational fluctuations on scales small compared to a parsec (i.e., the scale of solar systems). Under some conditions, this can produce anomalous gravitational acceleration within solar systems and lead to a vanishing of neutrino mass-squared differences, giving rise to strong neutrino oscillation effects.

  3. Supernova neutrinos and explosive nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajino, T.; Aoki, W.; Cheoun, M.-K.; Hayakawa, T.; Hidaka, J.; Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S.; Mathews, G. J.; Nakamura, K.; Suzuki, T.

    2014-05-09

    Core-collapse supernovae eject huge amount of flux of energetic neutrinos. We studied the explosive nucleosyn-thesis in supernovae and found that several isotopes {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta as well as r-process nuclei are affected by the neutrino interactions. The abundance of these isotopes therefore depends strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. We discuss first how to determine the neutrino temperatures in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. We then study the effects of neutrino oscillation on their abundances, and propose a novel method to determine the still unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, mass hierarchy and θ{sub 13}, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced light elements {sup 11}B and {sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13}, we show that our method sug-gests at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. Finally, we discuss supernova relic neutrinos that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter as well as adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.

  4. Neutrino pion production off deuteron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhrer, F.; Pastore, S.

    2016-03-01

    Experimental investigations of neutrino properties, using neutrino beams generated at accelerators facilities, necessitate a detailed and precise knowledge of neutrinonucleus reaction mechanisms. In the energy region of nuclear quasi-elastic scattering, pion-production reactions constitute an important background process. A theoretical understanding of these processes is then required in order to correctly determine the produced neutrino energy spectrum. In the first stage of our research project, we study neutrino induced pion-production off deuterons. The choice of the deuteron minimizes the complications of the nuclear dynamics associated with larger nuclear systems. We evaluate the pion-production reaction near threshold using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory.

  5. Magnus approximation in neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acero, Mario A.; Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A.; D'Olivo, J. C.

    2011-04-01

    Oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos remain as an open possibility to explain some anomalous experimental observations. In a four-neutrino (three active plus one sterile) mixing scheme, we use the Magnus expansion of the evolution operator to study the evolution of neutrino flavor amplitudes within the Earth. We apply this formalism to calculate the transition probabilities from active to sterile neutrinos with energies of the order of a few GeV, taking into account the matter effect for a varying terrestrial density.

  6. MINOS atmospheric neutrino contained events

    SciTech Connect

    Habig, A.; /Minnesota U.

    2007-10-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) experiment has continued to collect atmospheric neutrino events while doing a precision measurement of NuMI beam {nu}{sub {mu}} disappearance oscillations. The 5.4 kton iron calorimeter is magnetized to provide the unique capability of discriminating between {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} interactions on an event-by-event basis and has been collecting atmospheric neutrino data since July 2003. An analysis of the neutrino events with interaction vertices contained inside the detector will be presented.

  7. Prospecting with neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    One of the latest attempts to explore the interface between physics and geophysics is the extravagant scheme of Alvaro De Rújula, Sheldon Glashow, Robert Wilson, and Georges Charpak, to be published in Physics Reports. In what these theoretical and experimental physicists described recently as “our mad project” (Physics Today, August 1983), a high-energy neutrino beam is to be used as a geophysical prospecting tool.The beam would be able to look for oil, natural gas, and high-atomic-number metal ores, and it would be able to profile the vertical density distribution of the earth. De Rújula et al. come to this project from the world of big physics machines, so it is natural to expect that the “Geotron,” the field instrument to supply and focus the neutrino beam, is to be big also.

  8. The Enigmatic Neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, Don; Miceli, Tia

    2015-09-01

    Through a century of work, physicists have refined a model to describe all fundamental particles, the forces they share, and their interactions on a microscopic scale. This masterpiece of science is called the Standard Model. While this theory is incredibly powerful, we know of at least one particle that exhibits behaviors that are outside of its scope and remain unexplained. These particles are called neutrinos and they are the enigmatic ghosts of the quantum world. Interacting only via the weak nuclear force, literally billions of them pass through you undetected every second. While we understand that particular spooky behavior, we do not understand in any fundamental way how it is that neutrinos can literally change their identity, much as if a house cat could turn into a lion and then a tiger before transitioning back into a house cat again.

  9. Detecting extra-galactic supernova neutrinos in the Antarctic ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böser, Sebastian; Kowalski, Marek; Schulte, Lukas; Strotjohann, Nora Linn; Voge, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Building on the technological success of the IceCube neutrino telescope, we outline a prospective low-energy extension that utilizes the clear ice of the South Pole. Aiming at a 10 Mton effective volume and a 10 MeV threshold, the detector would provide sufficient sensitivity to detect neutrino bursts from core-collapse supernovae (SNe) in nearby galaxies. The detector geometry and required density of instrumentation are discussed along with the requirements to control the various sources of background, such as solar neutrinos. In particular, the suppression of spallation events induced by atmospheric muons poses a challenge that will need to be addressed. Assuming this background can be controlled, we find that the resulting detector will be able to detect SNe from beyond 10 Mpc, delivering between 10 and 41 regular core-collapse SN detections per decade. It would further allow to study more speculative phenomena, such as optically dark (failed) SNe, where the collapse proceeds directly to a black hole, at a detection rate similar to that of regular SNe. We find that the biggest technological challenge lies in the required number of large area photo-sensors, with simultaneous strict limits on the allowed noise rates. If both can be realized, the detector concept we present will reach the required sensitivity with a comparatively small construction effort and hence offers a route to future routine observations of SNe with neutrinos.

  10. Probing the Dark Matter mass and nature with neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, Mattias; Carrigan, Marcus; Martinez, Enrique Fernandez E-mail: carri@kth.se

    2013-06-01

    We study the possible indirect neutrino signal from dark matter annihilations inside the Sun's core for relatively light dark matter masses in the O(10) GeV range. Due to their excellent energy reconstruction capabilities, we focus on the detection of this flux in liquid argon or magnetized iron calorimeter detectors, proposed for the next generation of far detectors of neutrino oscillation experiments and neutrino telescopes. The aim of the study is to probe the ability of these detectors to determine fundamental properties of the dark matter nature such as its mass or its relative annihilation branching fractions to different channels. We find that these detectors will be able to accurately measure the dark matter mass as long as the dark matter annihilations have a significant branching into the neutrino or at least the τ channel. We have also discovered degeneracies between different dark matter masses and annihilation channels, where a hard τ channel spectrum for a lower dark matter mass may mimic that of a softer quark channel spectrum for a larger dark matter mass. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the detectors to the different branching ratios and find that it is between one and two orders of magnitude better than the current bounds from those coming from analysis of Super-Kamiokande data.

  11. Searches for Sterile Neutrinos with the IceCube Detector.

    PubMed

    Aartsen, M G; Abraham, K; Ackermann, M; Adams, J; Aguilar, J A; Ahlers, M; Ahrens, M; Altmann, D; Andeen, K; Anderson, T; Ansseau, I; Anton, G; Archinger, M; Argüelles, C; Arlen, T C; Auffenberg, J; Axani, S; Bai, X; Barwick, S W; Baum, V; Bay, R; Beatty, J J; Becker Tjus, J; Becker, K-H; BenZvi, S; Berghaus, P; Berley, D; Bernardini, E; Bernhard, A; Besson, D Z; Binder, G; Bindig, D; Blaufuss, E; Blot, S; Boersma, D J; Bohm, C; Börner, M; Bos, F; Bose, D; Böser, S; Botner, O; Braun, J; Brayeur, L; Bretz, H-P; Burgman, A; Casey, J; Casier, M; Cheung, E; Chirkin, D; Christov, A; Clark, K; Classen, L; Coenders, S; Collin, G H; Conrad, J M; Cowen, D F; Cruz Silva, A H; Daughhetee, J; Davis, J C; Day, M; de André, J P A M; De Clercq, C; Del Pino Rosendo, E; Dembinski, H; De Ridder, S; Desiati, P; de Vries, K D; de Wasseige, G; de With, M; DeYoung, T; Díaz-Vélez, J C; di Lorenzo, V; Dujmovic, H; Dumm, J P; Dunkman, M; Eberhardt, B; Ehrhardt, T; Eichmann, B; Euler, S; Evenson, P A; Fahey, S; Fazely, A R; Feintzeig, J; Felde, J; Filimonov, K; Finley, C; Flis, S; Fösig, C-C; Fuchs, T; Gaisser, T K; Gaior, R; Gallagher, J; Gerhardt, L; Ghorbani, K; Giang, W; Gladstone, L; Glüsenkamp, T; Goldschmidt, A; Golup, G; Gonzalez, J G; Góra, D; Grant, D; Griffith, Z; Haj Ismail, A; Hallgren, A; Halzen, F; Hansen, E; Hanson, K; Hebecker, D; Heereman, D; Helbing, K; Hellauer, R; Hickford, S; Hignight, J; Hill, G C; Hoffman, K D; Hoffmann, R; Holzapfel, K; Homeier, A; Hoshina, K; Huang, F; Huber, M; Huelsnitz, W; Hultqvist, K; In, S; Ishihara, A; Jacobi, E; Japaridze, G S; Jeong, M; Jero, K; Jones, B J P; Jurkovic, M; Kappes, A; Karg, T; Karle, A; Katz, U; Kauer, M; Keivani, A; Kelley, J L; Kheirandish, A; Kim, M; Kintscher, T; Kiryluk, J; Kittler, T; Klein, S R; Kohnen, G; Koirala, R; Kolanoski, H; Köpke, L; Kopper, C; Kopper, S; Koskinen, D J; Kowalski, M; Krings, K; Kroll, M; Krückl, G; Krüger, C; Kunnen, J; Kunwar, S; Kurahashi, N; Kuwabara, T; Labare, M; Lanfranchi, J L; Larson, M J; Lennarz, D; Lesiak-Bzdak, M; Leuermann, M; Lu, L; Lünemann, J; Madsen, J; Maggi, G; Mahn, K B M; Mancina, S; Mandelartz, M; Maruyama, R; Mase, K; Maunu, R; McNally, F; Meagher, K; Medici, M; Meier, M; Meli, A; Menne, T; Merino, G; Meures, T; Miarecki, S; Middell, E; Mohrmann, L; Montaruli, T; Moulai, M; Nahnhauer, R; Naumann, U; Neer, G; Niederhausen, H; Nowicki, S C; Nygren, D R; Obertacke Pollmann, A; Olivas, A; Omairat, A; O'Murchadha, A; Palczewski, T; Pandya, H; Pankova, D V; Pepper, J A; Pérez de Los Heros, C; Pfendner, C; Pieloth, D; Pinat, E; Posselt, J; Price, P B; Przybylski, G T; Quinnan, M; Raab, C; Rameez, M; Rawlins, K; Relich, M; Resconi, E; Rhode, W; Richman, M; Riedel, B; Robertson, S; Rott, C; Ruhe, T; Ryckbosch, D; Rysewyk, D; Sabbatini, L; Salvado, J; Sanchez Herrera, S E; Sandrock, A; Sandroos, J; Sarkar, S; Satalecka, K; Schlunder, P; Schmidt, T; Schöneberg, S; Schönwald, A; Seckel, D; Seunarine, S; Soldin, D; Song, M; Spiczak, G M; Spiering, C; Stamatikos, M; Stanev, T; Stasik, A; Steuer, A; Stezelberger, T; Stokstad, R G; Stößl, A; Ström, R; Strotjohann, N L; Sullivan, G W; Sutherland, M; Taavola, H; Taboada, I; Tatar, J; Ter-Antonyan, S; Terliuk, A; Tešić, G; Tilav, S; Toale, P A; Tobin, M N; Toscano, S; Tosi, D; Tselengidou, M; Turcati, A; Unger, E; Usner, M; Vallecorsa, S; Vandenbroucke, J; van Eijndhoven, N; Vanheule, S; van Rossem, M; van Santen, J; Veenkamp, J; Voge, M; Vraeghe, M; Walck, C; Wallace, A; Wandkowsky, N; Weaver, Ch; Wendt, C; Westerhoff, S; Whelan, B J; Wiebe, K; Wille, L; Williams, D R; Wills, L; Wissing, H; Wolf, M; Wood, T R; Woolsey, E; Woschnagg, K; Xu, D L; Xu, X W; Xu, Y; Yanez, J P; Yodh, G; Yoshida, S; Zoll, M

    2016-08-12

    The IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole has measured the atmospheric muon neutrino spectrum as a function of zenith angle and energy in the approximate 320 GeV to 20 TeV range, to search for the oscillation signatures of light sterile neutrinos. No evidence for anomalous ν_{μ} or ν[over ¯]_{μ} disappearance is observed in either of two independently developed analyses, each using one year of atmospheric neutrino data. New exclusion limits are placed on the parameter space of the 3+1 model, in which muon antineutrinos experience a strong Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-resonant oscillation. The exclusion limits extend to sin^{2}2θ_{24}≤0.02 at Δm^{2}∼0.3  eV^{2} at the 90% confidence level. The allowed region from global analysis of appearance experiments, including LSND and MiniBooNE, is excluded at approximately the 99% confidence level for the global best-fit value of |U_{e4}|^{2}. PMID:27563950

  12. Transducer Development and Characterization for Underwater Acoustic Neutrino Detection Calibration.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, María; Llorens, Carlos D; Felis, Ivan; Martínez-Mora, Juan Antonio; Ardid, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    A short bipolar pressure pulse with "pancake" directivity is produced and propagated when an Ultra-High Energy (UHE) neutrino interacts with a nucleus in water. Nowadays, acoustic sensor networks are being deployed in deep seas to detect this phenomenon as a first step toward building a neutrino telescope. In order to study the feasibility of the method, it is critical to have a calibrator that is able to mimic the neutrino signature. In previous works the possibility of using the acoustic parametric technique for this aim was proven. In this study, the array is operated at a high frequency and, by means of the parametric effect, the emission of the low-frequency acoustic bipolar pulse is generated mimicking the UHE neutrino acoustic pulse. To this end, the development of the transducer to be used in the parametric array is described in all its phases. The transducer design process, the characterization tests for the bare piezoelectric ceramic, and the addition of backing and matching layers are presented. The efficiencies and directivity patterns obtained for both primary and parametric beams confirm that the design of the proposed calibrator meets all the requirements for the emitter. PMID:27490547

  13. Searches for Sterile Neutrinos with the IceCube Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Argüelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Salvado, J.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    The IceCube neutrino telescope at the South Pole has measured the atmospheric muon neutrino spectrum as a function of zenith angle and energy in the approximate 320 GeV to 20 TeV range, to search for the oscillation signatures of light sterile neutrinos. No evidence for anomalous νμ or ν¯μ disappearance is observed in either of two independently developed analyses, each using one year of atmospheric neutrino data. New exclusion limits are placed on the parameter space of the 3 +1 model, in which muon antineutrinos experience a strong Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein-resonant oscillation. The exclusion limits extend to sin22 θ24≤0.02 at Δ m2˜0.3 eV2 at the 90% confidence level. The allowed region from global analysis of appearance experiments, including LSND and MiniBooNE, is excluded at approximately the 99% confidence level for the global best-fit value of |Ue 4 |2 .

  14. Two Easily Made Astronomical Telescopes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.; Jacobs, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    The directions and diagrams for making a reflecting telescope and a refracting telescope are presented. These telescopes can be made by students out of plumbing parts and easily obtainable, inexpensive, optical components. (KR)

  15. Birth of Neutrino Astrophysics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Based mainly on the results of two experiments, KamiokaNDE and Super-KamiokaNDE, the birth of neutrino astrophysics will be described. At the end, the result of the third generation Kamioka experiment, KamLAND, will be discussed together with the future possibilities.Organiser(s): Daniel Treille / EP DivisionNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00 hrs. Please note unusual day.

  16. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Walter, Chris [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States

    2010-01-08

    In this talk, I will review how a set of experiments in the last decade has given us our current understanding of neutrino properties.  I will show how experiments in the last year or two have clarified this picture, and will discuss how new experiments about to start will address remaining questions.  I will particularly emphasize the relationship between various experimental techniques.

  17. Birth of Neutrino Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-07

    Based mainly on the results of two experiments, KamiokaNDE and Super-KamiokaNDE, the birth of neutrino astrophysics will be described. At the end, the result of the third generation Kamioka experiment, KamLAND, will be discussed together with the future possibilities.Organiser(s): Daniel Treille / EP DivisionNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00 hrs. Please note unusual day.

  18. Neutrinos and flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Tanimoto, Morimitsu

    2015-07-15

    We discuss the recent progress of flavor models with the non-Abelian discrete symmetry in the lepton sector focusing on the θ{sub 13} and CP violating phase. In both direct approach and indirect approach of the flavor symmetry, the non-vanishing θ{sub 13} is predictable. The flavor symmetry with the generalised CP symmetry can also predicts the CP violating phase. We show the phenomenological analyses of neutrino mixing for the typical flavor models.

  19. Natural Neutrino Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gurwich, Ilya

    2010-06-23

    1 construct a general description for neutrino dark energy models, that do not require exotic particles or strange couplings. With the help of the above, this class of models is reduced to a single function with several constraints. It is shown that these models lead to some concrete predictions that can be verified (or disproved) within the next decade, using results from PLANK, EUCLID and JDEM.

  20. The large binocular telescope.

    PubMed

    Hill, John M

    2010-06-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Observatory is a collaboration among institutions in Arizona, Germany, Italy, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, and Virginia. The telescope on Mount Graham in Southeastern Arizona uses two 8.4 m diameter primary mirrors mounted side by side. A unique feature of the LBT is that the light from the two Gregorian telescope sides can be combined to produce phased-array imaging of an extended field. This cophased imaging along with adaptive optics gives the telescope the diffraction-limited resolution of a 22.65 m aperture and a collecting area equivalent to an 11.8 m circular aperture. This paper describes the design, construction, and commissioning of this unique telescope. We report some sample astronomical results with the prime focus cameras. We comment on some of the technical challenges and solutions. The telescope uses two F/15 adaptive secondaries to correct atmospheric turbulence. The first of these adaptive mirrors has completed final system testing in Firenze, Italy, and is planned to be at the telescope by Spring 2010. PMID:20517352

  1. The GREGOR Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lagg, A.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luehe, O.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope is a new facility for high-resolution observations of the Sun. The telescope is located at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The telescope incorporates advanced designs for a foldable-tent dome, an open steel-truss telescope structure, and active and passive means to minimize telescope and mirror seeing. Solar fine structure can be observed with a dedicated suite of instruments: a broad-band imaging system, the "GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer", and the "Grating Infrared Spectrograph". All post-focus instruments benefit from a high-order (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics system, which enables observations close to the diffraction limit of the telescope. The inclusion of a spectrograph for stellar activity studies and the search for solar twins expands the scientific usage of the GREGOR to the nighttime domain. We report on the successful commissioning of the telescope until the end of 2011 and the first steps towards science verification in 2012.

  2. Small neutrino masses from gravitational θ -term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Funcke, Lena

    2016-06-01

    We present how a neutrino condensate and small neutrino masses emerge from a topological formulation of gravitational anomaly. We first recapitulate how a gravitational θ -term leads to the emergence of a new bound neutrino state analogous to the η' meson of QCD. Then we show the consequent formation of a neutrino vacuum condensate, which effectively generates small neutrino masses. Afterwards we outline numerous phenomenological consequences of our neutrino mass generation model. The cosmological neutrino mass bound vanishes since we predict the neutrinos to be massless until the phase transition in the late Universe, T ˜meV . Coherent radiation of new light particles in the neutrino sector can be detected in prospective precision experiments. Deviations from an equal flavor rate due to enhanced neutrino decays in extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes can be observed in future IceCube data. These neutrino decays may also necessitate modified analyses of the original neutrino spectra of the supernova SN 1987A. The current cosmological neutrino background only consists of the lightest neutrinos, which, due to enhanced neutrino-neutrino interactions, either bind up, form a superfluid, or completely annihilate into massless bosons. Strongly coupled relic neutrinos could provide a contribution to cold dark matter in the late Universe, together with the new proposed particles and topological defects, which may have formed during neutrino condensation. These enhanced interactions could also be a source of relic neutrino clustering in our Galaxy, which possibly makes the overdense cosmic neutrino background detectable in the KATRIN experiment. The neutrino condensate provides a mass for the hypothetical B -L gauge boson, leading to a gravity-competing force detectable in short-distance measurements. Prospective measurements of the polarization intensities of gravitational waves can falsify our neutrino mass generation model.

  3. Neutrino Geophysics Conference Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Learned, John G.; Dye, Stephen T.; Pakvasa, Sandip

    2006-12-01

    Long distance detection of electron anti-neutrinos from reactors at distances of order 200 km has been achieved with the 1000 ton liquid scintillator-based KamLAND instrument in Japan. In summer 2005 the KamLAND group reported the first detection of anti-neutrinos from the natural radioactivity of the earth. These measurements are due to uranium and thorium decays dominantly from the nearby crust in Japan, and are expected to have only a small contribution from the earth’s mantle (and core). Several new detectors are under consideration around the world for measurements which when taken together can reveal the location of these heavy elements, which are expected to contribute a major share of the internal earth’s heating via their radioactivity. This heating is of course associated with providing the power to drive the geomagnetic field and plate tectonics. Geologists have only indirect evidence about the deep earth, mostly from seismic wave velocity and inferences from a few meteorites. Anti-neutrino detection, on the other hand, yields direct information about earth’s interior. The location and magnitude of the earth’s uranium and thorium are crucial to understanding the origin and evolution of the earth and present day activity.

  4. Neutrino Oscillations:. Hierarchy Question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, D. J.; Cogswell, B. K.; Burroughs, H. R.; Escamilla-Roa, J.; Latimer, D. L.

    2014-09-01

    The only experimentally observed phenomenon that lies outside the standard model of the electroweak interaction is neutrino oscillations. A way to try to unify the extensive neutrino oscillation data is to add a phenomenological mass term to the Lagrangian that is not diagonal in the flavor basis. The goal is then to understand the world's data in terms of the parameters of the mixing matrix and the differences between the squares of the masses of the neutrinos. An outstanding question is what is the correct ordering of the masses, the hierarchy question. We point out a broken symmetry relevant to this question, the symmetry of the simultaneous interchange of hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We first present the results of an analysis of data that well determine the phenomenological parameters but are not sensitive to the hierarchy. We find θ13 = 0.152±0.014, θ 23 = 0.25{ - 0.05}{ + 0.03} π and Δ32 = 2.45±0.14×10-3 eV2, results consistent with others. We then include data that are sensitive to the hierarchy and the sign of θ13. We find, unlike others, four isolated minimum in the χ2-space as predicted by the symmetry. Now that Daya Bay and RENO have determined θ13 to be surprisingly large, the Super-K atmospheric data produce meaningful symmetry breaking such that the inverse hierarchy is preferred at the 97.2 % level.

  5. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D. J.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables ``boxes'' because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the CP- or T-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the CP- or T-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that CP violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n>=3 flavors.

  6. Boxing with neutrino oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, D.J.; Weiler, T.J.

    1999-06-01

    We develop a characterization of neutrino oscillations based on the coefficients of the oscillating terms. These coefficients are individually observable; although they are quartic in the elements of the unitary mixing matrix, they are independent of the conventions chosen for the angle and phase parametrization of the mixing matrix. We call these reparametrization-invariant observables {open_quotes}boxes{close_quotes} because of their geometric relation to the mixing matrix, and because of their association with the Feynman box diagram that describes oscillations in field theory. The real parts of the boxes are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-even oscillation modes, while the imaginary parts are the coefficients for the {ital CP}- or {ital T}-odd oscillation modes. Oscillation probabilities are linear in the boxes, so measurements can straightforwardly determine values for the boxes (which can then be manipulated to yield magnitudes of mixing matrix elements). We examine the effects of unitarity on the boxes and discuss the reduction of the number of boxes to a minimum basis set. For the three-generation case, we explicitly construct the basis. Using the box algebra, we show that {ital CP} violation may be inferred from measurements of neutrino flavor mixing even when the oscillatory factors have averaged. The framework presented here will facilitate general analyses of neutrino oscillations among n{ge}3 flavors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Telescopic vision contact lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Eric J.; Beer, R. Dirk; Arianpour, Ashkan; Ford, Joseph E.

    2011-03-01

    We present the concept, optical design, and first proof of principle experimental results for a telescopic contact lens intended to become a visual aid for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), providing magnification to the user without surgery or external head-mounted optics. Our contact lens optical system can provide a combination of telescopic and non-magnified vision through two independent optical paths through the contact lens. The magnified optical path incorporates a telescopic arrangement of positive and negative annular concentric reflectors to achieve 2.8x - 3x magnification on the eye, while light passing through a central clear aperture provides unmagnified vision.

  8. Lear jet telescope system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Goorvitch, D.; Dix, M. G.; Hitchman, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The telescope system was designed as a multi-user facility for observations of celestial objects at infrared wavelengths, where ground-based observations are difficult or impossible due to the effects of telluric atmospheric absorption. The telescope is mounted in a Lear jet model 24B which typically permits 70 min. of observing per flight at altitudes in excess of 45,000 ft (13 km). Telescope system installation is discussed, along with appropriate setup and adjustment procedures. Operation of the guidance system is also explained, and checklists are provided which pertain to the recommended safe operating and in-flight trouble-shooting procedures for the equipment.

  9. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-02-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,0000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  10. Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the mission of the Hubble Space Telescope, a joint project between NASA and the European Space Agency which will be used to study deep space, as well as our solar system is presented. The video contains animations depicting the Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, as well as footage of scientists at the Space Telescope Science Institute making real time observations. The images Hubble acquires will be downloaded into a database that contains images of over 19,000,000 celestial objects called the Star Catalog.

  11. Ritchey-Chretien Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosin, S.; Amon, M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Ritchey-Chretien telescope is described which was designed to respond to images located off the optical axis by using two transparent flat plates positioned in the ray path of the image. The flat plates have a tilt angle relative to the ray path to compensate for astigmatism introduced by the telescope. The tilt angle of the plates is directly proportional to the off axis angle of the image. The plates have opposite inclination angles relative to the ray paths. A detector which is responsive to the optical image as transmitted through the plates is positioned approximately on the sagittal focus of the telescope.

  12. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genet, Russell M.; Genet, David R.; Talent, David L.; Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler P.; Boyd, Louis J.; Trueblood, Mark

    1992-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  13. Multi-use lunar telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Hine, Butler; Genet, Russell; Genet, David; Talent, David; Boyd, Louis; Trueblood, Mark; Filippenko, Alexei V. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of multi-use telescopes is to reduce the initial and operational costs of space telescopes to the point where a fair number of telescopes, a dozen or so, would be affordable. The basic approach is to develop a common telescope, control system, and power and communications subsystem that can be used with a wide variety of instrument payloads, i.e., imaging CCD cameras, photometers, spectrographs, etc. By having such a multi-use and multi-user telescope, a common practice for earth-based telescopes, development cost can be shared across many telescopes, and the telescopes can be produced in economical batches.

  14. Optical Confirmation of a Neutrino-Detected Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, L. J.; Roth, J.; Sky Publishing Corp. Team

    1999-12-01

    The next nearby supernova is likely to be first detected by neutrino observatories. At best, they will determine its position to within some tens of square degrees. Since the supernova has a 50:50 chance of being mv < 6, even at maximum, a thorough optical search for the putative star will almost certainly be needed. To aid in the immediate search for the supernova, Sky Publishing Corp. has established AstroAlert, a worldwide e-mail network of some 2,000 amateur and other small-telescope users. The announcement of a probable supernova will be made by the Supernova Neutrino Early Warning System and automatically forwarded to participants through AstroAlert. Details of the AstroAlert network will be described as well as protocols for validating the ``guest" star and obtaining its precise position.

  15. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; et al

    2016-06-10

    In muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ~10% due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We also isolated a sample of 135±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux frommore » 9% to 6%. Finally, our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.« less

  16. Neutrino mass and mixing: Summary of the neutrino sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    A great deal of experimental and theoretical effort is underway to use neutrinos as a probe for Physics Beyond the Standard Model. Most of these efforts center on the questions of the possible existence of non zero neutrino mass and mixing. Sessions at the Moriond conferences have dealt with these questions at most of the meetings during the last several years and this year was no exception. Presentations covering most of the current and planned research in this field were presented and discussed. Although there is, at present, no definitive evidence for a non zero neutrino mass and mixing, several unresolved problems (in particular solar neutrinos) do seem to be indicating the likely existence of new neutrino properties. It is likely that before the end of this decade, efforts now being initiated will be able to determine whether or not the hints we are now seeing are really due to new physics.

  17. Constraining neutrino superluminality from searches for sterile neutrino decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, D. S.; Nugaev, E. Ya.

    2012-07-01

    Superluminal neutrinos are expected to lose energy due to bremsstrahlung. It is dominated by e+e--pair production if kinematically allowed. The same signature was used in searches for 3-body decays of hypothetical heavy sterile neutrinos. From the published analyses of these searches performed by CERN PS191 and CHARM experiments we set upper limits on the neutrino velocity in the energy range from 0.2 GeV to 280 GeV. Our limits are well below the neutrino velocity favored by the recent OPERA results. For energy-independent neutrino velocity the limits obtained in this Letter are stronger than those coming from ICARUS experiment and observations of Supernova SN1987a.

  18. Measurement of neutrino flux from neutrino-electron elastic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Aliaga, L.; Altinok, O.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Cai, T.; Carneiro, M. F.; Christy, M. E.; Chvojka, J.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Eberly, B.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Ghosh, A.; Golan, T.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Higuera, A.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; McFarland, K. S.; McGivern, C. L.; McGowan, A. M.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Mislivec, A.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman; Osta, J.; Paolone, V.; Patrick, C. E.; Perdue, G. N.; Rakotondravohitra, L.; Ramirez, M. A.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Tagg, N.; Tice, B. G.; Valencia, E.; Walton, T.; Wolcott, J.; Wospakrik, M.; Zavala, G.; Zhang, D.; Miner ν A Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Muon-neutrino elastic scattering on electrons is an observable neutrino process whose cross section is precisely known. Consequently a measurement of this process in an accelerator-based νμ beam can improve the knowledge of the absolute neutrino flux impinging upon the detector; typically this knowledge is limited to ˜10 % due to uncertainties in hadron production and focusing. We have isolated a sample of 135 ±17 neutrino-electron elastic scattering candidates in the segmented scintillator detector of MINERvA, after subtracting backgrounds and correcting for efficiency. We show how this sample can be used to reduce the total uncertainty on the NuMI νμ flux from 9% to 6%. Our measurement provides a flux constraint that is useful to other experiments using the NuMI beam, and this technique is applicable to future neutrino beams operating at multi-GeV energies.

  19. Composite Space Telescope Truss

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA engineers are recycling an idea for a lightweight, compact space telescope structure from the early 1990s. The 315 struts and 84 nodes were originally designed to enable spacewalking astronaut...

  20. Hubble Space Telescope Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph is a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of a sky full of glittering jewels. The HST peered into the Sagittarius star cloud, a narrow dust free region, providing this spectacular glimpse of a treasure chest full of stars.

  1. Webb Telescope: Planetary Evolution

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stars and planets form in the dark, inside vast, cold clouds of gas and dust. The James Webb Space Telescope's large mirror and infrared sensitivity will let astronomers peer inside dusty knots whe...

  2. Building a Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linas, Chris F.

    1988-01-01

    Provides information on the parts, materials, prices, dimensions, and tools needed for the construction of a telescope that can be used in high school science laboratories. Includes step-by-step directions and a diagram for assembly. (RT)

  3. Telescopes and space exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandt, J. C.; Maran, S. P.

    1982-01-01

    Progress in contemporary astronomy and astrophysics is shown to depend on complementary investigations with sensitive telescopes operating in several wavelength regions, some of which can be on the Earth's surface and others of which must be in space.

  4. Large Binocular Telescope Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, John M.

    1997-03-01

    The large binocular telescope (LBT) project have evolved from concepts first proposed in 1985. The present partners involved in the design and construction of this 2 by 8.4 meter binocular telescope are the University of Arizona, Italy represented by the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and the Research Corporation based in Tucson, Arizona. These three partners have committed sufficient funds to build the enclosure and the telescope populated with a single 8.4 meter optical train -- approximately 40 million dollars (1989). Based on this commitment, design and construction activities are now moving forward. Additional partners are being sought. The next mirror to be cast at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab in the fall of 1996 will be the first borosilicate honeycomb primary for LBT. The baseline optical configuration of LBT includes wide field Cassegrain secondaries with optical foci above the primaries to provide a corrected one degree field at F/4. The infrared F/15 secondaries are a Gregorian design to allow maximum flexibility for adaptive optics. The F/15 secondaries are undersized to provide a low thermal background focal plane which is unvignetted over a 4 arcminute diameter field-of-view. The interferometric focus combining the light from the two 8.4 meter primaries will reimage two folded Gregorian focal planes to a central location. The telescope elevation structure accommodates swing arms which allow rapid interchange of the various secondary and tertiary mirrors. Maximum stiffness and minimal thermal disturbance continue to be important drivers for the detailed design of the telescope. The telescope structure accommodates installation of a vacuum bell jar for aluminizing the primary mirrors in-situ on the telescope. The detailed design of the telescope structure will be completed in 1996 by ADS Italia (Lecco) and European Industrial Engineering (Mestre). The final enclosure design is now in progress at M3 Engineering (Tucson), EIE and ADS Italia

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This image illustrates the overall Hubble Space Telescope (HST) configuration. The HST is the product of a partnership between NASA, European Space Agency Contractors, and the international community of astronomers. It is named after Edwin P. Hubble, an American Astronomer who discovered the expanding nature of the universe and was the first to realize the true nature of galaxies. The purpose of the HST, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, is to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit. By placing the telescope in space, astronomers are able to collect data that is free of the Earth's atmosphere. The HST detects objects 25 times fainter than the dimmest objects seen from Earth and provides astronomers with an observable universe 250 times larger than visible from ground-based telescopes, perhaps as far away as 14 billion light-years. The HST views galaxies, stars, planets, comets, possibly other solar systems, and even unusual phenomena such as quasars, with 10 times the clarity of ground-based telescopes. The major elements of the HST are the Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA), the Support System Module (SSM), and the Scientific Instruments (SI). The HST is approximately the size of a railroad car, with two cylinders joined together and wrapped in a silvery reflective heat shield blanket. Wing-like solar arrays extend horizontally from each side of these cylinders, and dish-shaped anternas extend above and below the body of the telescope. The HST was deployed from the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31 mission) into Earth orbit in April 1990. The Marshall Space Flight Center had responsibility for design, development, and construction of the HST. The Perkin-Elmer Corporation, in Danbury, Connecticut, developed the optical system and guidance sensors. The Lockheed Missile and Space Company of Sunnyvale, California produced the protective outer shroud and spacecraft systems, and assembled and tested the finished telescope.

  6. Optical tracking telescope compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbart, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    In order to minimize the effects of parameter variations in the dynamics of an optical tracking telescope, a model referenced parameter adaptive control system is described that - in conjunction with more traditional forms of compensation - achieves a reduction of rms pointing error by more than a factor of six. The adaptive compensation system utilizes open loop compensation, closed loop compensation, and model reference compensation to provide the precise input to force telescope axis velocity to follow the ideal velocity.

  7. LISA Telescope Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) for the detection of Gravitational Waves is a very long baseline interferometer which will measure the changes in the distance of a five million kilometer arm to picometer accuracies. As with any optical system, even one with such very large separations between the transmitting and receiving, telescopes, a sensitivity analysis should be performed to see how, in this case, the far field phase varies when the telescope parameters change as a result of small temperature changes.

  8. Search for Neutrino-induced Cascades from Gamma-Ray Bursts with AMANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achterberg, A.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Ahrens, J.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bahcall, J. N.; Bai, X.; Baret, B.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Becka, T.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Braun, J.; Burgess, C.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Davour, A.; Day, C. T.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; De Young, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Filimonov, K.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Griesel, T.; Grullon, S.; Groß, A.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, D.; Hardtke, R.; Hart, J. E.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hauschildt, T.; Hays, D.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G. C.; Hodges, J.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hommez, B.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Hughey, B.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hundertmark, S.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Jones, A.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kawai, H.; Kelley, J. L.; Kitamura, N.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Leich, H.; Leier, D.; Liubarsky, I.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McCauley, T.; McParland, C. P.; Meli, A.; Messarius, T.; Mészáros, P.; Miyamoto, H.; Mokhtarani, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morey, A.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Ögelman, H.; Olivas, A.; Patton, S.; Peña-Garay, C.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Pretz, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Razzaque, S.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Robbins, S.; Roth, P.; Rott, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Smith, A. J.; Solarz, M.; Song, C.; Sopher, J. E.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Steffen, P.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sumner, T. J.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Viscomi, V.; Voigt, B.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Waldmann, H.; Walter, M.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wendt, C.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zornoza, J. D.

    2007-07-01

    Using the neutrino telescope AMANDA-II, we have conducted two analyses searching for neutrino-induced cascades from gamma-ray bursts. No evidence of astrophysical neutrinos was found, and limits are presented for several models. We also present neutrino effective areas which allow the calculation of limits for any neutrino production model. The first analysis looked for a statistical excess of events within a sliding window of 1 or 100 s (for short and long burst classes, respectively) during the years 2001-2003. The resulting upper limit on the diffuse flux normalization times E2 for the Waxman-Bahcall model at 1 PeV is 1.6×10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (a factor of 120 above the theoretical prediction). For this search 90% of the neutrinos would fall in the energy range 50 TeV to 7 PeV. The second analysis looked for neutrino-induced cascades in coincidence with 73 bursts detected by BATSE in the year 2000. The resulting upper limit on the diffuse flux normalization times E2, also at 1 PeV, is 1.5×10-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 (a factor of 110 above the theoretical prediction) for the same energy range. The neutrino-induced cascade channel is complementary to the up-going muon channel. We comment on its advantages for searches of neutrinos from GRBs and its future use with IceCube.

  9. The Mystery of Neutrino Mixings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, Guido

    2013-07-01

    In the last years we have learnt a lot about neutrino masses and mixings. Neutrinos are not all massless but their masses are very small. Probably masses are small because neutrinos are Majorana particles with masses inversely proportional to the large scale M of lepton number (L) violation, which turns out to be compatible with the GUT scale. We have understood that there is no contradiction between large neutrino mixings and small quark mixings, even in the context of GUTs and that neutrino masses fit well in the SUSY GUT picture. Out of equilibrium decays with CP and L violation of heavy RH neutrinos can produce a B-L asymmetry, then converted near the weak scale by instantons into an amount of B asymmetry compatible with observations (baryogenesis via leptogenesis). It appears that active neutrinos are not a significant component of Dark Matter in the Universe. A long list of models have been formulated over the years to understand neutrino masses and mixings. With the continuous improvement of the data most of the models have been discarded by experiment. The surviving models still span a wide range going from a maximum of symmetry, with discrete non-abelian flavour groups, to the opposite extreme of anarchy.

  10. Solar Neutrinos, SNO and SNOLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, A. B.

    2007-06-01

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory has completed operation in its third phase with an array of neutron detectors in 1000 tonnes of heavy water and Cherenkov light detection 2 km underground in INCO's Creighton mine near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Data from the third phase is now being analyzed. In the first two phases of the project reported previously, the neutral current reaction on deuterium was used to determine the total flux of active neutrinos and the charged current reaction on deuterium provided a measure of the flux and energy spectrum of solar electron neutrinos. The flux of electron neutrinos was found to be only about one third of the total flux, providing clear evidence of neutrino flavour change. The total flux of active neutrinos was found to be in agreement with solar model calculations. The underground laboratory is being expanded to create an international facility known as SNOLAB that will be completed at the end of 2007. Proposed future experiments for the detection of lower energy solar neutrinos, geo-neutrinos, dark matter and double beta decay are described.

  11. Is There a Massive Neutrino?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selvin, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the question of whether "heavy" neutrinos really do exist based on the evidence supplied by four research groups. The implications of its existence on the disciplines of particle physics, astrophsyics, and cosmology are discussed. Background information on the different types of neutrinos is provided. (KR)

  12. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  13. The emergence of neutrino astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisser, Thomas K.

    2013-02-01

    This paper is a brief historical review of the quest to find neutrinos of extraterrestrial origin. In the context of the Victor Hess centenary, it is interesting to consider how the development of detectors for neutrinos from space relates to developments in cosmic-ray and particle physics over the same time span.

  14. Observation of geo-neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bonetti, S.; Avanzini, M. Buizza; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; Dalnoki-Veress, F.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; de Kerret, H.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fiorentini, G.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Joyce, M.; Kobychev, V. V.; Koshio, Y.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Leung, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Ricci, B.; Risso, P.; Romani, A.; Rountree, D.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.; Borexino Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    Geo-neutrinos, electron anti-neutrinos produced in β decays of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes in the Earth, are a unique direct probe of our planet's interior. We report the first observation at more than 3σ C.L. of geo-neutrinos, performed with the Borexino detector at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. Anti-neutrinos are detected through the neutron inverse β decay reaction. With a 252.6 ton yr fiducial exposure after all selection cuts, we detected 9.9+4.1-3.4(+14.6-8.2) geo-neutrino events, with errors corresponding to a 68.3% (99.73%) C.L. From the ln L profile, the statistical significance of the Borexino geo-neutrino observation corresponds to a 99.997% C.L. Our measurement of the geo-neutrinos rate is 3.9+1.6-1.3(+5.8-3.2) events/(100 ton yr). The observed prompt positron spectrum above 2.6 MeV is compatible with that expected from European nuclear reactors (mean base line of approximately 1000 km). Our measurement of reactor anti-neutrinos excludes the non-oscillation hypothesis at 99.60% C.L. This measurement rejects the hypothesis of an active geo-reactor in the Earth's core with a power above 3 TW at 95% C.L.

  15. Geo-neutrinos in SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M. C.

    2006-12-01

    There are plans to fill the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory with liquid scintillator after measurements with heavy water are completed. The new experiment, known as SNO+, would make an excellent detector for geo-neutrinos. SNO+ would be located amidst a thick and uniform region of continental crust, away from nuclear power reactors. As a result, the geo-neutrino signal to reactor background ratio in SNO+ will exceed that from previous measurements. Geo-neutrino measurements by SNO+ will shed light on the amount of uranium and thorium radioactivity in the crust, as well as deeper inside the Earth. Spectral information from SNO+ geo-neutrino detection will provide the first direct measurement of the U/Th ratio.

  16. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Mirizzi, A.; Montanino, D.; Serpico, P. D.

    2006-11-01

    The Sun is a source of high-energy neutrinos (E(greater-or-similar sign)10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged vacuum oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle {theta}{sub 23})

  17. GUT implications from neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Carl H. Albright

    2001-06-26

    An overview is given of the experimental neutrino mixing results and types of neutrino models proposed, with special attention to the general features of various GUT models involving intra-family symmetries and horizontal flavor symmetries. Many of the features are then illustrated by a specific SO (10) SUSY GUT model formulated by S.M. Barr and the author which can explain all four types of solar neutrino mixing solutions by various choices of the right-handed Majorana mass matrix. The quantitative nature of the model's large mixing angle solution is used to compare the reaches of a neutrino super beam and a neutrino factory for determining the small U{sub e3} mixing matrix element.

  18. Neutrinos Get Under Your Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, Boris

    2005-08-30

    The enigmatic neutrinos are among the most abundant of the tiny particles that make up our universe. They are a billion times more abundant than the particles of which the earth and we humans are made. Thus, to understand the universe, we must understand the neutrinos. Moving ghostlike, almost invisibly, through matter, these particles are very hard to pin down and study. However, dramatic progress has recently been made. In this lecture, the neutrinos will be introduced. Their behavior, so different from that of everyday objects, will be explained, and recent discoveries will be described. The open questions about neutrinos, forthcoming attempts to answer these questions, and the role of neutrinos in shaping the universe and making human life possible, will all be explained.

  19. Neutrino oscillation results from MINOS

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Alexandre; /Oxford U.

    2007-08-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) long-baseline experiment has been actively collecting beam data since 2005, having already accumulated 3 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target (POT). MINOS uses the Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) neutrino beam measured in two locations: at Fermilab, close to beam production, and 735 km downstream, in Northern Minnesota. By observing the oscillatory structure in the neutrino energy spectrum, MINOS can precisely measure the neutrino oscillation parameters in the atmospheric sector. These parameters were determined to be |{Delta}m{sub 32}{sup 2}| = 2.74{sub -0.26}{sup +0.44} x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2}/c{sup 4} and sin{sup 2}(2{theta}{sub 23}) > 0.87 (68% C.L.) from analysis of the first year of data, corresponding to 1.27 x 10{sup 20} POT.

  20. Theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Lunardini, Cecilia

    2015-07-15

    The theory and phenomenology of supernova neutrinos is reviewed, with focus on the most recent advancements on the neutrino flux predicted by supernova numerical models, on neutrino oscillations inside the star and in the Earth, and on the physics of the diffuse supernova neutrino background. Future directions of research are briefly summarized.

  1. Light sterile neutrinos: Status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunti, Carlo

    2016-07-01

    The indications in favor of the existence of light sterile neutrinos at the eV scale found in short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments is reviewed. The future perspectives of short-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments and the connections with β-decay measurements of the neutrino masses and with neutrinoless double-β decay experiments are discussed.

  2. Thermodynamic Laws of Neutrino and Photon Emission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, P. J.; Gallo, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    Compares neutrino and photon emissions, develops the thermodynamic blackbody laws of neutrino emission analogous to laws governing photon emission, points out that combined radiation from a "true blackbody" consists of both photon and neutrino emissions of comparable magnitude, and speculates upon the existence of blackbody neutrino emitters in…

  3. Neutrino mass models and CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Joshipura, Anjan S.

    2011-10-06

    Theoretical ideas on the origin of (a) neutrino masses (b) neutrino mass hierarchies and (c) leptonic mixing angles are reviewed. Topics discussed include (1) symmetries of neutrino mass matrix and their origin (2) ways to understand the observed patterns of leptonic mixing angles and (3)unified description of neutrino masses and mixing angles in grand unified theories.

  4. The Multiple-Mirror Telescope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carleton, Nathaniel P.; Hoffmann, William F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the basic design and principle of operating an optical-infrared telescope, the MMT. This third largest telescope in the world represents a new stage in telescope design; it uses a cluster of six reflecting telescopes, and relies on an automatic sensing and control system. (GA)

  5. IceCube Sensitivity for Low-Energy Neutrinos from Nearby Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatikos, M.; Abbasi, R.; Berghaus, P.; Chirkin, D.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Eisch, J.; Feintzeig, J.; Hanson, K.; Hoshina, I.; Kurahashi, N.; Landsman, H.; Maruyama, R.; Montaruli, T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the response of the IceCube neutrino telescope located at the geographic South Pole to outbursts of MeV neutrinos from the core collapse of nearby massive stars. IceCube was completed in December 2010 forming a lattice of 5160 photomultiplier tubes that monitor a volume of approx. 1 cu km in the deep Antarctic ice for particle induced photons. The telescope was designed to detect neutrinos with energies greater than 100 GeV. Owing to subfreezing ice temperatures, the photomultiplier dark noise rates are particularly low. Hence IceCube can also detect large numbers of MeV neutrinos by observing a collective rise in all photomultiplier rates on top of the dark noise. With 2 ms timing resolution, IceCube can detect subtle features in the temporal development of the supernova neutrino burst. For a supernova at the galactic center, its sensitivity matches that of a background-free megaton-scale supernova search experiment. The sensitivity decreases to 20 standard deviations at the galactic edge (30 kpc) and 6 standard deviations at the Large Magellanic Cloud (50 kpc). IceCube is sending triggers from potential supernovae to the Supernova Early Warning System. The sensitivity to neutrino properties such as the neutrino hierarchy is discussed, as well as the possibility to detect the neutronization burst, a short outbreak's released by electron capture on protons soon after collapse. Tantalizing signatures, such as the formation of a quark star or a black hole as well as the characteristics of shock waves, are investigated to illustrate IceCube's capability for supernova detection.

  6. A study on large area Hamamatsu photomultipliers for Cherenkov neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonora, E.; Aiello, S.; Giordano, V.; Randazzo, N.; Lo Presti, D.; Bonanno, D.; Longhitano, F.; Sipala, V.

    2015-11-01

    Many of the existing neutrino telescopes use large area photomultipliers integrated into transparent glass vessels to make the detection element called ``optical module''. The characteristics of the photomultipliers have a severe impact on the performance of the whole detectors. This paper describes a large work of characterization of large area photomultipliers performed in the frame of R&D activities of large volume underwater neutrino detectors. Dedicated studies are also reported about noise pulses, super bialkali photocathode photomultipliers, ageing effects, influences of the Earth's magnetic field and on the effects of the external glass vessels on the optical module's noise pulses.

  7. VME-based data acquisition system for the India-based Neutrino Observatory prototype detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, M.; Chandratre, V. B.; Dasgupta, S.; Datar, V. M.; Kalmani, S. D.; Lahamge, S. M.; Mondal, N. K.; Nagaraj, P.; Pal, S.; Rao, S. K.; Redij, A.; Samuel, D.; Saraf, M. N.; Satyanarayana, B.; Shinde, R. R.; Upadhya, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration has proposed to build a 50 kton Iron-Calorimeter (ICAL) to study neutrino oscillations. About 28,800 Resistive Plate Chambers will be used as active detector elements in this experiment. Preliminary studies are currently underway and as a part of it, a prototype detector was developed which now serves as a cosmic-ray telescope and as a test-bench to study the indigenously built RPCs. A VME-based data acquisition system was designed for this prototype system. Modern software tools were used in the designing of the DAQ software. The design and development of this DAQ system are discussed.

  8. Beaming Neutrinos and Anti-neutrinos across the Earth to Disentangle Neutrino Mixing Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fargion, Daniele; D'Armiento, Daniele; Desiati, Paolo; Paggi, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    A result from MINOS seemed to indicate that the mass splitting and mixing angle of anti-neutrinos is different from that of neutrinos, suggesting a charge-parity-time (CPT) violation in the lepton sector. However, more recent MINOS data reduced the νμ-\\bar{\

  9. Neutrinos and duality

    SciTech Connect

    Lalakulich, O.; Leitner, T.; Buss, O.; Mosel, U.; Praet, Ch.; Jachowicz, N.; Ryckebusch, J.

    2009-11-25

    A phenomenological study of Bloom-Gilman duality is performed in electron and neutrino scattering on nuclei. In the resonance region the structure functions are calculated within the phenomenological models of Ghent and Giessen groups, where only the resonance contribution is taken into account, and the background one is neglected. Structure functions F{sub 2} in the resonance region are compared with the DIS ones, extracted directly from the experimental data. The results show, that within the models considered the Bloom-Gilman duality does not work well for nuclei: the integrated strength in the resonance region is considerably lower than in the DIS one.

  10. Constraints on massive neutrinos from the CFHTLS angular power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Jun-Qing; Granett, Benjamin R.; Guzzo, Luigi; Viel, Matteo; Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Coupon, Jean; McCracken, Henry Joy; Mellier, Yannick E-mail: ben.granett@brera.inaf.it E-mail: spb@ias.edu E-mail: haehnelt@ast.cam.ac.uk E-mail: hjmcc@iap.fr

    2012-06-01

    We use the galaxy angular power spectrum at z ∼ 0.5–1.2 from the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope Legacy Survey Wide fields (CFHTLS-Wide) to constrain separately the total neutrino mass Σm{sub ν} and the effective number of neutrino species N{sub eff}. This survey has recently benefited from an accurate calibration of the redshift distribution, allowing new measurements of the (non-linear) matter power spectrum in a unique range of scales and redshifts sensitive to neutrino free streaming. Our analysis makes use of a recent model for the effect of neutrinos on the weakly non-linear matter power spectrum derived from accurate N-body simulations. We show that CFHTLS, combined with WMAP7 and a prior on the Hubble constant provides an upper limit of Σm{sub ν} < 0.29 eV and N{sub eff} = 4.17{sup +1.62}{sub −1.26} (2 σ confidence levels). If we omit smaller scales which may be affected by non-linearities, these constraints become Σm{sub ν} < 0.41 eV and N{sub eff} = 3.98{sup +2.02}{sub −1.20} (2 σ confidence levels). Finally we show that the addition of other large scale structures probes can further improve these constraints, demonstrating that high redshift large volumes surveys such as CFHTLS are complementary to other cosmological probes of the neutrino mass.

  11. The Focal Surface of EUSO Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, H. M.; Kawasaki, Y.; Takizawa, Y.; Sakaki, N.; Teshima, M.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Adams, J.; Catalano, O.; Scarisi, L.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) is a science mission under conceptual design for the detection of extremely high energy cosmic rays and neutrinos by the observation of time-resolved images of atmospheric fluorescence photons generated along the extensive air shower, in the near ultraviolet wavelength region. A refractive telescope with double-sided double Fresnel lens will be employed to achieve a large field of view of 60 degrees. The energy and arrival direction of the primary particles will be determined by observing the time evolution of the airshower. The focal surface of the EUSO telescope will be segmented to a few hundred thousand pixels to resolve the entire field of view with the angular resolution of the order of 0.1 degree. The time evolution will be observed with the time resolution of 0.8 microsecond. A large scale array of multianode photomultiplier (MAPMT) is being studied as the EUSO focal surface. The MAPMT array is capable of detecting near ultraviolet photons at single photoelectron level. In this contribution, we will report the present status of the focal surface design including the optimization of anode segmentation and the minimization of the dead area and discuss overall experimental performance in detecting extensive airshowers.

  12. Testing nonstandard neutrino matter interactions in atmospheric neutrino propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Animesh; Mehta, Poonam; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Gandhi, Raj

    2016-05-01

    We study the effects of nonstandard interactions on the oscillation pattern of atmospheric neutrinos. We use neutrino oscillograms as our main tool to infer the role of nonstandard interactions (NSI) parameters at the probability level in the energy range, E ∈[1 ,20 ] GeV and zenith angle range, cos θ ∈[-1 ,0 ] . We compute the event rates for atmospheric neutrino events in presence of NSI parameters in the energy range E ∈[1 ,10 ] GeV for two different detector configurations—a magnetized iron calorimeter and an unmagnetized liquid argon time projection chamber which have different sensitivities to NSI parameters due to their complementary characteristics.

  13. Testing nonunitarity of neutrino mixing matrices at neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Srubabati; Ota, Toshihiko

    2008-08-01

    In this paper we explore the effect of nonunitary neutrino mixing on neutrino oscillation probabilities both in vacuum and matter. In particular, we consider the {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}} channel and, using a neutrino factory as the source for {nu}{sub {mu}}'s, discuss the constraints that can be obtained on the moduli and phases of the parameters characterizing the violation of unitarity. We point out how the new CP violation phases present in the case where the nonunitary mixings give rise to spurious ''degenerate'' solutions in the parameter space. We also discuss how the true solutions can be extricated by combining measurements at several baselines.

  14. NEUTRINO ANALYSIS OF THE 2010 SEPTEMBER CRAB NEBULA FLARE AND TIME-INTEGRATED CONSTRAINTS ON NEUTRINO EMISSION FROM THE CRAB USING ICECUBE

    SciTech Connect

    Abbasi, R.; Aguilar, J. A.; Andeen, K.; Baker, M.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Altmann, D.; Auffenberg, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; and others

    2012-01-20

    We present the results of a search for high-energy muon neutrinos with the IceCube detector in coincidence with the Crab Nebula flare reported on 2010 September by various experiments. Due to the unusual flaring state of the otherwise steady source we performed a prompt analysis of the 79-string configuration data to search for neutrinos that might be emitted along with the observed {gamma}-rays. We performed two different and complementary data selections of neutrino events in the time window of 10 days around the flare. One event selection is optimized for discovery of E{sup -2}{sub {nu}} neutrino spectrum typical of first-order Fermi acceleration. A similar event selection has also been applied to the 40-string data to derive the time-integrated limits to the neutrino emission from the Crab. The other event selection was optimized for discovery of neutrino spectra with softer spectral index and TeV energy cutoffs as observed for various Galactic sources in {gamma}-rays. The 90% confidence level (CL) best upper limits on the Crab flux during the 10 day flare are 4.73 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1} for an E{sup -2}{sub {nu}} neutrino spectrum and 2.50 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} TeV{sup -1} for a softer neutrino spectra of E{sup -2.7}{sub {nu}}, as indicated by Fermi measurements during the flare. In this paper, we also illustrate the impact of the time-integrated limit on the Crab neutrino steady emission. The limit obtained using 375.5 days of the 40-string configuration is compared to existing models of neutrino production from the Crab and its impact on astrophysical parameters is discussed. The most optimistic predictions of some models are already rejected by the IceCube neutrino telescope with more than 90% CL.

  15. The Search for Muon Neutrinos from Northern HemisphereGamma-Ray Bursts with AMANDA

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer; Achterberg, A.

    2007-05-08

    We present the results of the analysis of neutrino observations by the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) correlated with photon observations of more than 400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the Northern Hemisphere from 1997 to 2003. During this time period, AMANDA's effective collection area for muon neutrinos was larger than that of any other existing detector. Based on our observations of zero neutrinos during and immediately prior to the GRBs in the dataset, we set the most stringent upper limit on muon neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts. Assuming a Waxman-Bahcall spectrum and incorporating all systematic uncertainties, our flux upper limit has a normalization at 1 PeV of E{sup 2}{Phi}{sub {nu}} {le} 6.0 x 10{sup -9} GeV cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}sr{sup -1}, with 90% of the events expected within the energy range of {approx}10 TeV to {approx}3 PeV. The impact of this limit on several theoretical models of GRBs is discussed, as well as the future potential for detection of GRBs by next generation neutrino telescopes. Finally, we briefly describe several modifications to this analysis in order to apply it to other types of transient point sources.

  16. The Search for Muon Neutrinos from Northern Hemisphere Gamma-Ray Bursts with AMANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achterberg, A.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Ahrens, J.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bahcall, J. N.; Bai, X.; Baret, B.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Beattie, K.; Becka, T.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Braun, J.; Burgess, C.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Davour, A.; Day, C. T.; De Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Filimonov, K.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Griesel, T.; Gross, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, D.; Hardtke, R.; Hart, J. E.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hauschildt, T.; Hays, D.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G. C.; Hodges, J.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hommez, B.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Hughey, B.; Hulth, P. O.; Hülss, J.-P.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Jones, A.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kawai, H.; Kelley, J. L.; Kitamura, N.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Labare, M.; Landsman, H.; Leich, H.; Leier, D.; Liubarsky, I.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McCauley, T.; McParland, C. P.; Meli, A.; Messarius, T.; Mészáros, P.; Miyamoto, H.; Mokhtarani, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morey, A.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Ögelman, H.; Olivas, A.; Patton, S.; Peña-Garay, C.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Pretz, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Razzaque, S.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Robbins, S.; Roth, P.; Rott, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Smith, A. J.; Solarz, M.; Song, C.; Sopher, J. E.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Steffen, P.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sumner, T. J.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Thollander, L.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; Viscomi, V.; Voigt, B.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Waldmann, H.; Walter, M.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wendt, C.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zornoza, J. D.; Interplanetary Network, The

    2008-02-01

    We present the results of the analysis of neutrino observations by the Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) correlated with photon observations of more than 400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the northern hemisphere from 1997 to 2003. During this time period, AMANDA's effective collection area for muon neutrinos was larger than that of any other existing detector. After the application of various selection criteria to our data, we expect ~1 neutrino event and <2 background events. Based on our observations of zero events during and immediately prior to the GRBs in the data set, we set the most stringent upper limit on muon neutrino emission correlated with GRBs. Assuming a Waxman-Bahcall spectrum and incorporating all systematic uncertainties, our flux upper limit has a normalization at 1 PeV of E2Φν <= 6.3 × 10-9 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1, with 90% of the events expected within the energy range of ~10 TeV to ~3 PeV. The impact of this limit on several theoretical models of GRBs is discussed, as well as the future potential for detection of GRBs by next-generation neutrino telescopes. Finally, we briefly describe several modifications to this analysis in order to apply it to other types of transient point sources.

  17. The South Pole Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Ruhl, J.E.; Ade, P.A.R.; Carlstrom, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Crawford,T.; Dobbs, M.; Greer, C.H.; Halverson, N.W.; Holzapfel, W.L.; Lanting,T.M.; Lee, A.T.; Leitch, E.M.; Leong, J.; Lu, W.; Lueker, M.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S.S.; Mohr, J.J.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Runyan, M.C.; Schwan, D.; Sharp, M.K.; Spieler, H.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.A.

    2004-11-04

    A new 10 meter diameter telescope is being constructed for deployment at the NSF South Pole research station. The telescope is designed for conducting large-area millimeter and sub-millimeter wave surveys of faint, low contrast emission, as required to map primary and secondary anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. To achieve the required sensitivity and resolution, the telescope design employs an off-axis primary with a 10 m diameter clear aperture. The full aperture and the associated optics will have a combined surface accuracy of better than 20 microns rms to allow precision operation in the submillimeter atmospheric windows. The telescope will be surrounded with a large reflecting ground screen to reduce sensitivity to thermal emission from the ground and local interference. The optics of the telescope will support a square degree field of view at 2mm wavelength and will feed a new 1000-element micro-lithographed planar bolometric array with superconducting transition-edge sensors and frequency-multiplexed readouts. The first key project will be to conduct a survey over 4000 degrees for galaxy clusters using the Sunyaev-Zeldovich Effect. This survey should find many thousands of clusters with a mass selection criteria that is remarkably uniform with redshift. Armed with redshifts obtained from optical and infrared follow-up observations, it is expected that the survey will enable significant constraints to be placed on the equation of state of the dark energy.

  18. Monolithic afocal telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, William T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An afocal monolithic optical element formed of a shallow cylinder of optical material (glass, polymer, etc.) with fast aspheric surfaces, nominally confocal paraboloids, configured on the front and back surfaces. The front surface is substantially planar, and this lends itself to deposition of multi-layer stacks of thin dielectric and metal films to create a filter for rejecting out-of-band light. However, an aspheric section (for example, a paraboloid) can either be ground into a small area of this surface (for a Cassegrain-type telescope) or attached to the planar surface (for a Gregorian-type telescope). This aspheric section of the surface is then silvered to create the telescope's secondary mirror. The rear surface of the cylinder is figured into a steep, convex asphere (again, a paraboloid in the examples), and also made reflective to form the telescope's primary mirror. A small section of the rear surface (approximately the size of the secondary obscuration, depending on the required field of the telescope) is ground flat to provide an unpowered surface through which the collimated light beam can exit the optical element. This portion of the rear surface is made to transmit the light concentrated by the reflective surfaces, and can support the deposition of a spectral filter.

  19. The Travelling Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murabona Oduori, Susan

    2015-08-01

    The telescope has been around for more than 400 years, and through good use of it scientists have made many astonishing discoveries and begun to understand our place in the universe. Most people, however, have never looked through one. Yet it is a great tool for cool science and observation especially in a continent and country with beautifully dark skies. The Travelling Telescope project aims to invite people outside under the stars to learn about those curious lights in the sky.The Travelling Telescope aims to promote science learning to a wide range of Kenyan schools in various locations exchanging knowledge about the sky through direct observations of celestial bodies using state of the art telescopes. In addition to direct observing we also teach science using various hands-on activities and astronomy software, ideal for explaining concepts which are hard to understand, and for a better grasp of the sights visible through the telescope. We are dedicated to promoting science using astronomy especially in schools, targeting children from as young as 3 years to the youth, teachers, their parents and members of the public. Our presentation focuses on the OAD funded project in rural coastal Kenya.

  20. Spectroradiometry with space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Huber, Martin C. E.; Smith, Peter L.; Colina, Luis

    2015-12-01

    Radiometry, i.e. measuring the power of electromagnetic radiation—hitherto often referred to as "photometry"—is of fundamental importance in astronomy. We provide an overview of how to achieve a valid laboratory calibration of space telescopes and discuss ways to reliably extend this calibration to the spectroscopic telescope's performance in space. A lot of effort has been, and still is going into radiometric "calibration" of telescopes once they are in space; these methods use celestial primary and transfer standards and are based in part on stellar models. The history of the calibration of the Hubble Space Telescope serves as a platform to review these methods. However, we insist that a true calibration of spectroscopic space telescopes must directly be based on and traceable to laboratory standards, and thus be independent of the observations. This has recently become a well-supported aim, following the discovery of the acceleration of the cosmic expansion by use of type-Ia supernovae, and has led to plans for launching calibration rockets for the visible and infrared spectral range. This is timely, too, because an adequate exploitation of data from present space missions, such as Gaia, and from many current astronomical projects like Euclid and WFIRST demands higher radiometric accuracy than is generally available today. A survey of the calibration of instruments observing from the X-ray to the infrared spectral domains that include instrument- or mission-specific estimates of radiometric accuracies rounds off this review.